Science.gov

Sample records for severe learning difficulties

  1. Learning for Independence: Post-16 Educational Provision for People with Severe Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Alan, Ed.; Hegarty, Seamus, Ed.

    Twelve papers focus on post-school provision for mentally handicapped young people and adults in Great Britain. The following papers are presented: "Educational Opportunities for People with Severe Learning Difficulties" (S. Hegarty); "Further Education Provision for Students with Severe Learning Difficulties--Analysis of Survey…

  2. What Is Literacy for Students with Severe Learning Difficulties? Exploring Conventional and Inclusive Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Penny; Layton, Lyn; Miller, Carol; Goldbart, Juliet; Lawson, Hazel

    2007-01-01

    This paper arises from research into inclusive literacy for pupils with severe learning difficulties who do not learn to read and write conventionally. The ultimate aim of the study was to seek out examples of good practice in teaching and learning literacy that includes students with severe learning difficulties and disseminate them as widely as…

  3. The Curriculum for Children with Severe and Profound Learning Difficulties at Stephen Hawking School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The increasing number of children with profound and multiple learning difficulties means that many schools for children with severe learning difficulties are having to review the curriculum that they offer. In addition, these schools are continuing to question whether a subject-based approach, in line with the National Curriculum, is the most…

  4. The Curriculum for Children with Severe and Profound Learning Difficulties at Stephen Hawking School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The increasing number of children with profound and multiple learning difficulties means that many schools for children with severe learning difficulties are having to review the curriculum that they offer. In addition, these schools are continuing to question whether a subject-based approach, in line with the National Curriculum, is the most…

  5. Morphing Images: A Potential Tool for Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2005-01-01

    Children with severe learning difficulties who fail to begin word recognition can learn to recognise pictures and symbols relatively easily. However, finding an effective means of using pictures to teach word recognition has proved problematic. This research explores the use of morphing software to support the transition from picture to word…

  6. Morphing Images: A Potential Tool for Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2005-01-01

    Children with severe learning difficulties who fail to begin word recognition can learn to recognise pictures and symbols relatively easily. However, finding an effective means of using pictures to teach word recognition has proved problematic. This research explores the use of morphing software to support the transition from picture to word…

  7. Teacher-pupil talk: integrated vs segregated environments for children with severe learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Conti-Ramsden, G; Taylor, J

    1990-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the linguistic environment of children with severe learning difficulties attending nursery school. Teacher-pupil talk with three normal language learners and five children- with severe learning difficulties was examined in segregated and integrated settings. A cognitively based dialogue system analysis was used to ascertain the style and level of teacher and pupil interactions. Results revealed that teachers are able to adjust their speech when interacting with children of differing abilities but they do so by assuming a dominating role in dialogue through initiation and the use of obliges.

  8. Using Multimedia To Teach Personal Safety to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Deborah; McGee, Anna; Ungar, Simon

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an application of computer technology to teach personal safety to children with severe learning difficulties. The multimedia program is intended to compensate for the children's inability to understand the appropriate language for sexual issues or to act out a situation through role play. Hypothetical situations are pictured…

  9. Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties: An Exploratory Comparison of Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2009-01-01

    Background: Some children with severe learning difficulties fail to begin word recognition. For these children there is a need for an effective and appropriate pedagogy. However, conflicting advice can be found regarding this derived from teaching approaches that are not based on a shared understanding of how reading develops or the skills that…

  10. Conceptualisations of Literacy and Literacy Practices for Children with Severe Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Hazel; Layton, Lyn; Goldbart, Juliet; Lacey, Penny; Miller, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Literacy is traditionally narrowly conceptualised as a set of skills related to accessing and generating written or printed text. For children designated as having severe learning difficulties (SLD), who are unlikely to develop these "conventional" literacy skills, such a conception implies their semi-literacy or nonliteracy. Although conceptions…

  11. Social cognition and impaired social interaction in people with severe learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Clare, I; Clements, J

    1990-08-01

    Social skills training has focused on 'performance' or overt behaviour, rather than on the other components of successful social functioning: motivation and goals, analysis of social information, and performance feedback, Some basic aspects of this 'analysis' or 'social cognition' component were compared in a preliminary study of 25 teenagers and young adults with severe learning difficulties, whose social interaction was categorized as either 'impaired' or 'appropriate'. As predicted from the literature on autistic children, there were no differences between the groups on tasks involving recognition of the visual aspects of the concept of self or perceptual role-taking. It is suggested that social impairments do not reflect social cognitive abilities which are 'lower level' (i.e. can be solved on the basis of information available to the senses). Contrary to expectations, on the four individual tasks of affective role-taking, which is 'higher level', since it requires inferences to be made about the inner emotional state of another person, the differences between the groups were not significant. However, the results were in the predicted direction, and when scores on the tasks were combined, the overall performance of the socially impaired group was significantly poorer (P less than 0.05). It is suggested that the results from this aspect of social cognition might be attributed either to methodological difficulties or to differences between autistic children and the present sample. The clinical implications of the findings of the study are discussed.

  12. "Trying, Failing, Succeeding, and Trying Again and Again": Perspectives of Teachers of Pupils with Severe Profound Multiple Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phyllis; Riley, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the perspectives of seven teachers in England who teach pupils with severe profound and multiple learning difficulties about their learning to teach this group of students. Teachers' views were captured through a combination of synchronous and asynchronous online communications. Four themes emerged from teachers' perspectives…

  13. Eggy Bread and Paddy's Bacon: Instances of the Traffic in Knowledge in a Classroom for Children with Severe Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, John

    1984-01-01

    Five cookery classes for eight children, all of whom had profound and multiple handicaps and were nonverbal, were observed and analyzed. Purpose of the observation was to describe the day-to-day events in a classroom for children with severe learning difficulties and what a teacher in this special classroom teaches. (RM)

  14. Performance Contoured Programming: A Structure for Microcomputer-Based Teaching of Individuals with Severe Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Alastair

    1986-01-01

    Suggests programming structures of computer assisted instruction for teaching severely learning disabled students be related to an established educational model. Use of performance contoured programming (PCP), based upon behavioral model of precision teaching, is discussed and contrasted with cognitive programming approaches. PCP applications and…

  15. [Difficulties in learning mathematics].

    PubMed

    Rebollo, M A; Rodríguez, A L

    2006-02-13

    To discuss our concern for some aspects of mathematics learning disorders related to the nomenclature employed and their diagnosis; these aspects refer to the term 'dyscalculia' and to its diagnosis (especially syndromatic diagnosis). We also intend to propose a classification that could help to define the terminology. Lastly we are going to consider the different aspects of diagnosis and to determine which of them are indispensable in the diagnosis of primary and secondary disorders. As far as the nomenclature is concerned, we refer to the term 'dyscalculia'. The origins of the term are analysed along with the reasons why it should not be used in children with difficulties in learning mathematics. We propose a classification and denominations for the different types that should undoubtedly be discussed. With respect to the diagnosis, several problems related to the syndromatic diagnosis are considered, since in our country there are no standardised tests with which to study performance in arithmetic and geometry. This means that criterion reference tests are conducted to try to establish current and potential performance. At this stage of the diagnosis pedagogical and psychological studies must be conducted. The important factors with regard to the topographical and aetiological diagnoses are prior knowledge, results from the studies that have been carried out and findings from imaging studies. The importance of a genetic study must be defined in the aetiological diagnosis. We propose a nomenclature to replace the term 'dyscalculia'. Standardised tests are needed for the diagnosis. The need to establish current and potential performance is hierarchized. With regard to the topographical diagnosis, we highlight the need for more information about geometry, and in aetiological studies the analyses must be conducted with greater numbers of children.

  16. Specific Learning Difficulties in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weedon, Charles

    Specific difficulties in mathematics tend to receive much less attention than do parallel difficulties with language. Accordingly, as its contribution to an ongoing project on children's learning difficulties and what to do about them, the Tayside (Scotland) Region decided to focus on children's specific problems with mathematics/arithmetic and…

  17. Not Fit for Purpose: A Call for Separate and Distinct Pedagogies as Part of a National Framework for Those with Severe and Profound Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imray, Peter; Hinchcliffe, Viv

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of the National Curriculum in 1988 caused much discussion (some of it angst-ridden) among both academics and practitioners working with pupils with severe and profound learning difficulties, and much of the meat (and the angst) of these discussions is still going on today. We argue that 24 years is a long experiment; that despite…

  18. The Effective Use of Symbols in Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties: A Comparison of Word Alone, Integrated Picture Cueing and the Handle Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2002-01-01

    A comparison is made between a new technique (the Handle Technique), Integrated Picture Cueing, and a Word Alone Method. Results show using a new combination of teaching strategies enabled logographic symbols to be used effectively in teaching word recognition to 12 children with severe learning difficulties. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  19. Purposes of Education for Young People with Severe Learning Difficulties: Exploring a Vocational Teaching Resource--"A Stepping Stone To…" What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Alison; Lawson, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the purposes of education with a particular focus on young people with severe learning difficulties (SLD). The topic is explored with reference to a specific case, whereby some of the key findings of an evaluation of the first year of "The Greenside Studio", an English special school's vocational teaching resource…

  20. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  1. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning

    PubMed Central

    BJORK, ROBERT A.; KROLL, JUDITH F.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443

  2. "Early Detection of Learning Difficulties."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotsika, V.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigates methods for the early detection of learning difficulties that were used in the screening of 788 kindergarten children. Of students in high risk groups, 25 percent failed to learn to read and write, but all students in the low risk groups could perform these activities. (RJC)

  3. Learning Styles and Foreign Language Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Obdulia; Peck, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify what other elements besides linguistic deficits could be playing a role in foreign language learning difficulties, the Kolb Learning Styles Inventory was administered to students enrolled in regular and modified Spanish classes at a major U.S. university. Preliminary results gathered as part of a longitudinal study on learning…

  4. Learning Difficulties: A Portuguese Perspective of a Universal Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Ana Paula Loucao; Correia, Luis de Miranda; Hallahan, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present findings of a study that was conducted with the purpose of deepening the knowledge about the field of learning difficulties in Portugal. Therefore, within these findings we will discuss across several cultural boundaries, themes related with the existence of learning difficulties as a construct, the terminology, the…

  5. Genetics - Are There Inherent Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longden, Bernard

    1982-01-01

    Sources of misconceptions and learning difficulties were identified by interviewing academically sound A-level students (N=10) who were having difficulties with genetics. Indicates misconceptions were related to nature of concepts used in genetics, such as frequent representation of meiosis by fixed inanimate stage diagrams and to instructional…

  6. Genetics - Are There Inherent Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longden, Bernard

    1982-01-01

    Sources of misconceptions and learning difficulties were identified by interviewing academically sound A-level students (N=10) who were having difficulties with genetics. Indicates misconceptions were related to nature of concepts used in genetics, such as frequent representation of meiosis by fixed inanimate stage diagrams and to instructional…

  7. Learning Math: Basic Concepts, Math Difficulties, and Suggestions for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, J. P.; Janzen, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Math difficulties share many common features with reading difficulties. In as much as they do so, the general approach to reading disability overlaps with math disability. Both math and learning to read share several domain-general features such as long-term and short- term memory, successive and simultaneous processing, flexibility in…

  8. Social competence and learning difficulties: Teacher perceptions.

    PubMed

    Wight, Megan; Chapparo, Christine

    2008-12-01

    Social competence has been linked to children's classroom performance with three out of four children with learning difficulties reported to have problems with social skills. Social participation remains a predominant childhood occupation and a key indicator of school performance. Occupational therapists work with teachers to accurately assess the social performance of children in context and to provide targeted intervention. There is limited research about what teachers perceive are the specific nature of social difficulties experienced by children with learning difficulties in the classroom. This study investigated teacher perceptions of the social competence of a small sample of Australian boys with learning difficulties within the classroom context. The Teacher Skillstreaming Checklist was used to investigate teacher perceptions of the social abilities of 21 primary school aged boys with learning difficulties compared to a control group. A correlational analysis was used to examine the relationship. The study identified that the boys with learning difficulties were perceived by their teachers as having poorer social performance across multiple domains when compared to their typically developing peers. Implications of these findings are that children's social performance may negatively impact learning and classroom participation and that for some children, social competence should be a focus of occupational therapy assessment and treatment.

  9. Developing Professional Learning for Staff Working with Children with Speech, Language and Communication Needs Combined with Moderate-Severe Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This article presents research undertaken as part of a PhD by Carolyn Anderson who is a senior lecturer on the BSc (Hons) in Speech and Language Pathology at the University of Strathclyde. The study explores the professional learning experiences of 49 teachers working in eight schools and units for children with additional support needs in…

  10. The social development of children with severe learning difficulties: a case study of an inclusive education initiative between two primary schools in Oxfordshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Dew-Hughes, D; Blandford, S

    1999-08-01

    This case study of primary age children in two linked Oxfordshire schools investigated the contribution of staff attitudes and practices to inequalities in education, and contrasted the socialisation of children with similar learning difficulties in different educational placements. Participant observation of a group of children and carers in a special school suggested areas of more rigorous inquiry. Structured observations compared this group with a matched sample of children with similar learning difficulties in a mainstream setting. Staff on both sites were invited to comment on findings arising from analysed data in order to identify attitudes and policies which might account for the observed differences in practice. The study was engendered by experience of differences arising from educational placement. The theoretical stance arose through reviewing previous work, predominantly the debate on inclusive education, and the wider issues of human rights and equal opportunities embedded in the social development of people with disabilities. The theoretical framework underpinning this study is established in some depth. The project was designed to investigate issues of the wider social perspective, by conducting a micro-study of one model of educational inclusion whose outcomes have direct relevance to those issues.

  11. Living with Learning Difficulties: Emma's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manners, Paula Jean; Carruthers, Emma

    2006-01-01

    This article is about Emma's experience of living with learning difficulties. Emma expresses a lot of anger, and talks about feelings of loss. This article is interesting to people with learning disabilities because they can see if their experience is like Emma's in any way. This paper presents Emma's story: her experience of living with learning…

  12. Living with Learning Difficulties: Emma's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manners, Paula Jean; Carruthers, Emma

    2006-01-01

    This article is about Emma's experience of living with learning difficulties. Emma expresses a lot of anger, and talks about feelings of loss. This article is interesting to people with learning disabilities because they can see if their experience is like Emma's in any way. This paper presents Emma's story: her experience of living with learning…

  13. No One Knows: Offenders with Learning Difficulties and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Jenny; Riley, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of offenders with learning difficulties and learning disabilities is not agreed upon. What is clear, however, is that, regardless of actual numbers, many offenders have learning difficulties that reduce their ability to cope within the criminal justice system, for example, not understanding fully what is happening to them in court…

  14. Fractions Learning in Children With Mathematics Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S

    2016-08-04

    Learning fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of children with MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind their TA peers in fraction understanding and fall further behind during middle school. In contrast, Chinese children, who like the MD children in the United States score in the bottom one third of the distribution in their country, possess reasonably good fraction understanding. We interpret these findings within the framework of the integrated theory of numerical development. By emphasizing the importance of fraction magnitude knowledge for numerical understanding in general, the theory proved useful for understanding differences in fraction knowledge between MD and TA children and for understanding how knowledge can be improved. Several interventions demonstrated the possibility of improving fraction magnitude knowledge and producing benefits that generalize to fraction arithmetic learning among children with MD. The reasonably good fraction understanding of Chinese children with MD and several successful interventions with U.S. students provide hope for the improvement of fraction knowledge among American children with MD.

  15. Differentiation and Explicit Teaching: Integration of Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, France; Bessette, Lyne; Dorval, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This collaborative research was carried out among 197 elementary school students, in the context of a rural Canadian school of the Quebec province. Several students of the school presented learning difficulties, mostly in writing. The teachers and the learning specialist decided to differentiate the groups in special subgroups of needs that met…

  16. Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students.

    PubMed

    Weeks, M; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1981-01-01

    The influence of task difficulty on aberrant behavior was investigated with three severely handicapped students. Noticeably higher rates of problem behavior occurred in demand compared to no-demand conditions. In addition, there were higher rates of problem behaviors on difficult versus easy tasks. Both these findings were validated with visual discrimination and perceptual motor tasks. An errorless learning procedure effectively minimized errors and aberrant behavior in visual discrimination tasks but not in perceptual motor tasks. It was conceptualized that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement contingencies. Difficult tasks were aversive to the children, who emitted aberrant responses to escape or avoid such tasks. By contrast, conditions in which no demands were made, easy tasks, and, in visual discrimination learning, errorless tasks, were less aversive and resulted in little or no problem behavior. Implications for reducing maladaptive behaviors through curricular modifications are discussed and contrasted to more traditional consequence manipulation approaches.

  17. Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students.

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, M; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1981-01-01

    The influence of task difficulty on aberrant behavior was investigated with three severely handicapped students. Noticeably higher rates of problem behavior occurred in demand compared to no-demand conditions. In addition, there were higher rates of problem behaviors on difficult versus easy tasks. Both these findings were validated with visual discrimination and perceptual motor tasks. An errorless learning procedure effectively minimized errors and aberrant behavior in visual discrimination tasks but not in perceptual motor tasks. It was conceptualized that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement contingencies. Difficult tasks were aversive to the children, who emitted aberrant responses to escape or avoid such tasks. By contrast, conditions in which no demands were made, easy tasks, and, in visual discrimination learning, errorless tasks, were less aversive and resulted in little or no problem behavior. Implications for reducing maladaptive behaviors through curricular modifications are discussed and contrasted to more traditional consequence manipulation approaches. PMID:7328069

  18. Difficulties in Initial Algebra Learning in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…

  19. CAS-Induced Difficulties in Learning Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas; Misfeldt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In recent years computer algebra systems (CAS) have become an integrated part of the upper secondary school mathematics program. Despite the many positive possibilities of CAS, there also seems to be a flip side of the coin in relation to actual difficulties in learning mathematics, not least because a strong dependence on CAS for mathematical…

  20. Fractions Learning in Children with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Learning of fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind TA peers in…

  1. CAS-Induced Difficulties in Learning Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas; Misfeldt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In recent years computer algebra systems (CAS) have become an integrated part of the upper secondary school mathematics program. Despite the many positive possibilities of CAS, there also seems to be a flip side of the coin in relation to actual difficulties in learning mathematics, not least because a strong dependence on CAS for mathematical…

  2. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties and Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tiffini

    2008-01-01

    Beginning foreign language (FL) courses in high school often have high numbers of learning disabled (LED) and at-risk students, perhaps because many students who are considered to be college bound begin foreign language study in middle school. This paper examines FL difficulties as well as effective strategies that others have used to conquer…

  3. Difficulties in Initial Algebra Learning in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…

  4. Fractions Learning in Children with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Learning of fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind TA peers in…

  5. No One Knows: Offenders with learning disabilities and learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Talbot, J

    2009-01-01

    No One Knows is concerned about people with learning disabilities and difficulties who get into trouble with the police and who enter the criminal justice system. The terms 'learning difficulties' and 'learning difficulties' are often used interchangeably to describe people with an intellectual disability, excluding those who, for example, have dyslexia or Asperger syndrome. No One Knows, however, has adopted a more inclusive approach and has included in its remit offenders with learning disabilities as defined by the World Health Organization as well as those with a broader range of learning difficulties. Although there is some discrepancy on prevalence, it is clear that high numbers of people with learning disabilities and difficulties are caught up in the criminal justice system. Once in the criminal justice system it is unlikely that an individual with learning disabilities or difficulties will be identified or that their support needs will be met. This causes difficulties for the individual concerned and for the staff who work with them, who receive little or no training for working with this group of people. The question of whether people with learning disabilities (meaning intellectual disabilities) should be diverted from the criminal justice system is considered.

  6. Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-12-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was significantly below the average student performance in other Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore. This fact gave rise to this study which aims to investigate Indonesian students' difficulties in algebra. In order to do so, a literature study was carried out on students' difficulties in initial algebra. Next, an individual written test on algebra tasks was administered, followed by interviews. A sample of 51 grade VII Indonesian students worked the written test, and 37 of them were interviewed afterwards. Data analysis revealed that mathematization, i.e., the ability to translate back and forth between the world of the problem situation and the world of mathematics and to reorganize the mathematical system itself, constituted the most frequently observed difficulty in both the written test and the interview data. Other observed difficulties concerned understanding algebraic expressions, applying arithmetic operations in numerical and algebraic expressions, understanding the different meanings of the equal sign, and understanding variables. The consequences of these findings on both task design and further research in algebra education are discussed.

  7. Peer Tutoring between Young Adults with Severe and Complex Learning Difficulties: The Effects of Mediation Training with Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Ruth; Burden, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to draw upon a sociocultural perspective for elucidating the process and outcome of peer learning interactions between young adults with serious learning disabilities. A heterogeneous group of ten young adults between ages of 18 and 27 participated in the year-long cognitive program based on the principles of Feuerstein's theory…

  8. Foreign language learning difficulties in Italian children: are they associated with other learning difficulties?

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Marcella; Palladino, Paola

    2007-01-01

    A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and nonverbal learning skills, such as native language reading accuracy, speed and comprehension, calculation, and attention and self-regulation. Both experiments showed that the LA group seemed at risk for reading comprehension difficulties, but its reading speed and accuracy were within the average range according to Italian norms. The results also excluded the possibility that FL learning difficulties of LA participants could be associated with a deficit in calculation. Furthermore, according to teachers' ratings, children with LA appeared at risk for attention-deficit disorder (ADD). The pattern of learning difficulties of seventh- and eighth-grade participants with LA appeared to be not completely comparable with that of high school students at risk of FL learning difficulties as described in the literature.

  9. Status of Muslim Immigrants' Children with Learning Difficulties in Vienna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohsin, M. Naeem; Shabbir, Muhammad; Saeed, Wizra; Mohsin, M. Saleem

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to know the status of Muslim immigrants' children with learning difficulties and importance of parents' involvement for the education whose children are with learning difficulties, and the factors responsible for the learning difficulties among immigrants' children. There were 81 immigrant children with learning…

  10. What Do Romanian Teachers Know about Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pop, Cristina Florina; Ciascai, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing concern for students with learning difficulties and teachers are responsible for identifying and helping these students. The present study aims to explore the teachers' knowledge of manifestations, causes and types of learning difficulties, necessary to diagnose, prevent or remedy learning difficulties. The participants involved…

  11. Men with Learning Difficulties Doing Research: Challenging Views of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Pamela A.; Swain, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the views of men with learning difficulties living in a secure environment. Reflecting findings from a doctoral thesis based upon a research project where the participants looked at the processes and concepts of research, the dialogues within the study were analysed using critical discourse analysis. Thesis aims relevant here…

  12. Tracking Change in Children with Severe and Persisting Speech Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Elisabeth Joy; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Standardised tests of whole-word accuracy are popular in the speech pathology and developmental psychology literature as measures of children's speech performance. However, they may not be sensitive enough to measure changes in speech output in children with severe and persisting speech difficulties (SPSD). To identify the best ways of doing this,…

  13. Tracking Change in Children with Severe and Persisting Speech Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Elisabeth Joy; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Standardised tests of whole-word accuracy are popular in the speech pathology and developmental psychology literature as measures of children's speech performance. However, they may not be sensitive enough to measure changes in speech output in children with severe and persisting speech difficulties (SPSD). To identify the best ways of doing this,…

  14. A Diary Study of Difficulties and Constraints in EFL Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on learners' course diaries, this paper explores Chinese EFL learners' perceptions of difficulties and constraints in EFL learning and their responses to the perceived difficulties and constraints. The diary data appear to indicate that the students' learning difficulties lay mainly with their linguistic competence, but a closer scrutiny…

  15. [Integral assessment of learning subjects difficulties].

    PubMed

    Grebniak, N P; Shchudro, S A

    2010-01-01

    The integral criterion for subject difficulties in senior classes is substantiated in terms of progress in studies, variation coefficient, and subjective and expert appraisals of the difficulty of subjects. The compiled regression models adequately determine the difficulty of academic subjects. According to the root-mean-square deviation, all subjects were found to have 3 degrees of difficulty.

  16. Supporting Children with Severe-to-Profound Learning Difficulties and Complex Communication Needs to Make Their Views Known: Observation Tools and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greathead, Scot; Yates, Rhiannon; Hill, Vivian; Kenny, Lorcan; Croydon, Abigail; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    All children have the right to shape decisions that influence their lives. Yet, children with severe-to-profound intellectual disabilities and complex communication needs are often marginalized from this process. Here, we examined the utility of a set of tools incorporating ethnographic and structured observational methods with three such…

  17. Sentence imitation as a tool in identifying expressive morphosyntactic difficulties in children with severe speech difficulties.

    PubMed

    Seeff-Gabriel, Belinda; Chiat, Shula; Dodd, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Sentence imitation has been identified as a good indicator of children's language skills, with performance differentiating children with specific language impairment and showing relationships with other language measures. It has a number of advantages over other methods of assessment. The assessment of morphosyntax in children who have severe speech difficulties presents unique challenges which currently available sentence imitation assessments do not address. This paper presents a new sentence imitation test (The Sentence Imitation Test (SIT-61)) and reports on an investigation which sets out to determine whether this test (1) reveals differences in performance between a group of children diagnosed with specific language impairment and a group of typically developing children (2) reveals distinct profiles of performance amongst children with different speech difficulties, and (3) provides information about morphosyntactic strengths and difficulties. SIT-61 is a finely graded sentence imitation test in which the phonotactic structure, segmental phonology and length of words were kept as developmentally simple as possible. Responses are scored for number of content words, function words and inflections correct. A novel scoring system was devised to credit a child where there was evidence of targeting a morpheme even if it was mispronounced. The test was administered to four groups of children between the ages of 4 and 6 years: 33 children with typical development, 13 children with known expressive morphosyntactic difficulties (specific language impairment), and two groups of 14 children with different types of speech disorder: a group with consistent phonological disorder, who used atypical phonological error patterns consistently; and a group with inconsistent phonological disorder, who produced atypical phonological errors inconsistently. SIT-61 found differences in performance between the group of typically developing participants and the three clinic groups

  18. Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Do Learning Difficulties Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether learning difficulties play a role in depressive symptoms, 658 Finnish adolescents were asked to complete scales for depression three times during the transition to post-comprehensive education. They also reported on their learning difficulties and feelings of inadequacy as a student. The results showed that learning difficulties…

  19. Reflections upon Teacher Education in Severe Difficulties in the USA: Shared Concerns about Quantity and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phyllis; West, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this article, Phyllis Jones of the Department of Special Education at the University of South Florida and Elizabeth West from the University of Washington explore key issues in respect to teacher education for teachers who teach pupils with severe and profound learning difficulties in the USA. Issues relating to quantity and quality of teachers…

  20. Cognitive and Mathematical Profiles for Different Forms of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Elias, John T.; Powell, Sarah R.; Schumacher, Robin F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare subgroups of students with various forms of learning difficulties (< 25th percentile) on cognitive and mathematics characteristics. Students with mathematics difficulty (MD, n = 105), reading difficulty (RD, n = 65), both (MDRD, n = 87), or neither (NoLD, n = 403) were evaluated on an array of cognitive…

  1. Choice in the diet of people with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lisa; Keeton, Emma

    Many adults with learning disabilities experience difficulties communicating food preferences because they may have little opportunity to do so. This article discusses how health care professionals can enable people with learning difficulties to exercise choice about food and how those choices can be recognised.

  2. Learning Difficulty and Learner Identity: A Symbiotic Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirano, Eliana

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a longitudinal case study of an adult EFL learner who perceived himself as having difficulty learning English. Both learning difficulty and learner identity are viewed as being constructed in discursive interactions throughout one's life and, hence, amenable to reconstruction. Data collected from classroom interactions,…

  3. Difficulties of Diabetic Patients in Learning about Their Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean Francois

    2001-01-01

    Examines the difficulties experienced by diabetic patients in learning about their illness. Diabetic people (N=138) were questioned by means of a closed answer questionnaire. Results reveal that patients easily acquired manual skills, yet numerous learning difficulties were associated with the skills required to solve problems and make decisions,…

  4. Difficulties of Diabetic Patients in Learning about Their Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean Francois

    2001-01-01

    Examines the difficulties experienced by diabetic patients in learning about their illness. Diabetic people (N=138) were questioned by means of a closed answer questionnaire. Results reveal that patients easily acquired manual skills, yet numerous learning difficulties were associated with the skills required to solve problems and make decisions,…

  5. Tracking change in children with severe and persisting speech difficulties.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Elisabeth Joy; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill

    2013-07-01

    Standardised tests of whole-word accuracy are popular in the speech pathology and developmental psychology literature as measures of children's speech performance. However, they may not be sensitive enough to measure changes in speech output in children with severe and persisting speech difficulties (SPSD). To identify the best ways of doing this, we compared a range of commonly used procedures for perceptual phonological and phonetic analysis of developmental speech difficulties. Data are drawn from four children with SPSD, recorded at 4 years and again at 6 years old performing naming and repetition tasks. Measures of speech output included percentage of whole words correct (PWC), percentage of consonants correct (PCC), proportion of whole-word proximity (PWP), phonological pattern (process) analysis and phonetic inventory analysis. Results indicate that PWC captures change only when identical stimuli are used across time points. PCC is a more robust indicator of change, being less affected by the choice of stimuli. PWP also captures change across time and tasks, while appearing to be more sensitive than PCC to psycholinguistic variables. PCC and PWP are thus both potentially useful tools for evaluating speech outcomes.

  6. Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and Polymorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Neomi; Beeri, Catriel; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on difficulties related to the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in the course, as well as on…

  7. Visual Electrophysiology and Reading/Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlam, William M.

    1981-01-01

    The literature relating visual problems, reading, and academic difficulties with neurophysiological mechanisms shows positive interaction among these factors. Both visual-evoked response and encephalographic studies show parietal or occipitoparietal neurophysiological anomalies which can be used to discriminate between normal and disabled readers…

  8. Learned Helplessness in Children with Reading Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butkowsky, Irwin S.; Willows, Dale M.

    Employing a cognitive/motivational analysis, a study was undertaken to determine some specific self-perceptions that might contribute to motivational and performance deficits observed in children with reading difficulties. A total of 72 children of relatively good, average, and poor reading ability were assessed on tasks in which success and…

  9. Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and Polymorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Neomi; Beeri, Catriel; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on difficulties related to the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in the course, as well as on…

  10. Learning Difficulties and Nutrition: Pills or Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Examines the efforts to find effective ameliorative measures for literacy difficulties such as dyslexia and dyspraxia, focusing on noneducational techniques found in holistic medicine, complementary therapies, and nutritional supplements. Maintains that dyslexia has become big business for drug companies and that the appropriate research regarding…

  11. Learning Difficulties and Nutrition: Pills or Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Examines the efforts to find effective ameliorative measures for literacy difficulties such as dyslexia and dyspraxia, focusing on noneducational techniques found in holistic medicine, complementary therapies, and nutritional supplements. Maintains that dyslexia has become big business for drug companies and that the appropriate research regarding…

  12. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Saloni; Watkins, Kate E; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we highlight why there is a need to examine subcortical learning systems in children with language impairment and dyslexia, rather than focusing solely on cortical areas relevant for language. First, behavioural studies find that children with these neurodevelopmental disorders perform less well than peers on procedural learning tasks that depend on corticostriatal learning circuits. Second, fMRI studies in neurotypical adults implicate corticostriatal and hippocampal systems in language learning. Finally, structural and functional abnormalities are seen in the striatum in children with language disorders. Studying corticostriatal networks in developmental language disorders could offer us insights into their neurobiological basis and elucidate possible modes of compensation for intervention.

  13. [Auditory processing maturation in children with and without learning difficulties].

    PubMed

    Ivone, Ferreira Neves; Schochat, Eliane

    2005-01-01

    Auditory processing maturation in school children with and without learning difficulties. To verify response improvement with the increase in age of the auditory processing skills in school children with ages ranging from eight to ten years, with and without learning difficulties and to perform a comparative study. Eighty-nine children without learning complaints (Group 1) and 60 children with learning difficulties (Group II) were assessed. The used auditory processing tests were: Pediatric Speech Intelligibility (PSI), Speech in Noise, Dichotic Non-Verbal (DNV) and Staggered Spondaic Word (SSW). A better performance was observed for Group I between the ages of eight and ten in all of the used tests. However, the observed differences were statistically significant only for PSI and SSW. For Group II, a better performance was also observed with the increase in age, with statistically significant differences for all of the used tests. Comparing the results between Groups I and II, a better performance was verified for children with no learning difficulties, in the three age groups, in PSI, DNV and SSW. A statistically significant improvement was verified in the responses of the auditory processing with the increase in age, for the ages between eight and ten years, in children with and without learning difficulties. In the comparative study, it was verified that children with learning difficulties presented a lower performance in all of the used tests in the three age groups. This suggests, for this group, a delay in the maturation of the auditory processing skills.

  14. Learning Difficulties in English for Rural Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2010-01-01

    The present study illuminates and diagnoses the learning problems of the rural learners in English Grammar at standard VI. Present study may be useful to ameliorate the rural learners for acquiring competencies in English and eliminates the problems of the learners. It paves way to the teachers to diagnose the learning hurdles of the learners and…

  15. Learning Difficulties in Infants with Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Jennifer G.

    1991-01-01

    This overview reviews a program of interlinked cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations of the nature of cognitive development in infants and young children with Down's Syndrome. The research falls into three groupings: object concept studies, operant learning experiments, and IQ studies. Early results suggest a common learning style which…

  16. Cognitive and mathematical profiles for different forms of learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Cirino, Paul T; Fuchs, Lynn S; Elias, John T; Powell, Sarah R; Schumacher, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare subgroups of students with various forms of learning difficulties (< 25th percentile) on cognitive and mathematics characteristics. Students with mathematics difficulty (MD, n = 105), reading difficulty (RD, n = 65), both (MDRD, n = 87), or neither (NoLD, n = 403) were evaluated on an array of cognitive measures (e.g., working memory and language) and on mathematics measures of foundational numerical competencies, computation, and problem solving. Results revealed expected level differences among groups in both domains: NoLD outperformed RD, and MD outperformed MDRD. Profile differences were noted among pairs of subgroups on cognitive measures. On mathematics measures, profile differences were noted between RD and other subgroups, but not between MD and MDRD subgroups. The most discriminating cognitive measures were processing speed and language; the most discriminating mathematics measures depended on the subgroups being compared. Results were further evaluated according to more severe (< 10th percentile) criteria for MD and RD, which generally affected level differences more than the profile patterns. Results have implications for understanding comorbid MD and RD and for conceptualizing core deficits in MD.

  17. Cognitive and Mathematical Profiles for Different Forms of Learning Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Elias, John T.; Powell, Sarah R.; Schumacher, Robin F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare subgroups of students with various forms of learning difficulties (< 25th percentile) on cognitive and mathematics characteristics. Students with mathematics difficulty (MD, n = 105), reading difficulty (RD, n = 65), both (MDRD, n = 87), or neither (NoLD, n = 403) were evaluated on an array of cognitive measures (e.g., working memory and language) and on mathematics measures of foundational numerical competencies, computation, and problem solving. Results revealed expected level differences among groups in both domains: NoLD outperformed RD, and MD outperformed MDRD. Profile differences were noted among pairs of subgroups on cognitive measures. On mathematics measures, profile differences were noted between RD and other subgroups, but not between MD and MDRD subgroups. The most discriminating cognitive measures were processing speed and language; the most discriminating mathematics measures depended on the subgroups being compared. Results were further evaluated according to more severe (< 10th percentile) criteria for MD and RD, which generally affected level differences more than the profile patterns. Results have implications for understanding comorbid MD and RD and for conceptualizing core deficits in MD. PMID:23851137

  18. Difficulties in Learning the Concept of Electric Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furio, C.; Guisasola, J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes students' main difficulties in learning the concept of electric field. Briefly describes the main conceptual profiles within which electric interactions can be interpreted and concludes that most students have difficulty using the idea of electric field. Contains 28 references. (DDR)

  19. Word Difficulty and Learning among Native Arabic Learners of EFL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masrai, Ahmed; Milton, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates word difficulty and learning among learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Saudi Arabia. Difficulty factors examined in the study include repetition of words in learners' EFL textbooks, word length and parts of speech, and adds a further consideration which is underexplored in the literature; word translation…

  20. Learner's Learning Experiences & Difficulties towards (ESL) among UKM Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maarof, Nooreiny; Munusamy, Indira Malani A/P

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the learners learning experiences and difficulties of ESL among the UKM undergraduates. This study will be focusing on identifying the factors behind Malaysian undergraduate's experiences and also their difficulties in the English as Second Language (ESL) classroom. This paper discusses some of the issues of English…

  1. Caring for people with learning difficulties in Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed

    Telford, A; Farrington, A

    In June 1992 a massive step forward was made in Czechoslovakia when the first school for people with learning difficulties was opened. This article examines the problems facing this school and the background to its creation.

  2. Motor Development and Learning Difficulties. Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eyck, J. W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Part Two of the article focuses on the development of manual motor skills in learning disabled children. After a discussion of test methods, the author considers aspects of a medical examination, including a general exam, a neurological exam, an electroencephalogram, and a diagnostic test of hand/motor skill development. (For Part One, see EC 123…

  3. Can Excess Bilirubin Levels Cause Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.; Becker, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined learning problems in South African sample of 7- to 14-year-olds whose mothers reported excessively high infant bilirubin shortly after the child's birth. Found that this sample had lowered verbal ability with the majority also showing impaired short-term and long-term memory. Findings suggested that impaired formation of astrocytes…

  4. Can Excess Bilirubin Levels Cause Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.; Becker, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined learning problems in South African sample of 7- to 14-year-olds whose mothers reported excessively high infant bilirubin shortly after the child's birth. Found that this sample had lowered verbal ability with the majority also showing impaired short-term and long-term memory. Findings suggested that impaired formation of astrocytes…

  5. Numeracy and Learning Difficulties: Approaches to Teaching and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Peter

    This book features a guide to teaching mathematics more effectively. Examining the different ways students acquire mathematical skills, it helps teachers develop flexible teaching methods that suit these varied ways of learning. Common areas of learning difficulty in mathematics and why students fail, ways for teachers to determine gaps in…

  6. Patients with learning difficulties: outcome on peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Borràs, Mercè; Sorolla, Carol; Carrera, Dolores; Martín, Marisa; Villagrassa, Esther; Fernández, Elvira

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we identified patients who had difficulties learning the minimum knowledge and skills required to carry out peritoneal dialysis (PD), and we compared the outcomes in this subgroup of patients with outcomes in the general PD population. We calculated the mean learning sessions needed by our total PD population during the training period. We then assigned patients to one of two groups according to the number of learning sessions they needed. Patients who required a number of sessions equal to or less than the mean were placed in the "standard learning" group; patients who required more sessions but who reached the minimum knowledge and skills were placed in the "learning difficulties " group. We compared these two groups in terms of age, sex, diabetes status, autonomy to perform PD, family support, education level, residual renal function, and Charlson comorbidity index. Outcomes on PD included time to first peritonitis episode, peritonitis rate, percentage of patients free of peritonitis during follow-up, survival time on PD, and transfer to hemodialysis. Patients with learning difficulties were older and had more comorbidities. Outcomes on PD in the learning difficulties group were similar to those in the standard learning group, except for time to first peritonitis.

  7. Learning Difficulties of Diabetic Patients: A Survey of Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean-Francois

    1998-01-01

    Surveys 85 health care professionals on the learning difficulties of diabetic patients. Results show that educators find it easy to teach techniques: patients master procedures well and make few mistakes. In contrast, diabetic patients seem to have problems learning skills, such as insulin dose adjustment, that require complex problem-solving.…

  8. Learning Difficulties of Diabetic Patients: A Survey of Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean-Francois

    1998-01-01

    Surveys 85 health care professionals on the learning difficulties of diabetic patients. Results show that educators find it easy to teach techniques: patients master procedures well and make few mistakes. In contrast, diabetic patients seem to have problems learning skills, such as insulin dose adjustment, that require complex problem-solving.…

  9. Blended Learning for College Students with English Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies in blended learning simply involved on-site and online instruction without considering students' control of their own learning in these two different modalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate how college students with English reading difficulties integrate their conceptions of and approaches to blended learning…

  10. Measurement of functional task difficulty during motor learning: What level of difficulty corresponds to the optimal challenge point?

    PubMed

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between task difficulty and learning benefit was examined, as was the measurability of task difficulty. Participants were required to learn a postural control task on an unstable surface at one of four different task difficulty levels. Results from the retention test showed an inverted-U relationship between task difficulty during acquisition and motor learning. The second-highest level of task difficulty was the most effective for motor learning, while learning was delayed at the most and least difficult levels. Additionally, the results indicate that salivary α-amylase and the performance dimension of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) are useful indices of task difficulty. Our findings suggested that instructors may be able to adjust task difficulty based on salivary α-amylase and the performance dimension of the NASA-TLX to enhance learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Greek Parents' Perceptions and Experiences regarding Their Children's Learning and Social-Emotional Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamopoulou, Eirini

    2010-01-01

    A survey instrument, the Test of Psychosocial Adaptation, originally developed for use with teachers in Greece, was given to 298 Greek parents in Athens and several rural areas. One hundred and five respondents indicated that their children exhibit learning and/or social-emotional learning difficulties. Parents rated higher externalizing behaviors…

  12. Phonological remediation program in students with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Paula de Castro; Capellini, Simone Aparecida

    2011-03-01

    To verify the effectiveness of a phonological remediation program in students with learning difficulties. Forty students from 2nd to 4th grades, from both genders, ranging from eight years and one month to 12 years old, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (G1), composed by 20 students with learning disabilities; and Group 2 (G2), composed by 20 students without learning disabilities. The Cognitive-Linguistic Performance Test and the oral reading and comprehension were applied in pre-test and post-test situations in all students. After the pre-test, only the students from Group 1 were submitted to the phonological remediation program. After the phonological remediation program, Group 1 presented differences for reading abilities, auditory and visual processing, and processing speed, evidenced by superior performance in the post-testing situation. The phonological remediation program was efficient to the development of cognitive-linguistic skills and reading and text comprehension of students with learning difficulties.

  13. Career Counsellors' Perceptions of the Severity of Career Decision-Making Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Amir, Tamar; Landman, Shiri

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ in the type and severity of the difficulties they face when making a career decision. Relying on the Gati, Krausz, and Osipow (1996) taxonomy of career decision-making difficulties, we elicited the judgements of 28 career counselling experts about factors that contribute to the perceived "severity" of the difficulties.…

  14. Effects of Persuasive Designed Courseware on Children with Learning Difficulties in Learning Malay Language Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Kien Heng; Bakri, Aryati; Rahman, Azizah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The effects of courseware learning for children with learning difficulties have been studied over the years. Educational courseware is very common nowadays as a teaching tool for children's early education. However, most of the coursewares are designed for children with normal learning ability. Special children who face difficulty in the learning…

  15. Paediatrician's role in caring for children with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gehan; Price, Anna; Oberklaid, Frank

    2012-12-01

    Children with learning difficulties are commonly seen in Australian paediatric outpatient settings. The practice patterns of paediatricians in assessing, referring and managing these children are unknown, and there is no consensus on best practice. We thus aimed to examine the consistency between Australian paediatricians': (i) assessment; (ii) referral; and (iii) management of children presenting with learning difficulties. All 373 paediatrician members of the Australian Paediatric Research Network were invited to participate in an online survey in 2010. Paediatricians who saw children with learning difficulties were asked questions about their assessment, referral and management practices. Of 181 (49%) paediatricians to complete the survey, 140 (77%) reported seeing patients with learning difficulties. Most often, paediatricians supplemented their clinical assessments with audiology assessments (75%), teacher or parent questionnaires (60-65%), or teacher contact (51%). Paediatricians used medical investigations (40%), direct assessment tools (27%) or a school visit (4%) less often. Most paediatricians referred children with learning difficulties to educational psychology (84%), special education (61%) or speech therapy (66%) services but less often to occupational therapy (34%) or mental health (15%) services. The most common management strategies were to provide a report to the school (76%) or parents (66%) and to make recommendations around sleep hygiene (75%) and for tutoring (66%). Australian paediatric practice in this area is diverse, with the greatest variability around management practices. These data provide a case for designing and implementing evidence-based guidelines for the paediatric care of children who struggle to learn in school. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Making Science Special for Pupils with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebbels, Susan; Evans, Stewart M.; Murphy, Lynne A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article Susan Gebbels and Stewart M. Evans from Newcastle University and Lynne A. Murphy who is a practising school teacher in north-east England discuss how they worked collaboratively on a programme of science education with a group of 16 Key Stage 3 pupils with moderate learning difficulties. The project lasted for one academic year and…

  17. Difficulties in Learning and Teaching Statistics: Teacher Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koparan, Timur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define teacher views about the difficulties in learning and teaching middle school statistics subjects. To serve this aim, a number of interviews were conducted with 10 middle school maths teachers in 2011-2012 school year in the province of Trabzon. Of the qualitative descriptive research methods, the…

  18. Moderate Learning Difficulties: Searching for Clarity and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwich, Brahm; Ylonen, Annamari; Gwernan-Jones, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The concept of moderate learning difficulties (MLD) is not clearly understood in its definition and in its general use. Nevertheless, as a distinct area of special educational needs (SEN) this category has constituted about a quarter of all of those pupils identified as having SEN in England. This paper reports the analysis of findings from an…

  19. Progress of Pupils Attending Resourced Provision for Specific Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the improvement in attainments of 109 students attending specialist-resourced provision for specific learning difficulties (SpLD) attached to mainstream secondary schools was conducted as they progressed through Key Stages 3 and 4. Steady progress was made in terms of reading accuracy, reading comprehension, spelling ability and…

  20. Strengthening the Social Relationships of Mothers with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcconnell, David; Dalziel, Allison; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Laidlaw, Kathryn; Hindmarsh, Gabrielle

    2009-01-01

    Mothers with learning difficulties are often isolated within their local communities. They also report low levels of social support. Social disconnection is associated with high levels of stress and poorer mental health, and in turn, adverse parenting and child outcomes. In the study reported here, a multi-site, intervention group only, repeated…

  1. Novel Word Learning, Reading Difficulties, and Phonological Processing Skills.

    PubMed

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Burnham, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) refers to the ability to establish an arbitrary association between a visual referent and an unfamiliar label. It is now established that this ability is impaired in children with dyslexia, but the source of this deficit is yet to be specified. This study assesses PAL performance in children with reading difficulties using a modified version of the PAL paradigm, comprising a comprehension and a production phase, to determine whether the PAL deficit lies in children's ability to establish and retain novel object-novel word associations or their ability to retrieve the learned novel labels for production. Results showed that while children with reading difficulties required significantly more trials to learn the object-word associations, when they were required to use these associations in a comprehension-referent selection task, their accuracy and speed did not differ from controls. Nevertheless, children with reading difficulties were significantly less successful when they were required to produce the learned novel labels in response to the visual stimuli. Thus, these results indicate that while children with reading difficulties are successful at establishing visual-verbal associations, they have a deficit in the verbal production component of PAL tasks, which may relate to a more general underlying impairment in auditory or phonological processing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  3. Discourses of Learning Difficulty and the Conditions of School Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, David

    1999-01-01

    Although the "consensus thesis" assumes that learning difficulties arise from school structural deficiencies, a study of two English secondary schools concludes that the thesis fails to account for complexities of school development. Instead, open-ended dialog between contrasting discourses would foster dynamic school cultures. (SK)

  4. EVERYDAY PROBLEMS AND THE CHILD WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNSTEIN, BEBE

    THE PROBLEMS THAT DAILY LIVING MAY PRESENT TO CHILDREN WHO EXPERIENCE LEARNING DIFFICULTIES ARE DISCUSSED, AND THE NEED FOR THE TEACHER TO SURVEY THE EXPERIMENTAL BACKGROUND OF HIS CLASS AND TO DEVELOP A METHOD FOR DEALING WITH THE CHILDREN'S PROBLEMS IS DESCRIBED. PROBLEMS THAT MERIT ATTENTION INCLUDE THOSE WHICH FUNCTION INDEPENDENTLY. THE…

  5. Multiple Goals Perspective in Adolescent Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Jose Carlos; Gonzalez-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Rodriguez, Celestino; Valle, Antonio; Gonzalez-Cabanach, Ramon; Rosario, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the hypothesis of the existence of diverse motivational profiles in students with learning difficulties (LD) and the differential implications for intervention in the classroom are analyzed. Various assessment scales (academic goals, self-concept, and causal attributions) were administered to a sample of 259 students with LD,…

  6. Education towards Employment: A Project for People with Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baynes, Anne; Dyson, Alan

    1994-01-01

    This article describes an "employability" course developed by North Tyneside College (England) for young people and adults with learning difficulties. Issues are raised concerning eligibility, the meaning of "employability," the value of employment, the need for advocacy, and the nature of vocational training. (DB)

  7. Moderate Learning Difficulties: Searching for Clarity and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwich, Brahm; Ylonen, Annamari; Gwernan-Jones, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The concept of moderate learning difficulties (MLD) is not clearly understood in its definition and in its general use. Nevertheless, as a distinct area of special educational needs (SEN) this category has constituted about a quarter of all of those pupils identified as having SEN in England. This paper reports the analysis of findings from an…

  8. Programming for Mathematically Gifted Children with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hroub, Anies

    2010-01-01

    Findings are presented from a large two-phase research study exploring (a) the identification and (b) programming for mathematically gifted students with learning difficulties (MG/LDs) in Jordan. The second phase of the research, which is the focus of the current article, investigates the effects of two programs of instructional practices on the…

  9. Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David

    2012-01-01

    Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in…

  10. Learning Difficulties with Solids of Revolution: Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mofolo-Mbokane, Batseba; Engelbrecht, Johann; Harding, Ansie

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to identify areas of difficulty in learning about volumes of solids of revolution (VSOR) at a Further Education and Training college in South Africa. Students' competency is evaluated along five skill factors which refer to knowledge skills required to succeed in performing tasks relating to applications of the definite integral, in…

  11. Academic Resilience: A Retrospective Study of Adults With Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, John G.; Stoch, Shari A.; Chan, Janet S. N.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports qualitative analyses of two sets of retrospective interviews with adults with learning difficulties. The purpose of the study was to examine the high school experiences of these adults from a holistic perspective to understand possible factors that contributed to one group staying in school and the other group leaving school…

  12. The Relationship between Foreign Language Anxiety and Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Goretti B. Y.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the possible existence of causal links between anxiety and language learning difficulties by using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986) to examine anxiety and the Foreign Language Screening Instrument for Colleges (FLSI-C) (Ganschow & Sparks, 1991) to explore learning…

  13. Reading Strategies for Elementary Students with Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, William N.; Larkin, Martha J.

    This guide to reading instruction for elementary and middle school students with learning difficulties covers a wide variety of practical instructional strategies founded in research and proven effective in classrooms. An introductory chapter notes the growing national emphasis on reading skills, especially research-based reading programs and the…

  14. Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David

    2012-01-01

    Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in…

  15. Learning Difficulties and Ethnicity: Updating a Framework for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poxton, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This update of the Framework for Action highlights the continuing relevance of its message as well as those raised by Valuing People Now. People with learning difficulties and their families from Black and minority ethnic (BME) communities have been highlighted as a priority group by Valuing People since 2001 and remain a priority for better…

  16. Education towards Employment: A Project for People with Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baynes, Anne; Dyson, Alan

    1994-01-01

    This article describes an "employability" course developed by North Tyneside College (England) for young people and adults with learning difficulties. Issues are raised concerning eligibility, the meaning of "employability," the value of employment, the need for advocacy, and the nature of vocational training. (DB)

  17. Difficulties in Learning and Teaching Statistics: Teacher Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koparan, Timur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define teacher views about the difficulties in learning and teaching middle school statistics subjects. To serve this aim, a number of interviews were conducted with 10 middle school maths teachers in 2011-2012 school year in the province of Trabzon. Of the qualitative descriptive research methods, the…

  18. Making Science Special for Pupils with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebbels, Susan; Evans, Stewart M.; Murphy, Lynne A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article Susan Gebbels and Stewart M. Evans from Newcastle University and Lynne A. Murphy who is a practising school teacher in north-east England discuss how they worked collaboratively on a programme of science education with a group of 16 Key Stage 3 pupils with moderate learning difficulties. The project lasted for one academic year and…

  19. EVERYDAY PROBLEMS AND THE CHILD WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNSTEIN, BEBE

    THE PROBLEMS THAT DAILY LIVING MAY PRESENT TO CHILDREN WHO EXPERIENCE LEARNING DIFFICULTIES ARE DISCUSSED, AND THE NEED FOR THE TEACHER TO SURVEY THE EXPERIMENTAL BACKGROUND OF HIS CLASS AND TO DEVELOP A METHOD FOR DEALING WITH THE CHILDREN'S PROBLEMS IS DESCRIBED. PROBLEMS THAT MERIT ATTENTION INCLUDE THOSE WHICH FUNCTION INDEPENDENTLY. THE…

  20. Programming for Mathematically Gifted Children with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hroub, Anies

    2010-01-01

    Findings are presented from a large two-phase research study exploring (a) the identification and (b) programming for mathematically gifted students with learning difficulties (MG/LDs) in Jordan. The second phase of the research, which is the focus of the current article, investigates the effects of two programs of instructional practices on the…

  1. Specific Learning Difficulties--What Teachers Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This book clearly explains what Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD) are, and describes the symptoms of conditions most commonly encountered in the mainstream classroom: dyslexia, dyspraxia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, Autism Spectrum Disorder, ADHD, and OCD. The author provides an overview of the strengths and weaknesses commonly associated with…

  2. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pons, Francisco; de Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick K; Doudin, Pierre-André; Harris, Paul L; Giménez-Dasí, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants' emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not for simple components. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.

  3. Learning from the Experts: People with Learning Difficulties Training and Learning from Each Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Louise; Shane, Chris; MacDonald, Fiona; Hart, Craig; Smith, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This article is about a training project run by Central England People First (CEPF). CEPF has been doing workshops, conferences and other training for over 10 years. It seemed like a good idea to help other people with learning difficulties to learn how to be trainers. This would help them to speak out about their lives and the services they want.…

  4. Learning difficulties among children separated from a parent.

    PubMed

    Jee, Sandra H; Conn, Kelly M; Nilsen, Wendy J; Szilagyi, Moira A; Forbes-Jones, Emma; Halterman, Jill S

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship between experiencing separation from parents and having learning difficulties among children in a community-based sample. In 2003, parents of children entering kindergarten in the city of Rochester completed a survey assessing the child's social background, medical history, and behavioral profile. Children separated from parents for >1 month were compared with those who had never been away for >1 month on 4 validated developmental measures (range, 1-4): a learning scale, an expressive language scale, a preliteracy scale, and a speech scale. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations between separation from parents and learning difficulties. Among the 1619 children, 18% had been separated from a parent for >1 month at least once (11% once, 7% > or =2 times). Separated children scored worse compared with those without separations on learning (3.14 vs 3.28, P = .001) and preliteracy (2.21 vs 2.35, P = .03). Higher rates of learning difficulties (26.7% vs 16.7%, P < .001) and preliteracy problems (25.9% vs 18.7%, P = .01) were noted among those who had been separated versus those who had not. In multivariable modeling, separation was associated with learning problems (adjusted odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.49) and preliteracy problems (adjusted odds ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.05) when adjusted for demographic, medical, and social factors. Urban children who have experienced separation from a parent may have more learning difficulties at entrance to kindergarten. Screening and intervention practices to remedy these challenges may better equip such young children to succeed when they enter school.

  5. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties in Italian Children: Are They Associated with Other Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Marcella; Palladino, Paola

    2007-01-01

    A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and…

  6. Difficulties in learning and teaching statistics: teacher views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koparan, Timur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define teacher views about the difficulties in learning and teaching middle school statistics subjects. To serve this aim, a number of interviews were conducted with 10 middle school maths teachers in 2011-2012 school year in the province of Trabzon. Of the qualitative descriptive research methods, the semi-structured interview technique was applied in the research. In accordance with the aim, teacher opinions about the statistics subjects were examined and analysed. Similar responses from the teachers were grouped and evaluated. The teachers stated that it was positive that middle school statistics subjects were taught gradually in every grade but some difficulties were experienced in the teaching of this subject. The findings are presented in eight themes which are context, sample, data representation, central tendency and dispersion measure, probability, variance, and other difficulties.

  7. A Case Study on Learning Difficulties and Corresponding Supports for Learning in cMOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shuang; Tang, Qi; Zhang, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    cMOOCs, which are based on connectivist learning theory, bring challenges for learners as well as opportunities for self-inquiry. Previous studies have shown that learners in cMOOCs may have difficulties learning, but these studies do not provide any in-depth, empirical explorations of student difficulties or support strategies. This paper…

  8. Supporting Lifelong Learning for People with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of supporting lifelong learning for individuals with profound and multiple learning difficulties. Lifelong learning is usually a more mainstream concept and is rarely applied to this marginalized group for whom learning "per se" is such a challenge. The paper debates whether the concept is a useful one, and what…

  9. Multisensory perceptual learning is dependent upon task difficulty.

    PubMed

    De Niear, Matthew A; Koo, Bonhwang; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-11-01

    There has been a growing interest in developing behavioral tasks to enhance temporal acuity as recent findings have demonstrated changes in temporal processing in a number of clinical conditions. Prior research has demonstrated that perceptual training can enhance temporal acuity both within and across different sensory modalities. Although certain forms of unisensory perceptual learning have been shown to be dependent upon task difficulty, this relationship has not been explored for multisensory learning. The present study sought to determine the effects of task difficulty on multisensory perceptual learning. Prior to and following a single training session, participants completed a simultaneity judgment (SJ) task, which required them to judge whether a visual stimulus (flash) and auditory stimulus (beep) presented in synchrony or at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) occurred synchronously or asynchronously. During the training session, participants completed the same SJ task but received feedback regarding the accuracy of their responses. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three levels of difficulty during training: easy, moderate, and hard, which were distinguished based on the SOAs used during training. We report that only the most difficult (i.e., hard) training protocol enhanced temporal acuity. We conclude that perceptual training protocols for enhancing multisensory temporal acuity may be optimized by employing audiovisual stimuli for which it is difficult to discriminate temporal synchrony from asynchrony.

  10. Communication Skills, Educational Achievement and Biographic Characteristics of Children with Moderate Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Susannah; Bibby, Peter; Wood, David; Leyden, Gerv

    1997-01-01

    Examines aspects of intellectual, linguistic, and academic abilities of children with moderate learning difficulties, and analyzes a profile of these abilities. Explores the relationships among several aspects of academic achievement and biographical factors. Provides a rationale for a long-term intervention study designed to develop these…

  11. Difficulties with emotion regulation mediate the relationship between borderline personality disorder symptom severity and interpersonal problems.

    PubMed

    Herr, Nathaniel R; Rosenthal, M Zachary; Geiger, Paul J; Erikson, Karen

    2013-08-01

    Problems with interpersonal functioning and difficulties with emotion regulation are core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Little is known, however, about the interrelationship between these areas of dysfunction in accounting for BPD symptom severity. The present study examines a model of the relationship between difficulties with emotion regulation and interpersonal dysfunction in a community sample of adults (n = 124) with the full range of BPD symptoms. Results showed that difficulties with emotion regulation fully mediated the relationship between BPD symptom severity and interpersonal dysfunction. An alternative model indicated that interpersonal problems partially mediated the relationship between difficulties with emotion regulation and BPD symptom severity. These findings support existing theories of BPD, which propose that difficulties with emotion regulation may account for the types of interpersonal problems experienced by individuals with BPD and suggest further examination of the possibility that interpersonal dysfunction may worsen these individuals' difficulties with emotion regulation.

  12. Learning difficulties or learning English difficulties? Additional language acquisition: an update for paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Vanessa; Rhodes, Anthea; Paxton, Georgia

    2014-03-01

    Australia is a diverse society: 26% of the population were born overseas, a further 20% have at least one parent born overseas and 19% speak a language other than English at home. Paediatricians are frequently involved in the assessment and management of non-English-speaking-background children with developmental delay, disability or learning issues. Despite the diversity of our patient population, information on how children learn additional or later languages is remarkably absent in paediatric training. An understanding of second language acquisition is essential to provide appropriate advice to this patient group. It takes a long time (5 years or more) for any student to develop academic competency in a second language, even a student who has received adequate prior schooling in their first language. Refugee students are doubly disadvantaged as they frequently have limited or interrupted prior schooling, and many are unable to read and write in their first language. We review the evidence on second language acquisition during childhood, describe support for English language learners within the Australian education system, consider refugee-background students as a special risk group and address common misconceptions about how children learn English as an additional language. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Understanding Students with Learning Difficulties: How Do They Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Barbara S. S.; Chick, Kay A.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines: (1) why learning comes so naturally for some students and yet is so onerous for others; (2) why some students need constant reminders while others get on task right away; and (3) why some students "just don't get it" even after countless repetitions and multitudes of practices. This paper describes the…

  14. Assessing College-Level Learning Difficulties and "At Riskness" for Learning Disabilities and ADHD: Development and Validation of the Learning Difficulties Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Steven T.; Walker, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the "Learning Difficulties Assessment" (LDA), a normed and web-based survey that assesses perceived difficulties with reading, writing, spelling, mathematics, listening, concentration, memory, organizational skills, sense of control, and anxiety in college students. The LDA is designed to…

  15. Assessing College-Level Learning Difficulties and "At Riskness" for Learning Disabilities and ADHD: Development and Validation of the Learning Difficulties Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Steven T.; Walker, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the "Learning Difficulties Assessment" (LDA), a normed and web-based survey that assesses perceived difficulties with reading, writing, spelling, mathematics, listening, concentration, memory, organizational skills, sense of control, and anxiety in college students. The LDA is designed to…

  16. Fine motor function of school-aged children with dyslexia, learning disability and learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Coppede, Aline Cirelli; Valle, Talita Regina

    2010-01-01

    fine motor function of school-aged children with dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties. this study aimed to characterize the fine motor, sensory and perceptive function of school-aged children with dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties and to correlate these results with the analysis of the children's handwriting. participants were 80 2nd to 4th graders, ranging in age from 7 to 12 years, of both genders, divided as follows: GI: composed of 20 students with dyslexia, GII: composed of 20 students with learning disabilities, GIII: composed of 20 students with learning difficulties and GIV: composed of 20 good readers. All of the children were submitted to an assessment of the fine motor, sensorial and perceptive functions using the Dysgraphia Scale. the results indicated that most groups presented a poor performance in tests of FMF7 (fingers opposition), S8 (graphestesia) and P1 (body imitation). GI and GII were the groups that presented the worst performance in most of the tests when compared to GIII and GIV. Regarding handwriting, it was observed that all of the children in GII are dysgraphics. the presence of motor, sensorial and perceptive alterations is a characteristic of children with learning disabilities and dyslexia. However this characteristic may or may not be found in children with learning difficulties, therefore motor, sensorial and perceptive alterations are responsible for the dysgraphic behavior observed in the children with learning disabilities of the present study.

  17. Humans and Monkeys Exert Metacognitive Control Based on Learning Difficulty in a Perceptual Categorization Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Joshua S.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Redford (2010) found that monkeys seemed to exert metacognitive control in a category-learning paradigm. Specifically, they selected more trials to view as the difficulty of the category-learning task increased. However, category-learning difficulty was determined by manipulating the family resemblance across the to-be-learned exemplars.…

  18. Intervention Provided to Linguistically Diverse Middle School Students with Severe Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Bryan, Deanna

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent reading intervention implemented with middle school students with severe reading difficulties, all of whom had received remedial and/or special education for several years with minimal response to intervention. Participants were 38 students in grades 6-8 who had severe deficits in word…

  19. Emotion regulation difficulties and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom cluster severity among trauma-exposed college students.

    PubMed

    O'Bryan, Emily M; McLeish, Alison C; Kraemer, Kristen M; Fleming, John B

    2015-03-01

    The present investigation examined the role of emotion regulation difficulties in predicting severity of the 3 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters (i.e., reexperiencing, hyperarousal, avoidance) in a sample of undergraduates who reported exposure to at least 1 DSM-IV-TR Criterion A traumatic event (n = 297; 77.1% female, Mage = 20.46, SD = 4.64, range = 18-50 years). Results indicated that greater difficulties with emotional acceptance significantly predicted greater avoidance and hyperarousal symptom severity above and beyond the effects of number of trauma types endorsed and negative affect. Emotion regulation difficulties were not significantly predictive of reexperiencing symptom severity. Results from an exploratory analysis indicated that greater difficulties with emotional acceptance and greater difficulties accessing effective emotion regulation strategies when upset significantly predicted the DSM-5 negative alterations in cognitions and mood symptom cluster. These findings suggest that difficulties accepting one's emotional responses, in particular, may heighten emotional responding to and avoidance of trauma-related cues. Thus, individuals who experience such difficulties may be more likely to experience negative outcomes after experiencing a traumatic event.

  20. Designing Accessible Learning Materials for Learners with Disabilities and Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Explains how the Open Training and Education Network in New South Wales (Australia) has addressed the issue of designing learning materials for learners in vocational and pre-vocational areas with physical, intellectual, vision, hearing, psychological, or neurological disabilities and learning difficulties, such as low literacy and numeracy…

  1. Cognitive subtypes of mathematics learning difficulties in primary education.

    PubMed

    Bartelet, Dimona; Ansari, Daniel; Vaessen, Anniek; Blomert, Leo

    2014-03-01

    It has been asserted that children with mathematics learning difficulties (MLD) constitute a heterogeneous group. To date, most researchers have investigated differences between predefined MLD subtypes. Specifically MLD children are frequently categorized a priori into groups based on the presence or absence of an additional disorder, such as a reading disorder, to examine cognitive differences between MLD subtypes. In the current study 226 third to six grade children (M age=131 months) with MLD completed a selection of number specific and general cognitive measures. The data driven approach was used to identify the extent to which performance of the MLD children on these measures could be clustered into distinct groups. In particular, after conducting a factor analysis, a 200 times repeated K-means clustering approach was used to classify the children's performance. Results revealed six distinguishable clusters of MLD children, specifically (a) a weak mental number line group, (b) weak ANS group, (c) spatial difficulties group, (d) access deficit group, (e) no numerical cognitive deficit group and (f) a garden-variety group. These findings imply that different cognitive subtypes of MLD exist and that these can be derived from data-driven approaches to classification. These findings strengthen the notion that MLD is a heterogeneous disorder, which has implications for the way in which intervention may be tailored for individuals within the different subtypes.

  2. Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David

    2012-08-01

    Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in classroom interactions, and what consequences these interactions have for individual students' conceptual understanding. This paper reports a detailed analysis of two lessons on density in a 7th Grade Australian science classroom, employing the theory of Distributed Cognition (Hollan et al. 1999; Hutchins 1995). The analysis demonstrated that student understanding of density was shaped strongly by the public classroom discussion on the density of two metal blocks. It also revealed the ambiguities associated with the teacher demonstration and the student practical work. These ambiguities contributed to student difficulties with the concept of density identified in this classroom. The results of this study suggest that deliberate effort is needed to establish shared understanding not only about the purpose of the activities, but also about the meaning of scientific language and the utility of tools. It also suggests the importance of appropriate employment of instructional resources in order to facilitate student scientific understanding.

  3. Factors influencing therapists' interventions for children with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Copley, Jodie; Nelson, Alison; Turpin, Merrill; Underwood, Katherine; Flanigan, Kerry

    2008-04-01

    Occupational therapists use a range of intervention approaches with children with learning difficulties. This study aimed to identify factors influencing therapists' clinical decisions when choosing and combining these interventions. Seven occupational therapists participated. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, short questionnaires, and therapy observations and analysed thematically. Therapists used a combination of child, therapist, and service-related factors to individually tailor a combination of intervention techniques drawn from different theoretical approaches. Therapists also used embedded practices with all children to engage and motivate them, promote task mastery, encourage application of strategies at home and school, and evolve intervention through ongoing evaluation. The child and family's home and school context and, to a lesser extent, the therapist's past experience and service context are primary factors considered when choosing interventions. Therapists continually move between theoretical and practical levels of thinking to best meet each child's needs.

  4. Mathematical Competencies in Children with Different Types of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical performance of 182 third and fourth graders in 8 different areas of mathematics was examined. The children belonged to 4 achievement groups: children with mathematic difficulties (MD only), children with both mathematic and reading difficulties (MD-RD), children with reading difficulties (RD only), and normally achieving children…

  5. Difficulty in learning similar-sounding words: A developmental stage or a general property of learning?

    PubMed

    Pajak, Bozena; Creel, Sarah C; Levy, Roger

    2016-09-01

    How are languages learned, and to what extent are learning mechanisms similar in infant native-language (L1) and adult second-language (L2) acquisition? In terms of vocabulary acquisition, we know from the infant literature that the ability to discriminate similar-sounding words at a particular age does not guarantee successful word-meaning mapping at that age (Stager & Werker, 1997). However, it is unclear whether this difficulty arises from developmental limitations of young infants (e.g., poorer working memory) or whether it is an intrinsic part of the initial word learning, L1 and L2 alike. In this study, we show that adults of particular L1 backgrounds-just like young infants-have difficulty learning similar-sounding L2 words that they can nevertheless discriminate perceptually. This suggests that the early stages of word learning, whether L1 or L2, intrinsically involve difficulty in mapping similar-sounding words onto referents. We argue that this is due to an interaction between 2 main factors: (a) memory limitations that pose particular challenges for highly similar-sounding words, and (b) uncertainty regarding the language's phonetic categories, because the categories are being learned concurrently with words. Overall, our results show that vocabulary acquisition in infancy and adulthood shares more similarities than previously thought, thus supporting the existence of common learning mechanisms that operate throughout the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. [Performance of students with dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties in metaphonological abilities tests (PROHFON)].

    PubMed

    Germano, Giseli Donadon; Capellini, Simone Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    To elaborate a procedure of metaphonological evaluation, and to characterize the performance of students with developmental dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties and good readers in this evaluation. Metaphonological abilities tests were elaborated based on the necessary skills for reading and writing development. Participants were 134 students from 3rd to 5th grades of elementary school of both genders, with ages between 7 and 13 years, divided into GI (20 students with developmental dyslexia), GII (20 students with learning disabilities), GIII (20 students with learning difficulties) and GIV (74 good readers). The assessment of metaphonological abilities - PROHFON - was applied. Students from GI and GII differed from GIV in most of the tests; GI differed from GII only in the phonemic synthesis and analysis test, and from GIII in abilities of deletion and combination of phonemes. GIII differed from GIV in counting, identification, rhyming, deletion, and combination abilities. Students with developmental dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties, and good readers showed similar performances in identification, counting and combining phonemes, rhyme and alliteration abilities. The groups differed from each other regarding syllabic (counting, identification, synthesis and analysis, deletion, combination) and phonemic (deletion, synthesis and analysis) abilities. The PROHFON contributed to characterize the metaphonological profile of students with different learning deficits.

  7. Learning approaches and learning difficulties: a comparison of Indian and Nepali dental science students.

    PubMed

    Mayya, Shreemathi S; Rao, A Krishna; Ramnarayan, K

    2002-11-01

    This study explored the difference in learning approaches and difficulties of Nepali and Indian undergraduate students of dental science. A locally developed inventory was used to measure learning approach and learning difficulties. Data collected from 166 Indians and 69 Nepalis were compared. The scores on various scales of the inventory indicate that Nepalis are more fearful and less confident regarding examination and course completion and have significantly less positive perception about academic capability. Indian students scored significantly higher on motivation, interest, and deep processing. The language problem was significantly greater for Nepali students. Higher percentages of Nepalis experienced various academic and nonacademic problems. The study highlights the need to consider difference in learning approach among the students of health science courses that admit students from different academic, nonacademic, and cultural backgrounds.

  8. A componential view of children's difficulties in learning fractions

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Florence; Coché, Frédéric; Szucs, Dénes; Carette, Vincent; Rey, Bernard; Content, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Fractions are well known to be difficult to learn. Various hypotheses have been proposed in order to explain those difficulties: fractions can denote different concepts; their understanding requires a conceptual reorganization with regard to natural numbers; and using fractions involves the articulation of conceptual knowledge with complex manipulation of procedures. In order to encompass the major aspects of knowledge about fractions, we propose to distinguish between conceptual and procedural knowledge. We designed a test aimed at assessing the main components of fraction knowledge. The test was carried out by fourth-, fifth- and sixth-graders from the French Community of Belgium. The results showed large differences between categories. Pupils seemed to master the part-whole concept, whereas numbers and operations posed problems. Moreover, pupils seemed to apply procedures they do not fully understand. Our results offer further directions to explain why fractions are amongst the most difficult mathematical topics in primary education. This study offers a number of recommendations on how to teach fractions. PMID:24133471

  9. A componential view of children's difficulties in learning fractions.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Florence; Coché, Frédéric; Szucs, Dénes; Carette, Vincent; Rey, Bernard; Content, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Fractions are well known to be difficult to learn. Various hypotheses have been proposed in order to explain those difficulties: fractions can denote different concepts; their understanding requires a conceptual reorganization with regard to natural numbers; and using fractions involves the articulation of conceptual knowledge with complex manipulation of procedures. In order to encompass the major aspects of knowledge about fractions, we propose to distinguish between conceptual and procedural knowledge. We designed a test aimed at assessing the main components of fraction knowledge. The test was carried out by fourth-, fifth- and sixth-graders from the French Community of Belgium. The results showed large differences between categories. Pupils seemed to master the part-whole concept, whereas numbers and operations posed problems. Moreover, pupils seemed to apply procedures they do not fully understand. Our results offer further directions to explain why fractions are amongst the most difficult mathematical topics in primary education. This study offers a number of recommendations on how to teach fractions.

  10. Evaluation of Horizon Multimedia Learning Materials for Students with Learning Difficulties and Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Trevor; Jones, Sara; Britton, Carol; Messer, David

    This paper describes the different methods used to evaluate individually configurable multimedia materials developed for the Horizon project, a program designed to increase employment opportunities for students with disabilities or learning difficulties. The project established a working cafe/restaurant in East London staffed by the students. Part…

  11. Etiology of Reading Difficulties as a Function of Gender and Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.

    2007-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the etiology of reading difficulties may differ for males and females in more severely impaired samples, reading performance data from monozygotic (MZ), same-sex dizygotic (DZ[subscript ss]), and opposite-sex dizygotic (DZ[subscript os]) twin pairs were analyzed using a model-fitting implementation of the DeFries-Fulker…

  12. Etiology of Reading Difficulties as a Function of Gender and Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.

    2007-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the etiology of reading difficulties may differ for males and females in more severely impaired samples, reading performance data from monozygotic (MZ), same-sex dizygotic (DZ[subscript ss]), and opposite-sex dizygotic (DZ[subscript os]) twin pairs were analyzed using a model-fitting implementation of the DeFries-Fulker…

  13. Assessment of Leisure Preferences for Students with Severe Developmental Disabilities and Communication Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, Janice; Flexer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and to evaluate the Preferences for Leisure Attributes (PLA) Assessment, a forced-choice computer software program for students with severe disabilities and communication difficulties. In order to determine content validity of the PLA Assessment, four experts in related fields assigned critical attributes…

  14. Assessing college-level learning difficulties and "at riskness" for learning disabilities and ADHD: development and validation of the learning difficulties assessment.

    PubMed

    Kane, Steven T; Walker, John H; Schmidt, George R

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Learning Difficulties Assessment (LDA), a normed and web-based survey that assesses perceived difficulties with reading, writing, spelling, mathematics, listening, concentration, memory, organizational skills, sense of control, and anxiety in college students. The LDA is designed to (a) map individual learning strengths and weaknesses, (b) provide users with a comparative sense of their academic skills, (c) integrate research in user-interface design to assist those with reading and learning challenges, and (d) identify individuals who may be at risk for learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and who should thus be further assessed. Data from a large-scale 5-year study describing the instrument's validity as a screening tool for learning disabilities and ADHD are presented. This article also describes unique characteristics of the LDA including its user-interface design, normative characteristics, and use as a no-cost screening tool for identifying college students at risk for learning disorders and ADHD.

  15. The Prevalence and Outcomes of Care Proceedings Involving Parents with Learning Difficulties in the Family Courts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Tim; Booth, Wendy; McConnell, David

    2005-01-01

    Background: Parents with learning difficulties are known to face a high risk of losing their children. This paper reports findings from a study designed to throw light on the numbers of parents with learning difficulties and their children coming before the Family Courts in Children Act proceedings and what happened to them as a result. Method:…

  16. Psychometric Properties of a Newly Developed Learning Difficulties Scale in the Omani Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qaryout, Ibrahim A.; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.; Alsulaimani, Humaira

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Learning difficulties (LD) is a recent construct. It has been agreed that the individual who suffers from learning difficulties has a disorder in one or more of the basis psychological processes, including attention, cognition, formation of concepts, memory, problem solving, understanding or reading, speaking or writing, or…

  17. Visually Impaired People with Learning Difficulties: Their Education from 1900 to 1970--Policy, Practice and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Sally

    2008-01-01

    By means of documentary evidence and six in-depth interviews, this paper traces policy and practice relating to the education of visually impaired children with learning difficulties from 1900 to 1970. It reveals that if visually impaired children with learning difficulties were given an education at all, their needs were not usually met and they…

  18. A Few Steps along the Road? Promoting Support for Parents with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarleton, Beth

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of research and development work around parenting by adults with a learning difficulty undertaken at the Norah Fry Research Centre (NFRC) since 2005. It discusses how our understanding of the support needs of parents with learning difficulties grew through an initial mapping study which led to the concept of…

  19. Mutual Support: A Model of Participatory Support by and for People with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Sarah E.; Brandon, Toby

    2012-01-01

    Mutual Support, a model of peer support by and for people with learning difficulties, was constructed through a participatory research process. The research focussed on individual narratives from people with learning difficulties. These narratives were then brought together to form a collective model of support. This paper outlines the detailed…

  20. Reconsidering Learning Difficulties and Misconceptions in Chemistry: Emergence in Chemistry and Its Implications for Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Identifying students' misconceptions and learning difficulties and finding effective ways of addressing them has been one of the major concerns in chemistry education. However, the chemistry education community has paid little attention to determining discipline-specific aspects of chemistry that can lead to learning difficulties and…

  1. Recollection but Not Familiarity Differentiates Memory for Text in Students with and without Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirandola, Chiara; Del Prete, Francesco; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2011-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating recognition memory and recollective experience for a text in adolescents with and without learning difficulties. Adolescents (age 15 to 19) with learning difficulties were selected based on their performance on a standardized test for text comprehension and on the teachers' evaluations of their…

  2. Parental Account of Support for Specific Learning Difficulties in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong; McBrayer, Philip Allen

    2013-01-01

    Parents play a significant role in the education of children with special needs. Recent national policies have aimed to improve support for students with specific learning difficulties and their families in Hong Kong. Literature on the experiences of children with specific learning difficulties in Hong Kong is scarce. This study, by Kim Fong…

  3. Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire: Validation of a Parent-Report Screening Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willcutt, Erik G.; Boada, Richard; Riddle, Margaret W.; Chhabildas, Nomita; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the internal structure and convergent and discriminant evidence for the Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire (CLDQ), a 20-item parent-report rating scale that was developed to provide a brief screening measure for learning difficulties. CLDQ ratings were obtained from parents of children in 2 large community samples…

  4. Laptops Meet Schools, One-One Draw: M-Learning for Secondary Students with Literacy Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul F.; Amberson, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Mobile technology-enhanced literacy initiatives have become a focus of efforts to support learning for students with literacy difficulties. The "Laptops Initiative for Post-Primary Students with Dyslexia or other Reading/Writing Difficulties" offers insights into and addresses questions about ICT policy making regarding m-learning technologies for…

  5. Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire: Validation of a Parent-Report Screening Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willcutt, Erik G.; Boada, Richard; Riddle, Margaret W.; Chhabildas, Nomita; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the internal structure and convergent and discriminant evidence for the Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire (CLDQ), a 20-item parent-report rating scale that was developed to provide a brief screening measure for learning difficulties. CLDQ ratings were obtained from parents of children in 2 large community samples…

  6. Social Play of Young Children At-Risk of Learning Difficulties: A Situated Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina M.; Van Tol, Annemarie M.; Karemaker, Arjette M.

    2004-01-01

    The question asked by this study was whether information on play behaviour of young children at-risk of learning difficulties could act as a diagnostic means of investigating emerging learning difficulties. A sociocultural perspective was taken to examine the role of interaction during the play of students in a regular primary school and in a…

  7. Parental Account of Support for Specific Learning Difficulties in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong; McBrayer, Philip Allen

    2013-01-01

    Parents play a significant role in the education of children with special needs. Recent national policies have aimed to improve support for students with specific learning difficulties and their families in Hong Kong. Literature on the experiences of children with specific learning difficulties in Hong Kong is scarce. This study, by Kim Fong…

  8. The Vision of Children with Learning Difficulties: The Role of the Teacher and Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Marilyn A.

    1981-01-01

    The role of optometry in the study of learning difficulties and the problems of interpreting research results in the fields of optometry and ophthalmology are discussed. Limitations of school visual screening are described, and it is suggested that many children with learning difficulties should be referred for a full clinical visual examination.…

  9. Learning Difficulties and Social Class: Exploring the Intersection through Family Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the intersection between learning difficulties and social class. It also inevitably tells of the gender-class interface in relation to women's caring roles. I use the life story narratives of three mothers and a grandmother of a person with learning difficulties, together with concepts from Bourdieu, to explore the…

  10. Reconsidering Learning Difficulties and Misconceptions in Chemistry: Emergence in Chemistry and Its Implications for Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Identifying students' misconceptions and learning difficulties and finding effective ways of addressing them has been one of the major concerns in chemistry education. However, the chemistry education community has paid little attention to determining discipline-specific aspects of chemistry that can lead to learning difficulties and…

  11. New Comers: The Difficulties They Encounter Learning the Target Language and Possible Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassama, Sorie

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the difficulties encountered by newcomers from diverse backgrounds who come to the United States with the desire to learn English and further their studies. Most of these newcomers sometimes face insurmountable difficulties while trying to learn the new language. In some cases, they hit brick walls and the only negative…

  12. Laptops Meet Schools, One-One Draw: M-Learning for Secondary Students with Literacy Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul F.; Amberson, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Mobile technology-enhanced literacy initiatives have become a focus of efforts to support learning for students with literacy difficulties. The "Laptops Initiative for Post-Primary Students with Dyslexia or other Reading/Writing Difficulties" offers insights into and addresses questions about ICT policy making regarding m-learning technologies for…

  13. The Vision of Children with Learning Difficulties: The Role of the Teacher and Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Marilyn A.

    1981-01-01

    The role of optometry in the study of learning difficulties and the problems of interpreting research results in the fields of optometry and ophthalmology are discussed. Limitations of school visual screening are described, and it is suggested that many children with learning difficulties should be referred for a full clinical visual examination.…

  14. Mutual Support: A Model of Participatory Support by and for People with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Sarah E.; Brandon, Toby

    2012-01-01

    Mutual Support, a model of peer support by and for people with learning difficulties, was constructed through a participatory research process. The research focussed on individual narratives from people with learning difficulties. These narratives were then brought together to form a collective model of support. This paper outlines the detailed…

  15. Identifying Students' Difficulties When Learning Technical Skills via a Wireless Sensor Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jingying; Wen, Ming-Lee; Jou, Min

    2016-01-01

    Practical training and actual application of acquired knowledge and techniques are crucial for the learning of technical skills. We established a wireless sensor network system (WSNS) based on the 5E learning cycle in a practical learning environment to improve students' reflective abilities and to reduce difficulties for the learning of technical…

  16. Identifying Students' Difficulties When Learning Technical Skills via a Wireless Sensor Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jingying; Wen, Ming-Lee; Jou, Min

    2016-01-01

    Practical training and actual application of acquired knowledge and techniques are crucial for the learning of technical skills. We established a wireless sensor network system (WSNS) based on the 5E learning cycle in a practical learning environment to improve students' reflective abilities and to reduce difficulties for the learning of technical…

  17. Unconscious and Unnoticed Professional Practice within an Outstanding School for Children and Young People with Complex Learning Difficulties and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crombie, Richard; Sullivan, Lesley; Walker, Kate; Warnock, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a three-year project undertaken at Pear Tree School for children and young people with severe and multiple and profound learning difficulties. Lesley Sullivan, the school's head teacher, believed that much of the value within the work of this outstanding school went unidentified by existing approaches to planning, monitoring…

  18. Provision for Students with Learning Difficulties in General Colleges of Further Education--Have We Been Going Round in Circles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Anne-Marie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Anne-Marie Wright, lecturer at the University of Chester, considers the current situation for students with severe learning difficulties in general colleges of further education. She presents findings from a critical review of the literature and a small-scale preliminary investigation which set out to explore the idea that,…

  19. Failure to learn from feedback underlies word learning difficulties in toddlers at risk for autism.

    PubMed

    Bedford, R; Gliga, T; Frame, K; Hudry, K; Chandler, S; Johnson, M H; Charman, T

    2013-01-01

    Children's assignment of novel words to nameless objects, over objects whose names they know (mutual exclusivity; ME) has been described as a driving force for vocabulary acquisition. Despite their ability to use ME to fast-map words (Preissler & Carey, 2005), children with autism show impaired language acquisition. We aimed to address this puzzle by building on studies showing that correct referent selection using ME does not lead to word learning unless ostensive feedback is provided on the child's object choice (Horst & Samuelson, 2008). We found that although toddlers aged 2;0 at risk for autism can use ME to choose the correct referent of a word, they do not benefit from feedback for long-term retention of the word-object mapping. Further, their difficulty using feedback is associated with their smaller receptive vocabularies. We propose that difficulties learning from social feedback, not lexical principles, limits vocabulary building during development in children at risk for autism.

  20. Toilet training children with learning difficulties: what the literature tells us.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alison

    Nurses and health visitors are the professional group most likely to be involved in advising and supporting parents of children with disabilities (Bliss and Watson, 1992). Little research has been done into assessing and treating urinary continence difficulties of children with learning difficulties and many questions remain unanswered: what is the extent of the problem; what specific intervention do children with learning difficulties require to attain toileting skills; what expectation can the parent and clinician have that children with learning difficulties can be toilet trained and who is best placed to promote toileting skills? The main findings from the literature will support health and education professionals and carers who are involved in toilet training children with learning difficulties.

  1. Reducing Verbal Redundancy in Multimedia Learning: An Undesired Desirable Difficulty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Carole L.; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon; Bjork, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the redundancy principle in multimedia learning has shown that although exact correspondence between on-screen text and narration generally impairs learning, brief labels within an animation can improve learning. To clarify and extend the theoretical and practical implications of these results, the authors of the present…

  2. Reducing Verbal Redundancy in Multimedia Learning: An Undesired Desirable Difficulty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Carole L.; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon; Bjork, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the redundancy principle in multimedia learning has shown that although exact correspondence between on-screen text and narration generally impairs learning, brief labels within an animation can improve learning. To clarify and extend the theoretical and practical implications of these results, the authors of the present…

  3. Living in hospital and hostel: the pattern of interactions of people with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Markova, I; Jahoda, A; Cattermole, M; Woodward, D

    1992-04-01

    This study compared interactions between the staff and residents living in hospital wards and in community-based hostels. Twenty-four people with moderate to severe learning difficulties participated in this study. Interactions were categorized according to who was the initiator and recipient, their purpose, attitude of the recipient, duration, and place. It was found that the hospital and hotel residents had virtually no interactions with people outwith the establishment in which they lived. The hostel appeared to offer the residents a sociable environment with more interpersonal interactions and more positive attitudes towards the interactants than the hospital. Interactions in both kinds of setting were very short, thus giving residents little chance to develop communicative skills. It is suggested that a more personal approach, such as joint activities between residents and staff, and living in small groups in ordinary housing, should be the first priorities in the effort to improve the pattern of social interactions of people with moderate to severe learning difficulties.

  4. The effects of technical difficulties on learning and attrition during online training.

    PubMed

    Sitzmann, Traci; Ely, Katherine; Bell, Bradford S; Bauer, Kristina N

    2010-09-01

    Although online instruction has many potential benefits, technical difficulties are one drawback to the increased use of this medium. A repeated measures design was used to examine the effect that technical difficulties have on learning and attrition from voluntary online training. Adult learners (N = 530) were recruited online and volunteered to participate in a 4-hr training program on using computer spreadsheets. Technical difficulties were inserted in some of the training modules in the form of error messages. Using multilevel modeling, the results indicated that the presence of these technical difficulties impaired learning, such that test scores were lower in modules where trainees encountered technical difficulties than in modules where they did not encounter technical difficulties. Furthermore, the effect on learning was greater among trainees who eventually withdrew from the course than among trainees who completed the course. With regards to attrition, pretraining motivation provided a buffer against dropping out, especially when trainees encountered technical difficulties. Learning also predicted attrition from the subsequent module, such that attrition was higher among trainees with low test scores in the previous module. The current study disentangles some of the implications of technical difficulties and suggests that organizations should provide trainees with the technical support required to overcome technical difficulties in training. Furthermore, the findings contribute to our theoretical understanding of the implications of interruptions on performance in online training.

  5. [The comorbidity of learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms in primary-school-age children].

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Fischbach, Anne; Balke-Melcher, Christina; Mähler, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Children having difficulties in acquiring early literacy and mathematical skills often show an increased rate of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This study provides data on the comorbidity rates of specific learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 273 children with learning difficulties despite an at least average IQ, 57 children with low IQ, and 270 children without learning difficulties and average IQ (comparison group). We assessed children’s IQ and school achievement using standardized achievement tests. ADHD symptoms were assessed via parents’ ratings. Our results showed that only 5 % of both the control group and the group with solely mathematical difficulties fulfilled the criteria of an ADHD subtype according to the DSM-IV based on parents’ ratings. In contrast, this was the case in even 20 % of the children with difficulties in reading/writing and of those with low IQ. Compared to girls, boys in the control group had a 150% higher risk for matching the criteria of one of the ADHD subtypes in parents’ ratings, whereas boys with learning difficulties and those with low IQ had an even 200% to 600% higher risk for it. The relationship between learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms can be found predominantly in the inattentive type. Possible reasons for the results are discussed.

  6. Beyond Stigmatization of Children with Difficulties in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hido, Margarita; Shehu, Irena

    2010-01-01

    In the Albanian schools settings does not exist religious discrimination, neither gender discrimination, but there exists a discrimination, as unfair against children called "difficulty". The children who drop out of school are by far less numerous compared with those who start school, but who are not properly treated, so that they can…

  7. Strategy Acquisition by Children with General Learning Difficulties through Metacognitive Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Melanie S.; Hessels, Marco G. P.; Hessels-Schlatter, Christine; Berger, Jean-Louis; Kipfer, Nadine M.; Buchel, Fredi P.

    2010-01-01

    Children with general learning difficulties commonly show lower school success and have a slower rate of learning. They show limited and inefficient strategy use in all kinds of tasks. Efficient strategy use requires a certain degree of metacognitive knowledge and executive control. A sample of 16 children (ages 8 to 12) with learning difficulties…

  8. Learning Difficulties and the Power of Labelling: Shifting Definitions and Practice in Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergin, Sue; Johnson, Andy

    1995-01-01

    A British study of 92 adult basic education students and 32 tutors showed that individualized learning was emphasized at the expense of small groups. "Preferred types" of students, those most likely to be able to do well in open learning, tacitly emerged, limiting access for adults with learning difficulties. (SK)

  9. Contributions from specific and general factors to unique deficits: two cases of mathematics learning difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Vitor G.; Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Lopes-Silva, Júlia B.; Starling-Alves, Isabella; Antunes, Andressa M.; Pinheiro-Chagas, Pedro; Wood, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics learning difficulties are a highly comorbid and heterogeneous set of disorders linked to several dissociable mechanisms and endophenotypes. Two of these endophenotypes consist of primary deficits in number sense and verbal numerical representations. However, currently acknowledged endophenotypes are underspecified regarding the role of automatic vs. controlled information processing, and their description should be complemented. Two children with specific deficits in number sense and verbal numerical representations and normal or above-normal intelligence and preserved visuospatial cognition illustrate this point. Child H.V. exhibited deficits in number sense and fact retrieval. Child G.A. presented severe deficits in orally presented problems and transcoding tasks. A partial confirmation of the two endophenotypes that relate to the number sense and verbal processing was obtained, but a much more clear differentiation between the deficits presented by H.V. and G.A. can be reached by looking at differential impairments in modes of processing. H.V. is notably competent in the use of controlled processing but has problems with more automatic processes, such as nonsymbolic magnitude processing, speeded counting and fact retrieval. In contrast, G.A. can retrieve facts and process nonsymbolic magnitudes but exhibits severe impairment in recruiting executive functions and the concentration that is necessary to accomplish transcoding tasks and word problem solving. These results indicate that typical endophenotypes might be insufficient to describe accurately the deficits that are observed in children with mathematics learning abilities. However, by incorporating domain-specificity and modes of processing into the assessment of the endophenotypes, individual deficit profiles can be much more accurately described. This process calls for further specification of the endophenotypes in mathematics learning difficulties. PMID:24592243

  10. Contributions from specific and general factors to unique deficits: two cases of mathematics learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Haase, Vitor G; Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Lopes-Silva, Júlia B; Starling-Alves, Isabella; Antunes, Andressa M; Pinheiro-Chagas, Pedro; Wood, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics learning difficulties are a highly comorbid and heterogeneous set of disorders linked to several dissociable mechanisms and endophenotypes. Two of these endophenotypes consist of primary deficits in number sense and verbal numerical representations. However, currently acknowledged endophenotypes are underspecified regarding the role of automatic vs. controlled information processing, and their description should be complemented. Two children with specific deficits in number sense and verbal numerical representations and normal or above-normal intelligence and preserved visuospatial cognition illustrate this point. Child H.V. exhibited deficits in number sense and fact retrieval. Child G.A. presented severe deficits in orally presented problems and transcoding tasks. A partial confirmation of the two endophenotypes that relate to the number sense and verbal processing was obtained, but a much more clear differentiation between the deficits presented by H.V. and G.A. can be reached by looking at differential impairments in modes of processing. H.V. is notably competent in the use of controlled processing but has problems with more automatic processes, such as nonsymbolic magnitude processing, speeded counting and fact retrieval. In contrast, G.A. can retrieve facts and process nonsymbolic magnitudes but exhibits severe impairment in recruiting executive functions and the concentration that is necessary to accomplish transcoding tasks and word problem solving. These results indicate that typical endophenotypes might be insufficient to describe accurately the deficits that are observed in children with mathematics learning abilities. However, by incorporating domain-specificity and modes of processing into the assessment of the endophenotypes, individual deficit profiles can be much more accurately described. This process calls for further specification of the endophenotypes in mathematics learning difficulties.

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Deficits in Children With Learning Difficulties: Is There a Difference Between Verbal Domain and Numerical Domain?

    PubMed

    Peng, Peng; Fuchs, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Children with learning difficulties suffer from working memory (WM) deficits. Yet the specificity of deficits associated with different types of learning difficulties remains unclear. Further research can contribute to our understanding of the nature of WM and the relationship between it and learning difficulties. The current meta-analysis synthesized research on verbal WM and numerical WM among children with reading difficulties (RD), children with mathematics difficulties (MD), and children with reading and mathematics difficulties (RDMD). A total of 29 studies subsuming 110 comparisons were included. Results showed that compared to typically developing children, all learning difficulty groups demonstrated deficits in verbal WM and numerical WM, with RDMD children showing the most severe WM deficits. MD children and RD children showed comparable verbal WM deficits, but MD children showed more severe numerical WM deficits than RD children. Neither severity of learning difficulties nor type of academic screening emerged as a moderator of WM deficit profiles. Although the findings indicate the domain-general nature of WM deficits in RD, MD, and RDMD children, the numerical WM deficits of children with MD and RDMD may reflect the domain-specific nature of WM deficits.

  12. Self-Reported Written Language Difficulties of University Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judith Osgood

    1993-01-01

    A study used structured interviews to explore the nature of written language difficulties of 31 university students with learning disabilities. Discussion of results addressed perceived demands for written expression; specific areas of difficulty (proofreading/detecting errors, spelling, grammar, writing speed, legibility); strategies used to…

  13. The Effects of Technical Difficulties on Learning and Attrition during Online Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzmann, Traci; Ely, Katherine; Bell, Bradford S.; Bauer, Kristina N.

    2010-01-01

    Although online instruction has many potential benefits, technical difficulties are one drawback to the increased use of this medium. A repeated measures design was used to examine the effect that technical difficulties have on learning and attrition from voluntary online training. Adult learners (N = 530) were recruited online and volunteered to…

  14. Ranking the Difficulty Level of the Knowledge Units Based on Learning Dependency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jun; Sha, Sha; Zheng, Qinghua; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Assigning difficulty level indicators to the knowledge units helps the learners plan their learning activities more efficiently. This paper focuses on how to use the topology of a knowledge map to compute and rank the difficulty levels of knowledge units. Firstly, the authors present the hierarchical structure and properties of the knowledge map.…

  15. A Review of the Approaches Investigating the Post-16 Transition of Young Adults with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into the lives and transition from compulsory schooling of young adults with a disability, including a learning difficulty (LD), are increasing. The emerging consensus is one which points to this group of young people experiencing greater difficulties and poorer outcomes compared to the general population. How these investigations…

  16. The Learning Needs of Young Adults with Mental Health Difficulties. NIACE Briefing Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

    A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of young adults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by young adults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…

  17. Initial Understandings of Fraction Concepts Evidenced by Students with Mathematics Learning Disabilities and Difficulties: A Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jessica H.; Welch-Ptak, Jasmine J.; Silva, Juanita M.

    2016-01-01

    Documenting how students with learning disabilities (LD) initially conceive of fractional quantities, and how their understandings may align with or differ from students with mathematics difficulties, is necessary to guide development of assessments and interventions that attach to unique ways of thinking or inherent difficulties these students…

  18. Difficulty in Learning To Read Speech Spectrograms: The Role of Visual Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrys, Gareth

    This study was conducted to demonstrate that a context-dependent discrimination can produce learning difficulty in a pseudo-spectrogram reading task and to look at what contribution segmentation makes to that difficulty. Experiment one involved 10 subjects recruited from the University of Pittsburgh, who were shown pseudo-spectrogram patterns and…

  19. Initial Understandings of Fraction Concepts Evidenced by Students with Mathematics Learning Disabilities and Difficulties: A Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jessica H.; Welch-Ptak, Jasmine J.; Silva, Juanita M.

    2016-01-01

    Documenting how students with learning disabilities (LD) initially conceive of fractional quantities, and how their understandings may align with or differ from students with mathematics difficulties, is necessary to guide development of assessments and interventions that attach to unique ways of thinking or inherent difficulties these students…

  20. The Learning Needs of Young Adults with Mental Health Difficulties. NIACE Briefing Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

    A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of young adults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by young adults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…

  1. Learning and Study Strategies of University Students Who Report a Significant History of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkett, Julie K.; Parrila, Rauno; Hein, Serge F.

    2006-01-01

    The self-reported study and learning strategies used by university students reporting a significant history of reading difficulties (HRD; N = 29) were compared to those of university students who reported no history of reading difficulties (NRD; N = 38). All participants were given a battery of standardized tests and completed a questionnaire that…

  2. Ranking the Difficulty Level of the Knowledge Units Based on Learning Dependency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jun; Sha, Sha; Zheng, Qinghua; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Assigning difficulty level indicators to the knowledge units helps the learners plan their learning activities more efficiently. This paper focuses on how to use the topology of a knowledge map to compute and rank the difficulty levels of knowledge units. Firstly, the authors present the hierarchical structure and properties of the knowledge map.…

  3. Learners' Listening Comprehension Difficulties in English Language Learning: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein; Sabouri, Narjes Banou

    2016-01-01

    Listening is one of the most important skills in English language learning. When students listen to English language, they face a lot of listening difficulties. Students have critical difficulties in listening comprehension because universities and schools pay more attention to writing, reading, and vocabulary. Listening is not an important part…

  4. The Effects of Technical Difficulties on Learning and Attrition during Online Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzmann, Traci; Ely, Katherine; Bell, Bradford S.; Bauer, Kristina N.

    2010-01-01

    Although online instruction has many potential benefits, technical difficulties are one drawback to the increased use of this medium. A repeated measures design was used to examine the effect that technical difficulties have on learning and attrition from voluntary online training. Adult learners (N = 530) were recruited online and volunteered to…

  5. Worster-Drought syndrome: poorly recognized despite severe and persistent difficulties with feeding and speech.

    PubMed

    Clark, Maria; Harris, Rebecca; Jolleff, Nicola; Price, Katie; Neville, Brian G R

    2010-01-01

    Worster-Drought syndrome (WDS), or congenital suprabulbar paresis, is a permanent movement disorder of the bulbar muscles causing persistent difficulties with swallowing, feeding, speech, and saliva control owing to a non-progressive disturbance in early brain development. As such, it falls within the cerebral palsies. The aim of this study was to describe the physical and neuropsychological profiles of children with WDS. Forty-two children with WDS (26 males, 16 females; mean age 7y 10mo, SD 3y 1mo; range 2y 6mo to 16y 5mo) were studied prospectively using a standard protocol. All of the children had severe bulbar dysfunction; 36 out of 42 had feeding difficulties and 23 of 38 had unintelligible speech, which was poorly compensated for by augmentative communication. There were accompanying disturbances in cognition (mean non-verbal IQ 59), behaviour (12/40 attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]), social communication (8/42 autism), and epilepsy (12/39). The severity of bulbar dysfunction and impact of additional impairments made it difficult to use formal assessments. WDS causes severe and persistent bulbar dysfunction that is often accompanied by additional impairments, as in other cerebral palsies. Speech prognosis is particularly poor. Early diagnosis with appreciation of the underlying neurology would encourage critical evaluation of interventions and long-term planning to improve outcome.

  6. Students with Learning Difficulties Meet Shakespeare: Using a Scaffolded Reading Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Sally Sue; Watts, Susan M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes teaching a Shakespearean play ("Macbeth") to eighth and ninth graders with learning difficulties. Describes combining a scaffolded reading experience with an interdisciplinary unit approach to maximize student engagement and success. (SR)

  7. Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning: Implications for Helping Children With Mathematics Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Nancy C; Resnick, Ilyse; Rodrigues, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Dyson, Nancy

    2016-08-09

    The goal of the present article is to synthesize findings to date from the Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning. The study followed a large cohort of children (N = 536) between Grades 3 and 6. The findings showed that many students, especially those with diagnosed learning disabilities, made minimal growth in fraction knowledge and that some showed only a basic grasp of the meaning of a fraction even after several years of instruction. Children with low growth in fraction knowledge during the intermediate grades were much more likely to fail to meet state standards on a broad mathematics measure at the end of Grade 6. Although a range of general and mathematics-specific competencies predicted fraction outcomes, the ability to estimate numerical magnitudes on a number line was a uniquely important marker of fraction success. Many children with mathematics difficulties have deep-seated problems related to whole number magnitude representations that are complicated by the introduction of fractions into the curriculum. Implications for helping students with mathematics difficulties are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2016.

  8. Modeling perceptual learning: difficulties and how they can be overcome.

    PubMed

    Herzog, M H; Fahle, M

    1998-02-01

    We investigated the roles of feedback and attention in training a vernier discrimination task as an example of perceptual learning. Human learning even of simple stimuli, such as verniers, relies on more complex mechanisms than previously expected--ruling out simple neural network models. These findings are not just an empirical oddity but are evidence that present models fail to reflect some important characteristics of the learning process. We will list some of the problems of neural networks and develop a new model that solves them by incorporating top-down mechanisms. Contrary to neural networks, in our model learning is not driven by the set of stimuli only. Internal estimations of performance and knowledge about the task are also incorporated. Our model implies that under certain conditions the detectability of only some of the stimuli is enhanced while the overall improvement of performance is attributed to a change of decision criteria. An experiment confirms this prediction.

  9. Teachers' report of learning and behavioural difficulties in children treated for cerebellar tumours.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Virginie; Longaud, Audrey; Callu, Delphine; Laroussinie, Françoise; Viguier, Delphine; Grill, Jacques; Dellatolas, Georges

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was the validation of the Deasy-Spinetta Questionnaire (DSQ) in 6-11 year olds with attention to the verification of three factors (learning difficulties, socialization and emotionality) and its application in children treated for cerebellar tumour. Twenty-nine children aged between 6-11 years were compared with 609 classmates. Teachers completed the DSQ. Patients were evaluated according to Wechsler Scales, the Purdue Pegboard and the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating scale. In classmates, the DSQ factorial analysis showed three factors: learning, socialization difficulties and disturbing behaviour. Teachers reported more learning difficulties in patients than in classmates. Learning difficulties in patients were greater for mathematics and reasoning than for reading. Patients were described as less active, without evidence of autistic-like behaviour or irritability. The teachers' report of learning difficulties was significantly correlated with IQ scores, but not with neurological deficits. The proposed DSQ scores are interesting for the assessment of learning and behavioural difficulties in children treated for cerebellar tumours, as they provide complementary ecological information to that given by clinical and neuropsychological testing.

  10. Associations among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fakier, Nuraan; Wild, Lauren G

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the relationships among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence. Previous research suggests that these variables share an association with executive functioning deficits, and are intertwined. The sample comprised 427 adolescents (M age = 16 years) attending remedial schools and 276 adolescents (M age = 15 years) attending a mainstream school in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that adolescents without learning difficulties were more likely to use tobacco, methamphetamine and cannabis, whereas those with learning difficulties engaged in more inhalant use. Adolescents who had more sleep problems were more likely to use tobacco, alcohol, methamphetamine, cannabis, inhalants, cocaine, ecstasy and any other illegal drug. Adolescents with learning difficulties had more sleep problems than those without learning difficulties. However, sleep problems remained independently associated with tobacco, cannabis and inhalant use when learning difficulties were taken into account. Copyright © 2010 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intervention Provided to Linguistically Diverse Middle School Students with Severe Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Bryan, Deanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent reading intervention implemented with middle school students with severe reading difficulties, all of whom had received remedial and/or special education for several years with minimal response to intervention. Participants were 38 students in grades 6–8 who had severe deficits in word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Most were Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) with identified disabilities. Nearly all demonstrated severely limited oral vocabularies in English and, for ELLs, in both English and Spanish. Students were randomly assigned to receive the research intervention (n = 20) or typical instruction provided in their school’s remedial reading or special education classes (n = 18). Students in the treatment group received daily explicit and systematic small-group intervention for 40 minutes over 13 weeks, consisting of a modified version of a phonics-based remedial program augmented with English as a Second Language practices and instruction in vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension strategies. Results indicated that treatment students did not demonstrate significantly higher outcomes in word recognition, comprehension, or fluency than students who received the school’s typical instruction and that neither group demonstrated significant growth over the course of the study. Significant correlations were found between scores on teachers’ ratings of students’ social skills and problem behaviors and posttest decoding and spelling scores, and between English oral vocabulary scores and scores in word identification and comprehension. The researchers hypothesize that middle school students with the most severe reading difficulties, particularly those who are ELLs and those with limited oral vocabularies, may require intervention of considerably greater intensity than that provided in this study. Further research directly addressing features of effective remediation

  12. Auditory middle latency response in children with learning difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo; Issac, Myriam Lima; Pontes-Fernandes, Angela Cristina; Menezes, Pedro de Lemos; Funayama, Carolina Araújo Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: This is an objective laboratory assessment of the central auditory systems of children with learning disabilities. Aim: To examine and determine the properties of the components of the Auditory Middle Latency Response in a sample of children with learning disabilities. Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional cohort study with quantitative, descriptive, and exploratory outcomes. We included 50 children aged 8–13 years of both genders with and without learning disorders. Those with disorders of known organic, environmental, or genetic causes were excluded. Results and Conclusions: The Na, Pa, and Nb waves were identified in all subjects. The ranges of the latency component values were as follows: Na = 9.8–32.3 ms, Pa = 19.0–51.4 ms, Nb = 30.0–64.3 ms (learning disorders group) and Na = 13.2–29.6 ms, Pa = 21.8–42.8 ms, Nb = 28.4–65.8 ms (healthy group). The values of the Na-Pa amplitude ranged from 0.3 to 6.8 ìV (learning disorders group) or 0.2–3.6 ìV (learning disorders group). Upon analysis, the functional characteristics of the groups were distinct: the left hemisphere Nb latency was longer in the study group than in the control group. Peculiarities of the electrophysiological measures were observed in the children with learning disorders. This study has provided information on the Auditory Middle Latency Response and can serve as a reference for other clinical and experimental studies in children with these disorders. PMID:25991954

  13. Auditory middle latency response in children with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo; Issac, Myriam Lima; Pontes-Fernandes, Angela Cristina; Menezes, Pedro de Lemos; Funayama, Carolina Araújo Rodrigues

    2012-07-01

     This is an objective laboratory assessment of the central auditory systems of children with learning disabilities.  To examine and determine the properties of the components of the Auditory Middle Latency Response in a sample of children with learning disabilities.  This was a prospective, cross-sectional cohort study with quantitative, descriptive, and exploratory outcomes. We included 50 children aged 8-13 years of both genders with and without learning disorders. Those with disorders of known organic, environmental, or genetic causes were excluded.  The Na, Pa, and Nb waves were identified in all subjects. The ranges of the latency component values were as follows: Na = 9.8-32.3 ms, Pa = 19.0-51.4 ms, Nb = 30.0-64.3 ms (learning disorders group) and Na = 13.2-29.6 ms, Pa = 21.8-42.8 ms, Nb = 28.4-65.8 ms (healthy group). The values of the Na-Pa amplitude ranged from 0.3 to 6.8 ìV (learning disorders group) or 0.2-3.6 ìV (learning disorders group). Upon analysis, the functional characteristics of the groups were distinct: the left hemisphere Nb latency was longer in the study group than in the control group. Peculiarities of the electrophysiological measures were observed in the children with learning disorders. This study has provided information on the Auditory Middle Latency Response and can serve as a reference for other clinical and experimental studies in children with these disorders.

  14. Realizing a Social Practices Approach in Literacy Learning: Engaging with the Everyday Lives of Adults with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Alastair; Hunter, Katie

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an action research project funded by the Scottish Government through Learning Connections (March 2006 to April 2007) to develop and explore the potential for enhancing literacies learning for adults with learning difficulties by engaging with their systems of care and/or support. The paper explores the ways in…

  15. Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire:Validation of a parent-report screening measure

    PubMed Central

    Willcutt, Erik G.; Boada, Richard; Riddle, Margaret W.; Chhabildas, Nomita; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the internal structure and convergent and discriminant evidence for the Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire (CLDQ), a 20-item parent-report rating scale that was developed to provide a brief screening measure for learning difficulties. CLDQ ratings were obtained from parents of children in two large community samples and two samples from clinics that specialize in the assessment of learning disabilities and related disorders (total N = 8,004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed five correlated but separable dimensions that were labeled reading, math, social cognition, social anxiety, and spatial difficulties. Results revealed strong convergent and discriminant evidence for the CLDQ Reading scale, suggesting that this scale may provide a useful method to screen for reading difficulties in both research studies and clinical settings. Results are also promising for the other four CLDQ scales, but additional research is needed to refine each of these measures. PMID:21574721

  16. Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire: validation of a parent-report screening measure.

    PubMed

    Willcutt, Erik G; Boada, Richard; Riddle, Margaret W; Chhabildas, Nomita; DeFries, John C; Pennington, Bruce F

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated the internal structure and convergent and discriminant evidence for the Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire (CLDQ), a 20-item parent-report rating scale that was developed to provide a brief screening measure for learning difficulties. CLDQ ratings were obtained from parents of children in 2 large community samples and 2 samples from clinics that specialize in the assessment of learning disabilities and related disorders (total N = 8,004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 5 correlated but separable dimensions that were labeled reading, math, social cognition, social anxiety, and spatial difficulties. Results revealed strong convergent and discriminant evidence for the CLDQ Reading scale, suggesting that this scale may provide a useful method to screen for reading difficulties in both research studies and clinical settings. Results are also promising for the other 4 CLDQ scales, but additional research is needed to refine each of these measures.

  17. Forms of Generalization in Students Experiencing Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santi, George; Baccaglini-Frank, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We shift the view of a special needs student away from the acknowledged view, that is as a student who requires interventions to restore a currently expected functioning behaviour, introducing a new paradigm to frame special needs students' learning of mathematics. We use the theory of objectification and the new paradigm to look at (and…

  18. Appropriate Help for Secondary Students with Specific Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Virginia

    This paper presents the program and general details of the Learning Disabilities Clinic (LDC) at the Southampton University (England) School of Education, which focuses on the students' curriculum and stresses close co-operation with the school. The program makes the students active agents in developing their own strategies with LDC help. Students…

  19. Writing Better: Effective Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Whether they have learning disabilities or just need extra help, struggling writers can improve their skills dramatically if they get the detailed, explicit instruction they need. This practical guidebook shows elementary school teachers how to make this systematic instruction part of their classroom. Educators will find a wide range of specific…

  20. Writing Better: Effective Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Whether they have learning disabilities or just need extra help, struggling writers can improve their skills dramatically if they get the detailed, explicit instruction they need. This practical guidebook shows elementary school teachers how to make this systematic instruction part of their classroom. Educators will find a wide range of specific…

  1. Identifying College Students at Risk for Learning Disabilities: Evidence for Use of the Learning Difficulties Assessment in Postsecondary Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Steven T.; Roy, Soma; Medina, Steffanie

    2013-01-01

    This article describes research supporting the use of the Learning Difficulties Assessment (LDA), a normed and no-cost, web-based survey that assesses difficulties with reading, writing, spelling, mathematics, listening, concentration, memory, organizational skills, sense of control, and anxiety in college students. Previous research has supported…

  2. Learning Computing Topics in Undergraduate Information Systems Courses: Managing Perceived Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Jeffrey D.; Knapp, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Learning technical computing skills is increasingly important in our technology driven society. However, learning technical skills in information systems (IS) courses can be difficult. More than 20 percent of students in some technical courses may dropout or fail. Unfortunately, little is known about students' perceptions of the difficulty of…

  3. Movement and Learning in the Early Years: Supporting Dyspraxia (DCD) and Other Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintrye, Christine; McVitty, Kim

    2004-01-01

    This book is written to support parents and practitioners who wish to understand movement and how it contributes to all aspects of learning--intellectual, social and emotional, as well as the movement/motor aspect itself. Moreover, as there is a huge increase in the number of children with movement learning difficulties (Keen, 2001), that is…

  4. Too Late at Eight: Prevention and Intervention, Young Children's Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Joan K., Ed.

    The report contains 15 papers given at a 1979 Australian conference on prevention and intervention with young children at risk of developmental and learning difficulties. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Prevention and Early Amelioration of Developmental and Learning Disabilities: Progress, Problems and Prospects" (W.…

  5. Effects of Semantic Ambiguity Detection Training on Reading Comprehension Achievement of English Learners with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozwik, Sara L.; Douglas, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how explicit instruction in semantic ambiguity detection affected the reading comprehension and metalinguistic awareness of five English learners (ELs) with learning difficulties (e.g., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, specific learning disability). A multiple probe across participants design (Gast & Ledford, 2010)…

  6. Spatial Working Memory and Arithmetic Deficits in Children with Nonverbal Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammarella, Irene Cristina; Lucangeli, Daniela; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Visuospatial working memory and its involvement in arithmetic were examined in two groups of 7- to 11-year-olds: one comprising children described by teachers as displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning difficulties (N = 21), the other a control group without learning disabilities (N = 21). The two groups were matched for verbal abilities, age,…

  7. Learning Computing Topics in Undergraduate Information Systems Courses: Managing Perceived Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Jeffrey D.; Knapp, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Learning technical computing skills is increasingly important in our technology driven society. However, learning technical skills in information systems (IS) courses can be difficult. More than 20 percent of students in some technical courses may dropout or fail. Unfortunately, little is known about students' perceptions of the difficulty of…

  8. Working Memory Performance of Italian Students with Foreign Language Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, Paola; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ability to learn a foreign language is related to working memory. However, there is no clear evidence about which component of working memory may be involved. Two experiments investigated working memory problems in groups of seventh and eighth grade Italian children with difficulties in learning English as a second…

  9. Enabling Pupils with Learning Difficulties to Reflect on Their Own Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Stuart D.; Makin, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of the impact of metacognition among 10 middle school-aged British students with learning difficulties. Finds that student awareness and subsequent control over thought processes were enhanced through self-reporting and self-appraisal. Examines this kind of reflection on enhanced learning capabilities and self-esteem. (CFR)

  10. Influencing Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Mathematics for Numeracy to Students with Mathematics Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Kim

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the beliefs of a group of K-8 mathematics teachers about appropriate goals and methods of mathematics teaching for students with mathematics learning difficulties and for students generally. The teachers were involved in a brief professional learning program that aimed to provide them with effective strategies for mathematics…

  11. Assistance of Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties: How Can Research Support Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Petra; Beswick, Kim; DeBlois, Lucie; Healy, Lulu; Opitz, Elisabeth Moser

    2016-01-01

    When looking at teaching and learning processes in mathematics education students with mathematical learning difficulties or disabilities are of great interest. To approach the question of how research can support practice to assist these students one has to clarify the group or groups of students that we are talking about. The following…

  12. EasyLexia 2.0: Redesigning Our Mobile Application for Children with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skiada, Roxani; Soroniati, Eva; Gardeli, Anna; Zissis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia is one of the most common learning difficulties affecting approximately 15 to 20 per cent of the world's population. A large amount of research is currently being conducted in exploring the potential benefits of using Information & Communication Technologies as a learning platform for individuals and especially children with such…

  13. Transfer Skills across a National Curriculum: The Role of Cognitive Strategies for Children with Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugden, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Under the National Curriculum in the United Kingdom, children with learning difficulties will need to use transfer skills for various cross-curricular themes. To promote transfer, the use of cognitive strategies is recommended, including perceived similarity, analysis of the learning context, expert scaffolding, and detailed planning of practice…

  14. Effects of Semantic Ambiguity Detection Training on Reading Comprehension Achievement of English Learners with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozwik, Sara L.; Douglas, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how explicit instruction in semantic ambiguity detection affected the reading comprehension and metalinguistic awareness of five English learners (ELs) with learning difficulties (e.g., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, specific learning disability). A multiple probe across participants design (Gast & Ledford, 2010)…

  15. Teaching Writing to Students with Learning Difficulties in Inclusive English Classrooms: Lessons from an Exemplary Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kraayenoord, Christina E.; Miller, Robyn; Moni, Karen B.; Jobling, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of an exemplary teacher who was a participant in a professional learning project, WriteIdeas. The teacher provided instructional support in writing to a targeted student with learning difficulties in an inclusive Year 8 English classroom. Analytical frameworks were developed and applied to the data that had…

  16. Two-Stage Screening for Math Problem-Solving Difficulty Using Dynamic Assessment of Algebraic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hollenbeck, Kurstin N.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Seethaler, Pamela M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of a dynamic assessment (DA) of algebraic learning in predicting third graders' development of mathematics word-problem difficulty. In the fall, 122 third-grade students were assessed on a test of math word-problem skill and DA of algebraic learning. In the spring, they were assessed on…

  17. Working Memory Performance of Italian Students with Foreign Language Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, Paola; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ability to learn a foreign language is related to working memory. However, there is no clear evidence about which component of working memory may be involved. Two experiments investigated working memory problems in groups of seventh and eighth grade Italian children with difficulties in learning English as a second…

  18. Storytelling Supported by Technology: An Alternative for EFL Children with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sy-ying

    2012-01-01

    This action research aims to investigate how technology improves the conditions of storytelling to help enhance the learning attitude and motivation of EFL children with learning difficulty using power point designs and an online recording system--VoiceThread (http://voicethread.com/). The use of power point designs is to assure children of clear…

  19. Towards Motivation-Based Adaptation of Difficulty in E-Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endler, Anke; Rey, Gunter Daniel; Butz, Martin V.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if an e-learning environment may use measurements of the user's current motivation to adapt the level of task difficulty for more effective learning. In the reported study, motivation-based adaptation was applied randomly to collect a wide range of data for different adaptations in a variety of…

  20. Lessons from special education: enhancing communication between health professionals and children with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Kerzman, Barbara; Smith, Pam

    2004-12-01

    Children with learning difficulties have potentially greater health needs than non-disabled children, and as a consequence, are more likely to access health services. Parents of children with learning difficulties express concerns regarding the ability of health professionals to meet their needs, one of these concerns is the capacity to communicate effectively with the child. We suggest in this discussion paper that to facilitate improved communication a more collaborative approach between all individuals involved in the care and everyday life of the child with learning difficulties is advantageous. Collaboration has the potential to enable health professionals to adopt methods of communication that are familiar to the child, such as those used in the school setting. The advantage of such collaboration will enable health professionals to learn some of the methods used in the education of children with learning difficulties, which could be transferred to the health care setting. How greater collaboration and knowledge of communication methods used in education will enhance communication with children with learning difficulties are also discussed in this paper.

  1. Sexual Difficulties

    MedlinePlus

    ... and conditions Caregiving Wellness Staying active Mental health Sexual health Sexual difficulties Protecting yourself Safety and abuse Falls ... updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Sexual health Healthy Aging Sexual difficulties Learn more about men's ...

  2. Extensive television viewing and the development of attention and learning difficulties during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey G; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the association of television viewing with educational and intellectual outcomes during adolescence and early adulthood. Prospective epidemiological study. Families participating in the Children in the Community Study, a prospective longitudinal investigation, were interviewed at mean offspring ages 14, 16, and 22 years. A community-based sample of 678 families from upstate New York. Television viewing, attention difficulties, learning difficulties, and educational achievement during adolescence and early adulthood. The Disorganizing Poverty Interview and age-appropriate versions of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Frequent television viewing during adolescence was associated with elevated risk for subsequent attention and learning difficulties after family characteristics and prior cognitive difficulties were controlled. Youths who watched 1 or more hours of television per day at mean age 14 years were at elevated risk for poor homework completion, negative attitudes toward school, poor grades, and long-term academic failure. Youths who watched 3 or more hours of television per day were the most likely to experience these outcomes. In addition, youths who watched 3 or more hours of television per day were at elevated risk for subsequent attention problems and were the least likely to receive postsecondary education. There was little evidence of bidirectionality in the association of television viewing with attention and learning difficulties. Frequent television viewing during adolescence may be associated with risk for development of attention problems, learning difficulties, and adverse long-term educational outcomes.

  3. Children who experience difficulties with learning: mother and child perceptions of social competence.

    PubMed

    Carman, Sarah N; Chapparo, Christine J

    2012-10-01

    There is an emphasis on the social competence of children who have difficulties with learning as a significant percentage also experience reduced social skills. Social competence in the classroom is becoming increasingly important as the school curriculum incorporates group work and socially directed activities for purposes of learning. A goal of occupational therapy for children with learning difficulties and their parents is that they 'fit' into their social group and form friendships. While teachers are able to identify social skills that are required for life at school, less is known about how children perceive their interactions. This study aimed to explore social interaction during occupational performance at school and at home from the perception of children with learning difficulties and their mothers. Participants included 10, 8- to 12-year-old children who had difficulties with learning and their 10 mothers. Children were interviewed using semi-structured focus groups. Mothers participated in semi-structured interviews. Four main themes emerged from this study, including the importance of social skills, effects of poor social skills, difficulties with planning and problem solving in social situations and impact of social competence on a child's occupational performance. The study revealed that social participation is perceived to be an integral part of the child's ability to participate in occupational performance, and that children have definite perspectives on the importance of social competence. Children in this study indicated that their social skills were adequate when in an one-to-one situation but not in a group.

  4. Sensorimotor Difficulties Are Associated with the Severity of Autism Spectrum Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hannant, Penelope; Cassidy, Sarah; Tavassoli, Teresa; Mann, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Present diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC) include social communication and interaction difficulties, repetitive behavior and movement, and atypical sensory responsivity. Few studies have explored the influence of motor coordination and sensory responsivity on severity of ASC symptoms. In the current study, we explore whether sensory responsivity and motor coordination differences can account for the severity of autistic behaviors in children with ASC. Thirty-six children participated: 18 (13 male, 5 female) with ASC (ages 7–16: mean age = 9.93 years) and 18 (7 male, 11 female) typically developing (TD) children (ages 6–12; mean age = 9.16 years). Both groups completed a battery of assessments that included motor coordination, sensory responsivity, receptive language, non-verbal reasoning and social communication measures. Children with ASC also completed the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Autism Diagnostic Interview—Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that children with ASC scored significantly lower on receptive language, coordination, sensory responsivity and a sensorimotor subscale, Modulation of Activity (MoA) compared to the TD group. In the ASC group, MoA significantly predicted ASC severity across all ASC measures; receptive language and sensory responsivity significantly predicted parental reported autism measures; and coordination significantly predicted examiner observed reported scores. Additionally, specific associations were found between the somatosensory perceptive modalities and ASC severity. The results show that sensorimotor skills are associated with severity of ASC symptoms; furthering the need to research sensorimotor integration in ASC and also implying that diagnosis of ASC should also include the assessment of both coordination deficit and atypical sensory responsivity. PMID:27582694

  5. Forward and backward digit span difficulties in children with specific learning disorder.

    PubMed

    Giofrè, David; Stoppa, Ernesto; Ferioli, Paolo; Pezzuti, Lina; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    This study examined performance in the forward and backward digit span task of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) in a large group of children with specific learning disorder (SLD) as compared with a group of typically developing children matched for age and sex. Our results further support the hypothesis that the intellectual difficulties of children with SLD involve working memory in the forward digit span task to a greater extent than in the backward digit span task. The correlation of the two spans with a General Ability Index (GAI) was similar in SLD, and smaller in magnitude than in typically developing children. Despite a GAI within normal range, children with SLD had difficulty with both digit span tasks, but more so for forward span. This pattern was similar for different SLD profiles with clinical diagnoses of dyslexia and mixed disorder, but the impairments were more severe in the latter. Age differences were also investigated, demonstrating larger span impairment in older children with SLD than in younger.

  6. Task avoidance, number skills and parental learning difficulties as predictors of poor response to instruction.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Pekka; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Lepola, Janne; Poskiparta, Elisa; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija

    2011-01-01

    Altogether 1,285 Finnish children were followed up from the end of kindergarten through Grade 1. All were nonreaders at school entrance. The aim was to delineate predictors of resistance to treatment that are evidenced as little or no reading progress during Grade 1. On the basis of reading achievement in Grade 1 spring, four subgroups were formed. These were fast, average, and slow reading acquisition and slow progress in both reading and math. Kindergarten spring scores in phonological awareness, letter knowledge, rapid naming, and number skills differentiated well among the groups, the latter two being more robust predictors. Task avoidance added to the prediction over and above cognitive skills. Its effect disappeared when parental history of reading and math difficulties was included in the equation. The present results depict poor response to instruction as a general learning problem rather than a specific reading difficulty. Poor response to instruction differs from dyslexia also in that treatment resisters start school with cognitive prerequisites that do not indicate severe reading and math problems.

  7. The prevalence and correlates of specific learning difficulties in a representative sample of children with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Frampton, I; Yude, C; Goodman, R

    1998-03-01

    Children with hemiplegia have cerebral palsy affecting one side of the body due to damage to the opposite side of the brain. An investigation of the association between hemiplegia and specific learning difficulties (SpLD) provides a unique window on body-mind links and left brain/right brain differences. The present study investigated the prevalence and correlates of SpLDs in children with hemiplegia. A representative sample of 149 London children with hemiplegia aged between 6 and 10 included 59 children whose cognitive abilities and predicted academic ability were within the average range. SpLDs were defined by ability-achievement discrepancy analysis. Differences between children with and without SpLDs were explored with a between-groups design. Children with hemiplegia had significantly more SpLDs than expected, with 36 per cent of these children having at least one SpLD. Children with and without SpLDs were similar in intelligence and demographic background, but the children with SpLDs had significantly more severe neurological impairments and a significantly higher rate of emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBDs) than comparison children. Three typical case studies are described and recommendations made for the early identification and remediation of SpLDs in children with hemiplegia.

  8. Developing mathematical proficiency in the Australian context: implications for students with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Evans, David

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of mathematics in Australian schools has received considerable attention over the past decade. States and territories have designed and implemented new mathematics syllabi, and education sectors have supported teachers through sustained professional learning initiatives. Whereas the major focus of these initiatives has been on students constructing mathematical knowledge from a range of learning activities and quality instruction, the education of students with difficulties in learning mathematics has been given little direct attention. This analysis of current syllabus developments and professional learning initiatives highlights the risk of exposing students with learning difficulties to fragile program designs and classroom instruction. The research literature is also examined to propose ways in which these fragilities can be addressed.

  9. Socioeconomic variation, number competence, and mathematics learning difficulties in young children.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Nancy C; Levine, Susan C

    2009-01-01

    As a group, children from disadvantaged, low-income families perform substantially worse in mathematics than their counterparts from higher-income families. Minority children are disproportionately represented in low-income populations, resulting in significant racial and social-class disparities in mathematics learning linked to diminished learning opportunities. The consequences of poor mathematics achievement are serious for daily functioning and for career advancement. This article provides an overview of children's mathematics difficulties in relation to socioeconomic status (SES). We review foundations for early mathematics learning and key characteristics of mathematics learning difficulties. A particular focus is the delays or deficiencies in number competencies exhibited by low-income children entering school. Weaknesses in number competence can be reliably identified in early childhood, and there is good evidence that most children have the capacity to develop number competence that lays the foundation for later learning.

  10. The Effectiveness of Project-Based Learning on Pupils with Learning Difficulties Regarding Academic Performance, Group Work and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippatou, Diamanto; Kaldi, Stavroula

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses upon the effectiveness of project-based learning on primary school pupils with learning difficulties regarding their academic performance and attitudes towards self efficacy, task value, group work and teaching methods applied. The present study is a part of a larger one that included six Greek fourth-grade primary school…

  11. Teachers' Perceptions of the Concomitance of Emotional Behavioural Difficulties and Learning Disabilities in Children Referred for Learning Disabilities in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Research has documented overlapping and coexisting characteristics of learning disabilities (LD) and emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD). Such concomitance may impact teacher referrals of children at risk for LD which in turn may influence service delivery. Using the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI) and the Strengths and…

  12. Teachers' Perceptions of the Concomitance of Emotional Behavioural Difficulties and Learning Disabilities in Children Referred for Learning Disabilities in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Research has documented overlapping and coexisting characteristics of learning disabilities (LD) and emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD). Such concomitance may impact teacher referrals of children at risk for LD which in turn may influence service delivery. Using the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI) and the Strengths and…

  13. Meta-analysis of fluid intelligence tests of children from the Chinese mainland with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fang; Fu, Tong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the differences in fluid intelligence tests between normal children and children with learning difficulties in China. PubMed, MD Consult, and other Chinese Journal Database were searched from their establishment to November 2012. After finding comparative studies of Raven measurements of normal children and children with learning difficulties, full Intelligent Quotation (FIQ) values and the original values of the sub-measurement were extracted. The corresponding effect model was selected based on the results of heterogeneity and parallel sub-group analysis was performed. Twelve documents were included in the meta-analysis, and the studies were all performed in mainland of China. Among these, two studies were performed at child health clinics, the other ten sites were schools and control children were schoolmates or classmates. FIQ was evaluated using a random effects model. WMD was -13.18 (95% CI: -16.50- -9.85). Children with learning difficulties showed significantly lower FIQ scores than controls (P<0.00001); Type of learning difficulty and gender differences were evaluated using a fixed-effects model (I² = 0%). The sites and purposes of the studies evaluated here were taken into account, but the reasons of heterogeneity could not be eliminated; The sum IQ of all the subgroups showed considerable heterogeneity (I² = 76.5%). The sub-measurement score of document A showed moderate heterogeneity among all documents, and AB, B, and E showed considerable heterogeneity, which was used in a random effect model. Individuals with learning difficulties showed heterogeneity as well. There was a moderate delay in the first three items (-0.5 to -0.9), and a much more pronounced delay in the latter three items (-1.4 to -1.6). In the Chinese mainland, the level of fluid intelligence of children with learning difficulties was lower than that of normal children. Delayed development in sub-items of C, D, and E was more obvious.

  14. Helping children with reading difficulties: some things we have learned so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne

    2017-03-01

    A substantial proportion of children struggle to learn to read. This not only impairs their academic achievement, but increases their risk of social, emotional, and mental health problems. In order to help these children, reading scientists have worked hard for over a century to better understand the nature of reading difficulties and the people who have them. The aim of this perspective is to outline some of the things that we have learned so far, and to provide a framework for considering the causes of reading difficulties and the most effective ways to treat them.

  15. Use of sociometric techniques to assess the social status of mainstreamed children with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, N L; Furnham, A F

    1998-11-01

    Research on sociometric data collection and analysis methods is reviewed and implications for assessing the social status of mainstreamed children with learning difficulties are evaluated. Recommendations are made for changing existing procedures to account for factors specific to children with learning difficulties and to classrooms where mainstreaming is occurring. Variations between frequently used sociometric classification systems (which categorize children as popular, rejected, average, neglected, and controversial) are described, and information on their reliability and validity is discussed. Further reliability research with mainstreamed children is recommended, as is the application of theoretical accounts of affiliation in designing sociometric methods.

  16. Assessing and helping challenging students: Part One, Why do some students have difficulty learning?

    PubMed

    Hendricson, William D; Kleffner, John H

    2002-01-01

    When students struggle with routine assignments and fall behind classmates, a busy teacher may pigeonhole them as slow, give up on them, or become frustrated from failed efforts to bring them up to speed. Well-intentioned efforts to help struggling students by providing repetitions of the same experiences may fail because the specific cause of the sub-par performance was not identified. Six potential causes of inadequate student performance can serve as a diagnostic framework to help teachers pinpoint why a student is struggling academically: 1) cognitive factors, including poorly integrated, compartmentalized information, poor metacognition that hinders the student's ability to monitor and self-correct performance, bona fide learning disabilities that require professional assessment and treatment, and sensory-perceptual difficulties that may hinder performance in certain health care disciplines; 2) ineffective study habits, which are more common among professional students than faculty realize; 3) an inadequate educational experience (unclear objectives, poorly organized instruction, absence of coaching and timely feedback) or a punitive environment in which students avoid approaching instructors for assistance; 4) distraction due to nonacademic issues such as social relationships, health of a spouse, or employment; 5) dysfunctional levels of defensiveness that hinder student-teacher communication; and 6) underlying medical conditions that may affect student attentiveness, motivation, energy, and emotional balance. The objective of this article is to help faculty recognize potential underlying causes of a student's learning problems. Strategies for helping the academically struggling student are also introduced for several of these etiologies.

  17. What is the optimal task difficulty for reinforcement learning of brain self-regulation?

    PubMed

    Bauer, Robert; Vukelić, Mathias; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    The balance between action and reward during neurofeedback may influence reinforcement learning of brain self-regulation. Eleven healthy volunteers participated in three runs of motor imagery-based brain-machine interface feedback where a robot passively opened the hand contingent to β-band modulation. For each run, the β-desynchronization threshold to initiate the hand robot movement increased in difficulty (low, moderate, and demanding). In this context, the incentive to learn was estimated by the change of reward per action, operationalized as the change in reward duration per movement onset. Variance analysis revealed a significant interaction between threshold difficulty and the relationship between reward duration and number of movement onsets (p<0.001), indicating a negative learning incentive for low difficulty, but a positive learning incentive for moderate and demanding runs. Exploration of different thresholds in the same data set indicated that the learning incentive peaked at higher thresholds than the threshold which resulted in maximum classification accuracy. Specificity is more important than sensitivity of neurofeedback for reinforcement learning of brain self-regulation. Learning efficiency requires adequate challenge by neurofeedback interventions. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gradual training reduces practice difficulty while preserving motor learning of a novel locomotor task.

    PubMed

    Sawers, Andrew; Hahn, Michael E

    2013-08-01

    Motor learning strategies that increase practice difficulty and the size of movement errors are thought to facilitate motor learning. In contrast to this, gradual training minimizes movement errors and reduces practice difficulty by incrementally introducing task requirements, yet remains as effective as sudden training and its large movement errors for learning novel reaching tasks. While attractive as a locomotor rehabilitation strategy, it remains unknown whether the efficacy of gradual training extends to learning locomotor tasks and their unique requirements. The influence of gradual vs. sudden training on learning a locomotor task, asymmetric split belt treadmill walking, was examined by assessing whole body sagittal plane kinematics during 24 hour retention and transfer performance following either gradual or sudden training. Despite less difficult and less specific practice for the gradual cohort on day 1, gradual training resulted in equivalent motor learning of the novel locomotor task as sudden training when assessed by retention and transfer a day later. This suggests that large movement errors and increased practice difficulty may not be necessary for learning novel locomotor tasks. Further, gradual training may present a viable locomotor rehabilitation strategy avoiding large movement errors that could limit or impair improvements in locomotor performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Difficulties in the differential diagnosis of hyponatremia presenting with severe neuropsychiatric symptoms].

    PubMed

    Steiner, Tamás; Oláh, Roland; Németh, Attila; Winkler, Gábor

    2013-08-04

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent eletrolyte imbalance in hospitalized geriatric patient. The accompanying signs and symptoms can run a wide range and, therefore, these patients are usually admitted to various departments, i.e. neurology and/or traumatology first. Directed laboratory investigations demonstrate severe hyponatremia. Differential diagnosis can be very difficult and complex in the clinical settings. Firstly, spurious forms of hyponatremia have to be excluded, then the underlying cause should elucidated based on the patients hydration status and serum osmolarity. Hyponatremia can be divided into hyper-, hypo- and normovolemic forms. Moreover, it can be further classified as hypo-, iso- and hyperosmolar hyponatremias. The differentiation between renal and extrarenal salt wasting forms is hinged on the urine sodium concentration. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is the most common cause of normovolemic, hypoosmolar forms (named also as Schwartz-Bartter syndrome). The authors aimed to shed light on the often insurmountable difficulties of the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this very frequent electrolyte imbalance by presenting a clinical case report. Their purported aim reflects upon the wide array of ethiopathogenesis of hyponatremia: various endocrine, renal diseases, inappropriateness of antidiuretic hormone secretion as well as the role of different medications (e.g. diuretics). This fine-tuned and intricate physiology of sodium metabolism could fortuitously be overturned by these mechanisms.

  20. Working together to keep children safe and well when parents have learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Selbie, Jean

    2012-05-01

    A serious case review, where parental learning difficulties were a factor in the serious injury of a child, prompted review and strengthening of the collaborative work between universal children's services and specialist adult learning disability services. Focus groups enabled wider knowledge of the factors that were barriers to good partnership work, and those factors that required strengthening. Consideration of research findings and literature review has informed the development of a local protocol that focuses on the safety and wellbeing of children.

  1. Language delays, reading delays, and learning difficulties: interactive elements requiring multidimensional programming.

    PubMed

    Hay, Ian; Elias, Gordon; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Homel, Ross; Freiberg, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized four levels of instructional dialogue and claimed that teachers can improve children's language development by incorporating these dialogue levels in their classrooms. It has also been hypothesized that enhancing children's early language development enhances children's later reading development. This quasi-experimental research study investigated both of these hypotheses using a collaborative service delivery model for Grade 1 children with language difficulties from a socially and economically disadvantaged urban community in Australia. Comparing the end-of-year reading achievement scores for the 57 children who received the language intervention with those of the 59 children in the comparison group, the findings from this research are supportive of both hypotheses. The interrelationships between learning difficulties, reading difficulties, and language difficulties are discussed along with children's development in vocabulary, use of memory strategies and verbal reasoning, and the need for multidimensional programming.

  2. Do Chinese dyslexic children have difficulties learning English as a second language?

    PubMed

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary, reading, and phonological processing tasks. It was found that the Dyslexia group performed significantly worse than the Control group in nearly all the English measures. The findings suggest that Chinese dyslexic children also encounter difficulties in learning English as a second language, and they are generally weak in phonological processing both in Chinese and English. However, phonological skills were found to correlate significantly with English reading but not with Chinese reading in the dyslexic children. It is evident that there are both common and specific causes to reading difficulties in Chinese and English.

  3. Self-Control of Task Difficulty During Early Practice Promotes Motor Skill Learning.

    PubMed

    Andrieux, Mathieu; Boutin, Arnaud; Thon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether the effect of self-control of task difficulty on motor learning is a function of the period of self-control administration. In a complex anticipation-coincidence task that required participants to intercept 3 targets with a virtual racquet, the task difficulty was either self-controlled or imposed to the participants in the two phases of the acquisition session. First, the results confirmed the beneficial effects of self-control over fully prescribed conditions. Second, the authors also demonstrated that a partial self-control of task difficulty better promotes learning than does a complete self-controlled procedure. Overall, the results revealed that these benefits are increased when this choice is allowed during early practice. The findings are discussed in terms of theoretical and applied perspectives.

  4. Beyond Normalization and Impairment: Theorizing Subjectivity in Learning Difficulties--Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Scott; Dyson, Simon; Hiles, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Normalization and social role valorization continue to play a central role in shaping debates and practice relating to learning difficulties. In the context of recent arguments this paper draws on the work of Foucault to deconstruct these theories. Foucault's work alerts us to a conceptual confusion at their heart which reproduces a common but…

  5. Associations among Sleep Problems, Learning Difficulties and Substance Use in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakier, Nuraan; Wild, Lauren G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence. Previous research suggests that these variables share an association with executive functioning deficits, and are intertwined. The sample comprised 427 adolescents (M age = 16 years) attending remedial schools and 276 adolescents…

  6. Students with Disabilities, Learning Difficulties and Disadvantages: Policies, Statistics and Indicators--2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an internationally comparable set of indicators on educational provision for students with disabilities, learning difficulties and disadvantages (DDD). It highlights the number of students involved, where they are educated--special schools, special classes or regular classes--and in what phases of education--pre-primary,…

  7. Learning Difficulties Experienced by Grade 12 South African Students in the Chemical Representation of Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Joseph, Aleyamma

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the learning difficulties of grade 12 South African students in a national chemistry examination. A quantitative analysis of students' performance in the examination revealed there was a significant difference between student performance in questions where students needed to execute a transformation across levels of…

  8. Language Difficulties of International Students in Australia: The Effects of Prior Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawir, Erlenawati

    2005-01-01

    Globalisation has placed a growing importance on English language speaking and listening. Prior research indicates that many international students from Asia, studying in Australia, face serious learning difficulties and lack confidence in speaking and taking a proactive role in classrooms. The paper reports on data gathered in interviews with…

  9. Going on a Journey: A Case Study of Nature Therapy with Children with a Learning Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Ronen

    2008-01-01

    Therapy is usually described as an indoor activity, centering on verbal dialogue between therapist and client(s). Based on a qualitative study conducted with a group of children with learning difficulties, this article presents a way in which therapy can take place creatively in nature, which serves not only as a therapeutic setting but also as a…

  10. Emergence, Learning Difficulties, and Misconceptions in Chemistry Undergraduate Students' Conceptualizations of Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Philosophical debates about chemistry have clarified that the issue of emergence plays a critical role in the epistemology and ontology of chemistry. In this article, it is argued that the issue of emergence has also significant implications for understanding learning difficulties and finding ways of addressing them in chemistry. Particularly, it…

  11. What Teacher Factors Influence Their Attributions for Children's Difficulties in Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Katy; Woolfson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Background: Identifying the factors that influence teacher beliefs about teaching children with learning difficulties is important for the success of inclusive education. This study explores the relationship between teachers' role, self-efficacy, attitudes towards disabled people, teaching experience and training, on teachers' attributions for…

  12. What Teacher Factors Influence Their Attributions for Children's Difficulties in Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Katy; Woolfson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Background: Identifying the factors that influence teacher beliefs about teaching children with learning difficulties is important for the success of inclusive education. This study explores the relationship between teachers' role, self-efficacy, attitudes towards disabled people, teaching experience and training, on teachers' attributions for…

  13. 'Did you solve it yourself?': Evaluation of self narratives of discrimination by people with 'learning difficulties'.

    PubMed

    Williams, Val

    2005-01-01

    Narratives about personal experience are shaped by the interactional context, and people are required to tell their own stories in a variety of social contexts. For people with 'learning difficulties', veracity is a particular and paradoxical problem. New policies and strategies require them to take part in public debates, while they are traditionally judged to be incompetent to be witnesses to the 'truth'. Presenting data from an inclusive research project, this paper analyses some of the micro strategies by which people with 'learning difficulties' create their own research interviews by asking questions, telling stories and evaluating their own narratives about discrimination. The interplay of different levels of identity in the data and the concept of interactional rights were found to be useful analytical tools. By doing research and speaking up for themselves, people with 'learning difficulties' can collaborate to take on new situational identities; in this context, this paper shows precisely how they evaluate their own narratives to focus on various aspects of their own more permanent identity. Practical conclusions are drawn, both for people with 'learning difficulties' and for their interlocutors, challenging assumptions of blanket incompetence.

  14. Self-Reported Substance Use among High School Students with and without Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Bourgeois, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    A total of 197 Year 9 and 10 students, 74 of whom had learning difficulties (LD), from two high schools in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland, Australia, self-reported their substance use. Seventeen substances, including two fictitious ones to detect over-reporting, were presented to participants for them to indicate their current usage,…

  15. Learning Difficulties Experienced by Students and their Misconceptions of the Inverse Function Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okur, Muzaffer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine students' learning difficulties and misconceptions related to the "inverse function". The study group was composed of 137 first-grade students enrolled in the elementary mathematics teaching program of an Eastern Anatolia University in Turkey during the fall term of the academic year 2010-2011. The…

  16. Building Knowledge Structures by Testing Helps Children with Mathematical Learning Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yiyun; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical learning difficulty (MLD) is prevalent in the development of mathematical abilities. Previous interventions for children with MLD have focused on number sense or basic mathematical skills. This study investigated whether mathematical performance of fifth grade children with MLD could be improved by developing knowledge structures by…

  17. Children's Structured Conceptualizations of Their Beliefs on the Causes of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Elizabeth A.; Brown, Jason; Stepien, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Elementary school children between 9 and 12 years of age were interviewed on what they believed to be the causes of learning difficulties and were invited to take part in the analysis of the data. We achieved this with Trochim's concept mapping approach that combines qualitative and quantitative data analyses. Study results indicated that children…

  18. Mathematics Remediation for Indigenous Students with Learning Difficulties: Does It Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong, Poon Cheng; Jiar, Yeo Kee; Zanzali, Noor Azlan Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Over-reliance on prescriptive pedagogies, such as explicit instruction, could hamper students with learning difficulties from sense-making and thus limit their acquisition of conceptual understanding. To help them in constructing mathematical knowledge, manipulative and drawing could be used to solve problems in a meaningful context. Using a case…

  19. Concepts of Access for People with Learning Difficulties: Towards a Shared Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Seale, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article explores both the process and outcomes of a seminar series on the concept of access for people with learning difficulties. The seminar topics chosen to foster dialogue across professional and disciplinary boundaries included access to information, education, employment, the law, health, leisure, community, past histories and future…

  20. A Comparison of Saudi and Canadian Children's Knowledge of the Causes of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felimban, Huda; Nowicki, Elizabeth A.; Dare, Lynn; Brown, Jason

    2016-01-01

    In this comparative study, students from inclusive schools in Canada and Saudi Arabia shared their beliefs about factors associated with learning difficulties. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with 36 Canadian and 62 Saudi elementary students in Grades 5 and 6. Thematic analysis uncovered six themes: lack of knowledge,…

  1. The Effect of Time on Difficulty of Learning (The Case of Problem Solving with Natural Numbers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Deniz; Kesan, Cenk

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine the time-dependent learning difficulty of "solving problems that require making four operations with natural numbers" of the sixth grade students. The study, adopting the scanning model, consisted of a total of 140 students, including 69 female and 71 male students at the sixth grade. Data…

  2. Changes in Teaching in Order to Help Students with Learning Difficulties Improve in Cypriot Primary Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loizou, Florentia

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to explore what changes two Cypriot primary school teachers brought in their teaching in order to help students with learning difficulties improve in their classes. The study was qualitative and used non-participant observation in two primary classrooms in different primary schools and semi-structured interviews with the main…

  3. Comparing Efficacies of Neurocognitive Treatment and Homework Assistance Programs for Children with Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamminmaki, Tuija; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study compared two treatments with 94 Chilean children having learning difficulties. The first treatment consisted of multiple training components targeting specific cognitive and behavioral factors; the second treatment provided emotional support and supervision of school tasks. Findings indicated both groups improved on most of the outcome…

  4. "Why Do I Slog through the Physics?" Understanding High School Students' Difficulties in Learning Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekici, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess why physics courses are perceived as one of the most difficult courses among high school students and to investigate the reasons why students have difficulty in learning physics through this scale. This study includes the development and validation studies of the…

  5. Survey of Complementary and Alternative Therapies Used by Children with Specific Learning Difficulties (Dyslexia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Leona

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dyslexia is a common learning difficulty affecting up to 10% of British children that is associated with a wide range of cognitive, emotional and physical symptoms. In the absence of effective conventional treatment, it is likely that parents will seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to try and help their children.…

  6. Bullying Risk in Children with Learning Difficulties in Inclusive Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luciano, Severina; Savage, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether students with learning difficulties (LDs) attending inclusive schools that eschewed segregated "pull out" programs reported more incidents of being bullied than their peers without LDs. Cognitive and self-perception factors associated with reports of peer victimization were also explored. Participants were…

  7. Pupils' Perceptions of Self and of Labels: Moderate Learning Difficulties in Mainstream and Special Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Narcie; Norwich, Brahm

    2004-01-01

    Background: The study is set in the context of international moves towards more inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream schools and the greater importance attached to the child's voice in decision making in education. Aims: To examine how children with moderate learning difficulties (MLD) in mainstream and special schools see…

  8. Building Knowledge Structures by Testing Helps Children with Mathematical Learning Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yiyun; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical learning difficulty (MLD) is prevalent in the development of mathematical abilities. Previous interventions for children with MLD have focused on number sense or basic mathematical skills. This study investigated whether mathematical performance of fifth grade children with MLD could be improved by developing knowledge structures by…

  9. A Survey on the Teaching of Relative Velocity and Pupils' Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Tin-Lam

    2006-01-01

    It has been five years since the chapter on relative velocity was first introduced into the Singapore Additional Mathematics curriculum. This paper reports some general findings on the teaching of relative velocity in mathematics classrooms and the pupils' learning difficulties on relative velocity. Some implications to the teaching of this topic…

  10. Working Memory Deficits in ADHD: The Contribution of Age, Learning/Language Difficulties, and Task Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowerby, Paula; Seal, Simon; Tripp, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To further define the nature of working memory (WM) impairments in children with combined-type ADHD. Method: A total of 40 Children with ADHD and an age and gender-matched control group (n = 40) completed two measures of visuo-spatial WM and two measures of verbal WM. The effects of age and learning/language difficulties on performance…

  11. Prevalence and Pattern of Learning Difficulties in Primary School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2016-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of learning difficulties (LDs) among primary school students (Grade 1 to Grade 3) in Jordan. A total of 306 students were randomly selected and tested using the Arabic version of the Woodcock-Johnson Basic Achievement Tests that measure reading, spelling, and calculation skills. The…

  12. Fraction Intervention for Students with Mathematics Difficulties: Lessons Learned from Five Randomized Control Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Malone, Amelia S.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Namkung, Jessica; Wang, Amber

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to summarize results from 5 randomized control trials assessing the effects of intervention to improve the fraction performance of 4th-grade students at-risk for difficulty in learning about fractions. We begin by explaining the importance of competence with fractions and why an instructional focus on fractions…

  13. Changes in Teaching in Order to Help Students with Learning Difficulties Improve in Cypriot Primary Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loizou, Florentia

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to explore what changes two Cypriot primary school teachers brought in their teaching in order to help students with learning difficulties improve in their classes. The study was qualitative and used non-participant observation in two primary classrooms in different primary schools and semi-structured interviews with the main…

  14. Meeting Learning Challenges: Working with Children Who Have Difficulty Following Sequence of Activities and Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stanley I.

    2005-01-01

    In a question and answer advisory, the author gives advice to a preschool teacher working with a child who is having difficulties with sequencing, or the ability to put together a purposeful pattern of action, behavior, ideas, or thoughts. The author advises that through careful observation and appropriate learning opportunities, the children's…

  15. Getting the Credit: OCN Accreditation and Learners with Learning Difficulties and Disabilities. FE Matters. FEDA Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraday, Sally

    1996-01-01

    A 1993 study examined the range of opportunities that Open College Network (OCN) accreditation offered to learners with learning difficulties and disabilities in Great Britain. It examined OCN quality processes, including recognition panels, moderation, and internal quality systems. Information was gathered from the National Open College Network,…

  16. Charting Self-Concept, Beliefs and Attitudes towards Mathematics among Mathematically Gifted Pupils with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hroub, Anies

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigates how two groups of mathematically gifted pupils with learning difficulties (MG/LD) change/do not change their attitudes towards, and beliefs about, mathematics over five weeks during which they received two different instructional programs in mathematics. Thirty pupils (16 girls and 14 boys), aged 10 years to 11 years…

  17. Students with Disabilities, Learning Difficulties and Disadvantages: Policies, Statistics and Indicators--2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an internationally comparable set of indicators on educational provision for students with disabilities, learning difficulties and disadvantages (DDD). It highlights the number of students involved, where they are educated--special schools, special classes or regular classes--and in what phases of education--pre-primary,…

  18. Learning Difficulties Experienced by Grade 12 South African Students in the Chemical Representation of Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Joseph, Aleyamma

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the learning difficulties of grade 12 South African students in a national chemistry examination. A quantitative analysis of students' performance in the examination revealed there was a significant difference between student performance in questions where students needed to execute a transformation across levels of…

  19. Difficulties Encountered by Students in the Learning and Usage of Mathematical Terminology: A Critical Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulwa, Ednah Chebet

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to review literature pertinent to difficulties encountered by students in the learning and usage of mathematical terminology. The need to carry out this study arose from the concern by the Kenya National Examinations Council, and the general public, over the poor annual results in mathematics. Therefore, the objective of this…

  20. A Mobile Application to Improve Learning Performance of Dyslexic Children with Writing Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tariq, Rabbia; Latif, Seemab

    2016-01-01

    A neurological learning disability, termed as Dyslexia, is characterized by difficulties in various aspects of writing skills making the individuals unable to develop age-appropriate and ability-appropriate functional skills. In Pakistan, lack of dyslexia awareness and remedial education training restrains the remediation of dyslexic children at…

  1. Survey of Complementary and Alternative Therapies Used by Children with Specific Learning Difficulties (Dyslexia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Leona

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dyslexia is a common learning difficulty affecting up to 10% of British children that is associated with a wide range of cognitive, emotional and physical symptoms. In the absence of effective conventional treatment, it is likely that parents will seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to try and help their children.…

  2. Beyond Ramps and Rhetoric: New Challenges and Issues in Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innovations in FE, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This first issue of a journal on further education (FE) in the United Kingdom focuses on further education for people with physical disabilities and learning difficulties. The first article is titled "A College with a Mission," by Ernest Theodossin, and looks at the FE programs offered by Lancaster & Morecambe College, the various…

  3. Emergence, Learning Difficulties, and Misconceptions in Chemistry Undergraduate Students' Conceptualizations of Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Philosophical debates about chemistry have clarified that the issue of emergence plays a critical role in the epistemology and ontology of chemistry. In this article, it is argued that the issue of emergence has also significant implications for understanding learning difficulties and finding ways of addressing them in chemistry. Particularly, it…

  4. Preferences of Students with General Learning Difficulties for Different Service Delivery Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Didaskalou, Eleni; Argyrakouli, Effi

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to elicit the views and preferences of primary education students with general learning difficulties concerning different service delivery modes. The main areas to be investigated were: (a) their current educational provision, (b) alternative modes of provision and (c) the most appropriate provider (mainstream or special…

  5. Multigenerational Learning for Expanding the Educational Involvement of Bilinguals Experiencing Academic Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Álvarez, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on two bilingual children experiencing learning difficulties, I explore the scientific representations these students generate in an afterschool programme where they have opportunities to exercise agency. In the programme, children use a digital camera to document science in their lives and engage in conversations about the products they…

  6. A Comparison of Saudi and Canadian Children's Knowledge of the Causes of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felimban, Huda; Nowicki, Elizabeth A.; Dare, Lynn; Brown, Jason

    2016-01-01

    In this comparative study, students from inclusive schools in Canada and Saudi Arabia shared their beliefs about factors associated with learning difficulties. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with 36 Canadian and 62 Saudi elementary students in Grades 5 and 6. Thematic analysis uncovered six themes: lack of knowledge,…

  7. Learning Difficulties and the Power of Labelling in ABE. Mendip Papers MP071.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergin, Sue; Johnson, Andy

    A study examined recent developments in adult basic education (ABE) in Great Britain in relation to students with learning difficulties and issues about the ways in which programs seemed to be moving. Information was collected from ABE staff and students in case study sites in northwest England from the following sources: semistructured interviews…

  8. Going on a Journey: A Case Study of Nature Therapy with Children with a Learning Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Ronen

    2008-01-01

    Therapy is usually described as an indoor activity, centering on verbal dialogue between therapist and client(s). Based on a qualitative study conducted with a group of children with learning difficulties, this article presents a way in which therapy can take place creatively in nature, which serves not only as a therapeutic setting but also as a…

  9. How Does the Legal System Respond when Children with Learning Difficulties Are Victimized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederborg, Ann-Christin; Lamb, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To understand how the Swedish legal system perceives and handles mentally handicapped children who may have been victimized. Method: Twenty-two judicial districts in Sweden provided complete files on 39 District Court cases (including the Appeals Court files on 17 of these cases) involving children with learning difficulties or other…

  10. Task difficulty and the time scales of warm-up and motor learning.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Morina E; King, Adam C; Newell, Karl M

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of task difficulty on warm-up decrement and learning across practice sessions. Three groups of participants practiced a star-tracing task over 3 consecutive days with different levels (e.g., easy, medium, hard) of task difficulty. The performance data were modeled with a 2 time scale function that represented the transient, fast time scale process of warm-up decrement superimposed with the persistent, slow time scale process of learning. Movement time decreased as a function of practice with the most difficult condition exhibiting the greatest reduction though still the longest movement time. The 2 time scale model provided a better fit to the data than an exponential or power law function and showed that the 3 difficulty conditions exhibited similar rates of change for the respective slow (i.e., learning) and fast (i.e., warm-up decrement) time scale processes that varied by an order of magnitude. Task difficulty was inversely related to the initial level of warm-up decrement but not the rate of performance recovery early in a practice session. The findings support the postulation that there is a persistent learned component to the initial conditions in subsequent practice sessions but that there is a common time scale of accommodating the transient process of warm-up decrement.

  11. Fraction Intervention for Students with Mathematics Difficulties: Lessons Learned from Five Randomized Control Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Malone, Amelia S.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Namkung, Jessica; Wang, Amber

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to summarize results from 5 randomized control trials assessing the effects of intervention to improve the fraction performance of 4th-grade students at-risk for difficulty in learning about fractions. We begin by explaining the importance of competence with fractions and why an instructional focus on fractions…

  12. The Uncelebrated Parent: Stories of Mothers with Learning Difficulties Caught in the Child Protection Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Tim; Booth, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the stories of three mothers with learning difficulties whose children have been involved in care proceedings. Drawing on the example of the legendary interviewer, Studs Terkel, the authors let the mothers describe their experiences of the child protection system in their own words. From out of their intensely personal accounts…

  13. Learner and Teacher Perception on Difficulties in Learning and Teaching Mathematics: Some Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul Gafoor, K.; Kurukkan, Abidha

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics holds a relevant and unique place in the school curriculum as it is important for a better living of the individual. But, it is known that most of the students are considering mathematics as difficult. This study examines the difficulties perceived by high school students and teachers in learning and teaching mathematics. Two hundred…

  14. A Mobile Application to Improve Learning Performance of Dyslexic Children with Writing Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tariq, Rabbia; Latif, Seemab

    2016-01-01

    A neurological learning disability, termed as Dyslexia, is characterized by difficulties in various aspects of writing skills making the individuals unable to develop age-appropriate and ability-appropriate functional skills. In Pakistan, lack of dyslexia awareness and remedial education training restrains the remediation of dyslexic children at…

  15. A Survey on the Teaching of Relative Velocity and Pupils' Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Tin-Lam

    2006-01-01

    It has been five years since the chapter on relative velocity was first introduced into the Singapore Additional Mathematics curriculum. This paper reports some general findings on the teaching of relative velocity in mathematics classrooms and the pupils' learning difficulties on relative velocity. Some implications to the teaching of this topic…

  16. Effects on Reading of an Early Intervention Program for Children at Risk of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Valenzuela, María-José; Martín-Ruiz, Isaías

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the effects on reading of an early oral and written language intervention program for Spanish children at risk of learning difficulties. The goal of this classroom-based program was to prioritize a systematic approach to reading and writing and to foster phonological knowledge and the development of oral language…

  17. Self-Reported Substance Use among High School Students with and without Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Bourgeois, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    A total of 197 Year 9 and 10 students, 74 of whom had learning difficulties (LD), from two high schools in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland, Australia, self-reported their substance use. Seventeen substances, including two fictitious ones to detect over-reporting, were presented to participants for them to indicate their current usage,…

  18. A School-Based Movement Programme for Children with Motor Learning Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannisto, Juha-Pekka; Cantell, Marja; Huovinen, Tommi; Kooistra, Libbe; Larkin, Dawne

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of a school-based movement programme for a population of 5 to 7 year old children. Performance profiles on the Movement ABC were used to classify the children and to assess skill changes over time. Children were assigned to four different groups: motor learning difficulty (n = 10), borderline motor learning…

  19. A Classroom Instruction Program for Primary School Children with Learning Difficulties: Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohite, Prerana

    The aims of the study summarized in this document were to develop a viable classroom instruction program of reading and writing for elementary school children of standards (grades) 1 and 2 who faced difficulties in learning to read and write. Specific steps included: (1) developing a quick and easily administered screening device to identify…

  20. English Language Learning Difficulty of Korean Students in a Philippine Multidisciplinary University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Albela, Emmanuel Jeric A.; Nieto, Deborah Rosalind D.; Ferrer, John Bernard F.; Santos, Rior N.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed the English language learning difficulties of 13 purposively chosen Korean students relative to their sociolinguistic competence, motivation in using the English language, and cultural factors. Interview responses were transcribed, categorized and thematised according to saliency, meaning and homogeneity. The…

  1. Accessing Mainstream: Examining the Struggle for Parents of Children Who Have Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Mairin; Shevlin, Michael; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; McNeela, Eileen

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade Ireland has witnessed substantial changes in policy and provision for children with general learning difficulties as government policies and legislation increasingly underpin the move towards more inclusive provision. Despite this series of policy initiatives parents of children who experience Down syndrome and general learning…

  2. Associations among Sleep Problems, Learning Difficulties and Substance Use in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakier, Nuraan; Wild, Lauren G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence. Previous research suggests that these variables share an association with executive functioning deficits, and are intertwined. The sample comprised 427 adolescents (M age = 16 years) attending remedial schools and 276 adolescents…

  3. Collaborative IEPs for the Education of Pupils with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroggilos, Vasilis; Xanthacou, Yota

    2006-01-01

    Individual educational plans (IEPs) are considered to be more effective when designed and implemented by a multidisciplinary team. This paper deals with the IEP as a collaborative tool for the education of pupils with profound and multiple learning difficulties (PMLD). Ten pupils with PMLD and the people working around them (e.g. teacher, speech…

  4. Getting Things to Stick: Exploring the Narratives of Young New Zealanders Who Experience Specific Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sheryn; Hocking, Clare; Wilson, Jan

    2006-01-01

    This narrative inquiry sought to explore the views of eight young New Zealanders, aged nine to 14 years, who had experienced specific difficulties with learning. Narrative research procedures were used to gather and interpret the stories the young participants told about their experiences. Findings revealed that young people become aware of their…

  5. Motor Coordination Difficulties in 5-6-Year-Old Children with Severe Behavioural and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Synnove; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Ellertsen, Bjorn; Nodland, Magne; Larsen, Tommy Bade

    2006-01-01

    Incidence, severity and types of motor difficulties in children with severe behavioural and emotional problems were evaluated. A group of 6-year-olds (n = 29) with such problems and controls (n = 29) were compared on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC). The groups were compared on total scores as well as manual dexterity, ball…

  6. Motor Coordination Difficulties in 5-6-Year-Old Children with Severe Behavioural and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Synnove; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Ellertsen, Bjorn; Nodland, Magne; Larsen, Tommy Bade

    2006-01-01

    Incidence, severity and types of motor difficulties in children with severe behavioural and emotional problems were evaluated. A group of 6-year-olds (n = 29) with such problems and controls (n = 29) were compared on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC). The groups were compared on total scores as well as manual dexterity, ball…

  7. Tracking orthographic learning in children with different profiles of reading difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Marinus, Eva; Nickels, Lyndsey; Castles, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that children with reading difficulties need more exposures to acquire the representations needed to support fluent reading than typically developing readers (e.g., Ehri and Saltmarsh, 1995). Building on existing orthographic learning paradigms, we report on an investigation of orthographic learning in poor readers using a new learning task tracking both the accuracy (untimed exposure duration) and fluency (200 ms exposure duration) of learning novel words over trials. In study 1, we used the paradigm to examine orthographic learning in children with specific poor reader profiles (nine with a surface profile, nine a phonological profile) and nine age-matched controls. Both profiles showed improvement over the learning cycles, but the children with surface profile showed impaired orthographic learning in spelling and orthographic choice tasks. Study 2 explored predictors of orthographic learning in a group of 91 poor readers using the same outcome measures as in Study 1. Consistent with earlier findings in typically developing readers, phonological decoding skill predicted orthographic learning. Moreover, orthographic knowledge significantly predicted orthographic learning over and beyond phonological decoding. The two studies provide insights into how poor readers learn novel words, and how their learning process may be compromised by less proficient orthographic and/or phonological skills. PMID:25071504

  8. Worster-Drought Syndrome: Poorly Recognized despite Severe and Persistent Difficulties with Feeding and Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Maria; Harris, Rebecca; Jolleff, Nicola; Price, Katie; Neville, Brian G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Worster-Drought syndrome (WDS), or congenital suprabulbar paresis, is a permanent movement disorder of the bulbar muscles causing persistent difficulties with swallowing, feeding, speech, and saliva control owing to a non-progressive disturbance in early brain development. As such, it falls within the cerebral palsies. The aim of this study…

  9. Worster-Drought Syndrome: Poorly Recognized despite Severe and Persistent Difficulties with Feeding and Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Maria; Harris, Rebecca; Jolleff, Nicola; Price, Katie; Neville, Brian G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Worster-Drought syndrome (WDS), or congenital suprabulbar paresis, is a permanent movement disorder of the bulbar muscles causing persistent difficulties with swallowing, feeding, speech, and saliva control owing to a non-progressive disturbance in early brain development. As such, it falls within the cerebral palsies. The aim of this study…

  10. Learning Difficulties in Mathematics (LDM) of Secondary School Students with Respect to Their Personal and Background Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarsani, Mahender Reddy; Maddini, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    The investigation was aimed to study the learning difficulties in mathematics among the secondary school students. The study proposed to measure the Learning Difficulties in Mathematics with respect to the students' personal and background variables such as sex, type of school, locality and medium of instruction; and also to explore the…

  11. Differential Constraints on the Working Memory and Reading Abilities of Individuals with Learning Difficulties and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Leigh, Eleanor

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the factors that constrain the working memory span performance and reading ability of individuals with generalized learning difficulties. In the study, 50 individuals with learning difficulties (LD) and 50 typically developing children (TD) matched for reading age completed two working memory span tasks. Participants also…

  12. "May We Please Have Sex Tonight?"--People with Learning Difficulties Pursuing Privacy in Residential Group Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollomotz, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Many residential group settings for people with learning difficulties do not provide individuals with the private space in which they can explore their sexual relationships in a safe and dignified manner. Lack of agreed private spaces seriously infringes the individual's human rights. Many people with learning difficulties who lack privacy have no…

  13. Differential Constraints on the Working Memory and Reading Abilities of Individuals with Learning Difficulties and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Leigh, Eleanor

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the factors that constrain the working memory span performance and reading ability of individuals with generalized learning difficulties. In the study, 50 individuals with learning difficulties (LD) and 50 typically developing children (TD) matched for reading age completed two working memory span tasks. Participants also…

  14. Why Is Math So Hard for Some Children? The Nature and Origins of Mathematical Learning Difficulties and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berch, Daniel B., Ed; Mazzocco, Michele M.M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In order for schools to help students with learning difficulties and disabilities improve their achievement in mathematics, educators, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers need a better understanding of the evidence based on what is behind these students' difficulties in learning math. That is just what they will get with this landmark…

  15. Why Is Math So Hard for Some Children? The Nature and Origins of Mathematical Learning Difficulties and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berch, Daniel B., Ed; Mazzocco, Michele M.M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In order for schools to help students with learning difficulties and disabilities improve their achievement in mathematics, educators, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers need a better understanding of the evidence based on what is behind these students' difficulties in learning math. That is just what they will get with this landmark…

  16. Meta-Analysis of Fluid Intelligence Tests of Children from the Chinese Mainland with Learning Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fang; Fu, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the differences in fluid intelligence tests between normal children and children with learning difficulties in China. Method PubMed, MD Consult, and other Chinese Journal Database were searched from their establishment to November 2012. After finding comparative studies of Raven measurements of normal children and children with learning difficulties, full Intelligent Quotation (FIQ) values and the original values of the sub-measurement were extracted. The corresponding effect model was selected based on the results of heterogeneity and parallel sub-group analysis was performed. Results Twelve documents were included in the meta-analysis, and the studies were all performed in mainland of China. Among these, two studies were performed at child health clinics, the other ten sites were schools and control children were schoolmates or classmates. FIQ was evaluated using a random effects model. WMD was −13.18 (95% CI: −16.50–−9.85). Children with learning difficulties showed significantly lower FIQ scores than controls (P<0.00001); Type of learning difficulty and gender differences were evaluated using a fixed-effects model (I2 = 0%). The sites and purposes of the studies evaluated here were taken into account, but the reasons of heterogeneity could not be eliminated; The sum IQ of all the subgroups showed considerable heterogeneity (I2 = 76.5%). The sub-measurement score of document A showed moderate heterogeneity among all documents, and AB, B, and E showed considerable heterogeneity, which was used in a random effect model. Individuals with learning difficulties showed heterogeneity as well. There was a moderate delay in the first three items (−0.5 to −0.9), and a much more pronounced delay in the latter three items (−1.4 to −1.6). Conclusion In the Chinese mainland, the level of fluid intelligence of children with learning difficulties was lower than that of normal children. Delayed development in sub-items of C, D, and E

  17. Spatial working memory and arithmetic deficits in children with nonverbal learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Mammarella, Irene Cristina; Lucangeli, Daniela; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Visuospatial working memory and its involvement in arithmetic were examined in two groups of 7- to 11-year-olds: one comprising children described by teachers as displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning difficulties (N = 21), the other a control group without learning disabilities (N = 21). The two groups were matched for verbal abilities, age, gender, and sociocultural level. The children were presented with a visuospatial working memory battery of recognition tests involving visual, spatial-sequential and spatial-simultaneous processes, and two arithmetic tasks (number ordering and written calculations). The two groups were found to differ on some spatial tasks but not in the visual working memory tasks. On the arithmetic tasks, the children with nonverbal learning difficulties made more errors than controls in calculation and were slower in number ordering. A discriminant function analysis confirmed the crucial role of spatial-sequential working memory in distinguishing between the two groups. Results are discussed with reference to spatial working memory and arithmetic difficulties in nonverbal learning disabilities. Implications for the relationship between visuospatial working memory and arithmetic are also considered.

  18. The Creation of Task-Based Differentiated Learning Materials for Students with Learning Difficulties and/or Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Trevor; Jones, Sara; Britton, Carol; Messer, David

    This paper describes Horizon, a European-funded project designed to increase employment opportunities for students with disabilities or learning difficulties. The project established a working cafe/restaurant (Cafe Horizon) in East London staffed by students. Part of the project involved the creation of multimedia units linked directly to Level 1…

  19. Mathematics Learning Difficulties in Primary Education: Teachers' Professional Knowledge and the Use of Commercially Available Learning Packages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Steenbrugge, H.; Valcke, M.; Desoete, A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study builds on teachers' professional knowledge about mathematics learning difficulties. Based on the input of 918 primary school teachers, an attempt is made to develop an overview of difficult curriculum topics in primary school mathematics. The research approach builds on new conceptions about the professional identity of teachers…

  20. Transfer in motion perceptual learning depends on the difficulty of the training task.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhou, Yifeng; Liu, Zili

    2013-06-07

    One hypothesis in visual perceptual learning is that the amount of transfer depends on the difficulty of the training and transfer tasks (Ahissar & Hochstein, 1997; Liu, 1995, 1999). Jeter, Dosher, Petrov, and Lu (2009), using an orientation discrimination task, challenged this hypothesis by arguing that the amount of transfer depends only on the transfer task but not on the training task. Here we show in a motion direction discrimination task that the amount of transfer indeed depends on the difficulty of the training task. Specifically, participants were first trained with either 4° or 8° direction discrimination along one average direction. Their transfer performance was then tested along an average direction 90° away from the trained direction. A variety of transfer measures consistently demonstrated that transfer performance depended on whether the participants were trained on 4° or 8° directional difference. The results contradicted the prediction that transfer was independent of the training task difficulty.

  1. Early Detection of Learning Difficulties when Confronted with Novel Information in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease Stage 1.

    PubMed

    Tort-Merino, Adrià; Valech, Natalia; Peñaloza, Claudia; Grönholm-Nyman, Petra; León, María; Olives, Jaume; Estanga, Ainara; Ecay-Torres, Mirian; Fortea, Juan; Martínez-Lage, Pablo; Molinuevo, José L; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Rami, Lorena

    2017-01-01

    We employed a highly demanding experimental associative learning test (the AFE-T) to explore memory functioning in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease stage 1 (PreAD-1) and stage 2 (PreAD-2). The task consisted in the learning of unknown object/name pairs and our comprehensive setup allowed the analysis of learning curves, immediate recall, long-term forgetting rates at one week, three months, and six months, and relearning curves. Forty-nine cognitively healthy subjects were included and classified according to the presence or absence of abnormal CSF biomarkers (Control, n = 31; PreAD-1, n = 14; PreAD-2, n = 4). Control and PreAD-1 performances on the experimental test were compared by controlling for age and education. These analyses showed clear learning difficulties in PreAD-1 subjects (F = 6.98; p = 0.01). Between-group differences in long-term forgetting rates were less notable, reaching statistical significance only for the three-month cued forgetting rate (F = 4.83; p = 0.03). Similarly, relearning sessions showed only statistical trends between the groups (F = 3.22; p = 0.08). In the whole sample, significant correlations between CSF Aβ42/tau ratio and the AFE-T were found, both in the total learning score (r = 0.52; p < 0.001) and in the three-month cued forgetting rate (r = -0.38; p < 0.01). Descriptive subanalyses involving PreAD-2 suggested greater learning and recall difficulties in these subjects when compared with the PreAD-1 group. The present results suggest that explicit learning difficulties when binding information could be one of the earliest signs of the future emergence of episodic memory difficulties on the Alzheimer's disease continuum. Our findings indicate that the AFE-T is a sensitive test, capable of detecting subtle memory difficulties in PreAD-1.

  2. Specification of Growth Model and Inter-individual Differences for Students with Severe Reading Difficulties: A Case of CBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-il

    This paper reports on the findings of a longitudinal study that investigated the trends in reading growth for 49 elementary students with severe reading difficulties. The students received special education services in a large Midwestern city in which curriculum-based measurement (CBM) procedures were implemented fully. The study began when the…

  3. Music Education for Pupils with Severe or Profound and Multiple Difficulties--Current Provision and Future Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockelford, Adam; Welch, Graham; Zimmermann, Sally

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of the use of music in the education of students at British schools for students with severe/profound or multiple difficulties found music was a significant component of students' lives and education. The article urges research on this population's musical behavior and needs and development of musical education guidelines and…

  4. The Effects of a Tier 3 Intervention on the Mathematics Performance of Second Grade Students with Severe Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Brian R.; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Porterfield, Jennifer; Dennis, Minyi Shih; Falcomata, Terry; Valentine, Courtney; Brewer, Chelsea; Bell, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a systematic, explicit, intensive Tier 3 (tertiary) intervention on the mathematics performance of students in second grade with severe mathematics difficulties. A multiple-baseline design across groups of participants showed improved mathematics performance on number and operations…

  5. Challenges and Management Frameworks of Residential Schools for Students with Severe Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Stella Suk-ching; Leung, Ka-wai

    2012-01-01

    This study by Stella Suk-Ching Chong, an assistant professor, and Ka-wai Leung, a teaching fellow, both at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, focuses on the perspectives of hostel staff from six residential schools for students with severe emotional and behavioural difficulties. Individual or focus group interviews were conducted to explore the…

  6. Errors in Multi-Digit Arithmetic and Behavioral Inattention in Children with Math Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghubar, Kimberly; Cirino, Paul; Barnes, Marcia; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Fletcher, Jack; Fuchs, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Errors in written multi-digit computation were investigated in children with math difficulties. Third- and fourth-grade children (n = 291) with coexisting math and reading difficulties, math difficulties, reading difficulties, or no learning difficulties were compared. A second analysis compared those with severe math learning difficulties, low…

  7. Phonological sensitivity and memory in children with a foreign language learning difficulty.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Paola; Ferrari, Marcella

    2008-01-01

    The phonological processing and memory skills of 12- and 13-year-old Italian children with difficulty in learning English as a foreign language (foreign language learning difficulty, FLLD) were examined and compared with those of a control group matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Three experiments were conducted. A dissociation between verbal and visuo-spatial working memory was observed when compared to the control group; children with FLLD showed a poorer performance in a phonological working memory task but performed to a comparable level in a visuo-spatial working memory task (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2 the word length and the response modality of an auditory word span task were manipulated in order to examine the efficiency of the phonological loop and the relevance of the spoken output. The FLLD group did not show sensitivity to the word length effect and showed no advantage in the picture pointing recall condition. In Experiment 3 children with FLLD were shown to be sensitive to phonological similarity but again they showed neither a word length effect nor a slower articulation speed. Furthermore, in all three experiments children with FLLD were shown to be less efficient in phonological sensitivity tasks and this deficit appeared to be independent of the phonological memory problem. All three experiments consistently showed that children with FLLD have an impairment in phonological memory and phonological processing, which appear to be independent from one other but both contribute to the children's difficulty in learning a second language.

  8. Being and becoming a psychotherapy supervisor: the crucial triad of learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Watkins, C Edward

    2013-01-01

    More than 40 years ago eminent psychiatrist Richard Chessick penned a classic, highly prescient psychotherapy supervision paper (that appeared in this journal) in which he identified for supervisors the crucial triad of learning difficulties that tend to confront beginning therapists in their training. These are (a) dealing with the anxiety attendant to the development of psychological mindedness; (b) developing a psychotherapist identity; and (c) developing conviction about the meaningfulness of psychodynamics and psychotherapy. In this paper, I would like to revisit Chessick's seminal contribution about the teaching and learning of psychotherapy and extrapolate his triad of learning difficulties to the process of teaching and learning supervision. The process of being and becoming a psychotherapist has been likened to a developmental journey, and similarly being and becoming a supervisor is increasingly recognized as a developmental journey that is best stimulated by means of didactic and practical experiences (i.e., supervision coursework, seminars, or workshops and the supervision of supervision). In what follows, I would like to explore how Chessick's crucial triad of learning difficulties can be meaningfully extrapolated to and used to inform the supervision training situation. In extrapolating Chessick's triad, beginning supervisors or supervisor trainees can be conceptualized as confronting three critical issues: (a) dealing with the anxiety and demoralization attendant to the development of supervisory mindedness; (b) developing a supervisory identity; and (c) developing conviction about the meaningfulness of psychotherapy supervision. This triadic conceptualization appears to capture nicely core concerns that extend across the arc of the supervisor development process and provides a useful and usable way of thinking about supervisor training and informing it. Each component of the triadic conceptualization is described, and some supervisor education

  9. Transcranial random noise stimulation mitigates increased difficulty in an arithmetic learning task.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Tudor; Krause, Beatrix; Terhune, Devin B; Twose, Olivia; Page, Thomas; Humphreys, Glyn; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2016-01-29

    Proficiency in arithmetic learning can be achieved by using a multitude of strategies, the most salient of which are procedural learning (applying a certain set of computations) and rote learning (direct retrieval from long-term memory). Here we investigated the effect of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a non-invasive brain stimulation method previously shown to enhance cognitive training, on both types of learning in a 5-day sham-controlled training study, under two conditions of task difficulty, defined in terms of item repetition. On the basis of previous research implicating the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex in early and late stages of arithmetic learning, respectively, sham-controlled tRNS was applied to bilateral prefrontal cortex for the first 3 days and to the posterior parietal cortex for the last 2 days of a 5-day training phase. The training involved learning to solve arithmetic problems by applying a calculation algorithm; both trained and untrained problems were used in a brief testing phase at the end of the training phase. Task difficulty was manipulated between subjects by using either a large ("easy" condition) or a small ("difficult" condition) number of repetition of problems during training. Measures of attention and working memory were acquired before and after the training phase. As compared to sham, participants in the tRNS condition displayed faster reaction times and increased learning rate during the training phase; as well as faster reaction times for both trained and untrained (new) problems, which indicated a transfer effect after the end of training. All stimulation effects reached significance only in the "difficult" condition when number of repetition was lower. There were no transfer effects of tRNS on attention or working memory. The results support the view that tRNS can produce specific facilitative effects on numerical cognition--specifically, on arithmetic learning. They also highlight the importance of

  10. Transcranial random noise stimulation mitigates increased difficulty in an arithmetic learning task

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Tudor; Krause, Beatrix; Terhune, Devin B.; Twose, Olivia; Page, Thomas; Humphreys, Glyn; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2016-01-01

    Proficiency in arithmetic learning can be achieved by using a multitude of strategies, the most salient of which are procedural learning (applying a certain set of computations) and rote learning (direct retrieval from long-term memory). Here we investigated the effect of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a non-invasive brain stimulation method previously shown to enhance cognitive training, on both types of learning in a 5-day sham-controlled training study, under two conditions of task difficulty, defined in terms of item repetition. On the basis of previous research implicating the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex in early and late stages of arithmetic learning, respectively, sham-controlled tRNS was applied to bilateral prefrontal cortex for the first 3 days and to the posterior parietal cortex for the last 2 days of a 5-day training phase. The training involved learning to solve arithmetic problems by applying a calculation algorithm; both trained and untrained problems were used in a brief testing phase at the end of the training phase. Task difficulty was manipulated between subjects by using either a large (“easy” condition) or a small (“difficult” condition) number of repetition of problems during training. Measures of attention and working memory were acquired before and after the training phase. As compared to sham, participants in the tRNS condition displayed faster reaction times and increased learning rate during the training phase; as well as faster reaction times for both trained and untrained (new) problems, which indicated a transfer effect after the end of training. All stimulation effects reached significance only in the “difficult” condition when number of repetition was lower. There were no transfer effects of tRNS on attention or working memory. The results support the view that tRNS can produce specific facilitative effects on numerical cognition – specifically, on arithmetic learning. They also highlight

  11. Probing when Japanese junior high school students begin to feel difficulty in learning mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Tomoko; Izuta, Giido

    2017-05-01

    It is thought that the increasing number of Japanese students avoiding mathematics has become a serious problem in the last decades. Japanese junior high school students are learning the basic understanding and skills of mathematics during the years of mandatory education. To our knowledge, there are few reports about the time when Japanese junior high school students begin to feel difficulty in mathematics learning. The aim of this work is to examine this case. To accomplish this purpose, a typical public junior high school in a country city with 616 students (182 first-year, 212 second-year, 222 third-year) in all was chosen to be the field of investigation. Likert scale type questionnaires to assess their feelings were conducted, and the respondents who answered `difficulty' and `a little difficulty' were extracted. The number of respondents were 89 first-year (26 males, 63 females), 76 second-year (27 males, 49 females), and 112 third-year (45 males, 67 females) students. The beginning time was divided into school years when it was in elementary school, and semesters when it was in junior high school. Ordinary statistical processings for each grade and gender were performed to analyze them. It was found that the time when they began to have difficulty learning mathematics was different in gender. Male students tended to start from higher-grade of elementary school whereas female students from middle-grade of elementary school. In other words, these results showed differences in gender and time. Finally, these examinations suggest that teachers need to provide appropriate support for students at a suitable time in the elementary school. Also these results are useful in mathematics education of elementary school.

  12. [Interdisciplinary approach to analysis of brain mechanisms of learning difficulties: application to the ADHD children study].

    PubMed

    Machinskaya, R I; Sugrobova, G A; Semenova, O A

    2013-01-01

    The study presents the interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of the brain mechanisms of learning difficulties in primary schoolchildren. The neuropsychological assessment and the resting-state EEG estimation were applied to analyze the neurophysiological factors of cognitive deficits in children with ADHD symptoms aged 7-8 and 9-10. EEG recordings of children with ADHD symptoms more frequently, as compared to children with typical development, contained EEG patterns of the fronto-thalamic system non-optimal functioning, reflected in frontal theta waves (FTW), right hemisphere local electrical activity (EA) deviations and EEG patterns associated with the general activation deficit arising from the brainstem reticular formation (DA). We specified cognitive impairments associated with different types of resting-state EEG deviations in ADHD children. Children with FTW of both age groups demonstrated pronounced difficulties in programming, regulation and control (executive functions) and verbal performance. Children with right hemisphere local EA abnormalities had executive functions deficit combined with difficulties in nonverbal performance. Children with EEG signs of DA of both age groups had a decreased cognitive processing speed and efficiency. Younger children with DA demonstrated difficulties in nonverbal task performance. Thus, the interdisciplinary study provided the evidence for at least three neurophysiological factors which can specifically impede the cognitive performance in ADHD children.

  13. Mislabeled Reading and Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Treatment for Reading Difficulties in Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sze, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reading affects a plethora of areas in life. Students with learning disabilities often fall into this category due to a lack of practice with reading and less time to focus on building skills. This paper examines the background, the relationship between reading and learning disabilities, the characteristics of students with learning disabilities…

  14. Psychomotor development and learning difficulties in preschool children with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: An epidemiological study in Navarre and La Rioja.

    PubMed

    Marín-Méndez, J J; Borra-Ruiz, M C; Álvarez-Gómez, M J; Soutullo Esperón, C

    2017-10-01

    ADHD symptoms begin to appear at preschool age. ADHD may have a significant negative impact on academic performance. In Spain, there are no standardized tools for detecting ADHD at preschool age, nor is there data about the incidence of this disorder. To evaluate developmental factors and learning difficulties associated with probable ADHD and to assess the impact of ADHD in school performance. We conducted a population-based study with a stratified multistage proportional cluster sample design. We found significant differences between probable ADHD and parents' perception of difficulties in expressive language, comprehension, and fine motor skills, as well as in emotions, concentration, behaviour, and relationships. Around 34% of preschool children with probable ADHD showed global learning difficulties, mainly in patients with the inattentive type. According to the multivariate analysis, learning difficulties were significantly associated with both delayed psychomotor development during the first 3 years of life (OR: 5.57) as assessed by parents, and probable ADHD (OR: 2.34) CONCLUSIONS: There is a connection between probable ADHD in preschool children and parents' perception of difficulties in several dimensions of development and learning. Early detection of ADHD at preschool ages is necessary to start prompt and effective clinical and educational interventions. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Brainstem White Matter Predicts Individual Differences in Manual Motor Difficulties and Symptom Severity in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Tromp, Do P. M.; Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Dan; Samsin, Danica; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly D. B.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that poorer motor skills may be related to more severe autism symptoms. This study investigated if atypical white matter microstructure in the brain mediated the relationship between motor skills and ASD symptom severity. Sixty-seven males with ASD and 42 males with typical development (5-33 years old) completed a…

  16. Brainstem White Matter Predicts Individual Differences in Manual Motor Difficulties and Symptom Severity in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Tromp, Do P. M.; Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Dan; Samsin, Danica; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly D. B.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that poorer motor skills may be related to more severe autism symptoms. This study investigated if atypical white matter microstructure in the brain mediated the relationship between motor skills and ASD symptom severity. Sixty-seven males with ASD and 42 males with typical development (5-33 years old) completed a…

  17. Anxious individuals have difficulty learning the causal statistics of aversive environments

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Michael; Behrens, Timothy E; Jocham, Gerhard; O’Reilly, Jill X; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-01-01

    Statistical regularities in the causal structure of the environment enable us to predict the probable outcomes of our actions. Environments differ in the extent to which action-outcome contingencies are stable or volatile. Difficulty in being able to use this information to optimally update outcome predictions might contribute to the decision-making difficulties seen in anxiety. We tested this using an aversive learning task manipulating environmental volatility. Low trait anxious human participants matched updating of their outcome predictions to the volatility of the current environment, as predicted by a Bayesian model. High trait anxious individuals showed less ability to adjust updating of outcome expectancies between stable and volatile environments. This was linked to reduced sensitivity of the pupil dilatory response to volatility, potentially indicative of altered norepinephrinergic responsivity to changes in this aspect of environmental information. PMID:25730669

  18. Anxious individuals have difficulty learning the causal statistics of aversive environments.

    PubMed

    Browning, Michael; Behrens, Timothy E; Jocham, Gerhard; O'Reilly, Jill X; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-04-01

    Statistical regularities in the causal structure of the environment enable us to predict the probable outcomes of our actions. Environments differ in the extent to which action-outcome contingencies are stable or volatile. Difficulty in being able to use this information to optimally update outcome predictions might contribute to the decision-making difficulties seen in anxiety. We tested this using an aversive learning task manipulating environmental volatility. Human participants low in trait anxiety matched updating of their outcome predictions to the volatility of the current environment, as predicted by a Bayesian model. Individuals with high trait anxiety showed less ability to adjust updating of outcome expectancies between stable and volatile environments. This was linked to reduced sensitivity of the pupil dilatory response to volatility, potentially indicative of altered norepinephrinergic responsivity to changes in this aspect of environmental information.

  19. Brainstem White Matter Predicts Individual Differences in Manual Motor Difficulties and Symptom Severity in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Tromp, Do P. M.; Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Dan; Samsin, Danica; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly D. B.; Duffield, Tyler; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that poorer motor skills may be related to more severe autism symptoms. This study investigated if atypical white matter microstructure in the brain mediated the relationship between motor skills and ASD symptom severity. Sixty-seven males with ASD and 42 males with typical development (5-33 years old) completed a diffusion tensor imaging scan and measures of grip strength, finger tapping, and autism symptom severity. Within the ASD group, weaker grip strength predicted more severe autism symptoms. Fractional anisotropy of the brainstem's corticospinal tract predicted both grip strength and autism symptom severity and mediated the relationship between the two. These findings suggest that brainstem white matter may contribute to autism symptoms and grip strength in ASD. PMID:26001365

  20. Dynamic task-specific brain network connectivity in children with severe reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    Vourkas, Michael; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Simos, Panagiotis G; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2011-01-20

    We investigated patterns of sensor-level functional connectivity derived from single-trial whole-head magnetoencephalography data during a pseudoword reading and a letter-sound naming task in children with reading difficulties (RD) and children with no reading impairments (NI). The Phase Lag Index (PLI), a linear and nonlinear estimator, computed for each pair of sensors, was used to construct graphs and obtain estimates of local and global network efficiency according to graph theory. In the 8-13 Hz (alpha band) and 20-30 Hz (gamma band) range, RD students showed significantly lower global efficiency than NI children, for the entire MEG recording epoch. RD students also displayed reduced local network efficiency in the alpha band. Correlations between phonological decoding ability and graph metrics were particularly evident during the task that posed significant demands for phonological decoding, and followed distinct time courses depending on signal frequency. Results are consistent with the notion of task-dependent, aberrant long- and short-range functional connectivity in RD children.

  1. Difficulties Greek Senior High School Students Identify in Learning and the Teaching of Statistics: The Case of Experimental and Private High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghinis, Dimitris; Korres, Konstantinos; Bersimis, Sotiris

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines the difficulties Greek senior high school students identify in learning Statistics and how these difficulties are related to the course's level of difficulty. Also it examines the difficulties students identify that teachers face while teaching Statistics, their suggestions for changes and how these difficulties and…

  2. Self-Control of Task Difficulty during Training Enhances Motor Learning of a Complex Coincidence-Anticipation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrieux, Mathieu; Danna, Jeremy; Thon, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to analyze the influence of self-controlled task difficulty on motor learning. Participants had to intercept three targets falling at different velocities by displacing a stylus above a digitizer. Task difficulty corresponded to racquet width. Half the participants (self-control condition) could choose the racquet…

  3. An Analysis of the Efficacy of a Motor Skills Training Programme for Young People with Moderate Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    A secondary school for children with Moderate Learning Difficulties had requested assistance from psychological services for pupils that the school felt were experiencing poor motor-coordination and in some cases low self-esteem. An intervention programme for children with dyspraxic type difficulties (Portwood, 1999) was proposed as a suitable…

  4. Self-Control of Task Difficulty during Training Enhances Motor Learning of a Complex Coincidence-Anticipation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrieux, Mathieu; Danna, Jeremy; Thon, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to analyze the influence of self-controlled task difficulty on motor learning. Participants had to intercept three targets falling at different velocities by displacing a stylus above a digitizer. Task difficulty corresponded to racquet width. Half the participants (self-control condition) could choose the racquet…

  5. ADHD, learning difficulties and sleep disturbances associated with KCNJ11-related neonatal diabetes.

    PubMed

    Landmeier, Karen A; Lanning, Monica; Carmody, David; Greeley, Siri Atma W; Msall, Michael E

    2016-08-24

    Mutations in KCNJ11 are the most common cause of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM). Approximately 25% of patients have obvious neurological dysfunction, but whether milder related problems might be more common has been unclear. We sought to assess the prevalence of parental concerns about learning, behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), social competency, and sleep in subjects with KCNJ11-related NDM compared to unaffected sibling controls. Subjects or their guardians in the University of Chicago Monogenic Diabetes Registry completed a survey examining learning, behavior, ADHD and sleep. Thirty subjects with KCNJ11 -related NDM and 25 unaffected sibling controls were assessed. Data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism 6. Nonparametric analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test for group comparisons. Thirteen (43%) individuals with KCNJ11 -related NDM had treatment for or a diagnosis of ADHD compared to two (8%) of the sibling controls (P < 0.05). Compared to their sibling controls, individuals with KCNJ11 mutations had significant differences in behavior difficulties, social awareness, academic achievement and the need for an Individualized Education Plan (IEP). As seen in other neurodevelopmental disorders, individuals with KCNJ11 mutations also had significantly higher rates of sleep difficulties (P < 0.01). Patients with KCNJ11 -related NDM are at an increased risk for delays in learning, social-emotional and behavioral development, ADHD and sleep difficulties based on parent report. Early identification, along with integrated medical and developmental support, may promote better neurodevelopmental outcomes for this unique population. Further investigation utilizing detailed neuropsychological testing will better define the neurodevelopmental consequences of KATP mutations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cognitive Function of Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Difficulties: A Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fang; Sun, Li; Qian, Ying; Liu, Lu; Ma, Quan-Gang; Yang, Li; Cheng, Jia; Cao, Qing-Jiu; Su, Yi; Gao, Qian; Wu, Zhao-Min; Li, Hai-Mei; Qian, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cognitive function of children with either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning disabilities (LDs) is known to be impaired. However, little is known about the cognitive function of children with comorbid ADHD and LD. The present study aimed to explore the cognitive function of children and adolescents with ADHD and learning difficulties in comparison with children with ADHD and healthy controls in different age groups in a large Chinese sample. Methods: Totally, 1043 participants with ADHD and learning difficulties (the ADHD + learning difficulties group), 870 with pure ADHD (the pure ADHD group), and 496 healthy controls were recruited. To investigate the difference in cognitive impairment using a developmental approach, all participants were divided into three age groups (6–8, 9–11, and 12–14 years old). Measurements were the Chinese-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the Stroop Color-Word Test, the Trail-Making Test, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parents (BRIEF). Multivariate analysis of variance was used. Results: The results showed that after controlling for the effect of ADHD symptoms, the ADHD + learning difficulties group was still significantly worse than the pure ADHD group, which was, in turn, worse than the control group on full intelligence quotient (98.66 ± 13.87 vs. 105.17 ± 14.36 vs. 112.93 ± 13.87, P < 0.001). The same relationship was also evident for shift function (shifting time of the Trail-Making Test, 122.50 [62.00, 194.25] s vs. 122.00 [73.00, 201.50] s vs. 66.00 [45.00, 108.00] s, P < 0.001) and everyday life executive function (BRIEF total score, 145.71 ± 19.35 vs. 138.96 ± 18.00 vs. 122.71 ± 20.45, P < 0.001) after controlling for the effect of the severity of ADHD symptoms, intelligence quotient, age, and gender. As for the age groups, the differences among groups became nonsignificant in the 12–14 years old group for inhibition (meaning interference of

  7. Cognitive Function of Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Difficulties: A Developmental Perspective.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang; Sun, Li; Qian, Ying; Liu, Lu; Ma, Quan-Gang; Yang, Li; Cheng, Jia; Cao, Qing-Jiu; Su, Yi; Gao, Qian; Wu, Zhao-Min; Li, Hai-Mei; Qian, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2016-08-20

    The cognitive function of children with either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning disabilities (LDs) is known to be impaired. However, little is known about the cognitive function of children with comorbid ADHD and LD. The present study aimed to explore the cognitive function of children and adolescents with ADHD and learning difficulties in comparison with children with ADHD and healthy controls in different age groups in a large Chinese sample. Totally, 1043 participants with ADHD and learning difficulties (the ADHD + learning difficulties group), 870 with pure ADHD (the pure ADHD group), and 496 healthy controls were recruited. To investigate the difference in cognitive impairment using a developmental approach, all participants were divided into three age groups (6-8, 9-11, and 12-14 years old). Measurements were the Chinese-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the Stroop Color-Word Test, the Trail-Making Test, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parents (BRIEF). Multivariate analysis of variance was used. The results showed that after controlling for the effect of ADHD symptoms, the ADHD + learning difficulties group was still significantly worse than the pure ADHD group, which was, in turn, worse than the control group on full intelligence quotient (98.66 ± 13.87 vs. 105.17 ± 14.36 vs. 112.93 ± 13.87, P < 0.001). The same relationship was also evident for shift function (shifting time of the Trail-Making Test, 122.50 [62.00, 194.25] s vs. 122.00 [73.00, 201.50] s vs. 66.00 [45.00, 108.00] s, P< 0.001) and everyday life executive function (BRIEF total score, 145.71 ± 19.35 vs. 138.96 ± 18.00 vs. 122.71 ± 20.45, P < 0.001) after controlling for the effect of the severity of ADHD symptoms, intelligence quotient, age, and gender. As for the age groups, the differences among groups became nonsignificant in the 12-14 years old group for inhibition (meaning interference of the Stroop Color-Word Test, 18.00 [13

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Deficits in Children with Learning Difficulties: Is There a Difference between Verbal Domain and Numerical Domain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Peng; Fuchs, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Children with learning difficulties suffer from working memory (WM) deficits. Yet the specificity of deficits associated with different types of learning difficulties remains unclear. Further research can contribute to our understanding of the nature of WM and the relationship between it and learning difficulties. The current meta-analysis…

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Deficits in Children with Learning Difficulties: Is There a Difference between Verbal Domain and Numerical Domain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Peng; Fuchs, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Children with learning difficulties suffer from working memory (WM) deficits. Yet the specificity of deficits associated with different types of learning difficulties remains unclear. Further research can contribute to our understanding of the nature of WM and the relationship between it and learning difficulties. The current meta-analysis…

  10. Epidemiology of Severe Sepsis in the Emergency Department and Difficulties in the Initial Assistance

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Ederlon; Junior, João Manoel Silva; Isola, Alexandre Marine; Campos, Edvaldo Vieira; Amendola, Cristina Prata; Almeida, Samantha Longhi

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence rate, demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients with severe sepsis admitted to the emergency department. METHODS A prospective study evaluating all patients admitted to the emergency department unit in a public hospital of tertiary complexity in a six-month period was conducted. During this period, the emergency team was trained to diagnose sepsis. Patients who met the diagnostic criteria for severe sepsis were followed until their discharge from the hospital. RESULTS A total of 5,332 patients were admitted to the emergency department, and 342 met the criteria for severe sepsis/septic shock. The median (interquartile range) age of patients was 74 (65–84) years, and 52.1% were male. The median APACHE II and SOFA scores at diagnosis were 19 (15–25) and 5 (3–7), respectively. The median number of dysfunctional organ systems per patient was 2 (1–3). The median hospital length of stay was 10 (4.7–17) days, and the hospital mortality rate was 64%. Only 31% of the patients were diagnosed by the emergency department team as septic. About 33.5% of the 342 severe sepsis patients admitted to the emergency department were referred to an ICU, with a median time delay of 24 (12–48) hours. Training improved diagnosis and decreased the time delay for septic patients in arriving at the ICU. CONCLUSIONS The occurrence rate of severe sepsis in the emergency department was 6.4%, and the rate of sepsis diagnosed by the emergency department team as well as the number of patients transferred to the ICU was very low. Educational campaigns are important to improve diagnosis and, hence, treatment of severe sepsis. PMID:18719755

  11. Equivalent Fraction Learning Trajectories for Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties When Using Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westenskow, Arla

    2012-01-01

    This study identified variations in the learning trajectories of Tier II students when learning equivalent fraction concepts using physical and virtual manipulatives. The study compared three interventions: physical manipulatives, virtual manipulatives, and a combination of physical and virtual manipulatives. The research used a sequential…

  12. Difficulty in Learning Similar-Sounding Words: A Developmental Stage or a General Property of Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajak, Bozena; Creel, Sarah C.; Levy, Roger

    2016-01-01

    How are languages learned, and to what extent are learning mechanisms similar in infant native-language (L1) and adult second-language (L2) acquisition? In terms of vocabulary acquisition, we know from the infant literature that the ability to discriminate similar-sounding words at a particular age does not guarantee successful word-meaning…

  13. Equivalent Fraction Learning Trajectories for Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties When Using Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westenskow, Arla

    2012-01-01

    This study identified variations in the learning trajectories of Tier II students when learning equivalent fraction concepts using physical and virtual manipulatives. The study compared three interventions: physical manipulatives, virtual manipulatives, and a combination of physical and virtual manipulatives. The research used a sequential…

  14. Prevalence and Severity of Voice and Swallowing Difficulties in Mitochondrial Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Jennifer L.; Whittaker, Roger G.; Miller, Nick; Clark, Sue; Taylor, Robert; McFarland, Robert; Turnbull, Douglass

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Anecdotal evidence suggests that voice and swallow problems are a common feature of these diseases. Aims: To characterize accurately the prevalence and severity of voice and swallow problems in a large cohort of patients with mitochondrial disease.…

  15. Prevalence and Severity of Voice and Swallowing Difficulties in Mitochondrial Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Jennifer L.; Whittaker, Roger G.; Miller, Nick; Clark, Sue; Taylor, Robert; McFarland, Robert; Turnbull, Douglass

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Anecdotal evidence suggests that voice and swallow problems are a common feature of these diseases. Aims: To characterize accurately the prevalence and severity of voice and swallow problems in a large cohort of patients with mitochondrial disease.…

  16. What about a simple language? Analyzing the difficulties in learning to program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannila, Linda; Peltomäki, Mia; Salakoski, Tapio

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, we present the results from a two-part study. We analyze 60 programs written by novice programmers aged 16 19 after their first programming course, in either Java or Python. The aim is to find difficulties independent of the language used, and such originating from the language. Second, we analyze the transition from a “simple” language to a more “advanced” one, by following up on eight students, who learned programming in Python before moving on to Java.Our results suggest that a simple language gives rise to fewer syntax errors as well as logic errors. The qualitative part of our study did not reveal any disadvantages from having learned to program in a simple language when moving on to a more complex one. This suggests that not only can a simple language be used when introducing programming as a general skill, but also when providing basic skills to future professionals in the field.

  17. Reducing task difficulty during practice improves motor learning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Onushko, Tanya; Kim, Changki; Christou, Evangelos A

    2014-09-01

    Theoretically, greater motor output variability can inhibit motor learning by inhibiting task acquisition during practice. Although the age-associated differences in motor output variability exacerbate with more difficult tasks, it remains unknown whether task difficulty during task acquisition influences motor learning in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the difficulty of the practice task affects motor learning in older adults. Twenty four older (72.7±7.4years; 11 women) and 7 young (23.1±4years; 1 man) adults participated in this study. Participants were divided into four groups: 8 older adults who practiced an easy task (O-Easy), 8 older adults who practiced a harder task (O-Hard), 8 older adults who did not practice (O-None), and 7 young adults who did not practice (Y-None). The level of difficulty depended on the relative timing (i.e. phase) of abduction force generation between the index and little fingers to track a moving target on the monitor. The O-Easy group practiced the task with 0°, whereas the O-Hard group practiced the task with 90° relative phase. Practice occurred within a single session for 80 trials. Motor learning was quantified as the ability to transfer the practiced tasks to 45°, 135° and 180° relative phases 24 and 168h after acquisition. Only the O-Easy group was able to significantly transfer the practiced task, as it was indicated by significantly lower force variability and error during all transfer tasks compared with the O-None group (P<0.05). The O-Hard group was not significantly different from the O-None group (P>0.2). In addition, during the transfer tasks the O-Easy group exhibited performance similar to that of the young adults who did not practice. These findings suggest that practice with easier tasks may be advantageous to practice with more difficult tasks to improve motor learning in older adults. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Number line estimation strategies in children with mathematical learning difficulties measured by eye tracking.

    PubMed

    van't Noordende, Jaccoline E; van Hoogmoed, Anne H; Schot, Willemijn D; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H

    2016-05-01

    Number line estimation is one of the skills related to mathematical performance. Previous research has shown that eye tracking can be used to identify differences in the estimation strategies children with dyscalculia and children with typical mathematical development use on number line estimation tasks. The current study extends these findings to a larger group of children with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). A group of 9-11-year-old children with MLD (N = 14) was compared to a control group of children without math difficulties (N = 14). Number line estimation was measured using a 0-100 and a 0-1000 number-to-position task. A Tobii T60 eye tracker was used to measure the children's eye movements during task performance. The behavioral data showed that the children with MLD had higher error scores on both number lines than the children in the control group. The eye tracking data showed that the groups also differed in their estimation strategies. The children with MLD showed less adaptation of their estimation strategies to the number to be estimated. This study shows that children with MLD attend to different features of the number line than children without math difficulties. Children with math difficulties are less capable of adapting their estimation strategies to the numbers to be estimated and of effectively using reference points on the number line.

  19. Treatment Failure and Mortality amongst Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition Presenting with Cough or Respiratory Difficulty and Radiological Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Shahid, Abu S. M. S. B.; Shahunja, K. M.; Das, Sumon Kumar; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate intervention is critical in reducing deaths among under-five, severe acutely malnourished (SAM) children with danger signs of severe pneumonia; however, there is paucity of data on outcome of World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended interventions of SAM children with severe pneumonia. We sought to evaluate outcome of the interventions in such children. Methods We prospectively enrolled SAM children aged 0–59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) ward of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), between April 2011 and June 2012 with cough or respiratory difficulty and radiological pneumonia. All the enrolled children were treated with ampicillin and gentamicin, and micronutrients as recommended by the WHO. Comparison was made among pneumonic children with (n = 111) and without WHO defined danger signs of severe pneumonia (n = 296). The outcomes of interest were treatment failure (if a child required changing of antibiotics) and deaths during hospitalization. Further comparison was also made among those who developed treatment failure and who did not and among the survivors and deaths. Results SAM children with danger signs of severe pneumonia more often experienced treatment failure (58% vs. 20%; p<0.001) and fatal outcome (21% vs. 4%; p<0.001) compared to those without danger signs. Only 6/111 (5.4%) SAM children with danger signs of severe pneumonia and 12/296 (4.0%) without danger signs had bacterial isolates from blood. In log-linear binomial regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, danger signs of severe pneumonia, dehydration, hypocalcaemia, and bacteraemia were independently associated both with treatment failure and deaths in SAM children presenting with cough or respiratory difficulty and radiological pneumonia (p<0.01). Conclusion and Significance The result suggests that SAM children with cough or

  20. Occupational therapists prefer combining multiple intervention approaches for children with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Alison; Copley, Jodie; Flanigan, Kerry; Underwood, Katherine

    2009-02-01

    Research to date has not fully explored how occupational therapists provide intervention for children with learning difficulties in their day-to-day practice. The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth description of the approaches and techniques used and how they are applied and combined to meet the complex and multifaceted needs of these children. In-depth interviews and short questionnaires were completed by seven occupational therapists who had provided intervention to children with learning difficulties. Observations of therapy sessions were also conducted. Thematic analysis gained insight into the approaches and techniques therapists used and how these were applied in practice. Therapists use a wide range of approaches in various combinations because they feel that these best meet the needs of individual children. Sensory-based and cognitive approaches were most frequently drawn from and combined with other approaches such as visual information analysis, biomechanical and psychosocial approaches added for particular purposes. Approaches were usually combined simultaneously within an activity or session. Therapists create their own 'multimodel' approach in order to best meet the needs of their clients. They are able to articulate the theoretical basis behind these choices, although lack of clarity exists about the frames of reference being used.

  1. Two-stage screening for math problem-solving difficulty using dynamic assessment of algebraic learning.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Lynn S; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Douglas; Hollenbeck, Kurstin N; Hamlett, Carol L; Seethaler, Pamela M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of a dynamic assessment (DA) of algebraic learning in predicting third graders' development of mathematics word-problem difficulty. In the fall, 122 third-grade students were assessed on a test of math word-problem skill and DA of algebraic learning. In the spring, they were assessed on word-problem performance. Logistic regression was conducted to contrast two models. One relied exclusively on the fall test of math word-problem skill to predict word-problem difficulty on the spring outcome (less than the 25th percentile). The second model relied on a combination of the fall test of math word-problem skill and the fall DA to predict the same outcome. Holding sensitivity at 87.5%, the universal screener alone resulted in a high proportion of false positives, which was practically reduced when DA was included in the prediction model. Findings are discussed in terms of a two-stage process for screening students within a responsiveness-to-intervention prevention model.

  2. QuickSmart: a basic academic skills intervention for middle school students with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Graham, Lorraine; Bellert, Anne; Thomas, Jenny; Pegg, John

    2007-01-01

    QuickSmart is a basic academic skills intervention designed for persistently low-achieving students in the middle years of schooling that aims to improve the automaticity of basic skills to improve higher-order processes, such as problem solving and comprehension, as measured on standardized tests. The QuickSmart instructional program consists of three structured, teacher- or teacher aide-directed, 30-minute, small-group lessons each week for approximately 26 weeks. In this study, 42 middle school students experiencing learning difficulties (LD) completed the QuickSmart reading program, and a further 42 students with LD took part in the QuickSmart mathematics program. To investigate the effects of the intervention, comparisons were made between the reading and mathematics progress of the intervention group and a group of 10 high-achieving and 10 average-achieving peers. The results indicated that although the standardized reading comprehension and mathematics scores of QuickSmart students remained below those of comparison students, they improved significantly from pretest to posttest. In contrast, the standardized scores of comparison students were not significantly different from pretest to posttest. On measures of response speed and accuracy gathered using the Cognitive Aptitude Assessment System (CAAS), QuickSmart students were able to narrow the gap between their performance and that of their high- and average-achieving peers. Implications are drawn regarding the importance of interventions that emphasize the automaticity of basic academic skills for students with learning difficulties.

  3. The Positive Facet of Self-compassion Predicts Self-reported Use of and Attitudes toward Desirable Difficulties in Learning.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Laura K; Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André

    2017-01-01

    Previous research found that introducing difficulties and challenges during learning has desirable outcomes. With the present work, we investigated the question how the use of and the attitudes toward such learning strategies (so-called desirable difficulties) are related to self-compassion, a concept that describes the tendency to be understanding and kind to oneself when confronted with negative experiences. Evidence suggests self-compassion to be linked to less fear of failing, and further to higher control beliefs and mastery goals in learning. Given that applying desirable difficulties in self-regulated learning implies increased challenges, and further, a higher likelihood to experience a feeling of failing, we expected that the use of desirable difficulties increases with levels of self-compassion. We tested this hypothesis in an online study (N = 136) in which self-compassion and the self-reported use of and attitudes toward strategies of desirable difficulties were assessed via respective questionnaires. Results of a correlation analysis yielded first evidence for our idea. Decomposing self-compassion into a positive and a negative facet showed that the positive, but not the negative, facet is positively correlated with attitudes toward and the use of desirable difficulties. Additionally, a regression analysis showed that the positive but not the negative facet predicted attitudes toward and use of desirable difficulties, when entering both facets simultaneously as predictors. Practical implications for learners are discussed.

  4. Building Knowledge Structures by Testing Helps Children With Mathematical Learning Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiyun; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical learning difficulty (MLD) is prevalent in the development of mathematical abilities. Previous interventions for children with MLD have focused on number sense or basic mathematical skills. This study investigated whether mathematical performance of fifth grade children with MLD could be improved by developing knowledge structures by testing using a web-based curriculum learning system. A total of 142 children with MLD were recruited; half of the children were in the experimental group (using the system), and the other half were in the control group (not using the system). The children were encouraged to use the web-based learning system at home for at least a 15-min session, at least once a week, for one and a half months. The mean accumulated time of testing on the system for children in the experimental group was 56.2 min. Children in the experimental group had significantly higher scores on their final mathematical examination compared to the control group. The results suggest that web-based curriculum learning through testing that promotes the building of knowledge structures for a mathematical course was helpful for children with MLD.

  5. Examining the associations between emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, and eating disorder severity among inpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Haynos, Ann F; Roberto, Christina A; Attia, Evelyn

    2015-07-01

    There is growing interest in the role of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). Although anxiety is also hypothesized to impact symptoms of AN, little is known about how emotion regulation, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms interact in AN. In this study, we examined the associations between emotion regulation, anxiety, and eating disorder symptom severity in AN. Questionnaires and interviews assessing emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, eating disorder symptoms, and eating disorder-related clinical impairment were collected from group of underweight individuals with AN (n=59) at admission to inpatient treatment. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the associations of emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, and the interaction of these constructs with eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related clinical impairment. Emotion regulation difficulties were significantly positively associated with eating disorder symptoms and related clinical impairment only when anxiety levels were low and anxiety was significantly positively associated with eating disorder symptoms and related clinical impairment only when emotion regulation problems were not elevated. This study adds to a growing literature suggesting that emotion regulation deficits are associated with eating disorder symptoms in AN. Certain individuals with AN may especially benefit from a focus on developing emotion regulation skills in the acute stages of illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The DSM and learning difficulties: formulating a genealogy of the learning-disabled subject.

    PubMed

    Katchergin, Ofer

    2016-06-01

    The article examines the manner in which the learning-disabled subject is created as an object within contemporary psychiatric discourse by means of a genealogical analysis of the learning-disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It investigates how this pathology was formed historically in the text, what metamorphoses it underwent, and their epistemic significance. First, the theoretical underpinnings of the sociological discourse on DSM are presented, giving a brief background of the DSM status in the Israeli context. Many problematic characteristics in the text are unveiled, by means of critiques from sociology, anthropology and discourse studies. Second, the changing definitions and conceptualizations of learning-disorders in the seven editions of the Manual and the accompanying case studies (1952-2013) are examined. It becomes apparent that the disorders have undergone changes that have enabled the biomedical paradigm to triumph. The implications of these transformations are addressed.

  7. Difficulties in Learning Inequalities in Students of the First Year of Pre-University Education in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Lorenzo J.; Garrote, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    We present a summary of a study carried out with students of the first year of Bachillerato (the first of two pre-university non-obligatory secondary education courses in Spain) to determine and analyse some of their errors and difficulties in learning inequalities with the aim of improving the teaching-learning process of this topic. The study…

  8. Treating the Whole Person: A Counseling, Psychology and Support Model for Learners with Learning Difficulty and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Concerned about traditional practice that attempted to manage the challenging behavior of learners with learning difficulty and disabilities (LLDD) in learning and social environments, I questioned the extent to which they could manage themselves. From 265 students, 15 males, median age of 19, were invited to participate in 12 weekly one-hour…

  9. The Effect of Self-Regulated and Experimenter-Imposed Practice Schedules on Motor Learning for Tasks of Varying Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keetch, Katherine M.; Lee, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that allowing individuals to control their own practice schedule has a positive effect on motor learning. In this experiment we examined the effect of task difficulty and self-regulated practice strategies on motor learning. The task was to move a mouse-operated cursor through pattern arrays that differed in two levels of…

  10. Investigating Cognitive Task Difficulties and Expert Skills in E-Learning Storyboards Using a Cognitive Task Analysis Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusoff, Nor'ain Mohd; Salim, Siti Salwah

    2012-01-01

    E-learning storyboards have been a useful approach in distance learning development to support interaction between instructional designers and subject-matter experts. Current works show that researchers are focusing on different approaches for use in storyboards, and there is less emphasis on the effect of design and process difficulties faced by…

  11. Investigating Cognitive Task Difficulties and Expert Skills in E-Learning Storyboards Using a Cognitive Task Analysis Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusoff, Nor'ain Mohd; Salim, Siti Salwah

    2012-01-01

    E-learning storyboards have been a useful approach in distance learning development to support interaction between instructional designers and subject-matter experts. Current works show that researchers are focusing on different approaches for use in storyboards, and there is less emphasis on the effect of design and process difficulties faced by…

  12. Evaluation of an Innovative Programme for Training Teachers of Children with Learning and Behavioural Difficulties in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilgrim, Marcia; Hornby, Garry; Everatt, John; Macfarlane, Angus

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the views of recent graduates of a competency based, blended learning teacher education programme for specialist resource teachers of children with learning and behaviour difficulties in New Zealand. Identifying and developing the competencies needed by teachers in the field of special needs education is important in ensuring…

  13. The Complex Learning Difficulties and Disabilities Research Project: Developing Meaningful Pathways to Personalised Learning. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Network, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (SSAT) was commissioned by the Department for Education (DfE) to research ways to improve outcomes for children and young people with the most complex educational needs and disabilities through the development of evidence-based teaching and learning strategies. The programme of research brought together a…

  14. The Complex Learning Difficulties and Disabilities Research Project: Developing Meaningful Pathways to Personalised Learning. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Network, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (SSAT) was commissioned by the Department for Education (DfE) to research ways to improve outcomes for children and young people with the most complex educational needs and disabilities through the development of evidence-based teaching and learning strategies. The programme of research brought together a…

  15. Developing Prognosis Tools to Identify Learning Difficulties in Children Using Machine Learning Technologies.

    PubMed

    Loizou, Antonis; Laouris, Yiannis

    2011-09-01

    The Mental Attributes Profiling System was developed in 2002 (Laouris and Makris, Proceedings of multilingual & cross-cultural perspectives on Dyslexia, Omni Shoreham Hotel, Washington, D.C, 2002), to provide a multimodal evaluation of the learning potential and abilities of young children's brains. The method is based on the assessment of non-verbal abilities using video-like interfaces and was compared to more established methodologies in (Papadopoulos, Laouris, Makris, Proceedings of IDA 54th annual conference, San Diego, 2003), such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Watkins et al., Psychol Sch 34(4):309-319, 1997). To do so, various tests have been applied to a population of 134 children aged 7-12 years old. This paper addresses the issue of identifying a minimal set of variables that are able to accurately predict the learning abilities of a given child. The use of Machine Learning technologies to do this provides the advantage of making no prior assumptions about the nature of the data and eliminating natural bias associated with data processing carried out by humans. Kohonen's Self Organising Maps (Kohonen, Biol Cybern 43:59-69, 1982) algorithm is able to split a population into groups based on large and complex sets of observations. Once the population is split, the individual groups can then be probed for their defining characteristics providing insight into the rationale of the split. The characteristics identified form the basis of classification systems that are able to accurately predict which group an individual will belong to, using only a small subset of the tests available. The specifics of this methodology are detailed herein, and the resulting classification systems provide an effective tool to prognose the learning abilities of new subjects.

  16. Five-year growth trajectories of kindergarten children with learning difficulties in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Qiong Wu

    2009-01-01

    The investigators used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to estimate whether and to what extent the timing and persistence of mathematics difficulties (MD) in kindergarten predicted children's first through fifth grade math growth trajectories. Results indicated that children persistently displaying MD (i.e., those experiencing MD in both fall and spring of kindergarten) had the lowest subsequent growth rates, children with MD in spring only had the second-lowest growth rates, and children with MD in the fall only (and who had thus recovered from their MD by the spring of kindergarten) had the next-lowest growth rates. The children who did not have MD in either fall or spring of kindergarten had the highest growth rates. These results were observed prior to and after statistical control for additional variables. They indicate that measuring the timing and persistence of kindergarten children's mathematics learning difficulties may help identify those most at risk for failing to become mathematically proficient during elementary school.

  17. Mathematical difficulties in nonverbal learning disability or co-morbid dyscalculia and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Mammarella, Irene C; Bomba, Monica; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Neri, Francesca; Lucangeli, Daniela; Nacinovich, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the weaknesses of children with different profiles of mathematical difficulties, testing children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), co-morbid dyscalculia and dyslexia (D&D), or typical development (TD). Sixteen children with NLD, 15 with D&D, and 16 with TD completed tasks derived from Butterworth (2003 ) and divided into: a capacity subscale (i.e., a number-dots comparison task, a number comparison task, and a dots comparison task); and an achievement subscale (i.e., mental calculations and arithmetical fact retrieval). Children with NLD were impaired in the dots comparison task, children with D&D in the mental calculation and arithmetical facts.

  18. Distinctiveness of Curriculum Provision at 14 to 16 for Students with Learning Difficulties: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Hazel; Waite, Sue; Robertson, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Hazel Lawson, principal lecturer in education at the University of Plymouth, Sue Waite, a researcher at the University of Plymouth, and Christopher Robertson, lecturer in special and inclusive education at the University of Birmingham, discuss the curriculum for students with severe and profound and multiple learning difficulties…

  19. The single surgeon learning curve of laparoscopic liver resection: A continuous evolving process through stepwise difficulties.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Federico; Scuderi, Vincenzo; Colman, Roos; Vivarelli, Marco; Montalti, Roberto; Troisi, Roberto Ivan

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the single-surgeon learning curve (SSLC) in laparoscopic liver surgery over an 11-year period with risk-adjusted (RA) cumulative sum control chart analysis.Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is a challenging and highly demanding procedure. No specific data are available for defining the feasibility and reproducibility of the SSLC regarding a consistent and consecutive caseload volume over a specified time period.A total of 319 LLR performed by a single surgeon between June 2003 and May 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. A difficulty scale (DS) ranging from 1 to 10 was created to rate the technical difficulty of each LLR. The risk-adjusted cumulative sum control chart (RA-CUSUM) analysis evaluated conversion rate (CR), operative time (OT) and blood loss (BL). Perioperative morbidity and mortality were also analyzed.The RA-CUSUM analysis of the DS identified 3 different periods: P1 (n = 91 cases), with a mean DS of 3.8; P2 (cases 92-159), with a mean DS of 5.3; and P3 (cases 160-319), with a mean DS of 4.7. P2 presented the highest conversion and morbidity rates with a longer OT, whereas P3 showed the best results (P < 0.001). Fifty cases were needed to achieve a significant decrease in BL. The overall morbidity rate was 13.8%; no perioperative mortality was observed.According to our analysis, at least 160 cases (P3) are needed to complete the SSLC performing safely different types of LLR. A minimum of 50 cases can provide a significant decrease in BL. Based on these findings, a longer learning curve should be anticipated to broaden the indications for LLR.

  20. Survey of complementary and alternative therapies used by children with specific learning difficulties (dyslexia).

    PubMed

    Bull, Leona

    2009-01-01

    Dyslexia is a common learning difficulty affecting up to 10% of British children that is associated with a wide range of cognitive, emotional and physical symptoms. In the absence of effective conventional treatment, it is likely that parents will seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to try and help their children. However, little is known about the level of CAM use or the type of CAM used by dyslexic children. This study assessed: (1) the lifetime use of CAM by dyslexic children, (2) the role of socio-demographic factors in CAM use by dyslexic children, (3) parental attitudes towards CAM use in the treatment of dyslexia, and (4) how parents' understanding of dyslexia affects CAM use. A semi-structured questionnaire-based survey of parents of 148 dyslexic school children was undertaken. The children had been recruited to a university research programme investigating the effectiveness of a complementary therapy for the treatment of learning difficulties. Lifetime use of CAM was 55.4% (82 children). The most popular CAM approaches were nutritional supplements/special diets (63 children) followed by homeopathy (29 children) and osteopathy/chiropractic manipulation (29 children). Socio-demographic factors did not predict CAM use. In total, parents of 101 dyslexic children reported that an interest in CAM for the treatment of dyslexia was based on their preference for CAM for their families more generally. Parents who thought that dyslexia was a 'medical/health' disorder were more likely to have used CAM with their children (p<0.01) than other parents in this survey. Educational and health professionals should be aware that many dyslexic children use CAM. Parents of dyslexic children should be provided with evidence-based advice to help them make informed therapeutic choices.

  1. [Learning difficulties in mathematics in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Miranda-Casas, A; Meliá-de Alba, A; Marco-Taverner, R; Roselló, B; Mulas, F

    2006-02-13

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning difficulties are two diagnostic categories of great social importance and impact, and which are associated in around 25-35% of cases. One explanation offered by researchers to account for this overlap is a deficit in executive functioning (EF). 1) To compare EF and applied mathematical knowledge in children with ADHD, difficulties in learning mathematics (DLM) or ADHD + DLM, and to identify the deficiencies they experience. 2) To verify whether the phenotype hypothesis is fulfilled in the case of the ADHD + DLM condition. The study involved a quasi-experimental 2 x 2 design, with a sample made up of 78 participants (6-13 years old) who were divided into four groups: ADHD (n = 33), DLM (n = 15), ADHD + DLM (n = 15) and a control group (n = 15). Tests aimed at evaluating different cognitive processes as well as applied mathematical knowledge were administered: inhibitory control (go/no go); verbal working (backward digit-recall and counting memory task) and temporal-visual-spatial memory; short-term memory (direct digit-recall); attention (CPT); calculation speed (Canals) and real-life problems. Taking the variables age, gender and intelligence quotient as covariables, results showed that the three groups with problems displayed a deficit of attention and in working memory; the DLM group stood out from the other owing to the presence of a specific deficiency affecting the ability to recall temporal-visual-spatial information. In contrast, deficits in inhibitory control were seen to be specific to ADHD. Finally, findings did not support the phenotype hypothesis, and it was therefore an accumulative profile.

  2. Examining Relations between Teachers' Explanations of Sources of Students' Difficulty in Mathematics and Students' Opportunities to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Anne Garrison; Munter, Charles; Jackson, Kara

    2017-01-01

    The nature of mathematical activity and discourse that teachers foster in classrooms is likely influenced by their explanations of sources of students' difficulty. Several small-scale qualitative studies suggest that how teachers make sense of student difficulty matters for whether they engage all of their students in rigorous mathematical…

  3. Overcoming Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreguin-Anderson, Maria Guadalupe; Esquierdo, Jennifer Joy

    2011-01-01

    Learning science for bilingual students involves much more than mastering concepts and science process skills. Although classroom investigations and hands-on activities promote comprehension, bilingual learners still experience specific language difficulties related to unfamiliar discourse structures and grammatical forms that must be used while…

  4. Overcoming Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreguin-Anderson, Maria Guadalupe; Esquierdo, Jennifer Joy

    2011-01-01

    Learning science for bilingual students involves much more than mastering concepts and science process skills. Although classroom investigations and hands-on activities promote comprehension, bilingual learners still experience specific language difficulties related to unfamiliar discourse structures and grammatical forms that must be used while…

  5. Specific learning difficulties: a retrospective study of their co morbidity and continuity as early indicators of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Zakopoulou, Victoria; Mavreas, Venetsanos; Christodoulides, Pavlos; Lavidas, Asterios; Fili, Elissavet; Georgiou, Galatia; Dimakopoulos, Georgios; Vergou, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Specific Learning difficulties constitute a continuity of complex disorders, which unfold across the lifespan and are associated with a wide range of mental disorders. In order to determine the importance of specific learning difficulties as an underlying factor in various mental disorders, we investigated associations between mental disorders and factors related to learning difficulties, poor family and school environment, and social and psycho-emotional disorders. This retrospective study is based on data from 835 case histories of adults who were treated at the Psychiatric Clinic of the University Hospital in Ioannina, Greece, between 1992 and 2008. The examination of the early (co-)occurrence of specific disorders was based on the ICD-10 classification of mental disorders. LogLinear analysis showed that all models retained 2nd or 3rd order effects with p-values >0.8 for all estimated likelihood ratios. Patients with specific learning difficulties, who grew up in a socially disturbed environment, and manifested behavioral problems (aggression, alcoholism, and isolation or running away from home) were found to be more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia than with any other mental disorder. In some cases, the profiles of these patients also included family problems such as parental loss or alcoholism. Significant association between learning and other disorders in adult psychiatric patients' developmental profile has been indicated. Furthermore, a specific association between specific learning difficulties, environmental problems, and schizophrenia corroborates the continuity and complexity of these disorders at higher developmental stages. The results from this study can be utilized in the study of mental disorder etiology, raising the possibility that the early treatment of the learning or other disorders could reduce children's likelihood of developing mental disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Confidence-based integrated reweighting model of task-difficulty explains location-based specificity in perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Talluri, Bharath Chandra; Hung, Shao-Chin; Seitz, Aaron R; Seriès, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual learning is classically thought to be highly specific to the trained stimuli's retinal locations. However, recent research using a novel double-training paradigm has found dramatic transfer of perceptual learning to untrained locations. These results challenged existing models of perceptual learning and provoked intense debate in the field. Recently, Hung and Seitz (2014) showed that previously reported results could be reconciled by considering the details of the training procedure, in particular, whether it involves prolonged training at threshold using a single staircase procedure or multiple staircases. Here, we examine a hierarchical neural network model of the visual pathway, built upon previously proposed integrated reweighting models of perceptual learning, to understand how retinotopic transfer depends on the training procedure adopted. We propose that the transfer and specificity of learning between retinal locations can be explained by considering the task-difficulty and confidence during training. In our model, difficult tasks lead to higher learning of weights from early visual cortex to the decision unit, and thus to specificity, while easy tasks lead to higher learning of weights from later stages of the visual hierarchy and thus to more transfer. To model interindividual difference in task-difficulty, we relate task-difficulty to the confidence of subjects. We show that our confidence-based reweighting model can account for the results of Hung and Seitz (2014) and makes testable predictions.

  7. Value of supervised learning events in predicting doctors in difficulty.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mumtaz; Agius, Steven; Wilkinson, Jack; Patel, Leena; Baker, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the UK, supervised learning events (SLE) replaced traditional workplace-based assessments for foundation-year trainees in 2012. A key element of SLEs was to incorporate trainee reflection and assessor feedback in order to drive learning and identify training issues early. Few studies, however, have investigated the value of SLEs in predicting doctors in difficulty. This study aimed to identify principles that would inform understanding about how and why SLEs work or not in identifying doctors in difficulty (DiD). A retrospective case-control study of North West Foundation School trainees' electronic portfolios was conducted. Cases comprised all known DiD. Controls were randomly selected from the same cohort. Free-text supervisor comments from each SLE were assessed for the four domains defined in the General Medical Council's Good Medical Practice Guidelines and each scored blindly for level of concern using a three-point ordinal scale. Cumulative scores for each SLE were then analysed quantitatively for their predictive value of actual DiD. A qualitative thematic analysis was also conducted. The prevalence of DiD in this sample was 6.5%. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed that Team Assessment of Behaviour (TAB) was the only SLE strongly predictive of actual DiD status. The Educational Supervisor Report (ESR) was also strongly predictive of DiD status. Fisher's test showed significant associations of TAB and ESR for both predicted and actual DiD status and also the health and performance subtypes. None of the other SLEs showed significant associations. Qualitative data analysis revealed inadequate completion and lack of constructive, particularly negative, feedback. This indicated that SLEs were not used to their full potential. TAB and the ESR are strongly predictive of DiD. However, SLEs are not being used to their full potential, and the quality of completion of reports on SLEs and feedback needs to be improved in order to better identify

  8. Creative Ways of Talking: A Narrative Literature Review Concerning Emotional Support for Adults with Mild or Moderate Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Dee

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adults with mild or moderate learning difficulties identified a need for more opportunities to access appropriate emotional support. Materials and Methods: A narrative literature review was undertaken. Factors associated with dealing with emotional unrest, such as self-esteem/self-awareness, a person's attitude to having learning…

  9. Considerations of Numbers Used in Tasks for Promoting Multiplicative Reasoning in Students with Learning Difficulties in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rachael Ann

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of numbers used in instructional tasks on the construction and generalization of multiplicative reasoning by fourth grade students designated as having learning difficulties or disabilities in mathematics (SLDs). In particular, this study addressed the following research questions: (1) In what ways do SLDs'…

  10. A Real Job - with Prospects: Supported Employment Opportunities for Adults with Learning Difficulties and Disabilities. FEDA Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Maria; Kingsford, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Effective models for helping adults with disabilities and/or learning difficulties obtain and maintain employment were identified through a research project that included the following activities: collection of background information from 20 providers of support for employment in England and Wales; case studies of a geographically representative…

  11. A Review of Teaching Sentence-Level Writing Skills to Students with Writing Difficulties and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datchuk, Shawn M.; Kubina, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Students with writing difficulties and learning disabilities struggle with many aspects of the writing process, including use of sentence-level skills. This literature review summarizes results from 19 published articles that used single-case or group-experimental and quasi-experimental designs to investigate effects of intervention on the…

  12. Probing High School Students' Cognitive Structures and Key Areas of Learning Difficulties on Ethanoic Acid Using the Flow Map Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Tingting; Zheng, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was primarily to explore high school students' cognitive structures and to identify their learning difficulties on ethanoic acid through the flow map method. The subjects of this study were 30 grade 1 students from Dong Yuan Road Senior High School in Xi'an, China. The interviews were conducted a week after the students…

  13. Difference and Choice: Exploring Prenatal Testing and the Use of Genetic Information with People with Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Linda; Howarth, Joyce; Rodgers, Jackie

    2002-01-01

    This article describes two workshops that explained the use of prenatal testing and genetic information to inform choices in pregnancy to people with learning difficulties, explored the issues with them, and describe the contribution subsequently made by these people to a British national conference on this subject. (Contains references.)…

  14. Perceived Learning Difficulty and Actual Performance: Explicit and Implicit Knowledge of L2 English Grammar Points among Instructed Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Luis Humberto Rodríguez; Roehr-Brackin, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on an approach that conceptualizes L2 learning difficulty in terms of implicit and explicit knowledge. In a study with first language Mexican Spanish university-level learners (n = 30), their teachers (n = 11), and applied linguistics experts (n = 3), we investigated the relationship between (a) these groups' difficulty…

  15. Effect of Self-Instruction Strategy on the Achievement in Algebra of Students with Learning Difficulty in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adani, Anthony; Eskay, Michael; Onu, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effect of self-instruction strategy on the achievement in algebra of students with learning difficulty in mathematics. Two research questions and one null hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a non-randomized pre-test and post-test control group design with one experimental…

  16. The Effects of Self-Regulation on Science Vocabulary Acquisition of English Language Learners with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Woori; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-probe study examined the effects of self-regulation on the acquisition of science vocabulary by four third-grade English language learners (ELLs) with learning difficulties. The students were provided only direct vocabulary instruction in a baseline phase, followed by intervention and maintenance phases into which self-regulation…

  17. Typically Developing Children's Understanding of and Attitudes towards Diversity and Peers with Learning Difficulties in the Greek Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralli, A. M.; Margeti, M.; Doudoni, E.; Pantelemidou, V.; Rozou, T.; Evaggelopoulou, E.

    2011-01-01

    During the last few years, across Europe, special education has been orientated towards an inclusive model. Accordingly, in Greece, special education functions as an integral part of general education. However, few studies have investigated how children in the mainstream school understand diversity issues and specifically learning difficulties.…

  18. Perceived Learning Difficulty and Actual Performance: Explicit and Implicit Knowledge of L2 English Grammar Points among Instructed Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Luis Humberto Rodríguez; Roehr-Brackin, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on an approach that conceptualizes L2 learning difficulty in terms of implicit and explicit knowledge. In a study with first language Mexican Spanish university-level learners (n = 30), their teachers (n = 11), and applied linguistics experts (n = 3), we investigated the relationship between (a) these groups' difficulty…

  19. The Effect of Cognitive- and Metacognitive-Based Instruction on Problem Solving by Elementary Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grizzle-Martin, Tamieka

    2014-01-01

    Children who struggle in mathematics may also lack cognitive awareness in mathematical problem solving. The cognitively-driven program IMPROVE, a multidimensional method for teaching mathematics, has been shown to be helpful for students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD). Guided by cognitive theory, the purpose of this…

  20. Enhancing Peer Acceptance of Children with Learning Difficulties: Classroom Goal Orientation and Effects of a Storytelling Programme with Drama Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Yin-kum; Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Wilbert; Tam, Zoe W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Peer acceptance is an important facilitator for the success of inclusive education. The aim of the current study is twofold: (1) to examine how classroom goal orientation is associated with children's acceptance of peers with learning difficulties; and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of a storytelling programme with drama techniques on…

  1. Discriminating Children with Autism from Children with Learning Difficulties with an Adaptation of the Short Sensory Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Justin; Tsermentseli, Stella; Cummins, Omar; Happe, Francesca; Heaton, Pamela; Spencer, Janine

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examine the extent to which children with autism and children with learning difficulties can be discriminated from their responses to different patterns of sensory stimuli. Using an adapted version of the Short Sensory Profile (SSP), sensory processing was compared in 34 children with autism to 33 children with typical…

  2. Comparison of Scores on Two Visual-Motor Tests for Children Referred for Learning or Adjustment Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMers, Stephen T.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    This study compared the performance of school-aged children referred for learning or adjustment difficulties on Beery's Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and Koppitz's version of the Bender-Gestalt test. Results indicated that the tests are related but not equivalent when administered to referred populations. (Author/AL)

  3. Young Children's Affective Decision-Making in a Gambling Task: Does Difficulty in Learning the Gain/Loss Schedule Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Shan; Wei, Yonggang; Bai, Junjie; Lin, Chongde; Li, Hong

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the development of affective decision-making (ADM) during early childhood, in particular role of difficulty in learning a gain/loss schedule. In Experiment 1, we administrated the Children's Gambling Task (CGT) to 60 Chinese children aged 3 and 4, replicating the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo [Kerr, A., & Zelazo,…

  4. Inclusive Education for Children with Specific Learning Difficulties: Analysis of Opportunities and Barriers in Inclusive Education in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavkler, Marija; Babuder, Milena Košak; Magajna, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education allows for universal inclusion, participation and achievement of all children, including children with specific learning difficulties (SpLD). Children with SpLD form a heterogeneous group with diverse cognitive deficits, special educational needs (SEN) and strengths, and have a legislated right to the continuum of both…

  5. Formative Assessment Pre-Test to Identify College Students' Prior Knowledge, Misconceptions and Learning Difficulties in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Lieb, Carl

    2006-01-01

    A formative assessment pretest was administered to undergraduate students at the beginning of a science course in order to find out their prior knowledge, misconceptions and learning difficulties on the topic of the human respiratory system and energy issues. Those findings could provide their instructors with the valuable information required in…

  6. Looking at Lived Experiences of Self-Advocacy through Gendered Eyes: Becoming "Femme Fatale" with/out "Learning Difficulties"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roets, Griet; Reinaart, Rosa; Adams, Marie; Van Hove, Geert

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to intersect the interdisciplinary characters of disability studies and gender studies, in order to make sense of the activism and lived knowledge of/with two women with the label of "learning difficulties." Inspired by Deleuze and Guattari's anti-essentialist notion of "devenirs-particules," we find…

  7. Probing High School Students' Cognitive Structures and Key Areas of Learning Difficulties on Ethanoic Acid Using the Flow Map Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Tingting; Zheng, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was primarily to explore high school students' cognitive structures and to identify their learning difficulties on ethanoic acid through the flow map method. The subjects of this study were 30 grade 1 students from Dong Yuan Road Senior High School in Xi'an, China. The interviews were conducted a week after the students…

  8. Comparison of Scores on Two Visual-Motor Tests for Children Referred for Learning or Adjustment Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMers, Stephen T.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    This study compared the performance of school-aged children referred for learning or adjustment difficulties on Beery's Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and Koppitz's version of the Bender-Gestalt test. Results indicated that the tests are related but not equivalent when administered to referred populations. (Author/AL)

  9. Considerations of Numbers Used in Tasks for Promoting Multiplicative Reasoning in Students with Learning Difficulties in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rachael Ann

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of numbers used in instructional tasks on the construction and generalization of multiplicative reasoning by fourth grade students designated as having learning difficulties or disabilities in mathematics (SLDs). In particular, this study addressed the following research questions: (1) In what ways do SLDs'…

  10. Keeping Wartime Memory Alive: An Oral History Project about the Wartime Memories of People with Learning Difficulties in Cumbria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, John; Eardley, Malcolm; Harkness, Elizabeth; Townson, Louise; Brownlee-Chapman, Chloe; Chapman, Rohhss

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses an oral history project funded by the Heritage Lottery. It recorded the memories of eight people with learning difficulties during the Second World War in Cumbria, UK, before their personal histories were lost forever. This qualitative, inclusive research project was supported by various organisations. The process of…

  11. The Effects of Self-Regulation on Science Vocabulary Acquisition of English Language Learners with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Woori; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-probe study examined the effects of self-regulation on the acquisition of science vocabulary by four third-grade English language learners (ELLs) with learning difficulties. The students were provided only direct vocabulary instruction in a baseline phase, followed by intervention and maintenance phases into which self-regulation…

  12. Keeping Wartime Memory Alive: An Oral History Project about the Wartime Memories of People with Learning Difficulties in Cumbria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, John; Eardley, Malcolm; Harkness, Elizabeth; Townson, Louise; Brownlee-Chapman, Chloe; Chapman, Rohhss

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses an oral history project funded by the Heritage Lottery. It recorded the memories of eight people with learning difficulties during the Second World War in Cumbria, UK, before their personal histories were lost forever. This qualitative, inclusive research project was supported by various organisations. The process of…

  13. Children Placed at Risk for Learning and Behavioral Difficulties: Implementing a School-Wide System of Early Identification and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Tam E.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Gresham, Frank M.; Beebe-Frankenberger, Margaret E.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a school-wide system of early identification and intervention for children recognized as being at risk for learning and behavior difficulties. Suggested guidelines for implementing such a program include: evaluating existing theory, knowledge, and practice; providing ongoing professional development; creating a school-wide…

  14. Formative Assessment Pre-Test to Identify College Students' Prior Knowledge, Misconceptions and Learning Difficulties in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Lieb, Carl

    2006-01-01

    A formative assessment pretest was administered to undergraduate students at the beginning of a science course in order to find out their prior knowledge, misconceptions and learning difficulties on the topic of the human respiratory system and energy issues. Those findings could provide their instructors with the valuable information required in…

  15. Creative Ways of Talking: A Narrative Literature Review Concerning Emotional Support for Adults with Mild or Moderate Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Dee

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adults with mild or moderate learning difficulties identified a need for more opportunities to access appropriate emotional support. Materials and Methods: A narrative literature review was undertaken. Factors associated with dealing with emotional unrest, such as self-esteem/self-awareness, a person's attitude to having learning…

  16. Computer-Based Auditory Training (CBAT): Benefits for Children with Language- and Reading-Related Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Campbell, Nicci; Luxon, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence for computer-based auditory training (CBAT) in children with language, reading, and related learning difficulties, and evaluates the extent it can benefit children with auditory processing disorder (APD). Searches were confined to studies published between 2000 and 2008, and they are rated according to the level…

  17. Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Epistemological Development as a Framework for Describing Student Difficulties in Learning Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Nathaniel P.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated student difficulties with the learning of organic chemistry. Using Perry's Model of Intellectual Development as a framework revealed that organic chemistry students who function as dualistic thinkers struggle with the complexity of the subject matter. Understanding substitution/elimination reactions and multi-step syntheses is…

  18. Real Power? An Examination of the Involvement of People with Learning Difficulties in Strategic Service Development in Cambridgeshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearden-Phillips, Craig; Fountain, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Securing meaningful involvement in service development and provision can be seen as a particular challenge for people with learning difficulties. The National Health Service & Community Care Act [(1990) HMSO, ISBN 0105419907] and more recently Valuing People [Department of Health (2001) "Valuing people: a new strategy for learning…

  19. Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Epistemological Development as a Framework for Describing Student Difficulties in Learning Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Nathaniel P.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated student difficulties with the learning of organic chemistry. Using Perry's Model of Intellectual Development as a framework revealed that organic chemistry students who function as dualistic thinkers struggle with the complexity of the subject matter. Understanding substitution/elimination reactions and multi-step syntheses is…

  20. Psycho-Pedagogical Interventions in the Prevention and the Therapy of Learning Difficulties in the Field of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anca, Maria; Hategan, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In the given study dyscalculia is approached in the context of learning difficulties, but also in relation with damaged psychic processes and functions. The practical part of the study describes intervention models from the perspective of dyscalculia prevention and therapymaterialized in personalized intervention programs.

  1. Sunflower therapy for children with specific learning difficulties (dyslexia): a randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bull, Leona

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the clinical and perceived effectiveness of the Sunflower therapy in the treatment of childhood dyslexia. The Sunflower therapy includes applied kinesiology, physical manipulation, massage, homeopathy, herbal remedies and neuro-linguistic programming. A multi-centred, randomised controlled trial was undertaken with 70 dyslexic children aged 6-13 years. The research study aimed to test the research hypothesis that dyslexic children 'feel better' and 'perform better' as a result of treatment by the Sunflower therapy. Children in the treatment group and the control group were assessed using a battery of standardised cognitive, Literacy and self-esteem tests before and after the intervention. Parents of children in the treatment group gave feedback on their experience of the Sunflower therapy. Test scores were compared using the Mann Whitney, and Wilcoxon statistical tests. While both groups of children improved in some of their test scores over time, there were no statistically significant improvements in cognitive or Literacy test performance associated with the treatment. However, there were statistically significant improvements in academic self-esteem, and reading self-esteem, for the treatment group. The majority of parents (57.13%) felt that the Sunflower therapy was effective in the treatment of learning difficulties. Further research is required to verify these findings, and should include a control group receiving a dummy treatment to exclude placebo effects.

  2. Emergence, Learning Difficulties, and Misconceptions in Chemistry Undergraduate Students' Conceptualizations of Acid Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-03-01

    Philosophical debates about chemistry have clarified that the issue of emergence plays a critical role in the epistemology and ontology of chemistry. In this article, it is argued that the issue of emergence has also significant implications for understanding learning difficulties and finding ways of addressing them in chemistry. Particularly, it is argued that many misconceptions in chemistry may derive from students' failure to consider emergence in a systemic manner by taking into account all relevant factors in conjunction. Based on this argument, undergraduate students' conceptions of acids, and acid strength (an emergent chemical property) were investigated and it was examined whether or not they conceptualized acid strength as an emergent chemical property. The participants were 41 third- and fourth-year undergraduate students. A concept test and semi-structured interviews were used to probe students' conceptualizations and reasoning about acid strength. Findings of the study revealed that the majority of the undergraduate students did not conceptualize acid strength as an emergent property that arises from interactions among multiple factors. They generally focused on a single factor to predict and explain acid strength, and their faulty responses stemmed from their failure to recognize and consider all factors that affect acid strength. Based on these findings and insights from philosophy of chemistry, promoting system thinking and epistemologically sound argumentative discourses among students is suggested for meaningful chemical education.

  3. Schoolchildren with Learning Difficulties Have Low Iron Status and High Anemia Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Arcanjo, C. P. C.; Santos, P. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In developing countries there is high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia, which reduces cognitive performance, work performance, and endurance; it also causes learning difficulties and negative impact on development for infant population. Methods. The study concerns a case-control study; data was collected from an appropriate sample consisting of schoolchildren aged 8 years. The sample was divided into two subgroups: those with deficient initial reading skills (DIRS) (case) and those without (control). Blood samples were taken to analyze hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. These results were then used to compare the two groups with Student's t-test. Association between DIRS and anemia was analyzed using odds ratio (OR). Results. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels of schoolchildren with DIRS were statistically lower when compared to those without, hemoglobin p = 0.02 and serum ferritin p = 0.04. DIRS was statistically associated with a risk of anemia with a weighted OR of 1.62. Conclusions. In this study, schoolchildren with DIRS had lower hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels when compared to those without. PMID:27703806

  4. The Effects of a Tier 3 Intervention on the Mathematics Performance of Second Grade Students With Severe Mathematics Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Brian R; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Porterfield, Jennifer; Dennis, Minyi Shih; Falcomata, Terry; Valentine, Courtney; Brewer, Chelsea; Bell, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a systematic, explicit, intensive Tier 3 (tertiary) intervention on the mathematics performance of students in second grade with severe mathematics difficulties. A multiple-baseline design across groups of participants showed improved mathematics performance on number and operations concepts and procedures, which are the foundation for later mathematics success. In the previous year, 12 participants had experienced two doses (first and second semesters) of a Tier 2 intervention. In second grade, the participants continued to demonstrate low performance, falling below the 10th percentile on a researcher-designed universal screener and below the 16th percentile on a distal measure, thus qualifying for the intensive intervention. A project interventionist, who met with the students 5 days a week for 10 weeks (9 weeks for one group), conducted the intensive intervention. The intervention employed more intensive instructional design features than the previous Tier 2 secondary instruction, and also included weekly games to reinforce concepts and skills from the lessons. Spring results showed significantly improved mathematics performance (scoring at or above the 25th percentile) for most of the students, thus making them eligible to exit the Tier 3 intervention.

  5. Clinical Profiles of Children with Disruptive Behaviors Based on the Severity of Their Conduct Problems, Callous-Unemotional Traits and Emotional Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Brendan F; Sorge, Geoff B; Na, Jennifer Jiwon; Wharton-Shukster, Erika

    2015-08-01

    This study identified clinical profiles of referred children based on the severity of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, emotional difficulties, and conduct problems. Parents of 166 children (132 males) aged 6-12 years referred to a hospital clinic because of disruptive behavior completed measures to assess these key indicators, and person-centered analysis was used to identify profiles. Four distinct profiles were identified that include: (1) Children low in severity on the three domains, (2) Children high in severity on the three domains, (3) Children high in severity in conduct problems and CU traits with minimal emotional difficulties, and (4) Children high in severity in conduct problems and emotional difficulties with minimal CU traits. Profiles differed in degree of aggression and behavioral impairment. Findings show that clinic-referred children with disruptive behaviors can be grouped based on these important indicators into profiles that have important implications for assessment and treatment selection.

  6. The effects of autonomous difficulty selection on engagement, motivation, and learning in a motion-controlled video game task.

    PubMed

    Leiker, Amber M; Bruzi, Alessandro T; Miller, Matthew W; Nelson, Monica; Wegman, Rebecca; Lohse, Keith R

    2016-10-01

    This experiment investigated the relationship between motivation, engagement, and learning in a video game task. Previous studies have shown increased autonomy during practice leads to superior retention of motor skills, but it is not clear why this benefit occurs. Some studies suggest this benefit arises from increased motivation during practice; others suggest the benefit arises from better information processing. Sixty novice participants were randomly assigned to a self-controlled group, who chose the progression of difficulty during practice, or to a yoked group, who experienced the same difficulty progression but did not have choice. At the end of practice, participants completed surveys measuring intrinsic motivation and engagement. One week later, participants returned for a series of retention tests at three different difficulty levels. RM-ANCOVA (controlling for pre-test) showed that the self-controlled group had improved retention compared to the yoked group, on average, β=46.78, 95% CI=[2.68, 90.87], p=0.04, but this difference was only statistically significant on the moderate difficulty post-test (p=0.004). The self-controlled group also showed greater intrinsic motivation during practice, t(58)=2.61, p=0.01. However, there was no evidence that individual differences in engagement (p=0.20) or motivation (p=0.87) were associated with learning, which was the relationship this experiment was powered to detect. These data are inconsistent with strictly motivational accounts of how autonomy benefits learning, instead suggesting the benefits of autonomy may be mediated through other mechanisms. For instance, within the information processing framework, the learning benefits may emerge from learners appropriately adjusting difficulty to maintain an appropriate level of challenge (i.e., maintaining the relationship between task demands and cognitive resources). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Visual-Perceptual Difficulties and the Impact on Children's Learning: Are Teachers Missing the Page?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Christopher; Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to bring to the fore of educational practice the importance of considering the visual-perceptual condition of Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) when identifying students who have prolonged reading difficulties. Dyslexia is a frequently used term which can be used to label children who have specific difficulties with reading and/or…

  8. Visual-Perceptual Difficulties and the Impact on Children's Learning: Are Teachers Missing the Page?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Christopher; Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to bring to the fore of educational practice the importance of considering the visual-perceptual condition of Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) when identifying students who have prolonged reading difficulties. Dyslexia is a frequently used term which can be used to label children who have specific difficulties with reading and/or…

  9. Attention Functioning among Adolescents with Multiple Learning, Attentional, Behavioral, and Emotional Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalev, Lilach; Kolodny, Tamar; Shalev, Nir; Mevorach, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity; however, these symptoms can result from a variety of reasons. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the various difficulties of individuals with ADHD, especially when co-occurrence difficulties are present, it is…

  10. Attention Functioning among Adolescents with Multiple Learning, Attentional, Behavioral, and Emotional Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalev, Lilach; Kolodny, Tamar; Shalev, Nir; Mevorach, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity; however, these symptoms can result from a variety of reasons. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the various difficulties of individuals with ADHD, especially when co-occurrence difficulties are present, it is…

  11. Difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with panic symptom severity following a quit attempt among cannabis dependent veterans.

    PubMed

    Galang, Jessica N; Babson, Kimberly A; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2015-01-01

    Prior research suggests that difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with elevations in panic symptoms. The present study aimed to extend this work by prospectively examining the relation between difficulties in emotion regulation and panic symptoms over the course of a self-guided cannabis cessation attempt. One hundred and four cannabis-dependent military veterans participated in the study. Difficulties in emotion regulation and panic symptoms were assessed at baseline and at each week during a four-week cessation attempt for a total of five time-points. Fewer difficulties in emotion regulation were associated with a greater reduction in panic symptoms during the self-guided cannabis cessation period. RESULTS remained significant after statistically adjusting for mean substance use (i.e., cannabis, alcohol, and tobacco) during the study period. RESULTS are discussed in terms of integrating adaptive emotion regulation skills training into existing evidence-based treatments for cannabis dependence.

  12. The Effect of Direct Instruction Strategy on Math Achievement of Primary 4th and 5th Grade Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Makahleh, Ahmad Abdulhameed Aufan

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to verify the effect of direct instruction strategy on Math achievment of students with learning difficulties in the fourth and fifth grade levels and measure the improvement in their attitudes to Mathematics. Sample consisted of sixty (60) students with Math learning difficulties attending 4th and 5th grade level resource rooms…

  13. Slovenian Teachers' Elements of Support for Pupils with Learning Difficulties in Foreign Language Teaching at the Primary and Lower-Secondary Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumen, Mihaela; Bracko, Lea; Krajnc, Majda Schmidt

    2014-01-01

    The article concerns educational work with students who have learning difficulties with foreign languages in Slovenian primary schools. The aim of the research was to investigate current methodical and organisational elements of teacher's support in foreign language teaching for students (aged 9-15) with learning difficulties, according to the…

  14. Improvement of Word Problem Solving and Basic Mathematics Competencies in Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Areces, Débora; Rodríguez, Celestino; Sideridis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving represents a salient deficit in students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD) primarily caused by difficulties with informal and formal mathematical competencies. This study proposes a computerized intervention tool, the integrated dynamic representation (IDR), for enhancing the early learning of basic mathematical…

  15. Improvement of Word Problem Solving and Basic Mathematics Competencies in Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Areces, Débora; Rodríguez, Celestino; Sideridis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving represents a salient deficit in students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD) primarily caused by difficulties with informal and formal mathematical competencies. This study proposes a computerized intervention tool, the integrated dynamic representation (IDR), for enhancing the early learning of basic mathematical…

  16. Estimating the severity of intellectual disability in adults: a Mokken scaling analysis of the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Murray, Aja L; McKenzie, Karen

    2013-09-01

    A Mokken scaling analysis of the learning disability screening questionnaire (LDSQ) suggested that, with the exception of 1 item, the scale conforms to the properties of a Mokken scale. This has advantages for estimating the severity of intellectual disability and inferring the difficulties likely to be experienced by an individual for whom there is incomplete information on intellectual and adaptive functioning.

  17. Self-control of task difficulty during training enhances motor learning of a complex coincidence-anticipation task.

    PubMed

    Andrieux, Mathieu; Danna, Jérémy; Thon, Bernard

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to analyze the influence of self-controlled task difficulty on motor learning. Participants had to intercept three targets falling at different velocities by displacing a stylus above a digitizer Task difficulty corresponded to racquet width. Half the participants (self-control condition) could choose the racquet width at the beginning of each trial. Each was paired with a participant from the yoked group. The self-control condition resulted in better performances and accuracy during immediate and delayed retention tests. These results confirm the advantage of a self-control condition on motor learning. They are discussed with reference to the challenge point hypothesis (Guadagnoli & Lee, 2004).

  18. Using Games-Based eLearning Technologies in Overcoming Difficulties in Teaching Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Thomas; Stanfield, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The contributions of this research center on two major areas: delineation of a new model of distance education in which the authors identify three generations of eLearning; and examination of how eLearning and games-based eLearning technologies can be used to enrich the Information Systems (IS) learning experiences of students with different…

  19. Using Games-Based eLearning Technologies in Overcoming Difficulties in Teaching Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Thomas; Stanfield, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The contributions of this research center on two major areas: delineation of a new model of distance education in which the authors identify three generations of eLearning; and examination of how eLearning and games-based eLearning technologies can be used to enrich the Information Systems (IS) learning experiences of students with different…

  20. Why is recruitment to trials difficult? An investigation into recruitment difficulties in an RCT of supported employment in patients with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Louise; de Salis, Isabel; Tomlin, Zelda; Thornicroft, Graham; Donovan, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    Background Under-recruitment to randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is often problematic and there may be particular difficulties in recruiting patients with severe mental illness. Aim To evaluate reasons for under-recruitment in an RCT of patients with severe mental illness Methods Qualitative study during the recruitment phase of an RCT of supported employment. Trial staff and recruiting clinicians were interviewed. Data were analyzed thematically using constant comparative techniques. Results Recruitment rates were low. Five main reasons for recruitment difficulties were found. These included: (i) misconceptions about trials, (ii) lack of equipoise, (iii) misunderstanding of the trial arms, (iv) variable interpretations of eligibility criteria, (v) paternalism. Conclusion Reasons for recruitment difficulties in trials involving patients with severe mental illness include issues that occur in trials in general, but others are more specific to these patients. Clinician and patient involvement in the study design may improve recruitment in future similar trials. PMID:18718555

  1. Emotion regulation in disordered eating: Psychometric properties of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale among Spanish adults and its interrelations with personality and clinical severity.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Ines; Agüera, Zaida; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Gratz, Kim L; Menchón, José M; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to (1) validate the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) in a sample of Spanish adults with and without eating disorders, and (2) explore the role of emotion regulation difficulties in eating disorders (ED), including its mediating role in the relation between key personality traits and ED severity. One hundred and thirty four patients (121 female, mean age = 29 years) with anorexia nervosa (n = 30), bulimia nervosa (n = 54), binge eating (n = 20), or Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders (n = 30) and 74 healthy control participants (51 female, mean age = 21 years) reported on general psychopathology, ED severity, personality traits and difficulties in emotion regulation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the psychometrics of the DERS in this Spanish sample (Aim 1). Additionally, to examine the role of emotion regulation difficulties in ED (Aim 2), differences in emotion regulation difficulties across eating disorder subgroups were examined and structural equation modeling was used to explore the interrelations among emotion regulation, personality traits, and eating disorder severity. RESULTS support the validity and reliability of the DERS within this Spanish adult sample and suggest that this measure has a similar factor structure in this sample as in the original sample. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties were found to differ as a function of eating disorder subtype and to mediate the relation between two specific personality traits (i.e., high harm avoidance and low self-directedness) and ED severity. Personality traits of high harm avoidance and low self-directedness may increase vulnerability to ED pathology indirectly, through emotion regulation difficulties.

  2. Emotion regulation in disordered eating: Psychometric properties of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale among Spanish adults and its interrelations with personality and clinical severity

    PubMed Central

    Wolz, Ines; Agüera, Zaida; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Gratz, Kim L.; Menchón, José M.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aims of the study were to (1) validate the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) in a sample of Spanish adults with and without eating disorders, and (2) explore the role of emotion regulation difficulties in eating disorders (ED), including its mediating role in the relation between key personality traits and ED severity. Methods: One hundred and thirty four patients (121 female, mean age = 29 years) with anorexia nervosa (n = 30), bulimia nervosa (n = 54), binge eating (n = 20), or Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders (n = 30) and 74 healthy control participants (51 female, mean age = 21 years) reported on general psychopathology, ED severity, personality traits and difficulties in emotion regulation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the psychometrics of the DERS in this Spanish sample (Aim 1). Additionally, to examine the role of emotion regulation difficulties in ED (Aim 2), differences in emotion regulation difficulties across eating disorder subgroups were examined and structural equation modeling was used to explore the interrelations among emotion regulation, personality traits, and eating disorder severity. Results: Results support the validity and reliability of the DERS within this Spanish adult sample and suggest that this measure has a similar factor structure in this sample as in the original sample. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties were found to differ as a function of eating disorder subtype and to mediate the relation between two specific personality traits (i.e., high harm avoidance and low self-directedness) and ED severity. Conclusions: Personality traits of high harm avoidance and low self-directedness may increase vulnerability to ED pathology indirectly, through emotion regulation difficulties. PMID:26175710

  3. Effect of propofol on seizure-like phenomena and electroencephalographic activity in children with epilepsy vs children with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S; Shamdeen, M G; Kegel, B; Mencke, T; Gottschling, S; Gortner, L; Grundmann, U

    2006-11-01

    There is an ongoing debate as to whether propofol exhibits pro- or anticonvulsant effects, and whether it should be used in patients with epilepsy. We prospectively assessed the occurrence of seizure-like phenomena and the effects of intravenous propofol on the electroencephalogram (EEG) in 25 children with epilepsy (mean (SD) age: 101 (49) months) and 25 children with learning difficulties (mean (SD) age: 52 (40) months) undergoing elective sedation for MRI studies of the brain. No child demonstrated seizure-like phenomena of epileptic origin during and after propofol sedation. Immediately after stopping propofol, characteristic EEG changes in the epilepsy group consisted of increased beta wave activity (23/25 children), and suppression of pre-existing theta rhythms (11/16 children). In addition, 16 of 18 children with epilepsy and documented EEG seizure activity demonstrated suppression of spike-wave patterns after propofol sedation. In all 25 children with learning difficulties an increase in beta wave activity was seen. Suppression of theta rhythms occurred in 11 of 12 children at the end of the MRI study. In no child of either group was a primary occurrence or an increase in spike-wave patterns seen following propofol administration. The occurrence of beta wave activity (children with learning difficulties and epilepsy group) and suppression of spike-wave patterns (epilepsy group) were transient, and disappeared after 4 h. This study demonstrates characteristic, time-dependent EEG patterns induced by propofol in children with epilepsy and learning difficulties. Our data support the concept of propofol being a sedative-hypnotic agent with anticonvulsant properties as shown by depression of spike-wave patterns in children with epilepsy and by the absence of seizure-like phenomena of epileptic origin.

  4. Learner Outcomes in Science in South Africa: Role of the Nature of Learner Difficulties with the Language for Learning and Teaching Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyoo, Samuel Ouma

    2016-09-01

    Paul Leslie Gardner pioneered the study of student difficulties with everyday words presented in the science context (Gardner 1971); several similarly designed studies (e.g. Cassels and Johnstone 1985; Tao in Research in Science Education, 24, 322-330, 1994; Farell and Ventura in Language and Education, 12(4), 243-254, 1998; Childs and O'Farell in Chemistry Education: Research and Practice, 4(3), 233-247, 2003) have since been reported in literature. This article draws from an exploratory study of the difficulties South African High School physical science learners encounter with everyday English words when presented in the science context. The participants (1107 learners and 35 respective physical science teachers) were drawn from 35 public secondary schools in Johannesburg area of South Africa. Data were obtained through a word test to participant learners followed by group interviews but face-to-face interviews with each physical science teacher. This study has revealed that in similar ways as have been reported in each of the studies so far, South African learners also face difficulties with meanings of everyday words presented in a science context. The main source of difficulties encountered was learner inability to distinguish between the meanings of familiar everyday words as used in everyday parlance from the `new' meanings of the same everyday words when used in the science context. Interpretations of learner interview responses revealed that fewer difficulties would have been experienced by learners if science teachers generally explained the context meanings of the words as used during science teaching. The findings suggest that focusing on contextual proficiency more than on general proficiency in the language of learning and teaching (LOLT) during teaching perhaps holds more promise for enhanced learning and achievement in science. Steps necessary to raise teacher awareness of the potential impact of context on meanings of everyday words of the LOLT

  5. Learner Outcomes in Science in South Africa: Role of the Nature of Learner Difficulties with the Language for Learning and Teaching Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyoo, Samuel Ouma

    2017-08-01

    Paul Leslie Gardner pioneered the study of student difficulties with everyday words presented in the science context (Gardner 1971); several similarly designed studies (e.g. Cassels and Johnstone 1985; Tao in Research in Science Education, 24, 322-330, 1994; Farell and Ventura in Language and Education, 12(4), 243-254, 1998; Childs and O'Farell in Chemistry Education: Research and Practice, 4(3), 233-247, 2003) have since been reported in literature. This article draws from an exploratory study of the difficulties South African High School physical science learners encounter with everyday English words when presented in the science context. The participants (1107 learners and 35 respective physical science teachers) were drawn from 35 public secondary schools in Johannesburg area of South Africa. Data were obtained through a word test to participant learners followed by group interviews but face-to-face interviews with each physical science teacher. This study has revealed that in similar ways as have been reported in each of the studies so far, South African learners also face difficulties with meanings of everyday words presented in a science context. The main source of difficulties encountered was learner inability to distinguish between the meanings of familiar everyday words as used in everyday parlance from the `new' meanings of the same everyday words when used in the science context. Interpretations of learner interview responses revealed that fewer difficulties would have been experienced by learners if science teachers generally explained the context meanings of the words as used during science teaching. The findings suggest that focusing on contextual proficiency more than on general proficiency in the language of learning and teaching (LOLT) during teaching perhaps holds more promise for enhanced learning and achievement in science. Steps necessary to raise teacher awareness of the potential impact of context on meanings of everyday words of the LOLT

  6. Differentiated Curriculum Design: Responding to the Individual and Group Needs of Students with Learning Difficulties with Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pui, Winnie Sin Wai

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore special educational curriculum design at senior secondary school level and whether this helps to enhance the academic attainment and self-confidence of students with learning difficulties. An in-depth discussion focuses on lesson planning for the individual needs and group needs of students by…

  7. Differentiated Curriculum Design: Responding to the Individual and Group Needs of Students with Learning Difficulties with Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pui, Winnie Sin Wai

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore special educational curriculum design at senior secondary school level and whether this helps to enhance the academic attainment and self-confidence of students with learning difficulties. An in-depth discussion focuses on lesson planning for the individual needs and group needs of students by…

  8. Understanding Distress in People with Severe Communication Difficulties: Developing and Assessing the Disability Distress Assessment Tool (DisDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnard, C.; Reynolds, Joanna; Watson, Bill; Matthews, Dorothy; Gibson, Lynn; Clarke, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Background: Meaningful communication with people with profound communication difficulties depends on the ability of carers to recognize and translate many different verbal cues. Carers appear to be intuitively skilled at identifying distress cues, but have little confidence in their observations. To help in this process, a number of pain tools…

  9. Learning through Inquiry: Student Difficulties with Online Course-Based Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, R. A.; Marcus, G.; Taylor, R.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the case-based learning experience of 133 undergraduate veterinarian science students. Using qualitative methodologies from relational Student Learning Research, variation in the quality of the learning experience was identified, ranging from coherent, deep, quality experiences of the cases, to experiences that separated…

  10. Bringing ICT to Teach Science Education for Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harish, H. G. Jeya; Kumar, R. Krishna; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the following study was to examine the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Science classrooms of students with Learning Disabilities. Teachers were positive about the learning benefits and design of the Science curriculum. Students were more critical but still positive about these features. Learning Science…

  11. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil's Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children's LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions.

  12. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil’s Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children’s LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions. PMID:26090806

  13. Asperger syndrome and nonverbal learning difficulties in adult males: self- and parent-reported autism, attention and executive problems.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Nydén, Agneta; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    A specific overlap between Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning difficulties (NLD) has been proposed, based on the observation that, as a group, people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal IQ (VIQ) than performance IQ (PIQ), one of the core features of NLD. The primary aim was to assess the longer term outcome of NLD--broken down into persistent and transient forms. The present study of 68 individuals was performed in the context of a larger prospective longitudinal study to late adolescence/early adult life of 100 boys with AS. Using self- and parent-report measures, we studied the longer term outcome of the NLD (defined as VIQ > PIQ by 15 points) as regards social communication, repetitive behaviour, attention, and executive function (EF) was studied. Three subgroups were identified: (1) Persistent NLD (P-NLD), (2) Childhood "only" NLD (CO-NLD) and (3) Never NLD (NO-NLD). The P-NLD group had the worst outcome overall. The CO-NLD group had better reported EF scores than the two other AS subgroups. There were no differences between the subgroups regarding social communication, repetitive behaviour, or attentional skills. Low PIQ increased the risk of ADHD symptoms. In the context of AS in males, P-NLD carries a relatively poor outcome, particularly with regard to self-reported EF. However, CO-NLD appears to entail a significantly better outcome. The results underscore the importance of analysing the cognitive profile both at diagnosis and after several years, so as to be able to formulate a realistic prognosis.

  14. Effects of lexical factors on lexical access among typical language-learning children and children with word-finding difficulties.

    PubMed

    Newman, Rochelle S; German, Diane J

    2002-09-01

    This investigation studied the influence of lexical factors, known to impact lexical access in adults, on the word retrieval of children. Participants included 320 typical and atypical (word-finding difficulties) language-learning children, ranging in age from 7 to 12 years. Lexical factors examined included word frequency, age-of-acquisition, neighborhood density, neighborhood frequency, and stress pattern. Findings indicated that these factors did influence lexical access in children. Words which were high in frequency and neighborhood frequency, low in neighborhood density and age-of-acquisition, and which contained the typical stress pattern for the language were easier to name. Further, the number of neighbors that were more frequent than the target word also had an effect on the word's ease of retrieval. Significant interactions indicated that age-of-acquisition effects decreased with maturation for typically-learning children whereas these effects continued to impact the lexical access of children with word-finding difficulties across the ages studied, suggesting that these children's difficulties in accessing words may have prevented them from developing strong access paths to these words. These findings support a view of lexical access in which access paths to words become strengthened with successful use.

  15. Perceptual Skills and Arabic Literacy Patterns for Mathematically Gifted Children with Specific Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hroub, Anies

    2010-01-01

    Phonological awareness is a key factor in the development of literacy, and frequently presents itself as an area of weakness in pupils with reading difficulties. In this article, Anies Al-Hroub of the American University of Beirut sets out to define a distinguishing pattern of characteristics that supports the identification of pupils with…

  16. A Meta-Analysis of Empirical Research on Teaching Students with Mathematics Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Minyi Shih; Sharp, Emily; Chovanes, Jacquelyn; Thomas, Amanda; Burns, Raquel M.; Custer, Beth; Park, Junkoung

    2016-01-01

    This article quantitatively summarizes experimental and quasi-experimental studies on teaching students with mathematics difficulties (MD) published between 2000 and 2014, research that was available following earlier syntheses. It reports the analysis of effect sizes of 25 intervention studies on participant characteristics, intervention…

  17. What about a Simple Language? Analyzing the Difficulties in Learning to Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannila, Linda; Peltomaki, Mia; Salakoski, Tapio

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results from a two-part study. We analyze 60 programs written by novice programmers aged 16-19 after their first programming course, in either Java or Python. The aim is to find difficulties independent of the language used, and such originating from the language. Second, we analyze the transition from a…

  18. The Impact of Text Difficulty on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lu-Fang

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated which level of graded reader was most appropriate for Chinese-speaking learners of various English abilities and whether there were significant differences in comprehension and vocabulary acquisition when different English proficiency (EP) groups read texts of varying difficulty levels. Eight-two senior high school students…

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Empirical Research on Teaching Students with Mathematics Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Minyi Shih; Sharp, Emily; Chovanes, Jacquelyn; Thomas, Amanda; Burns, Raquel M.; Custer, Beth; Park, Junkoung

    2016-01-01

    This article quantitatively summarizes experimental and quasi-experimental studies on teaching students with mathematics difficulties (MD) published between 2000 and 2014, research that was available following earlier syntheses. It reports the analysis of effect sizes of 25 intervention studies on participant characteristics, intervention…

  20. The Pre-Service Science Teachers' Mental Models for Concept of Atoms and Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiray, Seyit Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the pre-service science teachers' difficulties about the concept of atoms. The data was collected from two different sources: The Draw an Atom Test (DAAT) and face-to-face interviews. Draw an atom test (DAAT) were administered to the 142 science teacher candidates. To elaborate the results, the researcher…

  1. Assessing Adults with Learning Difficulties. NetNews. Volume 8, Number 3, Summer 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Ms. K. has attended ABE (Adult Basic Education) classes for almost one year and has had significant difficulty in making progress in reading. She has passed some of the GED tests, but has struggled with others due to having insufficient time to complete them. She currently works as a teacher's aide in a daycare center. Her goal is to pass the GED…

  2. Explaining Variability in Retrieval Times for Addition Produced by Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Sarah L.; Lawson, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Predictors of retrieval times produced by students having difficulty developing a reliance on retrieval for simple addition were discovered. The findings support the notion that separate limitations operate in working memory when retrieval occurs and call into question the use of the term "retrieval deficit" to explain difficulties…

  3. Five-Year Growth Trajectories of Kindergarten Children with Learning Difficulties in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong

    2009-01-01

    The investigators used data from the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort" (ECLS-K) to estimate whether and to what extent the timing and persistence of mathematics difficulties (MD) in kindergarten predicted children's first through fifth grade math growth trajectories. Results indicated that children persistently…

  4. Reading Stories to Learn Math: Mathematics Vocabulary Instruction for Children with Early Numeracy Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Jordan, Nancy C.; Dyson, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The present study involved examining whether a storybook reading intervention targeting mathematics vocabulary, such as "equal," "more," and "less," and associated number concepts would increase at-risk children's vocabulary knowledge and number competencies. Children with early numeracy difficulties (N = 124) were…

  5. What about a Simple Language? Analyzing the Difficulties in Learning to Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannila, Linda; Peltomaki, Mia; Salakoski, Tapio

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results from a two-part study. We analyze 60 programs written by novice programmers aged 16-19 after their first programming course, in either Java or Python. The aim is to find difficulties independent of the language used, and such originating from the language. Second, we analyze the transition from a…

  6. A Case Study of Teacher Responses to a Doubling Error and Difficulty in Learning Equivalent Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Meixia; Li, Xiaobao; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Kulm, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This study qualitatively explored teachers' responses to doubling errors (e.g., 3/4 x 2 = 6/8) that typically reflect students' difficulties in understanding the "rule" for finding equivalent fractions (e.g., 3/4 x 2/2 = 6/8). Although all teachers claimed to teach for understanding in interviews, their responses varied in terms of effectiveness…

  7. Perceptual Skills and Arabic Literacy Patterns for Mathematically Gifted Children with Specific Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hroub, Anies

    2010-01-01

    Phonological awareness is a key factor in the development of literacy, and frequently presents itself as an area of weakness in pupils with reading difficulties. In this article, Anies Al-Hroub of the American University of Beirut sets out to define a distinguishing pattern of characteristics that supports the identification of pupils with…

  8. Skill Development in Different Components of Arithmetic and Basic Cognitive Functions: Findings from a 3-Year Longitudinal Study of Children with Different Types of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    Arithmetic and cognitive skills of children with mathematical difficulties (MD-only), with comorbid reading difficulties (MD-RD), with reading difficulties (RD-only), and normally achieving children were examined at 3 points from Grades 3-4 to Grades 5-6 (age range, 9-13 years). Both MD groups displayed severe weaknesses in 4 domain-specific…

  9. The Mainstream Primary Classroom as a Language-Learning Environment for Children with Severe and Persistent Language Impairment--Implications of Recent Language Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue; Boyle, James

    2009-01-01

    Many UK children with severe and persistent language impairment (SLI) attend local mainstream schools. Although this should provide an excellent language-learning environment, opportunities may be limited by difficulties in sustaining time-consuming, child-specific learning activities; restricted co-professional working, and the complex classroom…

  10. The Mainstream Primary Classroom as a Language-Learning Environment for Children with Severe and Persistent Language Impairment--Implications of Recent Language Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue; Boyle, James

    2009-01-01

    Many UK children with severe and persistent language impairment (SLI) attend local mainstream schools. Although this should provide an excellent language-learning environment, opportunities may be limited by difficulties in sustaining time-consuming, child-specific learning activities; restricted co-professional working, and the complex classroom…

  11. Can transcranial electrical stimulation improve learning difficulties in atypical brain development? A future possibility for cognitive training.

    PubMed

    Krause, Beatrix; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-10-01

    Learning difficulties in atypical brain development represent serious obstacles to an individual's future achievements and can have broad societal consequences. Cognitive training can improve learning impairments only to a certain degree. Recent evidence from normal and clinical adult populations suggests that transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), a portable, painless, inexpensive, and relatively safe neuroenhancement tool, applied in conjunction with cognitive training can enhance cognitive intervention outcomes. This includes, for instance, numerical processing, language skills and response inhibition deficits commonly associated with profound learning difficulties and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current review introduces the functional principles, current applications and promising results, and potential pitfalls of TES. Unfortunately, research in child populations is limited at present. We suggest that TES has considerable promise as a tool for increasing neuroplasticity in atypically developing children and may be an effective adjunct to cognitive training in clinical settings if it proves safe. The efficacy and both short- and long-term effects of TES on the developing brain need to be critically assessed before it can be recommended for clinical settings. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Can transcranial electrical stimulation improve learning difficulties in atypical brain development? A future possibility for cognitive training☆

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Beatrix; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Learning difficulties in atypical brain development represent serious obstacles to an individual's future achievements and can have broad societal consequences. Cognitive training can improve learning impairments only to a certain degree. Recent evidence from normal and clinical adult populations suggests that transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), a portable, painless, inexpensive, and relatively safe neuroenhancement tool, applied in conjunction with cognitive training can enhance cognitive intervention outcomes. This includes, for instance, numerical processing, language skills and response inhibition deficits commonly associated with profound learning difficulties and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current review introduces the functional principles, current applications and promising results, and potential pitfalls of TES. Unfortunately, research in child populations is limited at present. We suggest that TES has considerable promise as a tool for increasing neuroplasticity in atypically developing children and may be an effective adjunct to cognitive training in clinical settings if it proves safe. The efficacy and both short- and long-term effects of TES on the developing brain need to be critically assessed before it can be recommended for clinical settings. PMID:23770059

  13. Turning Difficulties into Possibilities: Engaging Roma Families and Students in School through Dialogic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flecha, Ramón; Soler, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Schools and communities may have a key role in reversing the cycle of inequality that the Roma suffer in Europe. Aiming at reducing existing inequalities, dialogic learning aims to ensure high levels of academic learning for all children, by involving the whole community through egalitarian dialogue. Less well known are the implications of this…

  14. Loci of Difficulty in Learning to Program. Technical Report 86-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David; And Others

    To learn more about the specific nature of the teaching and learning problems involved, researchers conducted a clinical study of 20 high school students enrolled a BASIC course. Investigators presented each student with a sequence of eight programming problems, ranging from easy to difficult. They asked questions to track student thinking and…

  15. Turning Difficulties into Possibilities: Engaging Roma Families and Students in School through Dialogic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flecha, Ramón; Soler, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Schools and communities may have a key role in reversing the cycle of inequality that the Roma suffer in Europe. Aiming at reducing existing inequalities, dialogic learning aims to ensure high levels of academic learning for all children, by involving the whole community through egalitarian dialogue. Less well known are the implications of this…

  16. Learning people's names following severe closed-head injury.

    PubMed

    Milders, M

    1998-04-01

    Although problems remembering people's names rank highly among the subjective complaints of patients with closed-head injuries, very few studies have examined their memory for people's names by objective measurements. An experiment is reported in which patients with severe closed-head injuries and normal controls learned the same set of words, either as names or as possessions, for unfamiliar faces. Name learning proved to be impaired in the patients. Patient recall of meaningless names and possessions which were described by nonwords was equally poor. The patients, but not the controls, recalled significantly fewer names than possessions if these items were described by concrete nouns. This last finding suggests that the patients' problems with learning people's names can not be fully explained by a general verbal learning impairment.

  17. The Impact of Learning Difficulties and Socioemotional and Behavioural Problems on Transition to Postsecondary Education or Work Life in Finland: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Airi M.; Holopainen, Leena K.; Savolainen, Hannu K.

    2016-01-01

    Learning difficulties have been found to dilute the possibilities that young adults have in their educational careers. However, during the last few decades, education has become increasingly important for employment and overall life satisfaction. In the present study, we were interested in the effects of mathematical and reading difficulties and…

  18. The Impact of Learning Difficulties and Socioemotional and Behavioural Problems on Transition to Postsecondary Education or Work Life in Finland: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Airi M.; Holopainen, Leena K.; Savolainen, Hannu K.

    2016-01-01

    Learning difficulties have been found to dilute the possibilities that young adults have in their educational careers. However, during the last few decades, education has become increasingly important for employment and overall life satisfaction. In the present study, we were interested in the effects of mathematical and reading difficulties and…

  19. A Study on the Difficulties of Learning Phase Transition in Object-Oriented Analysis and Design from the Viewpoint of Semantic Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Shin-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Students in object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) courses typically encounter difficulties transitioning from object-oriented analysis (OOA) to logical design (OOLD). This study conducted an empirical experiment to examine these learning difficulties by evaluating differences between OOA-to-OOLD and OOLD-to-object-oriented-physical-design…

  20. Underlying neurological dysfunction in children with language, speech or learning difficulties and a verbal IQ--performance IQ discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Meulemans, J; Goeleven, A; Zink, I; Loyez, L; Lagae, L; Debruyne, F

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between possible underlying neurological dysfunction and a significant discrepancy between verbal IQ/performance IQ (VIQ-PIQ) in children with language, speech or learning difficulties. In a retrospective study, we analysed data obtained from intelligence testing and neurological evaluation in 49 children with a significant VIQ-PIQ discrepancy (> or = 25 points) who were referred because of language, speech or learning difficulties to the Multidisciplinary University Centre for Logopedics and Audiology (MUCLA) of the University Hospitals of Leuven, Belgium. The group of children broke down into a group of 35 children with PIQ > VIQ and a group of 14 children with VIQ > PIQ. In the first group, neurological data were present for 24 children. The neurological history and clinical neurological examination were normal in all cases. Brain MRI was performed in 15 cases and proved to be normal in all children. Brain activity was assessed with long-term video EEG monitoring in ten children. In two children, the EEG results were abnormal: there was an epileptic focus in one child and a manifest alteration in the EEG typical of Landau-Kleffner syndrome in the other. In the second group of 14 children whose VIQ was higher than the PIQ, neurological data were available for ten children. Neurological history and clinical neurological examination were normal in all cases. Brain MRI was performed in five cases and was normal in all children. EEG monitoring was performed in one child. This revealed benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. In a small number of children (9%) with speech, language and learning difficulties and a discrepancy between VIQ and PIQ, an underlying neurological abnormality is present. We recommend referring children with a significant VIQ-PIQ mismatch to a paediatric neurologist. As an epileptic disorder seems to be the most common underlying neurological pathology in this specific group of children, EEG