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Sample records for severe fluid retention

  1. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and ... at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself at the ...

  2. The pathophysiological mechanism of fluid retention in advanced cancer patients treated with docetaxel, but not receiving corticosteroid comedication

    PubMed Central

    Béhar, A.; Pujade-Lauraine, E.; Maurel, A.; Brun, M. D.; Lagrue, G.; Feuilhade De Chauvin, F.; Oulid-Aissa, D.; Hille, D.

    1997-01-01

    Aims Fluid retention is a phenomenon associated with taxoids. The principal objective of this study was to investigate the pathophysiological mechanism of docetaxel-induced fluid retention in advanced cancer patients. Methods Docetaxel was administered as a 1 h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks, for at least 4–6 consecutive cycles, to patients with advanced breast (n=21) or ovarian (n=3) carcinoma, who had received previous chemotherapy, 21 for advanced disease. Phase II clinical trials have shown that 5 day corticosteroid comedication, starting 1 day before docetaxel infusion, significantly reduces the incidence and severity of fluid retention. This prophylactic corticosteroid regimen is currently recommended for patients receiving docetaxel but was not permitted in this study because of its possible interference with the underlying pathophysiology of the fluid retention. Results Fluid retention occurred in 21 of the 24 patients but was mainly mild to moderate, with only five patients experiencing severe fluid retention. Eighteen patients received symptomatic flavonoid treatment, commonly prescribed after the last cycle. Specific investigations for fluid retention confirmed a relationship between cumulative docetaxel dose and development of fluid retention. Capillary filtration test analysis showed a two-step process for fluid retention generation, with progressive congestion of the interstitial space by proteins and water starting between the second and the fourth cycle, followed by insufficient lymphatic drainage. Conclusions A vascular protector such as micronized diosmine hesperidine with recommended corticosteroid premedication and benzopyrones may be useful in preventing and treating docetaxel-induced fluid retention. PMID:9205828

  3. Gender differences in problem severity at assessment and treatment retention.

    PubMed

    Arfken, C L; Klein, C; di Menza, S; Schuster, C R

    2001-01-01

    Women in treatment for substance abuse have been reported to have more severe problems at assessment than men but not to differ in treatment retention. To examine gender differences in problems at assessment, 30-day retention, and treatment completion, data from Detroit's publicly funded substance abuse treatment system were used. Women had significantly more severe problems at assessment, lower 30-day retention, and lower treatment completion rates than men. These gender differences in retention remained significant even after controlling for problem severity, primary drug of abuse, and referred treatment setting. There was no evidence of improvements in women's problems at assessment or retention over time during this period. Women presented with more severe problems at assessment and were less likely to stay in treatment for 30 days or to complete treatment than men. Monitoring gender differences in problems at presentation and retention outcomes is recommended to assess local need for interventions.

  4. Retention of fluid and particles in captive tapirs (Tapirus sp.).

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Lang-Deuerling, Stefanie; Müller, Dennis W H; Kienzle, Ellen; Steuer, Patrick; Hummel, Jürgen

    2010-09-01

    The retention of ingesta in the digestive tract is a major characteristic of herbivorous animals. We measured particle and fluid mean retention times (MRT) in 13 lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) and 5 Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) from five zoological institutions on their usual zoo diet and 2 lowland and 4 Malayan tapirs additionally on roughage-only diets (total n of trials=24) with cobalt-EDTA as fluid and chromium-mordanted fibre (<2 mm) as particle markers. MRT for fluid and particles averaged 42+/-16 h and 55+/-18 h in lowland and 40+/-13 h and 56+/-14 h in Malayan tapirs. In a General Linear Model, neither Tapir species, body mass or diet (characterised by the proportion of roughage) was significantly related to MRT, but dry matter intake was, with a steep decline in MRT with higher intake levels. Compared to other hindgut fermenters, tapirs have a low defecation frequency, which might be linked to their comparatively low food intake. Their gastrointestinal capacity (in dry matter: 1.63+/-0.63% of body mass) is similar to that calculated for horses. A comparison of the difference in fluid and particle MRT in large hindgut fermenters (horses, rhinoceroses, elephants, and the tapirs of this study) shows that longer absolute particle MRT are linked to shorter relative fluid MRT, possibly indicating a more thorough 'washing' of particulate ingesta with digestive fluids at longer particle MRT. The only outlier to this general pattern, with an exceptionally high difference between fluid and particle MRT, indicating a particularly efficient ingesta washing, is the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). If possible, results of this study should be compared to findings in tapirs on natural diets. PMID:20363350

  5. An unsteady state retention model for fluid desorption from sorbents.

    PubMed

    Bazargan, Alireza; Sadeghi, Hamed; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo; McKay, Gordon

    2015-07-15

    New studies regarding the sorption of fluids by solids are published every day. In performance testing, after the sorbent has reached saturation, it is usually removed from the sorbate bath and allowed to drain. The loss of liquid from the sorbents with time is of prime importance in the real-world application of sorbents, such as in oil spill response. However, there is currently no equation used for modeling the unsteady state loss of the liquid from the dripping sorbent. Here, an analytical model has been provided for modeling the dynamic loss of liquid from the sorbent in dripping experiments. Data from more than 60 sorbent-sorbate systems has been used to validate the model. The proposed model shows excellent agreement with experimental results and is expressed as: U(t)=U(L)e(-Kt)+U(e) In which U(t) (kg/kg) is the uptake capacity of the sorbent at any time t (s) during dripping, U(L) (kg/kg) is the uptake capacity lost due to dripping, and U(e) (kg/kg) is the equilibrium uptake capacity reached after prolonged dripping. K (1/s) is defined as the Kamaan coefficient and controls the curvature of the retention profile. Kamaan ([symbol: see text] IPA phonetics: kæmɒn) is an Iranian (Farsi/Persian) word meaning "arc" or "curve" and hence the letter K has been designated. PMID:25814100

  6. Urinary Analysis of Fluid Retention in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Grankvist, Nina; Krizhanovskii, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Renal conservation (retention) of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population. Methods Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI), where 4.0 is the cut-off for fluid retention consistent with dehydration. In 50 of the volunteers, we also studied the relationships between FRI, plasma osmolality, and water-retaining hormones. Results The cut-off for fluid retention (FRI ≥ 4.0) was reached by 38% of the population. No correlation was found between the FRI and the time of the day of urine sample collection, and the FRI was only marginally correlated with the time period spent without fluid intake. Volunteers with fluid retention were younger, generally men, and more often had albuminuria (88% vs. 34%, P < 0.001). Plasma osmolality and plasma sodium were somewhat higher in those with a high FRI (mean 294.8 vs. 293.4 mosmol/kg and 140.3 vs. 139.9 mmol/l). Plasma vasopressin was consistently below the limit of detection, and the plasma cortisol, aldosterone, and renin concentrations were similar in subjects with a high or low FRI. The very highest FRI values (≥ 5.0, N = 61) were always accompanied by albuminuria. Conclusion Fluid retention consistent with moderate dehydration is common in healthy staff working in a Swedish hospital. PMID:27764121

  7. Predictors of Atrasentan-Associated Fluid Retention and Change in Albuminuria in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Coll, Blai; Andress, Dennis; Brennan, John J.; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Makino, Hirofumi; Perkovic, Vlado; Hou, Fan Fan; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Toto, Robert; Parving, Hans-Henrik; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Endothelin A receptor antagonists (ERAs) decrease residual albuminuria in patients with diabetic kidney disease; however, their clinical utility may be limited by fluid retention. Consequently, the primary objective of this study was to identify predictors for ERA-induced fluid retention among patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD. A secondary objective was to determine if the degree of fluid retention necessarily correlated with the magnitude of albuminuria reduction in those patients receiving ERAs. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A post hoc analysis was conducted of the phase IIb atrasentan trials assessing albuminuria reduction in 211 patients with type 2 diabetes, urine albumin/creatinine ratios of 300–3500 mg/g, and eGFRs of 30–75 ml/min per 1.73 m2 who were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n=50) or atrasentan 0.75 mg/d (n=78) or 1.25 mg/d (n=83) for 12 weeks. Changes in body weight and hemoglobin (Hb) after 2 weeks of treatment were used as surrogate markers of fluid retention. Results Baseline predictors of weight gain after 2 weeks of atrasentan treatment were higher atrasentan dose, lower eGFR, higher glycated hemoglobin, higher systolic BP, and lower homeostatic metabolic assessment product. Higher atrasentan dose and lower eGFR also predicted decreases in Hb. There were no changes in B-type natriuretic peptide. There was no correlation between reduction in albuminuria after 2 weeks of atrasentan treatment and changes in body weight or Hb. Conclusions In the Reducing Residual Albuminuria in Subjects With Diabetes and Nephropathy With Atrasentan/JAPAN trials, atrasentan-associated fluid retention was more likely in patients with diabetes and nephropathy who had lower eGFR or received a higher dose of atrasentan. Finding that albuminuria reduction was not associated with changes in body weight and Hb suggests that the albuminuria-reducing efficacy of atrasentan is not impaired by fluid retention. PMID

  8. Characterizing endogenous and exogenous peroxidase activity for bleaching of fluid whey and retentate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R E; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2014-03-01

    The lactoperoxidase (LP) system may be used to achieve the desired bleaching of fluid whey with the addition of low concentrations (<50mg/kg) of hydrogen peroxide. The addition of an exogenous peroxidase (EP) to whey may also be used to aid in whey bleaching when the LP system is not fully active. The objectives of this study were to monitor LP activity in previously refrigerated or frozen milk, fluid whey, and whey retentate (10% solids) and to evaluate peroxidase activity in fluid whey and whey retentate (10% solids), with and without additional EP (2, 1, or 0.5 dairy bleaching units), over a range of pH (5.5-6.5) and temperatures (4-60°C). Subsequent experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between enzyme activity and bleaching efficacy. Raw and pasteurized milk, fat-separated pasteurized whey, and whey retentate (10% solids) were evaluated for LP activity following storage at 4 or -20°C, using an established colorimetric method. A response surface model was applied to evaluate both endogenous and EP activity at various temperatures and pH in freshly manufactured whey and retentate. Refrigerated or frozen storage at the parameters evaluated did not affect LP activity in milk, whey, or retentate. In fluid whey, with and without added EP, as pH decreased (to 5.5) and temperature increased (to 60°C), peroxidase activity increased. Retentate with EP exhibited behavior similar to that of fluid whey: as pH decreased and temperature increased, activity increased. However, in retentate without EP, as pH increased and temperature increased, activity increased. Enzyme activity was negatively correlated to bleaching time (time for >80% norbixin destruction) in fluid whey but a linear relationship was not evident in retentate. When fluid whey is bleached enzymatically, if pH is decreased and temperature is increased, the rate of reaction increases (e.g., bleaching occurs in less time). When bleaching in retentate, a higher pH (pH 6.5 vs. pH 5.5) is

  9. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD.

  10. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD. PMID:26235579

  11. Fluid Flow in Porous Media for Soil-Water Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cejas, Cesare; Selva, Bertrand; Beaufret, Raphael; Hough, Larry; Fretigny, Christian; Dreyfus, Remi; CNRS / Rhodia / UPenn UMI 3254 Team

    2011-11-01

    The study aims to understand the mechanisms that determine the behavior of water in soil. In developing a better comprehension of the coupling between the various fluxes (e.g. evaporation, drainage) in soil and the surrounding environment, we elaborate strategies that permit to understand and improve particularly the water absorption by the roots. Our first approach, through direct visualization, focuses on evaporation out of a 2D model soil consisting of monolayer glass beads. Evaporation from porous media exhibits an abrupt transition from capillary-supported regime 1 to diffusion-controlled regime 2. Varying the wettability of the model soil suggests that the duration of regime 1evaporation and drying front formation in hydrophobic media are shorter than in hydrophilic media due to the absence of hydraulic continuity towards the evaporating surface. We then study how evaporation couples in the presence of roots in the model soil while being subjected to various treatment conditions (e.g. physical additives, etc.). Through this study, we would be able to quantify how the physico-chemical soil treatments affect these phenomena and inspire solutions for improving soil water retention.

  12. Retention of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus infectivity in fish tissue homogenates and fluids stored at three temperatures.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, J.; Mulcahy, D.

    1983-01-01

    Pools of brain, kidney, spleen, liver and gut tissues from several rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, and whole sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), fry were homogenized with a known amount of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Virus was also added to ovarian fluids and sera pooled from several rainbow trout. The plaque assay was used to determine the retention of IHNV infectivity after different storage periods at 20°C, 4°C and —20°C. The work was used to evaluate homogenization as a remote field treatment of IHNV samples before shipment to the laboratory. Maintenance of viral infectivity varied widely among different homogenates and fluids. For short-term storage, 4°C was generally the most efficient temperature for preserving infectious virus in ovarian fluids, Sera and homogenates of eggs, spleen, whole fry and brain, while infectivity was most efficiently preserved in kidney and liver homogenates by storage at −20°C. Infectious virus was not detected in any sample stored for one year at −20°C. Variations in retention of viral infectivity make homogenization of samples in the field followed by transfer to the laboratory unacceptable.

  13. Severity estimation of cracked shaft vibrations within fluid film bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, B. S.; Sekhar, A. S.

    1995-07-01

    The equations of motion, with four degrees of freedom, taking into consideration the flexibility, damping and cross coupling of the fluid film bearings are derived for a cracked Jeffcott rotor supported on fluid film bearings. Dimensionless equations are developed for dynamic radial load, dynamic pressure developed in the fluid film bearings and coefficient of dissipation considering the journal vibrations in two harmonics; bearing fluid film stiffness and damping coefficients. These are applied to a cracked Jeffcott rotor supported on different types of bearings, i.e., cylindrical journal bearings, offset cylindrical bearings, tilting pad journal bearings and three-lobe bearings. Based on the allowable dynamic pressure developed in the fluid bearings, the severity of cracked shaft and allowable crack depths are estimated in this study. Measurement of dynamic pressure and dissipation for monitoring the crack growth is suggested. However, 2x vibration is the best indicator of cracks in the shafts.

  14. Selective retention of fluid digesta in the hindgut of bandicoots and other marsupial caecum fermenters.

    PubMed

    Hume, I D; Moyle, D I

    1995-04-01

    Many small hindgut fermenters have a mechanism in the proximal colon that separates fluid and/or bacteria from large particles, and excretes the large particles relatively rapidly. The fluid and/or bacteria are retained in the caecum, which concentrates digestive effort in that region of the hindgut and improves overall digestive efficiency. Previously observed among marsupials only in arboreal marsupials, selective retention of fluid digesta has recently been reported also in bandicoots, small terrestrial omnivores. The separation mechanism operated independently of the nature of the diet, indicating that it is probably an important factor in the ability of bandicoots to switch between insect and plant foods, and thus to exploit nutritionally unpredictable environments. Results are discussed in relation to possible locations in the marsupial hindgut of the pacemaker that in eutherians has been shown to initiate retrograde movement of fluid and small particles in the proximal colon towards the caecum.

  15. Electrolyte-free milk protein solution influences sodium and fluid retention in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kengo; Kato, Yoshiho; Usami, Ayako; Yamada, Mari; Yamamura, Asuka; Fushiki, Tohru; Seyama, Yousuke

    2013-01-01

    Milk is an effective post-exercise rehydration drink that maintains the net positive fluid balance. However, it is unclear which components are responsible for this effect. We assessed the effect of milk protein solution (MPS) obtained by dialysis on body fluid retention. Milk, MPS, milk electrolyte solution (MES), sports drink and water were administered to male Wistar rats at a dose of 6 ml/rat after treadmill exercise. Total body fluid retention was assessed by urine volume 4 h after administration of hydrating liquids. The rate of gastric emptying was evaluated by a tracer method using (13)C-labelled acetate. Plasma osmolality, Na and K levels, and urinary Na and K were measured by HPLC and osmometry, respectively. The gastric emptying rate was not delayed by MPS. During 4 h of rehydration, cumulative urine volumes differed significantly between treatment groups (P < 0·05) with 4·9, 2·2 and 3·4 ml from water-, milk- and MPS-fed rats, respectively. Thus, MPS elicited 50 % of the total body fluid retention of milk. Plasma aldosterone levels were significantly higher in MPS- and milk-fed rats compared with water-fed rats. Plasma osmolality was maintained at higher levels in MPS-fed rats than in water- and MES-fed rats (P < 0·05). Cumulative urine Na excretion was also suppressed in the milk- and MPS-fed groups compared with the MES-fed group. Our results demonstrate that MPS obtained by dialysis clearly affects net body water balance without affecting gastric emptying after exercise. This effect was attributed to retention of Na and water, and maintenance of plasma osmolality.

  16. Mebendazole retention enema for severe Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) infection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, V J; Bhattacharya, S; Ray, S

    1989-02-01

    The authors report a case of massive Trichuris trichiura infection, resulting in severe anaemia and congestive cardiac failure in a 9-year-old Iban boy, who was resistant to the usual oral anthelmintic treatment, but promptly responded to mebendazole retention enema. This patient also had an associated Entamoeba histolytica infection. PMID:2918577

  17. Increasing Daily Water Intake and Fluid Adherence in Children Receiving Treatment for Retentive Encopresis

    PubMed Central

    Hoodin, Flora; Rice, Jennifer; Felt, Barbara T.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Patton, Susana R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of an enhanced intervention (EI) compared to standard care (SC) in increasing daily water intake and fluid goal adherence in children seeking treatment for retentive encopresis. Methods Changes in beverage intake patterns and fluid adherence were examined by comparing 7-week diet diary data collected during participation in the EI to achieved data for families who had previously completed the SC. Results Compared to children in SC (n = 19), children in the EI (n = 18) demonstrated a significantly greater increase in daily water intake from baseline to the conclusion of treatment ( p ≤ .001), and were four and six times more likely to meet fluid targets in Phases 1 (Weeks 3–4) and 2 (Weeks 5–6) of fluid intervention, respectively (both p ≤ .001). Conclusions Enhanced education and behavioral strategies were efficacious in increasing children’s intake of water and improving fluid adherence. Future research should replicate the findings in a prospective randomized clinical trial to discern their effectiveness. PMID:20439348

  18. A closer study of methanol adsorption and its impact on solute retentions in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Glenne, Emelie; Öhlén, Kristina; Leek, Hanna; Klarqvist, Magnus; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2016-04-15

    Surface excess adsorption isotherms of methanol on a diol silica adsorbent were measured in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using a mixture of methanol and carbon dioxide as mobile phase. The tracer pulse method was used with deuterium labeled methanol as solute and the tracer peaks were detected using APCI-MS over the whole composition range from neat carbon dioxide to neat methanol. The results indicate that a monolayer (4Å) of methanol is formed on the stationary phase. Moreover, the importance of using the set or the actual methanol fractions and volumetric flows in SFC was investigated by measuring the mass flow respective pressure and by calculations of the actual volume fraction of methanol. The result revealed a significant difference between the value set and the actually delivered volumetric methanol flow rate, especially at low modifier fractions. If relying only on the set methanol fraction in the calculations, the methanol layer thickness should in this system be highly overestimated. Finally, retention times for a set of solutes were measured and related to the findings summarized above concerning methanol adsorption. A strongly non-linear relationship between the logarithms of the retention factors and the modifier fraction in the mobile phase was revealed, prior to the established monolayer. At modifier fractions above that required for establishment of the methanol monolayer, this relationship turns linear which explains why the solute retention factors are less sensitive to changes in modifier content in this region.

  19. A closer study of methanol adsorption and its impact on solute retentions in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Glenne, Emelie; Öhlén, Kristina; Leek, Hanna; Klarqvist, Magnus; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2016-04-15

    Surface excess adsorption isotherms of methanol on a diol silica adsorbent were measured in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using a mixture of methanol and carbon dioxide as mobile phase. The tracer pulse method was used with deuterium labeled methanol as solute and the tracer peaks were detected using APCI-MS over the whole composition range from neat carbon dioxide to neat methanol. The results indicate that a monolayer (4Å) of methanol is formed on the stationary phase. Moreover, the importance of using the set or the actual methanol fractions and volumetric flows in SFC was investigated by measuring the mass flow respective pressure and by calculations of the actual volume fraction of methanol. The result revealed a significant difference between the value set and the actually delivered volumetric methanol flow rate, especially at low modifier fractions. If relying only on the set methanol fraction in the calculations, the methanol layer thickness should in this system be highly overestimated. Finally, retention times for a set of solutes were measured and related to the findings summarized above concerning methanol adsorption. A strongly non-linear relationship between the logarithms of the retention factors and the modifier fraction in the mobile phase was revealed, prior to the established monolayer. At modifier fractions above that required for establishment of the methanol monolayer, this relationship turns linear which explains why the solute retention factors are less sensitive to changes in modifier content in this region. PMID:26979267

  20. Effect of reference conditions on flow rate, modifier fraction and retention in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Ruben; Shoykhet Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken

    2016-08-12

    When using compressible mobile phases such as fluidic CO2, the density, the volumetric flow rates and volumetric fractions are pressure dependent. The pressure and temperature definition of these volumetric parameters (referred to as the reference conditions) may alter between systems, manufacturers and operating conditions. A supercritical fluid chromatography system was modified to operate in two modes with different definition of the eluent delivery parameters, referred to as fixed and variable mode. For the variable mode, the volumetric parameters are defined with reference to the pump operating pressure and actual pump head temperature. These conditions may vary when, e.g. changing the column length, permeability, flow rate, etc. and are thus variable reference conditions. For the fixed mode, the reference conditions were set at 150bar and 30°C, resulting in a mass flow rate and mass fraction of modifier definition which is independent of the operation conditions. For the variable mode, the mass flow rate of carbon dioxide increases with system pump operating pressure, decreasing the fraction of modifier. Comparing the void times and retention factor shows that the deviation between the two modes is almost independent of modifier percentage, but depends on the operating pressure. Recalculating the set volumetric fraction of modifier to the mass fraction results in the same retention behaviour for both modes. This shows that retention in SFC can be best modelled using the mass fraction of modifier. The fixed mode also simplifies method scaling as it only requires matching average column pressure. PMID:27401813

  1. The influence of bleaching agent and temperature on bleaching efficacy and volatile components of fluid whey and whey retentate.

    PubMed

    Fox, A J; Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2013-10-01

    Fluid whey or retentate are often bleached to remove residual annatto Cheddar cheese colorant, and this process causes off-flavors in dried whey proteins. This study determined the impact of temperature and bleaching agent on bleaching efficacy and volatile components in fluid whey and fluid whey retentate. Freshly manufactured liquid whey (6.7% solids) or concentrated whey protein (retentate) (12% solids, 80% protein) were bleached using benzoyl peroxide (BP) at 100 mg/kg (w/w) or hydrogen peroxide (HP) at 250 mg/kg (w/w) at 5 °C for 16 h or 50 °CC for 1 h. Unbleached controls were subjected to a similar temperature profile. The experiment was replicated three times. Annatto destruction (bleaching efficacy) among treatments was compared, and volatile compounds were extracted and separated using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME GC-MS). Bleaching efficacy of BP was higher than HP (P < 0.05) for fluid whey at both 5 and 50 °C. HP bleaching efficacy was increased in retentate compared to liquid whey (P < 0.05). In whey retentate, there was no difference between bleaching with HP or BP at 50 or 5 °C (P > 0.05). Retentate bleached with HP at either temperature had higher relative abundances of pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, and octanal than BP bleached retentate (P < 0.05). Liquid wheys generally had lower concentrations of selected volatiles compared to retentates. These results suggest that the highest bleaching efficacy (within the parameters evaluated) in liquid whey is achieved using BP at 5 or 50 °C and at 50 °C with HP or BP in whey protein retentate. PMID:24102418

  2. The clearance concept with special reference to determination of glomerular filtration rate in patients with fluid retention.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Ulrik L; Henriksen, Jens H

    2015-01-01

    In subjects without fluid retention, the total plasma clearance of a renal filtration indicator (inulin, (99m) Tc-DTPA, (51) Cr-EDTA) is close to the urinary plasma clearance. Conversely, in patients with fluid retention (oedema, pleural effusions, ascites), there is a substantial discrepancy between the total plasma clearance and the urinary plasma clearance. This is owing to delayed indicator distribution to smaller or larger parts of the interstitial space, which in patients with ascites may simulate a peritoneal dialysator. In patients with fluid retention, urinary plasma clearance should be assessed to obtain a correct measurement of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In theory, total plasma clearance with late samples (24-h, 48-h) may be applied in patients with fluid retention, but validation hereof has not been performed. Until such studies are completed, it is recommended that patients with fluid retention have their GFR measured by a urinary plasma clearance technique with controlled quantitative urinary sampling within a few hours after indicator injection.

  3. Global Regularity for Several Incompressible Fluid Models with Partial Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiahong; Xu, Xiaojing; Ye, Zhuan

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the global regularity problem on several 2D incompressible fluid models with partial dissipation. They are the surface quasi-geostrophic (SQG) equation, the 2D Euler equation and the 2D Boussinesq equations. These are well-known models in fluid mechanics and geophysics. The fundamental issue of whether or not they are globally well-posed has attracted enormous attention. The corresponding models with partial dissipation may arise in physical circumstances when the dissipation varies in different directions. We show that the SQG equation with either horizontal or vertical dissipation always has global solutions. This is in sharp contrast with the inviscid SQG equation for which the global regularity problem remains outstandingly open. Although the 2D Euler is globally well-posed for sufficiently smooth data, the associated equations with partial dissipation no longer conserve the vorticity and the global regularity is not trivial. We are able to prove the global regularity for two partially dissipated Euler equations. Several global bounds are also obtained for a partially dissipated Boussinesq system.

  4. The acute effects of fluid intake on urine specific gravity and fluid retention in a mildly dehydrated state.

    PubMed

    Logan-Sprenger, Heather M; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2013-04-01

    Many athletes arrive at training sessions and competitions in a mildly hypohydrated (HYPO) state and are instructed to drink fluids before exercise to reach a euhydrated (HYD) state. Ten recreational athletes (6 women, 4 men; 71.9 ± 4.6 kg, 25.2 ± 0.9 years) participated in the studies to examine (a) the day-to-day variability of morning urine specific gravity (USG), (b) the effects of consuming 600 ml of water on the hydration status of HYD and HYPO (USG > 1.020) subjects, and (c) the effects of consuming water (W), salt-water (SW, 40 mM Na), a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution with 3% or light carbohydrate (CES-L, 20 mM Na) or a CES with 6% carbohydrate (CES, 20 mM Na) on the hydration status of HYPO subjects. The hydration status was assessed with USG and body mass measures and urine volume collections. The day-to-day variability in morning USG (coefficient of variation = 0.2 ± 0.1%) was low and the responses to 600 ml of W ingestion were repeatable. Pretrial USG was 1.022 ± 0.001 in the HYPO trial and decreased <1.020 by 45 minutes (1.013 ± 0.003). In the CES study, HYPO subjects reached HYD status at 45 minutes in all conditions (W 1.013 ± 0.003, SW 1.013 ± 0.003, CES-L 1.011 ± 0.003, CES 1.017 ± 0.004) because salt or CES ingestion did not affect fluid retention (W 68%, SW 72%, CES-L 68%, CES 76%). This study demonstrated that mildly HYPO subjects could reach euhydration within 45 minutes of the ingestion of 600 ml of W or a combination of salt and CES solutions. Following this practice will minimize the incidence of starting a practice or competition hypohydrated.

  5. Noble gases in gas shales : Implications for gas retention and circulating fluids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sudeshna; Jones, Adrian; Verchovsky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Gas shales from three cores of Haynesville-Bossier formation have been analysed simultaneously for carbon, nitrogen and noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Xe) to constrain their source compositions and identify signatures associated with high gas retention. Ten samples from varying depths of 11785 to 12223 feet from each core, retrieved from their centres, have been combusted from 200-1200°C in incremental steps of 100°C, using 5 - 10 mg of each sample. Typically, Xe is released at 200°C and is largely adsorbed, observed in two of the three cores. The third core lacked any measureable Xe. High 40Ar/36Ar ratio up to 8000, is associated with peak release of nitrogen with distinctive isotopic signature, related to breakdown of clay minerals at 500°C. He and Ne are also mostly released at the same temperature step and predominantly hosted in the pore spaces of the organic matter associated with the clay. He may be produced from the uranium related to the organic matter. The enrichment factors of noble gases defined as (iX/36Ar)sample/(iX/36Ar)air where iX denotes any noble gas isotope, show Ne and Xe enrichment observed commonly in sedimentary rocks including shales (Podosek et al., 1980; Bernatowicz et al., 1984). This can be related to interaction of the shales with circulating fluids and diffusive separation of gases (Torgersen and Kennedy, 1999), implying the possibility of loss of gases from these shales. Interaction with circulating fluids (e.g. crustal fluids) have been further confirmed using 20Ne/N2, 36Ar/N2 and 4He/N2 ratios. Deviations of measured 4He/40Ar* (where 40Ar* represents radiogenic 40Ar after correcting for contribution from atmospheric Ar) from expected values has been used to monitor gas loss by degassing. Bernatowicz, T., Podosek, F.A., Honda, M., Kramer, F.E., 1984. The Atmospheric Inventory of Xenon and Noble Gases in Shales: The Plastic Bag Experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research 89, 4597-4611. Podosek, F.A., Honda, M., Ozima, M., 1980

  6. Thermocapillary flow with evaporation and condensation and its effect on liquid retention in low-G fluid acquisition devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George R.

    1994-01-01

    The steady motion, thermal and free surface behavior of a volatile, wetting liquid in microgravity are studied using scaling and numerical techniques. The objective is to determine whether the thermocapillary and two-phase convection arising from thermodynamic nonequilibrium along the porous surfaces of spacecraft liquid acquisition devices could cause the retention failures observed with liquid hydrogen and heated vapor pressurant. Why these devices seem immune to retention loss when pressurized with heated helium or heated directly through the porous structure was also examined. Results show that highly wetting fluids exhibit large negative and positive dynamic pressure gradients towards the meniscus interline when superheated and subcooled, respectively. With superheating, the pressure variation and recoil force arising from liquid/vapor phase change exert the same influence on surface morphology and promote retention. With subcooling, however, the pressure distribution produces a suction that degrades mechanical equilibrium of the surface. This result indicates that thermocapillary-induced deformation arising from subcooling and condensation is the likely cause for retention loss. In addition, increasing the level of nonequilibrium by reducing accommodation coefficient suppresses deformation and explains why this failure mode does not occur in instances of direct screen heating or pressurization with a heated inert gas.

  7. Hot soup! Correlating the severity of liquid scald burns to fluid and biomedical properties.

    PubMed

    Loller, Cameron; Buxton, Gavin A; Kerzmann, Tony L

    2016-05-01

    Burns caused by hot drinks and soups can be both debilitating and costly, especially to pediatric and geriatric patients. This research is aimed at better understanding the fluid properties that can influence the severity of skin burns. We use a standard model which combines heat transfer and biomedical equations to predict burn severity. In particular, experimental data from a physical model serves as the input to our numerical model to determine the severity of scald burns as a consequence of actual fluid flows. This technique enables us to numerically predict the heat transfer from the hot soup into the skin, without the need to numerically estimate the complex fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the potentially highly viscous and heterogeneous soup. While the temperature of the soup is obviously is the most important fact in determining the degree of burn, we also find that more viscous fluids result in more severe burns, as the slower flowing thicker fluids remain in contact with the skin for longer. Furthermore, other factors can also increase the severity of burn such as a higher initial fluid temperature, a greater fluid thermal conductivity, or a higher thermal capacity of the fluid. Our combined experimental and numerical investigation finds that for average skin properties a very viscous fluid at 100°C, the fluid must be in contact with the skin for around 15-20s to cause second degree burns, and more than 80s to cause a third degree burn.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Transport and Retention of Nanoparticle in Saturated Sand Filters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental and computational investigation of the transport parameters of nano particles flowing through porous media has been made. The objective of this work was to develop a simulation capability applicable to the transport and retention of nanoparticles (NPs) in saturated p...

  9. Behavior of adsorbed and fluid phases versus retention properties of amino acids on the teicoplanin chiral selector.

    PubMed

    Poplewska, Izabela; Kramarz, Renata; Piatkowski, Wojciech; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas; Antos, Dorota

    2008-05-23

    The relationship between adsorption equilibria of two amino acids, i.e., l,d-threonine and l,d-methionine on the teicoplanin chiral selector and their phase behavior has been analyzed. The experimental and numerical methods have been proposed to determine activity coefficients of amino acids in different solvent systems. The procedure was based on the analysis of solubility properties of the amino acids in aqueous solutions of methanol, ethanol and propanol-2-ol used as the mobile phases in chromatographic elution. The solubility measured in mixed alcohol-water solutions was correlated with the non-random-two-liquid (NRTL) model for the activity coefficients. The values of activity coefficients were incorporated into the adsorption isotherm equation, which allowed the analysis of retention properties of the amino acids versus their fluid phase behavior. For the investigation the experimental data of adsorption equilibria of amino acids as well as of the mobile phase constituents acquired in a previous work were exploited. The composition of both the mobile and the adsorbed phases was found to affect the retention properties of the amino acids. For water-rich mobile phases the activity in the adsorbed phase determined the retention mechanism, while for the alcohol-rich systems activity in the mobile phase was predominant.

  10. Effect of electrolyte addition to rehydration drinks consumed after severe fluid and energy restriction.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effect of electrolyte addition to drinks ingested after severe fluid and energy restriction (FER). Twelve subjects (6 male and 6 female) completed 3 trials consisting of 24-hour FER (energy intake: 21 kJ·kg body mass; water intake: 5 ml·kg body mass), followed by a 2-hour rehydration period and a 4-hour monitoring period. During rehydration, subjects ingested a volume of drink equal to 125% of the body mass lost during FER in 6 aliquots, once every 20 minutes. Drinks were a sugar-free lemon squash (P) or the P drink with the addition of 50 mmol·L sodium chloride (Na) or 30 mmol·L potassium chloride (K). Total void urine samples were given before and after FER and every hour during rehydration and monitoring. Over all trials, FER produced a 2.1% reduction in body mass and negative sodium (-67 mmol), potassium (-48 mmol), and chloride (-84 mmol) balances. Urine output after drinking was 1627 (540) ml (P), 1391 (388) ml (K), and 1150 (438) ml (Na), with a greater postdrinking urine output during P than Na (p ≤ 0.05). Ingestion of drink Na resulted in a more positive sodium balance compared with P or K (p < 0.001), whereas ingestion of drink K resulted in a more positive potassium balance compared with P or Na (p < 0.001). These results demonstrate that after 24-hour FER, ingestion of a high sodium drink results in an increased sodium balance that augments greater drink retention compared with a low electrolyte placebo drink.

  11. Effect of electrolyte addition to rehydration drinks consumed after severe fluid and energy restriction.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effect of electrolyte addition to drinks ingested after severe fluid and energy restriction (FER). Twelve subjects (6 male and 6 female) completed 3 trials consisting of 24-hour FER (energy intake: 21 kJ·kg body mass; water intake: 5 ml·kg body mass), followed by a 2-hour rehydration period and a 4-hour monitoring period. During rehydration, subjects ingested a volume of drink equal to 125% of the body mass lost during FER in 6 aliquots, once every 20 minutes. Drinks were a sugar-free lemon squash (P) or the P drink with the addition of 50 mmol·L sodium chloride (Na) or 30 mmol·L potassium chloride (K). Total void urine samples were given before and after FER and every hour during rehydration and monitoring. Over all trials, FER produced a 2.1% reduction in body mass and negative sodium (-67 mmol), potassium (-48 mmol), and chloride (-84 mmol) balances. Urine output after drinking was 1627 (540) ml (P), 1391 (388) ml (K), and 1150 (438) ml (Na), with a greater postdrinking urine output during P than Na (p ≤ 0.05). Ingestion of drink Na resulted in a more positive sodium balance compared with P or K (p < 0.001), whereas ingestion of drink K resulted in a more positive potassium balance compared with P or Na (p < 0.001). These results demonstrate that after 24-hour FER, ingestion of a high sodium drink results in an increased sodium balance that augments greater drink retention compared with a low electrolyte placebo drink. PMID:25162651

  12. Severe Hydronephrosis and Perinephric Urinoma with Rupture of Renal Fornix Secondary to Postoperative Urinary Retention following Laparoscopic Umbilical Hernia Repair.

    PubMed

    Dakwar, Anthony; Wysock, James; Satterfield, James

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a known complication following a variety of procedures, with a reported incidence of 2.1-3.8% in general surgery and up to 52% in anorectal surgery. We report a case of POUR in a female resulting in severe unilateral hydronephrosis with a perinephric urinoma due to a ruptured fornix. The extent of hydroureter caused an axial rotation upon itself producing further outflow obstruction. This phenomenon of an anatomical ureter deformity secondary to urinary retention resulting in a ruptured fornix is an unusual occurrence. The patient underwent a percutaneous nephrogram where a stiff guidewire was successfully passed into the bladder by interventional radiology (IR) and allowed for placement of an indwelling ureteral stent. The case presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and therapeutic intervention are discussed. PMID:27555977

  13. Severe Hydronephrosis and Perinephric Urinoma with Rupture of Renal Fornix Secondary to Postoperative Urinary Retention following Laparoscopic Umbilical Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wysock, James; Satterfield, James

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a known complication following a variety of procedures, with a reported incidence of 2.1–3.8% in general surgery and up to 52% in anorectal surgery. We report a case of POUR in a female resulting in severe unilateral hydronephrosis with a perinephric urinoma due to a ruptured fornix. The extent of hydroureter caused an axial rotation upon itself producing further outflow obstruction. This phenomenon of an anatomical ureter deformity secondary to urinary retention resulting in a ruptured fornix is an unusual occurrence. The patient underwent a percutaneous nephrogram where a stiff guidewire was successfully passed into the bladder by interventional radiology (IR) and allowed for placement of an indwelling ureteral stent. The case presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and therapeutic intervention are discussed. PMID:27555977

  14. Association of Fluid Accumulation with Clinical Outcomes in Critically Ill Children with Severe Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiao; Li, Xiaozhong; Bai, Zhenjiang; Fang, Fang; Hua, Jun; Li, Ying; Pan, Jian; Wang, Jian; Feng, Xing; Li, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether early and acquired daily fluid overload (FO), as well as fluctuations in fluid accumulation, were associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill children with severe sepsis. Methods This study enrolled 202 children in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with severe sepsis. Early fluid overload was defined as ≥5% fluid accumulation occurring in the first 24 hours of PICU admission. The maximum daily fluid accumulation ≥5% occurring during the next 6 days in patients with at least 48 hours of PICU stay was defined as PICU-acquired daily fluid overload. The fluctuation in fluid accumulation was calculated as the difference between the maximum and the minimum daily fluid accumulation obtained during the first 7 days after admission. Results Of the 202 patients, 61 (30.2%) died during PICU stay. Among all patients, 41 (20.3%) experienced early fluid overload, including 9 with a FO ≥10%. Among patients with at least 48 hours of PICU stay (n = 154), 36 (23.4%) developed PICU-acquired daily fluid overload, including 2 with a FO ≥10%. Both early fluid overload (AOR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.08–1.33; P = 0.001; n = 202) and PICU-acquired daily fluid overload (AOR = 5.47 per log increase; 95% CI 1.15–25.96; P = 0.032; n = 154) were independent risk factors associated with mortality after adjusting for age, illness severity, etc. However, fluctuations in fluid accumulation were not associated with mortality after adjustment. Length of PICU stay increased with greater fluctuations in fluid accumulation in all patients with at least 48 hours of PICU stay (FO <5%, 5%-10% vs. ≥10%: 4 [3–8], 7 [4–11] vs. 10 [6–16] days; P <0.001; n = 154) and in survivors (4 [3–8], 7 [5–11] vs. 10 [5–15] days; P <0.001; n = 121). Early fluid overload achieved an area under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.74 (95% CI 0.65–0.82; P <0.001; n = 202) for predicting mortality in patients with severe sepsis, with a sensitivity of 67

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity and Overnight Body Fluid Shift before and after Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Mihalache, Alexandra; Pruijm, Menno; Halabi, Georges; Phan, Olivier; Cornette, Françoise; Bassi, Isabelle; Haba Rubio, José; Burnier, Michel; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with significantly increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fluid overload may promote obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ESRD through an overnight fluid shift from the legs to the neck soft tissues. Body fluid shift and severity of obstructive sleep apnea before and after hemodialysis were compared in patients with ESRD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Seventeen patients with hemodialysis and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea were included. Polysomnographies were performed the night before and after hemodialysis to assess obstructive sleep apnea, and bioimpedance was used to measure fluid overload and leg fluid volume. Results The mean overnight rostral fluid shift was 1.27±0.41 L prehemodialysis; it correlated positively with fluid overload volume (r=0.39; P=0.02) and was significantly lower posthemodialysis (0.78±0.38 L; P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index before and after hemodialysis (46.8±22.0 versus 42.1±18.6 per hour; P=0.21), but obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was significantly lower posthemodialysis (−10.1±10.8 per hour) in the group of 12 patients, with a concomitant reduction of fluid overload compared with participants without change in fluid overload (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index +8.2±16.1 per hour; P<0.01). A lower fluid overload after hemodialysis was significantly correlated (r=0.49; P=0.04) with a lower obstructive apnea-hypopnea index. Fluid overload—assessed by bioimpedance—was the best predictor of the change in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index observed after hemodialysis (standardized r=−0.68; P=0.01) in multivariate regression analysis. Conclusions Fluid overload influences overnight rostral fluid shift and obstructive sleep apnea severity in patients with ESRD undergoing intermittent hemodialysis. Although no benefit of hemodialysis on obstructive sleep apnea severity

  16. Psychological Dysfunction Is Associated With Symptom Severity but Not Disease Etiology or Degree of Gastric Retention in Patients With Gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Hasler, William L.; Parkman, Henry P.; Wilson, Laura A.; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Koch, Kenneth L.; Abell, Thomas L.; Snape, William J.; Farrugia, Gianrico; Lee, Linda; Tonascia, James; Unalp-Arida, Aynur; Hamilton, Frank

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Gastroparesis patients may have associated psychological distress. This study aimed to measure depression and anxiety in gastroparesis in relation to disease severity, etiology, and gastric retention. METHODS Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores for state (Y1) and trait (Y2) anxiety were obtained from 299 gastroparesis patients from 6 centers of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium. Severity was investigator graded as grades 1, 2, or 3 and patient reported by Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) scores. Antiemetic/prokinetic medication use, anxiolytic and antidepressant medication use, supplemental feedings, and hospitalizations were recorded. BDI, Y1, and Y2 scores were compared in diabetic vs. idiopathic etiologies and mild (≤20%) vs. moderate (>20–35%) vs. severe (>35–50%) vs. very severe (>50%) gastric retention at 4h. RESULTS BDI, Y1, and Y2 scores were greater with increasing degrees of investigator-rated gastroparesis severity (P<0.05). BDI, Y1, and Y2 scores were higher for GCSI >3.1 vs. π3.1 (P<0.05). Antiemetic and prokinetic use and ≥6 hospitalizations/year were more common with BDI ≥20 vs. <20 (P<0.05). Anxiolytic use was more common with Y1 ≥46; antidepressant use and ≥6 hospitalizations/year were more common with Y2 ≥44 (P<0.05). BDI, Y1, and Y2 scores were not different in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis and did not relate to degree of gastric retention. On logistic regression, GCSI >3.1 was associated with BDI ≥20 and Y1 ≥46; antiemetic/prokinetic use was associated with BDI ≥20; anxiolytic use was associated with Y1 ≥46; and antidepressant use was associated with Y2 ≥44. CONCLUSIONS Higher depression and anxiety scores are associated with gastroparesis severity on investigator- and patient-reported assessments. Psychological dysfunction does not vary by etiology or degree of

  17. Performance of a semi-pilot tubular microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) under several hydraulic retention times and applied voltages.

    PubMed

    Gil-Carrera, L; Escapa, A; Carracedo, B; Morán, A; Gómez, X

    2013-10-01

    The influence of applied voltage and hydraulic retention time on the performance of a semi-pilot modular tubular wastewater-fed microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with high scalability was investigated. A chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 80%, as well as an energy consumption of 0.3-1.1 Wh g-COD(-1) removed, were achieved. Hydrogen production was limited by the reduced amounts of organic matter fed into the reactor, the poor performance of the cathode, and COD consuming by non electrogenic microorganisms. The presence of COD consuming microorganism that do not contribute to electrogenic metabolism severely affected the MEC performance.

  18. Fluid replacements after squash: an analysis of the effects of several fluid regimens on exercise-related metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    MacGowan, G A; Ryan, R; O'Donovan, D; Tempany, K; Kinsella, A; Horgan, J H

    1994-01-01

    We studied the effects of several fluid replacements taken after squash on exercise-related metabolic responses. 12 subjects played 5 games and after each game were assigned one of the following, receiving a different one each time: (1) no fluid replacement, or 500 ml of (2) water, (3) electrolyte solution, (4) glucose solution or (5) a glucose/electrolyte 'sports' drink. Circulating levels of lactate, free fatty acids, glucose, potassium, sodium and plasma osmolality were measured at rest and at 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after games. There were significant changes over time for all measured variables (p < 0.001). The only effect of these drinks was by the glucose-containing drinks, which resulted in significant elevation of blood glucose levels (p < 0.001); no effects on circulating electrolyte levels were demonstrated. In conclusion, while fluid replacements may increase glucose levels, electrolyte levels are not affected by drinks which are commonly used after squash.

  19. Dielectric Interactions and the Prediction of Retention Times of Pesticides in Supercritical Fluid Chromatography with CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Guillermo A.; Baumanna, Wolfram

    2005-02-01

    A thermodynamic model for the partition of a solute (pesticide) between two immiscible phases, such as the stationary and mobile phases of supercritical fluid chromatography with CO2, is developed from first principles. A key ingredient of the model is the result of the calculation made by Liptay of the energy of interaction of a polar molecule with a dielectric continuum, which represents the solvent. The strength of the interaction between the solute and the solvent, which may be considered a measure of the solvent power, is characterized by a function g = (ɛ - 1)/(2ɛ +1), where ɛ is the dielectric constant of the medium, which is a function of the temperature T and the pressure P. Since the interactions between the nonpolar supercritical CO2 solvent and the slightly polar pesticide molecules are considered to be extremely weak, a regular solution model is appropriate from the thermodynamic point of view. At constant temperature, the model predicts a linear dependence of the logarithm of the capacity factor (lnk) of the chromatographic experiment on the function g = g(P), as the pressure is varied, with a slope which depends on the dipole moment of the solute, dispersion interactions and the size of the solute cavity in the solvent. At constant pressure, once the term containing the g (solvent interaction) factor is subtracted from lnk, a plot of the resulting term against the inverse of temperature yields the enthalpy change of transfer of the solute from the mobile (supercritical CO2) phase to the stationary (adsorbent) phase. The increase in temperature with the consequent large volume expansion of the supercritical fluid lowers its solvent strength and hence the capacity factor of the column (or solute retention time) increases. These pressure and temperature effects, predicted by the model, agree excellently with the experimental retention times of seven pesticides. Beyond a temperature of about 393 K, where the liquid solvent densities approach those of

  20. In-vessel melt retention as a severe accident management strategy for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kymaelaeinen, O.; Tuomisto, H.; Theofanous, T.G.

    1997-02-01

    The concept of lower head coolability and in-vessel retention of corium has been approved as a basic element of the severe accident management strategy for IVO`s Loviisa Plant (VVER-440) in Finland. The selected approach takes advantage of the unique features of the plant such as low power density, reactor pressure vessel without penetrations at the bottom and ice-condenser containment which ensures flooded cavity in all risk significant sequences. The thermal analyses, which are supported by experimental program, demonstrate that in Loviisa the molten corium on the lower head of the reactor vessel is coolable externally with wide margins. This paper summarizes the approach and the plant modifications being implemented. During the approval process some technical concerns were raised, particularly with regard to thermal loadings caused by contact of cool cavity water and hot corium with the reactor vessel. Resolution of these concerns is also discussed.

  1. Assessment of plant toxicity threshold of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts

    SciTech Connect

    Nishita, H.

    1980-10-01

    Plant toxicity threshold levels of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts were determined by using a modified Neubauer technique. Barley seed germination and seedling growth were used for the toxicity tests. The general order of toxicity of the fluids applied to three mineral soils was ethylene gloycol > Dow 200 much greater than Caloria HT43 > Therminol 66. The toxicity order of the fluids applied to an organic soil was ethylene glycol > Caloria HT43 > Dow 200 > Therminol 66. Thus, Therminol 66 was the least toxic among the fluids used. Among the eutectic salts tested Dupont HITEC was more toxic than 8.4 percent NaCl-86.3 percent NaNO/sub 3/-5.3 percent Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ mixture in three of the four soils used. In the fourth soil there was no apparent difference of toxicity between the two salt mixtures. Depending on the fluid and the salt mixture, the toxicity threshold levels for barley seedlings ranged from 4451 to 317,488 ppM in the soils used.

  2. Latest Study on the Relationship between Pathological Process of Inflammatory Injury and the Syndrome of Spleen Deficiency and Fluid Retention in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Beibei; Zhou, Chunxiang; Zhang, Jiangyuan; Ling, Yun; Hu, Qianfeng; Wang, Yi; Bai, Kangkang

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation exists throughout the incidence and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) differentiates the pathogenesis of AD as kidney essence deficiency and qi and blood deficiency as well as blood stasis in syndromes, whose action mechanisms are all associated with the intervention in its inflammatory process. Our preliminary studies both in clinic and in vitro have demonstrated that the syndrome of spleen deficiency and fluid retention has also been an important pathogenesis for the incidence and development of AD. Hence, the paper aims to further illustrate the correlation between inflammatory process in AD and the syndrome of spleen deficiency and fluid retention, laying solid foundation for the application of invigorating the spleen and eliminating the dampness in clinic, and enriching the theoretical connotation for AD prevention and treatment in TCM. PMID:24799943

  3. Detoxification Combining Fasting with Fluid Therapy for Refractory Cases of Severe Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hae Jeong

    2013-01-01

    To introduce and determine the clinical benefits of a detoxification program that combines fasting with fluid therapy for refractory cases of severe atopic dermatitis (AD), we performed a retrospective chart review of inpatients with AD from March 2010 to February 2012 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology and Dermatology of Korean Medicine in the Kyung Hee Medical Center. Patients were treated with the detoxification program, which combined fasting with fluid therapy, and herbal medicine, herbal wet wrap dressings, or acupuncture treatment when clinically necessary. The primary outcome was the SCORAD total index. The secondary outcome was the pruritus visual analogue scale (VAS) score in SCORAD as evaluated by a trained dermatology specialist. Among the 130 inpatients that have done detoxification, 7 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean total SCORAD scores significantly decreased from 64.67 ± 11.72 to 26.26 ± 11.01 (P = 0.018) after the detoxification program. There was also a significant decrease in VAS score for pruritus from 8.00 ± 1.16 to 2.57 ± 0.98 (P = 0.016) between admission and discharge. We suggest that fasting with fluid therapy as a complementary and alternative treatment method may provide some benefits for patients with refractory cases of severe atopic dermatitis. PMID:23986784

  4. Severe Ankyrin-R deficiency results in impaired surface retention and lysosomal degradation of RhAG in human erythroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Satchwell, Timothy J.; Bell, Amanda J.; Hawley, Bethan R.; Pellegrin, Stephanie; Mordue, Kathryn E.; van Deursen, Cees Th. B. M.; Braak, Nicole Heitink-ter; Huls, Gerwin; Leers, Mathie P.G; Overwater, Eline; Tamminga, Rienk Y. J.; van der Zwaag, Bert; Fermo, Elisa; Bianchi, Paola; van Wijk, Richard; Toye, Ashley M.

    2016-01-01

    Ankyrin-R provides a key link between band 3 and the spectrin cytoskeleton that helps to maintain the highly specialized erythrocyte biconcave shape. Ankyrin deficiency results in fragile spherocytic erythrocytes with reduced band 3 and protein 4.2 expression. We use in vitro differentiation of erythroblasts transduced with shRNAs targeting ANK1 to generate erythroblasts and reticulocytes with a novel ankyrin-R ‘near null’ human phenotype with less than 5% of normal ankyrin expression. Using this model, we demonstrate that absence of ankyrin negatively impacts the reticulocyte expression of a variety of proteins, including band 3, glycophorin A, spectrin, adducin and, more strikingly, protein 4.2, CD44, CD47 and Rh/RhAG. Loss of band 3, which fails to form tetrameric complexes in the absence of ankyrin, alongside GPA, occurs due to reduced retention within the reticulocyte membrane during erythroblast enucleation. However, loss of RhAG is temporally and mechanistically distinct, occurring predominantly as a result of instability at the plasma membrane and lysosomal degradation prior to enucleation. Loss of Rh/RhAG was identified as common to erythrocytes with naturally occurring ankyrin deficiency and demonstrated to occur prior to enucleation in cultures of erythroblasts from a hereditary spherocytosis patient with severe ankyrin deficiency but not in those exhibiting milder reductions in expression. The identification of prominently reduced surface expression of Rh/RhAG in combination with direct evaluation of ankyrin expression using flow cytometry provides an efficient and rapid approach for the categorization of hereditary spherocytosis arising from ankyrin deficiency. PMID:27247322

  5. Properties of Fluid Deuterium under Double-Shock Compression to Several Mbar

    SciTech Connect

    Vianello, E; Celliers, P M; Hicks, D G; Boehly, T R; Collins, T B; Moon, S J; Eggert, J H; Collins, G W; Meyerhofer, D D

    2004-02-03

    The compressibility of fluid deuterium up to several Mbar has been probed using laser-driven shock waves reflected from a quartz anvil. Combining high-precision ({approx} 1 %) shock velocity measurements with the double-shock technique, where differences in equation of state (EOS) models are magnified, has allowed us to accurately discriminate between various theoretical predictions. Our data are consistent with EOS models that show approximately fourfold compression on the principal Hugoniot from 0.7 to 1 Mbar; however, our results indicate that deuterium has a higher compressibility than predicted by these models for single shock pressures between 1 and 2.5 Mbar.

  6. Effect of an oxygen plasma on the physical and chemical properties of several fluids for the liquid droplet radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.; Coles, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    The Liquid Droplet Radiator is one of several radiator systems currently under investigation by NASA Lewis Research Center. It involves the direct exposure of the radiator working fluid to the space environment. An area of concern is the potential harmful effects of the low-Earth-orbit atomic oxygen environment on the radiator working fluid. To address this issue, seven candidate fluids were exposed to an oxygen plasma environment in a laboratory plasma asher. The fluids studied included Dow Corning 705 Diffusion Pump Fluid, polymethylphenylsiloxane and polydimethlsiloxane, both of which are experimental fluids made by Dow Corning, Fomblin Z25, made by Montedison, and three fluids from the Krytox family of fluids, Krytox 143AB, 1502, and 16256, which are made by DuPont. The fluids were characterized by noting changes in visual appearance, physical state, mass, and infrared spectra. Of the fluids tested, the Fomblin and the three Krytoxes were the least affected by the oxygen plasma. The only effect noted was a change in mass, which was most likely due to an oxygen-catalyzed deploymerization of the fluid molecule.

  7. Effect of an oxygen plasma on the physical and chemical properties of several fluids for the Liquid Droplet Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.; Coles, Carolyn E.

    1987-01-01

    The Liquid Droplet Radiator is one of several radiator systems currently under investigation by NASA Lewis Research Center. It involves the direct exposure of the radiator working fluid to the space environment. An area of concern is the potential harmful effects of the low-Earth-orbit atomic oxygen environment on the radiator working fluid. To address this issue, seven candidate fluids were exposed to an oxygen plasma environment in a laboratory plasma asher. The fluids studied included Dow Corning 705 Diffusion Pump Fluid, polymethylphenylsiloxane and polydimethylsiloxane, both of which are experimental fluids made by Dow Corning, Fomblin Z25, made by Montedison, and three fluids from the Krytox family of fluids, Krytox 143AB, 1502, and 16256, which are made by DuPont. The fluids were characterized by noting changes in visual appearance, physical state, mass, and infrared spectra. Of the fluids tested, the Fomblin and the three Krytoxes were the least affected by the oxygen plasma. The only effect noted was a change in mass, which was most likely due to an oxygen-catalyzed depolymerization of the fluid molecule.

  8. Modeling Fluid Resuscitation by Formulating Infusion Rate and Urine Output in Severe Thermal Burn Adult Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qizhi; Li, Wei; Zou, Xin; Dang, Yongming; Wu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Acute burn injuries are among the most devastating forms of trauma and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Appropriate fluid resuscitation after severe burn, specifically during the first 48 hours following injury, is considered as the single most important therapeutic intervention in burn treatment. Although many formulas have been developed to estimate the required fluid amount in severe burn patients, many lines of evidence showed that patients still receive far more fluid than formulas recommend. Overresuscitation, which is known as “fluid creep,” has emerged as one of the most important problems during the initial period of burn care. If fluid titration can be personalized and automated during the resuscitation phase, more efficient burn care and outcome will be anticipated. In the present study, a dynamic urine output based infusion rate prediction model was developed and validated during the initial 48 hours in severe thermal burn adult patients. The experimental results demonstrated that the developed dynamic fluid resuscitation model might significantly reduce the total fluid volume by accurately predicting hourly urine output and has the potential to aid fluid administration in severe burn patients. PMID:26090415

  9. Retention capacities of several bryophytes for Hg(II) with special reference to the elevation and morphology of moss growth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shou-Qin; Wang, Ding-Yong; He, Ming; Li, Xian-Yuan; Zhang, Cheng

    2007-10-01

    Hg(II) Retention capacities of nine bryophyte species, collected from Jinfo Mountains (JFM) in Chongqing, China, had been investigated with special reference to the effect of morphology and elevation of moss growth. Results indicated that adsorption capacities of bryophytes for Hg(II) became stronger with the increase of multi-branches and leafy-shoots, as well as the elevation of moss growth, which was observed both in adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics experiments. Contrarily, the desorption kinetics showed a decrease tendency with the increase of multi-branches and leafy-shoots and the elevation of moss growth. The results demonstrated that bryophytes with higher multi-branches and leafy-shoots and higher growth elevation had a stronger adsorption capacity and a weaker desorption tendency, and therefore had a stronger retention capacity to Hg(II). The results disclosed the different relative sensitivity and retention capacity of mosses to pollution resulting from heavy metals, due to the differences in growth elevation and morphology. These should be considered when bryophytes were chosen as a tool for biomonitoring materials to environmental pollution, especially caused by Hg(II).

  10. Disregarded Effect of Biological Fluids in siRNA Delivery: Human Ascites Fluid Severely Restricts Cellular Uptake of Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dakwar, George R; Braeckmans, Kevin; Demeester, Joseph; Ceelen, Wim; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Remaut, Katrien

    2015-11-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) offers a great potential for the treatment of various diseases and disorders. Nevertheless, inefficient in vivo siRNA delivery hampers its translation into the clinic. While numerous successful in vitro siRNA delivery stories exist in reduced-protein conditions, most studies so far overlook the influence of the biological fluids present in the in vivo environment. In this study, we compared the transfection efficiency of liposomal formulations in Opti-MEM (low protein content, routinely used for in vitro screening) and human undiluted ascites fluid obtained from a peritoneal carcinomatosis patient (high protein content, representing the in vivo situation). In Opti-MEM, all formulations are biologically active. In ascites fluid, however, the biological activity of all lipoplexes is lost except for lipofectamine RNAiMAX. The drop in transfection efficiency was not correlated to the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles, such as premature siRNA release and aggregation of the nanoparticles in the human ascites fluid. Remarkably, however, all of the formulations except for lipofectamine RNAiMAX lost their ability to be taken up by cells following incubation in ascites fluid. To take into account the possible effects of a protein corona formed around the nanoparticles, we recommend always using undiluted biological fluids for the in vitro optimization of nanosized siRNA formulations next to conventional screening in low-protein content media. This should tighten the gap between in vitro and in vivo performance of nanoparticles and ensure the optimal selection of nanoparticles for further in vivo studies.

  11. Don't Go Chasing Waterfalls: Excessive Fluid Resuscitation in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive fluid resuscitation is the mainstay therapy in modern sepsis management. Its efficacy was demonstrated in the landmark study by Emmanuel Rivers in 2001. However, more recent evidence largely shows that a positive fluid balance increases mortality in critically ill patients with sepsis. This article examines the theoretical benefits of fluid resuscitation and physiological responses to it that may negatively affect patients' outcome.

  12. Part II. Evaluation of 40Ar- 39Ar quartz ages: Implications for fluid inclusion retentivity and determination of initial 40Ar/ 36Ar values in Proterozoic samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, M. A.; Miller, J. McL.; Phillips, D.

    2006-05-01

    The argon isotope systematics of vein-quartz samples with two different K-reservoirs have been evaluated in detail. Potassium is hosted by ultra-high-salinity fluid inclusions in quartz samples from the Eloise and Osborne iron-oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits of the Mt Isa Inlier, Australia. In contrast, K is hosted by accidentally trapped mica within lower-salinity fluid inclusions of a sample selected from the Railway Fault, 13 km south of the Mt Isa copper mine, Australia. Imprecise apparent ages have been obtained for all of the samples studied and conclusively demonstrate that quartz fluid inclusions are retentive to Ar and have not leaked over billions of years. IOCG samples that host K in fluid inclusions only, have K/Cl values of <1 and the ages obtained represent the maximum ages for mineralization. In contrast, the Railway Fault samples that include accidentally trapped mica have K/Cl values of ≫1. Excess 40Ar E plus Cl hosted by fluid inclusions, and radiogenic 40Ar R plus K, are strongly correlated in these samples and define a plane in 3D 40Ar- 36Ar-K-Cl space. In this case, the plane yields an 'excess 40Ar E' corrected age of ˜1030 Ma that is 100's of Ma younger than nearby Cu-mineralization at Mt Isa. The age is interpreted to reflect 40Ar-loss from the accidentally trapped mica into the surrounding fluid inclusions, and is not related to the samples' age of formation. The initial 40Ar/ 36Ar value of fluid inclusions is widely used to provide information on fluid origin. For the IOCG samples that host K in fluid inclusions only, the initial 40Ar/ 36Ar values are close to the measured values at every temperature of stepped heating experiments. For samples that include accidentally trapped mica, the correction for post-entrapment radiogenic 40Ar R production is significant. Furthermore, because 39Ar K present in accidentally trapped mica crystals is released at different temperatures to radiogenic 40Ar R lost to the surrounding fluid inclusions

  13. Don't Go Chasing Waterfalls: Excessive Fluid Resuscitation in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive fluid resuscitation is the mainstay therapy in modern sepsis management. Its efficacy was demonstrated in the landmark study by Emmanuel Rivers in 2001. However, more recent evidence largely shows that a positive fluid balance increases mortality in critically ill patients with sepsis. This article examines the theoretical benefits of fluid resuscitation and physiological responses to it that may negatively affect patients' outcome. PMID:26633156

  14. Therapeutic hypothermia for cardiovascular collapse and severe respiratory distress after amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Ocegueda-Pacheco, Cynthia; García, J Carlos; Varon, Joseph; Polderman, Kees H

    2014-06-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the most catastrophic complications that can occur during pregnancy or in the immediate postpartum period, frequently complicated by profound shock and cardiovascular collapse as well as severe respiratory distress. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is now commonly used to improve neurological outcomes after various types of hypoxic injury and is widely used in the treatment of postanoxic injury after cardiac arrest (CA). To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated whether TH could be effectively used in AFE, and its use for this indication has not been described previously. We describe the case of a 32-year-old woman, who developed clinical manifestations of AFE and suffered a CA in the 29th week of her pregnancy. She received prolonged CPR (40 minutes until ROSC) and remained comatose. TH was induced and maintained for a total of 60 hours using an endovascular device, followed by controlled rewarming and maintenance of strict normothermia. The patient survived and was neurologically intact (CPC 1) at 6 months of follow up.

  15. Optimisation and characterisation of marihuana extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and focused ultrasound extraction and retention time locking GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Omar, Jone; Olivares, Maitane; Alzaga, Mikel; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2013-04-01

    The optimisation of focused ultrasound extraction and supercritical fluid extraction of volatile oils and cannabinoids from marihuana has been accomplished by experimental design approach. On the one hand, the focused ultrasound extraction method of volatile compounds and cannabinoids was studied based on the optimisation of cyclohexane and isopropanol solvent mixtures, and the instrumental variables. The optimal working conditions were finally fixed at isopropanol/cyclohexane 1:1 mixture, cycles (3 s(-1)), amplitude (80%) and sonication time (5 min). On the other hand, the supercritical fluid extraction method was optimised in order to obtain a deterpenation of the plant and a subsequent cannabinoid extraction. For this purpose, pressure, temperature, flow and co-solvent percentage were optimised and the optimal working conditions were set at 100 bar, 35°C, 1 mL/min, no co-solvent for the terpenes and 20% of ethanol for the cannabinoids. Based on the retention time locking GC-MS analysis of the supercritical fluid extracts the classification of the samples according to the type of plant, the growing area and season was attained. Finally, three monoterpenes and three cannabinoids were quantified in the ranges of 0.006-6.2 μg/g and 0.96-324 mg/g, respectively.

  16. Elevated Cerebral Spinal Fluid Cytokine Levels in Boys with Cerebral Adrenoleukodystrophy Correlates with MRI Severity

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Troy C.; Stadem, Paul S.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Raymond, Gerald; Miller, Weston P.; Tolar, Jakub; Orchard, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Background X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a metabolic, peroxisomal disease that results from a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. The most severe course of ALD progression is the cerebral inflammatory and demyelinating form of the disease, cALD. To date there is very little information on the cytokine mediators in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of these boys. Methodology/Principal Findings Measurement of 23 different cytokines was performed on CSF and serum of boys with cerebral ALD and patients without ALD. Significant elevations in CSF IL-8 (29.3±2.2 vs 12.8±1.1 pg/ml, p = 0.0001), IL-1ra (166±30 vs 8.6±6.5 pg/ml, p = 0.005), MCP-1 (610±47 vs 328±34 pg/ml, p = 0.002), and MIP-1b (14.2±1.3 vs 2.0±1.4 pg/ml, p<0.0001) were found in boys with cALD versus the control group. The only serum cytokine showing an elevation in the ALD group was SDF-1 (2124±155 vs 1175±125 pg/ml, p = 0.0001). The CSF cytokines of IL-8 and MCP-1b correlated with the Loes MRI severity score (p = 0.04 and p = 0.008 respectively), as well as the serum SDF-1 level (p = 0.002). Finally, CSF total protein was also significantly elevated in boys with cALD and correlated with both IL-8, MCP-1b (p = 0.0001 for both), as well as Loes MRI severity score (p = 0.0007). Conclusions/Significance IL-8, IL-1ra, MCP-1, MIP-1b and CSF total protein were significantly elevated in patients with cALD; IL-8, MCP-1b, and CSF total protein levels correlated with disease severity determined by MRI. This is the largest report of CSF cytokine levels in cALD to date, and identification of these key cytokines will provide further insight into disease progression and perhaps lead to improved targeted therapies. PMID:22359672

  17. Cerebrospinal Fluid Cortisol and Progesterone Profiles and Outcomes Prognostication after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Santarsieri, Martina; Niyonkuru, Christian; McCullough, Emily H.; Dobos, Julie A.; Dixon, C. Edward; Berga, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Despite significant advances in the management of head trauma, there remains a lack of pharmacological treatment options for traumatic brain injury (TBI). While progesterone clinical trials have shown promise, corticosteroid trials have failed. The purpose of this study was to (1) characterize endogenous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) progesterone and cortisol levels after TBI, (2) determine relationships between CSF and serum profiles, and (3) assess the utility of these hormones as predictors of long-term outcomes. We evaluated 130 adults with severe TBI. Serum samples (n=538) and CSF samples (n=746) were collected for 6 days post-injury, analyzed for cortisol and progesterone, and compared with healthy controls (n=13). Hormone data were linked with clinical data, including Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at 6 and 12 months. Group based trajectory (TRAJ) analysis was used to develop temporal hormone profiles delineating distinct subpopulations. Compared with controls, CSF cortisol levels were significantly and persistently elevated during the first week after TBI, and high CSF cortisol levels were associated with poor outcome. As a precursor to cortisol, progesterone mediated these effects. Serum and CSF levels for both cortisol and progesterone were strongly correlated after TBI relative to controls, possibly because of blood–brain barrier disruption. Also, differentially impaired hormone transport and metabolism mechanisms after TBI, potential de novo synthesis of steroids within the brain, and the complex interplay of cortisol and pro-inflammatory cytokines may explain these acute hormone profiles and, when taken together, may help shed light on why corticosteroid trials have previously failed and why progesterone treatment after TBI may be beneficial. PMID:24354775

  18. Evaluation of functional severity of coronary artery disease and fluid dynamics' influence on hemodynamic parameters: A review.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, Kalimuthu; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Viswanathan, Girish N; Ramesh, S V; Badarudin, A

    2013-05-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is responsible for most of the deaths in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Diagnostic coronary angiography analysis offers an anatomical knowledge of the severity of the stenosis. The functional or physiological significance is more valuable than the anatomical significance of CAD. Clinicians assess the functional severity of the stenosis by resorting to an invasive measurement of the pressure drop and flow. Hemodynamic parameters, such as pressure wire assessment fractional flow reserve (FFR) or Doppler wire assessment coronary flow reserve (CFR) are well-proven techniques to evaluate the physiological significance of the coronary artery stenosis in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Between the two techniques mentioned above, the FFR is seen as a very useful index. The presence of guide wire reduces the coronary flow which causes the underestimation of pressure drop across the stenosis which leads to dilemma for the clinicians in the assessment of moderate stenosis. In such condition, the fundamental fluid mechanics is useful in the development of new functional severity parameters such as pressure drop coefficient and lesion flow coefficient. Since the flow takes place in a narrowed artery, the blood behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) allows a complete coronary flow simulation to study the relationship between the pressure and flow. This paper aims at explaining (i) diagnostic modalities for the evaluation of the CAD and valuable insights regarding FFR in the evaluation of the functional severity of the CAD (ii) the role of fluid dynamics in measuring the severity of CAD. PMID:22704601

  19. The cerebrospinal fluid proteome in HIV infection: change associated with disease severity.

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Spudich, Serena S.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Liegler, Teri; Zetterberg, Henrik; Camp, David G.; Price, Richard W.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-03-20

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a constant feature of systemic HIV infection with a clinical spectrum that ranges from chronic asymptomatic infection to severe cognitive and motor dysfunction. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has played an important part in defining the character of this evolving infection and response to treatment. To further characterize CNS HIV infection and its effects, we applied advanced high-throughput proteomic methods to CSF to identify novel proteins and their changes with disease progression and treatment. After establishing an accurate mass and time (AMT) tag database containing 23,141 AMT tags for CSF peptides, we analyzed 91 CSF samples by LC-MS from 12 HIV-uninfected and 14 HIV-infected subjects studied in the context of initiation of antiretroviral and correlated abundances of identified proteins (a) within and between subjects, (b) with all other proteins across the entire sample set, and (c) with 'external' CSF biomarkers of infection (HIV RNA), immune activation (neopterin) and neural injury (neurofilament light chain protein, NFL). We identified a mean of 2,333 +/- 328 (SD) peptides covering 307 +/-16 proteins in the 91 CSF sample set. Protein abundances differed both between and within subjects sampled at different time points and readily separated those with and without HIV infection. Proteins also showed inter-correlations across the sample set that were associated with biologically relevant dynamic processes. One-hundred and fifty proteins showed correlations with the external biomarkers. For example, using a threshold of cross correlation coefficient (Pearson's) {le}0.3 and {ge}0.3 for potentially meaningful relationships, a total of 99 proteins correlated with CSF neopterin (43 negative and 56 positive correlations) and related principally to neuronal plasticity and survival and to innate immunity. Pathway analysis defined several networks connecting the identified proteins, including one with amyloid

  20. Joule-Thomson inversion curves and related coefficients for several simple fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Peller, I. C.; Baron, A. K.

    1972-01-01

    The equations of state (PVT relations) for methane, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, neon, hydrogen, and helium were used to establish Joule-Thomson inversion curves for each fluid. The principle of corresponding states was applied to the inversion curves, and a generalized inversion curve for fluids with small acentric factors was developed. The quantum fluids (neon, hydrogen, and helium) were excluded from the generalization, but available data for the fluids xenon and krypton were included. The critical isenthalpic Joule-Thomson coefficient mu sub c was determined; and a simplified approximation mu sub c approximates T sub c divided by 6P sub c was found adequate, where T sub c and P sub c are the temperature and pressure at the thermodynamic critical point. The maximum inversion temperatures were obtained from the second virial coefficient (maximum (B/T)).

  1. Predictors of Percutaneous Catheter Drainage (PCD) after Abdominal Paracentesis Drainage (APD) in Patients with Moderately Severe or Severe Acute Pancreatitis along with Fluid Collections

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-hui; Wang, Tao; Yan, Hong-tao; Chen, Tao; Xu, Chuan; Ye, Ping; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Zheng-cai; Tang, Li-jun

    2015-01-01

    Aims Although we previously demonstrated abdominal paracentesis drainage (APD) preceding percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) as the central step for treating patients with moderately severe (MSAP) or severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), the predictors leading to PCD after APD have not been studied. Methods Consecutive patients with MSAP or SAP were recruited between June 2011 and June 2013. As a step-up approach, all patients initially received medical management, later underwent ultrasound-guided APD before PCD, if necessary, followed by endoscopic necrosectomy through the path formed by PCD. APD primarily targeted fluid in the abdominal or pelvic cavities, whereas PCD aimed at (peri)pancreatic fluid. Results Of the 92 enrolled patients, 40 were managed with APD alone and 52 received PCD after APD (14 required necrosectomy after initial PCD). The overall mortality was 6.5%. Univariate analysis showed that among the 20 selected parameters, 13 factors significantly affected PCD intervention after APD. Multivariate analysis revealed that infected (peri)pancreatic collections (P = -0.001), maximum extent of necrosis of more than 30% of the pancreas (P = -0.024), size of the largest necrotic peri(pancreatic) collection (P = -0.007), and reduction of (peri)pancreatic fluid collections by <50% after APD (P = -0.008) were all independent predictors of PCD. Conclusions Infected (peri)pancreatic collections, a largest necrotic peri(pancreatic) collection of more than 100 ml, and reduction of (peri)pancreatic fluid collections by <50% after APD could effectively predict the need for PCD in the early course of the disease. PMID:25659143

  2. CO2 retention with minimal symptoms but severe dysfunction during wet simulated dives to 6.8 atm abs.

    PubMed

    Warkander, D E; Norfleet, W T; Nagasawa, G K; Lundgren, C E

    1990-11-01

    During wet dives in a hyperbaric chamber to 6.8 atm abs (690 kPa), air breathing subjects were experimentally exposed to external breathing resistance. Two of them were, unbeknownst to themselves, severely incapacitated. In the first incident the subject had been exercising for 25 min (end-tidal PCO2 60-65 mmHg, 7.3-8.0 kPa) when the breathing resistance was rapidly increased from low to very high (requiring pressure swings of 80 cmH2O, 8 kPa, peak to peak). He functioned normally (end-tidal PCO2 72 mmHg, 9.6 kPa) for about 100 s but 20 s later he was confused and irrational. After being extracted from the water (end-tidal PCO2 above 90 mmHg, 12 kPa), he lost consciousness for about 60 s. In the second incident the subject was exercising and breathing against a high resistance (pressure swings of 50-55 cmH2O, 5.0-5.6 kPa). His end-tidal PCO2 was high (65-68 mmHg, 8.7-9.3 kPa) throughout the exercise period, and after 24 min he reported mild dyspnea. A few seconds later he became confused. In other experiments both subjects voluntarily terminated experiments when the breathing resistance became overwhelming. These 2 subjects generally had high end-tidal PCO2 levels, but 1 other subject with end-tidal PCO2 levels in the same range never experienced any problems. These incidents indicate that severe hypercapnia does not necessarily correlate with dyspnea and that severe disturbances in mental function due to hypercapnia can develop suddenly when high breathing resistance is encountered in diving.

  3. [The permeability of the hemato-encephalic barrier and the proteolytic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid in severe craniocerebral trauma].

    PubMed

    Churliaev, Iu A; Nikiforova, N V; Lutsik, A A; Kuksinskiĭ, V A; Lykova, O F; Martynenkov, V Ia; Karpenko, V S

    1999-01-01

    To study blood-brain barrier permeability and proteolytic changes in in patients with severe brain injury and to evaluate their impact on its course and outcome, the concentrations of albumin, plasminogen (plasmin), alpha 2-macroglobulin, alpha 2-antiplasmin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin were examined in 58 victims by enzyme immunoassay. The control group comprised 20 patients examined for lumbar discal hernia. The studies indicate that early severe brain injury showed blood-brain barrier dysfunction whose severity can be detected by the spinal fluid levels of albumin, plasminogen, and alpha 2-macroglobulin. Proteolytic changes in spinal fluid are determined by its albumin, plasminogen (plasmin), alpha 2-macroglobulin, alpha 2-antiplasmin, and alpha 1-antitrypsin concentrations and affect the development of secondary brain lesion and they are of practical value. PMID:10696680

  4. Influence of deformation and fluids on Ar retention in white mica: Dating the Dover Fault, Newfoundland Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, Dawn A.; Warren, Clare; Larson, Kyle P.; Zwingmann, Horst; van Staal, Cees R.; Rogers, Neil

    2016-06-01

    White mica 40Ar/39Ar analyses may provide useful constraints on the timing of tectonic processes, but complex geological and thermal histories can perturb Ar systematics in a variety of ways. Ductile shear zones represent excellent case studies for exploring the link(s) between dynamic re-/neo-crystallization of white mica and coeval enhanced fluid flow, and their effect on 40Ar/39Ar dates. White mica 40Ar/39Ar dates were collected from compositionally similar granites that record different episodes of deformation with proximity to the Dover Fault, a terrane-bounding strike-slip shear zone in the Appalachian orogen, Newfoundland, Canada. 40Ar/39Ar data were collected in situ by laser ablation and by step heating single crystals. Results were compared to each other and against complementary U-Pb zircon and monazite, and K-Ar fault gouge analysis. Although step-heat 40Ar/39Ar is a widely applied method in orogenic settings, this dataset shows that relatively flat step-heat 40Ar/39Ar spectra are in contradiction with wide spreads in in-situ40Ar/39Ar dates from the same samples, and that plateau dates in some cases yielded mixed dates of equivocal geological significance. This result indicates that the step-wise release of Ar from white mica likely homogenizes and obscures spatially-controlled Ar isotope reservoirs in white mica from sheared rocks. In contrast, in situ laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar analysis preserves the spatial resolution of 40Ar reservoirs that have been variably reset by deformation and fluid interaction. This study therefore suggests that laser ablation is the best method for dating the timing of deformation recorded by white mica. Final interpretation of results should be guided by microstructural analysis, estimation of deformation temperature, chemical characterization of white mica, and complementary chronometers. Overall the dataset shows that granitic protoliths were emplaced between 430 and 422 Ma (U-Pb zircon). High strain deformation along the

  5. Associations of Hospital and Patient Characteristics with Fluid Resuscitation Volumes in Patients with Severe Sepsis: Post Hoc Analyses of Data from a Multicentre Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn; Perner, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fluid resuscitation is a key intervention in patients with sepsis and circulatory impairment. The recommendations for continued fluid therapy in sepsis are vague, which may result in differences in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate associations between hospital and patient characteristics and fluid resuscitation volumes in ICU patients with severe sepsis. Methods We explored the 6S trial database of ICU patients with severe sepsis needing fluid resuscitation randomised to hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 vs. Ringer’s acetate. Our primary outcome measure was fluid resuscitation volume and secondary outcome total fluid input administered from 24 hours before randomisation until the end of day 3 post-randomisation. We performed multivariate analyses with hospital and patient baseline characteristics as covariates to assess associations with fluid volumes given. Results We included 654 patients who were in the ICU for 3 days and had fluid volumes available. Individual trial sites administered significantly different volumes of fluid resuscitation and total fluid input after adjusting for baseline variables (P<0.001). Increased lactate, higher cardiovascular and renal SOFA subscores, lower respiratory SOFA subscore and surgery were all independently associated with increased fluid resuscitation volumes. Conclusions Hospital characteristics adjusted for patient baseline values were associated with differences in fluid resuscitation volumes given in the first 3 days of severe sepsis. The data indicate variations in clinical practice not explained by patient characteristics emphasizing the need for RCTs assessing fluid resuscitation volumes fluid in patients with sepsis. PMID:27196104

  6. Selective V(1a) agonism attenuates vascular dysfunction and fluid accumulation in ovine severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Sousse, Linda; Bartha, Eva; Jonkam, Collette; Hasselbach, Anthony K; Traber, Lillian D; Cox, Robert A; Westphal, Martin; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Traber, Daniel L

    2012-11-15

    Vasopressin analogs are used as a supplement to norepinephrine in septic shock. The isolated effects of vasopressin agonists on sepsis-induced vascular dysfunction, however, remain controversial. Because V(2)-receptor stimulation induces vasodilation and procoagulant effects, a higher V(1a)- versus V(2)-receptor selectivity might be advantageous. We therefore hypothesized that a sole, titrated infusion of the selective V(1a)-agonist Phe(2)-Orn(8)-Vasotocin (POV) is more effective than the mixed V(1a)-/V(2)-agonist AVP for the treatment of vascular and cardiopulmonary dysfunction in methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus pneumonia-induced, ovine sepsis. After the onset of hemodynamic instability, awake, chronically instrumented, mechanically ventilated, and fluid resuscitated sheep were randomly assigned to receive continuous infusions of either POV, AVP, or saline solution (control; each n = 6). AVP and POV were titrated to maintain mean arterial pressure above baseline - 10 mmHg. When compared with that of control animals, AVP and POV reduced neutrophil migration (myeloperoxidase activity, alveolar neutrophils) and plasma levels of nitric oxide, resulting in higher mean arterial pressures and a reduced vascular leakage (net fluid balance, chest and abdominal fluid, pulmonary bloodless wet-to-dry-weight ratio, alveolar and septal edema). Notably, POV stabilized hemodynamics at lower doses than AVP. In addition, POV, but not AVP, reduced myocardial and pulmonary tissue concentrations of 3-nitrotyrosine, VEGF, and angiopoietin-2, thereby leading to an abolishment of cumulative fluid accumulation (POV, 9 ± 15 ml/kg vs. AVP, 110 ± 13 ml/kg vs. control, 213 ± 16 ml/kg; P < 0.001 each) and an attenuated cardiopulmonary dysfunction (left ventricular stroke work index, PaO(2)-to-FiO(2) ratio) versus control animals. Highly selective V(1a)-agonism appears to be superior to unselective vasopressin analogs for the treatment of sepsis-induced vascular dysfunction.

  7. A Comparison of Symptom Severity and Bolus Retention to Chicago Classification Esophageal Pressure Topography Metrics in Patients with Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Nicodème, Frédéric; de Ruigh, Annemijn; Xiao, Yinglian; Rajeswaran, Shankar; Teitelbaum, Ezra N.; Hungness, Eric S.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Pandolfino, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims We compared findings from timed barium esophagrams (TBEs) and esophageal pressure topography (EPT) studies among achalasia subtypes and in relation to symptom severity. Method We analyzed data from 50 patients with achalasia (31 male, 20–79 years old) who underwent high-resolution manometry (HRM), had TBE following a 200ml barium swallow, and completed questionnaires that determine Eckardt Scores (ES). Twenty-five were not treated and 25 were treated (11 by pneumatic dilation, 14 by myotomy). Non-parametric testing was used to assess differences among groups of treated patients (10 had type-1 achalasia and 15 had type-2 achalasia), and the Pearson correlation was used to assess their relationship. Results There were no significant differences in TBE measurements between patient groups. Of the 25 patients who received treatment, 10 had a manometric pattern consistent with persistent achalasia after treatment (6 with type 1 and 4 with type 2 achalasia), whereas 15 appeared to have resolved the achalasia pattern (peristalsis was absent in 8 and weak in 7). The height of the barium column at 5 minutes and ES were significantly reduced in patients that had resolved their achalasia pattern, based on HRM. The integrated relaxation pressure (IRP) and the TBE column height correlated at 5 minutes (r=0.422; p<0.05). Discussion Patients that resolve their achalasia pattern, based on HRM, demonstrated improved emptying based on TBE measurements and improved symptom scores. There was no significant difference between patients with type-1 or 2 achalasia in TBEs. These findings indicate that normalization of the IRP on HRM is a clinically relevant objective of treatment for achalasia. PMID:23078890

  8. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. [qualitative analysis of aqueous samples from several points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles. The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples. The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system.

  9. Substance abuse and personality disorders in homeless drop-in center clients: symptom severity and psychotherapy retention in a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ball, Samuel A; Cobb-Richardson, Patricia; Connolly, Adrian J; Bujosa, Cesar T; O'neall, Thomas W

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychiatric symptoms, psychosocial problems, and treatment response of personality-disordered substance abusers receiving services within a homeless drop-in center. Fifty-two homeless clients were assessed after program admission and randomly assigned to receive either individual psychotherapy focused on personality disorder and substance abuse relapse prevention (dual-focus schema therapy [DFST]) or standard group substance abuse counseling (SAC). Client functioning was assessed using measures of personality disorder, psychiatric symptoms, early maladaptive schemas, interpersonal problems, and addiction-related psychosocial impairment. Therapy retention (total weeks in treatment) and utilization (number of weeks in which sessions were attended) were the primary outcomes. Although rates of cluster B personality disorders were comparable to other substance dependent samples, clusters A and C disorders were disproportionately more common. Clients reported significant psychiatric symptoms, criminality, and psychosocial impairment, yet made limited lifetime use of mental health services. Overall, there was greater utilization of individual DFST than group SAC. However, clients with more severe personality disorder symptoms demonstrated better utilization of SAC than DFST. PMID:16122538

  10. Substance abuse and personality disorders in homeless drop-in center clients: symptom severity and psychotherapy retention in a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ball, Samuel A; Cobb-Richardson, Patricia; Connolly, Adrian J; Bujosa, Cesar T; O'neall, Thomas W

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychiatric symptoms, psychosocial problems, and treatment response of personality-disordered substance abusers receiving services within a homeless drop-in center. Fifty-two homeless clients were assessed after program admission and randomly assigned to receive either individual psychotherapy focused on personality disorder and substance abuse relapse prevention (dual-focus schema therapy [DFST]) or standard group substance abuse counseling (SAC). Client functioning was assessed using measures of personality disorder, psychiatric symptoms, early maladaptive schemas, interpersonal problems, and addiction-related psychosocial impairment. Therapy retention (total weeks in treatment) and utilization (number of weeks in which sessions were attended) were the primary outcomes. Although rates of cluster B personality disorders were comparable to other substance dependent samples, clusters A and C disorders were disproportionately more common. Clients reported significant psychiatric symptoms, criminality, and psychosocial impairment, yet made limited lifetime use of mental health services. Overall, there was greater utilization of individual DFST than group SAC. However, clients with more severe personality disorder symptoms demonstrated better utilization of SAC than DFST.

  11. Comparison of Gingival Crevicular Fluid Sampling Methods in Patients with Severe Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Guentsch, Arndt; Kramesberger, Martin; Sroka, Aneta; Pfister, Wolfgang; Potempa, Jan; Eick, Sigrun

    2011-01-01

    Background Analysis of samplings from periodontal pockets is important in diagnosis and therapy control of periodontitis. In this study, three different sampling techniques were compared to determine if one method can yield samples suitable for reproducible and simultaneous determination of bacterial load, cytokines, neutrophil elastase, and Arg-specific gingipains. R-gingipains are an important virulence factor of Porphyromonas gingivalis, the exact concentration of which in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) has not yet been quantified. Methods GCF was sampled from four sites per patient (each two sites one method) in 36 chronic periodontitis patients. One week later, the procedure was repeated with alternative methods. The variables that had been determined were: loads of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, activity of neutrophil elastase and level of R-gingipains. Results The detected cytokine levels were higher using paper strips compared to paper points. Bacteria were found in similar loads from the paper strips and paper points. R-gingipains were detectable in high quantities only by washing of the periodontal pocket. The level of R-gingipains correlated with the load of P. gingivalis. Conclusion The use of paper strips is suitable for simultaneous determination of microbial and immunological parameters. Obtaining GCF by washing can be useful for special purposes. Gingipain concentration in periodontal pockets was directly determined to be up to 1.5 μM. This value indicates that most of so far identified substrates of these proteases by in vitro assays can be easily degraded in P. gingivalis infected sites. PMID:21235330

  12. LDH Concentration in Nasal-Wash Fluid as a Biochemical Predictor of Bronchiolitis Severity

    PubMed Central

    Laham, Federico R.; Trott, Amanda A.; Bennett, Berkeley L.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Jewell, Alan M.; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Piedra, Pedro A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Because the decision to hospitalize an infant with bronchiolitis is often supported by subjective criteria and objective indicators of bronchiolitis severity are lacking, we tested the hypothesis that lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is released from injured cells, is a useful biochemical indicator of bronchiolitis severity. Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed a study of children <24 months old presenting to the emergency department with bronchiolitis. Demographic, clinical information, nasal-wash (NW) and serum specimens were obtained. NW samples were analyzed for respiratory viruses, caspase 3/7 activity and a panel of cytokines and chemokines. Total LDH activity was tested in NW samples and sera. Results Of 101 enrolled children (median age, 5.6 months), 98 had NW specimens available. A viral etiology was found in 82 patients (83.6%), with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (66%) and rhinovirus (19%) being the most common viruses detected. Concentrations of LDH in NW specimens were independent from those in sera, and were higher in children with RSV infection or with dual infection. Significant correlations were found between NW LDH and NW cytokines/chemokines. Similarly, NW LDH correlated with NW-caspase 3/7 activity (r=0.75; P<.001). In a multivariate analysis, NW LDH concentration in the upper quartile was significantly associated with a reduced risk of hospitalization (odds ratio: 0.19; 95% confidence interval: 0.05–0.68; P=0.011). Conclusions NW LDH levels in young children with bronchiolitis varied according to viral etiology and disease severity. Values in the upper quartile were associated with ~80% risk reduction in hospitalization, likely reflecting a robust antiviral response. NW LDH may be a useful biomarker to assist the clinician in the decision to hospitalize a child with bronchiolitis. PMID:20100751

  13. The Principles of Effective Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinto, Vincent

    An overview is provided of the problem of student attrition and the essential components of effective retention programs. Following introductory arguments that the secret of retention is in the development of communities committed to education rather than retention, the paper discusses several major causes of student attrition, including academic…

  14. Correlation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Levels in Serum and Synovial Fluid with Disease Severity of Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Hou, Ruizhi; Yin, Ruofeng; Yin, Weitian

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) levels in serum and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to exam its correlation with radiographic and symptomatic severity of the disease. Material/Methods A total of 37 knee OA patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Knee OA radiographic grading was performed according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system by evaluating X-ray changes observed in anteroposterior knee radiography. Symptomatic severity of the disease was evaluated according to the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores. BMP-2 levels in serum and SF were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Serum BMP-2 level in patients with knee OA was higher than that in healthy controls. Knee OA patients with KL grade 4 showed significantly elevated BMP-2 levels in the serum and SF compared with those with KL grade 2 and 3. Knee OA patients with KL grade 3 had significant higher SF levels of BMP-2 than those with KL grade 2. BMP-2 levels in the serum and SF of knee OA patients were both positively correlated with KL grades and WOMAC scores. Conclusions BMP2 levels in serum and SF were closely related to the radiographic and symptomatic severity of knee OA and may serve as an alternative biochemical parameter to determine disease severity of primary knee OA. PMID:25644704

  15. Risk Factors for Postoperative Retention After Hemorrhoidectomy: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Qi-Ming, Xue; Jue-Ying, Xiang; Ben-Hui, Chen; Jing, Wu; Ning, Li

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for urinary retention after hemorrhoidectomy. With the approval of West China Hospital of Sichuan University Ethics Board, data were abstracted from 961 charts of patients who underwent hemorrhoidectomy from January 1, 2009, to June 30, 2011. The outcome was urinary retention in the first 24 hours after surgery. Risk factors were identified using multivariable logistic regression, and they were expressed as odds ratios or 95% confidence intervals. The overall urinary retention rate was 14.8% (n = 142). Significant risk factors associated with postoperative urinary retention included female gender, anesthesia methods, severity of hemorrhoid, a large amount of intravenous fluid administered perioperatively, and length of hospital stay. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender (odds ratio, 2.607; p < .01), sacral anesthesia (odds ratio, 2.481; p = .02), more than 3 hemorrhoids resected (odds ratio, 2.658; p < .01), hemorrhoids having 4 degrees of severity (odds ratio, 3.101; p < .01), intravenous fluids > 700 ml (odds ratio, 1.597; p = .02), and length of stay more than 7 days (odds ratio, 1.852; p < .01) were significant predictors of urinary retention post-hemorrhoidectomy.

  16. Endothelin-1 Is Increased in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Associated with Unfavorable Outcomes in Children after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Empey, Philip E.; Poloyac, Samuel M.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Klamerus, Megan; Ozawa, Haishin; Wagner, Amy K.; Ruppel, Randall; Bell, Michael J.; Feldman, Keri; Adelson, P. David; Clark, Robert S.B.; Kochanek, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with unfavorable outcomes secondary to injury from activation of the inflammatory cascade, the release of excitotoxic neurotransmitters, and changes in the reactivity of cerebral vessels, causing ischemia. Hypoperfusion of injured brain tissues after TBI is also associated with unfavorable outcomes. Therapeutic hypothermia is an investigational treatment strategy for use in patients with severe TBI that has shown differential effects on various cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) mediators in pediatric patients. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a powerful vasoconstrictor that exerts its effects on the cerebrovascular endothelium for sustained periods after TBI. The purpose of this study was to determine if CSF concentrations of ET-1 are increased after severe TBI in children, and if they are associated with demographics and outcomes that are affected by therapeutic hypothermia. This was an ancillary study to a prospective, randomized-controlled trial of early hypothermia in a tertiary care pediatric intensive care unit. Children (n = 34, age 3 months–15 years) suffering from severe TBI were randomized to hypothermia (n = 19) and normothermia (n = 15) as part of the efficacy study. Children undergoing diagnostic lumbar puncture (n = 11) to rule out infection were used as controls. Patients received either mild to moderate hypothermia (32–33°C) or normothermia as part of their treatment protocol. CSF was serially collected during the first 5 days after TBI. ET-1 concentrations were quantitated in patient and control CSF samples by a validated ELISA in duplicate with a limit of quantification of 0.195 pg/mL. CSF ET-1 concentrations were increased by two- to threefold in children after TBI compared to controls, and the increase was sustained for up to 5 days post-TBI. This relationship was not affected by hypothermia, and there were no differences in ET-1 response between children with inflicted

  17. Plasma and Synovial Fluid TrxR Levels are Correlated With Disease Risk and Severity in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhijun; Sun, Jing; Li, Haichang; Shao, Tiejuan; Wang, Dawei; Zheng, Qi; Wen, Chengping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed and performed to establish the relationship between plasma and synovial fluid (SF) levels of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and disease activity in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study consisted of a total of 224 patients diagnosed with RA, 224 age and sex-matched healthy controls, and 156 patient controls. The disease activity of RA patients was calculated as diseases activity score that include 28-joint counts (DAS 28), which was divided into low-diseases activity (LDA) and high-diseases activity (HDA) groups. Increased plasma TrxR was detected in patients with RA than healthy controls (P < 0.0001). With an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.874, plasma TrxR showed a evidently greater discriminatory ability than C-reactive protein (CRP; AUC, 0.815), antistreptolysin-O (ASO; AUC, 0.631), rheumatoid factor (RF, AUC, 0.793), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, AUC, 0.789) in diagnosing RA. RA patients with HDA had significantly elevated TrxR levels in plasma and SF than did those with LDA (P < 0.0001). With an AUC of 0.874, plasma TrxR levels as an indicator for screening of HDA showed a significantly greater discriminatory ability than CRP (AUC, 0.690), ASO (AUC, 0.597), RF (AUC, 0.657), and ESR (AUC, 0.603). Similarly, SF TrxR levels as an indicator for screening of HDA also showed a significantly greater discriminatory ability as compared with above biomarkers. TrxR levels in plasma and SF were positively correlated with the severity of RA. TrxR levels may therefore serve as a new biomarker in addition of the traditional biomarkers for assessing the risk and severity of RA. Further analysis of TrxR release machinery may give us a new understanding of pathogenesis of RA. PMID:26871773

  18. Severe postoperative dyspnea caused by neglected massive intraperitoneal fluid collection during laser enucleation and morcellation of the prostate: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Son, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Jae-Won; Kong, Yu-Gyeong; Hwang, Jai-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Laser enucleation and morcellation of the prostate is an increasingly used surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, it can cause several complications including capsular perforation, ureteral orifice injury, and bladder mucosal morcellation injury. Herein, we report a case of severe postoperative dyspnea caused by neglected massive intraperitoneal fluid collection during laser surgery of the prostate. The patient experienced massive abdominal distension and severe respiratory difficulty after the procedure. Although immediate postoperative cystogram showed no leakage of contrast dye, the computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed massive fluid collection in the abdominal pelvic cavity suggesting bladder wall injury. After percutaneous drainage of intraperitoneal fluid, abdominal distention and dyspnea were relieved. PMID:27066210

  19. Cerebrospinal Fluid Matrix Metalloproteinases Are Elevated in Cerebral Adrenoleukodystrophy and Correlate with MRI Severity and Neurologic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Thibert, Kathryn A.; Raymond, Gerald V.; Nascene, David R.; Miller, Weston P.; Tolar, Jakub; Orchard, Paul J.; Lund, Troy C.

    2012-01-01

    Background X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy results from mutations in the ABCD1 gene disrupting the metabolism of very-long-chain fatty acids. The most serious form of ALD, cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD), causes neuroinflammation and demyelination. Neuroimaging in cALD shows inflammatory changes and indicates blood-brain-barrier (BBB) disruption. We hypothesize that disruption may occur through the degradation of the extracellular matrix defining the BBB by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs have not been evaluated in the setting of cALD. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a multiplex assay to correlate the concentration of MMPs in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma to the severity of brain inflammation as determined by the ALD MRI (Loes) score and the neurologic function score. There were significant elevations of MMP2, MMP9, MMP10, TIMP1, and total protein in the CSF of boys with cALD compared to controls. Levels of MMP10, TIMP1, and total protein in CSF showed significant correlation [p<0.05 for each with pre-transplant MRI Loes Loes scores (R2 = 0.34, 0.20, 0.55 respectively). Levels of TIMP1 and total protein in CSF significantly correlated with pre-transplant neurologic functional scores (R2 = 0.22 and 0.48 respectively), and levels of MMP10 and total protein in CSF significantly correlated with one-year post-transplant functional scores (R2 = 0.38 and 0.69). There was a significant elevation of MMP9 levels in plasma compared to control, but did not correlate with the MRI or neurologic function scores. Conclusions/Significance MMPs were found to be elevated in the CSF of boys with cALD and may mechanistically contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier. MMP concentrations directly correlate to radiographic and clinical neurologic severity. Interestingly, increased total protein levels showed superior correlation to MRI score and neurologic function score before and at one year after transplant. PMID:23185624

  20. Terlipressin Induced Severe Hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Šíma, Martin; Pokorný, Miroslav; Paďour, František; Slanař, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Terlipressin is a vasopressin analogue used for its vasoconstrictor effect in the treatment of variceal bleeding. Despite its good safety profile compared to vasopressin, some adverse reactions may occur during its use - e.g. hyponatremia. We describe a case of a cirrhotic patient with active variceal bleeding treated during two separate hospitalizations with terlipressin. In both drug treatment periods, severe laboratory hyponatremia developed. After terlipressin discontinuation, mineral disbalance corrected rapidly. Positive dechallenge and rechallenge corresponding to the drug administration schedule confirms the causality between terlipressin administration and hyponatremia. Hyponatremia was preceded with substantial fluid retention in both episodes. In this case report we want to highlight the need for fluid balance monitoring immediately after first terlipressin dose, which may individually predict the patient risk for the development of hyponatremia as other risk factors have rather limited predictive value in real clinical settings. PMID:26995205

  1. Successful induction of severe destructive arthritis by the transfer of in vitro-activated synovial fluid T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice.

    PubMed

    Sakata, A; Sakata, K; Ping, H; Ohmura, T; Tsukano, M; Kakimoto, K

    1996-05-01

    In order to investigate the role of pathogenic T cells in RA, the establishment of an RA model using patients' T cells is thought to be essential. In this study, multiple and severe destructive arthritis was established by transferring in vitro-stimulated synovial fluid T (SFT) cells from patients with RA through simultaneous injection into knee joint and peritoneal cavity of SCID mice without causing xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Neither the transfer of unstimulated SFT cells nor sole i.p. injection was sufficient to induce severe arthritis. Interestingly, in contrast with SFT cells, in vitro-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from RA patients failed to trigger such arthritis, suggesting that pathogenic T cells might be concentrated in synovial fluid of RA patients. This, the first severe arthritis model mimicking RA induced by RA patients' T cells, is expected to provide important information about RA pathogenesis and a possible therapeutic approach.

  2. Resistant starch content among several sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes and the effect of heat treatment on resistant starch retention in two genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Natália de Carvalho; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Rocha, Maria Clara; Amorim, Aline Cristina Pinheiro; Soares, Thayana Oliveira; Monteiro, Marlene Azevedo Magalhães; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Garcia, Maria Aparecida Vieira Teixeira; Junqueira, Roberto Gonçalves

    2016-04-15

    The resistant starch (RS) contents in 49 sorghum genotypes and the effects of heat treatment using dry and wet heat on the grain and flour from two sorghum genotypes were investigated. The results showed a wide variation in the RS contents of the genotypes analyzed. The RS mean values were grouped into six distinct groups and ranged from 0.31±0.33 g/100 g to 65.66±5.46 g/100 g sorghum flour on dry basis. Dry heat causes minor losses in the RS content with retentions of up to 97.19±1.92% of this compound, whereas wet heat retained at most 6.98±0.43% of the RS. The SC 59 and (SSN76)FC6608 RED KAFIR BAZINE (ASA N23) cultivars, which have an average RS content of 65.51 g/100 g, were appropriate for human consumption, and the use of dry heat is presented as a better alternative for the preservation of RS in heat-treated grains.

  3. Lactate dehydrogenase concentration in nasal wash fluid indicates severity of rhinovirus-induced wheezy bronchitis in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Cangiano, Giulia; Proietti, Elena; Kronig, Marie Noelle; Kieninger, Elisabeth; Sadeghi, Christine D; Gorgievski, Meri; Barbani, Maria Teresa; Midulla, Fabio; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent; Alves, Marco P; Regamey, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    The clinical course of rhinovirus (RV)-associated wheezing illnesses is difficult to predict. We measured lactate dehydrogenase concentrations, RV load, antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines in nasal washes obtained from 126 preschool children with RV wheezy bronchitis. lactate dehydrogenase values were inversely associated with subsequent need for oxygen therapy. lactate dehydrogenase may be a useful biomarker predicting disease severity in RV wheezy bronchitis.

  4. Managing retention.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2007-01-01

    To build this process it is necessary to consult customers for preferences, build familiarity and knowledge to build a relationship and conduct business in a customized fashion. The process takes every opportunity to build customer satisfaction with each customer contact. It is an important process to have, since customers today are more demanding, sophisticated, educated and comfortable speaking to the company as an equal (Belk, 2003). Customers have more customized expectations so they want to be reached as individuals (Raymond and Tanner, 1994). Also, a disproportionate search for new business is costly. The cost to cultivate new customers is more than maintaining existing customers (Cathcart, 1990). Other reasons that customer retention is necessary is because many unhappy customers will never buy again from a company that dissatisfied them and they will communicate their displeasure to other people. These dissatisfied customers may not even convey their displeasure but without saying anything just stop doing business with that company, which may keep them unaware for some time that there is any problem (Cathcart, 1990). PMID:18453139

  5. β-Liddle mutation of the epithelial sodium channel increases alveolar fluid clearance and reduces the severity of hydrostatic pulmonary oedema in mice

    PubMed Central

    Randrianarison, Nadia; Escoubet, Brigitte; Ferreira, Chrystophe; Fontayne, Alexandre; Fowler-Jaeger, Nicole; Clerici, Christine; Hummler, Edith; Rossier, Bernard C; Planès, Carole

    2007-01-01

    Transepithelial sodium transport via alveolar epithelial Na+ channels and Na+,K+-ATPase constitutes the driving force for removal of alveolar oedema fluid. Decreased activity of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) in the apical membrane of alveolar epithelial cells impairs sodium-driven alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) and predisposes to pulmonary oedema. We hypothesized that hyperactivity of ENaC in the distal lung could improve AFC and facilitate the resolution of pulmonary oedema. AFC and lung fluid balance were studied at baseline and under conditions of hydrostatic pulmonary oedema in the β-Liddle (L) mouse strain harbouring a gain-of-function mutation (R566stop) within the Scnn1b gene. As compared with wild-type (+/+), baseline AFC was increased by 2- and 3-fold in heterozygous (+/L) and homozygous mutated (L/L) mice, respectively, mainly due to increased amiloride-sensitive AFC. The β2-agonist terbutaline stimulated AFC in +/+ and +/L mice, but not in L/L mice. Acute volume overload induced by saline infusion (40% of body weight over 2 h) significantly increased extravascular (i.e. interstitial and alveolar) lung water as assessed by the bloodless wet-to-dry lung weight ratio in +/+ and L/L mice, as compared with baseline. However, the increase was significantly larger in +/+ than in L/L groups (P= 0.01). Volume overload also increased the volume of the alveolar epithelial lining fluid in +/+ mice, indicating the presence of alveolar oedema, but not in L/L mice. Cardiac function as evaluated by echocardiography was comparable in both groups. These data show that constitutive ENaC activation improved sodium-driven AFC in the mouse lung, and attenuated the severity of hydrostatic pulmonary oedema. PMID:17430990

  6. The influence of artery wall curvature on the anatomical assessment of stenosis severity derived from fractional flow reserve: a computational fluid dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, Kalimuthu; Viswanathan, Girish N; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Salman Ahmed, N J; Al-Rashed, Abdullah A A A

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of artery wall curvature on the anatomical assessment of stenosis severity and to identify a region of misinterpretation in the assessment of per cent area stenosis (AS) for functionally significant stenosis using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as standard. Five artery models of different per cent AS severity (70, 75, 80, 85 and 90%) were considered. For each per cent AS severity, the angle of curvature of the arterial wall varied from straight to an increasingly curved model (0°, 30°, 60°, 90° and 120°). Computational fluid dynamics was performed under transient physiologic hyperemic flow conditions to investigate the influence of artery wall curvature on the pressure drop and the FFR. The findings in this study may be useful in in vitro anatomical assessment of functionally significant stenosis. The FFR decreased with increasing stenosis severity for a given curvature of the artery wall. Moreover, a significant decrease in FFR was found between straight and curved models discussed for a given severity condition. These findings indicate that the curvature effect was included in the FFR assessment in contrast to minimum lumen area (MLA) or per cent AS assessment. The MLA or per cent AS assessment may lead to underestimation of stenosis severity. From this numerical study, an uncertainty region could be evaluated using the clinical FFR cutoff value of 0.8. This value was observed at 81.98 and 79.10% AS for arteries with curvature angles of 0° and 120° respectively. In conclusion, the curvature of the artery should not be neglected in in vitro anatomical assessment.

  7. Blood oxygenation during hyperpressure intraperitoneal fluid administration in a rabbit model of severe liver injury: Evaluation of a novel concept for control of pre-hospital liver bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Noorbakhsh, Siavash; Azizi, Saeed; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Maham, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen is an essential part of the most important metabolic pathways in aerobic organisms. Oxygen delivery is merely dependent on blood, rendering blood loss a devastating event. Traumatic pre-hospital liver bleeding is a major cause of early trauma deaths in human and animals, with no established therapeutic method yet. Increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) has been shown to reduce liver bleeding by half. Although reduction of blood loss could be in favor of blood oxygen delivery, however, the complex interaction between increased IAP and respiratory mechanics during severe hemorrhagic shock remained unclear. We used a novel model of liver trauma in 16 rabbits and randomly assigned them to either normotensive abdomen group or increased IAP by fluid infusion (HA) groups (n=8 each). Liver size and the amount of liver injury were evaluated. Various blood oxygenation parameters were recorded. Both groups were identical in terms of the liver size and injury. The HA group had significantly lower shock index. Arterial oxygen capacity and oxygen content were higher in the HA group. No significant statistical difference was seen between groups in terms of abdominal perfusion pressure; alveolar pressure of oxygen; dissolved oxygen in blood plasma; alveolar to arterial oxygen tension gradient; arterial to alveolar oxygen pressure ratio; the ratio between partial pressure of arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen; and respiratory index. In conclusion, the novel therapeutic method of increasing IAP by fluid infusion in a rabbit model of liver hemorrhage preserved blood oxygenation better than the classic therapeutic method. PMID:25653758

  8. Retention-Oriented Curricular Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanovic, Ivana; Eppes, Tom A.; Girouard, Janice; Townsend, Lee

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a retention-oriented approach to the educational value stream within the STEM undergraduate area. Faced with several strategic challenges and opportunities, a Flex Advantage Plan was developed to enhance the undergraduate engineering technology programs and better utilize the curricular flexibilities inherent in the current…

  9. Use of fluid-ventilated, gas-permeable scleral lens for management of severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca secondary to chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Takahide, Kikuchi; Parker, Pablo M; Wu, Michael; Hwang, William Y K; Carpenter, Paul A; Moravec, Carina; Stehr, Barbara; Martin, Paul J; Rosenthal, Perry; Forman, Stephen J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2007-09-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) occurs in 40%-60% of patients with chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Although immunosuppressive therapy is the primary treatment of chronic GVHD, ocular symptoms require measures to improve ocular lubrication, decrease inflammation, and maintain mucosal integrity. The liquid corneal bandage provided by a fluid-ventilated, gas-permeable scleral lens (SL) has been effective in mitigating symptoms and resurfacing corneal erosions in patients with KCS related to causes other than cGVHD. We report outcomes in 9 consecutive patients referred for SL fitting for cGVHD-related severe KCS that was refractory to standard treatments. All patients reported improvement of ocular symptoms and reduced the use of topical lubricants after SL fitting resulting from decreased evaporation. No serious adverse events or infections attributable to the SL occurred. The median Ocular Surface Disease Index improved from 81 (75-100) to 21 (6-52) within 2 weeks after SL fitting, and was 12 (2-53) at the time of last contact, 1-23 months (median, 8.0) after SL fitting. Disability related to KCS resolved in 7 patients after SL fitting. The use of SL appears to be safe and effective in patients with severe cGVHD-related KCS refractory to conventional therapies.

  10. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in severe head injury: relationship to tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Is, Merih; Coskun, Abdurrahman; Sanus, Galip Zihni; Tanriverdi, Taner; Kafadar, Ali Metin; Hanimoglu, Hakan; Tanriover, Necmettin; Gezen, Ferruh; Uzan, Mustafa

    2007-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in inflammatory diseases; however, it is unclear whether this molecule has a role after severe head injury (SHI). Our aim was to evaluate the levels of hsCRP in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from patients after SHI. The study focused on 11 patients with SHI, and evaluated CSF and serum levels of hsCRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a 10-day period following the head trauma. The values were compared with those from nine control patients, who had normal pressure hydrocephalus. In the CSF and serum of the patients after SHI, HsCRP was found to be significantly higher, at all times, than in the controls; TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels were also higher in these patients. However, hsCRP levels did not correlate with either TNF-alpha or IL-6. TNF-alpha and IL-6 increased during the period immediately following the SHI, and intrathecal levels were always higher than those of the serum. This study demonstrates for the first time that hsCRP reaches high levels in both CSF and serum in patients with SHI, and it may therefore be used as an inflammatory index. This finding suggests a need for further studies in this area, which are larger in scope than the present study.

  11. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining in fish cell lines and primary cultures from several tissues and species, including rainbow trout coelomic fluid and milt.

    PubMed

    Vo, Nguyen T K; Mikhaeil, Michael S; Lee, Lucy E J; Pham, Phuc H; Bols, Niels C

    2015-04-01

    Cell lines and primary cultures from several teleost tissues and species were stained for senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-Gal), revealing four general outcomes. (1) For long-standing fish cell lines that can be considered immortal, little or no SA β-Gal staining was observed, regardless of the culture conditions. (2) For a new walleye cell line from the bulbus arteriosus (WEBA), most cells stained for SA β-Gal even after 40 passages. This suggested that high SA β-Gal activity was a unique property of WEBA, perhaps reflecting their endothelial character, rather than cellular senescence. (3) For cell lines developed from the walleye caudal fin and from somatic cells in rainbow trout coelomic fluid, no SA β-Gal staining was observed in the earliest cultures to over 70 passages later. This suggested that cells from these anatomical sites do not undergo senescence in vitro. (4) By contrast, for cell lines developed from the walleye brain and from somatic cells in rainbow trout milt, most cells in the early-stage cultures stained for SA β-Gal, but as these were developed into cell lines, SA β-Gal-negative cells became dominant. This suggested that if cellular senescence occurred in vitro, this happened early in these cultures and subsequently a few SA β-Gal-negative cells went onto to form the cell line. Overall, the presence of SA β-Gal-positive cells in cultures could be interpreted in several ways, whereas their absence predicted that in these cultures, cells would proliferate indefinitely.

  12. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluid imbalance; Hypernatremia - fluid imbalance; Hypokalemia - fluid imbalance; Hyperkalemia - fluid imbalance ... of sodium or potassium is present as well. Medicines can also affect fluid balance. The most common ...

  13. Measuring Graduate Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual and technical problems that need to be considered when studying graduate student retention and degree progress are examined, and practical suggestions for the institutional researcher are offered. Terms are defined, retention measures are explained, and different types of analysis are outlined. Ideas are given for database…

  14. Predictors of First-Year Retention in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertes, Scott J.; Hoover, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Retention is a complex issue of great importance to community colleges. Several retention models have been developed to help explain this phenomenon. However, these models typically have used four-year college and university environments to build their foundations. Several researchers have attempted to identify predictor variables using…

  15. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Doyle, B.L.

    1997-11-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  16. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Doyle, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  17. Spinal morphine anesthesia and urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Mahan, K T; Wang, J

    1993-11-01

    Spinal anesthetic is a common form of surgical anesthetic used in foot and ankle surgery. Spinal morphine anesthetic is less common, but has the advantage of providing postoperative analgesia for 12 to 24 hr. A number of complications can occur with spinal anesthesia, including urinary retention that may be a source of severe and often prolonged discomfort and pain for the patient. Management of this problem may require repeated bladder catheterization, which may lead to urinary tract infections or impairment of urethrovesicular function. This study reviews the incidence of urinary retention in 80 patients (40 after general anesthesia and 40 after spinal anesthesia) who underwent foot and ankle surgery at Saint Joseph's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Twenty-five percent of the patients who had spinal anesthesia experienced urinary retention, while only 7 1/2% of the group who had general anesthesia had this complication. Predisposing factors, treatment regimen, and recommendations for the prevention and management of urinary retention are presented.

  18. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  19. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  20. Retention in Tough Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Beverly; Jordan-Evans, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 25 global talent leaders discuss keeping good people and the challenges and emerging practices for retaining employees. Sidebars discuss retention tips and what keeps people on the job. (JOW)

  1. Fuel retention in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loarer, T.

    2009-06-01

    Tritium retention constitutes an outstanding problem for ITER operation and future fusion reactors, particularly for the choice of the first wall materials. In present day tokamaks, fuel retention is evaluated by two complementary methods. The in situ gas balance allows evaluation of how much fuel is retained during a discharge and, typically, up to one day of experiments. Post-mortem analysis is used to determine where the fuel is retained, integrated over an experimental campaign. In all the carbon clad devices, using the two methods, the retention is demonstrated to be very closely related to the carbon net erosion. This results from plasma-wall interaction with ion and charge-exchange fluxes, ELMs and is proportional to the pulse duration. The fuel retention by implantation saturates at high wall temperatures and limits the D/C ratio in the deposited layers but, as far as a carbon source exists, the dominant retention process remains the co-deposition of carbon with deuterium. In full metallic device, in the absence of wall conditioning with boron, co-deposition is strongly reduced and fuel retention below 1% can be achieved. Extrapolation to ITER shows that removing the carbon from the plasma-facing components would increase the number of discharges to 2500 before reaching the maximum tritium limit of 700 g.

  2. Intake, ingesta retention, particle size distribution and digestibility in the hippopotamidae.

    PubMed

    Clauss, M; Schwarm, A; Ortmann, S; Alber, D; Flach, E J; Kühne, R; Hummel, J; Streich, W J; Hofer, H

    2004-12-01

    Although several aspects of the digestive physiology of the hippopotamidae-non-ruminating foregut fermenters-have been described, ingesta kinetics and passage characteristics of these species are not well understood. The most outstanding feature of the hippo digestive physiology reported so far is the very long mean ingesta retention times (MRTs) measured by Foose [Foose, T., 1982. Trophic strategies of ruminant versus nonruminant ungulates. PhD dissertation, University of Chicago, Chicago.]. Since those data had been investigated with animals without water access, we intended to measure MRT in hippos which were allowed to enter water pools during the night. MRT parameters as well as dry matter (DM) digestibility were determined in four common (Hippopotamus amphibius) and four pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) on two different diets each using cobalt ethylendiamintetraacetate (Co-EDTA) as a fluid, chromium (Cr)-mordanted fibre (<2 mm) as a particle and acid detergent lignin (ADL) as an internal digestibility marker. Four of the animals additionally received cerium (Ce)-mordanted fibres (2-10 mm) as particle markers. Total MRTs for fluids and particles ranged between 20-35 and 48-106 h in the common and between 13-39 and 32-107 h in the pygmy hippos. The difference between fluid and particle retention was greater than usually reported in ruminants. Excretion patterns of the markers differed from those usually observed in ruminants but resembled those reported for macropods (kangaroos), indicating a plug-flow reactor-like physiology in the hippo forestomach (FRST). This finding complements other described similarities between the macropod and the hippo forestomach. The measurements of larger particle retention profiles suggest that in the hippo, larger particles might be excreted either faster or at the same rate as smaller particles, indicating a general difference between ruminants and hippos with respect to differential particle retention. The digestive

  3. Safeguards Workforce Repatriation, Retention and Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gallucci, Nicholas; Poe, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked by NA-241 to assess the transition of former IAEA employees back to the United States, investigating the rate of retention and overall smoothness of the repatriation process among returning safeguards professionals. Upon conducting several phone interviews, study authors found that the repatriation process went smoothly for the vast majority and that workforce retention was high. However, several respondents expressed irritation over the minimal extent to which their safeguards expertise had been leveraged in their current positions. This sentiment was pervasive enough to prompt a follow-on study focusing on questions relating to the utilization rather than the retention of safeguards professionals. A second, web-based survey was conducted, soliciting responses from a larger sample pool. Results suggest that the safeguards workforce may be oversaturated, and that young professionals returning to the United States from Agency positions may soon encounter difficulties finding jobs in the field.

  4. Implications for Uranus and Neptune of Electrical Conductivities of Fluid Hydrogen, Water, and Synthetic Uranus Measured Under Dynamic Quasi-Isentropic Compression up to 180 GPa and Several 1000 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellis, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    Electrical conductivities of metallic fluid H and ionic fluids H2O and Synthetic Uranus (SU) have been measured experimentally under dynamic quasi-isentropic compression up to 180 GPa and several 1000 K. SU is a mixture of H2O, NH3 and C3H8O with composition representative of "Ice". Pressures P and temperatures T of the conductivity experiments were similar to P and T in interiors of Uranus and Neptune (U/N). Fluid H semiconducts at ~90 GPa and becomes a degenerate fluid metal with conductivity 2000/(ohm-cm) at 140 GPa, 0.64 g/cm3 and T/TF~0.01, where TF is Fermi temperature, conditions near the envelope/core boundaries of U/N. Metallization density is within a few% of the insulator-metal transition predicted by Wigner and Huntington in 1935. SU and water have conductivities of ~100/(ohm-cm) at 150 GPa. Podolak et al have shown a mixture of 75% Rock-25% Gas (by mass) behaves similarly to "pure" Ice in region that encompasses most mass of Uranus. The bandgap of water is predicted to close at 300 GPa and ~7000 K by Cavazonni et al. Models of pressure, temperature and density in U/N based on Voyager II gravity data have been developed by Helled et al. Stanley and Bloxham (SB) have developed MHD models that calculate non-dipolar and non-axisymmetric magnetic fields similar to those of U/N. The MHD models of SB assume that materials at planetary radii below the thin-shell dynamos that make the magnetic fields are stably stratified. The purpose of this paper is to develop a common picture for the deep interiors of U/N based on Voyager II gravity and magnetic data, measured electrical conductivities of planetary fluids, theoretical computations of interior conditions and the likely source of unusual magnetic fields, and extrapolation of existing experimental data for materials at 180 GPa to greater planetary depths. Main conclusions are the magnetic fields of U/N are probably made primarily by fluid metallic H at radii out to ~0.8 or more of U/N outer radii. Most of the

  5. Principals Retention. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Many districts are struggling with the problem of administrator retention. Hoffman (2004) identifies some of the reasons for this: (1) Increased accountability expectations; (2) Diminished or static levels of resources to support reform efforts; (3) Greater administrator vulnerability to sanctions; (4) The complex demands of government and the…

  6. Improving College Freshman Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Winnie Y.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, access to higher education was greatly improved through public funding. This improvement is not matched by a similar increase in graduation rate. The purpose of this study is to examine what postsecondary institutions can do to improve college freshman retention. The conceptual framework was based on research on college student…

  7. Data Show Retention Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee J.; Robelen, Erik W.; Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    New nationwide data collected by the U.S. Department of Education's civil rights office reveal stark racial and ethnic disparities in student retentions, with black and Hispanic students far more likely than white students to repeat a grade, especially in elementary and middle school. The contrast is especially strong for African-Americans. In the…

  8. Methodological inaccuracies in clinical aortic valve severity assessment: insights from computational fluid dynamic modeling of CT-derived aortic valve anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traeger, Brad; Srivatsa, Sanjay S.; Beussman, Kevin M.; Wang, Yechun; Suzen, Yildirim B.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Mazur, Wojciech; Miszalski-Jamka, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease. Assessing the contribution of the valve as a portion to total ventricular load is essential for the aging population. A CT scan for one patient was used to create one in vivo tricuspid aortic valve geometry and assessed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD simulated the pressure, velocity, and flow rate, which were used to assess the Gorlin formula and continuity equation, current clinical diagnostic standards. The results demonstrate an underestimation of the anatomic orifice area (AOA) by Gorlin formula and overestimation of AOA by the continuity equation, using peak velocities, as would be measured clinically by Doppler echocardiography. As a result, we suggest that the Gorlin formula is unable to achieve the intended estimation of AOA and largely underestimates AOA at the critical low-flow states present in heart failure. The disparity in the use of echocardiography with the continuity equation is due to the variation in velocity profile between the outflow tract and the valve orifice. Comparison of time-averaged orifice areas by Gorlin and continuity with instantaneous orifice areas by planimetry can mask the errors of these methods, which is a result of the assumption that the blood flow is inviscid.

  9. Mobile Learning and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozdar, Bharat Inder; Kumar, Lalita S.

    2007-01-01

    Student retention in open and distance learning (ODL) is comparatively poor to traditional education and, in some contexts, embarrassingly low. Literature on the subject of student retention in ODL indicates that even when interventions are designed and undertaken to improve student retention, they tend to fall short. Moreover, this area has not…

  10. Thiel embalming fluid--a new way to revive formalin-fixed cadaveric specimens.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Amanda; Eisma, Roos; Lamb, Clare

    2014-09-01

    By soft fixing cadavers using the Thiel embalming method, our cadavers now exhibit a greater degree of flexibility and color retention compared to that of traditional formalin-fixed cadavers. The aim of this experiment was to discover whether Thiel embalming fluid could be used to revive and soften the muscles of formalin-fixed prosected specimens. Earlier this year, two severely dehydrated formalin-fixed forearm and hand specimens were fully submerged in a tank containing Thiel embalming fluid. After a period of six months the specimens were removed from the tank and noticeable changes were observed in flexibility, quality of the tissue, and color of the specimens.

  11. A Janus Mucoadhesive and Omniphobic Device for Gastrointestinal Retention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Ah Lucy; Zhang, Shiyi; Lin, Jiaqi; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    A novel Janus device with omniphobic and mucoadhesive sides that exhibit the unique capacity for antifouling and extended gastrointestinal retention is fabricated. This system enables repulsion of the food and fluid stream by the luminal-facing omniphobic side and allows attachment to the gastrointestinal mucosa by the mucoadhesive side.

  12. Fluid Creep and Over-resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Saffle, Jeffrey R

    2016-10-01

    Fluid creep is the term applied to a burn resuscitation, which requires more fluid than predicted by standard formulas. Fluid creep is common today and is linked to several serious edema-related complications. Increased fluid requirements may accompany the appropriate resuscitation of massive injuries but dangerous fluid creep is also caused by overly permissive fluid infusion and the lack of colloid supplementation. Several strategies for recognizing and treating fluid creep are presented. PMID:27600130

  13. Post-drilling changes in fluid discharge pattern, mineral deposition, and fluid chemistry in the Iheya North hydrothermal field, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Miyazaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Ryota; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Takaya, Yutaro; Kato, Yasuhiro; Shibuya, Takazo; Konno, Uta; Nakaguchi, Yuzuru; Hatada, Kenta; Hirayama, Hisako; Fujikura, Katsunori; Furushima, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Watsuji, Tomo-o.; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Takai, Ken

    2013-11-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 investigated the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Okinawa Trough. Several post-drilling underwater vehicle investigations were conducted over 2 years to identify post-drilling changes in fluid discharge pattern, mineral deposition, and fluid chemistry. Drilling-induced high-temperature hydrothermal fluid vents were identified at deep holes not only near the naturally occurring NBC hydrothermal fluid vent (Site C0016) but also at the seafloor ˜450 m distal to the NBC vent (Site C0014), where no hydrothermal fluid discharge was observed prior to drilling. A chimney structure at Hole C0016A grew rapidly at the NBC mound crest, where only small chimneys had been found before drilling. A drilling-induced diffuse hydrothermal flow region spread at Site C0014, and this area was newly colonized by the galatheid crab. From a fluid chemistry perspective, the post-drilling hydrothermal fluids were enriched in Cl relative to seawater, although this fluid chemistry was not observed during the 12 years prior to drilling. The Cl-enriched fluid reservoir underlying the subseafloor impermeable layers, observed by IODP Expedition 331, is likely source for the Cl-enriched fluids discharging from the post-drilling vents. The drilling-induced physical disturbance of subseafloor hydrogeological structures would release such fluids to the seafloor. In turn, the rapid chimney growth at the NBC mound crest may also be attributed to highly turbulent fluid flow with the enlarged artificial vent of Hole C0016A, which can contribute to the retention of the fluid-seawater mixture for a sufficiently long period to precipitate sulfide/sulfate minerals on the seafloor.

  14. How work environment impacts retention.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Work environment is a major aspect of the day-to-day grind that drives the retention (or turnover) of RNs. When opportunities abound, it is easy to jump ship, and when turnover begins, it is usually the best and brightest who are first to depart. Recent research reported a whopping 27.1% average voluntary turnover rate among new graduate nurses during their first year of employment. Aging of the nurse workforce may be the largest factor impacting health care work environments, as employers struggle to diminish the physical effect of lifting thousands of pounds and walking several miles during each shift. Every influence on the work environment (management, peer behavior, patient acuity, equipment availability, the physical plant) should be assessed for impact on the workforce. While we cannot hope to create paradise in each work setting, we can promote an environment that is healing both to patient and to caregiver. PMID:18979696

  15. How work environment impacts retention.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Work environment is a major aspect of the day-to-day grind that drives the retention (or turnover) of RNs. When opportunities abound, it is easy to jump ship, and when turnover begins, it is usually the best and brightest who are first to depart. Recent research reported a whopping 27.1% average voluntary turnover rate among new graduate nurses during their first year of employment. Aging of the nurse workforce may be the largest factor impacting health care work environments, as employers struggle to diminish the physical effect of lifting thousands of pounds and walking several miles during each shift. Every influence on the work environment (management, peer behavior, patient acuity, equipment availability, the physical plant) should be assessed for impact on the workforce. While we cannot hope to create paradise in each work setting, we can promote an environment that is healing both to patient and to caregiver.

  16. Fluid fertilizers. [Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    The use of fertilizer in the United States has increased spectacularly in the past 20 years. In 1981 plant nutrient use (N + P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ + K/sub 2/O) totaled 23.5 million short tons - compared with only 7.5 million tons in 1960 (table 2). Nutrient use doubled from 1960 to 1970 and tripled from 1960 to 1981. In 1981 fluid nutrient use (mixtures plus nitrogen solutions) totaled 4.1 million tons, more than doubling since 1970 and increasing from 6.3% to 17.5% of the total nutrient use since 1960. Fluid mixtures (NPK) use in 1981 totaled 1.8 million tons of nutrients - about 17% of total mixed fertilizers or 7.5% of total nutrients used. The proportion of total fertilizer nutrients applied in fluid from increases greatly if anhydrous ammonia is included. The 4.6 million tons of nitrogen applied as anhydrous ammonia in 1981 increases total fluid nutrients to 8.1 million tons - 34.5% of the total nutrients applied in the United States. Fluid fertilizer use has grown nearly twice as fast as total fertilizer use, averaging more than 15% per year increase between 1960 and 1970, and an 11% increase between 1960 and 1980. A large part of this increase occurred during the introductory stages of the new product form and was aided by rapid advances in technology.

  17. The Role of Student Characteristics in Predicting Retention in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin D.; Campbell, Stacy M.; Baker, Hope M.; Leeds, Elke M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the continued issue of student retention for online classes, past research has suggested several "retention strategies" focused on engaging students as a way to reduce their withdrawal rate from these classes. However, a recent study testing the effects of these strategies on retention in online undergraduate business courses…

  18. ORTHODONTIC RETENTION. Studies of retention capacity, cost-effectiveness and long-term stability.

    PubMed

    Tynelius, Gudrun Edman

    2014-01-01

    gender had no significant influence on mandibular LII (Paper II, Figure 4 and Table 4). Paper III. The cost minimization analysis disclosed that although the three retention methods achieved clinically similar results, the associated societal costs differed. After two years of retention, the vacuum-formed retainer (VFR) in combination with a canine-to-canine retainer (CTC) was the least cost-effective retention appliance. Paper IV. After five years or more out of retention, the three retention methods had achieved equally favourable clinical results. Key conclusion and clinical implications. This study compared the short- and long-term outcomes of orthodontic retention by three different methods: a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with a mandibular canine-to-canine retainer; a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with stripping of the mandibular anterior teeth and a prefabricated positioner. All methods gave equally positive clinical results in both the short-term, i.e. after one and two years of retention, and in the long-term, five years or more post-retention. After two years of retention, the level of compliance affected the retention treatment result. However, no such effect was shown for body height, the severity of initial crowding or gender. Today, there is increasing emphasis on the importance of economic aspects of healthcare. Of the three methods evaluated in this study, the least cost-effective, after two years of retention, was a vacuum-formed retainer combined with a bonded canine-to-canine retainer. The clinical implication of this finding is that in patients meeting the inclusion criteria, interproximal stripping of the mandibular anterior teeth, or the use of a prefabricated positioner, are highly appropriate alternatives to a mandibular bonded canine-to-canine retainer. The overall conclusions are that there are a number of effective retention methods available and the clinician is not limited to routine use of a bonded mandibular canine

  19. Floating nut retention system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. F.; Theakston, H. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A floating nut retention system includes a nut with a central aperture. An inner retainer plate has an opening which is fixedly aligned with the nut aperture. An outer retainer member is formed of a base plate having an opening and a surface adjacent to a surface of the inner retainer plate. The outer retainer member includes a securing mechanism for retaining the inner retainer plate adjacent to the outer retainer member. The securing mechanism enables the inner retainer plate to float with respect to the outer retainer number, while simultaneously forming a bearing surface for inner retainer plate.

  20. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  1. Retention of chemical tracers in geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, R.N.; Breitenbach, K.A.; Fossum, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of chemical tracers for use in geothermal reservoir monitoring are examined. Tracers are used to determine the magnitude of connectivity between injection and production wells in order to estimate the likelihood of premature fluid breakthrough. Even though chemical tracers are generally less environmentally sensitive than radioactive materials, quantities injected need to be much larger to be distinguishable by chemical analysis. As a result, a non-equilibrium concentration of tracer material is injected into the reservoir, and the tracer is susceptible to retention within the reservoir by ion exchange, diffusion into the solids or immobile reservoir fluid, adsorption or dissolution. These various reactions lead to changes in the tracer concentration as the traced fluid flows through the reservoir, and therefore reduce the capability of the experiment to distinguish concentration changes due to purely mechanical effects. Experimental observations reported here show that substantial fractions of KI tracer were retained under reservoir conditions, even though it appears that the retained material was subsequently released into more dilute fluid. The result is an apparent storage and release mechanism that will distort the later response of a tracer breakthrough.

  2. 300 Area Building Retention Evaluation Mitigation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. McBride

    2007-07-03

    Evaluate the long-term retention of several facilities associated with the PNNL Capability Replacement Laboratory and other Hanfor mission needs. WCH prepared a mitigation plan for three scenarios with different release dates for specific buildings. The evaluations present a proposed plan for providing utility services to retained facilities in support of a long-term (+20 year) lifespan in addition to temporary services to buildings with specified delayed release dates.

  3. Boulder Valley Kindergarten Study: Retention Practices and Retention Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Lorrie A.; Smith, Mary Lee

    Having implemented a policy that allowed schools to retain children in kindergarten an extra year, the Boulder Valley Public School District in Colorado conducted a study to determine the cognitive and emotional benefits of retention in kindergarten and the characteristics that led to decisions about retention. The study involved a research review…

  4. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  5. Research Synopsis: Spring 1983 Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    An analysis of spring 1983 retention rates and grade distributions within the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) revealed: (1) College of Alameda had the highest successful retention rate in the PCCD, defined as the total of all students who completed the term with a grade of A, B, C, D, or CR (credit); (2) the PCCD's successful retention…

  6. Toward a Record Retention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jason

    2007-01-01

    An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

  7. Retention of Motor Skills: Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, J. D.; And Others

    A summary of an extensive literature survey deals with the variables known or suspected to affect the retention of learned motor behaviors over lengthy no-practice intervals. Emphasis was given to research conducted by or for the military. The variables that may affect the retention of motor skills were dichotomized into task variables and…

  8. FLUID SELECTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stinson, W.J.

    1958-09-16

    A valve designed to selectively sample fluids from a number of sources is described. The valve comprises a rotatable operating lever connected through a bellows seal to a rotatable assembly containing a needle valve, bearings, and a rotational lock. The needle valve is connected through a flexible tube to the sample fluid outlet. By rotating the lever the needle valve is placed over . one of several fluid sources and locked in position so that the fluid is traasferred through the flexible tubing and outlet to a remote sampling system. The fluids from the nonselected sources are exhausted to a waste line. This valve constitutes a simple, dependable means of selecting a sample from one of several scurces.

  9. Fiber length and orientation prevent migration in fluid filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiman, P. A.

    1966-01-01

    Stainless steel fiber web filter resists fiber migration which causes contamination of filtered fluids. This filter is capable of holding five times more particulate matter before arbitrary cutoff pressure drop and shows excellent retention in fuel flow at high rates.

  10. Workforce Challenges and Retention Success Stories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document discusses the current and future challenges in building and retaining the required workforce of scientist and engineers for NASA. Specifically, the talk reviews the current situation at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Several programs at NASA for high school and college students to assist in inspiring the next generation of scientist and engineers are reviewed. The issue of retention of the best of the young scientists and engineers is also reviewed, with a brief review of several young engineers and their success with and for NASA.

  11. Tritium Retention and Removal in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Charles H.

    2009-02-19

    Management of tritium inventory remains one of the grand challenges in the development of fusion energy. Tritium is an important source term in safety assessments, it is expensive and in short supply. Tritium can be continuously retained in a tokamak by codeposition with eroded carbon or beryllium and JET and TFTR with carbon plasma facing components showed a tritium retention level that would be unacceptable in ITER or future fusion reactors. Asdex-U and Alcator C-mod have shown reduced hydrogenic retention with tungsten clad and molybdenum plasma facing components. Once the tritium inventory approaches the administrative limit, tritium must be removed to permit continued D-T plasma operations. Several candidate techniques are being considered and need to be proven at a relevant speed and efficiency in contemporary tokamaks. Projections for ITER are discussed.

  12. Effects of memantine on clinical ratings, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography measurements, and cerebrospinal fluid assays in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer dementia: a 24-week, randomized, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Qiu; Reiman, Eric M; Chen, Kewei; Li, Xia; Li, Guanjun; Lin, Zhiguang; Li, Chunbo; Xiao, Shifu

    2013-10-01

    Most experts consider that memantine has a symptomatic treatment, but clinical trials have not yet provided compelling evidence to support a disease-modifying effect. We investigate the effects of memantine on clinical ratings; fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) measurements, which can monitor disease-modifying effect; and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assays in patients with moderate to severe probable Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia. Twenty-two patients completed a 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of memantine, titrated up to 10 mg twice per day using the Severe Impairment Battery, AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale, Mini-Mental State Examination, FDG-PET measurements of the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgl), and CSF amyloid β (Aβ) and tau assays. An automated brain mapping algorithm and predefined regions of interest were each used to analyze treatment-related regional CMRgl effects. In comparison with the placebo group, the memantine treatment group had significantly less cognitive decline on the Severe Impairment Battery and significantly less CMRgl declines in regions preferentially affected by AD. There were no significant treatment effects on CSF Aβ₁₋₄₂, CSF Aβ₁₋₄₀, total tau, or phosphor-tau levels or ratios. This relatively small and brief randomized clinical trial suggests an association between memantine's clinical benefit and its effects on FDG-PET measurements in AD-affected brain regions. Larger and longer studies are needed to confirm these findings, extend them to earlier clinical and preclinical stages of AD, and help determine the extent to which FDG-PET should be qualified for use as a reasonably likely surrogate end point in the evaluation of putative AD-modifying treatments.

  13. Fluid handling equipment: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Devices and techniques used in fluid-handling and vacuum systems are described. Section 1 presents several articles on fluid lines and tubing. Section 2 describes a number of components such as valves, filters, and regulators. The last section contains descriptions of a number of innovative fluid-handling systems.

  14. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  15. Systems and methods for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, Michael V.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Lindquist, Alan; Gallardo, Vincente

    2016-03-15

    A method and device for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid comprising using a concentrator system to produce a retentate and analyzing the retentate for the presence of at least one harmful substance. The concentrator system performs a method comprising pumping at least 10 liters of fluid from a sample source through a filter. While pumping, the concentrator system diverts retentate from the filter into a container. The concentrator system also recirculates at least part of the retentate in the container again through the filter. The concentrator system controls the speed of the pump with a control system thereby maintaining a fluid pressure less than 25 psi during the pumping of the fluid; monitors the quantity of retentate within the container with a control system, and maintains a reduced volume level of retentate and a target volume of retentate.

  16. Fluid Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  17. Management of Diabetes Associated with Nephrotic Syndrome: Therapeutic Potential of Dapagliflozin for Protracted Volume Retention.

    PubMed

    Imai, Toshimi; Akimoto, Tetsu; Ito, Chiharu; Masuda, Takahiro; Nagata, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old female was admitted to our hospital presenting with a chief complaint of progressive swelling because of diabetic nephrotic syndrome. Dapagliflozin seemed to play a role in accelerating the patient's urinary sodium excretion as well as reducing gross fluid retention despite the fact that her nephrotic condition was resistant to furosemide. Our experience emphasizes a potential novel approach to overcoming loop diuretic resistance using this agent among some subsets of type 2 diabetic subjects complicated with severe volume accumulation. We believe that combination treatment consisting of dapagliflozin and furosemide may produce diuretic synergy via sequential nephron blockade. The accumulation of more experience with additional cases similar to ours requires continuous and careful attention. PMID:26609216

  18. Pulmonary retention of coal dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, P.E.; Gibb, F.R.; Beiter, H.; Amato, F.; Yuile, C.; Kilpper, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The principal objectives of this study were: to determine, quantitatively, coal dust retention times in the dog lung; to test the appropriateness of a pulmonary retention model which incorporates first order rate coefficients obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments on neutron-activated coal; to acquire a temporal description of the pulmonary disposition of the retained coal dust, and to compare the behavior of two different Pennsylvania coals in the foregoing regards. The principal findings include: retention half-times for both coals of approximately 2 years following single, hour-long exposures; a vivid association of the retained coal dust with the pulmonic lymphatics; and a general validation of the retention model.

  19. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  20. For-Profit versus Nonprofit Colleges: A Predictive Study of Student Retention in Two-Year Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Jon C.

    2013-01-01

    Student retention has been a significant issue in higher education for several decades. "Two-year colleges" tend to have lower retention rates than four-year colleges (Seidman, 2005, ). Low retention is a problem in both two-year for-profit and nonprofit colleges. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the predictors of retention…

  1. Severe hypercalcemia in a dog with a retained fetus and endometritis.

    PubMed

    Hirt, R A; Kneissl, S; Teinfalt, M

    2000-05-01

    A 10-month-old sexually intact female German Shorthaired Pointer examined because of lethargy, episodes of fever, inappetence, and vomiting was found to have severe hypercalcemia. Results of laboratory testing, radiography, and ultrasonography excluded previously recognized causes of hypercalcemia in dogs. Instead, the dog was found to have purulent endometritis and an incompletely resorbed fetus. Treatment with fluids i.v., diuretics, and calcitonin failed to adequately reduce serum calcium concentration, but serum calcium concentration was normal within 4 days after the dog underwent an ovariohysterectomy. Retention of one or more fetuses and endometritis should be included in the differential diagnosis for dogs with hypercalcemia.

  2. Multiphase fluid characterization system

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2014-09-02

    A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.

  3. [Fluid therapy in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2013-12-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with an increased need for fluids due to fluid sequestration and, in the most severe cases, with decreased peripheral vascular tone. For several decades, clinical practice guidelines have recommended aggressive fluid therapy to improve the prognosis of AP. This recommendation is based on theoretical models, animal studies, and retrospective studies in humans. Recent studies suggest that aggressive fluid administration in all patients with AP could have a neutral or harmful effect. Fluid therapy based on Ringer's lactate could improve the course of the disease, although further studies are needed to confirm this possibility. Most patients with AP do not require invasive monitoring of hemodynamic parameters to guide fluid therapy administration. Moreover, the ability of these parameters to improve prognosis has not been demonstrated.

  4. The Role of Environmental Forcing in Controlling Water Retention Gyres in Subsystems of Narragansett Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balt, C.; Kincaid, C. R.; Ullman, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    Greenwich Bay and the Providence River represent two subsystems of the Narragansett Bay (RI) estuary with chronic water quality problems. Both underway and moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) observations have shown the presence of large-scale, subtidal gyres within these subsystems. Prior numerical models of Narragansett Bay, developed using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), indicate that prevailing summer sea breeze conditions are favorable to the evolution of stable circulation gyres, which increase retention times within each subsystem. Fluid dynamics laboratory models of the Providence River, conducted in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory of the Research School of Earth Sciences (Australian National University), reproduce gyres that match first order features of the ADCP data. These laboratory models also reveal details of small-scale eddies along the edges of the retention gyre. We report results from spatially and temporally detailed current meter deployments (using SeaHorse Tilt Current Meters) in both subsystems, which reveal details on the growth and decay of gyres under various spring-summer forcing conditions. In particular, current meters were deployed during the severe flooding events in the Narragansett Bay watershed during March, 2010. A combination of current meter data and high-resolution ROMS modeling is used to show how gyres effectively limit subtidal exchange from the Providence River and Greenwich Bay and to understand the forcing conditions that favor efficient flushing. The residence times of stable gyres within these regions can be an order of magnitude larger than values predicted by fraction of water methods. ROMS modeling is employed to characterize gyre energy, stability, and flushing rates for a wide range of seasonal, wind and runoff scenarios.

  5. Reduction of ontogenetic retention decrements in rats by pretraining stressful experiences.

    PubMed

    Haroutunian, V; Riccio, D C

    1979-06-01

    Pretraining stressful experiences, either similar to or qualitatively different from the conditioning unconditioned stimulus, reduced ontogenetic retention decrements without directly influencing response acquisition. Rats that received pretreatment with footshock, hypthermia, or restraint on Days 16, 17, and 18 of age showed substantially improved long-term retention of conditioned fear learned at 20 days of age. It was also found that preshock enhanced retention of both an appetitive approach response and punishment of the approach response. Several experiments involving extinction and undertraining manipulations indicated that the facilitation of retention was not directly attributable to acquisition strength. PMID:479395

  6. Evaluating the Impact of National Educational Policy to Reduce Retention and Increase Achievement in Compulsory Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, M. Clara; Calheiros, M. Manuela; Patrício, Joana Nunes; Graça, João; Lima, M. Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Despite the accumulated evidence that retention is an ineffective and potentially harmful remedial strategy, several countries struggle with high levels of retention in compulsory schooling. This article provides evidence of the impact of the Portuguese national educational policy "Programa Mais Sucesso Escolar" (PMSE) using class size,…

  7. Undergraduate STEM Achievement and Retention: Cognitive, Motivational, and Institutional Factors and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Perez, Tony; Kaplan, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Student cognition and motivation, as well as institutional policies, determine student course grades and retention in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Regarding cognition, study skills relate to course grades, and grades relate to retention in STEM. Several aspects of motivation are related to both grades and…

  8. Reducing the Retention Rate among Kindergarten, First, and Second Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Angela

    An intervention project sought to lower the grade retention rates of kindergarten, first-, and second-grade students in one New Jersey school district. During three school years, 1987-1990, the retention rate was 7 percent of the total population of these grades. An exploration of causes identified several possible factors, including: (1) lack of…

  9. Advancing the Science of Recruitment and Retention of Ethnically Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoles, Anna M.; Chadiha, Letha A.

    2011-01-01

    We highlight several critical challenges that must be addressed to accelerate the advancement of the science on recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse older adults into health research. These include the relative lack of attention by researchers to methodological issues related to recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse…

  10. Course Retention Analysis. Focus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    A study was conducted at Mount San Antonio College (MSAC), California, to analyze patterns in credit course retention between fall 1986 and spring 1989. The study investigated the development of course prerequisites based on faculty perceptions of the skills necessary for success and minimal skill levels associated with success; student assessment…

  11. A Successful College Retention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Paul M.

    This study assessed the impact of the HORIZONS Student Support Program on participating college freshmen at Purdue University (Indiana). HORIZONS is a federally funded program designed to increase retention of first generation, low income, or physically disabled students. The cornerstone of the project and the vehicle through which most services…

  12. Classroom Management for Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rita, Emilio

    This guidebook recommends methods for teachers to use to improve teacher-student interaction in the classroom, as a means of increasing student retention. Chapter I introduces eight major systems of classroom management which teachers may use as their values and the classroom situation dictate: "Behavior Modification,""Reality Therapy,""Discipline…

  13. Teacher Retention: An Appreciative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesavento-Conway, Jennifer Jean

    2010-01-01

    Nationally, the problem of teacher retention compounds the unstable nature of the educational situation, especially in urban, high-needs schools. Much of the instability of urban schools is due to teacher movement, the migration of teachers from school to another school within or between school districts, particularly from high-needs schools.…

  14. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  15. Mechanisms of gas bubble retention

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Mendoza, D.P.; Miller, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns regarding double-shell tanks (DSTs) containing waste slurries. Previous investigations have concluded that gas bubbles are retained by the slurry that has settled at the bottom of the DST. However, the mechanisms responsible for the retention of these bubbles are not well understood. In addition, the presence of retained gas bubbles is expected to affect the physical properties of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of these bubbles. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to gas bubble retention and release from sludge such as is in Tank 241-SY-101, understand how the bubbles affect the physical properties of the sludge, develop correlations of these physical properties to include in computer models, and collect experimental data on the physical properties of simulated sludges with bubbles. This report presents a theory and experimental observations of bubble retention in simulated sludge and gives correlations and new data on the effect of gas bubbles on sludge yield strength.

  16. A Research Study in Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knibbe, Marie Vannozzi; Dusewicz, Russell A.

    A study of the Center for Literacy's (CFL) program was conducted to provide information on retention and attrition in an urban, open-entry/open-exit, individualized, goal-based literacy program. An exploratory analysis that used student and tutor records from 1985 through 1989 provided a summary of demographics and attendance patterns. This…

  17. Exploring General Education Development Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Sharon D.

    2013-01-01

    According to the instructors and administrators at a local adult education (AE) program in Houston, Texas, retaining and graduating general education development (GED) students has been a constant challenge. Locating GED attendance barriers could enable AE programs to develop techniques that increase student retention and graduation rates. The…

  18. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  19. Fluid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Firouzjahi, H.; Namjoo, M.H.; Sasaki, M. E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-09-01

    In this work we present an inflationary mechanism based on fluid dynamics. Starting with the action for a single barotropic perfect fluid, we outline the procedure to calculate the power spectrum and the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation. It is shown that a perfect barotropic fluid naturally gives rise to a non-attractor inflationary universe in which the curvature perturbation is not frozen on super-horizon scales. We show that a scale-invariant power spectrum can be obtained with the local non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} = 5/2.

  20. How Students "Stay the Course": Retention Practices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurantowicz, Ewa; Nizinska, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    The article is based on the results of research carried out under the RANLHE project in several Polish academic institutions. Applying the biographical research approach, the project aimed to explore and understand the access and retention-related experiences of non-traditional students. In a study of non-traditional students, three distinct…

  1. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  2. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  3. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Hargens, Alan R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Ebert, Douglas J.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Laurie, Steven S.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David S.; Liu, John; Macias, Brandon R.; Arbeille, Philippe; Danielson, Richard; Chang, Douglas; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Johnston, Smith L.; Westby, Christian M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shifts elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to VIIP. We will test this hypothesis and a possible countermeasure in ISS astronauts.

  4. Amniotic fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby is born), or gestational diabetes . Too little amniotic fluid is known as oligohydramnios. This condition may occur with late pregnancies, ruptured membranes, placental dysfunction , or fetal abnormalities. Abnormal amounts of ...

  5. Drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1984-01-10

    Polyethylene glycols in combination with at least one water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier comprising cellulose ethers, cellulose sulfate esters, polyacrylamides, guar gum, or heteropolysaccharides improve the water loss properties of water-based drilling fluids, particularly in hard brine environments.

  6. Amniotic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heather C.; Muglia, Louis J.; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to review the use of high-dimensional biology techniques, specifically transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, in amniotic fluid to elucidate the mechanisms behind preterm birth or assessment of fetal development. We performed a comprehensive MEDLINE literature search on the use of transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic technologies for amniotic fluid analysis. All abstracts were reviewed for pertinence to preterm birth or fetal maturation in human subjects. Nineteen articles qualified for inclusion. Most articles described the discovery of biomarker candidates, but few larger, multicenter replication or validation studies have been done. We conclude that the use of high-dimensional systems biology techniques to analyze amniotic fluid has significant potential to elucidate the mechanisms of preterm birth and fetal maturation. However, further multicenter collaborative efforts are needed to replicate and validate candidate biomarkers before they can become useful tools for clinical practice. Ideally, amniotic fluid biomarkers should be translated to a noninvasive test performed in maternal serum or urine. PMID:23599373

  7. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  8. Recruitment and retention of home support workers in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Zena

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined recruitment and retention of home support workers (HSWs) providing home support in rural communities. Thirty-two participants were recruited across four island-based communities located in British Columbia, Canada. Thematic analysis of interview data revealed several key themes: (a) how the rural context shapes HSWs' employment decisions and opportunities; (b) why people become (and stay) HSWs in rural communities; and (c) how rurality influences the nature and scope of HSWs' work. These findings suggest that health human resource policies and programs aimed at HSW recruitment and retention should be tailored to characteristics, strengths, and challenges of rural communities.

  9. Electrorheological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, T.C.; Martin, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    An electrorheological fluid is a substance whose form changes in the presence of electric fields. Depending on the strength of the field to which it is subjected, an electrorheological fluid can run freely like water, ooze like honey or solidify like gelatin. Indeed, the substance can switch from ne state to another within a few milliseconds. Electrorheological fluids are easy to make; they consist of microscopic particles suspended in an insulating liquid. Yet they are not ready for most commercial applications. They tend to suffer from a number of problems, including structural weakness as solids, abrasiveness as liquids and chemical breakdown, especially at high temperatures. Automotive engineers could imagine, for instance, constructing an electrorheological clutch. It was also hoped that electrorheological fluids would lead to valveless hydraulic systems, in which solidifying fluid would shut off flow through a thin section of pipe. Electrorheological fluids also offer the possibility of a shock absorber that provides response times of milliseconds and does not require mechanical adjustments. 3 refs.

  10. Cold enzymatic bleaching of fluid whey.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R E; Drake, M A

    2013-01-01

    Chemical bleaching of fluid whey and retentate with hydrogen peroxide (HP) alone requires high concentrations (100-500 mg of HP/kg) and recent studies have demonstrated that off-flavors are generated during chemical bleaching that carry through to spray-dried whey proteins. Bleaching of fluid whey and retentate with enzymes such as naturally present lactoperoxidase or an exogenous commercial peroxidase (EP) at cold temperatures (4°C) may be a viable alternative to traditional chemical bleaching of whey. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum level of HP for enzymatic bleaching (both lactoperoxidase and EP) at 4°C and to compare bleaching efficacy and sensory characteristics to HP chemical bleaching at 4°C. Selected treatments were subsequently applied for whey protein concentrate with 80% protein (WPC80) manufacture. Fluid Cheddar whey and retentate (80% protein) were manufactured in triplicate from pasteurized whole milk. The optimum concentration of HP (0 to 250 mg/kg) to activate enzymatic bleaching at 4°C was determined by quantifying the loss of norbixin. In subsequent experiments, bleaching efficacy, descriptive sensory analysis, and volatile compounds were monitored at selected time points. A control with no bleaching was also evaluated. Enzymatic bleaching of fluid whey and retentate at 4°C resulted in faster bleaching and higher bleaching efficacy (color loss) than bleaching with HP alone at 250 mg/kg. Due to concentrated levels of naturally present lactoperoxidase, retentate bleached to completion (>80% norbixin destruction in 30 min) faster than fluid whey at 4°C (>80% norbixin destruction in 12h). In fluid whey, the addition of EP decreased bleaching time. Spray-dried WPC80 from bleached wheys, regardless of bleaching treatment, were characterized by a lack of sweet aromatic and buttery flavors, and the presence of cardboard flavor concurrent with higher relative abundance of 1-octen-3-ol and 1-octen-3-one. Among enzymatically

  11. A Viscoelastic Deadly Fluid in Carnivorous Pitcher Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaume, Laurence; Forterre, Yoel

    2008-07-01

    We study the rheology of the digestive fluid secreted by the carnivorous pitcher plants Nepenthes rafflesiana and its role in the mechanism of insects trapping. Using a combination of physical measurements (surface tension, wetting properties, extensional and shear rheometry), insects bioessays and high-speed video, we show that the digestive fluid of Nepenthes rafflesiana is a highly viscoelastic fluid and that this property is crucial for the retention of insect in its trap. Trapping efficiency is shown to remain strong even when the fluid is highly diluted by water, as long as the elastic relaxation time of the fluid is higher than the typical time scale of insect movements (large Deborah numbers).

  12. Aqueous foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids: 1. Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Aqueous foam is a promising drilling fluid for geothermal wells because it will minimize damage to the producing formation and would eliminate the erosion problems of air drilling. Successful use of aqueous foam will require a high foaming surfactant which will: (1) be chemically stable in the harsh thermal and chemical environment, and (2) form stable foams at high temperatures and pressures. The procedures developed to generate and test aqueous foams and the effects of a 260/sup 0/C temperature cycle on aqueous surfactant solutions are presented. More than fifty selected surfactants were evaluated with representatives from the amphoteric, anionic, cationic, and nonionic classes included. Most surfactants were severely degraded by this temperature cycle; however, some showed excellent retention of their properties. The most promising surfactant types were the alkyl and alkyl aryl sulfonates and the ethoxylated nonionics.

  13. Separation of metal-containing compounds by supercritical fluid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M.; Hellgeth, J.W.; Taylor, L.T.

    1987-09-01

    Supercritical fluid chromatography using packed, analytical-scale chromatographic columns was applied to gain separations of several metal-containing systems. Mixtures of substituted ferrocenes and metal ..beta..-diketonates were separated by using methanol-modified CO/sub 2/ under moderate temperatures (50-100/sup 0/C) and pressures (2000-5000 psi) as the mobile phase. Two different types of chromatographic behaviors were observed which were found to be dependent on whether the separated metallic species was either substitutionally inert or substitutionally labile. For inert species, proper chromatographic behavior indicative of a reversible adsorption mechanism was found. For labile species, retention time variation with injected amount, appearance of broad component peaks, and observation of multiple species for a single injection gave indication of irreversible adsorptive mechanism.

  14. High retention membrane bioreactors: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-09-01

    Extensive research has focussed on the development of novel high retention membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR) systems for wastewater reclamation in recent years. HR-MBR integrates high rejection membrane separation with conventional biological treatment in a single step. High rejection membrane separation processes currently used in HR-MBR applications include nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and membrane distillation. In these HR-MBR systems, organic contaminants can be effectively retained, prolonging their retention time in the bioreactor and thus enhancing their biodegradation. Therefore, HR-MBR can offer a reliable and elegant solution to produce high quality effluent. However, there are several technological challenges associated with the development of HR-MBR, including salinity build-up, low permeate flux, and membrane degradation. This paper provides a critical review on these challenges and potential opportunities of HR-MBR for wastewater treatment and water reclamation, and aims to guide and inform future research on HR-MBR for fast commercialisation of this innovative technology. PMID:24996563

  15. A simple approximation for larval retention around reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetina-Heredia, Paulina; Connolly, Sean R.

    2011-09-01

    Estimating larval retention at individual reefs by local scale three-dimensional flows is a significant problem for understanding, and predicting, larval dispersal. Determining larval dispersal commonly involves the use of computationally demanding and expensively calibrated/validated hydrodynamic models that resolve reef wake eddies. This study models variation in larval retention times for a range of reef shapes and circulation regimes, using a reef-scale three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. It also explores how well larval retention time can be estimated based on the "Island Wake Parameter", a measure of the degree of flow turbulence in the wake of reefs that is a simple function of flow speed, reef dimension, and vertical diffusion. The mean residence times found in the present study (0.48-5.64 days) indicate substantial potential for self-recruitment of species whose larvae are passive, or weak swimmers, for the first several days after release. Results also reveal strong and significant relationships between the Island Wake Parameter and mean residence time, explaining 81-92% of the variability in retention among reefs across a range of unidirectional flow speeds and tidal regimes. These findings suggest that good estimates of larval retention may be obtained from relatively coarse-scale characteristics of the flow, and basic features of reef geomorphology. Such approximations may be a valuable tool for modeling connectivity and meta-population dynamics over large spatial scales, where explicitly characterizing fine-scale flows around reef requires a prohibitive amount of computation and extensive model calibration.

  16. Tritium retention in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hatano, Y.; Abe, S.; Matsuyama, M.; Alimov, V.K.; Spitsyn, A.V.; Bobyr, N.P.; Cherkez, D.I.; Khripunov, B.I.; Golubeva, A.V.; Ogorodnikova, O.V.; Klimov, N.S.; Chernov, V.M.; Oyaidzu, M.; Yamanishi, T.

    2015-03-15

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are structural material candidates for breeding blankets of future fusion reactors. Therefore, tritium (T) retention in RAFM steels is an important problem in assessing the T inventory of blankets. In this study, specimens of RAFM steels were subjected to irradiation of 20 MeV W ions to 0.54 displacements per atom (dpa), exposure to high flux D plasmas at 400 and 600 K and that to pulsed heat loads. The specimens thus prepared were exposed to DT gas at 473 K. Despite severe modification in the surface morphology, heat loads had negligible effects on T retention. Significant increase in T retention at the surface and/or subsurface was observed after D plasma exposure. However, T trapped at the surface/subsurface layer was easily removed by maintaining the specimens in the air at about 300 K. Displacement damage led to increase in T retention in the bulk due to the trapping effects of defects, and T trapped was stable at 300 K. It was therefore concluded that displacement damages had the largest influence on T retention under the present conditions.

  17. Designing Online Courses to Promote Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Fisher, Amy; Han, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Although the issue of student retention is a campus-wide one, it is of special interest in online distance learning courses, where retention rates are reported to be lower than in face-to-face classes. Among the explanations and theories of retention rates in online courses, one that struck us as most useful is a structural one, namely, course…

  18. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Snapshot Report offers information on student persistence and retention rates for 2009-2013. It offers data on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year Private Nonprofit Institutions; (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates for Students Who Start College at Four-Year…

  19. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This snapshot report provides information on student persistence and retention rates for Spring 2014. Data is presented in tabular format on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Starting Enrollment Intensity (all institutional sectors); (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Age at College Entry (all…

  20. 5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee is to be released from a competitive level under this part, the agency shall establish a separate retention register for... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section...

  1. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.; Zucker, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Over 35 years of retention theory and literature have acknowledged the importance of institutional and student profiles in accounting for cross-sectional differences in retention and completion rates between types of colleges and universities. The first "P" within a 4 Ps framework of student retention--"profile"--recognizes that an institution's…

  2. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spittle, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Few words have dominated the vocabulary of college retention as has the word "persistence." Many institutions still struggle to engage faculty and administrators in building campuswide retention efforts, to find the organizational levers that translate the abstractions and complexities of retention theory into scalable and durable initiatives, and…

  3. Magnetic Fluids--Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoon, S. B.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Continues a discussion of magnetic fluids by providing background information on and procedures for conducting several demonstrations. Indicates that, with a little patience and ingenuity, only modest magnetic fields and about 20 ml of low-viscosity, commercial magnetite-water-based magnetic fluid are required. (JN)

  4. Peritoneal dialysis. An adjunct to pediatric postcardiotomy fluid management.

    PubMed Central

    Stromberg, D; Fraser, C D; Sorof, J M; Drescher, K; Feltes, T F

    1997-01-01

    Patients requiring cardiopulmonary bypass for congenital heart surgery commonly exhibit impaired renal function and extravascular fluid retention. These conditions contribute to early postoperative fluid overload, which may result in significant morbidity and mortality. We examined the safety and efficacy of peritoneal dialysis in removing extravascular fluid from critically ill postcardiotomy patients. A retrospective case review from July of 1995 through April of 1996 was conducted. All patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis achieved a net negative fluid balance. Average urine output increased from 2.1 cc/kg/hr to 3.9 cc/kg/hr (P < 0.01) during the pre-peritoneal dialysis to post-peritoneal dialysis period, and the mean number of inotropic agents decreased from 2.2 to 1.7 (P < 0.05). Controlled comparison revealed that the peritoneal dialysis cohort more rapidly achieved a negative weight-adjusted fluid balance throughout the early postoperative course. The peritoneal dialysis group's illness severity decreased more rapidly within the 24-hour period after initiation of peritoneal dialysis than did that of the control cohort over the same period of time. No difference in postoperative morbidity or mortality existed between the study groups. Complications from the catheter placement were minimal, and no patient experienced peritonitis or metabolic or hemodynamic instability during peritoneal dialysis catheter placement, usage, or removal. Peritoneal dialysis is a safe and effective form of renal replacement therapy, even among critically ill pediatric postcardiotomy patients. Early postsurgical institution of peritoneal dialysis may hasten early postoperative recovery. We speculate that intraoperative catheter placement reduces the complication rate associated with this treatment modality. PMID:9456479

  5. Acquisition system environmental effects study. [for capillary-screen propellant retention devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The effects of vibration, warm gas exposure, and feed system startup/shutdown fluid dynamics on capillary-screen propellant retention capabilities are quantified. The existing technology is extended to the point where quantitative conlusions in terms of design criteria may be drawn.

  6. RETENTION OF HALOCARBONS ON A HEXAFLUOROPROPYLENE EPOXIDE-MODIFIED GRAPHITIZED CARBON BLACK - IV. PROPANE- BASED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The retention characteristics of 25 propane-based bromofluorocarbon, chlorocarbon, chlorofluorocarbon, and fluorocarbon fluids have been studied as a function of temperature on a stationary phase consisting of a 5% (m/m) coating of a low-molecular-mass polymer of hexafluoropropyl...

  7. Acute urinary retention among astronauts.

    PubMed

    Stepaniak, Philip C; Ramchandani, Suneil R; Jones, Jeffrey A

    2007-04-01

    Although acute urinary retention (AUR) is not commonly thought of as a life-threatening condition, its presentation in orbit can lead to a number of medical complications that could compromise a space mission. We report on a middle-aged astronaut who developed urinary retention during two spaceflights. On the first mission of note, the astronaut initially took standard doses of promethazine and scopolamine before launch, and developed AUR immediately after entering orbit. For the first 3 d, the astronaut underwent intermittent catheterizations with a single balloon-tipped catheter. Due to the lack of iodine solution on board and the need for the astronaut to complete certain duties without interruption, the catheter was left in place for a total of 4 d. Although the ability to void returned after day 7, a bout of AUR reemerged on day 10, 1 d before landing. On return to Earth, a cystometrogram was unremarkable. During the astronaut's next mission, AUR again recurred for the first 24 h of microgravity exposure, and the astronaut was subsequently able to void spontaneously while in space. This report details the presentation of this astronaut, the precautions that were taken for space travel subsequent to the initial episode of AUR, and the possible reasons why space travel can predispose astronauts to urinary retention while in orbit. The four major causes of AUR--obstructive, pharmacologic, psychogenic, and neurogenic-are discussed, with an emphasis on how these may have played a role in this case.

  8. Nuclear reactor melt-retention structure to mitigate direct containment heating

    DOEpatents

    Tutu, Narinder K.; Ginsberg, Theodore; Klages, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A light water nuclear reactor melt-retention structure to mitigate the extent of direct containment heating of the reactor containment building. The structure includes a retention chamber for retaining molten core material away from the upper regions of the reactor containment building when a severe accident causes the bottom of the pressure vessel of the reactor to fail and discharge such molten material under high pressure through the reactor cavity into the retention chamber. In combination with the melt-retention chamber there is provided a passageway that includes molten core droplet deflector vanes and has gas vent means in its upper surface, which means are operable to deflect molten core droplets into the retention chamber while allowing high pressure steam and gases to be vented into the upper regions of the containment building. A plurality of platforms are mounted within the passageway and the melt-retention structure to direct the flow of molten core material and help retain it within the melt-retention chamber. In addition, ribs are mounted at spaced positions on the floor of the melt-retention chamber, and grid means are positioned at the entrance side of the retention chamber. The grid means develop gas back pressure that helps separate the molten core droplets from discharged high pressure steam and gases, thereby forcing the steam and gases to vent into the upper regions of the reactor containment building.

  9. Prediction of peptide retention at different HPLC conditions from multiple linear regression models.

    PubMed

    Baczek, Tomasz; Wiczling, Paweł; Marszałł, Michał; Heyden, Yvan Vander; Kaliszan, Roman

    2005-01-01

    To quantitatively characterize the structure of a peptide and to predict its gradient retention time at given HPLC conditions three structural descriptors are used: (i) logarithm of the sum of retention times of the amino acids composing the peptide, log SumAA, (ii) logarithm of the van der Waals volume of the peptide, log VDW(Vol), (iii) and the logarithm of the peptide's calculated n-octanol-water partition coefficient, clog P. The log SumAA descriptor is obtained from empirical data for 20 natural amino acids, determined in a given HPLC system. The two other descriptors are calculated from the peptides' structural formulas using molecular modeling methods. The quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR), build by multiple linear regression, describe HPLC retention of peptide on a given chromatographic system on which the retention of the 20 amino acids was predetermined. A structurally diversified series of 98 peptides was employed. The predicted gradient retention times on several chromatographic systems were in good agreement with the experimental data. The QSRR equations, derived for a given system operated at variable gradient times and temperatures allowed for the prediction of peptide retention in that system. Matching the experimental HPLC retention to the theoretically predicted for a presumed peptide could facilitate original protein identification in proteomics. In conjunction with MS data, prediction of the retention time for a given peptide might be used to improve the confidence of peptide identifications and to increase the number of correctly identified peptides.

  10. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  11. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Brueton, Valerie C; Tierney, Jayne; Stenning, Sally; Harding, Seeromanie; Meredith, Sarah; Nazareth, Irwin; Rait, Greta

    2013-01-01

    severe symptoms do not return questionnaires or attend a follow-up visit, this will bias the findings of the trial. Many methods are used by researchers to keep people in trials. These encourage people to send back data by questionnaire, return to a clinic or hospital for trial-related tests, or be seen by a health or community care worker. Study characteristics This review identified methods that encouraged people to stay in trials. We searched scientific databases for randomised studies (where people are allocated to one of two or more possible treatments in a random manner) or quasi-randomised studies (where allocation is not really random, e.g. based on date of birth, order in which they attended clinic) that compared methods of increasing retention in trials. We included trials of participants from any age, gender, ethnic, cultural, language and geographic groups. Key results The methods that appeared to work were offering or giving a small amount of money for return of a completed questionnaire and enclosing a small amount of money with a questionnaire with the promise of a further small amount of money for return of a filled in questionnaire. The effect of other ways to keep people in trials is still not clear and more research is needed to see if these really do work. Such methods are shorter questionnaires, sending questionnaires by recorded delivery, using a trial design where people know which treatment they will receive, sending specially designed letters with a reply self addressed stamped envelope followed by a number of reminders, offering a donation to charity or entry into a prize draw, sending a reminder to the study site about participants to follow-up, sending questionnaires close to the time the patient was last followed-up, managing peoples' follow-up, conducting follow-up by telephone and changing the order of questionnaire questions. Quality of evidence The methods that we identified were tested in trials run in many different disease areas and

  12. Updated, expanded, fluid properties handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershman, R.; Osugi, J. T.; Sherman, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Revised handbook presents quantitative data, in the form of graphs and charts, pertaining to thermodynamic properties of specific cryogenic fluids and several metals. References to sources of data are cited.

  13. Severe Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kouranos, Vasileios; Jacob, Joe; Wells, Athol U

    2015-12-01

    In sarcoidosis, reduction in mortality and the prevention of disability due to major organ involvement are treatment goals. Thus, it is important to recognize severe disease and identify patients at higher risk of progression to severe disease. In this article, fibrotic lung disease and cardiac sarcoidosis are reviewed as the major contributors to sarcoidosis mortality and morbidity. In the absence of a standardized definition of severe pulmonary disease, a multidisciplinary approach to clinical staging is suggested, based on symptoms, pulmonary function tests, and imaging findings at presentation, integrated with the duration of disease and longitudinal disease behavior during early follow-up.

  14. Hydration and endocrine responses to intravenous fluid and oral glycerol.

    PubMed

    van Rosendal, S P; Strobel, N A; Osborne, M A; Fassett, R G; Coombes, J S

    2015-06-01

    Athletes use intravenous (IV) saline in an attempt to maximize rehydration. The diuresis from IV rehydration may be circumvented through the concomitant use of oral glycerol. We examined the effects of rehydrating with differing regimes of oral and IV fluid, with or without oral glycerol, on hydration, urine, and endocrine indices. Nine endurance-trained men were dehydrated by 4% bodyweight, then rehydrated with 150% of the fluid lost via four protocols: (a) oral = oral fluid only; (b) oral glycerol = oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg); (c) IV = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid; and (d) IV with oral glycerol = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg), using a randomized, crossover design. They then completed a cycling performance test. Plasma volume restoration was highest in IV with oral glycerol > IV > oral glycerol  > oral. Urine volume was reduced in both IV trials compared with oral. IV and IV with oral glycerol resulted in lower aldosterone levels during rehydration and performance, and lower cortisol levels during rehydration. IV with oral glycerol resulted in the greatest fluid retention. In summary, the IV conditions resulted in greater fluid retention compared with oral and lower levels of fluid regulatory and stress hormones compared with both oral conditions.

  15. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sever's Disease KidsHealth > ...

  16. Gastro retention using polymer cocoons.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Julien; Hunkeler, David

    2015-02-01

    A gastro-retentive capsule has been prepared which is retained in the stomach for a period of 24h, providing a vehicle for the controlled delivery to the upper intestines. These "gastro cocoons" can resist passage through the sphincter of the stomach, and can retain a high drug payload (30%). They are made from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and can swell to twice their initial volume. They are strong and also can resist 550 N of compressive force. They are based on filled pharmaceutical capsules which are visible to X-rays. Using ambroxol hydrochloride as a model drug linear, zero-order, release curves were obtained. PMID:25078789

  17. Gastro retention using polymer cocoons.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Julien; Hunkeler, David

    2015-02-01

    A gastro-retentive capsule has been prepared which is retained in the stomach for a period of 24h, providing a vehicle for the controlled delivery to the upper intestines. These "gastro cocoons" can resist passage through the sphincter of the stomach, and can retain a high drug payload (30%). They are made from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and can swell to twice their initial volume. They are strong and also can resist 550 N of compressive force. They are based on filled pharmaceutical capsules which are visible to X-rays. Using ambroxol hydrochloride as a model drug linear, zero-order, release curves were obtained.

  18. Effect of ceramic membrane channel diameter on limiting retentate protein concentration during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of retentate flow channel diameter (4 or 6mm) of nongraded permeability 100-nm pore size ceramic membranes operated in nonuniform transmembrane pressure mode on the limiting retentate protein concentration (LRPC) while microfiltering (MF) skim milk at a temperature of 50°C, a flux of 55 kg · m(-2) · h(-1), and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m · s(-1). At the above conditions, the retentate true protein concentration was incrementally increased from 7 to 11.5%. When temperature, flux, and average cross-flow velocity were controlled, ceramic membrane retentate flow channel diameter did not affect the LRPC. This indicates that LRPC is not a function of the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics data, which indicated that both membranes had similar radial velocity profiles within their retentate flow channels, supported this finding. Membranes with 6-mm flow channels can be operated at a lower pressure decrease from membrane inlet to membrane outlet (ΔP) or at a higher cross-flow velocity, depending on which is controlled, than membranes with 4-mm flow channels. This implies that 6-mm membranes could achieve a higher LRPC than 4-mm membranes at the same ΔP due to an increase in cross-flow velocity. In theory, the higher LRPC of the 6-mm membranes could facilitate 95% serum protein removal in 2 MF stages with diafiltration between stages if no serum protein were rejected by the membrane. At the same flux, retentate protein concentration, and average cross-flow velocity, 4-mm membranes require 21% more energy to remove a given amount of permeate than 6-mm membranes, despite the lower surface area of the 6-mm membranes. Equations to predict skim milk MF retentate viscosity as a function of protein concentration and temperature are provided. Retentate viscosity, retentate recirculation pump frequency required to maintain a given cross-flow velocity at a given retentate viscosity, and retentate protein

  19. Commercial Magneto-Rheological Fluid Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, J. D.; Catanzarite, D. M.; St. Clair, K. A.

    Controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid devices have reached the stage where they are in commercial production. Such devices are finding application in a variety of real world situations ranging from active vibration control to aerobic exercise equipment. Examples of several, commercial MR fluid devices are described and the comparative ability of MR and ER fluids to meet the needs of practical devices is discussed.

  20. Acute Urinary Retention: Risks and Management

    PubMed Central

    Roehrborn, Claus G

    2005-01-01

    Acute urinary retention (AUR) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia has in the past represented an immediate indication for surgery, and today most patients failing to void after an attempt at catheter removal still undergo surgery. The concept that this disease is in fact progressive in nature is slowly being accepted. Descriptive and analytical epidemiological data have shown that the incidence rate per 1000 person-years is less variable in the community than previously assumed; however, the risk is cumulative and increases with advancing age. The risk for patients diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia is naturally higher, and analytical epidemiology has identified several strong risk factors, the most important one being serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In addition, prostate volume, maximum flow rate, and symptom severity should be considered when counseling patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms and clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia who are considering a course of watchful waiting. Efforts toward primary prevention of AUR should be directed to patients at increased risk, ie, those who are older and have more severe symptoms, larger glands, and higher PSA values. Risk reduction with finasteride has been demonstrated, and α-blockers have been shown to aid patients in achieving spontaneous voiding after an episode of AUR. PMID:16986053

  1. Sepsis Resuscitation: Fluid Choice and Dose.

    PubMed

    Semler, Matthew W; Rice, Todd W

    2016-06-01

    Sepsis is a common and life-threatening inflammatory response to severe infection treated with antibiotics and fluid resuscitation. Despite the central role of intravenous fluid in sepsis management, fundamental questions regarding which fluid and in what amount remain unanswered. Recent advances in understanding the physiologic response to fluid administration, and large clinical studies examining resuscitation strategies, fluid balance after resuscitation, colloid versus crystalloid solutions, and high- versus low-chloride crystalloids, inform the current approach to sepsis fluid management and suggest areas for future research.

  2. Effects of polymer retention on dynamics of single phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsa, Shima; Weitz, David

    2014-11-01

    We study the effect of adsorption of polymer solution on dynamics of a single phase flow in a model porous medium. We use confocal microscopy to fully visualize the flow of fluid in 3D micromodel of porous media. Polymer flooding is known to be an effective method for enhanced oil recovery. However, the physical mechanism is not clearly understood. We study the effect of polymer retention on the dynamics of single phase flow using particle image velocimetery. The distribution of velocities in the medium changes greatly after flow of high concentrations of polymer through the medium. Comparing the magnitude of velocities before and after the polymer flow, we observe reduction of accessible pores to the fluid at similar injection rates. Independent measurement of the permeability of the medium confirms the decrease in the porosity. Measurements of the retention of polymer in porous media shows a weak dependence on the hydrodynamic radius of the polymer. In these experiments, the viscoelastic behavior of the polymer is isolated from velocity measurements.

  3. [Fluid management: estimation of fluid status].

    PubMed

    Renner, Jochen; Broch, Ole; Bein, Berthold

    2012-07-01

    Cardiac filling pressures alone are not appropriate to estimate the effect of a volume challenge on the corresponding change in stroke volume. Dynamic variables of fluid responsiveness have been shown to discriminate with acceptable sensitivity and specificity between responders and non-responders to a volume challenge. However, several clinical confounders have been indentified which potentially influence the predictive power of these variables. Sound knowledge of these confounders and the acknowledgement that there is no unique threshold value for volume optimisation but a considerable "gray zone" is necessary to fully exploit the advantages of functional haemodynamic monitoring.

  4. Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1997-01-01

    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  5. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  6. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  7. Fission-product retention in HTGR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, F.J.; Kania, M.J.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed.

  8. The Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Sampa

    2004-01-01

    Microgravity is an environment with very weak gravitational effects. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) on the International Space Station (ISS) will support the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. The Fluid Combustion Facility's design will permit both independent and remote control operations from the Telescience Support Center. The crew of the International Space Station will continue to insert and remove the experiment module, store and reload removable data storage and media data tapes, and reconfigure diagnostics on either side of the optics benches. Upon completion of the Fluids Combustion Facility, about ten experiments will be conducted within a ten-year period. Several different areas of fluid physics will be studied in the Fluids Combustion Facility. These areas include complex fluids, interfacial phenomena, dynamics and instabilities, and multiphase flows and phase change. Recently, emphasis has been placed in areas that relate directly to NASA missions including life support, power, propulsion, and thermal control systems. By 2006 or 2007, a Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and a Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) will be installed inside the International Space Station. The Fluids Integrated Rack will contain all the hardware and software necessary to perform experiments in fluid physics. A wide range of experiments that meet the requirements of the international space station, including research from other specialties, will be considered. Experiments will be contained in subsystems such as the international standard payload rack, the active rack isolation system, the optics bench, environmental subsystem, electrical power control unit, the gas interface subsystem, and the command and data management subsystem. In conclusion, the Fluids and Combustion Facility will allow researchers to study fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. Additional information is

  9. Theory for nanoparticle retention time in the helical channel of quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. Stephen; Carpino, Francesca; Zborowski, Maciej

    2009-05-01

    Quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation (QMgFFF) is a separation and characterization technique for magnetic nanoparticles such as those used for cell labeling and for targeted drug therapy. A helical separation channel is used to efficiently exploit the quadrupole magnetic field. The fluid and sample components therefore have angular and longitudinal components to their motion in the thin annular space occupied by the helical channel. The retention ratio is defined as the ratio of the times for non-retained and a retained material to pass through the channel. Equations are derived for the respective angular and longitudinal components to retention ratio.

  10. Digesta retention and fibre digestion in maras (Dolichotis patagonum) and guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, E; Nippashi, K; Endoh, G

    1992-04-01

    1. Digestibilities of feed and turnover time (1/k), transit time (TT) and mean retention time (MRT: 1/k+TT) of fluid and particle markers were measured in maras (Dolichotis patagonum) and guinea-pigs (Cavia procellus) fed a diet containing 50% alfalfa. 2. The digestibility of fibre was similar in both animals, however, the digestibilities of crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25) and crude ash were lower in the mara than in the guinea-pig. 3. 1/k of the digesta markers were similar in both animals, suggesting that the two animals possess similar dilution and retention time of digesta in their caecum and proximal colon. PMID:1351463

  11. [Severe asthma].

    PubMed

    González, Claudio D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to investigate the frequency of severe asthma (SA) according to WHO definition and to compare SA patients' characteristics with those of non-severe asthma (NSA); secondly, to investigate the level of control reached throughout a period of regular treatment. Between 1-1-2005 and 12-31-2014, 471 medical records from patients with bronchial asthma assisted in Buenos Aires City were analyzed. SA frequency was 40.1% (189/471), being significantly higher among patients from the public health system (47.7%, 108/226 vs. 33%, 81/245, p = 0.001). SA patients were older than NSA ones (51.3 ± 17.4 vs. 42.6 ± 17.1 years, p = 0.000), presented longer time since onset of the disease (median 30 vs. 20 years, p = 0.000), lower educational levels (secondary level or higher 41.7% vs. 58.1%, p = 0.000), lower frequency of rhinitis (47% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.004), more severe levels of airway obstruction (FEV% 50.2 ± 13.7 vs. 77.7 ± 12.4, p = 0.000), more frequent antecedents of Near Fatal Asthma (11.1% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.000), higher levels of serum IgE (median of 410 vs. 279 UI/l, p = 0.01) and higher demand of systemic steroids requirements and hospitalizations (68.7% vs. 50.7%, p = 0.000 and 37.5% vs. 15.9%, p = 0.000, respectively). A 30.6% of SA patients (58/189) reached a follow-up period of 12 months, 13 (22.5%) of whom reached the controlled asthma level. The frequency of SA found seems to be considerable. Multicenter studies to investigate the levels of control reached by SA patients with access to proper treatment are recommended.

  12. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Pericardial Fluid ...

  13. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pleural Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pleural Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pericardial Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid ...

  14. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  15. Environmental effects of solar-thermal power systems. Effect of several thermal transfer/storage fluids on barley seed germination and seedling growth. [Comparison of Therminol 66, Caloria HT43, Syltherm 800, and Partherm 430

    SciTech Connect

    Nishita, H.; Haug, R.M.

    1981-09-01

    Plant toxicity threshold level of used thermal transfer/storage materials (Therminol 66, Caloria HT43, Syltherm 800, and Partherm 430) in four different soils was determined by using a modified Neubauer technique. The plant toxicity threshold level of toluene, which is a leading candidate for engine working fluid, was also determined. In three of the soils (Aiken c.l., Yolo c.l., and Egbert muck), the material tolerated in the least amount was Syltherm 800 and that tolerated in the greatest amount was Caloria HT43 from the Coolidge and Willard projects. In the fourth soil (Soil JF79), the material tolerated in the least and in the greatest amount was Partherm 430 and toluene, respectively. Some chemical analyses of thermal transfer/storage materials were also done. Of the elemental contaminants (Al, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni) determined only a few occurred in concentrations greater than 10 mg/l of oil or 10 ..mu..g/g of salt material. These elements were Al in Dow 200, Therminol 66 (Sandia) and Syltherm 800; Fe in Syltherm 800; and Cr and Zn in Partherm 430. Free fatty acids and organic peroxides contents of the used oils were very low, indicating that the heating to which the oils were subjected did not cause appreciable oxidation. Exposure to natural elements (direct solar radiation, ambient air and temperature) for an extended period of time (up to 2 months) appeared to cause more oxidation of the oils than heating alone.

  16. Retention of New Teachers in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah; Rueben, Kim S.; Barbour, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    In the continuing effort to raise the academic performance of public schools, improving teacher retention could be an important strategy for California. Keeping new teachers in the classroom could improve academic performance, because experienced teachers are, on average, more effective at raising student test scores. Better retention of teachers…

  17. Positive Youth Development and Undergraduate Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriou, Cynthia; Powell, Candice

    2014-01-01

    The primary theoretical tradition in the study of college retention has been sociological. A review and synthesis of common themes of development among traditional-age, college students suggests that a developmental perspective on the retention of youth in college may have more to offer than the dominant sociological paradigm. This article argues…

  18. 10 CFR 37.103 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 37.103 Section 37.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Records § 37.103 Record retention. Licensees shall maintain the records that are required by...

  19. The Psychology Underlying Successful Retention Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, John; Eaton, Shevawn Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    Describes the psychological processes that lead to academic and social integration based on a retention model proposed by the authors. Describes how successful retention programs such as learning communities, freshman interest groups, tutoring, and orientation rely on psychological processes. Four psychological theories form the basis for…

  20. The Grade Retention/Social Promotion Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    1985-01-01

    This publication focuses on the retention/promotion debate regarding failing and low-achieving students. An introductory essay describes the inherent limitation in the research done on this issue--the impossibility of obtaining an appropriate control group--and suggests that the retention/promotion quandary can best be resolved by accommodating…

  1. Measuring Student Retention: A National Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Peri

    1988-01-01

    The authors analyzed class-by-class enrollment data from the 1985-86 annual survey of nursing education programs to report retention rates in different types of nursing education programs nationwide. They also present results from a survey addendum in which program directors were asked which factors contribute to their retention problems. (CH)

  2. Faculty Personality: A Factor of Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Cassandra S.; Wu, Xiaodong; Irwin, Kathleen C.; Patrizi, L. A. Chad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student retention and faculty personality as it was hypothesized that faculty personality has an effect on student retention. The methodology adopted for this study was quantitative and in two parts 1) using linear regression models to examine the impact or causality of faculty…

  3. 7 CFR 4280.136 - Minimum retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum retention. 4280.136 Section 4280.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.136 Minimum retention. Minimum...

  4. 7 CFR 4280.136 - Minimum retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum retention. 4280.136 Section 4280.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.136 Minimum retention. Minimum...

  5. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate,...

  6. A Model for Freshman Engineering Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenstra, Cindy P.; Dey, Eric L.; Herrin, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    With the current concern over the growing need for more engineers, there is an immediate need to improve freshman engineering retention. A working model for freshman engineering retention is needed. This paper proposes such a model based on Tinto's Interactionalist Theory. Emphasis in this model is placed on pre-college characteristics as…

  7. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention schedule. 293.511 Section 293.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records § 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records...

  8. Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlKandari, Nabila

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…

  9. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  10. 12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 226.25 Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor...

  11. Black Student Retention in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Marvel, Ed.; Ford, Clinita A., Ed.

    This collection focuses on problems in the recruitment, enrollment and retention of Blacks in higher education in America. The following chapters are provided: "The Black Student Retention Problem in Higher Education: Some Introductory Perspectives" (Marvel Lang); "Early Acceptance and Institutional Linkages in a Model Program of Recruitment,…

  12. Effective Teacher Retention Bonuses: Evidence From Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Swain, Walker A.; Rodriguez, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    We report findings from a quasi-experimental evaluation of the recently implemented US$5,000 retention bonus program for effective teachers in Tennessee's Priority Schools. We estimate the impact of the program on teacher retention using a fuzzy regression discontinuity design by exploiting a discontinuity in the probability of treatment…

  13. 12 CFR 226.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 226.25 Section 226.25 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Miscellaneous § 226.25 Record retention. (a) General rule. A creditor...

  14. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

  15. Managing human resources to improve employee retention.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Edwin

    2005-01-01

    Managers face increased challenges as the demand for health care services increases while the supply of employees with the requisite skills continues to lag. Employee retention will become more important in the effort to service health care needs. Appropriate human resource management strategies and policies implemented effectively can significantly assist managers in dealing with the employee retention challenges ahead.

  16. Profile in Action: Linking Admission and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    A profile-oriented retention strategy embraces the admission process as a powerful lever in improving retention and completion rates and recognizes that the student profile can be shaped by changes in admission policies or priorities--even within the current market position of the institution. In addition, the student body can be oriented toward…

  17. Measuring Up: Benchmarking Graduate Retention. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyers, C.; Perryman, S.; Barber, L.

    Retention of college graduates by employers across the United Kingdom was examined. Data were collected through a survey of 362 organizations and interviews with 36 employers and their graduate employees. Most employers were unworried by their levels of graduate retention; two-thirds expected to keep new recruits for the foreseeable future. Rates…

  18. Retention Revisited: R=E, Id+E & In, Iv.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Recent research on college student attrition is examined for trends, and it is suggested that the common perspective on retention and attrition is too narrow; it should be viewed from three perspectives: within-course retention; program retention; and institutional retention rate. Recommended for retention (R) is early (E) identification (Id) plus…

  19. 5 CFR 536.201 - Mandatory grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536.201 Mandatory grade retention. (a) Subject to the requirements in this section and in §§ 536.102 and 536.203, an agency must provide grade retention to an employee... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory grade retention....

  20. Preventive Effect of Tamsulosin on Postoperative Urinary Retention

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi-Fallah, Mohammadreza; Tayyebi-Azar, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the prophylactic effect of Tamsulosin, a super-selective alpha-1a adrenergic blocking agent, on the development of urinary retention in men undergoing elective inguinal herniorrhaphy. Materials and Methods From May 2010 through November 2011, a total of 80 males who underwent elective inguinal herniorrhaphy in a university hospital were included in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In group one (control), the patients were given two doses of placebo orally, 6 hours before surgery and 6 to 12 hours after surgery. Patients in group two were given 0.4 mg of Tamsulosin orally in the same manner as the placebo. All patients were closely followed for 24 hours post-operatively, and any voiding difficulties or urinary retention was recorded. Results There were 40 patients in group one (control group) and 40 patients in group two (Tamsulosin group). The patients' mean age was 64 years. In group one, 6 patients and in group two, 1 patient required catheterization. Thus, 15% of patients in group I and 2.5% of patients in group II had urinary retention. The difference in the requirement for catheterization was statistically significant (p=0.04). The technique of herniorrhaphy, the side of the body in which the hernia was located, the type of anesthesia, the duration of the surgery, and the severity of pre-operative urinary symptoms had no significant effect on the incidence of urinary retention. Conclusions The use of perioperative Tamsulosin represents an effective strategy to reduce the risk of post-operative urinary retention following inguinal herniorrhaphy. PMID:22741052

  1. Preheating temperature effect on tritium retention in VPS-W

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, M.; Uchimura, H.; Toda, K.; Oya, Y.; Okuno, K.; Tokunaga, T.; Watanabe, H.; Yoshida, N.; Hatano, Y.; Kasada, R.; Kimura, A.; Nagasaka, T.

    2015-03-15

    The W coating by Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS) technology is thought to be reasonable for most plasma facing components in future fusion reactors. In this paper the deuterium retention behavior for the Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS) tungsten (W) coating has been studied to demonstrate the tritium retention as a function of heating temperature. It has been found that two major deuterium desorption stages were observed at the temperature regions of 400 - 700 K (Stage 1) and 900 - 1100 K (Stage 2), considering that Stage 1 has been linked to the desorption of deuterium trapped by near surface and intrinsic defects, and Stage 2 has been related to the desorption of deuterium bound to impurities as C-D bonds. By heating the sample above 673 K, the major peak of C-1s shifted from C-O bond to C-C bond, where the retention of deuterium as Stage 2 has increased. Therefore it indicates that the hydrogen isotope retention was controlled by the amount of C-C bond in VPS, most of which was contaminated during the VPS coating process. The comparison of several samples (VPS-W with shading, VPS-W without shading and Polycrystalline W (PCW)) shows that the carbon impurity has a large affinity with deuterium and makes stable trapping states compared to that with intrinsic defects and grain boundaries. However, most of them was reduced by heating at 1173 K. Therefore, heating treatment is quite important to get rid of carbon impurities and refrain higher tritium retention in VPS. (authors)

  2. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  3. Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2005-06-01

    Ever since Karl Schwarzschild’s 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star—a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density—the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres.

  4. Gyroelastic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  5. Retention interval affects visual short-term memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Bankó, Eva M; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    Humans can efficiently store fine-detailed facial emotional information in visual short-term memory for several seconds. However, an unresolved question is whether the same neural mechanisms underlie high-fidelity short-term memory for emotional expressions at different retention intervals. Here we show that retention interval affects the neural processes of short-term memory encoding using a delayed facial emotion discrimination task. The early sensory P100 component of the event-related potentials (ERP) was larger in the 1-s interstimulus interval (ISI) condition than in the 6-s ISI condition, whereas the face-specific N170 component was larger in the longer ISI condition. Furthermore, the memory-related late P3b component of the ERP responses was also modulated by retention interval: it was reduced in the 1-s ISI as compared with the 6-s condition. The present findings cannot be explained based on differences in sensory processing demands or overall task difficulty because there was no difference in the stimulus information and subjects' performance between the two different ISI conditions. These results reveal that encoding processes underlying high-precision short-term memory for facial emotional expressions are modulated depending on whether information has to be stored for one or for several seconds.

  6. Canonical fluid thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    The space-time integral of the thermodynamic pressure plays the role of the thermodynamic potential for compressible, adiabatic flow in the sense that the pressure integral for stable flow is less than for all slightly different flows. This stability criterion can be converted into a variational minimum principle by requiring the molar free-enthalpy and the temperature, which are the arguments of the pressure function, to be generalized velocities, that is, the proper-time derivatives of scalar spare-time functions which are generalized coordinates in the canonical formalism. In a fluid context, proper-time differentiation must be expressed in terms of three independent quantities that specify the fluid velocity. This can be done in several ways, all of which lead to different variants (canonical transformations) of the same constraint-free action integral whose Euler-Lagrange equations are just the well-known equations of motion for adiabatic compressible flow.

  7. The Epidemiology of Acute Urinary Retention in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Roehrborn, Claus G

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important events in the natural history of BPH is acute urinary retention (AUR). Better estimates of AUR incidence are now available from both population-based studies and placebo control groups (patients diagnosed with BPH). Several strong risk factors for AUR have been identified by analytical epidemiology, the most important being serum PSA levels. When counseling patients with BPH who are considering watchful waiting, clinicians should also take into account prostate volume, maximum flow rate, and symptom severity. PMID:16985717

  8. Fluid channeling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald Y. (Inventor); Hitch, Bradley D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fluid channeling system includes a fluid ejector, a heat exchanger, and a fluid pump disposed in series flow communication The ejector includes a primary inlet for receiving a primary fluid, and a secondary inlet for receiving a secondary fluid which is mixed with the primary fluid and discharged therefrom as ejector discharge. Heat is removed from the ejector discharge in the heat exchanger, and the heat exchanger discharge is compressed in the fluid pump and channeled to the ejector secondary inlet as the secondary fluid In an exemplary embodiment, the temperature of the primary fluid is greater than the maximum operating temperature of a fluid motor powering the fluid pump using a portion of the ejector discharge, with the secondary fluid being mixed with the primary fluid so that the ejector discharge temperature is equal to about the maximum operating temperature of the fluid motor.

  9. The Use of Fluids in Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Avila, Audrey A; Kinberg, Eliezer C; Sherwin, Nomi K; Taylor, Robinson D

    2016-03-10

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to severe infection causing significant morbidity and mortality that costs the health care system $20.3 billion annually within the United States. It is well established that fluid resuscitation is a central component of sepsis management; however, to date there is no consensus as to the ideal composition of fluid used for resuscitation. In this review, we discuss the progression of clinical research comparing various fluids, as well as the historical background behind fluid selection for volume resuscitation. We conclude that the use of balanced fluids, such as Ringer's Lactate, seems very promising but further research is needed to confirm their role.

  10. The Use of Fluids in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Audrey A; Sherwin, Nomi K; Taylor, Robinson D

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to severe infection causing significant morbidity and mortality that costs the health care system $20.3 billion annually within the United States. It is well established that fluid resuscitation is a central component of sepsis management; however, to date there is no consensus as to the ideal composition of fluid used for resuscitation. In this review, we discuss the progression of clinical research comparing various fluids, as well as the historical background behind fluid selection for volume resuscitation. We conclude that the use of balanced fluids, such as Ringer’s Lactate, seems very promising but further research is needed to confirm their role. PMID:27081589

  11. Retention force measurement of telescopic crowns.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Stefan; Stark, Helmut; Mues, Sebastian; Keilig, Ludger; Schrader, Anja; Enkling, Norbert

    2010-10-01

    This study deals with the determination of the retentive force between primary and secondary telescopic crowns under clinical conditions. Forty-three combined fixed-removable prostheses with a total of 140 double crowns were used for retention force measurement of the telescopic crowns prior to cementation. The crowns had a preparation of 1-2°. A specifically designed measuring device was used. The retentive forces were measured with and without lubrication by a saliva substitute. The measured values were analyzed according to the type of tooth (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars). Additionally, a comparison between lubricated and unlubricated telescopic crowns was done. As maximum retention force value 29.98 N was recorded with a telescopic crown on a molar, while the minimum of 0.08 N was found with a specimen on a canine. The median value of retention force of all telescopic crowns reached 1.93 N with an interquartile distance of 4.35 N. No statistically significant difference between lubricated and unlubricated specimens was found. The results indicate that retention force values of telescopic crowns, measured in clinical practice, are often much lower than those cited in the literature. The measurements also show a wide range. Whether this proves to be a problem for the patient's quality of life or not can however only be established by a comparison of the presented results with a follow-up study involving measurement of intraoral retention and determination by e.g. oral health impact profile.

  12. Clay particle retention in small constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Braskerud, B C

    2003-09-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be used to mitigate non-point source pollution from arable fields. Previous investigations have shown that the relative soil particle retention in small CWs increases when hydraulic load increases. This paper investigates why this phenomenon occurs, even though common retention models predict the opposite, by studying clay and silt particle retention in two Norwegian CWs. Retention was measured with water flow proportional sampling systems in the inlet and outlet of the wetlands, and the texture of the suspended solids was analyzed. The surface area of the CWs was small compared to the watershed area (approximately 0.07%), giving high average hydraulic loads (1.1 and 2.0 md(-1)). One of the watersheds included only old arable land, whereas the other included areas with disturbed topsoil after artificial land leveling. Clay particle retention was 57% for the CW in the first watershed, and 22% for the CW in the disturbed watershed. The different behavior of the wetlands could be due to differences in aggregate size and stability of the particles entering the wetlands. Results showed that increased hydraulic loads did affect CW retention negatively. However, as runoff increased, soil particles/aggregates with higher sedimentation velocities entered the CWs (e.g., the clay particles behaved as silt particles). Hence, clay particle settling velocity is not constant as assumed in many prediction models. The net result was increased retention.

  13. Fractal processes in soil water retention

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, S.W.; Wheatcraft, S.W. )

    1990-05-01

    The authors propose a physical conceptual model for soil texture and pore structure that is based on the concept of fractal geometry. The motivation for a fractal model of soil texture is that some particle size distributions in granular soils have already been shown to display self-similar scaling that is typical of fractal objects. Hence it is reasonable to expect that pore size distributions may also display fractal scaling properties. The paradigm that they used for the soil pore size distribution is the Sierpinski carpet, which is a fractal that contains self similar holes (or pores) over a wide range of scales. The authors evaluate the water retention properties of regular and random Sierpinski carpets and relate these properties directly to the Brooks and Corey (or Campbell) empirical water retention model. They relate the water retention curves directly to the fractal dimension of the Sierpinski carpet and show that the fractal dimension strongly controls the water retention properties of the Sierpinski carpet soil. Higher fractal dimensions are shown to mimic clay-type soils, with very slow dewatering characteristics and relatively low fractal dimensions are shown to mimic a sandy soil with relatively rapid dewatering characteristics. Their fractal model of soil water retention removes the empirical fitting parameters from the soil water retention models and provides paramters which are intrinsic to the nature of the fractal porous structure. The relative permeability functions of Burdine and Mualem are also shown to be fractal directly from fractal water retention results.

  14. Transport and retention of bacteria and viruses in biochar-amended sand.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Salini; Torkzaban, Saeed; Bradford, Scott A; Kookana, Rai; Page, Declan; Cook, Peter G

    2016-04-01

    The transport and retention of Escherichia coli and bacteriophages (PRD1, MS2 and ФX174), as surrogates for human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, respectively, were studied in the sand that was amended with several types of biochar produced from various feedstocks. Batch and column studies were conducted to distinguish between the role of attachment and straining in microbe retention during transport. Batch experiments conducted at various solution chemistries showed negligible attachment of viruses and bacteria to biochar before or after chemical activation. At any given solution ionic strength, the attachment of viruses to sand was significantly higher than that of biochar, whereas bacteria showed no attachment to either sand or biochar. Consistent with batch results, biochar addition (10% w/w) to sand reduced virus retention in the column experiments, suggesting a potential negative impact of biochar application to soil on virus removal. In contrast, the retention of bacteria was enhanced in biochar-amended sand columns. However, elimination of the fine fraction (<60μm) of biochar particles in biochar-amended sand columns significantly reduced bacteria retention. Results from batch and column experiments suggest that land application of biochar may only play a role in microbe retention via straining, by alteration of pore size distribution, and not via attachment. Consequently, the particle size distribution of biochar and sediments is a more important factor than type of biochar in determining whether land application of biochar enhances or diminishes microbial retention.

  15. Plant and mammalian sorting signals for protein retention in the endoplasmic reticulum contain a conserved epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Denecke, J; De Rycke, R; Botterman, J

    1992-01-01

    We studied protein sorting signals which are responsible for the retention of reticuloplasmins in the lumen of the plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A non-specific passenger protein, previously shown to be secreted by default, was used as a carrier for such signals. Tagging with C-terminal tetrapeptide sequences of mammalian (KDEL) and yeast (HDEL) reticuloplasmins led to effective accumulation of the protein chimeras in the lumen of the plant ER. Some single amino acid substitutions within the tetrapeptide tag (-SDEL, -KDDL, -KDEI and -KDEV) can cause a complete loss of its function as a retention signal, demonstrating the high specificity of the retention machinery. However, other modifications confer efficient (-RDEL) or partial (-KEEL) retention. It is also shown that the efficiency of protein retention is not significantly impaired by an increased ligand concentration in plants. The efficiently retained chimeras (-KDEL, -HDEL and -RDEL) were shown to be recognized by a monoclonal antibody directed against the C-terminus of the mammalian reticuloplasmin protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). The recognized epitope is also present in several putative reticuloplasmins in microsomal fractions of plant and mammalian cells, suggesting that the antibodies recognize an important structural determinant of the retention signal. In addition, data are discussed which support the view that upstream sequences beyond the C-terminal tetrapeptide can influence or may be part of the structure of reticuloplasmin retention signals. Images PMID:1376250

  16. Wildfire impacts on soil-water retention in the Colorado Front Range, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, Brian A.

    2012-12-01

    This work examined the plot-scale differences in soil-water retention caused by wildfire in the area of the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in the Colorado Front Range, United States. We measured soil-water retention curves on intact cores and repacked samples, soil particle-size distributions, and organic matter content. Estimates were also made of plant-available water based on the soil-water retention curves. Parameters for use in soil-hydraulic property models were estimated; these parameters can be used in unsaturated flow modeling for comparing burned and unburned watersheds. The primary driver for measured differences in soil-water retention in burned and unburned soils was organic matter content and not soil-particle size distribution. The tendency for unburned south-facing soils to have greater organic matter content than unburned north-facing soils in this field area may explain why unburned south-facing soils had greater soil-water retention than unburned north-facing soils. Our results suggest that high-severity wildfire can "homogenize" soil-water retention across the landscape by erasing soil-water retention differences resulting from organic matter content, which for this site may be affected by slope aspect. This homogenization could have important implications for ecohydrology and plant succession/recovery in burned areas, which could be a factor in dictating the window of vulnerability of the landscape to flash floods and erosion that are a common consequence of wildfire.

  17. Tritium retention in jet cryopanel samples

    SciTech Connect

    Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. ); Mayaux, C.; Obert, W. )

    1991-01-01

    The possibility that tritium might exchange with water trapped in aluminum anodize cryopanels in JET prompted a test program at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly, TSTA, Los Alamos, New Mexico. JET furnished two test pieces of cryopanel which were exposed to tritium at approximately liquid nitrogen temperature and 25 torr pressure for nearly two weeks. One specimen was removed and the retained tritium was measured. The second specimen was subjected to several increasing temperature vacuum bakeouts and the effectiveness of the bakeouts were inferred from the pressure history of the chamber. When the retained tritium in the second specimen was measured it was found that nearly 95% of the tritium, as measured in the first specimen, had been removed during the vacuum bakeouts. If the tritium retained in the cryopanel without bakeout were scaled to JET conditions according to a linear pressure time relationship, the tritium expected to become trapped in the JET cryopanels would be approximately 0.6 gram. Testing is currently underway at TSTA which will determine the tritium retention to be expected under more realistic JET operating conditions and which will assess the effectiveness of various bake or purge schemes in removing the trapped tritium. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Amniotic fluid index: correlation with amniotic fluid volume.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, I A; McGovern, P G; Ordorica, S A; Frieden, F J; Young, B K

    1992-01-01

    We calculated the amniotic fluid indexes (AFIs) of 310 women on 459 occasions. Normative data were analyzed and compared with data in several high-risk groups. In the normal gestations there was a progressive increase in AFI with advancing gestation until 32 weeks, after which there was a decline. The mean AFIs in abnormal gestations varied with the clinical diagnoses. These values were compared to those obtained by assessing amniotic fluid volume (AFV), that is a pocket more than 2 cm. There were 51 patients with abnormal AFVs. Forty-two had decreased fluid, six also had decreased AFIs; nine had increased AFVs and five (all with diabetes) also had increased AFIs. Thus, AFIs in normal pregnancies showed an orderly pattern of change with gestational age, and there was no accurate correlation between AFI and AFV. Thus, using AFV alone may lead to false interpretations of amniotic fluid status. PMID:1418123

  19. Mechanisms affecting the transport and retention of bacteria, bacteriophage and microspheres in laboratory-scale saturated fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seggewiss, G.; Dickson, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is becoming an increasingly important water source due to the ever-increasing demands from agricultural, residential and industrial consumers. In search of more secure sources, wells are routinely finished over large vertical depths in bedrock aquifers, creating new hydraulic pathways and thus increasing the risk of cross contamination. Moreover, hydraulic pathways are also being altered and created by increasing water withdrawal rates from these wells. Currently, it is not well understood how biological contaminants are transported through, and retained in, fractured media thereby making risk assessment and land use decisions difficult. Colloid transport within fractured rock is a complex process with several mechanisms affecting transport and retention, including: advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, diffusion, size exclusion, adsorption, and decay. Several researchers have investigated the transport of bacteria, bacteriophage, and microspheres (both carboxylated and plain) to evaluate the effects of surface properties and size on transport and retention. These studies have suggested that transport is highly dependent on the physico-chemical properties of the particle, the fracture, and the carrying fluid. However, these studies contain little detail regarding the specific mechanisms responsible for transport beyond speculating about their existence. Further, little work has been done to compare the transport of these particulate materials through the same fracture, allowing for direct observations based on particulate size and surface properties. This research examines the similarities and differences in transport and retention between four different particles through two different laboratory-scale, saturated fractures. This work is designed to explore the effects of particle size, surface properties, ionic strength of the carrying solution, and aperture field characteristics on transport and retention in single, saturated fractures. The particulates

  20. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  1. Body fluid identification in forensics.

    PubMed

    An, Ja Hyun; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

    2012-10-01

    Determination of the type and origin of the body fluids found at a crime scene can give important insights into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numerous types of body fluid identification methods have been developed, such as chemical tests, immunological tests, protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods and microscopy. However, these conventional body fluid identification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carried out for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of a molecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling or DNA methylation detection has been recently proposed to supplant conventional body fluid identification methods. Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) which are specific to forensically relevant body fluids have been identified, and their specificities and sensitivities have been tested using various samples. In this review, we provide an overview of the present knowledge and the most recent developments in forensic body fluid identification and discuss its possible practical application to forensic casework. PMID:23101507

  2. Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction and speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.

  3. Body fluid identification in forensics.

    PubMed

    An, Ja Hyun; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

    2012-10-01

    Determination of the type and origin of the body fluids found at a crime scene can give important insights into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numerous types of body fluid identification methods have been developed, such as chemical tests, immunological tests, protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods and microscopy. However, these conventional body fluid identification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carried out for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of a molecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling or DNA methylation detection has been recently proposed to supplant conventional body fluid identification methods. Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) which are specific to forensically relevant body fluids have been identified, and their specificities and sensitivities have been tested using various samples. In this review, we provide an overview of the present knowledge and the most recent developments in forensic body fluid identification and discuss its possible practical application to forensic casework.

  4. Magnetized drive fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  5. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  6. Influence of Two-Phase Thermocapillary Flow on Cryogenic Liquid Retention in Microscopic Pores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, G. R.; Nadarajah, A.; Chung, T. J.; Karr, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    Previous experiments indicate that the bubble point pressure of spacecraft liquid hydrogen acquisition devices is reduced substantially when the ullage is pressurized with heated hydrogen vapor. The objective is to determine whether the two-phase thermocapillary convection arising from thermodynamic non-equilibrium along the porous surfaces of such devices could lead to this observed degradation in retention performance. We also examine why retention capability appears to be unaffected by pressurization with heated helium or direct heating through the porous structure. Computational assessments based on coupled solution of the flowfield and liquid free surface indicate that for highly wetting fluids in small pores, dynamic pressure and vapor recoil dictate surface morphology and drive meniscus deformation. With superheating, the two terms exert the same influence on curvature and promote mechanical equilibrium, but with subcooling, the pressure distribution produces a suction about the pore center-line that degrades retention. This result points to thermocapillary-induced deformation arising from condensation as the cause for retention loss. It also indicates that increasing the level of non-equilibrium by reducing accommodation coefficient restricts deformation and explains why retention failure does not occur with direct screen heating or helium pressurization.

  7. Liquidlike Behavior of Supercritical Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelli, F.; Santoro, M.; Scopigno, T.; Krisch, M.; Ruocco, G.

    2006-12-01

    The high frequency dynamics of fluid oxygen has been investigated by inelastic x-ray scattering, at high pressures and room temperature. In spite of the markedly supercritical conditions (T≈2Tc, P>102Pc), the sound velocity exceeds the hydrodynamic value of about 20%, a feature which is the fingerprint of liquidlike dynamics. The comparison of the present results with literature data obtained in several fluids allow us to identify the extrapolation of the liquid-vapor-coexistence line in the (P/Pc, T/Tc) plane as the relevant edge between liquidlike and gaslike dynamics. More interestingly, this extrapolation is very close to the non-metal-metal transition in hot dense fluids, at pressure and temperature values as obtained by shock wave experiments. This result points to the existence of a connection between structural modifications and transport properties in dense fluids.

  8. Assessing the use of HIV surveillance data to help gauge patient retention-in-care

    PubMed Central

    Lubelchek, Ronald J.; Finnegan, Katelynne J.; Hotton, Anna L.; Hazen, Ronald; Murphy, Patricia; Prachand, Nikhil G.; Benbow, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Background Improved retention-in-care may enhance health outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). While laboratory surveillance data may be used to gauge retention, no previous reports have compared surveillance lab vs. clinic visit-based measures of retention-in-care. We compared lab surveillance vs. clinic visit-based approaches for identifying retention status for PLWHA. Methods We examined 2011 patient visit data from the Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center, Cook County's HIV clinic. We defined retained patients as those with visits every 6 months over 2 years and matched patients classified via visit data against HIV surveillance labs reported to the Chicago Department of Health. We determined the sensitivity, specificity and receiver operator characteristics of varying lab surveillance vs. clinic visit measures of retention. Results Of patients classified via clinic visit data, 91% of 1,714 in-care vs. 22% of 200 out-of-care patients met our most stringent surveillance based retention definition – having ≥ 2 viral load/CD4s performed 90 days apart reported by the same laboratory in 2011. Of surveillance lab-based definitions for retention, having ≥ 2 HIV viral load and/or CD4 values at least 3 months apart reported from the same facility possessed the best receiver operator parameters and the receiver operator characteristics curve comparing several surveillance lab vs. clinic-visit based retention measures had an area under the curve of 0.95. Discussion Our findings demonstrate that surveillance laboratory data can be used to assess retention-in-care for PLWHA. These data suggest that bi-directional data sharing between public health entities and care providers could advance re-engagement efforts. PMID:25867775

  9. Retention of web tags and plasticine-filled leg bands applied to day-old ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Mednis, A.; Nichols, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    A new plasticine-filled leg band was developed for use in banding dayold ducklings. These bands permit inference about early survival that is not possible from banding of older young in standard operations. Two double-marking experiments with web tags and the new leg bands indicated a high retention rate for the leg bands. In contrast, several web tags were lost, permitting an analysis directed at sources of variation in web tag retention rates. We found retention rates of web tags to be higher for diving ducks (Aythya) than for dabbling ducks (Anas), and higher for tags placed the web interior than for those applied to the web edge. However, we recommend that the new plasticine-filled leg bands be used in place of web tags because of their higher retention rates and presumably greater visibility to hunters. We believe they offer great potential for new studies of duckling survival and distribution.

  10. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain such records respecting the distribution of the infant... the shelf life of the infant formula....

  11. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer... monitor recalls of the formula. Such records shall be retained for at least 1 year after the expiration...

  12. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer... monitor recalls of the formula. Such records shall be retained for at least 1 year after the expiration...

  13. Gage measures electrical connector pin retention force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The retention force of a female connector pin is measured by observing the action of a calibrated spring in a gage consisting of housing, a plunger terminating in a male subminiature connector pin, and the tension spring.

  14. Taking a Holistic Approach to Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how, at the University of Kansas, many students of color are excelling at a rate that has outpaced their peers. Campus officials credit the HAWK Link program and its comprehensive approach to retention. (EV)

  15. 21 CFR 107.280 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.280 Records retention. Each manufacturer... formula through any establishment owned or operated by such manufacturer as may be necessary to effect...

  16. Ciliary fluid transport enhanced by viscoelastic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanliang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Motile cilia encounter complex, non-Newtonian fluids as they beat to gain self-propulsion of cells, transport fluids, and mix particles. Recently there have been many studies on swimming in complex fluids, both experimentally and theoretically. However the role of the non-Newtonian fluid in the ciliary transport system remains largely unknown. Here we use a one-way-coupled immersed boundary method to evaluate the impacts of viscoelastic fluid (Oldroyd-B fluid) on the fluid transport generated by an array of rabbit tracheal cilia beating in a channel at low Reynolds number. Our results show that the viscoelasticity could enhance the fluid transport generated by the rabbit tracheal cilia beating pattern and the flow is sensitive to the Deborah number in the range we investigate.

  17. Improving the retention of underrepresented minority faculty in academic medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Sandra; Wingard, Deborah L.; Reznik, Vivian

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although several studies have outlined the need for and benefits of diversity in academia, the number of underrepresented minority (URM) faculty in academic health centers remains low, and minority faculty are primarily concentrated at the rank of assistant professor. In order to increase the diversity of the faculty of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine, the UCSD National Center for Leadership in Academic Medicine, in collaboration with the UCSD Hispanic Center of Excellence, implemented a junior faculty development program designed in part to overcome the differential disadvantage of minority faculty and to increase the academic success rate of all faculty. METHODS: Junior faculty received counseling in career and research objectives; assistance with academic file preparation, introduction to the institutional culture; workshops on pedagogy and grant writing; and instrumental, proactive mentoring by senior faculty. RESULTS: After implementation of the program, the retention rate of URM junior faculty in the school of medicine increased from 58% to 80% and retention in academic medicine increased from 75% to 90%. CONCLUSION: A junior faculty development program that integrates professional skill development and focused academic career advising with instrumental mentoring is associated with an increase in the retention of URM faculty in a school of medicine. PMID:17019910

  18. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  19. Synovial fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  20. Pleural fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of pleural fluid ... lungs fill a person's chest with air. If fluid builds up in the space outside the lungs ... chest, it can cause many problems. Removing the fluid can relieve a person's breathing problems and help ...

  1. Pericardial fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pericardial fluid ... the heart (the pericardium). A small amount of fluid is removed. You may have an ECG and ... x-ray after the test. Sometimes the pericardial fluid is taken during open heart surgery. The sample ...

  2. Pleural fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pleural fluid ... is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and ... the chest wall into the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough ...

  3. A Multi-Methodological Evaluation of Hispanic Student Recruitment and Retention Effectiveness at the University of Colorado, Boulder. A Qualitative Study of Recruitment and Retention by Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, James A.

    In order to propose solutions to expressed Hispanic minority student recruitment problems, this study assessed the strengths and weaknesses of several University of Colorado at Boulder Hispanic student recruitment agencies. Data collection involved interviews with nine minority recruiting agency representatives, two retention agency…

  4. Lattice-fluid model for gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tao, Y; Wells, P S; Yi, X; Yun, K S; Parcher, J F

    1999-11-01

    Lattice-fluid models describe molecular ensembles in terms of the number of lattice sites occupied by molecular species (r-mers) and the interactions between neighboring molecules. The lattice-fluid model proposed by Sanchez and Lacombe (Macromolecules, 1978;11:1145-1156) was used to model specific retention volume data for a series of n-alkane solutes with n-alkane, polystyrene, and poly(dimethylsiloxane) stationary liquid phases. Theoretical equations were derived for the specific retention volume and also for the temperature dependence and limiting (high temperature) values for the specific retention volume. The model was used to predict retention volumes within 10% for the n-alkanes phases; 22% for polystyrene; and from 20 to 70% for PDMS using no adjustable parameters. The temperature derivative (enthalpy) could be calculated within 5% for all of the solutes in nine stationary liquid phases. The limiting value for the specific retention volume at high temperature (entropy controlled state) could be calculated within 10% for all of the systems. The limiting data also provided a new chromatographic method to measure the size parameter, r, for any chromatographic solute using characteristic and size parameters for the stationary phase only. The calculated size parameters of the solutes were consistent, i.e. independent of the stationary phase and agreed within experimental error with the size parameters previously reported from saturated vapor pressure, latent heat of vaporization or density data.

  5. On colloid retention in saturated porous media in the presence of energy barriers: The failure of α, and opportunities to predict η

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William P.; Tong, Meiping; Li, Xiqing

    2007-12-01

    This contribution reviews recent findings that illuminate the processes governing colloid retention in porous media under environmentally relevant conditions. In the environment, colloids act as conveyors of contaminants, or even as contaminants themselves; however, despite decades of research, we are unable to accurately predict the retention of colloids in granular aquifer media under environmental conditions, where repulsion exists between colloids and surfaces. This failure cannot be blamed solely on the complexities of the subsurface, since colloid filtration theory (CFT) works well in the absence of colloid-collector repulsion despite its idealization of porous media as consisting of spherical grains completely surrounded by fluid envelopes. Rather, the failure of CFT stems from failure to incorporate the correct mechanisms of retention when repulsion exists. Recent observations implicate wedging in grain-to-grain contacts and retention in secondary energy minima as dominant mechanisms of colloid retention in the presence of an energy barrier. Mechanistic simulations in unit cells containing grain-to-grain contacts corroborate these mechanisms of colloid retention. The resulting concept for colloid retention in the presence of an energy barrier involves translation of colloids across the collector surfaces until they become wedged within grain-to-grain contacts, or are retained via secondary energy minima (without attachment) in zones where the balance of fluid drag, diffusion, gravitational, and colloid-collector interaction forces allow retention. The above findings highlight the pore domain geometry as a dominant governor of colloid retention in so far as the geometry gives rise to grain-to-grain contacts and zones of relatively low fluid drag.

  6. Collaborative learning in engineering: A quest to improve student retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquard, Paul J.

    Colleges of engineering are concerned with retention of their undergraduates. Several studies have determined the reasons students leave engineering to major in other disciplines. The list includes poor teaching, a difficult curriculum, and a lack of belonging. This study alters the traditional lecture format of an engineering dynamics class by using a flipped classroom where scheduled class time emphasizes a collaborative learning pedagogy. Material coverage was facilitated with online lectures. After initiating this change, student attitudes and self-efficacy were measured as well as test performance and study time.

  7. The Effects of Positioning of Transcatheter Aortic Valve on Fluid Dynamics of the Aortic Root

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jimmy L; Kheradvar, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a novel treatment for severe aortic valve stenosis. Due to the recent use of this technology and the procedural variability, there is very little data that quantifies the hemodynamic consequences of variations in valve placement. Changes in aortic wall stresses and fluid retention in the sinuses of Valsalva can have a significant effect on the clinical response a patient has to the procedure. By comprehensively characterizing complex flow in the sinuses of Valsalva using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry and an advanced heart flow simulator, various positions of a deployed transcatheter valve with respect to a bioprosthetic aortic valve (valve-in-valve) were tested in vitro. Displacements of the transcatheter valve were axial and directed below the simulated native valve annulus. It was determined that for both blood residence time and aortic Reynolds stresses, it is optimal to have the annulus of the transcatheter valve deployed as close to the aortic valve annulus as possible. PMID:25010918

  8. Water retention curves and thermal insulating properties of Thermosand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibniz, Otto; Winkler, Gerfried; Birk, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    The heat loss and the efficiency of isolating material surrounding heat supply pipes are essential issues for the energy budget of heat supply pipe lines. Until now heat loss from the pipe is minimized by enlarging the polyurethane (PU) - insulation thickness around the pipe. As a new approach to minimize the heat loss a thermally insulating bedding material was developed and investigated. Conventional bedding sands cover all necessary soil mechanical properties, but have a high thermal conductivity from λ =1,5 to 1,7 W/(m K). A newly developed embedding material 'Thermosand' shows thermal properties from λ=0,18 W/(m K) (dry) up to 0,88 W/(m K) (wet). The raw material originates from the waste rock stockpiles of a coal mine near Fohnsdorf, Austria. With high temperatures up to nearly 1000 ° C and a special mineral mixture, a natural burned reddish material resembling clinker arises. The soilmechanical properties of Thermosand has been thoroughly investigated with laboratory testing and in situ investigations to determine compaction-, permeability- and shear-behaviour, stiffness and corresponding physical parameters. Test trenches along operational heat pipes with temperature-measurement along several cross-sections were constructed to compare conventional embedding materials with 'Thermosand'. To investigate the influence of varying moisture content on thermal conductivity a 1:1 large scale model test in the laboratory to simulate real insitu-conditions was established. Based on this model it is planned to develop numerical simulations concerning varying moisture contents and unsaturated soil mechanics with heat propagation, including the drying out of the soil during heat input. These simulations require the knowledge about the water retention properties of the material. Thus, water retention curves were measured using both steady-state tension and pressure techniques and the simplified evaporation method. The steady-state method employs a tension table (sand

  9. A Combination Appliance for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Effectiveness of Mandibular Advancement and Tongue Retention

    PubMed Central

    Dort, Leslie; Remmers, John

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea would experience increasing treatment effect when a tongue retention component was added to a mandibular repositioning appliance. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Sleep clinic. Patients: Forty-four sequentially recruited patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. Interventions: Subjects were sleep tested at 4 treatment stages of oral appliance therapy. The 4 stages were: 6-mm mandibular protrusion, 8-mm protrusion, 6-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb, and 8-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb. Measurements and Results: Forty-one of 44 subjects completed the protocol. There was a decrease in mean respiratory disturbance index from 33.5 events/h at baseline to 18.1 events/h at stage 4 (p = 0.001). Mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) decreased from 12.3 at baseline to 9.0 at stage 4 (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: A combined approach utilizing both mandibular protrusion and tongue retention can provide effective treatment for moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. The addition of a tongue bulb may provide further treatment effect when mandibular protrusion is limited. Appliance designs that allow for convenient combination therapy need to be developed for this purpose. Citation: Dort L; Remmers J. A combination appliance for obstructive sleep apnea: the effectiveness of mandibular advancement and tongue retention. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):265-269. PMID:22701383

  10. Energy Equation Approximation in Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Arthur W.

    1959-01-01

    There is some confusion in the literature of fluid mechanics in regard to the correct form of the energy equation for the study of the flow of nearly incompressible fluids. Several forms of the energy equation and their use are therefore discussed in this note.

  11. Improving Student Retention in Ontario Secondary Schools. Student Retention and Transition Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, A. J. C.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retention efforts in Ontario (Canada) secondary schools in order to develop policy and support initiatives designed to reduce dropouts and improve retention rates. The study had four parts: (1) an analysis of credit accumulation for four cohorts and academic achievement patterns over 4 years in 16 schools;…

  12. Considering Student Retention as a Complex System: A Possible Way forward for Enhancing Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsman, Jonas; van den Bogaard, Maartje; Linder, Cedric; Fraser, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    This study uses multilayer minimum spanning tree analysis to develop a model for student retention from a complex system perspective, using data obtained from first-year engineering students at a large well-regarded institution in the European Union. The results show that the elements of the system of student retention are related to one another…

  13. Nursing Student Retention in Associate Degree Nursing Programs Utilizing a Retention Specialist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrum, Ronna A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine specific variables associated with nursing student retention in Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Programs. Jeffreys (2004) Nursing Undergraduate Retention and Success (NURS) conceptual model provided the framework for this descriptive correlational study. One hundred sixty eight pre-licensure associate degree…

  14. Digestive performance and selective digesta retention in the long-nosed bandicoot, Perameles nasuta, a small omnivorous marsupial.

    PubMed

    Moyle, D I; Hume, I D; Hill, D M

    1995-01-01

    Bandicoots are opportunistic omnivores that feed on invertebrates, fungi and both epigeal and hypogeal plant parts. We examined the performance of the digestive tract of the long-nosed bandicoot (Perameles nasuta) in terms of intake and total digestibility, patterns of excretion of inert digesta markers, and likely sites of digesta retention, on two diets designed to mimic part of their natural plant and insect diets. On the insect diet (mealworm larvae), bandicoots virtually maintained body mass at a digestible energy intake of 511 kJ.kg-0.75.day-1 and were in strongly positive nitrogen balance. In contrast, on the plant diet (shredded sweet potato), bandicoots ate only one-third as much digestible energy, lost 7% body mass, and were in negative nitrogen balance. Mean retention times of two particle markers on the plant diet (27.5 and 27.0 h) were more than double those on the insect diet (12.4 and 11.2 h), and on both diets the mean retention time of the fluid digesta marker was greater than those of the particle markers, indicating consistent selective retention of fluid digesta in the gut. It was seen radiographically than in mealworm-fed bandicoots major sites of digesta retention were the distal colon and rectum, whereas in the sweet potato-fed animals the caecum and proximal colon were principal sites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Some Studies on Viscous Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Aibin

    In this thesis, we study several issues involving incompressible viscous fluids with the slip boundary conditions and the motions of fluid-solid interactions. In the first part, we study the issue of the inviscid limit of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on the general smooth domains for completely slip boundary conditions. We verify an asymptotic expansion which involves a weak amplitude boundary layer with the same thickness as in the Prantle's theory. We improve the better regularity for the boundary layer and obtain the uniform Lp--estimates (3 < p ≤ 6) of the remainder. Then we improved these estimates to H 1--estimates. It is shown that the viscous solution converges to the solution of Euler equation in C([0, T]; H1(O)) as the viscosity tends to zero. In the second part, we consider the non-stationary problems of a class of non-Newtonian fluid which is a power law fluid with p > 3nn+2 in the half space with slip boundary conditions. We present the local pressure estimate with the Navier's slip boundary conditions. Using these estimates and an Linfinity -- truncation method, we can obtain that this system has at least one required weak solution. Finally, we investigate the motion of a general form rigid body with smooth boundary by an incompressible perfect fluid occupying R3 . Due to the domain occupied by the fluid depending on the time, this problem can be transformed into a new systems of the fluid in a fixed domain by the frame attached with the body. With the aid of Kato-Lai's theory, we construct a sequence of successive solutions to this problem in some unform time interval. Then by a fixed point argument, we have proved that the existence, uniqueness and persistence of the regularity for the solutions of original fluid-structure interaction problem.

  16. Assessing Chemical Retention Process Controls in Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgersen, T.; Branco, B.; John, B.

    2002-05-01

    Small ponds are a ubiquitous component of the landscape and have earned a reputation as effective chemical retention devices. The most common characterization of pond chemical retention is the retention coefficient, Ri= ([Ci]inflow-[Ci] outflow)/[Ci]inflow. However, this parameter varies widely in one pond with time and among ponds. We have re-evaluated literature reported (Borden et al., 1998) monthly average retention coefficients for two ponds in North Carolina. Employing a simple first order model that includes water residence time, the first order process responsible for species removal have been separated from the water residence time over which it acts. Assuming the rate constant for species removal is constant within the pond (arguable at least), the annual average rate constant for species removal is generated. Using the annual mean rate constant for species removal and monthly water residence times results in a significantly enhanced predictive capability for Davis Pond during most months of the year. Predictive ability remains poor in Davis Pond during winter/unstratified periods when internal loading of P and N results in low to negative chemical retention. Predictive ability for Piedmont Pond (which has numerous negative chemical retention periods) is improved but not to the same extent as Davis Pond. In Davis Pond, the rate constant for sediment removal (each month) is faster than the rate constant for water and explains the good predictability for sediment retention. However, the removal rate constant for P and N is slower than the removal rate constant for sediment (longer water column residence time for P,N than for sediment). Thus sedimentation is not an overall control on nutrient retention. Additionally, the removal rate constant for P is slower than for TOC (TOC is not the dominate removal process for P) and N is removed slower than P (different in pond controls). For Piedmont Pond, sediment removal rate constants are slower than the removal

  17. Effect of temperature on the chromatographic retention of ionizable compounds. II. Acetonitrile-water mobile phases.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Leonardo G; Castells, Cecilia B; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí; Bosch, Elisabeth

    2005-06-10

    The retentive behavior of weak acids and bases in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) upon changes in column temperature has been theoretically and experimentally studied. The study focuses on examining the temperature dependence of the retention of various solutes at eluent pH close to their corresponding pKa values, and on the indirect role exerted by the buffer ionization equilibria on retention and selectivity. Retention factors of several ionizable compounds in a typical octadecylsilica column and using buffer solutions dissolved in 30% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent at five temperatures in the range from 25 to 50 degrees C were carefully measured. Six buffer solutions were prepared from judiciously chosen conjugated pairs of different chemical nature. Their pKa values in this acetonitrile-water composition and within the range of 15-50 degrees C were determined potentiometrically. These compounds exhibit very different standard ionization enthalpies within this temperature range. Thus, whenever they are used to control mobile phase pH, the column temperature determines their final pH. Predictive equations of retention that take into account the temperature effect on both the transfer and the ionization processes are evaluated. This study demonstrates the significant role that the selected buffer would have on retention and selectivity in RPLC at temperatures higher than 25 degrees C, particularly for solutes that coelute. PMID:16001552

  18. Effect of temperature on the chromatographic retention of ionizable compounds. I. Methanol-water mobile phases.

    PubMed

    Castells, Cecilia B; Gagliardi, Leonardo G; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí; Bosch, Elisabeth

    2004-07-01

    The retention mechanism of acids and bases in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) has been experimentally studied by examining the temperature dependence of retention, with emphasis on the role of the buffer ionization equilibria in the retention and selectivity. Retention factors of several ionizable compounds in a typical octadecylsilica column and using buffers dissolved in 50% (w/w) methanol as eluents at three temperatures in the range of 25-50 degrees C were measured. Two pairs of buffer solutions were prepared by a close adjusting of their pH at 25 degrees C; differences in their ionization enthalpies determined a different degree of ionization when temperature was raised and, as a consequence, a different shift in the eluent pH. Predictive equations of retention that take into account the temperature effect on both the transfer and the ionization processes are proposed. This study demonstrates the significant role that the selected buffer would have in retention and selectivity in RPLC at temperatures higher than 25 degrees C, particularly for co-eluted solutes. PMID:15296385

  19. Job embeddedness factors and retention of nurses with 1 to 3 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Halfer, Diana

    2011-10-01

    An aging work force, predictions of job growth in health care, and an eventual economic recovery suggest that the current reprieve from the national nursing shortage is temporary. New graduate nurses are an important part of the work force and are needed to replace nurses who will retire in the next decade. Organizational leaders can address the forecasted work force demand by proactively investing in programs for workplace development and retention. Recent literature reports an increased focus on understanding the work experience and career support needed for new graduate nurses. Several studies report improvements in job satisfaction and retention after implementation of structured mentoring programs for new graduate nurses. However, despite successful transition programs, turnover for these same nurses after 1 to 3 years of organizational tenure remains high. Studying factors that contribute to retention and supporting careers beyond the first year of practice may have a significant effect on improving retention and will contribute new knowledge to the nursing literature. This study, undertaken at a Midwestern pediatric academic medical center, examined job factors and career development support that lead to retention of nurses with 1 to 3 years of experience. Understanding these issues may guide nursing leaders and staff development educators in investing in focused retention and career development plans during an economic recession. PMID:21667873

  20. Effects of Nepeta menthoides aqueous extract on retention and retrieval of memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarahroodi, S; Jafari-Najafi, R; Nasri, S; Rohampour, K; Maleki-Jamshid, A; Esmaeili, S

    2012-11-15

    There are several evidences that plants and vegetables with antioxidant activity can reduce oxidative damages in brain and improve cognitive functions. The aim of this study was evaluation of Nepeta menthoides aqueous extract on memory retention and retrieval of mice by using passive avoidance apparatus. For this purpose, mice were classified, coded, weighted and grouped (n = 8) as follow as: control group (Only electric shock), blank group (electric shock plus normal saline) and test groups (electric shock plus Nepeta menthoides extract by doses: 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Delay time of leaving the platform was measured for retention and retrieval test of memory in all mentioned groups. In retention test, plant extract was administered immediately after receiving electric shock while it was administered 24 h after receiving electric shock in retrieval. The results revealed that Nepeta menthoides aqueous extract significantly (p<0.05) increased memory retention and retrieval. The best response for memory retention and retrieval was achieved with 800 mg kg(-1) of Nepeta extract. In conclusion, enhancement of memory retention and retrieval by Nepeta menthoides could be cause of antioxidant activity of its components such as rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and phenolic acids.

  1. Effect of temperature on the chromatographic retention of ionizable compounds. I. Methanol-water mobile phases.

    PubMed

    Castells, Cecilia B; Gagliardi, Leonardo G; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí; Bosch, Elisabeth

    2004-07-01

    The retention mechanism of acids and bases in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) has been experimentally studied by examining the temperature dependence of retention, with emphasis on the role of the buffer ionization equilibria in the retention and selectivity. Retention factors of several ionizable compounds in a typical octadecylsilica column and using buffers dissolved in 50% (w/w) methanol as eluents at three temperatures in the range of 25-50 degrees C were measured. Two pairs of buffer solutions were prepared by a close adjusting of their pH at 25 degrees C; differences in their ionization enthalpies determined a different degree of ionization when temperature was raised and, as a consequence, a different shift in the eluent pH. Predictive equations of retention that take into account the temperature effect on both the transfer and the ionization processes are proposed. This study demonstrates the significant role that the selected buffer would have in retention and selectivity in RPLC at temperatures higher than 25 degrees C, particularly for co-eluted solutes.

  2. Effect of temperature on the chromatographic retention of ionizable compounds. II. Acetonitrile-water mobile phases.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Leonardo G; Castells, Cecilia B; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí; Bosch, Elisabeth

    2005-06-10

    The retentive behavior of weak acids and bases in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) upon changes in column temperature has been theoretically and experimentally studied. The study focuses on examining the temperature dependence of the retention of various solutes at eluent pH close to their corresponding pKa values, and on the indirect role exerted by the buffer ionization equilibria on retention and selectivity. Retention factors of several ionizable compounds in a typical octadecylsilica column and using buffer solutions dissolved in 30% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent at five temperatures in the range from 25 to 50 degrees C were carefully measured. Six buffer solutions were prepared from judiciously chosen conjugated pairs of different chemical nature. Their pKa values in this acetonitrile-water composition and within the range of 15-50 degrees C were determined potentiometrically. These compounds exhibit very different standard ionization enthalpies within this temperature range. Thus, whenever they are used to control mobile phase pH, the column temperature determines their final pH. Predictive equations of retention that take into account the temperature effect on both the transfer and the ionization processes are evaluated. This study demonstrates the significant role that the selected buffer would have on retention and selectivity in RPLC at temperatures higher than 25 degrees C, particularly for solutes that coelute.

  3. Effects of Nepeta menthoides aqueous extract on retention and retrieval of memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarahroodi, S; Jafari-Najafi, R; Nasri, S; Rohampour, K; Maleki-Jamshid, A; Esmaeili, S

    2012-11-15

    There are several evidences that plants and vegetables with antioxidant activity can reduce oxidative damages in brain and improve cognitive functions. The aim of this study was evaluation of Nepeta menthoides aqueous extract on memory retention and retrieval of mice by using passive avoidance apparatus. For this purpose, mice were classified, coded, weighted and grouped (n = 8) as follow as: control group (Only electric shock), blank group (electric shock plus normal saline) and test groups (electric shock plus Nepeta menthoides extract by doses: 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Delay time of leaving the platform was measured for retention and retrieval test of memory in all mentioned groups. In retention test, plant extract was administered immediately after receiving electric shock while it was administered 24 h after receiving electric shock in retrieval. The results revealed that Nepeta menthoides aqueous extract significantly (p<0.05) increased memory retention and retrieval. The best response for memory retention and retrieval was achieved with 800 mg kg(-1) of Nepeta extract. In conclusion, enhancement of memory retention and retrieval by Nepeta menthoides could be cause of antioxidant activity of its components such as rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and phenolic acids. PMID:24261125

  4. Role of fluid overpressures in crustal strength and the form of the brittle-ductile transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppe, J.

    2014-12-01

    The classic crustal strength-depth model of Brace and Kolhstedt (1980) (see figure) based on experimental rock mechanics depends in the brittle regime on the critical assumption of linearly increasing hydrostatic pore-fluid pressures. This leads to a predicted linearly increasing brittle strength that is well established based on deep borehole stress measurements in crystalline crust. In contrast, fluid overpressures are widely documented in orogenic belts based on borehole data, seismic velocity analysis and analysis of veins, in some cases showing complex fault-valve pressure fluctuations between lithostatic and hydrostatic. Typical observed overpressure-depth relationships predict a brittle crustal strength that is approximately constant with depth in contrast with the classic model. This constant-strength behavior below the fluid-retention depth (ZFRD in figure) has been confirmed using deep borehole stress and fluid-pressure measurements (Suppe, 2014). Recent ductile-plastic modeling of disequilibrium compaction suggests that pressure solution promotes further increases in overpressure and weakening, promoting a very prolonged low-strength brittle-ductile transition. Overpressured conditions can be inferred to exist over a substantial fraction of crustal thickness, spanning the brittle-ductile transition, in several tectonic environments, most straightforwardly in shale-rich clastic sedimentary basins built to sea level on oceanic or highly thinned continental crust such as the US Gulf Coast and Niger Delta. These thick accumulations commonly deform into shale-rich plate boundary mountain belts (e.g. Bangladesh/Miyanmar, Makran, Trinidad/Barbados, Gulf of Alaska, southern Taiwan and New Zealand). There is deep geophysical evidence for near lithostatic pore-fluid pressures existing to depths of 20-30km based on Vp, Vs, Vp/Vs and Q observations. We present active examples from Taiwan and New Zealand, combining borehole data and seismic tomography.

  5. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  6. A systematic review of interventions to improve postpartum retention of women in PMTCT and ART care

    PubMed Central

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Yapa, H Manisha N; Vaikath, Maria; Ogbuoji, Osondu; Fox, Matthew P; Essajee, Shaffiq M; Negussie, Eyerusalem K; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization recommends lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV. Effective transitioning from maternal and child health to ART services, and long-term retention in ART care postpartum is crucial to the successful implementation of lifelong ART for pregnant women. This systematic review aims to determine which interventions improve (1) retention within prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes after birth, (2) transitioning from PMTCT to general ART programmes in the postpartum period, and (3) retention of postpartum women in general ART programmes. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, the regional World Health Organization databases and conference abstracts for data published between 2002 and 2015. The quality of all included studies was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Results and Discussion After screening 8324 records, we identified ten studies for inclusion in this review, all of which were from sub-Saharan Africa except for one from the United Kingdom. Two randomized trials found that phone calls and/or text messages improved early (six to ten weeks) postpartum retention in PMTCT. One cluster-randomized trial and three cohort studies found an inconsistent impact of different levels of integration between antenatal care/PMTCT and ART care on postpartum retention. The inconsistent results of the four identified studies on care integration are likely due to low study quality, and heterogeneity in intervention design and outcome measures. Several randomized trials on postpartum retention in HIV care are currently under way. Conclusions Overall, the evidence base for interventions to improve postpartum retention in HIV care is weak. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that phone-based interventions can improve retention in PMTCT in the first one to three months postpartum. PMID:27118443

  7. Neonatal opaque right lung: delayed fluid resorption

    SciTech Connect

    Swischuk, L.E.; Hayden, K.; Richardson, J.

    1981-12-01

    Eight newborn infants with opaque right lungs were examined. Clinically, the main problem associated with the opaque right lung is mild respiratory distress, and radiographyically, the findings consist of (a) a totally opaque right lung, (b) a semiopaque right lung, or (c) an opaque right upper lobe only. These findings are usually interpreted as representing pneumonia, empyema, or hydrochlothorax, but the fact that they clear within 24 to 48 hours indicates that none of these diseases is the cause. It is thought that neonatal opaque right lung results from the transient retention of normal fetal fluid in the right lung.

  8. Retention Projection Enables Accurate Calculation of Liquid Chromatographic Retention Times Across Labs and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Abate-Pella, Daniel; Freund, Dana M.; Ma, Yan; Simón-Manso, Yamil; Hollender, Juliane; Broeckling, Corey D.; Huhman, David V.; Krokhin, Oleg V.; Stoll, Dwight R.; Hegeman, Adrian D.; Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver; Schymanski, Emma L.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Boswell, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of small molecules by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be greatly improved if the chromatographic retention information is used along with mass spectral information to narrow down the lists of candidates. Linear retention indexing remains the standard for sharing retention data across labs, but it is unreliable because it cannot properly account for differences in the experimental conditions used by various labs, even when the differences are relatively small and unintentional. On the other hand, an approach called “retention projection” properly accounts for many intentional differences in experimental conditions, and when combined with a “back-calculation” methodology described recently, it also accounts for unintentional differences. In this study, the accuracy of this methodology is compared with linear retention indexing across eight different labs. When each lab ran a test mixture under a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates they selected independently, retention projections averaged 22-fold more accurate for uncharged compounds because they properly accounted for these intentional differences, which were more pronounced in steep gradients. When each lab ran the test mixture under nominally the same conditions, which is the ideal situation to reproduce linear retention indices, retention projections still averaged 2-fold more accurate because they properly accounted for many unintentional differences between the LC systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most successful study to date aiming to calculate (or even just to reproduce) LC gradient retention across labs, and it is the only study in which retention was reliably calculated under various multi-segment gradients and flow rates chosen independently by labs. PMID:26292625

  9. Several methods for concentrating bacteria in fluid samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The sensitivities of the firefly luciferase - ATP flow system and luminol flow system were established as 300,000 E. coli per milliliter and 10,000 E. coli per milliliter respectively. To achieve the detection limit of 1,000 bacteria per milliliter previously established, a method of concentrating microorganisms using a sartorius membrane filter system is investigated. Catalase in 50% ethanol is found to be a stable luminol standard and can be used up to 24 hours with only a 10% loss of activity. The luminol reagent is also stable over a 24 hour period. A method of preparing relatively inexpensive luciferase from desiccated firefly tails is developed.

  10. The impact of immobile zones on the transport and retention of nanoparticles in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Ian L.; Gerhard, Jason I.; Willson, Clinton S.; O'Carroll, Denis M.

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticle transport and retention within porous media is treated by conceptualizing the porous media as a series of independent collectors (e.g., Colloid Filtration Theory). This conceptualization assumes that flow phenomena near grain-grain contacts, such as immobile zones (areas of low flow), exert a negligible influence on nanoparticle transport and assumes that retention and release of particles depends only on surface chemistry. This study investigated the impact of immobile zones on nanoparticle transport and retention by employing synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (SXCMT) to examine pore-scale silver nanoparticle distributions during transport through three sand columns: uniform iron oxide, uniform quartz, and well-graded quartz. Extended tailing was observed during the elution phase of all experiments suggesting that hydraulic retention in immobile zones, not detachment from grains, was the source of tailing. A numerical simulation of fluid flow through an SXCMT data set predicted the presence of immobile zones near grain-grain contacts. SXCMT-determined silver nanoparticle concentrations observed that significantly lower nanoparticle concentrations existed near grain-grain contacts throughout the duration of all experiments. In addition, the SXCMT-determined pore-scale concentration gradients were found to be independent of surface chemistry and grain size distribution, suggesting that immobile zones limit the diffusive transport of nanoparticles toward the collectors. These results suggest that the well-known overprediction of nanoparticle retention by traditional CFT may be due to ignoring the influences of grain-grain contacts and immobile zones. As such, accurate prediction of nanoparticle transport requires consideration of immobile zones and their influence on both hydraulic and surface retention.

  11. A study of the effects of long-term exposure to fuels and fluids on the behavior of advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanimoto, E. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The periodic testing and evaluation of graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy material systems after subjecting test specimens to prolonged exposure to several laboratory-controlled environments deemed typical of normal aircraft operations is discussed. It is noted that specimen immersion in water or water-based fluids resulted in the greatest effect on the mechanical properties tested. Also, the environmental fluids showed a tendency to affect Kevlar/epoxy systems at an earlier exposure period than the graphite/epoxy systems. Results also indicate mechanical property strength retention generally being lower for the Kevlar/epoxy systems when compared to the corresponding graphite/epoxy systems in similar environments, after prolonged exposure.

  12. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, Bradley G.; Downing, Jr., John P.; Neal, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

  13. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

    1995-11-14

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

  14. Variables affecting athletes' retention of coaches' feedback.

    PubMed

    Januário, Nuno M S; Rosado, Antonio F; Mesquita, Isabel

    2013-10-01

    Athletes' retention of information conveyed in coaches' feedback during training was examined, considering the nature of the information transmitted by each coach (extensions, total number of ideas transmitted, and total number of repeated ideas), athletes' characteristics, (ages, genders, school levels, and practice levels), and athletes' perceptions (relevance and acceptance of coaches' information, task motivational levels, and athletes' attention levels). Participants were 193 athletes (79 boys, 114 girls; 9 to 13 years of age) and 6 coaches. Feedback was both audio and video recorded and all athletes were interviewed. All coaches' feedback and athletes' recollections were subjected to content analysis. Information was completely retained in 31.60% of feedback episodes. Athletes' mean per-episode information retention was 63.0%. Three variables appeared to b e predictiveathletes' retention: athletes' practice levels (p = -.25), attention to coaches' provision of feedback (P = .17), and the number of different ideas transmitted by each coach (P = -.90).

  15. Deuterium Retention in NSTX with Lithium Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner, J.P. Allain, W. Blanchard, H.W. Kugel, R. Maingi, L. Roquemore, V. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor

    2010-06-02

    High (≈ 90%) deuterium retention was observed in NSTX gas balance measurements both withand without lithiumization of the carbon plasma facing components. The gas retained in ohmic discharges was measured by comparing the vessel pressure rise after a discharge to that of a gasonly pulse with the pumping valves closed. For neutral beam heated discharges the gas input and gas pumped by the NB cryopanels were tracked. The discharges were followed by outgassing of deuterium that reduced the retention. The relationship between retention and surface chemistry was explored with a new plasma-material interface probe connected to an in-vacuo surface science station that exposed four material samples to the plasma. XPS and TDS analysis showed that the binding of D atoms is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular atoms are weakly bonded in regions near lithium atoms bound to either oxygen or the carbon matrix.

  16. Smart Fluids in Hydrology: Use of Non-Newtonian Fluids for Pore Structure Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Najm, M. R.; Atallah, N. M.; Selker, J. S.; Roques, C.; Stewart, R. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Saad, G.; El-Fadel, M.

    2015-12-01

    Classic porous media characterization relies on typical infiltration experiments with Newtonian fluids (i.e., water) to estimate hydraulic conductivity. However, such experiments are generally not able to discern important characteristics such as pore size distribution or pore structure. We show that introducing non-Newtonian fluids provides additional unique flow signatures that can be used for improved pore structure characterization while still representing the functional hydraulic behavior of real porous media. We present a new method for experimentally estimating the pore structure of porous media using a combination of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The proposed method transforms results of N infiltration experiments using water and N-1 non-Newtonian solutions into a system of equations that yields N representative radii (Ri) and their corresponding percent contribution to flow (wi). This method allows for estimating the soil retention curve using only saturated experiments. Experimental and numerical validation comparing the functional flow behavior of different soils to their modeled flow with N representative radii revealed the ability of the proposed method to represent the water retention and infiltration behavior of real soils. The experimental results showed the ability of such fluids to outsmart Newtonian fluids and infer pore size distribution and unsaturated behavior using simple saturated experiments. Specifically, we demonstrate using synthetic porous media that the use of different non-Newtonian fluids enables the definition of the radii and corresponding percent contribution to flow of multiple representative pores, thus improving the ability of pore-scale models to mimic the functional behavior of real porous media in terms of flow and porosity. The results advance the knowledge towards conceptualizing the complexity of porous media and can potentially impact applications in fields like irrigation efficiencies, vadose zone hydrology, soil

  17. Bryophyte Species Richness on Retention Aspens Recovers in Time but Community Structure Does Not

    PubMed Central

    Oldén, Anna; Ovaskainen, Otso; Kotiaho, Janne S.; Laaka-Lindberg, Sanna; Halme, Panu

    2014-01-01

    Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer ‘lifeboats’ to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L.) retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 ‘retention aspens’ on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 ‘conservation aspens’ on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered) and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20–30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20–30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old

  18. JT8D engine performance retention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, A. D.; Weisel, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The attractive performance retention characteristics of the JT8D engine are described. Because of its moderate bypass ratio and turbine temperature, and stiff structural design, the performance retention versus flight cycles of the JT8D engine sets a standard that is difficult for other engines to equal. In addition, the significant benefits of refurbishment of the JT8D engine are presented. Cold section refurbishment offers thrust specific fuel consumption improvements of up to 2 percent and payback in less than a year, making a very attractive investment option for the airlines.

  19. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  20. Pulmonary instillation of low doses of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice leads to particle retention and gene expression changes in the absence of inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, Mainul; Saber, Anne T.; Guo, Charles; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Jensen, Keld A.; Yauk, Carole L.; Williams, Andrew; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Hakan; Halappanavar, Sabina

    2013-06-15

    We investigated gene expression, protein synthesis, and particle retention in mouse lungs following intratracheal instillation of varying doses of nano-sized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO{sub 2}). Female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to rutile nano-TiO{sub 2} via single intratracheal instillations of 18, 54, and 162 μg/mouse. Mice were sampled 1, 3, and 28 days post-exposure. The deposition of nano-TiO{sub 2} in the lungs was assessed using nanoscale hyperspectral microscopy. Biological responses in the pulmonary system were analyzed using DNA microarrays, pathway-specific real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), gene-specific qPCR arrays, and tissue protein ELISA. Hyperspectral mapping showed dose-dependent retention of nano-TiO{sub 2} in the lungs up to 28 days post-instillation. DNA microarray analysis revealed approximately 3000 genes that were altered across all treatment groups (± 1.3 fold; p < 0.1). Several inflammatory mediators changed in a dose- and time-dependent manner at both the mRNA and protein level. Although no influx of neutrophils was detected at the low dose, changes in the expression of several genes and proteins associated with inflammation were observed. Resolving inflammation at the medium dose, and lack of neutrophil influx in the lung fluid at the low dose, were associated with down-regulation of genes involved in ion homeostasis and muscle regulation. Our gene expression results imply that retention of nano-TiO{sub 2} in the absence of inflammation over time may potentially perturb calcium and ion homeostasis, and affect smooth muscle activities. - Highlights: • Pulmonary effects following exposure to low doses of nano-TiO{sub 2} were examined. • Particle retention in lungs was assessed using nanoscale hyperspectral microscopy. • Particles persisted up to 28 days in lungs in all dose groups. • Inflammation was the pathway affected in the high dose group at all time points. • Ion homeostasis and muscle activity pathways were affected in the low dose

  1. Seed Implant Retention Score Predicts the Risk of Prolonged Urinary Retention After Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoon K.; Adams, Marc T.; Shi, Qiuhu; Basillote, Jay; LaMonica, Joanne; Miranda, Luis; Motta, Joseph

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To risk-stratify patients for urinary retention after prostate brachytherapy according to a novel seed implant retention score (SIRS). Patients and Methods: A total of 835 patients underwent transperineal prostate seed implant from March 1993 to January 2007; 197 patients had {sup 125}I and 638 patients had {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy. Four hundred ninety-four patients had supplemental external-beam radiation. The final downsized prostate volume was used for the 424 patients who had neoadjuvant hormone therapy. Retention was defined as reinsertion of a Foley catheter after the implant. Results: Retention developed in 7.4% of patients, with an average duration of 6.7 weeks. On univariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation (10% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.02), neoadjuvant hormone therapy (9.4% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02), baseline alpha-blocker use (12.5% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.008), and increased prostate volume (13.4% vs. 6.9% vs. 2.9%, >45 cm{sup 3}, 25-45 cm{sup 3}, <25 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.0008) were significantly correlated with increased rates of retention. On multivariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, baseline alpha-blocker use, and increased prostate volume were correlated with retention. A novel SIRS was modeled as the combined score of these factors, ranging from 0 to 5. There was a significant correlation between the SIRS and retention (p < 0.0001). The rates of retention were 0, 4%, 5.6%, 9%, 20.9%, and 36.4% for SIRS of 0 to 5, respectively. Conclusions: The SIRS may identify patients who are at high risk for prolonged retention after prostate brachytherapy. A prospective validation study of the SIRS is planned.

  2. Sum of ranking differences to rank stationary phases used in packed column supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    West, Caroline; Khalikova, Maria A; Lesellier, Eric; Héberger, Károly

    2015-08-28

    The identification of a suitable stationary phase in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is a major source of difficulty for those with little experience in this technique. Several protocols have been suggested for column classification in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and SFC. However, none of the proposed classification schemes received general acceptance. A fair way to compare columns was proposed with the sum of ranking differences (SRD). In this project, we used the retention data obtained for 86 test compounds with varied polarity and structure, analyzed on 71 different stationary phases encompassing the full range in polarity of commercial packed columns currently available to the SFC chromatographer, with a single set of mobile phase and operating conditions (carbon dioxide-methanol mobile phase, 25°C, 150bar outlet pressure, 3ml/min). First, a reference column was selected and the 70 remaining columns were ranked based on this reference column and the retention data obtained on the 86 analytes. As these analytes previously served for the calculation of linear solvation energy relationships (LSER) on the 71 columns, SRD ranks were compared to LSER methodology. Finally, an external comparison based on the analysis of 10 other analytes (UV filters) related the observed selectivity to SRD ranking. Comparison of elution orders of the UV filters to the SRD rankings is highly supportive of the adequacy of SRD methodology to select similar and dissimilar columns. PMID:26228853

  3. Packed column supercritical fluid chromatography using stainless steel particles and water as a stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Jillian N; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2015-09-15

    Stainless steel (SS) particles were demonstrated as a novel useful support for a water stationary phase in packed column supercritical fluid chromatography using a CO2 mobile phase. Separations employed flame ionization detection, and the system was operated over a range of temperatures and pressures. Retention times reproduced well with RSD values of 2.6% or less. Compared to analogous separations employing a water stationary phase coated onto a SS capillary column, the packed column method provided separations that were about 10× faster, with nearly 8-fold larger analyte retention factors, while maintaining good peak shape and comparable column efficiency. Under normal operating conditions, the packed column contains about 131 ± 4 μL/m of water phase (around a 5% m/m coating), which is over 25× greater than the capillary column and also affords it a 20-fold larger sample capacity. Several applications of the packed column system are examined, and the results indicate that it is a useful alternative to the capillary column mode, particularly where analyte loads or sample matrix interference is a concern. Given its high sample capacity, this packed column method may also be useful to explore on a more preparative scale in the future.

  4. Sum of ranking differences to rank stationary phases used in packed column supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    West, Caroline; Khalikova, Maria A; Lesellier, Eric; Héberger, Károly

    2015-08-28

    The identification of a suitable stationary phase in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is a major source of difficulty for those with little experience in this technique. Several protocols have been suggested for column classification in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and SFC. However, none of the proposed classification schemes received general acceptance. A fair way to compare columns was proposed with the sum of ranking differences (SRD). In this project, we used the retention data obtained for 86 test compounds with varied polarity and structure, analyzed on 71 different stationary phases encompassing the full range in polarity of commercial packed columns currently available to the SFC chromatographer, with a single set of mobile phase and operating conditions (carbon dioxide-methanol mobile phase, 25°C, 150bar outlet pressure, 3ml/min). First, a reference column was selected and the 70 remaining columns were ranked based on this reference column and the retention data obtained on the 86 analytes. As these analytes previously served for the calculation of linear solvation energy relationships (LSER) on the 71 columns, SRD ranks were compared to LSER methodology. Finally, an external comparison based on the analysis of 10 other analytes (UV filters) related the observed selectivity to SRD ranking. Comparison of elution orders of the UV filters to the SRD rankings is highly supportive of the adequacy of SRD methodology to select similar and dissimilar columns.

  5. Fluids and hydration in prolonged endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Von Duvillard, Serge P; Braun, William A; Markofski, Melissa; Beneke, Ralph; Leithäuser, Renate

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have confirmed that performance can be impaired when athletes are dehydrated. Endurance athletes should drink beverages containing carbohydrate and electrolyte during and after training or competition. Carbohydrates (sugars) favor consumption and Na(+) favors retention of water. Drinking during competition is desirable compared with fluid ingestion after or before training or competition only. Athletes seldom replace fluids fully due to sweat loss. Proper hydration during training or competition will enhance performance, avoid ensuing thermal stress, maintain plasma volume, delay fatigue, and prevent injuries associated with dehydration and sweat loss. In contrast, hyperhydration or overdrinking before, during, and after endurance events may cause Na(+) depletion and may lead to hyponatremia. It is imperative that endurance athletes replace sweat loss via fluid intake containing about 4% to 8% of carbohydrate solution and electrolytes during training or competition. It is recommended that athletes drink about 500 mL of fluid solution 1 to 2 h before an event and continue to consume cool or cold drinks in regular intervals to replace fluid loss due to sweat. For intense prolonged exercise lasting longer than 1 h, athletes should consume between 30 and 60 g/h and drink between 600 and 1200 mL/h of a solution containing carbohydrate and Na(+) (0.5 to 0.7 g/L of fluid). Maintaining proper hydration before, during, and after training and competition will help reduce fluid loss, maintain performance, lower submaximal exercise heart rate, maintain plasma volume, and reduce heat stress, heat exhaustion, and possibly heat stroke.

  6. Developing pressures: fluid forces driving morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Navis, Adam; Bagnat, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Over several decades genetic studies have unraveled many molecular mechanisms that underlie the signaling networks guiding morphogenesis, but the mechanical forces at work remain much less well understood. Accumulation of fluid within a luminal space can generate outward hydrostatic pressure capable of shaping morphogenesis at several scales, ranging from individual organs to the entire vertebrate body-plan. Here, we focus on recent work that uncovered mechanical roles for fluid secretion during morphogenesis. Identifying the roles and regulation of fluid secretion will be instrumental for understanding the mechanics of morphogenesis as well as many human diseases of complex genetic and environmental origin including secretory diarrheas and scoliosis. PMID:25698116

  7. Respiratory fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotberg, James B.

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  8. Respiratory fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Grotberg, James B

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  9. Fluid processes in subduction zones.

    PubMed

    Peacock, S A

    1990-04-20

    Fluids play a critical role in subduction zones and arc magmatism. At shallow levels in subduction zones (<40 kilometers depth), expulsion of large volumes of pore waters and CH(4)-H(2)O fluids produced by diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic reactions affect the thermal and rheological evolution of the accretionary prism and provide nutrients for deep-sea biological communities. At greater depths, H(2)O and CO(2) released by metamorphic reactions in the subducting oceanic crust may alter the bulk composition in the overlying mantle wedge and trigger partial melting reactions. The location and conse-quences of fluid production in subduction zones can be constrained by consideration of phase diagrams for relevant bulk compositions in conjunction with fluid and rock pressure-temperature-time paths predicted by numerical heat-transfer models. Partial melting of subducting, amphibole-bearing oceanic crust is predicted only within several tens of million years of the initiation of subduction in young oceanic lithosphere. In cooler subduction zones, partial melting appears to occur primarily in the overlying mantle wedge as a result of fluid infiltration. PMID:17784486

  10. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  11. Fluid processes in subduction zones.

    PubMed

    Peacock, S A

    1990-04-20

    Fluids play a critical role in subduction zones and arc magmatism. At shallow levels in subduction zones (<40 kilometers depth), expulsion of large volumes of pore waters and CH(4)-H(2)O fluids produced by diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic reactions affect the thermal and rheological evolution of the accretionary prism and provide nutrients for deep-sea biological communities. At greater depths, H(2)O and CO(2) released by metamorphic reactions in the subducting oceanic crust may alter the bulk composition in the overlying mantle wedge and trigger partial melting reactions. The location and conse-quences of fluid production in subduction zones can be constrained by consideration of phase diagrams for relevant bulk compositions in conjunction with fluid and rock pressure-temperature-time paths predicted by numerical heat-transfer models. Partial melting of subducting, amphibole-bearing oceanic crust is predicted only within several tens of million years of the initiation of subduction in young oceanic lithosphere. In cooler subduction zones, partial melting appears to occur primarily in the overlying mantle wedge as a result of fluid infiltration.

  12. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF...

  13. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  14. 7 CFR 400.412 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Social Security Account Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers § 400.412 Record retention. (a) FCIC... years from the date of final action on a policy for the crop year, unless further maintenance of specific records is requested by FCIC. Final actions on insurance policies include conclusion of...

  15. Predicting Student Retention in Teacher Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vare, Jonatha W.; Dewalt, Mark W.; Dockery, E. Ray

    This paper describes the preliminary results from a longitudinal study of student teacher attrition and retention. The sample consisted of 316 students in an initial course in teacher education. Data collection included the following: high school grade point ratio (GPR); SAT scores; other demographic information, such as education of father and…

  16. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  17. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  18. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  19. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  20. 10 CFR 490.810 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 490.810 Section 490.810 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Compliance § 490... documentation pertaining to its waiver application and alternative compliance, including petroleum...

  1. 5 CFR 353.302 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.302 Section 353.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. An injured employee enjoys no special protection in a reduction in force. Separation by...

  2. 5 CFR 353.302 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.302 Section 353.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. An injured employee enjoys no special protection in a reduction in force. Separation by...

  3. 5 CFR 353.302 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.302 Section 353.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. An injured employee enjoys no special protection in a reduction in force. Separation by...

  4. 5 CFR 353.302 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.302 Section 353.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. An injured employee enjoys no special protection in a reduction in force. Separation by...

  5. 5 CFR 353.209 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.209 Section 353.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. (a) During uniformed service. An employee may not be demoted or separated (other than...

  6. 5 CFR 353.209 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.209 Section 353.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. (a) During uniformed service. An employee may not be demoted or separated (other than...

  7. 5 CFR 353.302 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.302 Section 353.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. An injured employee enjoys no special protection in a reduction in force. Separation by...

  8. 5 CFR 353.209 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.209 Section 353.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. (a) During uniformed service. An employee may not be demoted or separated (other than...

  9. 5 CFR 353.209 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.209 Section 353.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. (a) During uniformed service. An employee may not be demoted or separated (other than...

  10. 5 CFR 353.209 - Retention protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention protections. 353.209 Section 353.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RESTORATION... protections. (a) During uniformed service. An employee may not be demoted or separated (other than...

  11. Freshman Learning Communities, College Performance, and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Moore, Robert E.; Pitts, M. Melinda

    2006-01-01

    This paper applies a standard treatment effects model to determine that participation in Freshman Learning Communities improves academic performance and retention. Not controlling for individual self-selection into Freshman Learning Communities participation leads one to incorrectly conclude that the impact is the same across race and gender…

  12. 1978-79 Recruitment & Retention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosmo, Richard

    The Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) 1978-79 Recruitment Program seeks to increase the pool of students who wish to attend college rather than compete more aggressively for those students who have already decided to participate in higher education. A special adjunct Retention Program has been developed to enhance the entire recruitment…

  13. Online Student Retention: Can It Be Done?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Barbara S.; Renner, Alice L.

    Retention has been indicated as one of the greatest weaknesses in online instruction. While a preponderance of literature about online instruction is available, concrete ideas about how to retain students are lacking. A DHHS grant for over one million dollars made it possible for the Wright State University College of Nursing and Health (Dayton,…

  14. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  15. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records § 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records must not be placed in a newly-created EMF for a separating employee and must be removed from an already existing EMF before its transfer to another agency or to the NPRC. Such records must be disposed of...

  16. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Records Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6705 Records retention. (a) Applicability... Cooperative Agreement, or are otherwise reasonably considered as pertinent to program regulations or...

  17. 7 CFR 56.38 - Retention authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Identifying and Marking Products § 56.38 Retention authorities. A grader may... identification and control of shell eggs which are not in compliance with the regulations or are held for...

  18. Illinois Valley Industry Retention Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, John P.

    The Illinois Valley Industry Retention Program was conceived with the goals of retaining existing industries in the area and saving presently available jobs for the area's citizens. A program committee, formed in March 1982 of representatives from state government, Illinois Valley Community College (IVCC), and local businesses, undertook a survey…

  19. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  20. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  1. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  2. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  3. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records retention. 133.21 Section 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS §...

  4. Recruitment and Retention with a Spin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Rita; Hixson, Carla Braun

    2010-01-01

    Strategic planning and innovation at Bismarck State College (BSC) found common ground in the college's goal to recruit and retain employees in an environment of low unemployment and strong competition for skilled employees. BSC's strategic plan for 2007-09 included the objective "to increase retention of employees." One of the strategies connected…

  5. Healthcare Learning Community and Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sherryl W.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching, learning, and retention processes have evolved historically to include multifaceted techniques beyond the traditional lecture. This article presents related results of a study using a healthcare learning community in a southwest Georgia university. The value of novel techniques and tools in promoting student learning and retention…

  6. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF...

  7. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF...

  8. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF...

  9. Relationship of Personality Traits to Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Carl Jung's theory of psychological types has been the basis for the development of personality categorization, including tests such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This study analyzed the extent of the relationship between MBTI and Tinto (1993) retention factors that influence Oriental medicine students' choice of staying or dropping out…

  10. 14 CFR 291.23 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 291.23 Record retention. (a) The provisions of 14 CFR part 249, Preservation of air carrier accounts... the Department. Each carrier shall retain for 1 year a copy of any formula based on standard weight... Management and Budget under control number 3024-0022)...

  11. 16 CFR 437.7 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 437.7 Section 437.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY RULE § 437.7 Record... opportunity sellers and their principals must prepare, retain, and make available for inspection by...

  12. 16 CFR 437.7 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Record retention. 437.7 Section 437.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY RULE § 437.7 Record... opportunity sellers and their principals must prepare, retain, and make available for inspection by...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  14. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  15. 39 CFR 946.10 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.10 Record retention. Records regarding property subject to this part will be retained for a period of 3 years following return of the property to its owner or a determination that the property is abandoned....

  16. 39 CFR 946.10 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.10 Record retention. Records regarding property subject to this part will be retained for a period of 3 years following return of the property to its owner or a determination that the property is abandoned....

  17. 39 CFR 946.10 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.10 Record retention. Records regarding property subject to this part will be retained for a period of 3 years following return of the property to its owner or a determination that the property is abandoned....

  18. Tallahassee Community College Retention Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Archie B.

    A retention study was conducted at Tallahassee Community College (TCC) to determine reasons student withdrew from TCC prior to meeting their educational objectives. The survey population consisted of all students, apart from graduates and those who had been academically suspended, who were enrolled in winter 1981 but had not returned by winter…

  19. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.356 Pay retention. (a) Subject to...

  20. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

  1. 5 CFR 293.404 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Performance File System Records § 293.404 Retention schedule. (a)(1) Except as provided... in this system, including transfer with the employee who changes positions, shall be as agencies... performance-related documents five years old or less shall be forwarded in the Employee Performance File...

  2. 40 CFR 35.6705 - Records retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concerning Federal Government records (36 CFR parts 1220 through 1234) and EPA records management... the starting dates for records retention described in 40 CFR 31.42(c) (1) and (2). ... been started before the expiration of the ten-year period, the records must be retained...

  3. 76 FR 34010 - Credit Risk Retention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ..., 2011, at 76 FR 24090, is extended. Comments on the Credit Risk NPR must be received on or before August... 76 FR 24090. The Credit Risk NPR would specify credit risk retention requirements for securitizers of...-AA43 DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 267 RIN 2501-AD53 Credit Risk...

  4. 78 FR 57927 - Credit Risk Retention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... proposal, as described in more detail below. \\5\\ Credit Risk Retention; Proposed Rule, 76 FR 24090 (April... legislation.''). \\24\\ See 78 FR 6408 (January 30, 2013), as amended by 78 FR 35430 (June 12, 2013). These two... Federal Register. See 76 FR 27390 (May 11, 2011). The Board had initial responsibility for...

  5. Procurement and Retention of Black Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Clarence A., Jr.

    A study was made of the history of the black officer in the Army, the sources and procedures the Army uses to procure black officers and the retention of black officers in the Army. Data was gathered by interviews with Department of Army personnel and black junior officers; questionnaires were used to gather information from professors of Military…

  6. Retention--A Pseudo-Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geis, George L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses retention of learning; training methods; maintenance issues; the effect of punishment; reinforcement; the performance environment; transfer of training; forgetting; implications for designers of instructional materials or designers of training programs; and the division between training and on-the-job performance. (LRW)

  7. Metals Retention in Constructed Wetland Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    KNOX, ANNA

    2004-10-27

    The A-01 wetland treatment system (WTS) was designed to remove metals from the effluent at the A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. Sequential extraction data was used to evaluate remobilization and retention of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Fe in the wetland sediment. Remobilization of metals was determined by the Potentially Mobile Fraction (PMF) and metal retention by the Recalcitrant Factor (RF). The PMF, which includes water soluble, exchangeable, and oxides fractions, is the contaminant fraction that has the potential to enter into the mobile aqueous phase under changeable environmental conditions. PMF values were low for Cu, Zn and Pb (about 20 percent) and high for Fe and Mn (about 60 to 70 percent). The RF, which includes crystalline oxides, sulfides or silicates and aluminosilicates, is the ratio of strongly bound fractions to the total concentration of elements in sediment. RF values were about 80 percent for Cu, Zn and Pb, indicating high retention in the sediment and 30 percent to above 40 percent for Fe and Mn indication low retention.

  8. Does Retention Help? Perspectives after Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Nancy Baenen

    The Austin Independent School District Office of Research and Evaluation (AISD-ORE) has recently completed a three year study of the effects of retention on elementary students. As in other studies comparing the academic achievement of elementary retainees and similar students not retained, findings indicated that promoted students generally show…

  9. Retention of Electronic Fundamentals: Differences Among Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kirk A.

    Criterion-referenced tests were used to measure the learning and retention of a sample of material taught by means of programed instruction in the Avionics Fundamentals Course, Class A. It was found that the students knew about 30 percent of the material before reading the programs, that mastery rose to a very high level on the immediate posttest,…

  10. COMPARTMENTAL MODEL OF NITRATE RETENTION IN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A compartmental modeling approach is presented to route nitrate retention along a cascade of stream reach sections. A process transfer function is used for transient storage equations with first order reaction terms to represent nitrate uptake in the free stream, and denitrifica...

  11. Foster Family Resources, Psychosocial Functioning, and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Kathryn W.; Orme, John G.; Cox, Mary Ellen; Buehler, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of family resources and psychosocial problems on retention for foster families. Almost 50 percent of families who started preservice training did not complete it. Families with more psychosocial problems and fewer resources were more likely to express uncertainly about continuing. These results have…

  12. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  13. Retention of First Year Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Melissa H.

    2012-01-01

    Although close to half of all community college students leave before obtaining their stated goals, most retention studies are still being conducted at the four-year college and university level. There is still little research conducted at the community college level. In order to determine what student characteristics increase community college…

  14. Personnel Recruitment and Retention in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris; Marrs, Lawrence W.

    Recruitment and retention of special education teachers and related services staff have been persistent problems of rural school districts nationwide. High teacher attrition rates have serious ramifications for personnel development and program stability. Effective recruitment strategies for rural areas have four main components: (1) emphasis on…

  15. Effective Retention Strategies for Diverse Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Linda R.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses methods to determine why employees leave or stay, based on experiences at Pennsylvania State University libraries. Considers retention tools that work best to retain diverse employees, including mentoring, networking, career and learning opportunities, balance between work and home life, a welcoming climate, and support for research.…

  16. Employee Retention: A Challenge of the Nineties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiss, Tony

    1990-01-01

    Considers ways in which community colleges can help employers implement programs to improve the work environment and retain trained workers. Presents a model for employee retention that has worked effectively in Pueblo, Colorado. Describes Pueblo Community College's cooperative program with the Wats Marketing Group to help reduce employee…

  17. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    When institutions engage in discussions regarding improving retention and graduation rates, invariably the conversation focuses on entering student characteristics, especially ACT and SAT scores and high school grades. Clearly, attracting and enrolling well-prepared and motivated high-ability students will certainly improve institutional measures…

  18. An Examination of Master's Student Retention & Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Melissa; Mathies, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at a research-extensive public university in the southeastern United States. It examined the retention and completion of master's degree students across numerous disciplines. Results were derived from a series of descriptive statistics, T-tests, and a series of binary logistic regression models. The findings from binary…

  19. Alternatives to Social Promotion and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Studies indicate that retention negatively impacts students' behavior, attitude, and attendance, but it is still practiced in schools around the country. Social promotion undermines students' futures when they fail to develop critical study and job-related skills; however, it too is still practiced in many schools throughout the United…

  20. High temperature ceramic composition for hydrogen retention

    DOEpatents

    Webb, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    A ceramic coating for H retention in fuel elements is described. The coating has relatively low thermal neutron cross section, is not readily reduced by H at 1500 deg F, is adherent to the fuel element base metal, and is stable at reactor operating temperatures. (JRD)

  1. 39 CFR 946.10 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Record retention. 946.10 Section 946.10 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE RELATING TO THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.10...

  2. 39 CFR 946.10 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Record retention. 946.10 Section 946.10 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE RELATING TO THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.10...

  3. Male-Female Student Retention in HBCUs: A Comparative Analysis of Sample Data across Five Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeala-Harrison, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    Several factors contribute to the college retention rates of black students. There could be issues related to the student's own personality attributes, personal and/or family circumstances, financial factors, background events, social factors, as well as a myriad of institutional factors associated with the school system and/or a particular school…

  4. A Scholarship Model for Student Recruitment and Retention in STEM Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelamarthi, Kumar; Mawasha, P. Ruby

    2010-01-01

    A scholarship program offers enrichment, support, higher recruitment and retention, improved professional development towards employment, and increased graduate opportunities for underrepresented groups. In this paper, it is postulated that the development of a successful and competitive scholarship program is dependent on several variables…

  5. Predictors of Enrollment and Retention in a Preventive Parenting Intervention for Divorced Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Emily B.; Bonds, Darya; Wolchik, Sharlene; Sandler, Irwin; Braver, Sanford

    2009-01-01

    Participation rates in parenting programs are typically low, severely limiting the public health significance of these interventions. We examined predictors of parenting program enrollment and retention in a sample of 325 divorced mothers. Predictors included intervention timing and maternal reports of child, parent, family, and sociocultural risk…

  6. Reflection and Self-Efficacy: Enhancing the Retention of Qualified Teachers from a Teacher Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Deborah S.

    2006-01-01

    Teacher retention has been the subject of much study, yet recent estimates of teachers who choose to leave the profession within the first three years to pursue other careers remains at an unacceptably high level of 33.5 percent. These figures are alarming in light of the fact that schools desperately need qualified teachers. Several authors…

  7. Fall 1989-Spring 1990 Retention Analysis. Enrollment Analysis EA91-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    Fall-to-spring retention rates were calculated at Prince George's Community College (PGCC) for several demographic groups and for first-time students attending the college in fall 1989. Data from longitudinal studies were included to provide a more complete picture of student persistence at PGCC. Study findings included the following: (1) 60% of…

  8. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric characterization of all acyclic C5-C7 alkenes from fluid catalytic cracked gasoline using polydimethylsiloxane and squalane stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Soják, Ladislav; Addová, Gabriela; Kubinec, Róbert; Kraus, Angelika; Hu, Gengyuan

    2002-02-15

    Published retention indices of acyclic alkenes C5-C7 on squalane and polydimethylsiloxane as stationary phases were investigated, and reliable retention indices of alkenes from various sources were converted to separation systems used in a laboratory. Retention indices measured on available authentic commercial alkenes and on alkenic fraction of gasoline, published retention indices as well as means of GC-MS were used for verification of calculated retention indices. Retention of some gas chromatographic unseparated isomer pairs was obtained by mass spectrometric deconvolution using a specific single-ion monitoring. On the basis of these retention data, C5-C7 alkenes were identified and analyzed in the gasoline from fluid catalytic cracking. In the gasoline all 59 acyclic C5-C7 isomeric alkenes were determined at significantly different concentration levels.

  9. Reliability of in-stream retention metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savickis, Jevgenijs; Zaramella, Mattia; Marion, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The temporary solute retention within transient storage zones (TSZs) has been shown to have a large effect on the transport of solute. This retention can significantly increase the overall in-stream residence time and as consequence increase the contact time of solute with aquatic interfaces (biota, sediment) and living species. An important question that arises is whether the currently available metrics adequately represent retention mechanism. This work attempts to investigate the reliability of two existing measures, the hydrological retention factor (Rh) and the fraction of median travel time due to transient storage zone (Fmed200). For this purpose, five conservative tracer tests were conducted in four European streams with distinct morphological, sediment composition, vegetation and hydraulic characteristics. The obtained breakthrough curves (BTCs) were used to derive storage zone parameters (storage zone area, storage zone exchange coefficient and mean residence time), which then were used for comparison and in the metric expressions. The storage zone parameters were computed using a single TSZ model OTIS-P and a multiple TSZ model STIR. The STIR model was applied to BTCs as an additional tool to separate TSZs into short timescale (ST) and long timescale (LT). The study results reveal correlation between Fmed200 and LT residence time T2 values, where the streams with the lowest Fmed200 (0.01-0.96) have the smallest long timescale storage zones T2 values, ranging from 912 s to 1402 s. The findings also demonstrate an influence of discharge rate on both retention metrics. The greatest Fmed200 (6.19) and Rh (0.938) values are calculated for the streams with low discharge rates (0.08-0.10 m3s‑1) and a relatively high ST storage zone residence times T1 (159 s to 351 s). Results show that the Fmed200 and Rh metrics are strongly affected by the short timescale transient storage zones, whereas the LT storage zones (hyporheic) effects are not taken into account.

  10. Reliability of in-stream retention metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savickis, Jevgenijs; Zaramella, Mattia; Marion, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The temporary solute retention within transient storage zones (TSZs) has been shown to have a large effect on the transport of solute. This retention can significantly increase the overall in-stream residence time and as consequence increase the contact time of solute with aquatic interfaces (biota, sediment) and living species. An important question that arises is whether the currently available metrics adequately represent retention mechanism. This work attempts to investigate the reliability of two existing measures, the hydrological retention factor (Rh) and the fraction of median travel time due to transient storage zone (Fmed200). For this purpose, five conservative tracer tests were conducted in four European streams with distinct morphological, sediment composition, vegetation and hydraulic characteristics. The obtained breakthrough curves (BTCs) were used to derive storage zone parameters (storage zone area, storage zone exchange coefficient and mean residence time), which then were used for comparison and in the metric expressions. The storage zone parameters were computed using a single TSZ model OTIS-P and a multiple TSZ model STIR. The STIR model was applied to BTCs as an additional tool to separate TSZs into short timescale (ST) and long timescale (LT). The study results reveal correlation between Fmed200 and LT residence time T2 values, where the streams with the lowest Fmed200 (0.01-0.96) have the smallest long timescale storage zones T2 values, ranging from 912 s to 1402 s. The findings also demonstrate an influence of discharge rate on both retention metrics. The greatest Fmed200 (6.19) and Rh (0.938) values are calculated for the streams with low discharge rates (0.08-0.10 m3s-1) and a relatively high ST storage zone residence times T1 (159 s to 351 s). Results show that the Fmed200 and Rh metrics are strongly affected by the short timescale transient storage zones, whereas the LT storage zones (hyporheic) effects are not taken into account.

  11. Prevention and management of postoperative urinary retention after urogynecologic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a frequent consequence of gynecologic surgery, especially with surgical correction of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. Estimates of retention rates after pelvic surgery range from 2.5%–43%. While there is no standard definition for POUR, it is characterized by impaired bladder emptying, with an elevation in the volume of retained urine. The key to management of POUR is early identification. All patients undergoing pelvic surgery, especially for the correction of incontinence or prolapse, should have an assessment of voiding function prior to discharge. There are several ways to assess voiding function – the gold standard is by measuring a postvoid residual. Management of POUR is fairly straightforward. The goal is to decompress the bladder to avoid long-term damage to bladder integrity and function. The decision regarding when to discontinue catheter-assisted bladder drainage in the postoperative period can be assessed in an ongoing fashion by measurement of postvoid residual. The rate of prolonged POUR beyond 4 weeks is low, and therefore most retention can be expected to resolve spontaneously within 4–6 weeks. When POUR does not resolve spontaneously, more active management may be required. Techniques include urethral dilation, sling stretching, sling incision, partial sling resection, and urethrolysis. While some risk of POUR is inevitable, there are risk factors that are modifiable. Patients that are at higher risk – either due to the procedures being performed or their clinical risk factors – should be counseled regarding the risks and management options for POUR prior to their surgery. Although POUR is a serious condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated, it is easily diagnosed and typically self-resolves. Clinician awareness of the condition and vigilance in its diagnosis are the key factors to successful care for patients undergoing surgical repair. PMID:25210477

  12. Electric fluid pump

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  13. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  14. Amniotic fluid (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Amniotic fluid surrounds the growing fetus in the womb and protects the fetus from injury and temperature changes. ... of fetal movement and permits musculoskeletal development. The amniotic fluid can be withdrawn in a procedure called amniocentsis ...

  15. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R. E.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2001-09-25

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  16. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  17. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  18. The fluids in salt.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of fluid inclusions in salt, the geological processes through which these fluids evolve, and the possible problems such inclusions pose for nuclear waste disposal in salt beds or domes are reviewed.-J.A.Z.

  19. Pleural fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  20. Pleural fluid smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... the fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  1. Calculation of Retention Time Tolerance Windows with Absolute Confidence from Shared Liquid Chromatographic Retention Data

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, Paul G.; Abate-Pella, Daniel; Hewitt, Joshua T.

    2015-01-01

    Compound identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a tedious process, mainly because authentic standards must be run on a user’s system to be able to confidently reject a potential identity from its retention time and mass spectral properties. Instead, it would be preferable to use shared retention time/index data to narrow down the identity, but shared data cannot be used to reject candidates with an absolute level of confidence because the data are strongly affected by differences between HPLC systems and experimental conditions. However, a technique called “retention projection” was recently shown to account for many of the differences. In this manuscript, we discuss an approach to calculate appropriate retention time tolerance windows for projected retention times, potentially making it possible to exclude candidates with an absolute level of confidence, without needing to have authentic standards of each candidate on hand. In a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates run among seven different labs, the new approach calculated tolerance windows that were significantly more appropriate for each retention projection than global tolerance windows calculated for retention projections or linear retention indices. Though there were still some small differences between the labs that evidently were not taken into account, the calculated tolerance windows only needed to be relaxed by 50% to make them appropriate for all labs. Even then, 42% of the tolerance windows calculated in this study without standards were narrower than those required by WADA for positive identification, where standards must be run contemporaneously. PMID:26292624

  2. Grazing and no-till cropping impacts on nitrogen retention in dryland agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Megan L; McCulley, Rebecca L; Burke, Ingrid C; Peterson, Gary; Schimel, David S; Cole, C Vernon; Elliott, Edward T; Westfall, Dwayne G

    2014-11-01

    As the world's population increases, marginal lands such as drylands are likely to become more important for food production. One proven strategy for improving crop production in drylands involves shifting from conventional tillage to no-till to increase water use efficiency, especially when this shift is coupled with more intensive crop rotations. Practices such as no-till that reduce soil disturbance and increase crop residues may promote C and N storage in soil organic matter, thus promoting N retention and reducing N losses. By sampling soils 15 yr after a N tracer addition, this study compared long-term soil N retention across several agricultural management strategies in current and converted shortgrass steppe ecosystems: grazed and ungrazed native grassland, occasionally mowed planted perennial grassland, and three cropping intensities of no-till dryland cropping. We also examined effects of the environmental variables site location and topography on N retention. Overall, the long-term soil N retention of >18% in these managed semiarid ecosystems was high compared with published values for other cropped or grassland ecosystems. Cropping practices strongly influenced long-term N retention, with planted perennial grass systems retaining >90% of N in soil compared with 30% for croplands. Grazing management, topography, and site location had smaller effects on long-term N retention. Estimated 15-yr N losses were low for intact and cropped systems. This work suggests that semiarid perennial grass ecosystems are highly N retentive and that increased intensity of semiarid land management can increase the amount of protein harvested without increasing N losses.

  3. Retention of long-term interim restorations with sodium fluoride enriched interim cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strash, Carolyn

    Purpose: Interim fixed dental prostheses, or "provisional restorations", are fabricated to restore teeth when definitive prostheses are made indirectly. Patients undergoing extensive prosthodontic treatment frequently require provisionalization for several months or years. The ideal interim cement would retain the restoration for as long as needed and still allow for ease of removal. It would also avoid recurrent caries by preventing demineralization of tooth structure. This study aims to determine if adding sodium fluoride varnish to interim cement may assist in the retention of interim restorations. Materials and methods: stainless steel dies representing a crown preparation were fabricated. Provisional crowns were milled for the dies using CAD/CAM technology. Crowns were provisionally cemented onto the dies using TempBond NE and NexTemp provisional cements as well as a mixture of TempBond NE and Duraphat fluoride varnish. Samples were stored for 24h then tested or thermocycled for 2500 or 5000 cycles before being tested. Retentive strength of each cement was recorded using a universal testing machine. Results: TempBond NE and NexTemp cements performed similarly when tested after 24h. The addition of Duraphat significantly decreased the retention when added to TempBond NE. NexTemp cement had high variability in retention over all tested time periods. Thermocycling for 2500 and 5000 cycles significantly decreased the retention of all cements. Conclusions: The addition of Duraphat fluoride varnish significantly decreased the retention of TempBond NE and is therefore not recommended for clinical use. Thermocycling significantly reduced the retention of TempBond NE and NexTemp. This may suggest that use of these cements for three months, as simulated in this study, is not recommended.

  4. Fluid force transducer

    DOEpatents

    Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

  5. Applications of Cost Effectiveness to Counseling Center Retention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Steven J.; Giddan, Norman S.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a framework for considering cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis of college counseling centers and retention activities. Results indicated that careful evaluation techniques can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of student retention programs. (Author/BL)

  6. Effect of aging on temporary cement retention in vitro.

    PubMed

    Millstein, P L; Hazan, E; Nathanson, D

    1991-06-01

    Retention of restorations cemented with temporary cement varies. Some cements are adhesive and others are weak in retention. In addition, cement retention may vary over time. This study determined (1) the retentive properties of four temporary cements, and (2) the effects of aging on temporary cement retention. Cylindrical amalgam cores and mated stainless steel retainers with a 0.05 mm cement space were used in the study. Cores were cemented into the retainers and stored in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C until tested. Retention was measured by applying a compressive force to the cores through a rod in an Instron machine. Half the samples were tested after 1 week and half were tested after 6 weeks. The results indicate a significant difference in retentive value among the four cements, including a significant decrease in retention for one cement over the 6-week aging period.

  7. Smart Fluids in Hydrology: Use of Non-Newtonian Fluids for Pore Structure Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Najm, Majdi; Atallah, Nabil; Selker, John; Roques, Clément; Stewart, Ryan; Rupp, David; Saad, George; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2016-04-01

    Classic porous media characterization relies on typical infiltration experiments with Newtonian fluids (i.e., water) to estimate hydraulic conductivity. However, such experiments are generally not able to discern important characteristics such as pore size distribution or pore structure. We show that introducing non-Newtonian fluids provides additional unique flow signatures that can be used for improved pore structure characterization. We present a new method that transforms results of N infiltration experiments using water and N-1 non-Newtonian solutions into a system of equations that yields N representative radii (Ri) and their corresponding percent contribution to flow (wi). Those radii and weights are optimized in terms of flow and porosity to represent the functional hydraulic behavior of real porous media. The method also allows for estimating the soil retention curve using only saturated experiments. Experimental and numerical validation revealed the ability of the proposed method to represent the water retention and functional infiltration behavior of real soils. The experimental results showed the ability of such fluids to outsmart Newtonian fluids and infer pore size distribution and unsaturated behavior using simple saturated experiments. Specifically, we demonstrate using synthetic porous media composed of different combinations of sizes and numbers of capillary tubes that the use of different non-Newtonian fluids enables the prediction of the pore structure. The results advance the knowledge towards conceptualizing the complexity of porous media and can potentially impact applications in fields like irrigation efficiencies, vadose zone hydrology, soil-root-plant continuum, carbon sequestration into geologic formations, soil remediation, petroleum reservoir engineering, oil exploration and groundwater modeling.

  8. Nutrient retention in riparian floodplains on landscape scale, the necessity for a monthly retention approach.

    PubMed

    Natho, S; Venohr, M

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses the computed nitrogen retention, the distribution and the extent of riparian floodplains of three German rivers, as input data and application of the retention model has not been carried out on landscape scale so far. The Software FLYS 2.1.3 was used for the calculation of the floodplain extent and depth at certain discharges. Thus a first empirical approach is suggested to quantify the share of load that enters the floodplain (incoming load) and the extent of floodplain as variables depending on discharge ratios. Measured loads have subsequently been applied to the presented approach to calculate incoming loads on a monthly and yearly basis for the years 1999 and 2002. Finally, linear and exponential yearly retention models were applied, obtained from the literature. Large variations in the retention results were found between the years and the models and between monthly and yearly calculations. In hydrologically average years, calculated retention rates are in the range of reported values (440-670 kg N ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹), whereas for wet years, retention values account for 1,400 kg N ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹. Consequently, this approach needs to be improved to reduce overestimation by considering more complex characteristics of the floodplain, but generally its application is possible on the landscape scale.

  9. Modern therapy for severe alveolar ridge atrophy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Feng; Pan, Chin-Yun; Wang, Wen-Chen; Lan, Ting-Hsun

    2013-01-01

    This clinical report illustrates a modern method for oral rehabilitation of severe edentulous atrophic ridge. Shallow vestibule and small denture-bearing area of the maxilla provide insufficient retention, and only the symphyseal region of the mandible has obvious alveolar ridge. The surgery of deepening vestibule of the maxilla ridge was done by using tentative miniscrew combined with old denture and soft liner. The osseointegrated dental implants were installed over symphyseal region of the mandible to act as retentive devices for prostheses. In addition, functional reline with rebase material to build buccal-tongue contact over the retromolar area after denture delivery obtained high satisfaction from the patient. Many clinical conditions cannot be managed solely with implants or preprosthetic surgery alone, whereas a combination of the 2 can achieve successful outcome. PMID:24036818

  10. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  11. Does temporary socket removal affect residual limb fluid volume of trans-tibial amputees?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Hartley, TL; Phillips, RH; Ciol, MA; Hafner, BJ; Allyn, KJ; Harrison, DS

    2015-01-01

    Background Lower-limb prosthesis users typically experience residual limb volume losses over the course of the day that can detrimentally affect socket fit. Objectives To determine if temporarily doffing the prosthesis encouraged residual limb fluid volume recovery and if the recovered fluid was maintained. Study Design Experimental design. Methods Residual limb fluid volume was monitored on sixteen participants in three test sessions each. Participants conducted six cycles of resting/standing/walking. Between the third and fourth cycles, participants sat for 30 minutes with the prosthesis and liner: donned (ON), the prosthesis doffed but the liner donned (LINER), or the prosthesis and liner doffed (OFF). Results Percentage fluid volume gain and retention were greatest for the OFF condition followed by the LINER condition. Participants experienced fluid volume losses for the ON condition. Conclusion Doffing the prosthesis and/or liner during rest improved residual limb fluid volume retention compared with leaving the prosthesis and liner donned. Clinical Relevance Practitioners should advise patients who undergo high daily limb volume losses to consider temporarily doffing their prosthesis. Fluid volume retention during subsequent activity will be highest if both the prosthesis and liner are doffed. PMID:25710944

  12. Pathogenesis-Related Proteins Limit the Retention of Condensed Tannin Additions to Red Wines.

    PubMed

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sherwood, Robert W; Sacks, Gavin L

    2016-02-17

    Exogenous additions of condensed tannin (CT) to must or wine are a common winemaking practice, but many studies have reported inexplicably low and variable retention of added CT. We observed that additions of purified CT to red wines can result in the formation of an insoluble precipitate with high nitrogen content. Proteomic analysis of the precipitant identified several classes of pathogenesis-related proteins. Proteins in juices and red wines were quantitated by SDS-PAGE and were highest in native Vitis spp., followed by interspecific hybrids and Vitis vinifera. Wine protein was positively correlated with the ratio of juice protein to the quantity of tannin derived from fruit. The binding of added CT by wine protein could be well modeled by the Freundlich equation. These observations may explain the poor CT retention in previous studies, particularly for interspecific hybrids, and also indicate that protein removal during winemaking may improve exogenous CT retention.

  13. In situ monitoring hydrogen isotope retention in ITER first wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhin, E. E.; Andrew, P.; Anthoine, A. D.; Bazhenov, A. N.; Barnsley, R.; Bukreev, I. M.; Bukhovets, V. L.; Chernakov, A. P.; Gorodetsky, A. E.; Kochergin, M. M.; Koval, A. N.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Kurskiev, G. S.; Levashova, M. G.; Litvinov, A. E.; Litunovsky, V. N.; Markin, A. V.; Mazul, I. V.; Masyukevich, S. V.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Nemov, A. S.; Novokhatsky, A. N.; Razdobarin, A. G.; Sherstnev, E. V.; Samsonov, D. S.; Semenov, V. V.; Smirnov, A. S.; De Temmerman, G.; Tolstyakov, S. Yu.; Zalavutdinov, R. Kh.; Walsh, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Tritium retention inside the vacuum vessel is a potentially serious constraint in the operation of large-scale fusion machines like ITER. An in situ diagnostics for first wall H/D/T retention by laser induced desorption spectroscopy (LIDS) is proposed for use between plasma discharges. The technique is based on local baking of the first wall by laser irradiation and subsequent analysis of the in-vessel gas by optical emission spectroscopy of plasma radiation. The local heating implementation, kinetics of H/D/T thermal extraction and the accuracy of optical emission spectroscopy measurements are analysed. To resolve the H/D/T lines spectroscopically, their thermal broadening should be minimized to prevent overlapping of the line shapes. A comparative performance analysis of several types of plasma sources with relatively cold ions is made including the following types of discharges: Penning, RF multipactor, laser torch and ECR. All these radiation sources require rather low power and could be used for remote in situ measurements of relative densities of the thermally extracted hydrogen isotopes.

  14. Measurements of Cs absorption and retention in man

    SciTech Connect

    Henrichs, H.; Paretzke, H.G.; Voigt, G.; Berg, D. )

    1989-10-01

    One of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986 was a comparatively high contamination of foodstuffs in Southern Federal Republic of Germany. In order to test radioecological models predicting the radiological consequences of such accidents, several thousand measurements were performed to determine Cs body burdens in members of the public. For the interpretation of these data and as a contribution to the improvement of the available database on the biokinetics of Cs isotopes in humans, we followed a small group of volunteers after their consumption of highly contaminated venison. Intakes, excretion rates and total body activities were measured during a period of more than 200 d. The data obtained were evaluated in terms of a compartment model to derive gastrointestinal uptakes, biological half-lives and dose conversion factors. The resulting uptake factors range from 65-90%, the half-lives of the long-term retention from 45 to 200 d. The majority of the resulting dose conversion factors lie below the values recommended by the ICRP, showing that the ICRP model is a reasonable and safe description of the Cs biokinetics in our study group, while the great variability of the results shows that it is not an accurate representation of the individual Cs retention.

  15. Retention/Diffusivity Studies in Free-Surface Flowing Liquid Lithium

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Stubbers; G.H. Miley; M. Nieto; W. Olczak; D.N. Ruzic; A. Hassanein

    2004-12-14

    FLIRE was designed to measure the hydrogen and helium retention and diffusivity in a flowing stream of liquid lithium, and it has accomplished these goals. Retention coefficients for helium in the flowing liquid stream were 0.1-2% for flow speeds of 44 cm/s and implantation energies between 500 and 2000 eV. The energy dependence of retention is linear for the energy range considered, as expected, and the dependence of retention on flow velocity fits the expected square-root of flow speed dependence. Estimates of the helium diffusion coefficient in the flowing lithium stream were {approx} 4 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s, and are independent of implantation energy. This value is much lower than expected, which could be due to several factors, such as mixing, bubble formation or surface film formation. In the case of hydrogen, long term retention and release mechanisms are of greatest importance, since this relates to tritium inventory in flowing lithium PFCs for fusion applications. The amount of hydride formation was measured for flowing lithium exposed to neutral deuterium gas. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements indicate that the hydride concentration was between 0.1 and 0.2% over a wide range of pressures (6.5 x 10{sup -5} to 1 Torr). This result implies that the deuterium absorption rate is limited by the surface dissociation rate, since deuterium (hydrogen/tritium) is absorbed in its atomic form, not its molecular form.

  16. Plum and soy aglycon extracts superior at increasing bone calcium retention in ovariectomized Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Jessica W; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Weaver, Connie M

    2014-07-01

    Plant-derived polyphenols have been shown to influence bone turnover and bone properties in the estrogen-depleted state. We used a crossover design in ovariectomized rats (n = 16 rats for each diet) to investigate the effect of supplementation of two doses each of blueberry, plum, grape, grape seed extract, and resveratrol on bone. We tested the aglycon and glucoside forms of genistein to quantify differences in efficacy on bone calcium retention. Rats were given an intravenous dose of ⁴⁵Ca to prelabel bone, and bone calcium retention was assessed by urinary excretion of ⁴⁵Ca:Ca ratio during an intervention period compared with nonintervention. Genistein aglycon increased bone calcium retention significantly (p<0.05) more than the glucoside (22% vs 13%, respectively). Plum extract (0.45% w/w total dietary polyphenols) and resveratrol (0.2% w/w total dietary polyphenols) were also effective, increasing bone calcium retention by 20% (p=0.0153) and 14% (p=0.0012), respectively. Several polyphenolic-rich diets improved bone calcium retention.

  17. Plum and Soy Aglycon Extracts Superior at Increasing Bone Calcium Retention in Ovariectomized Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived polyphenols have been shown to influence bone turnover and bone properties in the estrogen-depleted state. We used a crossover design in ovariectomized rats (n = 16 rats for each diet) to investigate the effect of supplementation of two doses each of blueberry, plum, grape, grape seed extract, and resveratrol on bone. We tested the aglycon and glucoside forms of genistein to quantify differences in efficacy on bone calcium retention. Rats were given an intravenous dose of 45Ca to prelabel bone, and bone calcium retention was assessed by urinary excretion of 45Ca:Ca ratio during an intervention period compared with nonintervention. Genistein aglycon increased bone calcium retention significantly (p < 0.05) more than the glucoside (22% vs 13%, respectively). Plum extract (0.45% w/w total dietary polyphenols) and resveratrol (0.2% w/w total dietary polyphenols) were also effective, increasing bone calcium retention by 20% (p = 0.0153) and 14% (p = 0.0012), respectively. Several polyphenolic-rich diets improved bone calcium retention. PMID:24894797

  18. Green roof stormwater retention: effects of roof surface, slope, and media depth.

    PubMed

    VanWoert, Nicholaus D; Rowe, D Bradley; Andresen, Jeffrey A; Rugh, Clayton L; Fernandez, R Thomas; Xiao, Lan

    2005-01-01

    Urban areas generate considerably more stormwater runoff than natural areas of the same size due to a greater percentage of impervious surfaces that impede water infiltration. Roof surfaces account for a large portion of this impervious cover. Establishing vegetation on rooftops, known as green roofs, is one method of recovering lost green space that can aid in mitigating stormwater runoff. Two studies were performed using several roof platforms to quantify the effects of various treatments on stormwater retention. The first study used three different roof surface treatments to quantify differences in stormwater retention of a standard commercial roof with gravel ballast, an extensive green roof system without vegetation, and a typical extensive green roof with vegetation. Overall, mean percent rainfall retention ranged from 48.7% (gravel) to 82.8% (vegetated). The second study tested the influence of roof slope (2 and 6.5%) and green roof media depth (2.5, 4.0, and 6.0 cm) on stormwater retention. For all combined rain events, platforms at 2% slope with a 4-cm media depth had the greatest mean retention, 87%, although the difference from the other treatments was minimal. The combination of reduced slope and deeper media clearly reduced the total quantity of runoff. For both studies, vegetated green roof systems not only reduced the amount of stormwater runoff, they also extended its duration over a period of time beyond the actual rain event.

  19. Participant Retention in the Parents Matter! Program: Strategies and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lisa P.; Clark, Heather; Barber, C. Nekol; Dorsey, Shannon; Hughley, Jennifer; Favors, Marcia; Wyckoff, Sarah C.

    2004-01-01

    We present a discussion of the literature addressing retention of ethnic minority samples in longitudinal studies. In addition, we describe the retention procedures implemented in the Parents Matter! Program (PMP), a community-based sexual risk reduction intervention for African American families. Finally, the results of PMP's retention strategies…

  20. Retention Initiatives Used by Professional Master's Athletic Training Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Many professional master's athletic training program directors believe retention is a problem facing athletic training education. However, it remains unknown what steps, if any, are taken to improve retention. Objective: To inquire with program directors about their respective methods and interventions aimed at increasing retention rates.…

  1. Policies and Practice: A Focus on Higher Education Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    This book, based on a discussion at an interactive videoconference, examines student diversity issues and retention strategies in the context of the Sallie Mae National Retention Project that addressed state expectations for more accountability and federal reporting requirements on graduation and retention. The eight chapters focus on equity as it…

  2. Framing Retention for Institutional Improvement: A 4 Ps Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps framework for student retention strategy is a construct for reframing the retention discussion in a way that enables institutional improvement by challenging some conventional wisdom and prevailing perspectives that have characterized retention strategy for years. It opens new possibilities for action and improvement by suggesting that…

  3. 48 CFR 4.704 - Calculation of retention periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of retention periods. 4.704 Section 4.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Records Retention 4.704 Calculation of retention periods. (a) The...

  4. 49 CFR 239.203 - Retention of emergency preparedness plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of emergency preparedness plan. 239.203... Retention of Emergency Preparedness Plans § 239.203 Retention of emergency preparedness plan. Each passenger...), shall each retain one copy of the emergency preparedness plan required by § 239.201 and one copy of...

  5. 49 CFR 239.203 - Retention of emergency preparedness plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of emergency preparedness plan. 239.203... Retention of Emergency Preparedness Plans § 239.203 Retention of emergency preparedness plan. Each passenger...), shall each retain one copy of the emergency preparedness plan required by § 239.201 and one copy of...

  6. A Review of the Elementary School Promotion/Retention Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossing, Lewis; Brien, Phyl

    The purpose of this paper is to present different aspects of the effects of grade retention on students and to consider what is best for the total development of the child. Studies show that grade retention does not ensure significant gains in achievement. However, studies seem to be less conclusive regarding retention due to the immaturity of…

  7. Grade Retention: What are the Costs and Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eide, Eric R.; Goldhaber, Dan D.

    2005-01-01

    Grade retention is a common practice used when students fail to meet required benchmarks. Therefore, it is important that we understand the relative benefits and costs associated with students repeating a grade. In this article we analyze the costs and benefits of grade retention. In our examination of retention, we obtain our calculations of the…

  8. Measuring Student Retention at an Online Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Wallace E., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Student persistence or retention has been a documented issue in higher education in the United States since the late 1800s. While much has been written about the topic of retention at the more traditional types of institutions, little has been written about retention at the online institutions of higher learning that have developed since the early…

  9. Education for Sustainable Development and Retention: Unravelling a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the question of what education for sustainable development (ESD) research might signify when linked to the concept of "retention", and how this relation (ESD and retention) might be researched. It considers two different perspectives on retention, as revealed through educational research trajectories, drawing on existing…

  10. 48 CFR 1604.705 - Specific retention periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Specific retention periods... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Records Retention 1604.705 Specific retention periods. Unless the contracting officer determines that there exists...

  11. 5 CFR 351.401 - Determining retention standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REDUCTION IN FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.401 Determining retention standing. Each agency shall determine the retention standing of each competing employee on the basis of the factors in this subpart and... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining retention standing....

  12. 5 CFR 536.208 - Termination of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 531, subpart B, for GS positions). An employee is not entitled to pay retention under subpart... grade retention benefits (except that, if an employee's election specifically provides that the... grade retention terminates under this section, the employee's rate of basic pay must be set...

  13. 5 CFR 351.506 - Effective date of retention standing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the performance factor as provided in § 351.504: (a) The retention standing of each employee released... is so released. (b) The retention standing of each employee retained in a competitive level as an... been released had the exception not been used. The retention standing of each employee retained...

  14. 5 CFR 536.302 - Optional pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....102 and this section, an authorized agency official may provide pay retention to an employee not... employee to pay retention under paragraph (a) of this section, the agency must apply the geographic... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional pay retention. 536.302...

  15. 5 CFR 575.309 - Payment of retention incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a retention incentive is subject to the aggregate limitation on pay under 5 CFR part 530, subpart B. ... retention incentive rate may not exceed— (1) 25 percent, if authorized for an individual employee; or (2) 10... example, an agency establishes a retention incentive percentage rate of 10 percent for an employee....

  16. 5 CFR 536.202 - Optional grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... §§ 536.102 and 536.203, an authorized agency official may provide grade retention to an employee moving... lower-graded position. (c) When an employee is offered a position with grade retention under this... entitlement to grade retention under § 536.201 if the agency actually moves the employee to the...

  17. Development of the Orion Crew-Service Module Umbilical Retention and Release Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delap, Damon C.; Glidden, Joel Micah; Lamoreaux, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Orion CSM umbilical retention and release mechanism supports and protects all of the cross-module commodities between the spacecrafts crew and service modules. These commodities include explosive transfer lines, wiring for power and data, and flexible hoses for ground purge and life support systems. The mechanism employs a single separation interface which is retained with pyrotechnically actuated separation bolts and supports roughly two dozen electrical and fluid connectors. When module separation is commanded, either for nominal on-orbit CONOPS or in the event of an abort, the mechanism must release the separation interface and sever all commodity connections within milliseconds of command receipt. There are a number of unique and novel aspects of the design solution developed by the Orion mechanisms team. The design is highly modular and can easily be adapted to other vehiclesmodules and alternate commodity sets. It will be flight tested during Orions Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) in 2014, and the Orion team anticipates reuse of the design for all future missions. The design packages fluid, electrical, and ordnance disconnects in a single separation interface. It supports abort separations even in cases where aerodynamic loading prevents the deployment of the umbilical arm. Unlike the Apollo CSM umbilical which was a destructive separation device, the Orion design is resettable and flight units can be tested for separation performance prior to flight.Initial development testing of the mechanisms separation interface resulted in binding failures due to connector misalignments. The separation interface was redesigned with a robust linear guide system, and the connector separation and boom deployment were separated into two discretely sequenced events. These changes addressed the root cause of the binding failure by providing better control of connector alignment. The new design was tuned and validated analytically via Monte Carlo simulation. The

  18. Strategies to improve retention in randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Brueton, Valerie C; Tierney, Jayne; Stenning, Sally; Harding, Seeromanie; Meredith, Sarah; Nazareth, Irwin; Rait, Greta

    2013-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up from randomised trials can introduce bias and reduce study power, affecting the generalisability, validity and reliability of results. Many strategies are used to reduce loss to follow-up and improve retention but few have been formally evaluated. Objectives To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention on the proportion of participants retained in randomised trials and to investigate if the effect varied by trial strategy and trial setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, DARE, CINAHL, Campbell Collaboration's Social, Psychological, Educational and Criminological Trials Register, and ERIC. We handsearched conference proceedings and publication reference lists for eligible retention trials. We also surveyed all UK Clinical Trials Units to identify further studies. Selection criteria We included eligible retention trials of randomised or quasi-randomised evaluations of strategies to increase retention that were embedded in 'host' randomised trials from all disease areas and healthcare settings. We excluded studies aiming to increase treatment compliance. Data collection and analysis We contacted authors to supplement or confirm data that we had extracted. For retention trials, we recorded data on the method of randomisation, type of strategy evaluated, comparator, primary outcome, planned sample size, numbers randomised and numbers retained. We used risk ratios (RR) to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of strategies to improve retention. We assessed heterogeneity between trials using the Chi2 and I2 statistics. For main trials that hosted retention trials, we extracted data on disease area, intervention, population, healthcare setting, sequence generation and allocation concealment. Main results We identified 38 eligible retention trials. Included trials evaluated six broad types of strategies to improve retention. These

  19. Critical fluid light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  20. Retention technique #1. Developing managerial warmth.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R

    1989-01-01

    A manager who has interpersonal warmth is not simply gullible or naive, but instead possesses a valuable skill in reaching others. In most manager-employee relationships, some degree of limit-setting and judgment are necessary; however, warmth integrated with limit-setting is more satisfying for both employee and manager. Although warmth as an interpersonal phenomenon is affected by the employee's perception, certain managerial actions can increase the likelihood of being perceived as warm; yet, in spite of careful adherence to the guidelines for communicating warmth, managerial warmth will still be rejected in some situations. As is true of any managerial technique, the effective use of warmth requires an assessment of the employee's personality and the approach most appropriate for the situation at hand. The excellent manager is able to quickly adapt, matching the level of warmth to the situation. See Nurse Manager Retention Factors for viewpoints from nurses themselves. Interpersonal management style is an important retention factor.

  1. Improving student retention in computer engineering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierozinski, Russell Ivan

    The purpose of this research project was to improve student retention in the Computer Engineering Technology program at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology by reducing the number of dropouts and increasing the graduation rate. This action research project utilized a mixed methods approach of a survey and face-to-face interviews. The participants were male and female, with a large majority ranging from 18 to 21 years of age. The research found that participants recognized their skills and capability, but their capacity to remain in the program was dependent on understanding and meeting the demanding pace and rigour of the program. The participants recognized that curriculum delivery along with instructor-student interaction had an impact on student retention. To be successful in the program, students required support in four domains: academic, learning management, career, and social.

  2. A model of nursing student retention.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Elisabeth N

    2012-03-18

    A model of nursing student retention was studied in nontraditional, associate degree nursing students. Student retention was defined as persistence, or choosing to continue in a nursing program, and successful academic performance, or meeting the necessary academic standards to continue in a nursing program. The model shows the interaction of background variables, internal psychological processes, and external supports, and their relationships to persistence and academic performance. Participants were 458 nontraditional associate degree nursing students. There were significant differences in background variables between students who persisted and those who withdrew voluntarily or failed academically. Perceived faculty support was related to both persistence and academic performance, such that students with higher perceived faculty support were more likely to continue in a nursing program until graduation and were more likely to be successful academically. Students with higher perceived faculty support also had higher outcome expectations of earning an associate degree in nursing.

  3. Selective Surface Modification on Lubricant Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-11-01

    While surface patterns are effective in improving tribological properties, nevertheless they alter the surface wettability, which will in turn affect the surface-lubricant interactions. When there is a shortage of lubricant on a patterned surface, the lubricant stored inside the cavities will be extracted to compensate the surface lubricant dissipation. Additionally, the lubricant retention effect provided by the cavities is competing with the release of the lubricant. With weak surface-lubricant interaction, the retention is limited. Therefore, the lubrication will have a sudden failure, giving a dramatic transition to abrasive wear. To improve the performance of polar lubricants on hydrophobic polymer surfaces, both topographical and selective surface modifications were incorporated on injection molded polypropylene surfaces. Distinctive lubrication improvement was observed when the surface structure density for the lubricant storage was high, and the release of the lubricant was controlled by the interaction with the selectively modified surfaces.

  4. Staff retention and empowerment: functions of leadership.

    PubMed

    Mass, Diana

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of any organization's structure and technology, the most potent leverage for exceptional performance and quality assurance resides within personnel. Retention of empowered, committed staff who believe in their organization's purpose and leadership is important to an organization's success. The Clinical Laboratory Sciences (CLS) profession faces a different kind of crisis, not only one of economics, but also one of quality because of lost professional expertise. This dilemma is because of profound neglect of the organization's greatest asset--its CLS professionals. Retention of expert CLS professionals requires a dramatic change in management's belief system regarding the value of their assets. Laboratory leaders must create a culture of empowered people with the freedom to exhibit self-direction toward achieving the organization's mission and goals. Managers must consider employees valuable enough to invest in their professional growth. A laboratory's long-term sustainability and economic performance will depend on a committed workforce.

  5. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  6. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  7. RETENTION OF HALOCARBONS ON A HEXAFLUOROPROPYLENE-EPOXIDE MODIFIED GRAPHITIZED CARBON BLACK, PART 5: HEAVIER ETHANE- AND ETHENE-BASED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study of the retention characteristics of 13 heavier ethane-based and 8 ethene-based halocarbon fluids related to alternative refrigerant research as a function of temperature on a stationary phase consisting of a 5% (by mass) coating of a low molecul...

  8. Nursing workforce retention: challenging a bullying culture.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Stella

    2002-01-01

    Discussions surrounding nursing shortages typically focus on recruitment, but retention is also a problem. Emerging research suggests that intimidation in the nursing workforce is a problem that planners need to deal with as part of an overall strategy aimed at maintaining a balance between supply and demand. This paper explores issues surrounding intimidation in the nursing workforce and looks at how one major teaching hospital in Australia attempted to address the problem. PMID:12224882

  9. Improved motor sequence retention by motionless listening.

    PubMed

    Lahav, Amir; Katz, Tal; Chess, Roxanne; Saltzman, Elliot

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effect of listening to a newly learned musical piece on subsequent motor retention of the piece. Thirty-six non-musicians were trained to play an unfamiliar melody on a piano keyboard. Next, they were randomly assigned to participate in three follow-up listening sessions over 1 week. Subjects who, during their listening sessions, listened to the same initial piece showed significant improvements in motor memory and retention of the piece despite the absence of physical practice. These improvements included increased pitch accuracy, time accuracy, and dynamic intensity of key pressing. Similar improvements, though to a lesser degree, were observed in subjects who, during their listening sessions, were distracted by another task. Control subjects, who after learning the piece had listened to nonmusical sounds, showed impaired motoric retention of the piece at 1 week from the initial acquisition day. These results imply that motor sequences can be established in motor memory without direct access to motor-related information. In addition, the study revealed that the listening-induced improvements did not generalize to the learning of a new musical piece composed of the same notes as the initial piece learned, limiting the effects to musical motor sequences that are already part of the individual's motor repertoire. PMID:22434336

  10. Why does atorvastatin inhibit renal crystal retention?

    PubMed

    Tsujihata, Masao; Yoshioka, Iwao; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2011-10-01

    Recently, we reported that atorvastatin prevents renal tubular cell injury by oxalate and inhibits renal crystal retention. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which atorvastatin inhibits renal crystal retention. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four experimental groups, and the ethylene glycol model of hyperoxaluria and the atorvastatin treatment model were analyzed. To clarify the mechanism by which atorvastatin inhibits renal crystal retention, the removed kidneys were used for the quantitative analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The subunits of the NADPH oxidase system were evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, the level of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in kidney tissue was compared in each group. Atorvastatin treatment increased the SOD and catalase level compared with the stone-forming control group. Atorvastatin treatment decreased the expression of NOX-1 mRNA. Furthermore, the level of TGF-β was suppressed by atorvastatin treatment. We found that atorvastatin have inhibited calcium oxalate (CaOX) urolithiasis formation. We hypothesize that the mechanism of action of atorvastatin involves inhibiting TGF-β and NADPH oxidase, and increasing the SOD and catalase level. We believe that atorvastatin will be helpful in the treatment of CaOX urolithiasis.

  11. Maternal Stress Predicts Postpartum Weight Retention

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Kara; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  12. Testing to enhance retention in human anatomy.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jessica M; Thompson, Andrew J; Marshak, David W

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the nervous system, were developed. The quizzes were optional, and no credit was awarded. They were posted online using Blackboard, which provided feedback, and they were very popular. To determine whether the quizzes had any effect on retention, they were given in a controlled setting to 21 future medical and dental students. The weekly quizzes included questions on regional anatomy and an expanded set of questions on the nervous system. Each question about the nervous system was given three times, in a slightly different form each time. The second quiz was given approximately half an hour after the first one, and the third was given one week after the second to assess retention. The quizzes were unpopular, but students showed robust improvement on the questions about the nervous system. The scores increased by almost 9% on the second quiz, with no intervention except viewing the correct answers. The scores were 29% higher on the third quiz than on the first, and there was also a positive correlation between the grades on the quizzes and the final examination. Thus, repeated testing is an effective strategy for learning and retaining information about human anatomy. PMID:21805688

  13. Measuring the value of customer retention

    SciTech Connect

    Monts, K.; Bonevac, B.; Lauer, J.; Tessema, D.

    1997-05-01

    Competition will require changes in how market research is conducted and how customers are pursued. The question remains: How does one approach customer retention in a way that provides meaningful guidelines? The conventional wisdom is that {open_quotes}the business of business is selling.{close_quotes} There is some truth to this, but the key question today is: What bearing does this have on how to run a business in a competitive environment? A recent article in the Harvard Business Review noted that, {open_quotes}Increasingly, companies are less focused on selling products and more interested in keeping customers.{close_quotes} Indeed, some observers have posited a natural societal evolutionary trend toward a shift of emphasis toward customer retention vis-a-vis customer acquisition, as a consequence of the primary marketing communication technology shifting from {open_quotes}broadcast{close_quotes} (where messages are sent out to inchoate masses) to {open_quotes}interactive{close_quotes} (where relationships are cultivated with precisely defined market niches or individual customers). The business of growing a business, then, can be framed as a matter of getting customers and keeping them so as to grow the value of the customer base to its fullest potential. In these terms, setting a marketing budget becomes the task of balancing what is spent on customer acquisition with what is spent on retention.

  14. Retention of perceptual generalization of fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Pappens, Meike; Schroijen, Mathias; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

    2015-12-01

    Fear reduction obtained during a fear extinction procedure can generalize from the extinction stimulus to other perceptually similar stimuli. Perceptual generalization of fear extinction typically follows a perceptual gradient, with increasing levels of fear reduction the more a stimulus resembles the extinction stimulus. The current study aimed to investigate whether perceptual generalization of fear extinction can be observed also after a retention interval of 24h. Fear was acquired to three geometrical figures of different sizes (CS(+), CS1(+) and CS2(+)) by consistently pairing them with a short-lasting suffocation experience (US). Three other geometrical figures that were never followed by the US served as control stimuli (CS(-), CS1(-), CS2(-)). Next, only the CS(+) was extinguished by presenting it in the absence of the US. One day later, fear responses to all stimuli were assessed without any US-presentation. Outcome measures included startle blink EMG, skin conductance, US expectancy, respiratory rate and tidal volume. On day 2 spontaneous recovery of fear was observed in US expectancy and tidal volume, but not in the other outcomes. Evidence for the retention of fear extinction generalization was present in US expectancy and skin conductance, but a perceptual gradient in the retention of generalized fear extinction could not be observed.

  15. DRAM Weak Cell Characterization for Retention Time.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jonghyuk; Lee, Sungho; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2016-05-01

    This work proposes a sequence of tests for detecting refresh weak cells based on data retention time distribution in the main cell array of DRAMs and verify the feasibility of the proposed method through analysis of 30 nm design-rule DRAM cells with Recess Channel Array Transistor (RCAT) and Buried Channel Array Transistor (BCAT). Basic idea of the proposed mechanism is to test with different bias conditions and break down retention failures based on their root causes such as Gate Induced Drain Leakage, sub-threshold leakage and junction leakage. This categorization helps to determine the physical locations of each failure group, enabling precise Physical Failure Analysis (PFA). The characterization of data retention weak cells for 30 nm design rule DRAMs with BCAT and RCAT has been investigated. Most weak cells were classified as GIDL leaky cells in both cases. In the case of BCAT, the distance between the word line and the storage node, caused by the process distribution, is the main origin of weak cells. In the case of RCAT, the sharp corner of the active layer in the storage node is the main cause of weak cells. PMID:27483878

  16. Deuterium Retention in NSTX with Lithium Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Allain, J. P.; Blanchard, W.; Kugel, H. W.; Maingi, Rajesh; Roquemore, L.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Taylor, C. N.

    2011-01-01

    High (approximate to 90%) deuterium retention was observed in NSTX gas balance measurements both with- and without lithiumization of the carbon plasma-facing components. The gas retained in ohmic discharges was measured by comparing the vessel pressure rise after a discharge to that of a gas-only pulse with the pumping valves closed. For neutral beam heated discharges the gas input and gas pumped by the NB cryopanels were tracked. The discharges were followed by outgassing of deuterium that reduced the retention. The relationship between retention and surface chemistry was explored with a new plasma-material interface probe connected to an in vacuo surface science station that exposed four material samples to the plasma. XPS and TDS analysis demonstrated that binding of D atoms in graphite is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular atoms are weakly bonded in regions near lithium atoms bound to either oxygen or the carbon matrix. This is in contrast to the strong ionic bonding that occurs between D and pure Li. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Separation optimization of aniline and seven 4-substituted anilines in high-submicellar liquid chromatography using empirical retention modeling and Derringer's desirability function.

    PubMed

    Hadjmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; S J Nazari, S Saman

    2013-08-01

    The separation optimization of aniline and seven 4-substituted derivatives in high-submicellar LC was performed using an interpretive optimization strategy and Derringer's desirability function. Description of the retention of solutes was carried out through several hyperbolic and logarithmic retention models using the retention data of five mobile phases of SDS (0.06-0.12 M) and methanol (50-70% v/v) at pH 3. Among the investigated models, a logarithmic retention model logk=c0+c1φ+c2[S]+c12φ[S]+d12(φ[S])0.5 showed the best prediction capability and was used to predict the solute retention factors. A grid search program was used to calculate the retention times of each solute, based on the best retention model, for all combinations of SDS and methanol concentrations in the factor space. Two different chromatographic goals, analysis time and retention differences between adjacent peaks, were evaluated simultaneously using Derringer's desirability function for each mobile phase conditions in the grid search. Optimal mobile phase composition for separation of eight anilines was found to be 0.119 M SDS and 53% v/v methanol. Under these conditions, full resolutions with a reasonable analysis time (22 min) were obtained. At the optimal condition, a good agreement was observed between predicted and experimental values of the retention times.

  18. Arterial hypertension due to fructose ingestion: model based on intermittent osmotic fluid trapping in the small bowel

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Based on recently reported data that fructose ingestion is linked to arterial hypertension, a model of regulatory loops involving the colon role in maintenance of fluid and sodium homeostasis is proposed. In normal digestion of hyperosmolar fluids, also in cases of postprandial hypotension and in patients having the "dumping" syndrome after gastric surgery, any hyperosmolar intestinal content is diluted by water taken from circulation and being trapped in the bowel until reabsorption. High fructose corn sirup (HFCS) soft drinks are among common hyperosmolar drinks. Fructose is slowly absorbed through passive carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion, along the entire small bowel, thus preventing absorption of the trapped water for several hours. Here presented interpretation is that ingestion of hyperosmolar HFCS drinks due to a transient fluid shift into the small bowel increases renin secretion and sympathetic activity, leading to rise in ADH and aldosterone secretions. Their actions spare water and sodium in the large bowel and kidneys. Alteration of colon absorption due to hormone exposure depends on cell renewal and takes days to develop, so the momentary capacity of sodium absorption in the colon depends on the average aldosterone and ADH exposure during few previous days. This inertia in modulation of the colon function can make an individual that often takes HFCS drinks prone to sodium retention, until a new balance is reached with an expanded ECF pool and arterial hypertension. In individuals with impaired fructose absorption, even a higher risk of arterial hypertension can be expected. PMID:20579372

  19. [Green amniotic fluid as initial symptom of high intestinal obstruction in infants].

    PubMed

    Swarte, R M; Hack, W W; Roex, A J; Ekkelkamp, S

    1997-01-25

    At the birth of two children the amniotic fluid was green colored. The Apgar scores were good. Because of bilious vomiting and food retention, respectively, an open stomach tube was inserted, out of which bilious stomach contains were drained. The cause of green amniotic fluid was not meconium production or infection with Listeria monocytogenes, but mixing with green bile. At further investigation the children both proved to have a high intestinal obstruction distal of the papilla duodeni major.

  20. [Oxytocin and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic neonatal hormone. Case report of early severe hyponatremia and literature review].

    PubMed

    Aldana-Valenzuela, Carlos; Prieto-Pantoja, José Alfredo; Hernández-Acevedo, Angélica

    2010-12-01

    This is a clinical case presentation of a full term newborn infant who suffered severe hyponatremia and early seizures, associated with maternal fluid overload with electrolyte free solutions and high doses of oxytocin for labor augmentation. Although this condition has been recognized since the 1960's with isolated reports, this particular case has features that needs further investigation, not only for the unsually severe hyponatremia, but most importantly we think, for the prominent signs of fluid retention, the infant had, that suggest excessive antidiuretic activity probably due to oxytocin. These findings are consistent with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Although until now there is no proof that oxytocin by itself produces this syndrome. We think the association is possible in certain clinical circumstances, such as those found in this case. We also, briefly discussed the pathophysiology of perinatal hyponatremia, the neonatal treatment of this condition and the current guidelines for the women in labor. Hyponatremia should not be considered a benign condition, since in the neonate, it may affect brain function. PMID:21961376

  1. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  2. Leucine for retention of lean mass on a hypocaloric diet.

    PubMed

    Jitomir, Jean; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2008-12-01

    As obesity rates continue to climb, there is a pressing need for novel weight loss techniques. However, the energy-restricted diets recommended for weight loss typically result in significant amounts of lean tissue loss, in addition to the desired body fat loss. Leucine, a supported anticatabolic agent, has shown promise in research at many levels. First, leucine is known to stimulate the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, which initiates translation and protein synthesis in muscle cells. Furthermore, leucine may help to regulate blood glucose levels by promoting gluconeogenesis. Finally, several recent studies provide evidence that leucine aids in the retention of lean mass in a hypocaloric state. The aim of this paper is to review relevant leucine research in the three areas described and assess its potential as supplement for obese individuals. PMID:19053849

  3. Deuterium Retention in Pure and Mixed Plasma Facing Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimov, V. Kh.

    Depth profiles of D atoms and D2 molecules in beryllium (Be), beryllium oxide (BeO), tungsten (W), chemically vapor deposited (CVD) tungsten carbide WC, and tungsten trioxide (WO3) both implanted with D ions at energies in the range of several keV and exposed to a low energy (30–200 eV) D plasma have been determined using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and residual gas analysis (RGA) measurements in the course of surface sputtering. Additionally, the deuterium retention in carbon (C) and tungsten-carbon (W-C) mixed films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in D2 atmosphere has been investigated. Mechanisms of the deuterium trapping in these materials are discussed.

  4. SANS studies of micellar and magnetic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B,

    1985-08-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has proved to be an excellent technique for the study of complex fluids. This article introduces SANS from the viewpoint of such studies. The use of SANS to determine the structures of concentrated micellar fluids is then discussed within the framework of current one-component macrofluid (OCM) models, and experimental examples are taken from several contemporary studies. Finally, the discussion is extended to magnetic fluids (ferrofluids) in which the neutron magnetic interaction plays an important experimental role. 25 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. E. coli RS2GFP Retention Mechanisms in Laboratory-Scale Fractured Rocks: A Statistical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, S. N.; Qu, J.; Dickson, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    With billions of gallons of groundwater being withdrawn every day in the US and Canada, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms which jeopardize this resource and the health of those who rely on it. Porous media aquifers have typically been considered to provide significant filtration of particulate matter (e.g. microorganisms), while the fractures in fractured rock aquifers and aquitards are considered to act as contaminant highways allowing a large fraction of pathogens to travel deep into an aquifer relatively quickly. Recent research results indicate that fractured rocks filter out more particulates than typically believed. The goal of the research presented here is to quantify the number of E. coli RS2GFP retained in a single, saturated, laboratory-scale fracture, and to relate the retention of E. coli RS2GFP to the aperture field characteristics and groundwater flow rate. To achieve this goal, physical experiments were conducted at the laboratory-scale to quantify the retention of E. coli RS2GFP through several single, saturated, dolomitic limestone fractures under a range of flow rates. These fractures were also cast with a transparent epoxy in order to visualize the transport mechanisms in the various different aperture fields. The E. coli RS2GFP is tagged with a green-fluorescent protein (GFP) that is used to obtain visualization data when excited by ultraviolet light. A series of experiments was conducted, each of which involved the release of a known number of E. coli RS2GFP at the upstream end of the fracture and measuring the effluent concentration profile. These experiments were conducted using both the natural rock and transparent cast of several different aperture fields, under a range of flow rates. The effects of different aperture field characteristics and flow rates on the retention of E. coli RS2GFP will be determined by conducting a statistical analysis of the retention data under different experimental conditions. The images captured

  6. Increased local retention of reef coral larvae as a result of ocean warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Joana; Baird, Andrew H.; Harii, Saki; Connolly, Sean R.

    2014-06-01

    Climate change will alter many aspects of the ecology of organisms, including dispersal patterns and population connectivity. Understanding these changes is essential to predict future species distributions, estimate potential for adaptation, and design effective networks of protected areas. In marine environments, dispersal is often accomplished by larvae. At higher temperatures, larvae develop faster, but suffer higher mortality, making the effect of temperature on dispersal difficult to predict. Here, we experimentally calibrate the effect of temperature on larval survival and settlement in a dynamic model of coral dispersal. Our findings imply that most reefs globally will experience several-fold increases in local retention of larvae due to ocean warming. This increase will be particularly pronounced for reefs with mean water residence times comparable to the time required for species to become competent to settle. Higher local retention rates strengthen the link between abundance and recruitment at the reef scale, suggesting that populations will be more responsive to local conservation actions. Higher rates of local retention and mortality will weaken connectivity between populations, and thus potentially retard recovery following severe disturbances that substantially deplete local populations. Conversely, on isolated reefs that are dependent on replenishment from local broodstock, increases in local retention may hasten recovery.

  7. Severe Sepsis in Severely Malnourished Young Bangladeshi Children with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Shahid, Abu S. M. S. B.; Shahunja, K. M.; Das, Sumon Kumar; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2015-01-01

    Background In developing countries, there is no published report on predicting factors of severe sepsis in severely acute malnourished (SAM) children having pneumonia and impact of fluid resuscitation in such children. Thus, we aimed to identify predicting factors for severe sepsis and assess the outcome of fluid resuscitation of such children. Methods In this retrospective case-control study SAM children aged 0–59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh from April 2011 through July 2012 with history of cough or difficult breathing and radiologic pneumonia, who were assessed for severe sepsis at admission constituted the study population. We compared the pneumonic SAM children with severe sepsis (cases = 50) with those without severe sepsis (controls = 354). Severe sepsis was defined with objective clinical criteria and managed with fluid resuscitation, in addition to antibiotic and other supportive therapy, following the standard hospital guideline, which is very similar to the WHO guideline. Results The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (40% vs. 4%; p<0.001). In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, lack of BCG vaccination, drowsiness, abdominal distension, acute kidney injury, and metabolic acidosis at admission remained as independent predicting factors for severe sepsis in pneumonic SAM children (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion and Significance We noted a much higher case fatality among under-five SAM children with pneumonia and severe sepsis who required fluid resuscitation in addition to standard antibiotic and other supportive therapy compared to those without severe sepsis. Independent risk factors and outcome of the management of severe sepsis in our study children highlight the importance for defining optimal fluid resuscitation therapy aiming at reducing the case

  8. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  9. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  10. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  11. Nanoscale Fluid Mechanics and Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X; Xu, BX; Liu, L

    2014-05-29

    Under nanoconfinement, fluid molecules and ions exhibit radically different configurations, properties, and energetics from those of their bulk counterparts. These unique characteristics of nanoconfined fluids, along with the unconventional interactions with solids at the nanoscale, have provided many opportunities for engineering innovation. With properly designed nanoconfinement, several nanofluidic systems have been devised in our group in the past several years to achieve energy conversion functions with high efficiencies. This review is dedicated to elucidating the unique characteristics of nanofluidics, introducing several novel nanofluidic systems combining nanoporous materials with functional fluids, and to unveiling their working mechanisms. In all these systems, the ultra-large surface area available in nanoporous materials provides an ideal platform for seamlessly interfacing with nanoconfined fluids, and efficiently converting energy between the mechanical, thermal, and electrical forms. These systems have been demonstrated to have great potentials for applications including energy dissipation/absorption, energy trapping, actuation, and energy harvesting. Their efficiencies can be further enhanced by designing efforts based upon improved understanding of nanofluidics, which represents an important addition to classical fluid mechanics. Through the few systems exemplified in this review, the emerging research field of nanoscale fluid mechanics may promote more exciting nanofluidic phenomena and mechanisms, with increasing applications by encompassing aspects of mechanics, materials, physics, chemistry, biology, etc.

  12. Solar heat transport fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made on the development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems is reported. These subsystems are to be compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also to be compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. At least 100 gallons of each type of fluid recommended by the contractor will be delivered under the contract. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

  13. Fluid movement and creativity.

    PubMed

    Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-11-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation, cognitive flexibility, and remote associations. Alternative mechanisms such as enhanced mood and motivation were also examined. These results suggest that creativity can be influenced by certain types of physical movement.

  14. Spiral fluid separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid separator for separating particulate matter such as contaminates is provided which includes a series of spiral tubes of progressively decreasing cross sectional area connected in series. Each tube has an outlet on the outer curvature of the spiral. As fluid spirals down a tube, centrifugal force acts to force the heavier particulate matter to the outer wall of the tube, where it exits through the outlet. The remaining, and now cleaner, fluid reaches the next tube, which is smaller in cross sectional area, where the process is repeated. The fluid which comes out the final tube is diminished of particulate matter.

  15. Electrodeposition from supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, P N; Cook, D A; George, M W; Hector, A L; Ke, J; Levason, W; Reid, G; Smith, D C; Zhang, W

    2014-05-28

    Recent studies have shown that it is possible to electrodeposit a range of materials, such as Cu, Ag and Ge, from various supercritical fluids, including hydrofluorocarbons and mixtures of CO2 with suitable co-solvents. In this perspective we discuss the relatively new field of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. The perspective focuses on some of the underlying physical chemistry and covers both practical and scientific aspects of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. We also discuss possible applications for supercritical fluid electrodeposition and suggest some key developments that are required to take the field to the next stage.

  16. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  17. Sphere based fluid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Systems are described for using multiple closely-packed spheres. In one system for passing fluid, a multiplicity of spheres lie within a container, with all of the spheres having the same outside diameter and with the spheres being closely nested in one another to create multiple interstitial passages of a known size and configuration and smooth walls. The container has an inlet and outlet for passing fluid through the interstitial passages formed between the nested spheres. The small interstitial passages can be used to filter out material, especially biological material such as cells in a fluid, where the cells can be easily destroyed if passed across sharp edges. The outer surface of the spheres can contain a material that absorbs a constitutent in the flowing fluid, such as a particular contamination gas, or can contain a catalyst to chemically react the fluid passing therethrough, the use of multiple small spheres assuring a large area of contact of these surfaces of the spheres with the fluid. In a system for storing and releasing a fluid such as hydrogen as a fuel, the spheres can include a hollow shell containing the fluid to be stored, and located within a compressable container that can be compressed to break the shells and release the stored fluid.

  18. Characteristics of nitrogen retention along the river network of upper Xin'anjiang catchment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Yang, D.; Tang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) originates mainly from the non-point source (NPS) in the headwaters of many rivers. Understanding the nitrogen retention characteristics along the river network is important for land management in order to implement water resources protection. This study employs a geomorphology based non-point source pollution (GBNP) model to simulate the hillslope hydrological processes, sediment and pollutants transportation in the upper Xin'anjiang catchment in recent 10 years from 2001 to 2010. Calibration and validation of the GBNP model are carried out carefully using the observed discharge, sediment and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations at several hydrological gauges, and then the simulated results of the whole catchment are used to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of nitrogen along the river networks with emphasis on its retention characteristics. The simulated results indicate that annual TN loaded from the hillslopes in the study catchment ranges from nearly 4000 ton to 11,000 ton and relatively higher TN load occurred in spring and summer. Average TN loads from hillslopes have significant positive correlation with the irrigated-cropland area (correlation coefficient =0.820), and significant negative correlation with the area of forest and grassland (correlation coefficient =-0.427 and -0.246). Seasonal nitrogen retention ratio in the river networks of study catchment in last 10 years varies from 0%-81%, and the streams of order 1 in the Horton-Strahler ordering system has the highest retention ratio and is followed by order 2, order 3 and order 4. The results also indicate that nitrogen retention ratio has positive correlation with river length and negative correlation with discharge and velocity. Scenario analysis of fertilizer application demonstrates that the nitrogen retention ratio increases logarithmically with the TN load and reach a maximum value rapidly.

  19. How to Avoid Fluid Overload

    PubMed Central

    Ogbu, Ogbonna C.; Murphy, David J.; Martin, Greg S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the review This review highlights recent evidence describing the outcomes associated with fluid overload in critically ill patients and provides an overview of fluid management strategies aimed at preventing fluid overload during the resuscitation of patients with shock. Recent findings Fluid overload is a common complication of fluid resuscitation and is associated with increased hospital costs, morbidity and mortality. Summary Fluid management goals differ during the resuscitation, optimization, stabilization and evacuation phases of fluid resuscitation. To prevent fluid overload, strategies that reduce excessive fluid infusions and emphasize the removal of accumulated fluids should be implemented. PMID:26103147

  20. Caffeine, body fluid-electrolyte balance, and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2002-06-01

    Recreational enthusiasts and athletes often are advised to abstain from consuming caffeinated beverages (CB). The dual purposes of this review are to (a) critique controlled investigations regarding the effects of caffeine on dehydration and exercise performance, and (b) ascertain whether abstaining from CB is scientifically and physiologically justifiable. The literature indicates that caffeine consumption stimulates a mild diuresis similar to water, but there is no evidence of a fluid-electrolyte imbalance that is detrimental to exercise performance or health. Investigations comparing caffeine (100-680 mg) to water or placebo seldom found a statistical difference in urine volume. In the 10 studies reviewed, consumption of a CB resulted in 0-84% retention of the initial volume ingested, whereas consumption of water resulted in 0-81% retention. Further, tolerance to caffeine reduces the likelihood that a detrimental fluid-electrolyte imbalance will occur. The scientific literature suggests that athletes and recreational enthusiasts will not incur detrimental fluid-electrolyte imbalances if they consume CB in moderation and eat a typical U.S. diet. Sedentary members of the general public should be a less risk than athletes because their fluid losses via sweating are smaller. PMID:12187618