Science.gov

Sample records for severe learning difficulties

  1. Learning for Independence: Post-16 Educational Provision for People with Severe Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Alan, Ed.; Hegarty, Seamus, Ed.

    Twelve papers focus on post-school provision for mentally handicapped young people and adults in Great Britain. The following papers are presented: "Educational Opportunities for People with Severe Learning Difficulties" (S. Hegarty); "Further Education Provision for Students with Severe Learning Difficulties--Analysis of Survey…

  2. The Curriculum for Children with Severe and Profound Learning Difficulties at Stephen Hawking School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The increasing number of children with profound and multiple learning difficulties means that many schools for children with severe learning difficulties are having to review the curriculum that they offer. In addition, these schools are continuing to question whether a subject-based approach, in line with the National Curriculum, is the most…

  3. Morphing Images: A Potential Tool for Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2005-01-01

    Children with severe learning difficulties who fail to begin word recognition can learn to recognise pictures and symbols relatively easily. However, finding an effective means of using pictures to teach word recognition has proved problematic. This research explores the use of morphing software to support the transition from picture to word…

  4. Teacher-pupil talk: integrated vs segregated environments for children with severe learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Conti-Ramsden, G; Taylor, J

    1990-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the linguistic environment of children with severe learning difficulties attending nursery school. Teacher-pupil talk with three normal language learners and five children- with severe learning difficulties was examined in segregated and integrated settings. A cognitively based dialogue system analysis was used to ascertain the style and level of teacher and pupil interactions. Results revealed that teachers are able to adjust their speech when interacting with children of differing abilities but they do so by assuming a dominating role in dialogue through initiation and the use of obliges.

  5. Using Multimedia To Teach Personal Safety to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Deborah; McGee, Anna; Ungar, Simon

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an application of computer technology to teach personal safety to children with severe learning difficulties. The multimedia program is intended to compensate for the children's inability to understand the appropriate language for sexual issues or to act out a situation through role play. Hypothetical situations are pictured…

  6. Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties: An Exploratory Comparison of Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2009-01-01

    Background: Some children with severe learning difficulties fail to begin word recognition. For these children there is a need for an effective and appropriate pedagogy. However, conflicting advice can be found regarding this derived from teaching approaches that are not based on a shared understanding of how reading develops or the skills that…

  7. Specific Learning Difficulties in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weedon, Charles

    Specific difficulties in mathematics tend to receive much less attention than do parallel difficulties with language. Accordingly, as its contribution to an ongoing project on children's learning difficulties and what to do about them, the Tayside (Scotland) Region decided to focus on children's specific problems with mathematics/arithmetic and…

  8. Not Fit for Purpose: A Call for Separate and Distinct Pedagogies as Part of a National Framework for Those with Severe and Profound Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imray, Peter; Hinchcliffe, Viv

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of the National Curriculum in 1988 caused much discussion (some of it angst-ridden) among both academics and practitioners working with pupils with severe and profound learning difficulties, and much of the meat (and the angst) of these discussions is still going on today. We argue that 24 years is a long experiment; that despite…

  9. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning

    PubMed Central

    BJORK, ROBERT A.; KROLL, JUDITH F.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443

  10. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  11. Learning Styles and Foreign Language Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Obdulia; Peck, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify what other elements besides linguistic deficits could be playing a role in foreign language learning difficulties, the Kolb Learning Styles Inventory was administered to students enrolled in regular and modified Spanish classes at a major U.S. university. Preliminary results gathered as part of a longitudinal study on learning…

  12. Learning Difficulties: A Portuguese Perspective of a Universal Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Ana Paula Loucao; Correia, Luis de Miranda; Hallahan, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present findings of a study that was conducted with the purpose of deepening the knowledge about the field of learning difficulties in Portugal. Therefore, within these findings we will discuss across several cultural boundaries, themes related with the existence of learning difficulties as a construct, the terminology, the…

  13. 'I Never Thought They Would Enjoy the Fun of Science Just Like Ordinary Children Do'--Exploring Science Experiences with Early Years Teacher Training Students and Children with Severe and Profound Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Alison; Jones, Phyllis

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates a British program in which 20 undergraduate students training to be primary science teachers planned and delivered a science workshop to students with severe and profound learning difficulties. Analysis focuses on comments of the college students both before and after the workshop experience. The experience encouraged student…

  14. Genetics - Are There Inherent Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longden, Bernard

    1982-01-01

    Sources of misconceptions and learning difficulties were identified by interviewing academically sound A-level students (N=10) who were having difficulties with genetics. Indicates misconceptions were related to nature of concepts used in genetics, such as frequent representation of meiosis by fixed inanimate stage diagrams and to instructional…

  15. Living with Learning Difficulties: Emma's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manners, Paula Jean; Carruthers, Emma

    2006-01-01

    This article is about Emma's experience of living with learning difficulties. Emma expresses a lot of anger, and talks about feelings of loss. This article is interesting to people with learning disabilities because they can see if their experience is like Emma's in any way. This paper presents Emma's story: her experience of living with learning…

  16. No One Knows: Offenders with Learning Difficulties and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Jenny; Riley, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of offenders with learning difficulties and learning disabilities is not agreed upon. What is clear, however, is that, regardless of actual numbers, many offenders have learning difficulties that reduce their ability to cope within the criminal justice system, for example, not understanding fully what is happening to them in court…

  17. Fractions Learning in Children With Mathematics Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S

    2016-08-04

    Learning fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of children with MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind their TA peers in fraction understanding and fall further behind during middle school. In contrast, Chinese children, who like the MD children in the United States score in the bottom one third of the distribution in their country, possess reasonably good fraction understanding. We interpret these findings within the framework of the integrated theory of numerical development. By emphasizing the importance of fraction magnitude knowledge for numerical understanding in general, the theory proved useful for understanding differences in fraction knowledge between MD and TA children and for understanding how knowledge can be improved. Several interventions demonstrated the possibility of improving fraction magnitude knowledge and producing benefits that generalize to fraction arithmetic learning among children with MD. The reasonably good fraction understanding of Chinese children with MD and several successful interventions with U.S. students provide hope for the improvement of fraction knowledge among American children with MD.

  18. Differentiation and Explicit Teaching: Integration of Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, France; Bessette, Lyne; Dorval, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This collaborative research was carried out among 197 elementary school students, in the context of a rural Canadian school of the Quebec province. Several students of the school presented learning difficulties, mostly in writing. The teachers and the learning specialist decided to differentiate the groups in special subgroups of needs that met…

  19. Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students.

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, M; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1981-01-01

    The influence of task difficulty on aberrant behavior was investigated with three severely handicapped students. Noticeably higher rates of problem behavior occurred in demand compared to no-demand conditions. In addition, there were higher rates of problem behaviors on difficult versus easy tasks. Both these findings were validated with visual discrimination and perceptual motor tasks. An errorless learning procedure effectively minimized errors and aberrant behavior in visual discrimination tasks but not in perceptual motor tasks. It was conceptualized that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement contingencies. Difficult tasks were aversive to the children, who emitted aberrant responses to escape or avoid such tasks. By contrast, conditions in which no demands were made, easy tasks, and, in visual discrimination learning, errorless tasks, were less aversive and resulted in little or no problem behavior. Implications for reducing maladaptive behaviors through curricular modifications are discussed and contrasted to more traditional consequence manipulation approaches. PMID:7328069

  20. Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students.

    PubMed

    Weeks, M; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1981-01-01

    The influence of task difficulty on aberrant behavior was investigated with three severely handicapped students. Noticeably higher rates of problem behavior occurred in demand compared to no-demand conditions. In addition, there were higher rates of problem behaviors on difficult versus easy tasks. Both these findings were validated with visual discrimination and perceptual motor tasks. An errorless learning procedure effectively minimized errors and aberrant behavior in visual discrimination tasks but not in perceptual motor tasks. It was conceptualized that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement contingencies. Difficult tasks were aversive to the children, who emitted aberrant responses to escape or avoid such tasks. By contrast, conditions in which no demands were made, easy tasks, and, in visual discrimination learning, errorless tasks, were less aversive and resulted in little or no problem behavior. Implications for reducing maladaptive behaviors through curricular modifications are discussed and contrasted to more traditional consequence manipulation approaches.

  1. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties and Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tiffini

    2008-01-01

    Beginning foreign language (FL) courses in high school often have high numbers of learning disabled (LED) and at-risk students, perhaps because many students who are considered to be college bound begin foreign language study in middle school. This paper examines FL difficulties as well as effective strategies that others have used to conquer…

  2. CAS-Induced Difficulties in Learning Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas; Misfeldt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In recent years computer algebra systems (CAS) have become an integrated part of the upper secondary school mathematics program. Despite the many positive possibilities of CAS, there also seems to be a flip side of the coin in relation to actual difficulties in learning mathematics, not least because a strong dependence on CAS for mathematical…

  3. Difficulties in Initial Algebra Learning in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…

  4. Fractions Learning in Children with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Learning of fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind TA peers in…

  5. No One Knows: Offenders with learning disabilities and learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Talbot, J

    2009-01-01

    No One Knows is concerned about people with learning disabilities and difficulties who get into trouble with the police and who enter the criminal justice system. The terms 'learning difficulties' and 'learning difficulties' are often used interchangeably to describe people with an intellectual disability, excluding those who, for example, have dyslexia or Asperger syndrome. No One Knows, however, has adopted a more inclusive approach and has included in its remit offenders with learning disabilities as defined by the World Health Organization as well as those with a broader range of learning difficulties. Although there is some discrepancy on prevalence, it is clear that high numbers of people with learning disabilities and difficulties are caught up in the criminal justice system. Once in the criminal justice system it is unlikely that an individual with learning disabilities or difficulties will be identified or that their support needs will be met. This causes difficulties for the individual concerned and for the staff who work with them, who receive little or no training for working with this group of people. The question of whether people with learning disabilities (meaning intellectual disabilities) should be diverted from the criminal justice system is considered.

  6. Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-12-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was significantly below the average student performance in other Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore. This fact gave rise to this study which aims to investigate Indonesian students' difficulties in algebra. In order to do so, a literature study was carried out on students' difficulties in initial algebra. Next, an individual written test on algebra tasks was administered, followed by interviews. A sample of 51 grade VII Indonesian students worked the written test, and 37 of them were interviewed afterwards. Data analysis revealed that mathematization, i.e., the ability to translate back and forth between the world of the problem situation and the world of mathematics and to reorganize the mathematical system itself, constituted the most frequently observed difficulty in both the written test and the interview data. Other observed difficulties concerned understanding algebraic expressions, applying arithmetic operations in numerical and algebraic expressions, understanding the different meanings of the equal sign, and understanding variables. The consequences of these findings on both task design and further research in algebra education are discussed.

  7. Foreign language learning difficulties in Italian children: are they associated with other learning difficulties?

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Marcella; Palladino, Paola

    2007-01-01

    A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and nonverbal learning skills, such as native language reading accuracy, speed and comprehension, calculation, and attention and self-regulation. Both experiments showed that the LA group seemed at risk for reading comprehension difficulties, but its reading speed and accuracy were within the average range according to Italian norms. The results also excluded the possibility that FL learning difficulties of LA participants could be associated with a deficit in calculation. Furthermore, according to teachers' ratings, children with LA appeared at risk for attention-deficit disorder (ADD). The pattern of learning difficulties of seventh- and eighth-grade participants with LA appeared to be not completely comparable with that of high school students at risk of FL learning difficulties as described in the literature.

  8. Status of Muslim Immigrants' Children with Learning Difficulties in Vienna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohsin, M. Naeem; Shabbir, Muhammad; Saeed, Wizra; Mohsin, M. Saleem

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to know the status of Muslim immigrants' children with learning difficulties and importance of parents' involvement for the education whose children are with learning difficulties, and the factors responsible for the learning difficulties among immigrants' children. There were 81 immigrant children with learning…

  9. What Do Romanian Teachers Know about Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pop, Cristina Florina; Ciascai, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing concern for students with learning difficulties and teachers are responsible for identifying and helping these students. The present study aims to explore the teachers' knowledge of manifestations, causes and types of learning difficulties, necessary to diagnose, prevent or remedy learning difficulties. The participants involved…

  10. Men with Learning Difficulties Doing Research: Challenging Views of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Pamela A.; Swain, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the views of men with learning difficulties living in a secure environment. Reflecting findings from a doctoral thesis based upon a research project where the participants looked at the processes and concepts of research, the dialogues within the study were analysed using critical discourse analysis. Thesis aims relevant here…

  11. Tracking Change in Children with Severe and Persisting Speech Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Elisabeth Joy; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Standardised tests of whole-word accuracy are popular in the speech pathology and developmental psychology literature as measures of children's speech performance. However, they may not be sensitive enough to measure changes in speech output in children with severe and persisting speech difficulties (SPSD). To identify the best ways of doing this,…

  12. Supporting Children with Severe-to-Profound Learning Difficulties and Complex Communication Needs to Make Their Views Known: Observation Tools and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greathead, Scot; Yates, Rhiannon; Hill, Vivian; Kenny, Lorcan; Croydon, Abigail; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    All children have the right to shape decisions that influence their lives. Yet, children with severe-to-profound intellectual disabilities and complex communication needs are often marginalized from this process. Here, we examined the utility of a set of tools incorporating ethnographic and structured observational methods with three such…

  13. [Integral assessment of learning subjects difficulties].

    PubMed

    Grebniak, N P; Shchudro, S A

    2010-01-01

    The integral criterion for subject difficulties in senior classes is substantiated in terms of progress in studies, variation coefficient, and subjective and expert appraisals of the difficulty of subjects. The compiled regression models adequately determine the difficulty of academic subjects. According to the root-mean-square deviation, all subjects were found to have 3 degrees of difficulty.

  14. Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Do Learning Difficulties Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether learning difficulties play a role in depressive symptoms, 658 Finnish adolescents were asked to complete scales for depression three times during the transition to post-comprehensive education. They also reported on their learning difficulties and feelings of inadequacy as a student. The results showed that learning difficulties…

  15. Reflections upon Teacher Education in Severe Difficulties in the USA: Shared Concerns about Quantity and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phyllis; West, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this article, Phyllis Jones of the Department of Special Education at the University of South Florida and Elizabeth West from the University of Washington explore key issues in respect to teacher education for teachers who teach pupils with severe and profound learning difficulties in the USA. Issues relating to quantity and quality of teachers…

  16. Cognitive and Mathematical Profiles for Different Forms of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Elias, John T.; Powell, Sarah R.; Schumacher, Robin F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare subgroups of students with various forms of learning difficulties (< 25th percentile) on cognitive and mathematics characteristics. Students with mathematics difficulty (MD, n = 105), reading difficulty (RD, n = 65), both (MDRD, n = 87), or neither (NoLD, n = 403) were evaluated on an array of cognitive…

  17. Difficulties of Diabetic Patients in Learning about Their Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean Francois

    2001-01-01

    Examines the difficulties experienced by diabetic patients in learning about their illness. Diabetic people (N=138) were questioned by means of a closed answer questionnaire. Results reveal that patients easily acquired manual skills, yet numerous learning difficulties were associated with the skills required to solve problems and make decisions,…

  18. Learning Difficulty and Learner Identity: A Symbiotic Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirano, Eliana

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a longitudinal case study of an adult EFL learner who perceived himself as having difficulty learning English. Both learning difficulty and learner identity are viewed as being constructed in discursive interactions throughout one's life and, hence, amenable to reconstruction. Data collected from classroom interactions,…

  19. Choice in the diet of people with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lisa; Keeton, Emma

    Many adults with learning disabilities experience difficulties communicating food preferences because they may have little opportunity to do so. This article discusses how health care professionals can enable people with learning difficulties to exercise choice about food and how those choices can be recognised.

  20. Tracking change in children with severe and persisting speech difficulties.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Elisabeth Joy; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill

    2013-07-01

    Standardised tests of whole-word accuracy are popular in the speech pathology and developmental psychology literature as measures of children's speech performance. However, they may not be sensitive enough to measure changes in speech output in children with severe and persisting speech difficulties (SPSD). To identify the best ways of doing this, we compared a range of commonly used procedures for perceptual phonological and phonetic analysis of developmental speech difficulties. Data are drawn from four children with SPSD, recorded at 4 years and again at 6 years old performing naming and repetition tasks. Measures of speech output included percentage of whole words correct (PWC), percentage of consonants correct (PCC), proportion of whole-word proximity (PWP), phonological pattern (process) analysis and phonetic inventory analysis. Results indicate that PWC captures change only when identical stimuli are used across time points. PCC is a more robust indicator of change, being less affected by the choice of stimuli. PWP also captures change across time and tasks, while appearing to be more sensitive than PCC to psycholinguistic variables. PCC and PWP are thus both potentially useful tools for evaluating speech outcomes.

  1. Learning Difficulties and Nutrition: Pills or Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Examines the efforts to find effective ameliorative measures for literacy difficulties such as dyslexia and dyspraxia, focusing on noneducational techniques found in holistic medicine, complementary therapies, and nutritional supplements. Maintains that dyslexia has become big business for drug companies and that the appropriate research regarding…

  2. Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and Polymorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Neomi; Beeri, Catriel; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on difficulties related to the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in the course, as well as on…

  3. Learned Helplessness in Children with Reading Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butkowsky, Irwin S.; Willows, Dale M.

    Employing a cognitive/motivational analysis, a study was undertaken to determine some specific self-perceptions that might contribute to motivational and performance deficits observed in children with reading difficulties. A total of 72 children of relatively good, average, and poor reading ability were assessed on tasks in which success and…

  4. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Saloni; Watkins, Kate E; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we highlight why there is a need to examine subcortical learning systems in children with language impairment and dyslexia, rather than focusing solely on cortical areas relevant for language. First, behavioural studies find that children with these neurodevelopmental disorders perform less well than peers on procedural learning tasks that depend on corticostriatal learning circuits. Second, fMRI studies in neurotypical adults implicate corticostriatal and hippocampal systems in language learning. Finally, structural and functional abnormalities are seen in the striatum in children with language disorders. Studying corticostriatal networks in developmental language disorders could offer us insights into their neurobiological basis and elucidate possible modes of compensation for intervention.

  5. Learning Difficulties in English for Rural Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2010-01-01

    The present study illuminates and diagnoses the learning problems of the rural learners in English Grammar at standard VI. Present study may be useful to ameliorate the rural learners for acquiring competencies in English and eliminates the problems of the learners. It paves way to the teachers to diagnose the learning hurdles of the learners and…

  6. Cognitive and mathematical profiles for different forms of learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Cirino, Paul T; Fuchs, Lynn S; Elias, John T; Powell, Sarah R; Schumacher, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare subgroups of students with various forms of learning difficulties (< 25th percentile) on cognitive and mathematics characteristics. Students with mathematics difficulty (MD, n = 105), reading difficulty (RD, n = 65), both (MDRD, n = 87), or neither (NoLD, n = 403) were evaluated on an array of cognitive measures (e.g., working memory and language) and on mathematics measures of foundational numerical competencies, computation, and problem solving. Results revealed expected level differences among groups in both domains: NoLD outperformed RD, and MD outperformed MDRD. Profile differences were noted among pairs of subgroups on cognitive measures. On mathematics measures, profile differences were noted between RD and other subgroups, but not between MD and MDRD subgroups. The most discriminating cognitive measures were processing speed and language; the most discriminating mathematics measures depended on the subgroups being compared. Results were further evaluated according to more severe (< 10th percentile) criteria for MD and RD, which generally affected level differences more than the profile patterns. Results have implications for understanding comorbid MD and RD and for conceptualizing core deficits in MD.

  7. Cognitive and Mathematical Profiles for Different Forms of Learning Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Elias, John T.; Powell, Sarah R.; Schumacher, Robin F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare subgroups of students with various forms of learning difficulties (< 25th percentile) on cognitive and mathematics characteristics. Students with mathematics difficulty (MD, n = 105), reading difficulty (RD, n = 65), both (MDRD, n = 87), or neither (NoLD, n = 403) were evaluated on an array of cognitive measures (e.g., working memory and language) and on mathematics measures of foundational numerical competencies, computation, and problem solving. Results revealed expected level differences among groups in both domains: NoLD outperformed RD, and MD outperformed MDRD. Profile differences were noted among pairs of subgroups on cognitive measures. On mathematics measures, profile differences were noted between RD and other subgroups, but not between MD and MDRD subgroups. The most discriminating cognitive measures were processing speed and language; the most discriminating mathematics measures depended on the subgroups being compared. Results were further evaluated according to more severe (< 10th percentile) criteria for MD and RD, which generally affected level differences more than the profile patterns. Results have implications for understanding comorbid MD and RD and for conceptualizing core deficits in MD. PMID:23851137

  8. Word Difficulty and Learning among Native Arabic Learners of EFL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masrai, Ahmed; Milton, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates word difficulty and learning among learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Saudi Arabia. Difficulty factors examined in the study include repetition of words in learners' EFL textbooks, word length and parts of speech, and adds a further consideration which is underexplored in the literature; word translation…

  9. Learner's Learning Experiences & Difficulties towards (ESL) among UKM Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maarof, Nooreiny; Munusamy, Indira Malani A/P

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the learners learning experiences and difficulties of ESL among the UKM undergraduates. This study will be focusing on identifying the factors behind Malaysian undergraduate's experiences and also their difficulties in the English as Second Language (ESL) classroom. This paper discusses some of the issues of English…

  10. Motor Development and Learning Difficulties. Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eyck, J. W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Part Two of the article focuses on the development of manual motor skills in learning disabled children. After a discussion of test methods, the author considers aspects of a medical examination, including a general exam, a neurological exam, an electroencephalogram, and a diagnostic test of hand/motor skill development. (For Part One, see EC 123…

  11. Can Excess Bilirubin Levels Cause Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.; Becker, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined learning problems in South African sample of 7- to 14-year-olds whose mothers reported excessively high infant bilirubin shortly after the child's birth. Found that this sample had lowered verbal ability with the majority also showing impaired short-term and long-term memory. Findings suggested that impaired formation of astrocytes…

  12. Learning Difficulties of Diabetic Patients: A Survey of Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean-Francois

    1998-01-01

    Surveys 85 health care professionals on the learning difficulties of diabetic patients. Results show that educators find it easy to teach techniques: patients master procedures well and make few mistakes. In contrast, diabetic patients seem to have problems learning skills, such as insulin dose adjustment, that require complex problem-solving.…

  13. Patients with learning difficulties: outcome on peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Borràs, Mercè; Sorolla, Carol; Carrera, Dolores; Martín, Marisa; Villagrassa, Esther; Fernández, Elvira

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we identified patients who had difficulties learning the minimum knowledge and skills required to carry out peritoneal dialysis (PD), and we compared the outcomes in this subgroup of patients with outcomes in the general PD population. We calculated the mean learning sessions needed by our total PD population during the training period. We then assigned patients to one of two groups according to the number of learning sessions they needed. Patients who required a number of sessions equal to or less than the mean were placed in the "standard learning" group; patients who required more sessions but who reached the minimum knowledge and skills were placed in the "learning difficulties " group. We compared these two groups in terms of age, sex, diabetes status, autonomy to perform PD, family support, education level, residual renal function, and Charlson comorbidity index. Outcomes on PD included time to first peritonitis episode, peritonitis rate, percentage of patients free of peritonitis during follow-up, survival time on PD, and transfer to hemodialysis. Patients with learning difficulties were older and had more comorbidities. Outcomes on PD in the learning difficulties group were similar to those in the standard learning group, except for time to first peritonitis.

  14. Blended Learning for College Students with English Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies in blended learning simply involved on-site and online instruction without considering students' control of their own learning in these two different modalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate how college students with English reading difficulties integrate their conceptions of and approaches to blended learning…

  15. Measurement of functional task difficulty during motor learning: What level of difficulty corresponds to the optimal challenge point?

    PubMed

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between task difficulty and learning benefit was examined, as was the measurability of task difficulty. Participants were required to learn a postural control task on an unstable surface at one of four different task difficulty levels. Results from the retention test showed an inverted-U relationship between task difficulty during acquisition and motor learning. The second-highest level of task difficulty was the most effective for motor learning, while learning was delayed at the most and least difficult levels. Additionally, the results indicate that salivary α-amylase and the performance dimension of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) are useful indices of task difficulty. Our findings suggested that instructors may be able to adjust task difficulty based on salivary α-amylase and the performance dimension of the NASA-TLX to enhance learning.

  16. Effects of Persuasive Designed Courseware on Children with Learning Difficulties in Learning Malay Language Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Kien Heng; Bakri, Aryati; Rahman, Azizah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The effects of courseware learning for children with learning difficulties have been studied over the years. Educational courseware is very common nowadays as a teaching tool for children's early education. However, most of the coursewares are designed for children with normal learning ability. Special children who face difficulty in the learning…

  17. Career Counsellors' Perceptions of the Severity of Career Decision-Making Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Amir, Tamar; Landman, Shiri

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ in the type and severity of the difficulties they face when making a career decision. Relying on the Gati, Krausz, and Osipow (1996) taxonomy of career decision-making difficulties, we elicited the judgements of 28 career counselling experts about factors that contribute to the perceived "severity" of the difficulties.…

  18. Education towards Employment: A Project for People with Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baynes, Anne; Dyson, Alan

    1994-01-01

    This article describes an "employability" course developed by North Tyneside College (England) for young people and adults with learning difficulties. Issues are raised concerning eligibility, the meaning of "employability," the value of employment, the need for advocacy, and the nature of vocational training. (DB)

  19. Academic Resilience: A Retrospective Study of Adults With Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, John G.; Stoch, Shari A.; Chan, Janet S. N.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports qualitative analyses of two sets of retrospective interviews with adults with learning difficulties. The purpose of the study was to examine the high school experiences of these adults from a holistic perspective to understand possible factors that contributed to one group staying in school and the other group leaving school…

  20. Difficulties in Learning and Teaching Statistics: Teacher Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koparan, Timur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define teacher views about the difficulties in learning and teaching middle school statistics subjects. To serve this aim, a number of interviews were conducted with 10 middle school maths teachers in 2011-2012 school year in the province of Trabzon. Of the qualitative descriptive research methods, the…

  1. Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David

    2012-01-01

    Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in…

  2. EVERYDAY PROBLEMS AND THE CHILD WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNSTEIN, BEBE

    THE PROBLEMS THAT DAILY LIVING MAY PRESENT TO CHILDREN WHO EXPERIENCE LEARNING DIFFICULTIES ARE DISCUSSED, AND THE NEED FOR THE TEACHER TO SURVEY THE EXPERIMENTAL BACKGROUND OF HIS CLASS AND TO DEVELOP A METHOD FOR DEALING WITH THE CHILDREN'S PROBLEMS IS DESCRIBED. PROBLEMS THAT MERIT ATTENTION INCLUDE THOSE WHICH FUNCTION INDEPENDENTLY. THE…

  3. Moderate Learning Difficulties: Searching for Clarity and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwich, Brahm; Ylonen, Annamari; Gwernan-Jones, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The concept of moderate learning difficulties (MLD) is not clearly understood in its definition and in its general use. Nevertheless, as a distinct area of special educational needs (SEN) this category has constituted about a quarter of all of those pupils identified as having SEN in England. This paper reports the analysis of findings from an…

  4. Progress of Pupils Attending Resourced Provision for Specific Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the improvement in attainments of 109 students attending specialist-resourced provision for specific learning difficulties (SpLD) attached to mainstream secondary schools was conducted as they progressed through Key Stages 3 and 4. Steady progress was made in terms of reading accuracy, reading comprehension, spelling ability and…

  5. Strengthening the Social Relationships of Mothers with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcconnell, David; Dalziel, Allison; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Laidlaw, Kathryn; Hindmarsh, Gabrielle

    2009-01-01

    Mothers with learning difficulties are often isolated within their local communities. They also report low levels of social support. Social disconnection is associated with high levels of stress and poorer mental health, and in turn, adverse parenting and child outcomes. In the study reported here, a multi-site, intervention group only, repeated…

  6. Novel Word Learning, Reading Difficulties, and Phonological Processing Skills.

    PubMed

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Burnham, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) refers to the ability to establish an arbitrary association between a visual referent and an unfamiliar label. It is now established that this ability is impaired in children with dyslexia, but the source of this deficit is yet to be specified. This study assesses PAL performance in children with reading difficulties using a modified version of the PAL paradigm, comprising a comprehension and a production phase, to determine whether the PAL deficit lies in children's ability to establish and retain novel object-novel word associations or their ability to retrieve the learned novel labels for production. Results showed that while children with reading difficulties required significantly more trials to learn the object-word associations, when they were required to use these associations in a comprehension-referent selection task, their accuracy and speed did not differ from controls. Nevertheless, children with reading difficulties were significantly less successful when they were required to produce the learned novel labels in response to the visual stimuli. Thus, these results indicate that while children with reading difficulties are successful at establishing visual-verbal associations, they have a deficit in the verbal production component of PAL tasks, which may relate to a more general underlying impairment in auditory or phonological processing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Learning Difficulties and Ethnicity: Updating a Framework for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poxton, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This update of the Framework for Action highlights the continuing relevance of its message as well as those raised by Valuing People Now. People with learning difficulties and their families from Black and minority ethnic (BME) communities have been highlighted as a priority group by Valuing People since 2001 and remain a priority for better…

  8. Reading Strategies for Elementary Students with Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, William N.; Larkin, Martha J.

    This guide to reading instruction for elementary and middle school students with learning difficulties covers a wide variety of practical instructional strategies founded in research and proven effective in classrooms. An introductory chapter notes the growing national emphasis on reading skills, especially research-based reading programs and the…

  9. The Relationship between Foreign Language Anxiety and Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Goretti B. Y.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the possible existence of causal links between anxiety and language learning difficulties by using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986) to examine anxiety and the Foreign Language Screening Instrument for Colleges (FLSI-C) (Ganschow & Sparks, 1991) to explore learning…

  10. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  11. Multiple Goals Perspective in Adolescent Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Jose Carlos; Gonzalez-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Rodriguez, Celestino; Valle, Antonio; Gonzalez-Cabanach, Ramon; Rosario, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the hypothesis of the existence of diverse motivational profiles in students with learning difficulties (LD) and the differential implications for intervention in the classroom are analyzed. Various assessment scales (academic goals, self-concept, and causal attributions) were administered to a sample of 259 students with LD,…

  12. Making Science Special for Pupils with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebbels, Susan; Evans, Stewart M.; Murphy, Lynne A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article Susan Gebbels and Stewart M. Evans from Newcastle University and Lynne A. Murphy who is a practising school teacher in north-east England discuss how they worked collaboratively on a programme of science education with a group of 16 Key Stage 3 pupils with moderate learning difficulties. The project lasted for one academic year and…

  13. Discourses of Learning Difficulty and the Conditions of School Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, David

    1999-01-01

    Although the "consensus thesis" assumes that learning difficulties arise from school structural deficiencies, a study of two English secondary schools concludes that the thesis fails to account for complexities of school development. Instead, open-ended dialog between contrasting discourses would foster dynamic school cultures. (SK)

  14. Programming for Mathematically Gifted Children with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hroub, Anies

    2010-01-01

    Findings are presented from a large two-phase research study exploring (a) the identification and (b) programming for mathematically gifted students with learning difficulties (MG/LDs) in Jordan. The second phase of the research, which is the focus of the current article, investigates the effects of two programs of instructional practices on the…

  15. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pons, Francisco; de Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick K; Doudin, Pierre-André; Harris, Paul L; Giménez-Dasí, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants' emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not for simple components. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.

  16. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties in Italian Children: Are They Associated with Other Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Marcella; Palladino, Paola

    2007-01-01

    A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and…

  17. A Case Study on Learning Difficulties and Corresponding Supports for Learning in cMOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shuang; Tang, Qi; Zhang, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    cMOOCs, which are based on connectivist learning theory, bring challenges for learners as well as opportunities for self-inquiry. Previous studies have shown that learners in cMOOCs may have difficulties learning, but these studies do not provide any in-depth, empirical explorations of student difficulties or support strategies. This paper…

  18. Supporting Lifelong Learning for People with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of supporting lifelong learning for individuals with profound and multiple learning difficulties. Lifelong learning is usually a more mainstream concept and is rarely applied to this marginalized group for whom learning "per se" is such a challenge. The paper debates whether the concept is a useful one, and what…

  19. Multisensory perceptual learning is dependent upon task difficulty.

    PubMed

    De Niear, Matthew A; Koo, Bonhwang; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-11-01

    There has been a growing interest in developing behavioral tasks to enhance temporal acuity as recent findings have demonstrated changes in temporal processing in a number of clinical conditions. Prior research has demonstrated that perceptual training can enhance temporal acuity both within and across different sensory modalities. Although certain forms of unisensory perceptual learning have been shown to be dependent upon task difficulty, this relationship has not been explored for multisensory learning. The present study sought to determine the effects of task difficulty on multisensory perceptual learning. Prior to and following a single training session, participants completed a simultaneity judgment (SJ) task, which required them to judge whether a visual stimulus (flash) and auditory stimulus (beep) presented in synchrony or at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) occurred synchronously or asynchronously. During the training session, participants completed the same SJ task but received feedback regarding the accuracy of their responses. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three levels of difficulty during training: easy, moderate, and hard, which were distinguished based on the SOAs used during training. We report that only the most difficult (i.e., hard) training protocol enhanced temporal acuity. We conclude that perceptual training protocols for enhancing multisensory temporal acuity may be optimized by employing audiovisual stimuli for which it is difficult to discriminate temporal synchrony from asynchrony.

  20. Communication Skills, Educational Achievement and Biographic Characteristics of Children with Moderate Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Susannah; Bibby, Peter; Wood, David; Leyden, Gerv

    1997-01-01

    Examines aspects of intellectual, linguistic, and academic abilities of children with moderate learning difficulties, and analyzes a profile of these abilities. Explores the relationships among several aspects of academic achievement and biographical factors. Provides a rationale for a long-term intervention study designed to develop these…

  1. Learning difficulties or learning English difficulties? Additional language acquisition: an update for paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Vanessa; Rhodes, Anthea; Paxton, Georgia

    2014-03-01

    Australia is a diverse society: 26% of the population were born overseas, a further 20% have at least one parent born overseas and 19% speak a language other than English at home. Paediatricians are frequently involved in the assessment and management of non-English-speaking-background children with developmental delay, disability or learning issues. Despite the diversity of our patient population, information on how children learn additional or later languages is remarkably absent in paediatric training. An understanding of second language acquisition is essential to provide appropriate advice to this patient group. It takes a long time (5 years or more) for any student to develop academic competency in a second language, even a student who has received adequate prior schooling in their first language. Refugee students are doubly disadvantaged as they frequently have limited or interrupted prior schooling, and many are unable to read and write in their first language. We review the evidence on second language acquisition during childhood, describe support for English language learners within the Australian education system, consider refugee-background students as a special risk group and address common misconceptions about how children learn English as an additional language.

  2. Difficulties with emotion regulation mediate the relationship between borderline personality disorder symptom severity and interpersonal problems.

    PubMed

    Herr, Nathaniel R; Rosenthal, M Zachary; Geiger, Paul J; Erikson, Karen

    2013-08-01

    Problems with interpersonal functioning and difficulties with emotion regulation are core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Little is known, however, about the interrelationship between these areas of dysfunction in accounting for BPD symptom severity. The present study examines a model of the relationship between difficulties with emotion regulation and interpersonal dysfunction in a community sample of adults (n = 124) with the full range of BPD symptoms. Results showed that difficulties with emotion regulation fully mediated the relationship between BPD symptom severity and interpersonal dysfunction. An alternative model indicated that interpersonal problems partially mediated the relationship between difficulties with emotion regulation and BPD symptom severity. These findings support existing theories of BPD, which propose that difficulties with emotion regulation may account for the types of interpersonal problems experienced by individuals with BPD and suggest further examination of the possibility that interpersonal dysfunction may worsen these individuals' difficulties with emotion regulation.

  3. Understanding Students with Learning Difficulties: How Do They Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Barbara S. S.; Chick, Kay A.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines: (1) why learning comes so naturally for some students and yet is so onerous for others; (2) why some students need constant reminders while others get on task right away; and (3) why some students "just don't get it" even after countless repetitions and multitudes of practices. This paper describes the…

  4. Assessing College-Level Learning Difficulties and "At Riskness" for Learning Disabilities and ADHD: Development and Validation of the Learning Difficulties Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Steven T.; Walker, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the "Learning Difficulties Assessment" (LDA), a normed and web-based survey that assesses perceived difficulties with reading, writing, spelling, mathematics, listening, concentration, memory, organizational skills, sense of control, and anxiety in college students. The LDA is designed to…

  5. Humans and Monkeys Exert Metacognitive Control Based on Learning Difficulty in a Perceptual Categorization Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Joshua S.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Redford (2010) found that monkeys seemed to exert metacognitive control in a category-learning paradigm. Specifically, they selected more trials to view as the difficulty of the category-learning task increased. However, category-learning difficulty was determined by manipulating the family resemblance across the to-be-learned exemplars.…

  6. Designing Accessible Learning Materials for Learners with Disabilities and Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Explains how the Open Training and Education Network in New South Wales (Australia) has addressed the issue of designing learning materials for learners in vocational and pre-vocational areas with physical, intellectual, vision, hearing, psychological, or neurological disabilities and learning difficulties, such as low literacy and numeracy…

  7. Intervention Provided to Linguistically Diverse Middle School Students with Severe Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Bryan, Deanna

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent reading intervention implemented with middle school students with severe reading difficulties, all of whom had received remedial and/or special education for several years with minimal response to intervention. Participants were 38 students in grades 6-8 who had severe deficits in word…

  8. Emotion regulation difficulties and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom cluster severity among trauma-exposed college students.

    PubMed

    O'Bryan, Emily M; McLeish, Alison C; Kraemer, Kristen M; Fleming, John B

    2015-03-01

    The present investigation examined the role of emotion regulation difficulties in predicting severity of the 3 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters (i.e., reexperiencing, hyperarousal, avoidance) in a sample of undergraduates who reported exposure to at least 1 DSM-IV-TR Criterion A traumatic event (n = 297; 77.1% female, Mage = 20.46, SD = 4.64, range = 18-50 years). Results indicated that greater difficulties with emotional acceptance significantly predicted greater avoidance and hyperarousal symptom severity above and beyond the effects of number of trauma types endorsed and negative affect. Emotion regulation difficulties were not significantly predictive of reexperiencing symptom severity. Results from an exploratory analysis indicated that greater difficulties with emotional acceptance and greater difficulties accessing effective emotion regulation strategies when upset significantly predicted the DSM-5 negative alterations in cognitions and mood symptom cluster. These findings suggest that difficulties accepting one's emotional responses, in particular, may heighten emotional responding to and avoidance of trauma-related cues. Thus, individuals who experience such difficulties may be more likely to experience negative outcomes after experiencing a traumatic event.

  9. Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David

    2012-08-01

    Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in classroom interactions, and what consequences these interactions have for individual students' conceptual understanding. This paper reports a detailed analysis of two lessons on density in a 7th Grade Australian science classroom, employing the theory of Distributed Cognition (Hollan et al. 1999; Hutchins 1995). The analysis demonstrated that student understanding of density was shaped strongly by the public classroom discussion on the density of two metal blocks. It also revealed the ambiguities associated with the teacher demonstration and the student practical work. These ambiguities contributed to student difficulties with the concept of density identified in this classroom. The results of this study suggest that deliberate effort is needed to establish shared understanding not only about the purpose of the activities, but also about the meaning of scientific language and the utility of tools. It also suggests the importance of appropriate employment of instructional resources in order to facilitate student scientific understanding.

  10. Cognitive subtypes of mathematics learning difficulties in primary education.

    PubMed

    Bartelet, Dimona; Ansari, Daniel; Vaessen, Anniek; Blomert, Leo

    2014-03-01

    It has been asserted that children with mathematics learning difficulties (MLD) constitute a heterogeneous group. To date, most researchers have investigated differences between predefined MLD subtypes. Specifically MLD children are frequently categorized a priori into groups based on the presence or absence of an additional disorder, such as a reading disorder, to examine cognitive differences between MLD subtypes. In the current study 226 third to six grade children (M age=131 months) with MLD completed a selection of number specific and general cognitive measures. The data driven approach was used to identify the extent to which performance of the MLD children on these measures could be clustered into distinct groups. In particular, after conducting a factor analysis, a 200 times repeated K-means clustering approach was used to classify the children's performance. Results revealed six distinguishable clusters of MLD children, specifically (a) a weak mental number line group, (b) weak ANS group, (c) spatial difficulties group, (d) access deficit group, (e) no numerical cognitive deficit group and (f) a garden-variety group. These findings imply that different cognitive subtypes of MLD exist and that these can be derived from data-driven approaches to classification. These findings strengthen the notion that MLD is a heterogeneous disorder, which has implications for the way in which intervention may be tailored for individuals within the different subtypes.

  11. Associations among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fakier, Nuraan; Wild, Lauren G

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the relationships among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence. Previous research suggests that these variables share an association with executive functioning deficits, and are intertwined. The sample comprised 427 adolescents (M age = 16 years) attending remedial schools and 276 adolescents (M age = 15 years) attending a mainstream school in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that adolescents without learning difficulties were more likely to use tobacco, methamphetamine and cannabis, whereas those with learning difficulties engaged in more inhalant use. Adolescents who had more sleep problems were more likely to use tobacco, alcohol, methamphetamine, cannabis, inhalants, cocaine, ecstasy and any other illegal drug. Adolescents with learning difficulties had more sleep problems than those without learning difficulties. However, sleep problems remained independently associated with tobacco, cannabis and inhalant use when learning difficulties were taken into account.

  12. Difficulty in learning similar-sounding words: A developmental stage or a general property of learning?

    PubMed

    Pajak, Bozena; Creel, Sarah C; Levy, Roger

    2016-09-01

    How are languages learned, and to what extent are learning mechanisms similar in infant native-language (L1) and adult second-language (L2) acquisition? In terms of vocabulary acquisition, we know from the infant literature that the ability to discriminate similar-sounding words at a particular age does not guarantee successful word-meaning mapping at that age (Stager & Werker, 1997). However, it is unclear whether this difficulty arises from developmental limitations of young infants (e.g., poorer working memory) or whether it is an intrinsic part of the initial word learning, L1 and L2 alike. In this study, we show that adults of particular L1 backgrounds-just like young infants-have difficulty learning similar-sounding L2 words that they can nevertheless discriminate perceptually. This suggests that the early stages of word learning, whether L1 or L2, intrinsically involve difficulty in mapping similar-sounding words onto referents. We argue that this is due to an interaction between 2 main factors: (a) memory limitations that pose particular challenges for highly similar-sounding words, and (b) uncertainty regarding the language's phonetic categories, because the categories are being learned concurrently with words. Overall, our results show that vocabulary acquisition in infancy and adulthood shares more similarities than previously thought, thus supporting the existence of common learning mechanisms that operate throughout the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Mathematical Competencies in Children with Different Types of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical performance of 182 third and fourth graders in 8 different areas of mathematics was examined. The children belonged to 4 achievement groups: children with mathematic difficulties (MD only), children with both mathematic and reading difficulties (MD-RD), children with reading difficulties (RD only), and normally achieving children…

  14. Learning approaches and learning difficulties: a comparison of Indian and Nepali dental science students.

    PubMed

    Mayya, Shreemathi S; Rao, A Krishna; Ramnarayan, K

    2002-11-01

    This study explored the difference in learning approaches and difficulties of Nepali and Indian undergraduate students of dental science. A locally developed inventory was used to measure learning approach and learning difficulties. Data collected from 166 Indians and 69 Nepalis were compared. The scores on various scales of the inventory indicate that Nepalis are more fearful and less confident regarding examination and course completion and have significantly less positive perception about academic capability. Indian students scored significantly higher on motivation, interest, and deep processing. The language problem was significantly greater for Nepali students. Higher percentages of Nepalis experienced various academic and nonacademic problems. The study highlights the need to consider difference in learning approach among the students of health science courses that admit students from different academic, nonacademic, and cultural backgrounds.

  15. A componential view of children's difficulties in learning fractions.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Florence; Coché, Frédéric; Szucs, Dénes; Carette, Vincent; Rey, Bernard; Content, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Fractions are well known to be difficult to learn. Various hypotheses have been proposed in order to explain those difficulties: fractions can denote different concepts; their understanding requires a conceptual reorganization with regard to natural numbers; and using fractions involves the articulation of conceptual knowledge with complex manipulation of procedures. In order to encompass the major aspects of knowledge about fractions, we propose to distinguish between conceptual and procedural knowledge. We designed a test aimed at assessing the main components of fraction knowledge. The test was carried out by fourth-, fifth- and sixth-graders from the French Community of Belgium. The results showed large differences between categories. Pupils seemed to master the part-whole concept, whereas numbers and operations posed problems. Moreover, pupils seemed to apply procedures they do not fully understand. Our results offer further directions to explain why fractions are amongst the most difficult mathematical topics in primary education. This study offers a number of recommendations on how to teach fractions.

  16. A componential view of children's difficulties in learning fractions

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Florence; Coché, Frédéric; Szucs, Dénes; Carette, Vincent; Rey, Bernard; Content, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Fractions are well known to be difficult to learn. Various hypotheses have been proposed in order to explain those difficulties: fractions can denote different concepts; their understanding requires a conceptual reorganization with regard to natural numbers; and using fractions involves the articulation of conceptual knowledge with complex manipulation of procedures. In order to encompass the major aspects of knowledge about fractions, we propose to distinguish between conceptual and procedural knowledge. We designed a test aimed at assessing the main components of fraction knowledge. The test was carried out by fourth-, fifth- and sixth-graders from the French Community of Belgium. The results showed large differences between categories. Pupils seemed to master the part-whole concept, whereas numbers and operations posed problems. Moreover, pupils seemed to apply procedures they do not fully understand. Our results offer further directions to explain why fractions are amongst the most difficult mathematical topics in primary education. This study offers a number of recommendations on how to teach fractions. PMID:24133471

  17. Etiology of Reading Difficulties as a Function of Gender and Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Jesse L.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.

    2007-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the etiology of reading difficulties may differ for males and females in more severely impaired samples, reading performance data from monozygotic (MZ), same-sex dizygotic (DZ[subscript ss]), and opposite-sex dizygotic (DZ[subscript os]) twin pairs were analyzed using a model-fitting implementation of the DeFries-Fulker…

  18. Assessing college-level learning difficulties and "at riskness" for learning disabilities and ADHD: development and validation of the learning difficulties assessment.

    PubMed

    Kane, Steven T; Walker, John H; Schmidt, George R

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Learning Difficulties Assessment (LDA), a normed and web-based survey that assesses perceived difficulties with reading, writing, spelling, mathematics, listening, concentration, memory, organizational skills, sense of control, and anxiety in college students. The LDA is designed to (a) map individual learning strengths and weaknesses, (b) provide users with a comparative sense of their academic skills, (c) integrate research in user-interface design to assist those with reading and learning challenges, and (d) identify individuals who may be at risk for learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and who should thus be further assessed. Data from a large-scale 5-year study describing the instrument's validity as a screening tool for learning disabilities and ADHD are presented. This article also describes unique characteristics of the LDA including its user-interface design, normative characteristics, and use as a no-cost screening tool for identifying college students at risk for learning disorders and ADHD.

  19. Laptops Meet Schools, One-One Draw: M-Learning for Secondary Students with Literacy Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul F.; Amberson, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Mobile technology-enhanced literacy initiatives have become a focus of efforts to support learning for students with literacy difficulties. The "Laptops Initiative for Post-Primary Students with Dyslexia or other Reading/Writing Difficulties" offers insights into and addresses questions about ICT policy making regarding m-learning technologies for…

  20. Social Play of Young Children At-Risk of Learning Difficulties: A Situated Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina M.; Van Tol, Annemarie M.; Karemaker, Arjette M.

    2004-01-01

    The question asked by this study was whether information on play behaviour of young children at-risk of learning difficulties could act as a diagnostic means of investigating emerging learning difficulties. A sociocultural perspective was taken to examine the role of interaction during the play of students in a regular primary school and in a…

  1. New Comers: The Difficulties They Encounter Learning the Target Language and Possible Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassama, Sorie

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the difficulties encountered by newcomers from diverse backgrounds who come to the United States with the desire to learn English and further their studies. Most of these newcomers sometimes face insurmountable difficulties while trying to learn the new language. In some cases, they hit brick walls and the only negative…

  2. The Prevalence and Outcomes of Care Proceedings Involving Parents with Learning Difficulties in the Family Courts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Tim; Booth, Wendy; McConnell, David

    2005-01-01

    Background: Parents with learning difficulties are known to face a high risk of losing their children. This paper reports findings from a study designed to throw light on the numbers of parents with learning difficulties and their children coming before the Family Courts in Children Act proceedings and what happened to them as a result. Method:…

  3. Psychometric Properties of a Newly Developed Learning Difficulties Scale in the Omani Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qaryout, Ibrahim A.; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.; Alsulaimani, Humaira

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Learning difficulties (LD) is a recent construct. It has been agreed that the individual who suffers from learning difficulties has a disorder in one or more of the basis psychological processes, including attention, cognition, formation of concepts, memory, problem solving, understanding or reading, speaking or writing, or…

  4. Visually Impaired People with Learning Difficulties: Their Education from 1900 to 1970--Policy, Practice and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Sally

    2008-01-01

    By means of documentary evidence and six in-depth interviews, this paper traces policy and practice relating to the education of visually impaired children with learning difficulties from 1900 to 1970. It reveals that if visually impaired children with learning difficulties were given an education at all, their needs were not usually met and they…

  5. A Few Steps along the Road? Promoting Support for Parents with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarleton, Beth

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of research and development work around parenting by adults with a learning difficulty undertaken at the Norah Fry Research Centre (NFRC) since 2005. It discusses how our understanding of the support needs of parents with learning difficulties grew through an initial mapping study which led to the concept of…

  6. Mutual Support: A Model of Participatory Support by and for People with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Sarah E.; Brandon, Toby

    2012-01-01

    Mutual Support, a model of peer support by and for people with learning difficulties, was constructed through a participatory research process. The research focussed on individual narratives from people with learning difficulties. These narratives were then brought together to form a collective model of support. This paper outlines the detailed…

  7. Reconsidering Learning Difficulties and Misconceptions in Chemistry: Emergence in Chemistry and Its Implications for Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Identifying students' misconceptions and learning difficulties and finding effective ways of addressing them has been one of the major concerns in chemistry education. However, the chemistry education community has paid little attention to determining discipline-specific aspects of chemistry that can lead to learning difficulties and…

  8. Recollection but Not Familiarity Differentiates Memory for Text in Students with and without Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirandola, Chiara; Del Prete, Francesco; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2011-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating recognition memory and recollective experience for a text in adolescents with and without learning difficulties. Adolescents (age 15 to 19) with learning difficulties were selected based on their performance on a standardized test for text comprehension and on the teachers' evaluations of their…

  9. Parental Account of Support for Specific Learning Difficulties in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong; McBrayer, Philip Allen

    2013-01-01

    Parents play a significant role in the education of children with special needs. Recent national policies have aimed to improve support for students with specific learning difficulties and their families in Hong Kong. Literature on the experiences of children with specific learning difficulties in Hong Kong is scarce. This study, by Kim Fong…

  10. Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire: Validation of a Parent-Report Screening Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willcutt, Erik G.; Boada, Richard; Riddle, Margaret W.; Chhabildas, Nomita; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the internal structure and convergent and discriminant evidence for the Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire (CLDQ), a 20-item parent-report rating scale that was developed to provide a brief screening measure for learning difficulties. CLDQ ratings were obtained from parents of children in 2 large community samples…

  11. The Vision of Children with Learning Difficulties: The Role of the Teacher and Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Marilyn A.

    1981-01-01

    The role of optometry in the study of learning difficulties and the problems of interpreting research results in the fields of optometry and ophthalmology are discussed. Limitations of school visual screening are described, and it is suggested that many children with learning difficulties should be referred for a full clinical visual examination.…

  12. Identifying Students' Difficulties When Learning Technical Skills via a Wireless Sensor Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jingying; Wen, Ming-Lee; Jou, Min

    2016-01-01

    Practical training and actual application of acquired knowledge and techniques are crucial for the learning of technical skills. We established a wireless sensor network system (WSNS) based on the 5E learning cycle in a practical learning environment to improve students' reflective abilities and to reduce difficulties for the learning of technical…

  13. Failure to learn from feedback underlies word learning difficulties in toddlers at risk for autism.

    PubMed

    Bedford, R; Gliga, T; Frame, K; Hudry, K; Chandler, S; Johnson, M H; Charman, T

    2013-01-01

    Children's assignment of novel words to nameless objects, over objects whose names they know (mutual exclusivity; ME) has been described as a driving force for vocabulary acquisition. Despite their ability to use ME to fast-map words (Preissler & Carey, 2005), children with autism show impaired language acquisition. We aimed to address this puzzle by building on studies showing that correct referent selection using ME does not lead to word learning unless ostensive feedback is provided on the child's object choice (Horst & Samuelson, 2008). We found that although toddlers aged 2;0 at risk for autism can use ME to choose the correct referent of a word, they do not benefit from feedback for long-term retention of the word-object mapping. Further, their difficulty using feedback is associated with their smaller receptive vocabularies. We propose that difficulties learning from social feedback, not lexical principles, limits vocabulary building during development in children at risk for autism.

  14. Unconscious and Unnoticed Professional Practice within an Outstanding School for Children and Young People with Complex Learning Difficulties and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crombie, Richard; Sullivan, Lesley; Walker, Kate; Warnock, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a three-year project undertaken at Pear Tree School for children and young people with severe and multiple and profound learning difficulties. Lesley Sullivan, the school's head teacher, believed that much of the value within the work of this outstanding school went unidentified by existing approaches to planning, monitoring…

  15. Provision for Students with Learning Difficulties in General Colleges of Further Education--Have We Been Going Round in Circles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Anne-Marie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Anne-Marie Wright, lecturer at the University of Chester, considers the current situation for students with severe learning difficulties in general colleges of further education. She presents findings from a critical review of the literature and a small-scale preliminary investigation which set out to explore the idea that,…

  16. Reducing Verbal Redundancy in Multimedia Learning: An Undesired Desirable Difficulty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Carole L.; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon; Bjork, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on the redundancy principle in multimedia learning has shown that although exact correspondence between on-screen text and narration generally impairs learning, brief labels within an animation can improve learning. To clarify and extend the theoretical and practical implications of these results, the authors of the present…

  17. The effects of technical difficulties on learning and attrition during online training.

    PubMed

    Sitzmann, Traci; Ely, Katherine; Bell, Bradford S; Bauer, Kristina N

    2010-09-01

    Although online instruction has many potential benefits, technical difficulties are one drawback to the increased use of this medium. A repeated measures design was used to examine the effect that technical difficulties have on learning and attrition from voluntary online training. Adult learners (N = 530) were recruited online and volunteered to participate in a 4-hr training program on using computer spreadsheets. Technical difficulties were inserted in some of the training modules in the form of error messages. Using multilevel modeling, the results indicated that the presence of these technical difficulties impaired learning, such that test scores were lower in modules where trainees encountered technical difficulties than in modules where they did not encounter technical difficulties. Furthermore, the effect on learning was greater among trainees who eventually withdrew from the course than among trainees who completed the course. With regards to attrition, pretraining motivation provided a buffer against dropping out, especially when trainees encountered technical difficulties. Learning also predicted attrition from the subsequent module, such that attrition was higher among trainees with low test scores in the previous module. The current study disentangles some of the implications of technical difficulties and suggests that organizations should provide trainees with the technical support required to overcome technical difficulties in training. Furthermore, the findings contribute to our theoretical understanding of the implications of interruptions on performance in online training.

  18. [The comorbidity of learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms in primary-school-age children].

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Fischbach, Anne; Balke-Melcher, Christina; Mähler, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Children having difficulties in acquiring early literacy and mathematical skills often show an increased rate of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This study provides data on the comorbidity rates of specific learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 273 children with learning difficulties despite an at least average IQ, 57 children with low IQ, and 270 children without learning difficulties and average IQ (comparison group). We assessed children’s IQ and school achievement using standardized achievement tests. ADHD symptoms were assessed via parents’ ratings. Our results showed that only 5 % of both the control group and the group with solely mathematical difficulties fulfilled the criteria of an ADHD subtype according to the DSM-IV based on parents’ ratings. In contrast, this was the case in even 20 % of the children with difficulties in reading/writing and of those with low IQ. Compared to girls, boys in the control group had a 150% higher risk for matching the criteria of one of the ADHD subtypes in parents’ ratings, whereas boys with learning difficulties and those with low IQ had an even 200% to 600% higher risk for it. The relationship between learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms can be found predominantly in the inattentive type. Possible reasons for the results are discussed.

  19. Strategy Acquisition by Children with General Learning Difficulties through Metacognitive Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Melanie S.; Hessels, Marco G. P.; Hessels-Schlatter, Christine; Berger, Jean-Louis; Kipfer, Nadine M.; Buchel, Fredi P.

    2010-01-01

    Children with general learning difficulties commonly show lower school success and have a slower rate of learning. They show limited and inefficient strategy use in all kinds of tasks. Efficient strategy use requires a certain degree of metacognitive knowledge and executive control. A sample of 16 children (ages 8 to 12) with learning difficulties…

  20. Contributions from specific and general factors to unique deficits: two cases of mathematics learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Haase, Vitor G; Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Lopes-Silva, Júlia B; Starling-Alves, Isabella; Antunes, Andressa M; Pinheiro-Chagas, Pedro; Wood, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics learning difficulties are a highly comorbid and heterogeneous set of disorders linked to several dissociable mechanisms and endophenotypes. Two of these endophenotypes consist of primary deficits in number sense and verbal numerical representations. However, currently acknowledged endophenotypes are underspecified regarding the role of automatic vs. controlled information processing, and their description should be complemented. Two children with specific deficits in number sense and verbal numerical representations and normal or above-normal intelligence and preserved visuospatial cognition illustrate this point. Child H.V. exhibited deficits in number sense and fact retrieval. Child G.A. presented severe deficits in orally presented problems and transcoding tasks. A partial confirmation of the two endophenotypes that relate to the number sense and verbal processing was obtained, but a much more clear differentiation between the deficits presented by H.V. and G.A. can be reached by looking at differential impairments in modes of processing. H.V. is notably competent in the use of controlled processing but has problems with more automatic processes, such as nonsymbolic magnitude processing, speeded counting and fact retrieval. In contrast, G.A. can retrieve facts and process nonsymbolic magnitudes but exhibits severe impairment in recruiting executive functions and the concentration that is necessary to accomplish transcoding tasks and word problem solving. These results indicate that typical endophenotypes might be insufficient to describe accurately the deficits that are observed in children with mathematics learning abilities. However, by incorporating domain-specificity and modes of processing into the assessment of the endophenotypes, individual deficit profiles can be much more accurately described. This process calls for further specification of the endophenotypes in mathematics learning difficulties.

  1. Contributions from specific and general factors to unique deficits: two cases of mathematics learning difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Vitor G.; Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Lopes-Silva, Júlia B.; Starling-Alves, Isabella; Antunes, Andressa M.; Pinheiro-Chagas, Pedro; Wood, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics learning difficulties are a highly comorbid and heterogeneous set of disorders linked to several dissociable mechanisms and endophenotypes. Two of these endophenotypes consist of primary deficits in number sense and verbal numerical representations. However, currently acknowledged endophenotypes are underspecified regarding the role of automatic vs. controlled information processing, and their description should be complemented. Two children with specific deficits in number sense and verbal numerical representations and normal or above-normal intelligence and preserved visuospatial cognition illustrate this point. Child H.V. exhibited deficits in number sense and fact retrieval. Child G.A. presented severe deficits in orally presented problems and transcoding tasks. A partial confirmation of the two endophenotypes that relate to the number sense and verbal processing was obtained, but a much more clear differentiation between the deficits presented by H.V. and G.A. can be reached by looking at differential impairments in modes of processing. H.V. is notably competent in the use of controlled processing but has problems with more automatic processes, such as nonsymbolic magnitude processing, speeded counting and fact retrieval. In contrast, G.A. can retrieve facts and process nonsymbolic magnitudes but exhibits severe impairment in recruiting executive functions and the concentration that is necessary to accomplish transcoding tasks and word problem solving. These results indicate that typical endophenotypes might be insufficient to describe accurately the deficits that are observed in children with mathematics learning abilities. However, by incorporating domain-specificity and modes of processing into the assessment of the endophenotypes, individual deficit profiles can be much more accurately described. This process calls for further specification of the endophenotypes in mathematics learning difficulties. PMID:24592243

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Deficits in Children With Learning Difficulties: Is There a Difference Between Verbal Domain and Numerical Domain?

    PubMed

    Peng, Peng; Fuchs, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Children with learning difficulties suffer from working memory (WM) deficits. Yet the specificity of deficits associated with different types of learning difficulties remains unclear. Further research can contribute to our understanding of the nature of WM and the relationship between it and learning difficulties. The current meta-analysis synthesized research on verbal WM and numerical WM among children with reading difficulties (RD), children with mathematics difficulties (MD), and children with reading and mathematics difficulties (RDMD). A total of 29 studies subsuming 110 comparisons were included. Results showed that compared to typically developing children, all learning difficulty groups demonstrated deficits in verbal WM and numerical WM, with RDMD children showing the most severe WM deficits. MD children and RD children showed comparable verbal WM deficits, but MD children showed more severe numerical WM deficits than RD children. Neither severity of learning difficulties nor type of academic screening emerged as a moderator of WM deficit profiles. Although the findings indicate the domain-general nature of WM deficits in RD, MD, and RDMD children, the numerical WM deficits of children with MD and RDMD may reflect the domain-specific nature of WM deficits.

  3. Difficulty in Learning To Read Speech Spectrograms: The Role of Visual Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrys, Gareth

    This study was conducted to demonstrate that a context-dependent discrimination can produce learning difficulty in a pseudo-spectrogram reading task and to look at what contribution segmentation makes to that difficulty. Experiment one involved 10 subjects recruited from the University of Pittsburgh, who were shown pseudo-spectrogram patterns and…

  4. Initial Understandings of Fraction Concepts Evidenced by Students with Mathematics Learning Disabilities and Difficulties: A Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jessica H.; Welch-Ptak, Jasmine J.; Silva, Juanita M.

    2016-01-01

    Documenting how students with learning disabilities (LD) initially conceive of fractional quantities, and how their understandings may align with or differ from students with mathematics difficulties, is necessary to guide development of assessments and interventions that attach to unique ways of thinking or inherent difficulties these students…

  5. A Review of the Approaches Investigating the Post-16 Transition of Young Adults with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into the lives and transition from compulsory schooling of young adults with a disability, including a learning difficulty (LD), are increasing. The emerging consensus is one which points to this group of young people experiencing greater difficulties and poorer outcomes compared to the general population. How these investigations…

  6. Learners' Listening Comprehension Difficulties in English Language Learning: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein; Sabouri, Narjes Banou

    2016-01-01

    Listening is one of the most important skills in English language learning. When students listen to English language, they face a lot of listening difficulties. Students have critical difficulties in listening comprehension because universities and schools pay more attention to writing, reading, and vocabulary. Listening is not an important part…

  7. Self-Reported Written Language Difficulties of University Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judith Osgood

    1993-01-01

    A study used structured interviews to explore the nature of written language difficulties of 31 university students with learning disabilities. Discussion of results addressed perceived demands for written expression; specific areas of difficulty (proofreading/detecting errors, spelling, grammar, writing speed, legibility); strategies used to…

  8. The Learning Needs of Young Adults with Mental Health Difficulties. NIACE Briefing Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

    A 1996 report recognized the benefits of effective learning provision and the impact that mental health difficulties can have on quality of life of young adults in the United Kingdom. The range of mental health difficulties experienced by young adults in the United Kingdom and elsewhere is similar to that experienced by the older population and…

  9. Ranking the Difficulty Level of the Knowledge Units Based on Learning Dependency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jun; Sha, Sha; Zheng, Qinghua; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Assigning difficulty level indicators to the knowledge units helps the learners plan their learning activities more efficiently. This paper focuses on how to use the topology of a knowledge map to compute and rank the difficulty levels of knowledge units. Firstly, the authors present the hierarchical structure and properties of the knowledge map.…

  10. The Effects of Technical Difficulties on Learning and Attrition during Online Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzmann, Traci; Ely, Katherine; Bell, Bradford S.; Bauer, Kristina N.

    2010-01-01

    Although online instruction has many potential benefits, technical difficulties are one drawback to the increased use of this medium. A repeated measures design was used to examine the effect that technical difficulties have on learning and attrition from voluntary online training. Adult learners (N = 530) were recruited online and volunteered to…

  11. Students with Learning Difficulties Meet Shakespeare: Using a Scaffolded Reading Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Sally Sue; Watts, Susan M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes teaching a Shakespearean play ("Macbeth") to eighth and ninth graders with learning difficulties. Describes combining a scaffolded reading experience with an interdisciplinary unit approach to maximize student engagement and success. (SR)

  12. Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning: Implications for Helping Children With Mathematics Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Nancy C; Resnick, Ilyse; Rodrigues, Jessica; Hansen, Nicole; Dyson, Nancy

    2016-08-09

    The goal of the present article is to synthesize findings to date from the Delaware Longitudinal Study of Fraction Learning. The study followed a large cohort of children (N = 536) between Grades 3 and 6. The findings showed that many students, especially those with diagnosed learning disabilities, made minimal growth in fraction knowledge and that some showed only a basic grasp of the meaning of a fraction even after several years of instruction. Children with low growth in fraction knowledge during the intermediate grades were much more likely to fail to meet state standards on a broad mathematics measure at the end of Grade 6. Although a range of general and mathematics-specific competencies predicted fraction outcomes, the ability to estimate numerical magnitudes on a number line was a uniquely important marker of fraction success. Many children with mathematics difficulties have deep-seated problems related to whole number magnitude representations that are complicated by the introduction of fractions into the curriculum. Implications for helping students with mathematics difficulties are discussed.

  13. Modeling perceptual learning: difficulties and how they can be overcome.

    PubMed

    Herzog, M H; Fahle, M

    1998-02-01

    We investigated the roles of feedback and attention in training a vernier discrimination task as an example of perceptual learning. Human learning even of simple stimuli, such as verniers, relies on more complex mechanisms than previously expected--ruling out simple neural network models. These findings are not just an empirical oddity but are evidence that present models fail to reflect some important characteristics of the learning process. We will list some of the problems of neural networks and develop a new model that solves them by incorporating top-down mechanisms. Contrary to neural networks, in our model learning is not driven by the set of stimuli only. Internal estimations of performance and knowledge about the task are also incorporated. Our model implies that under certain conditions the detectability of only some of the stimuli is enhanced while the overall improvement of performance is attributed to a change of decision criteria. An experiment confirms this prediction.

  14. Intervention Provided to Linguistically Diverse Middle School Students with Severe Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Bryan, Deanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent reading intervention implemented with middle school students with severe reading difficulties, all of whom had received remedial and/or special education for several years with minimal response to intervention. Participants were 38 students in grades 6–8 who had severe deficits in word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Most were Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) with identified disabilities. Nearly all demonstrated severely limited oral vocabularies in English and, for ELLs, in both English and Spanish. Students were randomly assigned to receive the research intervention (n = 20) or typical instruction provided in their school’s remedial reading or special education classes (n = 18). Students in the treatment group received daily explicit and systematic small-group intervention for 40 minutes over 13 weeks, consisting of a modified version of a phonics-based remedial program augmented with English as a Second Language practices and instruction in vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension strategies. Results indicated that treatment students did not demonstrate significantly higher outcomes in word recognition, comprehension, or fluency than students who received the school’s typical instruction and that neither group demonstrated significant growth over the course of the study. Significant correlations were found between scores on teachers’ ratings of students’ social skills and problem behaviors and posttest decoding and spelling scores, and between English oral vocabulary scores and scores in word identification and comprehension. The researchers hypothesize that middle school students with the most severe reading difficulties, particularly those who are ELLs and those with limited oral vocabularies, may require intervention of considerably greater intensity than that provided in this study. Further research directly addressing features of effective remediation

  15. Auditory middle latency response in children with learning difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo; Issac, Myriam Lima; Pontes-Fernandes, Angela Cristina; Menezes, Pedro de Lemos; Funayama, Carolina Araújo Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: This is an objective laboratory assessment of the central auditory systems of children with learning disabilities. Aim: To examine and determine the properties of the components of the Auditory Middle Latency Response in a sample of children with learning disabilities. Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional cohort study with quantitative, descriptive, and exploratory outcomes. We included 50 children aged 8–13 years of both genders with and without learning disorders. Those with disorders of known organic, environmental, or genetic causes were excluded. Results and Conclusions: The Na, Pa, and Nb waves were identified in all subjects. The ranges of the latency component values were as follows: Na = 9.8–32.3 ms, Pa = 19.0–51.4 ms, Nb = 30.0–64.3 ms (learning disorders group) and Na = 13.2–29.6 ms, Pa = 21.8–42.8 ms, Nb = 28.4–65.8 ms (healthy group). The values of the Na-Pa amplitude ranged from 0.3 to 6.8 ìV (learning disorders group) or 0.2–3.6 ìV (learning disorders group). Upon analysis, the functional characteristics of the groups were distinct: the left hemisphere Nb latency was longer in the study group than in the control group. Peculiarities of the electrophysiological measures were observed in the children with learning disorders. This study has provided information on the Auditory Middle Latency Response and can serve as a reference for other clinical and experimental studies in children with these disorders. PMID:25991954

  16. Realizing a Social Practices Approach in Literacy Learning: Engaging with the Everyday Lives of Adults with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Alastair; Hunter, Katie

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an action research project funded by the Scottish Government through Learning Connections (March 2006 to April 2007) to develop and explore the potential for enhancing literacies learning for adults with learning difficulties by engaging with their systems of care and/or support. The paper explores the ways in…

  17. Forms of Generalization in Students Experiencing Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santi, George; Baccaglini-Frank, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We shift the view of a special needs student away from the acknowledged view, that is as a student who requires interventions to restore a currently expected functioning behaviour, introducing a new paradigm to frame special needs students' learning of mathematics. We use the theory of objectification and the new paradigm to look at (and…

  18. Appropriate Help for Secondary Students with Specific Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Virginia

    This paper presents the program and general details of the Learning Disabilities Clinic (LDC) at the Southampton University (England) School of Education, which focuses on the students' curriculum and stresses close co-operation with the school. The program makes the students active agents in developing their own strategies with LDC help. Students…

  19. Writing Better: Effective Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Whether they have learning disabilities or just need extra help, struggling writers can improve their skills dramatically if they get the detailed, explicit instruction they need. This practical guidebook shows elementary school teachers how to make this systematic instruction part of their classroom. Educators will find a wide range of specific…

  20. Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire: validation of a parent-report screening measure.

    PubMed

    Willcutt, Erik G; Boada, Richard; Riddle, Margaret W; Chhabildas, Nomita; DeFries, John C; Pennington, Bruce F

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated the internal structure and convergent and discriminant evidence for the Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire (CLDQ), a 20-item parent-report rating scale that was developed to provide a brief screening measure for learning difficulties. CLDQ ratings were obtained from parents of children in 2 large community samples and 2 samples from clinics that specialize in the assessment of learning disabilities and related disorders (total N = 8,004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 5 correlated but separable dimensions that were labeled reading, math, social cognition, social anxiety, and spatial difficulties. Results revealed strong convergent and discriminant evidence for the CLDQ Reading scale, suggesting that this scale may provide a useful method to screen for reading difficulties in both research studies and clinical settings. Results are also promising for the other 4 CLDQ scales, but additional research is needed to refine each of these measures.

  1. Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire:Validation of a parent-report screening measure

    PubMed Central

    Willcutt, Erik G.; Boada, Richard; Riddle, Margaret W.; Chhabildas, Nomita; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the internal structure and convergent and discriminant evidence for the Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire (CLDQ), a 20-item parent-report rating scale that was developed to provide a brief screening measure for learning difficulties. CLDQ ratings were obtained from parents of children in two large community samples and two samples from clinics that specialize in the assessment of learning disabilities and related disorders (total N = 8,004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed five correlated but separable dimensions that were labeled reading, math, social cognition, social anxiety, and spatial difficulties. Results revealed strong convergent and discriminant evidence for the CLDQ Reading scale, suggesting that this scale may provide a useful method to screen for reading difficulties in both research studies and clinical settings. Results are also promising for the other four CLDQ scales, but additional research is needed to refine each of these measures. PMID:21574721

  2. Learning about Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunodeficiency From The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Learning About Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) What is ... immunodeficiency From The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Get Email Updates Advancing human health through genomics ...

  3. Identifying College Students at Risk for Learning Disabilities: Evidence for Use of the Learning Difficulties Assessment in Postsecondary Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Steven T.; Roy, Soma; Medina, Steffanie

    2013-01-01

    This article describes research supporting the use of the Learning Difficulties Assessment (LDA), a normed and no-cost, web-based survey that assesses difficulties with reading, writing, spelling, mathematics, listening, concentration, memory, organizational skills, sense of control, and anxiety in college students. Previous research has supported…

  4. Effects of Semantic Ambiguity Detection Training on Reading Comprehension Achievement of English Learners with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozwik, Sara L.; Douglas, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how explicit instruction in semantic ambiguity detection affected the reading comprehension and metalinguistic awareness of five English learners (ELs) with learning difficulties (e.g., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, specific learning disability). A multiple probe across participants design (Gast & Ledford, 2010)…

  5. Teaching Writing to Students with Learning Difficulties in Inclusive English Classrooms: Lessons from an Exemplary Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kraayenoord, Christina E.; Miller, Robyn; Moni, Karen B.; Jobling, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of an exemplary teacher who was a participant in a professional learning project, WriteIdeas. The teacher provided instructional support in writing to a targeted student with learning difficulties in an inclusive Year 8 English classroom. Analytical frameworks were developed and applied to the data that had…

  6. Transfer Skills across a National Curriculum: The Role of Cognitive Strategies for Children with Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugden, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Under the National Curriculum in the United Kingdom, children with learning difficulties will need to use transfer skills for various cross-curricular themes. To promote transfer, the use of cognitive strategies is recommended, including perceived similarity, analysis of the learning context, expert scaffolding, and detailed planning of practice…

  7. Two-Stage Screening for Math Problem-Solving Difficulty Using Dynamic Assessment of Algebraic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hollenbeck, Kurstin N.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Seethaler, Pamela M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of a dynamic assessment (DA) of algebraic learning in predicting third graders' development of mathematics word-problem difficulty. In the fall, 122 third-grade students were assessed on a test of math word-problem skill and DA of algebraic learning. In the spring, they were assessed on…

  8. Storytelling Supported by Technology: An Alternative for EFL Children with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sy-ying

    2012-01-01

    This action research aims to investigate how technology improves the conditions of storytelling to help enhance the learning attitude and motivation of EFL children with learning difficulty using power point designs and an online recording system--VoiceThread (http://voicethread.com/). The use of power point designs is to assure children of clear…

  9. Working Memory Performance of Italian Students with Foreign Language Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, Paola; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ability to learn a foreign language is related to working memory. However, there is no clear evidence about which component of working memory may be involved. Two experiments investigated working memory problems in groups of seventh and eighth grade Italian children with difficulties in learning English as a second…

  10. Influencing Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Mathematics for Numeracy to Students with Mathematics Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Kim

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the beliefs of a group of K-8 mathematics teachers about appropriate goals and methods of mathematics teaching for students with mathematics learning difficulties and for students generally. The teachers were involved in a brief professional learning program that aimed to provide them with effective strategies for mathematics…

  11. Assistance of Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties: How Can Research Support Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Petra; Beswick, Kim; DeBlois, Lucie; Healy, Lulu; Opitz, Elisabeth Moser

    2016-01-01

    When looking at teaching and learning processes in mathematics education students with mathematical learning difficulties or disabilities are of great interest. To approach the question of how research can support practice to assist these students one has to clarify the group or groups of students that we are talking about. The following…

  12. Too Late at Eight: Prevention and Intervention, Young Children's Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Joan K., Ed.

    The report contains 15 papers given at a 1979 Australian conference on prevention and intervention with young children at risk of developmental and learning difficulties. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Prevention and Early Amelioration of Developmental and Learning Disabilities: Progress, Problems and Prospects" (W.…

  13. Movement and Learning in the Early Years: Supporting Dyspraxia (DCD) and Other Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintrye, Christine; McVitty, Kim

    2004-01-01

    This book is written to support parents and practitioners who wish to understand movement and how it contributes to all aspects of learning--intellectual, social and emotional, as well as the movement/motor aspect itself. Moreover, as there is a huge increase in the number of children with movement learning difficulties (Keen, 2001), that is…

  14. Spatial Working Memory and Arithmetic Deficits in Children with Nonverbal Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammarella, Irene Cristina; Lucangeli, Daniela; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Visuospatial working memory and its involvement in arithmetic were examined in two groups of 7- to 11-year-olds: one comprising children described by teachers as displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning difficulties (N = 21), the other a control group without learning disabilities (N = 21). The two groups were matched for verbal abilities, age,…

  15. Learning Computing Topics in Undergraduate Information Systems Courses: Managing Perceived Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Jeffrey D.; Knapp, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Learning technical computing skills is increasingly important in our technology driven society. However, learning technical skills in information systems (IS) courses can be difficult. More than 20 percent of students in some technical courses may dropout or fail. Unfortunately, little is known about students' perceptions of the difficulty of…

  16. Towards Motivation-Based Adaptation of Difficulty in E-Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endler, Anke; Rey, Gunter Daniel; Butz, Martin V.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if an e-learning environment may use measurements of the user's current motivation to adapt the level of task difficulty for more effective learning. In the reported study, motivation-based adaptation was applied randomly to collect a wide range of data for different adaptations in a variety of…

  17. Sexual Difficulties

    MedlinePlus

    ... and conditions Caregiving Wellness Staying active Mental health Sexual health Sexual difficulties Protecting yourself Safety and abuse Falls ... updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Sexual health Healthy Aging Sexual difficulties Learn more about men's ...

  18. Children who experience difficulties with learning: mother and child perceptions of social competence.

    PubMed

    Carman, Sarah N; Chapparo, Christine J

    2012-10-01

    There is an emphasis on the social competence of children who have difficulties with learning as a significant percentage also experience reduced social skills. Social competence in the classroom is becoming increasingly important as the school curriculum incorporates group work and socially directed activities for purposes of learning. A goal of occupational therapy for children with learning difficulties and their parents is that they 'fit' into their social group and form friendships. While teachers are able to identify social skills that are required for life at school, less is known about how children perceive their interactions. This study aimed to explore social interaction during occupational performance at school and at home from the perception of children with learning difficulties and their mothers. Participants included 10, 8- to 12-year-old children who had difficulties with learning and their 10 mothers. Children were interviewed using semi-structured focus groups. Mothers participated in semi-structured interviews. Four main themes emerged from this study, including the importance of social skills, effects of poor social skills, difficulties with planning and problem solving in social situations and impact of social competence on a child's occupational performance. The study revealed that social participation is perceived to be an integral part of the child's ability to participate in occupational performance, and that children have definite perspectives on the importance of social competence. Children in this study indicated that their social skills were adequate when in an one-to-one situation but not in a group.

  19. Sensorimotor Difficulties Are Associated with the Severity of Autism Spectrum Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hannant, Penelope; Cassidy, Sarah; Tavassoli, Teresa; Mann, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Present diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC) include social communication and interaction difficulties, repetitive behavior and movement, and atypical sensory responsivity. Few studies have explored the influence of motor coordination and sensory responsivity on severity of ASC symptoms. In the current study, we explore whether sensory responsivity and motor coordination differences can account for the severity of autistic behaviors in children with ASC. Thirty-six children participated: 18 (13 male, 5 female) with ASC (ages 7–16: mean age = 9.93 years) and 18 (7 male, 11 female) typically developing (TD) children (ages 6–12; mean age = 9.16 years). Both groups completed a battery of assessments that included motor coordination, sensory responsivity, receptive language, non-verbal reasoning and social communication measures. Children with ASC also completed the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Autism Diagnostic Interview—Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that children with ASC scored significantly lower on receptive language, coordination, sensory responsivity and a sensorimotor subscale, Modulation of Activity (MoA) compared to the TD group. In the ASC group, MoA significantly predicted ASC severity across all ASC measures; receptive language and sensory responsivity significantly predicted parental reported autism measures; and coordination significantly predicted examiner observed reported scores. Additionally, specific associations were found between the somatosensory perceptive modalities and ASC severity. The results show that sensorimotor skills are associated with severity of ASC symptoms; furthering the need to research sensorimotor integration in ASC and also implying that diagnosis of ASC should also include the assessment of both coordination deficit and atypical sensory responsivity. PMID:27582694

  20. Forward and backward digit span difficulties in children with specific learning disorder.

    PubMed

    Giofrè, David; Stoppa, Ernesto; Ferioli, Paolo; Pezzuti, Lina; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    This study examined performance in the forward and backward digit span task of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) in a large group of children with specific learning disorder (SLD) as compared with a group of typically developing children matched for age and sex. Our results further support the hypothesis that the intellectual difficulties of children with SLD involve working memory in the forward digit span task to a greater extent than in the backward digit span task. The correlation of the two spans with a General Ability Index (GAI) was similar in SLD, and smaller in magnitude than in typically developing children. Despite a GAI within normal range, children with SLD had difficulty with both digit span tasks, but more so for forward span. This pattern was similar for different SLD profiles with clinical diagnoses of dyslexia and mixed disorder, but the impairments were more severe in the latter. Age differences were also investigated, demonstrating larger span impairment in older children with SLD than in younger.

  1. Socioeconomic variation, number competence, and mathematics learning difficulties in young children.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Nancy C; Levine, Susan C

    2009-01-01

    As a group, children from disadvantaged, low-income families perform substantially worse in mathematics than their counterparts from higher-income families. Minority children are disproportionately represented in low-income populations, resulting in significant racial and social-class disparities in mathematics learning linked to diminished learning opportunities. The consequences of poor mathematics achievement are serious for daily functioning and for career advancement. This article provides an overview of children's mathematics difficulties in relation to socioeconomic status (SES). We review foundations for early mathematics learning and key characteristics of mathematics learning difficulties. A particular focus is the delays or deficiencies in number competencies exhibited by low-income children entering school. Weaknesses in number competence can be reliably identified in early childhood, and there is good evidence that most children have the capacity to develop number competence that lays the foundation for later learning.

  2. Developing mathematical proficiency in the Australian context: implications for students with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Evans, David

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of mathematics in Australian schools has received considerable attention over the past decade. States and territories have designed and implemented new mathematics syllabi, and education sectors have supported teachers through sustained professional learning initiatives. Whereas the major focus of these initiatives has been on students constructing mathematical knowledge from a range of learning activities and quality instruction, the education of students with difficulties in learning mathematics has been given little direct attention. This analysis of current syllabus developments and professional learning initiatives highlights the risk of exposing students with learning difficulties to fragile program designs and classroom instruction. The research literature is also examined to propose ways in which these fragilities can be addressed.

  3. The Effectiveness of Project-Based Learning on Pupils with Learning Difficulties Regarding Academic Performance, Group Work and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippatou, Diamanto; Kaldi, Stavroula

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses upon the effectiveness of project-based learning on primary school pupils with learning difficulties regarding their academic performance and attitudes towards self efficacy, task value, group work and teaching methods applied. The present study is a part of a larger one that included six Greek fourth-grade primary school…

  4. Teachers' Perceptions of the Concomitance of Emotional Behavioural Difficulties and Learning Disabilities in Children Referred for Learning Disabilities in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Research has documented overlapping and coexisting characteristics of learning disabilities (LD) and emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD). Such concomitance may impact teacher referrals of children at risk for LD which in turn may influence service delivery. Using the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI) and the Strengths and…

  5. Use of sociometric techniques to assess the social status of mainstreamed children with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, N L; Furnham, A F

    1998-11-01

    Research on sociometric data collection and analysis methods is reviewed and implications for assessing the social status of mainstreamed children with learning difficulties are evaluated. Recommendations are made for changing existing procedures to account for factors specific to children with learning difficulties and to classrooms where mainstreaming is occurring. Variations between frequently used sociometric classification systems (which categorize children as popular, rejected, average, neglected, and controversial) are described, and information on their reliability and validity is discussed. Further reliability research with mainstreamed children is recommended, as is the application of theoretical accounts of affiliation in designing sociometric methods.

  6. Assessing and helping challenging students: Part One, Why do some students have difficulty learning?

    PubMed

    Hendricson, William D; Kleffner, John H

    2002-01-01

    When students struggle with routine assignments and fall behind classmates, a busy teacher may pigeonhole them as slow, give up on them, or become frustrated from failed efforts to bring them up to speed. Well-intentioned efforts to help struggling students by providing repetitions of the same experiences may fail because the specific cause of the sub-par performance was not identified. Six potential causes of inadequate student performance can serve as a diagnostic framework to help teachers pinpoint why a student is struggling academically: 1) cognitive factors, including poorly integrated, compartmentalized information, poor metacognition that hinders the student's ability to monitor and self-correct performance, bona fide learning disabilities that require professional assessment and treatment, and sensory-perceptual difficulties that may hinder performance in certain health care disciplines; 2) ineffective study habits, which are more common among professional students than faculty realize; 3) an inadequate educational experience (unclear objectives, poorly organized instruction, absence of coaching and timely feedback) or a punitive environment in which students avoid approaching instructors for assistance; 4) distraction due to nonacademic issues such as social relationships, health of a spouse, or employment; 5) dysfunctional levels of defensiveness that hinder student-teacher communication; and 6) underlying medical conditions that may affect student attentiveness, motivation, energy, and emotional balance. The objective of this article is to help faculty recognize potential underlying causes of a student's learning problems. Strategies for helping the academically struggling student are also introduced for several of these etiologies.

  7. Gradual training reduces practice difficulty while preserving motor learning of a novel locomotor task.

    PubMed

    Sawers, Andrew; Hahn, Michael E

    2013-08-01

    Motor learning strategies that increase practice difficulty and the size of movement errors are thought to facilitate motor learning. In contrast to this, gradual training minimizes movement errors and reduces practice difficulty by incrementally introducing task requirements, yet remains as effective as sudden training and its large movement errors for learning novel reaching tasks. While attractive as a locomotor rehabilitation strategy, it remains unknown whether the efficacy of gradual training extends to learning locomotor tasks and their unique requirements. The influence of gradual vs. sudden training on learning a locomotor task, asymmetric split belt treadmill walking, was examined by assessing whole body sagittal plane kinematics during 24 hour retention and transfer performance following either gradual or sudden training. Despite less difficult and less specific practice for the gradual cohort on day 1, gradual training resulted in equivalent motor learning of the novel locomotor task as sudden training when assessed by retention and transfer a day later. This suggests that large movement errors and increased practice difficulty may not be necessary for learning novel locomotor tasks. Further, gradual training may present a viable locomotor rehabilitation strategy avoiding large movement errors that could limit or impair improvements in locomotor performance.

  8. [Difficulties in the differential diagnosis of hyponatremia presenting with severe neuropsychiatric symptoms].

    PubMed

    Steiner, Tamás; Oláh, Roland; Németh, Attila; Winkler, Gábor

    2013-08-04

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent eletrolyte imbalance in hospitalized geriatric patient. The accompanying signs and symptoms can run a wide range and, therefore, these patients are usually admitted to various departments, i.e. neurology and/or traumatology first. Directed laboratory investigations demonstrate severe hyponatremia. Differential diagnosis can be very difficult and complex in the clinical settings. Firstly, spurious forms of hyponatremia have to be excluded, then the underlying cause should elucidated based on the patients hydration status and serum osmolarity. Hyponatremia can be divided into hyper-, hypo- and normovolemic forms. Moreover, it can be further classified as hypo-, iso- and hyperosmolar hyponatremias. The differentiation between renal and extrarenal salt wasting forms is hinged on the urine sodium concentration. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is the most common cause of normovolemic, hypoosmolar forms (named also as Schwartz-Bartter syndrome). The authors aimed to shed light on the often insurmountable difficulties of the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this very frequent electrolyte imbalance by presenting a clinical case report. Their purported aim reflects upon the wide array of ethiopathogenesis of hyponatremia: various endocrine, renal diseases, inappropriateness of antidiuretic hormone secretion as well as the role of different medications (e.g. diuretics). This fine-tuned and intricate physiology of sodium metabolism could fortuitously be overturned by these mechanisms.

  9. Language delays, reading delays, and learning difficulties: interactive elements requiring multidimensional programming.

    PubMed

    Hay, Ian; Elias, Gordon; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Homel, Ross; Freiberg, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized four levels of instructional dialogue and claimed that teachers can improve children's language development by incorporating these dialogue levels in their classrooms. It has also been hypothesized that enhancing children's early language development enhances children's later reading development. This quasi-experimental research study investigated both of these hypotheses using a collaborative service delivery model for Grade 1 children with language difficulties from a socially and economically disadvantaged urban community in Australia. Comparing the end-of-year reading achievement scores for the 57 children who received the language intervention with those of the 59 children in the comparison group, the findings from this research are supportive of both hypotheses. The interrelationships between learning difficulties, reading difficulties, and language difficulties are discussed along with children's development in vocabulary, use of memory strategies and verbal reasoning, and the need for multidimensional programming.

  10. Do Chinese dyslexic children have difficulties learning English as a second language?

    PubMed

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary, reading, and phonological processing tasks. It was found that the Dyslexia group performed significantly worse than the Control group in nearly all the English measures. The findings suggest that Chinese dyslexic children also encounter difficulties in learning English as a second language, and they are generally weak in phonological processing both in Chinese and English. However, phonological skills were found to correlate significantly with English reading but not with Chinese reading in the dyslexic children. It is evident that there are both common and specific causes to reading difficulties in Chinese and English.

  11. Self-Control of Task Difficulty During Early Practice Promotes Motor Skill Learning.

    PubMed

    Andrieux, Mathieu; Boutin, Arnaud; Thon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether the effect of self-control of task difficulty on motor learning is a function of the period of self-control administration. In a complex anticipation-coincidence task that required participants to intercept 3 targets with a virtual racquet, the task difficulty was either self-controlled or imposed to the participants in the two phases of the acquisition session. First, the results confirmed the beneficial effects of self-control over fully prescribed conditions. Second, the authors also demonstrated that a partial self-control of task difficulty better promotes learning than does a complete self-controlled procedure. Overall, the results revealed that these benefits are increased when this choice is allowed during early practice. The findings are discussed in terms of theoretical and applied perspectives.

  12. Meeting Learning Challenges: Working with Children Who Have Difficulty Following Sequence of Activities and Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenspan, Stanley I.

    2005-01-01

    In a question and answer advisory, the author gives advice to a preschool teacher working with a child who is having difficulties with sequencing, or the ability to put together a purposeful pattern of action, behavior, ideas, or thoughts. The author advises that through careful observation and appropriate learning opportunities, the children's…

  13. Task difficulty and the time scales of warm-up and motor learning.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Morina E; King, Adam C; Newell, Karl M

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of task difficulty on warm-up decrement and learning across practice sessions. Three groups of participants practiced a star-tracing task over 3 consecutive days with different levels (e.g., easy, medium, hard) of task difficulty. The performance data were modeled with a 2 time scale function that represented the transient, fast time scale process of warm-up decrement superimposed with the persistent, slow time scale process of learning. Movement time decreased as a function of practice with the most difficult condition exhibiting the greatest reduction though still the longest movement time. The 2 time scale model provided a better fit to the data than an exponential or power law function and showed that the 3 difficulty conditions exhibited similar rates of change for the respective slow (i.e., learning) and fast (i.e., warm-up decrement) time scale processes that varied by an order of magnitude. Task difficulty was inversely related to the initial level of warm-up decrement but not the rate of performance recovery early in a practice session. The findings support the postulation that there is a persistent learned component to the initial conditions in subsequent practice sessions but that there is a common time scale of accommodating the transient process of warm-up decrement.

  14. Associations among Sleep Problems, Learning Difficulties and Substance Use in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakier, Nuraan; Wild, Lauren G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among sleep problems, learning difficulties and substance use in adolescence. Previous research suggests that these variables share an association with executive functioning deficits, and are intertwined. The sample comprised 427 adolescents (M age = 16 years) attending remedial schools and 276 adolescents…

  15. Going on a Journey: A Case Study of Nature Therapy with Children with a Learning Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Ronen

    2008-01-01

    Therapy is usually described as an indoor activity, centering on verbal dialogue between therapist and client(s). Based on a qualitative study conducted with a group of children with learning difficulties, this article presents a way in which therapy can take place creatively in nature, which serves not only as a therapeutic setting but also as a…

  16. "Why Do I Slog through the Physics?" Understanding High School Students' Difficulties in Learning Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekici, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess why physics courses are perceived as one of the most difficult courses among high school students and to investigate the reasons why students have difficulty in learning physics through this scale. This study includes the development and validation studies of the…

  17. Fraction Intervention for Students with Mathematics Difficulties: Lessons Learned from Five Randomized Control Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Malone, Amelia S.; Schumacher, Robin F.; Namkung, Jessica; Wang, Amber

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to summarize results from 5 randomized control trials assessing the effects of intervention to improve the fraction performance of 4th-grade students at-risk for difficulty in learning about fractions. We begin by explaining the importance of competence with fractions and why an instructional focus on fractions…

  18. Beyond Normalization and Impairment: Theorizing Subjectivity in Learning Difficulties--Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Scott; Dyson, Simon; Hiles, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Normalization and social role valorization continue to play a central role in shaping debates and practice relating to learning difficulties. In the context of recent arguments this paper draws on the work of Foucault to deconstruct these theories. Foucault's work alerts us to a conceptual confusion at their heart which reproduces a common but…

  19. Self-Reported Substance Use among High School Students with and without Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Bourgeois, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    A total of 197 Year 9 and 10 students, 74 of whom had learning difficulties (LD), from two high schools in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland, Australia, self-reported their substance use. Seventeen substances, including two fictitious ones to detect over-reporting, were presented to participants for them to indicate their current usage,…

  20. Learning Difficulties Experienced by Students and their Misconceptions of the Inverse Function Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okur, Muzaffer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine students' learning difficulties and misconceptions related to the "inverse function". The study group was composed of 137 first-grade students enrolled in the elementary mathematics teaching program of an Eastern Anatolia University in Turkey during the fall term of the academic year 2010-2011. The…

  1. Building Knowledge Structures by Testing Helps Children with Mathematical Learning Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yiyun; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical learning difficulty (MLD) is prevalent in the development of mathematical abilities. Previous interventions for children with MLD have focused on number sense or basic mathematical skills. This study investigated whether mathematical performance of fifth grade children with MLD could be improved by developing knowledge structures by…

  2. Children's Structured Conceptualizations of Their Beliefs on the Causes of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Elizabeth A.; Brown, Jason; Stepien, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Elementary school children between 9 and 12 years of age were interviewed on what they believed to be the causes of learning difficulties and were invited to take part in the analysis of the data. We achieved this with Trochim's concept mapping approach that combines qualitative and quantitative data analyses. Study results indicated that children…

  3. Mathematics Remediation for Indigenous Students with Learning Difficulties: Does It Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong, Poon Cheng; Jiar, Yeo Kee; Zanzali, Noor Azlan Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Over-reliance on prescriptive pedagogies, such as explicit instruction, could hamper students with learning difficulties from sense-making and thus limit their acquisition of conceptual understanding. To help them in constructing mathematical knowledge, manipulative and drawing could be used to solve problems in a meaningful context. Using a case…

  4. Concepts of Access for People with Learning Difficulties: Towards a Shared Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Seale, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article explores both the process and outcomes of a seminar series on the concept of access for people with learning difficulties. The seminar topics chosen to foster dialogue across professional and disciplinary boundaries included access to information, education, employment, the law, health, leisure, community, past histories and future…

  5. A Comparison of Saudi and Canadian Children's Knowledge of the Causes of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felimban, Huda; Nowicki, Elizabeth A.; Dare, Lynn; Brown, Jason

    2016-01-01

    In this comparative study, students from inclusive schools in Canada and Saudi Arabia shared their beliefs about factors associated with learning difficulties. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with 36 Canadian and 62 Saudi elementary students in Grades 5 and 6. Thematic analysis uncovered six themes: lack of knowledge,…

  6. The Effect of Time on Difficulty of Learning (The Case of Problem Solving with Natural Numbers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Deniz; Kesan, Cenk

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine the time-dependent learning difficulty of "solving problems that require making four operations with natural numbers" of the sixth grade students. The study, adopting the scanning model, consisted of a total of 140 students, including 69 female and 71 male students at the sixth grade. Data…

  7. Changes in Teaching in Order to Help Students with Learning Difficulties Improve in Cypriot Primary Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loizou, Florentia

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to explore what changes two Cypriot primary school teachers brought in their teaching in order to help students with learning difficulties improve in their classes. The study was qualitative and used non-participant observation in two primary classrooms in different primary schools and semi-structured interviews with the main…

  8. Survey of Complementary and Alternative Therapies Used by Children with Specific Learning Difficulties (Dyslexia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Leona

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dyslexia is a common learning difficulty affecting up to 10% of British children that is associated with a wide range of cognitive, emotional and physical symptoms. In the absence of effective conventional treatment, it is likely that parents will seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to try and help their children.…

  9. Working Memory Deficits in ADHD: The Contribution of Age, Learning/Language Difficulties, and Task Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowerby, Paula; Seal, Simon; Tripp, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To further define the nature of working memory (WM) impairments in children with combined-type ADHD. Method: A total of 40 Children with ADHD and an age and gender-matched control group (n = 40) completed two measures of visuo-spatial WM and two measures of verbal WM. The effects of age and learning/language difficulties on performance…

  10. Bullying Risk in Children with Learning Difficulties in Inclusive Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luciano, Severina; Savage, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether students with learning difficulties (LDs) attending inclusive schools that eschewed segregated "pull out" programs reported more incidents of being bullied than their peers without LDs. Cognitive and self-perception factors associated with reports of peer victimization were also explored. Participants were…

  11. Pupils' Perceptions of Self and of Labels: Moderate Learning Difficulties in Mainstream and Special Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Narcie; Norwich, Brahm

    2004-01-01

    Background: The study is set in the context of international moves towards more inclusion of children with disabilities into mainstream schools and the greater importance attached to the child's voice in decision making in education. Aims: To examine how children with moderate learning difficulties (MLD) in mainstream and special schools see…

  12. Students with Disabilities, Learning Difficulties and Disadvantages: Policies, Statistics and Indicators--2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an internationally comparable set of indicators on educational provision for students with disabilities, learning difficulties and disadvantages (DDD). It highlights the number of students involved, where they are educated--special schools, special classes or regular classes--and in what phases of education--pre-primary,…

  13. Learning Difficulties Experienced by Grade 12 South African Students in the Chemical Representation of Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Joseph, Aleyamma

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the learning difficulties of grade 12 South African students in a national chemistry examination. A quantitative analysis of students' performance in the examination revealed there was a significant difference between student performance in questions where students needed to execute a transformation across levels of…

  14. Accessing Mainstream: Examining the Struggle for Parents of Children Who Have Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Mairin; Shevlin, Michael; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; McNeela, Eileen

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade Ireland has witnessed substantial changes in policy and provision for children with general learning difficulties as government policies and legislation increasingly underpin the move towards more inclusive provision. Despite this series of policy initiatives parents of children who experience Down syndrome and general learning…

  15. A Mobile Application to Improve Learning Performance of Dyslexic Children with Writing Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tariq, Rabbia; Latif, Seemab

    2016-01-01

    A neurological learning disability, termed as Dyslexia, is characterized by difficulties in various aspects of writing skills making the individuals unable to develop age-appropriate and ability-appropriate functional skills. In Pakistan, lack of dyslexia awareness and remedial education training restrains the remediation of dyslexic children at…

  16. Difficulties Encountered by Students in the Learning and Usage of Mathematical Terminology: A Critical Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulwa, Ednah Chebet

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to review literature pertinent to difficulties encountered by students in the learning and usage of mathematical terminology. The need to carry out this study arose from the concern by the Kenya National Examinations Council, and the general public, over the poor annual results in mathematics. Therefore, the objective of this…

  17. A Survey on the Teaching of Relative Velocity and Pupils' Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Tin-Lam

    2006-01-01

    It has been five years since the chapter on relative velocity was first introduced into the Singapore Additional Mathematics curriculum. This paper reports some general findings on the teaching of relative velocity in mathematics classrooms and the pupils' learning difficulties on relative velocity. Some implications to the teaching of this topic…

  18. What Teacher Factors Influence Their Attributions for Children's Difficulties in Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Katy; Woolfson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Background: Identifying the factors that influence teacher beliefs about teaching children with learning difficulties is important for the success of inclusive education. This study explores the relationship between teachers' role, self-efficacy, attitudes towards disabled people, teaching experience and training, on teachers' attributions for…

  19. Getting Things to Stick: Exploring the Narratives of Young New Zealanders Who Experience Specific Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sheryn; Hocking, Clare; Wilson, Jan

    2006-01-01

    This narrative inquiry sought to explore the views of eight young New Zealanders, aged nine to 14 years, who had experienced specific difficulties with learning. Narrative research procedures were used to gather and interpret the stories the young participants told about their experiences. Findings revealed that young people become aware of their…

  20. Collaborative IEPs for the Education of Pupils with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroggilos, Vasilis; Xanthacou, Yota

    2006-01-01

    Individual educational plans (IEPs) are considered to be more effective when designed and implemented by a multidisciplinary team. This paper deals with the IEP as a collaborative tool for the education of pupils with profound and multiple learning difficulties (PMLD). Ten pupils with PMLD and the people working around them (e.g. teacher, speech…

  1. English Language Learning Difficulty of Korean Students in a Philippine Multidisciplinary University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Albela, Emmanuel Jeric A.; Nieto, Deborah Rosalind D.; Ferrer, John Bernard F.; Santos, Rior N.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed the English language learning difficulties of 13 purposively chosen Korean students relative to their sociolinguistic competence, motivation in using the English language, and cultural factors. Interview responses were transcribed, categorized and thematised according to saliency, meaning and homogeneity. The…

  2. Emergence, Learning Difficulties, and Misconceptions in Chemistry Undergraduate Students' Conceptualizations of Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Philosophical debates about chemistry have clarified that the issue of emergence plays a critical role in the epistemology and ontology of chemistry. In this article, it is argued that the issue of emergence has also significant implications for understanding learning difficulties and finding ways of addressing them in chemistry. Particularly, it…

  3. Motor Coordination Difficulties in 5-6-Year-Old Children with Severe Behavioural and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Synnove; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Ellertsen, Bjorn; Nodland, Magne; Larsen, Tommy Bade

    2006-01-01

    Incidence, severity and types of motor difficulties in children with severe behavioural and emotional problems were evaluated. A group of 6-year-olds (n = 29) with such problems and controls (n = 29) were compared on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC). The groups were compared on total scores as well as manual dexterity, ball…

  4. Tracking orthographic learning in children with different profiles of reading difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Marinus, Eva; Nickels, Lyndsey; Castles, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that children with reading difficulties need more exposures to acquire the representations needed to support fluent reading than typically developing readers (e.g., Ehri and Saltmarsh, 1995). Building on existing orthographic learning paradigms, we report on an investigation of orthographic learning in poor readers using a new learning task tracking both the accuracy (untimed exposure duration) and fluency (200 ms exposure duration) of learning novel words over trials. In study 1, we used the paradigm to examine orthographic learning in children with specific poor reader profiles (nine with a surface profile, nine a phonological profile) and nine age-matched controls. Both profiles showed improvement over the learning cycles, but the children with surface profile showed impaired orthographic learning in spelling and orthographic choice tasks. Study 2 explored predictors of orthographic learning in a group of 91 poor readers using the same outcome measures as in Study 1. Consistent with earlier findings in typically developing readers, phonological decoding skill predicted orthographic learning. Moreover, orthographic knowledge significantly predicted orthographic learning over and beyond phonological decoding. The two studies provide insights into how poor readers learn novel words, and how their learning process may be compromised by less proficient orthographic and/or phonological skills. PMID:25071504

  5. Worster-Drought Syndrome: Poorly Recognized despite Severe and Persistent Difficulties with Feeding and Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Maria; Harris, Rebecca; Jolleff, Nicola; Price, Katie; Neville, Brian G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Worster-Drought syndrome (WDS), or congenital suprabulbar paresis, is a permanent movement disorder of the bulbar muscles causing persistent difficulties with swallowing, feeding, speech, and saliva control owing to a non-progressive disturbance in early brain development. As such, it falls within the cerebral palsies. The aim of this study…

  6. Differential Constraints on the Working Memory and Reading Abilities of Individuals with Learning Difficulties and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Leigh, Eleanor

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the factors that constrain the working memory span performance and reading ability of individuals with generalized learning difficulties. In the study, 50 individuals with learning difficulties (LD) and 50 typically developing children (TD) matched for reading age completed two working memory span tasks. Participants also…

  7. Learning Difficulties in Mathematics (LDM) of Secondary School Students with Respect to Their Personal and Background Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarsani, Mahender Reddy; Maddini, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    The investigation was aimed to study the learning difficulties in mathematics among the secondary school students. The study proposed to measure the Learning Difficulties in Mathematics with respect to the students' personal and background variables such as sex, type of school, locality and medium of instruction; and also to explore the…

  8. "May We Please Have Sex Tonight?"--People with Learning Difficulties Pursuing Privacy in Residential Group Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollomotz, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Many residential group settings for people with learning difficulties do not provide individuals with the private space in which they can explore their sexual relationships in a safe and dignified manner. Lack of agreed private spaces seriously infringes the individual's human rights. Many people with learning difficulties who lack privacy have no…

  9. Why Is Math So Hard for Some Children? The Nature and Origins of Mathematical Learning Difficulties and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berch, Daniel B., Ed; Mazzocco, Michele M.M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In order for schools to help students with learning difficulties and disabilities improve their achievement in mathematics, educators, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers need a better understanding of the evidence based on what is behind these students' difficulties in learning math. That is just what they will get with this landmark…

  10. Spatial working memory and arithmetic deficits in children with nonverbal learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Mammarella, Irene Cristina; Lucangeli, Daniela; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Visuospatial working memory and its involvement in arithmetic were examined in two groups of 7- to 11-year-olds: one comprising children described by teachers as displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning difficulties (N = 21), the other a control group without learning disabilities (N = 21). The two groups were matched for verbal abilities, age, gender, and sociocultural level. The children were presented with a visuospatial working memory battery of recognition tests involving visual, spatial-sequential and spatial-simultaneous processes, and two arithmetic tasks (number ordering and written calculations). The two groups were found to differ on some spatial tasks but not in the visual working memory tasks. On the arithmetic tasks, the children with nonverbal learning difficulties made more errors than controls in calculation and were slower in number ordering. A discriminant function analysis confirmed the crucial role of spatial-sequential working memory in distinguishing between the two groups. Results are discussed with reference to spatial working memory and arithmetic difficulties in nonverbal learning disabilities. Implications for the relationship between visuospatial working memory and arithmetic are also considered.

  11. Meta-Analysis of Fluid Intelligence Tests of Children from the Chinese Mainland with Learning Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fang; Fu, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the differences in fluid intelligence tests between normal children and children with learning difficulties in China. Method PubMed, MD Consult, and other Chinese Journal Database were searched from their establishment to November 2012. After finding comparative studies of Raven measurements of normal children and children with learning difficulties, full Intelligent Quotation (FIQ) values and the original values of the sub-measurement were extracted. The corresponding effect model was selected based on the results of heterogeneity and parallel sub-group analysis was performed. Results Twelve documents were included in the meta-analysis, and the studies were all performed in mainland of China. Among these, two studies were performed at child health clinics, the other ten sites were schools and control children were schoolmates or classmates. FIQ was evaluated using a random effects model. WMD was −13.18 (95% CI: −16.50–−9.85). Children with learning difficulties showed significantly lower FIQ scores than controls (P<0.00001); Type of learning difficulty and gender differences were evaluated using a fixed-effects model (I2 = 0%). The sites and purposes of the studies evaluated here were taken into account, but the reasons of heterogeneity could not be eliminated; The sum IQ of all the subgroups showed considerable heterogeneity (I2 = 76.5%). The sub-measurement score of document A showed moderate heterogeneity among all documents, and AB, B, and E showed considerable heterogeneity, which was used in a random effect model. Individuals with learning difficulties showed heterogeneity as well. There was a moderate delay in the first three items (−0.5 to −0.9), and a much more pronounced delay in the latter three items (−1.4 to −1.6). Conclusion In the Chinese mainland, the level of fluid intelligence of children with learning difficulties was lower than that of normal children. Delayed development in sub-items of C, D, and E

  12. Mathematics Learning Difficulties in Primary Education: Teachers' Professional Knowledge and the Use of Commercially Available Learning Packages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Steenbrugge, H.; Valcke, M.; Desoete, A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study builds on teachers' professional knowledge about mathematics learning difficulties. Based on the input of 918 primary school teachers, an attempt is made to develop an overview of difficult curriculum topics in primary school mathematics. The research approach builds on new conceptions about the professional identity of teachers…

  13. The Effects of a Tier 3 Intervention on the Mathematics Performance of Second Grade Students with Severe Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Brian R.; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Porterfield, Jennifer; Dennis, Minyi Shih; Falcomata, Terry; Valentine, Courtney; Brewer, Chelsea; Bell, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a systematic, explicit, intensive Tier 3 (tertiary) intervention on the mathematics performance of students in second grade with severe mathematics difficulties. A multiple-baseline design across groups of participants showed improved mathematics performance on number and operations…

  14. Challenges and Management Frameworks of Residential Schools for Students with Severe Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Stella Suk-ching; Leung, Ka-wai

    2012-01-01

    This study by Stella Suk-Ching Chong, an assistant professor, and Ka-wai Leung, a teaching fellow, both at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, focuses on the perspectives of hostel staff from six residential schools for students with severe emotional and behavioural difficulties. Individual or focus group interviews were conducted to explore the…

  15. Music Education for Pupils with Severe or Profound and Multiple Difficulties--Current Provision and Future Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockelford, Adam; Welch, Graham; Zimmermann, Sally

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of the use of music in the education of students at British schools for students with severe/profound or multiple difficulties found music was a significant component of students' lives and education. The article urges research on this population's musical behavior and needs and development of musical education guidelines and…

  16. Errors in Multi-Digit Arithmetic and Behavioral Inattention in Children with Math Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghubar, Kimberly; Cirino, Paul; Barnes, Marcia; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Fletcher, Jack; Fuchs, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Errors in written multi-digit computation were investigated in children with math difficulties. Third- and fourth-grade children (n = 291) with coexisting math and reading difficulties, math difficulties, reading difficulties, or no learning difficulties were compared. A second analysis compared those with severe math learning difficulties, low…

  17. Phonological sensitivity and memory in children with a foreign language learning difficulty.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Paola; Ferrari, Marcella

    2008-01-01

    The phonological processing and memory skills of 12- and 13-year-old Italian children with difficulty in learning English as a foreign language (foreign language learning difficulty, FLLD) were examined and compared with those of a control group matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Three experiments were conducted. A dissociation between verbal and visuo-spatial working memory was observed when compared to the control group; children with FLLD showed a poorer performance in a phonological working memory task but performed to a comparable level in a visuo-spatial working memory task (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2 the word length and the response modality of an auditory word span task were manipulated in order to examine the efficiency of the phonological loop and the relevance of the spoken output. The FLLD group did not show sensitivity to the word length effect and showed no advantage in the picture pointing recall condition. In Experiment 3 children with FLLD were shown to be sensitive to phonological similarity but again they showed neither a word length effect nor a slower articulation speed. Furthermore, in all three experiments children with FLLD were shown to be less efficient in phonological sensitivity tasks and this deficit appeared to be independent of the phonological memory problem. All three experiments consistently showed that children with FLLD have an impairment in phonological memory and phonological processing, which appear to be independent from one other but both contribute to the children's difficulty in learning a second language.

  18. Being and becoming a psychotherapy supervisor: the crucial triad of learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Watkins, C Edward

    2013-01-01

    More than 40 years ago eminent psychiatrist Richard Chessick penned a classic, highly prescient psychotherapy supervision paper (that appeared in this journal) in which he identified for supervisors the crucial triad of learning difficulties that tend to confront beginning therapists in their training. These are (a) dealing with the anxiety attendant to the development of psychological mindedness; (b) developing a psychotherapist identity; and (c) developing conviction about the meaningfulness of psychodynamics and psychotherapy. In this paper, I would like to revisit Chessick's seminal contribution about the teaching and learning of psychotherapy and extrapolate his triad of learning difficulties to the process of teaching and learning supervision. The process of being and becoming a psychotherapist has been likened to a developmental journey, and similarly being and becoming a supervisor is increasingly recognized as a developmental journey that is best stimulated by means of didactic and practical experiences (i.e., supervision coursework, seminars, or workshops and the supervision of supervision). In what follows, I would like to explore how Chessick's crucial triad of learning difficulties can be meaningfully extrapolated to and used to inform the supervision training situation. In extrapolating Chessick's triad, beginning supervisors or supervisor trainees can be conceptualized as confronting three critical issues: (a) dealing with the anxiety and demoralization attendant to the development of supervisory mindedness; (b) developing a supervisory identity; and (c) developing conviction about the meaningfulness of psychotherapy supervision. This triadic conceptualization appears to capture nicely core concerns that extend across the arc of the supervisor development process and provides a useful and usable way of thinking about supervisor training and informing it. Each component of the triadic conceptualization is described, and some supervisor education

  19. Transcranial random noise stimulation mitigates increased difficulty in an arithmetic learning task.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Tudor; Krause, Beatrix; Terhune, Devin B; Twose, Olivia; Page, Thomas; Humphreys, Glyn; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2016-01-29

    Proficiency in arithmetic learning can be achieved by using a multitude of strategies, the most salient of which are procedural learning (applying a certain set of computations) and rote learning (direct retrieval from long-term memory). Here we investigated the effect of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a non-invasive brain stimulation method previously shown to enhance cognitive training, on both types of learning in a 5-day sham-controlled training study, under two conditions of task difficulty, defined in terms of item repetition. On the basis of previous research implicating the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex in early and late stages of arithmetic learning, respectively, sham-controlled tRNS was applied to bilateral prefrontal cortex for the first 3 days and to the posterior parietal cortex for the last 2 days of a 5-day training phase. The training involved learning to solve arithmetic problems by applying a calculation algorithm; both trained and untrained problems were used in a brief testing phase at the end of the training phase. Task difficulty was manipulated between subjects by using either a large ("easy" condition) or a small ("difficult" condition) number of repetition of problems during training. Measures of attention and working memory were acquired before and after the training phase. As compared to sham, participants in the tRNS condition displayed faster reaction times and increased learning rate during the training phase; as well as faster reaction times for both trained and untrained (new) problems, which indicated a transfer effect after the end of training. All stimulation effects reached significance only in the "difficult" condition when number of repetition was lower. There were no transfer effects of tRNS on attention or working memory. The results support the view that tRNS can produce specific facilitative effects on numerical cognition--specifically, on arithmetic learning. They also highlight the importance of

  20. Transcranial random noise stimulation mitigates increased difficulty in an arithmetic learning task

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Tudor; Krause, Beatrix; Terhune, Devin B.; Twose, Olivia; Page, Thomas; Humphreys, Glyn; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2016-01-01

    Proficiency in arithmetic learning can be achieved by using a multitude of strategies, the most salient of which are procedural learning (applying a certain set of computations) and rote learning (direct retrieval from long-term memory). Here we investigated the effect of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a non-invasive brain stimulation method previously shown to enhance cognitive training, on both types of learning in a 5-day sham-controlled training study, under two conditions of task difficulty, defined in terms of item repetition. On the basis of previous research implicating the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex in early and late stages of arithmetic learning, respectively, sham-controlled tRNS was applied to bilateral prefrontal cortex for the first 3 days and to the posterior parietal cortex for the last 2 days of a 5-day training phase. The training involved learning to solve arithmetic problems by applying a calculation algorithm; both trained and untrained problems were used in a brief testing phase at the end of the training phase. Task difficulty was manipulated between subjects by using either a large (“easy” condition) or a small (“difficult” condition) number of repetition of problems during training. Measures of attention and working memory were acquired before and after the training phase. As compared to sham, participants in the tRNS condition displayed faster reaction times and increased learning rate during the training phase; as well as faster reaction times for both trained and untrained (new) problems, which indicated a transfer effect after the end of training. All stimulation effects reached significance only in the “difficult” condition when number of repetition was lower. There were no transfer effects of tRNS on attention or working memory. The results support the view that tRNS can produce specific facilitative effects on numerical cognition – specifically, on arithmetic learning. They also highlight

  1. Mislabeled Reading and Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Treatment for Reading Difficulties in Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sze, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reading affects a plethora of areas in life. Students with learning disabilities often fall into this category due to a lack of practice with reading and less time to focus on building skills. This paper examines the background, the relationship between reading and learning disabilities, the characteristics of students with learning disabilities…

  2. [Interdisciplinary approach to analysis of brain mechanisms of learning difficulties: application to the ADHD children study].

    PubMed

    Machinskaya, R I; Sugrobova, G A; Semenova, O A

    2013-01-01

    The study presents the interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of the brain mechanisms of learning difficulties in primary schoolchildren. The neuropsychological assessment and the resting-state EEG estimation were applied to analyze the neurophysiological factors of cognitive deficits in children with ADHD symptoms aged 7-8 and 9-10. EEG recordings of children with ADHD symptoms more frequently, as compared to children with typical development, contained EEG patterns of the fronto-thalamic system non-optimal functioning, reflected in frontal theta waves (FTW), right hemisphere local electrical activity (EA) deviations and EEG patterns associated with the general activation deficit arising from the brainstem reticular formation (DA). We specified cognitive impairments associated with different types of resting-state EEG deviations in ADHD children. Children with FTW of both age groups demonstrated pronounced difficulties in programming, regulation and control (executive functions) and verbal performance. Children with right hemisphere local EA abnormalities had executive functions deficit combined with difficulties in nonverbal performance. Children with EEG signs of DA of both age groups had a decreased cognitive processing speed and efficiency. Younger children with DA demonstrated difficulties in nonverbal task performance. Thus, the interdisciplinary study provided the evidence for at least three neurophysiological factors which can specifically impede the cognitive performance in ADHD children.

  3. Brainstem White Matter Predicts Individual Differences in Manual Motor Difficulties and Symptom Severity in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Tromp, Do P. M.; Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Dan; Samsin, Danica; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly D. B.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that poorer motor skills may be related to more severe autism symptoms. This study investigated if atypical white matter microstructure in the brain mediated the relationship between motor skills and ASD symptom severity. Sixty-seven males with ASD and 42 males with typical development (5-33 years old) completed a…

  4. Brainstem White Matter Predicts Individual Differences in Manual Motor Difficulties and Symptom Severity in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Tromp, Do P. M.; Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Dan; Samsin, Danica; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly D. B.; Duffield, Tyler; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that poorer motor skills may be related to more severe autism symptoms. This study investigated if atypical white matter microstructure in the brain mediated the relationship between motor skills and ASD symptom severity. Sixty-seven males with ASD and 42 males with typical development (5-33 years old) completed a diffusion tensor imaging scan and measures of grip strength, finger tapping, and autism symptom severity. Within the ASD group, weaker grip strength predicted more severe autism symptoms. Fractional anisotropy of the brainstem's corticospinal tract predicted both grip strength and autism symptom severity and mediated the relationship between the two. These findings suggest that brainstem white matter may contribute to autism symptoms and grip strength in ASD. PMID:26001365

  5. Anxious individuals have difficulty learning the causal statistics of aversive environments.

    PubMed

    Browning, Michael; Behrens, Timothy E; Jocham, Gerhard; O'Reilly, Jill X; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-04-01

    Statistical regularities in the causal structure of the environment enable us to predict the probable outcomes of our actions. Environments differ in the extent to which action-outcome contingencies are stable or volatile. Difficulty in being able to use this information to optimally update outcome predictions might contribute to the decision-making difficulties seen in anxiety. We tested this using an aversive learning task manipulating environmental volatility. Human participants low in trait anxiety matched updating of their outcome predictions to the volatility of the current environment, as predicted by a Bayesian model. Individuals with high trait anxiety showed less ability to adjust updating of outcome expectancies between stable and volatile environments. This was linked to reduced sensitivity of the pupil dilatory response to volatility, potentially indicative of altered norepinephrinergic responsivity to changes in this aspect of environmental information.

  6. Anxious individuals have difficulty learning the causal statistics of aversive environments

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Michael; Behrens, Timothy E; Jocham, Gerhard; O’Reilly, Jill X; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-01-01

    Statistical regularities in the causal structure of the environment enable us to predict the probable outcomes of our actions. Environments differ in the extent to which action-outcome contingencies are stable or volatile. Difficulty in being able to use this information to optimally update outcome predictions might contribute to the decision-making difficulties seen in anxiety. We tested this using an aversive learning task manipulating environmental volatility. Low trait anxious human participants matched updating of their outcome predictions to the volatility of the current environment, as predicted by a Bayesian model. High trait anxious individuals showed less ability to adjust updating of outcome expectancies between stable and volatile environments. This was linked to reduced sensitivity of the pupil dilatory response to volatility, potentially indicative of altered norepinephrinergic responsivity to changes in this aspect of environmental information. PMID:25730669

  7. Dynamic task-specific brain network connectivity in children with severe reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    Vourkas, Michael; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Simos, Panagiotis G; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2011-01-20

    We investigated patterns of sensor-level functional connectivity derived from single-trial whole-head magnetoencephalography data during a pseudoword reading and a letter-sound naming task in children with reading difficulties (RD) and children with no reading impairments (NI). The Phase Lag Index (PLI), a linear and nonlinear estimator, computed for each pair of sensors, was used to construct graphs and obtain estimates of local and global network efficiency according to graph theory. In the 8-13 Hz (alpha band) and 20-30 Hz (gamma band) range, RD students showed significantly lower global efficiency than NI children, for the entire MEG recording epoch. RD students also displayed reduced local network efficiency in the alpha band. Correlations between phonological decoding ability and graph metrics were particularly evident during the task that posed significant demands for phonological decoding, and followed distinct time courses depending on signal frequency. Results are consistent with the notion of task-dependent, aberrant long- and short-range functional connectivity in RD children.

  8. Difficulties Greek Senior High School Students Identify in Learning and the Teaching of Statistics: The Case of Experimental and Private High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghinis, Dimitris; Korres, Konstantinos; Bersimis, Sotiris

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines the difficulties Greek senior high school students identify in learning Statistics and how these difficulties are related to the course's level of difficulty. Also it examines the difficulties students identify that teachers face while teaching Statistics, their suggestions for changes and how these difficulties and…

  9. Self-Control of Task Difficulty during Training Enhances Motor Learning of a Complex Coincidence-Anticipation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrieux, Mathieu; Danna, Jeremy; Thon, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to analyze the influence of self-controlled task difficulty on motor learning. Participants had to intercept three targets falling at different velocities by displacing a stylus above a digitizer. Task difficulty corresponded to racquet width. Half the participants (self-control condition) could choose the racquet…

  10. Equivalent Fraction Learning Trajectories for Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties When Using Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westenskow, Arla

    2012-01-01

    This study identified variations in the learning trajectories of Tier II students when learning equivalent fraction concepts using physical and virtual manipulatives. The study compared three interventions: physical manipulatives, virtual manipulatives, and a combination of physical and virtual manipulatives. The research used a sequential…

  11. Difficulty in Learning Similar-Sounding Words: A Developmental Stage or a General Property of Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajak, Bozena; Creel, Sarah C.; Levy, Roger

    2016-01-01

    How are languages learned, and to what extent are learning mechanisms similar in infant native-language (L1) and adult second-language (L2) acquisition? In terms of vocabulary acquisition, we know from the infant literature that the ability to discriminate similar-sounding words at a particular age does not guarantee successful word-meaning…

  12. Cognitive Function of Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Difficulties: A Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fang; Sun, Li; Qian, Ying; Liu, Lu; Ma, Quan-Gang; Yang, Li; Cheng, Jia; Cao, Qing-Jiu; Su, Yi; Gao, Qian; Wu, Zhao-Min; Li, Hai-Mei; Qian, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cognitive function of children with either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning disabilities (LDs) is known to be impaired. However, little is known about the cognitive function of children with comorbid ADHD and LD. The present study aimed to explore the cognitive function of children and adolescents with ADHD and learning difficulties in comparison with children with ADHD and healthy controls in different age groups in a large Chinese sample. Methods: Totally, 1043 participants with ADHD and learning difficulties (the ADHD + learning difficulties group), 870 with pure ADHD (the pure ADHD group), and 496 healthy controls were recruited. To investigate the difference in cognitive impairment using a developmental approach, all participants were divided into three age groups (6–8, 9–11, and 12–14 years old). Measurements were the Chinese-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the Stroop Color-Word Test, the Trail-Making Test, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parents (BRIEF). Multivariate analysis of variance was used. Results: The results showed that after controlling for the effect of ADHD symptoms, the ADHD + learning difficulties group was still significantly worse than the pure ADHD group, which was, in turn, worse than the control group on full intelligence quotient (98.66 ± 13.87 vs. 105.17 ± 14.36 vs. 112.93 ± 13.87, P < 0.001). The same relationship was also evident for shift function (shifting time of the Trail-Making Test, 122.50 [62.00, 194.25] s vs. 122.00 [73.00, 201.50] s vs. 66.00 [45.00, 108.00] s, P < 0.001) and everyday life executive function (BRIEF total score, 145.71 ± 19.35 vs. 138.96 ± 18.00 vs. 122.71 ± 20.45, P < 0.001) after controlling for the effect of the severity of ADHD symptoms, intelligence quotient, age, and gender. As for the age groups, the differences among groups became nonsignificant in the 12–14 years old group for inhibition (meaning interference of

  13. Epidemiology of Severe Sepsis in the Emergency Department and Difficulties in the Initial Assistance

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Ederlon; Junior, João Manoel Silva; Isola, Alexandre Marine; Campos, Edvaldo Vieira; Amendola, Cristina Prata; Almeida, Samantha Longhi

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence rate, demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients with severe sepsis admitted to the emergency department. METHODS A prospective study evaluating all patients admitted to the emergency department unit in a public hospital of tertiary complexity in a six-month period was conducted. During this period, the emergency team was trained to diagnose sepsis. Patients who met the diagnostic criteria for severe sepsis were followed until their discharge from the hospital. RESULTS A total of 5,332 patients were admitted to the emergency department, and 342 met the criteria for severe sepsis/septic shock. The median (interquartile range) age of patients was 74 (65–84) years, and 52.1% were male. The median APACHE II and SOFA scores at diagnosis were 19 (15–25) and 5 (3–7), respectively. The median number of dysfunctional organ systems per patient was 2 (1–3). The median hospital length of stay was 10 (4.7–17) days, and the hospital mortality rate was 64%. Only 31% of the patients were diagnosed by the emergency department team as septic. About 33.5% of the 342 severe sepsis patients admitted to the emergency department were referred to an ICU, with a median time delay of 24 (12–48) hours. Training improved diagnosis and decreased the time delay for septic patients in arriving at the ICU. CONCLUSIONS The occurrence rate of severe sepsis in the emergency department was 6.4%, and the rate of sepsis diagnosed by the emergency department team as well as the number of patients transferred to the ICU was very low. Educational campaigns are important to improve diagnosis and, hence, treatment of severe sepsis. PMID:18719755

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Deficits in Children with Learning Difficulties: Is There a Difference between Verbal Domain and Numerical Domain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Peng; Fuchs, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Children with learning difficulties suffer from working memory (WM) deficits. Yet the specificity of deficits associated with different types of learning difficulties remains unclear. Further research can contribute to our understanding of the nature of WM and the relationship between it and learning difficulties. The current meta-analysis…

  15. Prevalence and Severity of Voice and Swallowing Difficulties in Mitochondrial Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Jennifer L.; Whittaker, Roger G.; Miller, Nick; Clark, Sue; Taylor, Robert; McFarland, Robert; Turnbull, Douglass

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Anecdotal evidence suggests that voice and swallow problems are a common feature of these diseases. Aims: To characterize accurately the prevalence and severity of voice and swallow problems in a large cohort of patients with mitochondrial disease.…

  16. Treatment Failure and Mortality amongst Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition Presenting with Cough or Respiratory Difficulty and Radiological Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Shahid, Abu S. M. S. B.; Shahunja, K. M.; Das, Sumon Kumar; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate intervention is critical in reducing deaths among under-five, severe acutely malnourished (SAM) children with danger signs of severe pneumonia; however, there is paucity of data on outcome of World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended interventions of SAM children with severe pneumonia. We sought to evaluate outcome of the interventions in such children. Methods We prospectively enrolled SAM children aged 0–59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) ward of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), between April 2011 and June 2012 with cough or respiratory difficulty and radiological pneumonia. All the enrolled children were treated with ampicillin and gentamicin, and micronutrients as recommended by the WHO. Comparison was made among pneumonic children with (n = 111) and without WHO defined danger signs of severe pneumonia (n = 296). The outcomes of interest were treatment failure (if a child required changing of antibiotics) and deaths during hospitalization. Further comparison was also made among those who developed treatment failure and who did not and among the survivors and deaths. Results SAM children with danger signs of severe pneumonia more often experienced treatment failure (58% vs. 20%; p<0.001) and fatal outcome (21% vs. 4%; p<0.001) compared to those without danger signs. Only 6/111 (5.4%) SAM children with danger signs of severe pneumonia and 12/296 (4.0%) without danger signs had bacterial isolates from blood. In log-linear binomial regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, danger signs of severe pneumonia, dehydration, hypocalcaemia, and bacteraemia were independently associated both with treatment failure and deaths in SAM children presenting with cough or respiratory difficulty and radiological pneumonia (p<0.01). Conclusion and Significance The result suggests that SAM children with cough or

  17. QuickSmart: a basic academic skills intervention for middle school students with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Graham, Lorraine; Bellert, Anne; Thomas, Jenny; Pegg, John

    2007-01-01

    QuickSmart is a basic academic skills intervention designed for persistently low-achieving students in the middle years of schooling that aims to improve the automaticity of basic skills to improve higher-order processes, such as problem solving and comprehension, as measured on standardized tests. The QuickSmart instructional program consists of three structured, teacher- or teacher aide-directed, 30-minute, small-group lessons each week for approximately 26 weeks. In this study, 42 middle school students experiencing learning difficulties (LD) completed the QuickSmart reading program, and a further 42 students with LD took part in the QuickSmart mathematics program. To investigate the effects of the intervention, comparisons were made between the reading and mathematics progress of the intervention group and a group of 10 high-achieving and 10 average-achieving peers. The results indicated that although the standardized reading comprehension and mathematics scores of QuickSmart students remained below those of comparison students, they improved significantly from pretest to posttest. In contrast, the standardized scores of comparison students were not significantly different from pretest to posttest. On measures of response speed and accuracy gathered using the Cognitive Aptitude Assessment System (CAAS), QuickSmart students were able to narrow the gap between their performance and that of their high- and average-achieving peers. Implications are drawn regarding the importance of interventions that emphasize the automaticity of basic academic skills for students with learning difficulties.

  18. Building Knowledge Structures by Testing Helps Children With Mathematical Learning Difficulty.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiyun; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical learning difficulty (MLD) is prevalent in the development of mathematical abilities. Previous interventions for children with MLD have focused on number sense or basic mathematical skills. This study investigated whether mathematical performance of fifth grade children with MLD could be improved by developing knowledge structures by testing using a web-based curriculum learning system. A total of 142 children with MLD were recruited; half of the children were in the experimental group (using the system), and the other half were in the control group (not using the system). The children were encouraged to use the web-based learning system at home for at least a 15-min session, at least once a week, for one and a half months. The mean accumulated time of testing on the system for children in the experimental group was 56.2 min. Children in the experimental group had significantly higher scores on their final mathematical examination compared to the control group. The results suggest that web-based curriculum learning through testing that promotes the building of knowledge structures for a mathematical course was helpful for children with MLD.

  19. The DSM and learning difficulties: formulating a genealogy of the learning-disabled subject.

    PubMed

    Katchergin, Ofer

    2016-06-01

    The article examines the manner in which the learning-disabled subject is created as an object within contemporary psychiatric discourse by means of a genealogical analysis of the learning-disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It investigates how this pathology was formed historically in the text, what metamorphoses it underwent, and their epistemic significance. First, the theoretical underpinnings of the sociological discourse on DSM are presented, giving a brief background of the DSM status in the Israeli context. Many problematic characteristics in the text are unveiled, by means of critiques from sociology, anthropology and discourse studies. Second, the changing definitions and conceptualizations of learning-disorders in the seven editions of the Manual and the accompanying case studies (1952-2013) are examined. It becomes apparent that the disorders have undergone changes that have enabled the biomedical paradigm to triumph. The implications of these transformations are addressed.

  20. Investigating Cognitive Task Difficulties and Expert Skills in E-Learning Storyboards Using a Cognitive Task Analysis Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusoff, Nor'ain Mohd; Salim, Siti Salwah

    2012-01-01

    E-learning storyboards have been a useful approach in distance learning development to support interaction between instructional designers and subject-matter experts. Current works show that researchers are focusing on different approaches for use in storyboards, and there is less emphasis on the effect of design and process difficulties faced by…

  1. The Complex Learning Difficulties and Disabilities Research Project: Developing Meaningful Pathways to Personalised Learning. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Network, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (SSAT) was commissioned by the Department for Education (DfE) to research ways to improve outcomes for children and young people with the most complex educational needs and disabilities through the development of evidence-based teaching and learning strategies. The programme of research brought together a…

  2. Developing Prognosis Tools to Identify Learning Difficulties in Children Using Machine Learning Technologies.

    PubMed

    Loizou, Antonis; Laouris, Yiannis

    2011-09-01

    The Mental Attributes Profiling System was developed in 2002 (Laouris and Makris, Proceedings of multilingual & cross-cultural perspectives on Dyslexia, Omni Shoreham Hotel, Washington, D.C, 2002), to provide a multimodal evaluation of the learning potential and abilities of young children's brains. The method is based on the assessment of non-verbal abilities using video-like interfaces and was compared to more established methodologies in (Papadopoulos, Laouris, Makris, Proceedings of IDA 54th annual conference, San Diego, 2003), such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Watkins et al., Psychol Sch 34(4):309-319, 1997). To do so, various tests have been applied to a population of 134 children aged 7-12 years old. This paper addresses the issue of identifying a minimal set of variables that are able to accurately predict the learning abilities of a given child. The use of Machine Learning technologies to do this provides the advantage of making no prior assumptions about the nature of the data and eliminating natural bias associated with data processing carried out by humans. Kohonen's Self Organising Maps (Kohonen, Biol Cybern 43:59-69, 1982) algorithm is able to split a population into groups based on large and complex sets of observations. Once the population is split, the individual groups can then be probed for their defining characteristics providing insight into the rationale of the split. The characteristics identified form the basis of classification systems that are able to accurately predict which group an individual will belong to, using only a small subset of the tests available. The specifics of this methodology are detailed herein, and the resulting classification systems provide an effective tool to prognose the learning abilities of new subjects.

  3. Five-year growth trajectories of kindergarten children with learning difficulties in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Qiong Wu

    2009-01-01

    The investigators used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to estimate whether and to what extent the timing and persistence of mathematics difficulties (MD) in kindergarten predicted children's first through fifth grade math growth trajectories. Results indicated that children persistently displaying MD (i.e., those experiencing MD in both fall and spring of kindergarten) had the lowest subsequent growth rates, children with MD in spring only had the second-lowest growth rates, and children with MD in the fall only (and who had thus recovered from their MD by the spring of kindergarten) had the next-lowest growth rates. The children who did not have MD in either fall or spring of kindergarten had the highest growth rates. These results were observed prior to and after statistical control for additional variables. They indicate that measuring the timing and persistence of kindergarten children's mathematics learning difficulties may help identify those most at risk for failing to become mathematically proficient during elementary school.

  4. Mathematical difficulties in nonverbal learning disability or co-morbid dyscalculia and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Mammarella, Irene C; Bomba, Monica; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Neri, Francesca; Lucangeli, Daniela; Nacinovich, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the weaknesses of children with different profiles of mathematical difficulties, testing children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), co-morbid dyscalculia and dyslexia (D&D), or typical development (TD). Sixteen children with NLD, 15 with D&D, and 16 with TD completed tasks derived from Butterworth (2003 ) and divided into: a capacity subscale (i.e., a number-dots comparison task, a number comparison task, and a dots comparison task); and an achievement subscale (i.e., mental calculations and arithmetical fact retrieval). Children with NLD were impaired in the dots comparison task, children with D&D in the mental calculation and arithmetical facts.

  5. The single surgeon learning curve of laparoscopic liver resection: A continuous evolving process through stepwise difficulties.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Federico; Scuderi, Vincenzo; Colman, Roos; Vivarelli, Marco; Montalti, Roberto; Troisi, Roberto Ivan

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the single-surgeon learning curve (SSLC) in laparoscopic liver surgery over an 11-year period with risk-adjusted (RA) cumulative sum control chart analysis.Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is a challenging and highly demanding procedure. No specific data are available for defining the feasibility and reproducibility of the SSLC regarding a consistent and consecutive caseload volume over a specified time period.A total of 319 LLR performed by a single surgeon between June 2003 and May 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. A difficulty scale (DS) ranging from 1 to 10 was created to rate the technical difficulty of each LLR. The risk-adjusted cumulative sum control chart (RA-CUSUM) analysis evaluated conversion rate (CR), operative time (OT) and blood loss (BL). Perioperative morbidity and mortality were also analyzed.The RA-CUSUM analysis of the DS identified 3 different periods: P1 (n = 91 cases), with a mean DS of 3.8; P2 (cases 92-159), with a mean DS of 5.3; and P3 (cases 160-319), with a mean DS of 4.7. P2 presented the highest conversion and morbidity rates with a longer OT, whereas P3 showed the best results (P < 0.001). Fifty cases were needed to achieve a significant decrease in BL. The overall morbidity rate was 13.8%; no perioperative mortality was observed.According to our analysis, at least 160 cases (P3) are needed to complete the SSLC performing safely different types of LLR. A minimum of 50 cases can provide a significant decrease in BL. Based on these findings, a longer learning curve should be anticipated to broaden the indications for LLR.

  6. Overcoming Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreguin-Anderson, Maria Guadalupe; Esquierdo, Jennifer Joy

    2011-01-01

    Learning science for bilingual students involves much more than mastering concepts and science process skills. Although classroom investigations and hands-on activities promote comprehension, bilingual learners still experience specific language difficulties related to unfamiliar discourse structures and grammatical forms that must be used while…

  7. Comparison of Scores on Two Visual-Motor Tests for Children Referred for Learning or Adjustment Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMers, Stephen T.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    This study compared the performance of school-aged children referred for learning or adjustment difficulties on Beery's Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and Koppitz's version of the Bender-Gestalt test. Results indicated that the tests are related but not equivalent when administered to referred populations. (Author/AL)

  8. Inclusive Education for Children with Specific Learning Difficulties: Analysis of Opportunities and Barriers in Inclusive Education in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavkler, Marija; Babuder, Milena Košak; Magajna, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education allows for universal inclusion, participation and achievement of all children, including children with specific learning difficulties (SpLD). Children with SpLD form a heterogeneous group with diverse cognitive deficits, special educational needs (SEN) and strengths, and have a legislated right to the continuum of both…

  9. Children Placed at Risk for Learning and Behavioral Difficulties: Implementing a School-Wide System of Early Identification and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Tam E.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Gresham, Frank M.; Beebe-Frankenberger, Margaret E.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a school-wide system of early identification and intervention for children recognized as being at risk for learning and behavior difficulties. Suggested guidelines for implementing such a program include: evaluating existing theory, knowledge, and practice; providing ongoing professional development; creating a school-wide…

  10. Keeping Wartime Memory Alive: An Oral History Project about the Wartime Memories of People with Learning Difficulties in Cumbria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, John; Eardley, Malcolm; Harkness, Elizabeth; Townson, Louise; Brownlee-Chapman, Chloe; Chapman, Rohhss

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses an oral history project funded by the Heritage Lottery. It recorded the memories of eight people with learning difficulties during the Second World War in Cumbria, UK, before their personal histories were lost forever. This qualitative, inclusive research project was supported by various organisations. The process of…

  11. Computer-Based Auditory Training (CBAT): Benefits for Children with Language- and Reading-Related Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Campbell, Nicci; Luxon, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence for computer-based auditory training (CBAT) in children with language, reading, and related learning difficulties, and evaluates the extent it can benefit children with auditory processing disorder (APD). Searches were confined to studies published between 2000 and 2008, and they are rated according to the level…

  12. Difference and Choice: Exploring Prenatal Testing and the Use of Genetic Information with People with Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Linda; Howarth, Joyce; Rodgers, Jackie

    2002-01-01

    This article describes two workshops that explained the use of prenatal testing and genetic information to inform choices in pregnancy to people with learning difficulties, explored the issues with them, and describe the contribution subsequently made by these people to a British national conference on this subject. (Contains references.)…

  13. Effect of Self-Instruction Strategy on the Achievement in Algebra of Students with Learning Difficulty in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adani, Anthony; Eskay, Michael; Onu, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effect of self-instruction strategy on the achievement in algebra of students with learning difficulty in mathematics. Two research questions and one null hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a non-randomized pre-test and post-test control group design with one experimental…

  14. The Effects of Self-Regulation on Science Vocabulary Acquisition of English Language Learners with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Woori; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-probe study examined the effects of self-regulation on the acquisition of science vocabulary by four third-grade English language learners (ELLs) with learning difficulties. The students were provided only direct vocabulary instruction in a baseline phase, followed by intervention and maintenance phases into which self-regulation…

  15. Typically Developing Children's Understanding of and Attitudes towards Diversity and Peers with Learning Difficulties in the Greek Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralli, A. M.; Margeti, M.; Doudoni, E.; Pantelemidou, V.; Rozou, T.; Evaggelopoulou, E.

    2011-01-01

    During the last few years, across Europe, special education has been orientated towards an inclusive model. Accordingly, in Greece, special education functions as an integral part of general education. However, few studies have investigated how children in the mainstream school understand diversity issues and specifically learning difficulties.…

  16. Perceived Learning Difficulty and Actual Performance: Explicit and Implicit Knowledge of L2 English Grammar Points among Instructed Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Luis Humberto Rodríguez; Roehr-Brackin, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on an approach that conceptualizes L2 learning difficulty in terms of implicit and explicit knowledge. In a study with first language Mexican Spanish university-level learners (n = 30), their teachers (n = 11), and applied linguistics experts (n = 3), we investigated the relationship between (a) these groups' difficulty…

  17. The Effect of Cognitive- and Metacognitive-Based Instruction on Problem Solving by Elementary Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grizzle-Martin, Tamieka

    2014-01-01

    Children who struggle in mathematics may also lack cognitive awareness in mathematical problem solving. The cognitively-driven program IMPROVE, a multidimensional method for teaching mathematics, has been shown to be helpful for students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD). Guided by cognitive theory, the purpose of this…

  18. Formative Assessment Pre-Test to Identify College Students' Prior Knowledge, Misconceptions and Learning Difficulties in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Lieb, Carl

    2006-01-01

    A formative assessment pretest was administered to undergraduate students at the beginning of a science course in order to find out their prior knowledge, misconceptions and learning difficulties on the topic of the human respiratory system and energy issues. Those findings could provide their instructors with the valuable information required in…

  19. A Real Job - with Prospects: Supported Employment Opportunities for Adults with Learning Difficulties and Disabilities. FEDA Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Maria; Kingsford, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Effective models for helping adults with disabilities and/or learning difficulties obtain and maintain employment were identified through a research project that included the following activities: collection of background information from 20 providers of support for employment in England and Wales; case studies of a geographically representative…

  20. Psycho-Pedagogical Interventions in the Prevention and the Therapy of Learning Difficulties in the Field of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anca, Maria; Hategan, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In the given study dyscalculia is approached in the context of learning difficulties, but also in relation with damaged psychic processes and functions. The practical part of the study describes intervention models from the perspective of dyscalculia prevention and therapymaterialized in personalized intervention programs.

  1. Creative Ways of Talking: A Narrative Literature Review Concerning Emotional Support for Adults with Mild or Moderate Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Dee

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adults with mild or moderate learning difficulties identified a need for more opportunities to access appropriate emotional support. Materials and Methods: A narrative literature review was undertaken. Factors associated with dealing with emotional unrest, such as self-esteem/self-awareness, a person's attitude to having learning…

  2. Considerations of Numbers Used in Tasks for Promoting Multiplicative Reasoning in Students with Learning Difficulties in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rachael Ann

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of numbers used in instructional tasks on the construction and generalization of multiplicative reasoning by fourth grade students designated as having learning difficulties or disabilities in mathematics (SLDs). In particular, this study addressed the following research questions: (1) In what ways do SLDs'…

  3. "And When did You Last See Your Father?" Exploring the Views of Children with Learning Difficulties/Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The Gulliford Lecture 2003 was given by Professor Ann Lewis of the School of Education at the University of Birmingham. Professor Lewis's lecture, on which this article is based, focused on the process of listening to the views of children and, in particular, children with learning difficulties. Following the near-universal ratification of the…

  4. Real Power? An Examination of the Involvement of People with Learning Difficulties in Strategic Service Development in Cambridgeshire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearden-Phillips, Craig; Fountain, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Securing meaningful involvement in service development and provision can be seen as a particular challenge for people with learning difficulties. The National Health Service & Community Care Act [(1990) HMSO, ISBN 0105419907] and more recently Valuing People [Department of Health (2001) "Valuing people: a new strategy for learning…

  5. Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Epistemological Development as a Framework for Describing Student Difficulties in Learning Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Nathaniel P.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated student difficulties with the learning of organic chemistry. Using Perry's Model of Intellectual Development as a framework revealed that organic chemistry students who function as dualistic thinkers struggle with the complexity of the subject matter. Understanding substitution/elimination reactions and multi-step syntheses is…

  6. Probing High School Students' Cognitive Structures and Key Areas of Learning Difficulties on Ethanoic Acid Using the Flow Map Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Tingting; Zheng, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was primarily to explore high school students' cognitive structures and to identify their learning difficulties on ethanoic acid through the flow map method. The subjects of this study were 30 grade 1 students from Dong Yuan Road Senior High School in Xi'an, China. The interviews were conducted a week after the students…

  7. Schoolchildren with Learning Difficulties Have Low Iron Status and High Anemia Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Arcanjo, C. P. C.; Santos, P. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In developing countries there is high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia, which reduces cognitive performance, work performance, and endurance; it also causes learning difficulties and negative impact on development for infant population. Methods. The study concerns a case-control study; data was collected from an appropriate sample consisting of schoolchildren aged 8 years. The sample was divided into two subgroups: those with deficient initial reading skills (DIRS) (case) and those without (control). Blood samples were taken to analyze hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. These results were then used to compare the two groups with Student's t-test. Association between DIRS and anemia was analyzed using odds ratio (OR). Results. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels of schoolchildren with DIRS were statistically lower when compared to those without, hemoglobin p = 0.02 and serum ferritin p = 0.04. DIRS was statistically associated with a risk of anemia with a weighted OR of 1.62. Conclusions. In this study, schoolchildren with DIRS had lower hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels when compared to those without. PMID:27703806

  8. Sunflower therapy for children with specific learning difficulties (dyslexia): a randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bull, Leona

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the clinical and perceived effectiveness of the Sunflower therapy in the treatment of childhood dyslexia. The Sunflower therapy includes applied kinesiology, physical manipulation, massage, homeopathy, herbal remedies and neuro-linguistic programming. A multi-centred, randomised controlled trial was undertaken with 70 dyslexic children aged 6-13 years. The research study aimed to test the research hypothesis that dyslexic children 'feel better' and 'perform better' as a result of treatment by the Sunflower therapy. Children in the treatment group and the control group were assessed using a battery of standardised cognitive, Literacy and self-esteem tests before and after the intervention. Parents of children in the treatment group gave feedback on their experience of the Sunflower therapy. Test scores were compared using the Mann Whitney, and Wilcoxon statistical tests. While both groups of children improved in some of their test scores over time, there were no statistically significant improvements in cognitive or Literacy test performance associated with the treatment. However, there were statistically significant improvements in academic self-esteem, and reading self-esteem, for the treatment group. The majority of parents (57.13%) felt that the Sunflower therapy was effective in the treatment of learning difficulties. Further research is required to verify these findings, and should include a control group receiving a dummy treatment to exclude placebo effects.

  9. Emergence, Learning Difficulties, and Misconceptions in Chemistry Undergraduate Students' Conceptualizations of Acid Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-03-01

    Philosophical debates about chemistry have clarified that the issue of emergence plays a critical role in the epistemology and ontology of chemistry. In this article, it is argued that the issue of emergence has also significant implications for understanding learning difficulties and finding ways of addressing them in chemistry. Particularly, it is argued that many misconceptions in chemistry may derive from students' failure to consider emergence in a systemic manner by taking into account all relevant factors in conjunction. Based on this argument, undergraduate students' conceptions of acids, and acid strength (an emergent chemical property) were investigated and it was examined whether or not they conceptualized acid strength as an emergent chemical property. The participants were 41 third- and fourth-year undergraduate students. A concept test and semi-structured interviews were used to probe students' conceptualizations and reasoning about acid strength. Findings of the study revealed that the majority of the undergraduate students did not conceptualize acid strength as an emergent property that arises from interactions among multiple factors. They generally focused on a single factor to predict and explain acid strength, and their faulty responses stemmed from their failure to recognize and consider all factors that affect acid strength. Based on these findings and insights from philosophy of chemistry, promoting system thinking and epistemologically sound argumentative discourses among students is suggested for meaningful chemical education.

  10. The Effects of a Tier 3 Intervention on the Mathematics Performance of Second Grade Students With Severe Mathematics Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Brian R; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Porterfield, Jennifer; Dennis, Minyi Shih; Falcomata, Terry; Valentine, Courtney; Brewer, Chelsea; Bell, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a systematic, explicit, intensive Tier 3 (tertiary) intervention on the mathematics performance of students in second grade with severe mathematics difficulties. A multiple-baseline design across groups of participants showed improved mathematics performance on number and operations concepts and procedures, which are the foundation for later mathematics success. In the previous year, 12 participants had experienced two doses (first and second semesters) of a Tier 2 intervention. In second grade, the participants continued to demonstrate low performance, falling below the 10th percentile on a researcher-designed universal screener and below the 16th percentile on a distal measure, thus qualifying for the intensive intervention. A project interventionist, who met with the students 5 days a week for 10 weeks (9 weeks for one group), conducted the intensive intervention. The intervention employed more intensive instructional design features than the previous Tier 2 secondary instruction, and also included weekly games to reinforce concepts and skills from the lessons. Spring results showed significantly improved mathematics performance (scoring at or above the 25th percentile) for most of the students, thus making them eligible to exit the Tier 3 intervention.

  11. Clinical Profiles of Children with Disruptive Behaviors Based on the Severity of Their Conduct Problems, Callous-Unemotional Traits and Emotional Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Brendan F; Sorge, Geoff B; Na, Jennifer Jiwon; Wharton-Shukster, Erika

    2015-08-01

    This study identified clinical profiles of referred children based on the severity of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, emotional difficulties, and conduct problems. Parents of 166 children (132 males) aged 6-12 years referred to a hospital clinic because of disruptive behavior completed measures to assess these key indicators, and person-centered analysis was used to identify profiles. Four distinct profiles were identified that include: (1) Children low in severity on the three domains, (2) Children high in severity on the three domains, (3) Children high in severity in conduct problems and CU traits with minimal emotional difficulties, and (4) Children high in severity in conduct problems and emotional difficulties with minimal CU traits. Profiles differed in degree of aggression and behavioral impairment. Findings show that clinic-referred children with disruptive behaviors can be grouped based on these important indicators into profiles that have important implications for assessment and treatment selection.

  12. The effects of autonomous difficulty selection on engagement, motivation, and learning in a motion-controlled video game task.

    PubMed

    Leiker, Amber M; Bruzi, Alessandro T; Miller, Matthew W; Nelson, Monica; Wegman, Rebecca; Lohse, Keith R

    2016-10-01

    This experiment investigated the relationship between motivation, engagement, and learning in a video game task. Previous studies have shown increased autonomy during practice leads to superior retention of motor skills, but it is not clear why this benefit occurs. Some studies suggest this benefit arises from increased motivation during practice; others suggest the benefit arises from better information processing. Sixty novice participants were randomly assigned to a self-controlled group, who chose the progression of difficulty during practice, or to a yoked group, who experienced the same difficulty progression but did not have choice. At the end of practice, participants completed surveys measuring intrinsic motivation and engagement. One week later, participants returned for a series of retention tests at three different difficulty levels. RM-ANCOVA (controlling for pre-test) showed that the self-controlled group had improved retention compared to the yoked group, on average, β=46.78, 95% CI=[2.68, 90.87], p=0.04, but this difference was only statistically significant on the moderate difficulty post-test (p=0.004). The self-controlled group also showed greater intrinsic motivation during practice, t(58)=2.61, p=0.01. However, there was no evidence that individual differences in engagement (p=0.20) or motivation (p=0.87) were associated with learning, which was the relationship this experiment was powered to detect. These data are inconsistent with strictly motivational accounts of how autonomy benefits learning, instead suggesting the benefits of autonomy may be mediated through other mechanisms. For instance, within the information processing framework, the learning benefits may emerge from learners appropriately adjusting difficulty to maintain an appropriate level of challenge (i.e., maintaining the relationship between task demands and cognitive resources).

  13. Visual-Perceptual Difficulties and the Impact on Children's Learning: Are Teachers Missing the Page?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Christopher; Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to bring to the fore of educational practice the importance of considering the visual-perceptual condition of Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS) when identifying students who have prolonged reading difficulties. Dyslexia is a frequently used term which can be used to label children who have specific difficulties with reading and/or…

  14. Attention Functioning among Adolescents with Multiple Learning, Attentional, Behavioral, and Emotional Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shalev, Lilach; Kolodny, Tamar; Shalev, Nir; Mevorach, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity; however, these symptoms can result from a variety of reasons. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the various difficulties of individuals with ADHD, especially when co-occurrence difficulties are present, it is…

  15. Estimating the severity of intellectual disability in adults: a Mokken scaling analysis of the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Murray, Aja L; McKenzie, Karen

    2013-09-01

    A Mokken scaling analysis of the learning disability screening questionnaire (LDSQ) suggested that, with the exception of 1 item, the scale conforms to the properties of a Mokken scale. This has advantages for estimating the severity of intellectual disability and inferring the difficulties likely to be experienced by an individual for whom there is incomplete information on intellectual and adaptive functioning.

  16. Improvement of Word Problem Solving and Basic Mathematics Competencies in Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Areces, Débora; Rodríguez, Celestino; Sideridis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving represents a salient deficit in students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD) primarily caused by difficulties with informal and formal mathematical competencies. This study proposes a computerized intervention tool, the integrated dynamic representation (IDR), for enhancing the early learning of basic mathematical…

  17. Slovenian Teachers' Elements of Support for Pupils with Learning Difficulties in Foreign Language Teaching at the Primary and Lower-Secondary Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumen, Mihaela; Bracko, Lea; Krajnc, Majda Schmidt

    2014-01-01

    The article concerns educational work with students who have learning difficulties with foreign languages in Slovenian primary schools. The aim of the research was to investigate current methodical and organisational elements of teacher's support in foreign language teaching for students (aged 9-15) with learning difficulties, according to the…

  18. The Effect of Direct Instruction Strategy on Math Achievement of Primary 4th and 5th Grade Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Makahleh, Ahmad Abdulhameed Aufan

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to verify the effect of direct instruction strategy on Math achievment of students with learning difficulties in the fourth and fifth grade levels and measure the improvement in their attitudes to Mathematics. Sample consisted of sixty (60) students with Math learning difficulties attending 4th and 5th grade level resource rooms…

  19. Using Games-Based eLearning Technologies in Overcoming Difficulties in Teaching Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Thomas; Stanfield, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The contributions of this research center on two major areas: delineation of a new model of distance education in which the authors identify three generations of eLearning; and examination of how eLearning and games-based eLearning technologies can be used to enrich the Information Systems (IS) learning experiences of students with different…

  20. Self-control of task difficulty during training enhances motor learning of a complex coincidence-anticipation task.

    PubMed

    Andrieux, Mathieu; Danna, Jérémy; Thon, Bernard

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to analyze the influence of self-controlled task difficulty on motor learning. Participants had to intercept three targets falling at different velocities by displacing a stylus above a digitizer Task difficulty corresponded to racquet width. Half the participants (self-control condition) could choose the racquet width at the beginning of each trial. Each was paired with a participant from the yoked group. The self-control condition resulted in better performances and accuracy during immediate and delayed retention tests. These results confirm the advantage of a self-control condition on motor learning. They are discussed with reference to the challenge point hypothesis (Guadagnoli & Lee, 2004).

  1. Emotion regulation in disordered eating: Psychometric properties of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale among Spanish adults and its interrelations with personality and clinical severity

    PubMed Central

    Wolz, Ines; Agüera, Zaida; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Gratz, Kim L.; Menchón, José M.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aims of the study were to (1) validate the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) in a sample of Spanish adults with and without eating disorders, and (2) explore the role of emotion regulation difficulties in eating disorders (ED), including its mediating role in the relation between key personality traits and ED severity. Methods: One hundred and thirty four patients (121 female, mean age = 29 years) with anorexia nervosa (n = 30), bulimia nervosa (n = 54), binge eating (n = 20), or Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders (n = 30) and 74 healthy control participants (51 female, mean age = 21 years) reported on general psychopathology, ED severity, personality traits and difficulties in emotion regulation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the psychometrics of the DERS in this Spanish sample (Aim 1). Additionally, to examine the role of emotion regulation difficulties in ED (Aim 2), differences in emotion regulation difficulties across eating disorder subgroups were examined and structural equation modeling was used to explore the interrelations among emotion regulation, personality traits, and eating disorder severity. Results: Results support the validity and reliability of the DERS within this Spanish adult sample and suggest that this measure has a similar factor structure in this sample as in the original sample. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties were found to differ as a function of eating disorder subtype and to mediate the relation between two specific personality traits (i.e., high harm avoidance and low self-directedness) and ED severity. Conclusions: Personality traits of high harm avoidance and low self-directedness may increase vulnerability to ED pathology indirectly, through emotion regulation difficulties. PMID:26175710

  2. Differentiated Curriculum Design: Responding to the Individual and Group Needs of Students with Learning Difficulties with Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pui, Winnie Sin Wai

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore special educational curriculum design at senior secondary school level and whether this helps to enhance the academic attainment and self-confidence of students with learning difficulties. An in-depth discussion focuses on lesson planning for the individual needs and group needs of students by…

  3. Learner Outcomes in Science in South Africa: Role of the Nature of Learner Difficulties with the Language for Learning and Teaching Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyoo, Samuel Ouma

    2016-09-01

    Paul Leslie Gardner pioneered the study of student difficulties with everyday words presented in the science context (Gardner 1971); several similarly designed studies (e.g. Cassels and Johnstone 1985; Tao in Research in Science Education, 24, 322-330, 1994; Farell and Ventura in Language and Education, 12(4), 243-254, 1998; Childs and O'Farell in Chemistry Education: Research and Practice, 4(3), 233-247, 2003) have since been reported in literature. This article draws from an exploratory study of the difficulties South African High School physical science learners encounter with everyday English words when presented in the science context. The participants (1107 learners and 35 respective physical science teachers) were drawn from 35 public secondary schools in Johannesburg area of South Africa. Data were obtained through a word test to participant learners followed by group interviews but face-to-face interviews with each physical science teacher. This study has revealed that in similar ways as have been reported in each of the studies so far, South African learners also face difficulties with meanings of everyday words presented in a science context. The main source of difficulties encountered was learner inability to distinguish between the meanings of familiar everyday words as used in everyday parlance from the `new' meanings of the same everyday words when used in the science context. Interpretations of learner interview responses revealed that fewer difficulties would have been experienced by learners if science teachers generally explained the context meanings of the words as used during science teaching. The findings suggest that focusing on contextual proficiency more than on general proficiency in the language of learning and teaching (LOLT) during teaching perhaps holds more promise for enhanced learning and achievement in science. Steps necessary to raise teacher awareness of the potential impact of context on meanings of everyday words of the LOLT

  4. Understanding Distress in People with Severe Communication Difficulties: Developing and Assessing the Disability Distress Assessment Tool (DisDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnard, C.; Reynolds, Joanna; Watson, Bill; Matthews, Dorothy; Gibson, Lynn; Clarke, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Background: Meaningful communication with people with profound communication difficulties depends on the ability of carers to recognize and translate many different verbal cues. Carers appear to be intuitively skilled at identifying distress cues, but have little confidence in their observations. To help in this process, a number of pain tools…

  5. Bringing ICT to Teach Science Education for Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harish, H. G. Jeya; Kumar, R. Krishna; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the following study was to examine the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Science classrooms of students with Learning Disabilities. Teachers were positive about the learning benefits and design of the Science curriculum. Students were more critical but still positive about these features. Learning Science…

  6. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil's Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children's LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions.

  7. Asperger syndrome and nonverbal learning difficulties in adult males: self- and parent-reported autism, attention and executive problems.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Nydén, Agneta; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    A specific overlap between Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning difficulties (NLD) has been proposed, based on the observation that, as a group, people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal IQ (VIQ) than performance IQ (PIQ), one of the core features of NLD. The primary aim was to assess the longer term outcome of NLD--broken down into persistent and transient forms. The present study of 68 individuals was performed in the context of a larger prospective longitudinal study to late adolescence/early adult life of 100 boys with AS. Using self- and parent-report measures, we studied the longer term outcome of the NLD (defined as VIQ > PIQ by 15 points) as regards social communication, repetitive behaviour, attention, and executive function (EF) was studied. Three subgroups were identified: (1) Persistent NLD (P-NLD), (2) Childhood "only" NLD (CO-NLD) and (3) Never NLD (NO-NLD). The P-NLD group had the worst outcome overall. The CO-NLD group had better reported EF scores than the two other AS subgroups. There were no differences between the subgroups regarding social communication, repetitive behaviour, or attentional skills. Low PIQ increased the risk of ADHD symptoms. In the context of AS in males, P-NLD carries a relatively poor outcome, particularly with regard to self-reported EF. However, CO-NLD appears to entail a significantly better outcome. The results underscore the importance of analysing the cognitive profile both at diagnosis and after several years, so as to be able to formulate a realistic prognosis.

  8. The Mainstream Primary Classroom as a Language-Learning Environment for Children with Severe and Persistent Language Impairment--Implications of Recent Language Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue; Boyle, James

    2009-01-01

    Many UK children with severe and persistent language impairment (SLI) attend local mainstream schools. Although this should provide an excellent language-learning environment, opportunities may be limited by difficulties in sustaining time-consuming, child-specific learning activities; restricted co-professional working, and the complex classroom…

  9. Effects of lexical factors on lexical access among typical language-learning children and children with word-finding difficulties.

    PubMed

    Newman, Rochelle S; German, Diane J

    2002-09-01

    This investigation studied the influence of lexical factors, known to impact lexical access in adults, on the word retrieval of children. Participants included 320 typical and atypical (word-finding difficulties) language-learning children, ranging in age from 7 to 12 years. Lexical factors examined included word frequency, age-of-acquisition, neighborhood density, neighborhood frequency, and stress pattern. Findings indicated that these factors did influence lexical access in children. Words which were high in frequency and neighborhood frequency, low in neighborhood density and age-of-acquisition, and which contained the typical stress pattern for the language were easier to name. Further, the number of neighbors that were more frequent than the target word also had an effect on the word's ease of retrieval. Significant interactions indicated that age-of-acquisition effects decreased with maturation for typically-learning children whereas these effects continued to impact the lexical access of children with word-finding difficulties across the ages studied, suggesting that these children's difficulties in accessing words may have prevented them from developing strong access paths to these words. These findings support a view of lexical access in which access paths to words become strengthened with successful use.

  10. Explaining Variability in Retrieval Times for Addition Produced by Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Sarah L.; Lawson, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Predictors of retrieval times produced by students having difficulty developing a reliance on retrieval for simple addition were discovered. The findings support the notion that separate limitations operate in working memory when retrieval occurs and call into question the use of the term "retrieval deficit" to explain difficulties…

  11. The Pre-Service Science Teachers' Mental Models for Concept of Atoms and Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiray, Seyit Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the pre-service science teachers' difficulties about the concept of atoms. The data was collected from two different sources: The Draw an Atom Test (DAAT) and face-to-face interviews. Draw an atom test (DAAT) were administered to the 142 science teacher candidates. To elaborate the results, the researcher…

  12. Perceptual Skills and Arabic Literacy Patterns for Mathematically Gifted Children with Specific Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hroub, Anies

    2010-01-01

    Phonological awareness is a key factor in the development of literacy, and frequently presents itself as an area of weakness in pupils with reading difficulties. In this article, Anies Al-Hroub of the American University of Beirut sets out to define a distinguishing pattern of characteristics that supports the identification of pupils with…

  13. What about a Simple Language? Analyzing the Difficulties in Learning to Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannila, Linda; Peltomaki, Mia; Salakoski, Tapio

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results from a two-part study. We analyze 60 programs written by novice programmers aged 16-19 after their first programming course, in either Java or Python. The aim is to find difficulties independent of the language used, and such originating from the language. Second, we analyze the transition from a…

  14. Assessing Adults with Learning Difficulties. NetNews. Volume 8, Number 3, Summer 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Ms. K. has attended ABE (Adult Basic Education) classes for almost one year and has had significant difficulty in making progress in reading. She has passed some of the GED tests, but has struggled with others due to having insufficient time to complete them. She currently works as a teacher's aide in a daycare center. Her goal is to pass the GED…

  15. Reading Stories to Learn Math: Mathematics Vocabulary Instruction for Children with Early Numeracy Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Jordan, Nancy C.; Dyson, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The present study involved examining whether a storybook reading intervention targeting mathematics vocabulary, such as "equal," "more," and "less," and associated number concepts would increase at-risk children's vocabulary knowledge and number competencies. Children with early numeracy difficulties (N = 124) were…

  16. The Impact of Text Difficulty on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lu-Fang

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated which level of graded reader was most appropriate for Chinese-speaking learners of various English abilities and whether there were significant differences in comprehension and vocabulary acquisition when different English proficiency (EP) groups read texts of varying difficulty levels. Eight-two senior high school students…

  17. A Case Study of Teacher Responses to a Doubling Error and Difficulty in Learning Equivalent Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Meixia; Li, Xiaobao; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Kulm, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This study qualitatively explored teachers' responses to doubling errors (e.g., 3/4 x 2 = 6/8) that typically reflect students' difficulties in understanding the "rule" for finding equivalent fractions (e.g., 3/4 x 2/2 = 6/8). Although all teachers claimed to teach for understanding in interviews, their responses varied in terms of effectiveness…

  18. A Meta-Analysis of Empirical Research on Teaching Students with Mathematics Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Minyi Shih; Sharp, Emily; Chovanes, Jacquelyn; Thomas, Amanda; Burns, Raquel M.; Custer, Beth; Park, Junkoung

    2016-01-01

    This article quantitatively summarizes experimental and quasi-experimental studies on teaching students with mathematics difficulties (MD) published between 2000 and 2014, research that was available following earlier syntheses. It reports the analysis of effect sizes of 25 intervention studies on participant characteristics, intervention…

  19. Five-Year Growth Trajectories of Kindergarten Children with Learning Difficulties in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong

    2009-01-01

    The investigators used data from the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort" (ECLS-K) to estimate whether and to what extent the timing and persistence of mathematics difficulties (MD) in kindergarten predicted children's first through fifth grade math growth trajectories. Results indicated that children persistently…

  20. Skill Development in Different Components of Arithmetic and Basic Cognitive Functions: Findings from a 3-Year Longitudinal Study of Children with Different Types of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    Arithmetic and cognitive skills of children with mathematical difficulties (MD-only), with comorbid reading difficulties (MD-RD), with reading difficulties (RD-only), and normally achieving children were examined at 3 points from Grades 3-4 to Grades 5-6 (age range, 9-13 years). Both MD groups displayed severe weaknesses in 4 domain-specific…

  1. Water Learning and Swimming for the Severely Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1985-01-01

    The study surveys reports of water learning and swimming instruction for the severely disabled. Findings are organized according to answers to such basic questions as rationale, ideal age of instruction, kinds of aids recommended, techniques of teaching, special precautions, the expansion of the swimming program into other aquatic sports, and…

  2. Turning Difficulties into Possibilities: Engaging Roma Families and Students in School through Dialogic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flecha, Ramón; Soler, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Schools and communities may have a key role in reversing the cycle of inequality that the Roma suffer in Europe. Aiming at reducing existing inequalities, dialogic learning aims to ensure high levels of academic learning for all children, by involving the whole community through egalitarian dialogue. Less well known are the implications of this…

  3. Loci of Difficulty in Learning to Program. Technical Report 86-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David; And Others

    To learn more about the specific nature of the teaching and learning problems involved, researchers conducted a clinical study of 20 high school students enrolled a BASIC course. Investigators presented each student with a sequence of eight programming problems, ranging from easy to difficult. They asked questions to track student thinking and…

  4. Can transcranial electrical stimulation improve learning difficulties in atypical brain development? A future possibility for cognitive training☆

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Beatrix; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Learning difficulties in atypical brain development represent serious obstacles to an individual's future achievements and can have broad societal consequences. Cognitive training can improve learning impairments only to a certain degree. Recent evidence from normal and clinical adult populations suggests that transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), a portable, painless, inexpensive, and relatively safe neuroenhancement tool, applied in conjunction with cognitive training can enhance cognitive intervention outcomes. This includes, for instance, numerical processing, language skills and response inhibition deficits commonly associated with profound learning difficulties and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current review introduces the functional principles, current applications and promising results, and potential pitfalls of TES. Unfortunately, research in child populations is limited at present. We suggest that TES has considerable promise as a tool for increasing neuroplasticity in atypically developing children and may be an effective adjunct to cognitive training in clinical settings if it proves safe. The efficacy and both short- and long-term effects of TES on the developing brain need to be critically assessed before it can be recommended for clinical settings. PMID:23770059

  5. Can transcranial electrical stimulation improve learning difficulties in atypical brain development? A future possibility for cognitive training.

    PubMed

    Krause, Beatrix; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-10-01

    Learning difficulties in atypical brain development represent serious obstacles to an individual's future achievements and can have broad societal consequences. Cognitive training can improve learning impairments only to a certain degree. Recent evidence from normal and clinical adult populations suggests that transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), a portable, painless, inexpensive, and relatively safe neuroenhancement tool, applied in conjunction with cognitive training can enhance cognitive intervention outcomes. This includes, for instance, numerical processing, language skills and response inhibition deficits commonly associated with profound learning difficulties and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current review introduces the functional principles, current applications and promising results, and potential pitfalls of TES. Unfortunately, research in child populations is limited at present. We suggest that TES has considerable promise as a tool for increasing neuroplasticity in atypically developing children and may be an effective adjunct to cognitive training in clinical settings if it proves safe. The efficacy and both short- and long-term effects of TES on the developing brain need to be critically assessed before it can be recommended for clinical settings.

  6. Dental students’ and lecturers’ perception of the degree of difficulty of caries detection associated learning topics in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: It aimed to explore the degree of difficulty of caries-detection-associated-topics perceived by dental students and lecturers as pedagogical step in the development of learning objects for e-learning. Methods: A convenience sample comprising ninety-eight subjects from different academic levels (undergraduate/graduate students and pediatric dentistry lecturers) participated. Two spreadsheets (isolated/relative) were created considering key topics in the caries detection process. The isolated evaluation intended to explore each topic in an isolated way, while the relative intended to classify, comparatively, the participants’ perceived difficulty per topic. Afterwards, data were analyzed. All values on spreadsheets were combined obtaining the subject’s final perception. Associations between the subjects’ degree of the perceived difficulty and academic level were estimated. ANOVA was used to determine differences regarding the perception among evaluated topics in distinct groups. Results: Caries histopathology and detection of proximal carious lesions were the topics perceived as the most difficult in the process of caries detection by both students and lecturers. Differentiation between an extrinsic pigmentation and a brown-spot (caries lesion) as well as differential diagnosis between caries and enamel developmental defects or non-carious lesions were considered as more difficult by undergraduates in comparison to graduates/lecturers (regression-coefficient=14.54; Standard Error=3.34; P<0.001 and 8.40, 3.31, and 0.01 respectively). Conclusion: Topics as histopathology and detection of proximal caries lesions were identified as the most difficult despite the academic level. However, some topics are differently perceived according to the group. These results are useful for developing pedagogical material, based on the students real learning needs/expectations. PMID:26708573

  7. The Impact of Learning Difficulties and Socioemotional and Behavioural Problems on Transition to Postsecondary Education or Work Life in Finland: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Airi M.; Holopainen, Leena K.; Savolainen, Hannu K.

    2016-01-01

    Learning difficulties have been found to dilute the possibilities that young adults have in their educational careers. However, during the last few decades, education has become increasingly important for employment and overall life satisfaction. In the present study, we were interested in the effects of mathematical and reading difficulties and…

  8. Understanding the difficulties faced by engineering undergraduates in learning mathematical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soon, Wanmei; Tirtasanjaya Lioe, Luis; McInnes, Brett

    2011-12-01

    The teaching of mathematics in Singapore continues, in most cases, to follow a traditional model. While this traditional approach has many advantages, it does not always adequately prepare students for University-level mathematics, especially applied mathematics. In particular, it does not cultivate the ability to deal with non-routine problems, which is an essential virtue for any practitioner of mathematical modelling (MM). Here, we argue that this inability to handle non-routine problems is the principal reason for the serious difficulties experienced by Singaporean students who encounter MM at the tertiary level in Singapore universities. A survey was conducted, primarily to understand the difficulties facing the preliminary batch of first-year undergraduate engineering students doing a course in MM using differential equations (DEs) and linear algebra. Our work is motivated by concerns that the novelty of this course in the Singaporean context could lead to difficulties for these students. Students' abilities in attempting novel modelling-type problems, the techniques they employ in solving such problems, their comments on the course and expectations of their lecturers and tutors are being probed. We present our analyses of the survey results and discuss the implications for future work.

  9. Grammatical Difficulties in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Is Learning Deficient?

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical accounts of grammatical limitations in specific language impairment (SLI) have been polarized between those that postulate problems with domain-specific grammatical knowledge, and those that regard grammatical deficits as downstream consequences of perceptual or memory limitations. Here we consider an alternative view that grammatical deficits arise when the learning system is biased towards memorization of exemplars, and is poor at extracting statistical dependencies from the input. We examine evidence that SLI involves deficits in extracting nonadjacent dependencies from input, leading to reliance on rote learning, and consider how far this may be part of a limitation of procedural learning, or a secondary consequence of memory limitations.

  10. The difficulties of making 'CPD verifiability' a legitimate measure of learning outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, M

    2012-10-01

    This article offers further thoughts and raises wider issues in the continuing debate over the value of current CPD programmes and the way in which they are measured in terms of input rather than learning outcomes benefiting patients.

  11. An analysis of how electromagnetic induction and Faraday's law are presented in general physics textbooks, focusing on learning difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisasola, Jenaro; Zuza, Kristina; Almudi, José-Manuel

    2013-07-01

    Textbooks are a very important tool in the teaching-learning process and influence important aspects of the process. This paper presents an analysis of the chapter on electromagnetic induction and Faraday's law in 19 textbooks on general physics for first-year university courses for scientists and engineers. This analysis was based on criteria formulated from the theoretical framework of electromagnetic induction in classical physics and students' learning difficulties concerning these concepts. The aim of the work presented here is not to compare a textbook against the ideal book, but rather to try and find a series of explanations, examples, questions, etc that provide evidence on how the topic is presented in relation to the criteria above. It concludes that despite many aspects being covered properly, there are others that deserve greater attention.

  12. Severe childhood sexual abuse and nonverbal learning disability.

    PubMed

    Little, L

    1998-01-01

    This article offers a review of, and case report on, the treatment of a young adult with a history of severe childhood abuse, dissociative symptoms, and right-hemisphere dysfunction, or nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD). The core of nonverbal learning disabilities is the inability to synthesize information and create meaning from complex information. Learning is a form of adaptation and disruptions in an individual's meaning-making process. There are major implications for the person's overall adjustment. Trauma is itself complex and often damaging to the survivor's well being. Clinical assessment must take into account a person's cognitive style and possible learning deficits in order to adequately address traumatic material. Therapy must be modified in order to respond to the unique learning style of the NLD client. Finally, and important issue for therapists remains their willingness to broaden their awareness and knowledge base, and shift the treatment paradigm to meet the needs of the client with neurocognitive vulnerabilities. Treating clients with difficult trauma histories' alone, can elicit negative reactions in the therapist. Repeated experiences with a client's mistrust, anger, noncompliance or self-defeating habits are particularly stressful. The neuropsychological perspective can provide a valuable tool in the mastery of those reactions, and in building a context for empathy and a joint narrative.

  13. Attention Functioning Among Adolescents With Multiple Learning, Attentional, Behavioral, and Emotional Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Lilach; Kolodny, Tamar; Shalev, Nir; Mevorach, Carmel

    2016-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity; however, these symptoms can result from a variety of reasons. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the various difficulties of individuals with ADHD, especially when co-occurrence difficulties are present, it is essential to combine neuropsychological and subjective assessment tools. In the present field study the authors investigated a group of adolescents with multiple deficits (MD) using neuropsychological and subjective measures. Teachers' ratings verified extremely high levels of symptoms of oppositional behavior, inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, social problems, and emotional problems in this group. As expected, MD group participants showed decreased abilities to maintain attention on task for a long period of time, focus attention and effectively inhibit adjacent distractors, and resist conflicting irrelevant information. Importantly, although significant differences in the attention measures were observed at the group level, not all MD participants displayed deviant performance. Thus, we conclude that the heterogeneous group of adolescents with MD comprises individuals with primary attention deficits as well as those with other nonattentional deficits that show equivalent behavioral symptoms. Using neuropsychological tools can be useful in differentiating between different core deficits and in guiding appropriate interventions.

  14. Working memory: its role in dyslexia and other specific learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Sharman; Everatt, John

    2004-08-01

    This paper reports a study contrasting dyslexic children against a control group of children without special educational needs (SEN) and a group with varied SENs. Children's abilities were compared on tasks assessing phonological processing, visuo-spatial/motor coordination and executive/inhibitory functioning; being targeted for assessment based on theoretical proposals related to the working memory model. Primary and secondary school level children were tested: 21 assessed as dyslexic with no comorbid difficulties, 26 children assessed with difficulties including dyspraxia, emotional/behavioural problems and attention deficits, 40 children with no known education-related deficits were controls. Results indicated both SEN groups performed worse than controls on working memory phonological loop measures. However, SEN groups could only be differentiated on phonological awareness measures: the dyslexics showing lower scores. Dyslexics performed as well as controls on working memory visuo-spatial scratch pad measures and one of two additional visual-motor coordination tasks, whereas the performance of the other SEN children was lowest on the majority of these measures. Central executive and interference measures engendered mixed performances, both SEN groups showing evidence of deficits in one or more of these areas of functioning, although, of the two SEN groups, the dyslexics seem to have performed the worse when digit name processing was required.

  15. Computer-based auditory training (CBAT): benefits for children with language- and reading-related learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Campbell, Nicci; Luxon, Linda M

    2010-08-01

    This article reviews the evidence for computer-based auditory training (CBAT) in children with language, reading, and related learning difficulties, and evaluates the extent it can benefit children with auditory processing disorder (APD). Searches were confined to studies published between 2000 and 2008, and they are rated according to the level of evidence hierarchy proposed by the American Speech-Language Hearing Association (ASHA) in 2004. We identified 16 studies of two commercially available CBAT programs (13 studies of Fast ForWord (FFW) and three studies of Earobics) and five further outcome studies of other non-speech and simple speech sounds training, available for children with language, learning, and reading difficulties. The results suggest that, apart from the phonological awareness skills, the FFW and Earobics programs seem to have little effect on the language, spelling, and reading skills of children. Non-speech and simple speech sounds training may be effective in improving children's reading skills, but only if it is delivered by an audio-visual method. There is some initial evidence to suggest that CBAT may be of benefit for children with APD. Further research is necessary, however, to substantiate these preliminary findings.

  16. Neural network learning control of robot manipulators using gradually increasing task difficulty

    SciTech Connect

    Sanger, T.D. )

    1994-06-01

    Trajectory Extension Learning is an incremental method for training an artificial neural network to approximate the inverse dynamics of a robot manipulator. Training data near a desired trajectory is obtained by slowly varying a parameter of the trajectory from a region of easy solvability of the inverse dynamics toward the desired behavior. The parameter can be average speed, path shape, feedback gain, or any other controllable variable. As learning proceeds, an approximate solution to the local inverse dynamics for each value of the parameter is used to guide learning for the next value of the parameter. Convergence conditions are given for two variations on the algorithm. Examples are shown of application to a real 2-joint direct drive robot arm and a simulated 3-joint redundant arm, both using simulated equilibrium point control.

  17. Managing eating and drinking difficulties (dysphagia) with children who have learning disabilities: What is effective?

    PubMed

    Harding, Celia; Cockerill, Helen

    2015-07-01

    People who work with children who have neurological and learning disabilities frequently need to manage the health and emotional risks associated with eating, drinking and swallowing (dysphagia). Some approaches can support children to develop oral feeding competence or to maximise their ability to maintain some oral intake supplemented with tube feeding. However, some clinicians feel that oral-motor exercises can support eating and drinking skills as well as speech and language development, whereas there is little evidence to support this.The implied "beneficial" association between oral-motor exercises, speech and swallowing skills gives a false impression in terms of future outcomes for parents and carers of children with learning disabilities. This paper considers oral-motor approaches in the remediation of dysphagia and the need for a cultural shift away from this view. Realistic and useful outcomes for people with learning disabilities need to be an essential part of therapeutic intervention.

  18. Trait anxiety and goal difficulty on learning to climb the Bachman ladder.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Jaqueline F O; Barros, Joao A C; Meira, Cassio M

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the effects of trait anxiety and goal setting on learning of the Bachman ladder. It was hypothesized that easy goals would increase learning for individuals with high trait anxiety while hard goals would increase learning for individuals with low trait anxiety. 80 high school students (40 boys, 40 girls; M age = 15 yr., SD = 1.0) filled out the Brazilian State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for trait anxiety. The experiment was divided into four phases: acquisition, immediate transfer (after 5 min.), delayed transfer, and retention (after 24 hr.). On the transfer phases, the participants started climbing the ladder with the foot opposite of that used in acquisition. Participants were assigned to one of four experimental groups combining high and low anxiety traits and hard and easy goals. Variances were analyzed with repeated measurements on the last factor of all phases. The results showed the performance increased during the acquisition phase and no effects were observed in any phases.

  19. Difficulties Encountered by Both Teachers and Students in Teaching and Learning Turkish as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canbulat, Mehmet; Dilekçi, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to identify and suggest solutions to the problems experienced by students learning Turkish as a second language according to the opinions of both teachers and students evaluated. The research has been conducted among the classroom teachers, Turkish language teachers and the students attending the schools in…

  20. A Pilot Memory Café for People with Learning Disabilities and Memory Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiddle, Hannah; Drew, Neil; Crabbe, Paul; Wigmore, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Memory cafés have been found to normalise experiences of dementia and provide access to an accepting social network. People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of developing dementia, but the possible benefits of attending a memory café are not known. This study evaluates a 12-week pilot memory café for people with learning…

  1. MISC-MUSIC: A Music Program to Enhance Cognitive Processing among Children with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portowitz, Adena; Klein, Pnina S.

    2007-01-01

    Research findings confirm positive links between music education, scholastic achievement, and social adaptability, especially among at-risk and special needs children. However, few studies explain how this process occurs. This article presents a didactic approach, which suggests practical ways of enhancing general learning skills while teaching…

  2. Classroom Organisation and Interactions of Pupils with Moderate Learning Difficulties in Mainstream and Special Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Marie; Croll, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A study used systematic classroom observation to describe pupil behavior and pupil-teacher and pupil-peer interaction in four classrooms in schools for children with moderate learning disabilities. Results are compared with a previous study of mainstream elementary classrooms. (MSE)

  3. Intrinsic Difficulties in Learning Common Greek-Originated English Words: The Case of Pluralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavakli, Nurdan

    2016-01-01

    Knowing the origin of a language helps us to determine the historical background of that language. As language itself is such a system of a society that is continuously evolving as that aforementioned society learns and technologically develops along with its roots or origins. Like many other languages, English is also a language that has roots or…

  4. Workshop on Friction: Understanding and Addressing Students' Difficulties in Learning Science through a Hermeneutical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Sangwoo; Lee, Gyoungho; Kalman, Calvin S.

    2013-01-01

    Hermeneutics is useful in science and science education by emphasizing the process of understanding. The purpose of this study was to construct a workshop based upon hermeneutical principles and to interpret students' learning in the workshop through a hermeneutical perspective. When considering the history of Newtonian mechanics, it could be…

  5. Having "Learning Difficulties": The Inclusive Education of Disabled Girls and Boys in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydstrom, Helle

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the "inclusive education" strategy in Vietnam and the extent to which it facilitates learning in students with disabilities. After the introduction of the "doi moi" (renewal) policy in 1986, Vietnamese society went through a period of rapid transformation, including the educational sector. Debates on…

  6. An Investigation of Factors Impacting on Mainstream Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfson, Lisa Marks; Brady, Katy

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between teacher experience, further professional development training, and beliefs and attributions about teaching students with additional learning support needs was studied in a sample of 199 mainstream general class primary school teachers. Using multiple regression, it was found that none of the teacher experience or…

  7. Diagnosing Dyslexia. A Guide to the Assessment of Adults with Specific Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Cynthia

    This book offers tutors in adult, further, and higher education materials for diagnosing students with specific learning disabilities (dyslexia). It provides information for setting up an appropriate individualized teaching program and making recommendations for supporting such students. Materials and methods can be used with students from basic…

  8. Behavior and Learning Difficulties in Children of Normal Intelligence Born to Alcoholic Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaywitz, Sally E.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Children referred to the Learning Disorders Unit of the Yale-New Haven Hospital were evaluated for indications of prenatal exposure to ethanol. Our results suggest a continuum of teratogenic effects of ethanol on the central nervous system. Journal availability The C. V. Mosby Co., 11830 Westline Industrial Dr., St. Louis, MO 63141. (Author)

  9. Symposium: Perceptual Training for Children with Learning Difficulties (May 5, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlesex General Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ. Speech and Reading Clinic.

    A scheme is presented for the development of perception and learning in which a hierarchy of skills begins with innate response systems and progresses through gross motor activities to more specialized motor systems represented by eye-hand coordination. The next stage of development, the control of ocular muscles, is discussed and the development…

  10. Diagnostic Tests and Criterion-Referenced Assessments: Their Contribution to the Resolution of Pupil Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Mary; Arnold, Brian

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that failure to learn is often the result of inappropriateness of level of instruction and deficiencies in instructional procedures and educational strategies, and differentiates between the functions of criterion referenced tests and diagnostic tests. Results are reported from two studies of the teaching of osmosis and photosynthesis.…

  11. Modern Languages and Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD): Implications of Teaching Adult Learners with Dyslexia in Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallardo, Matilde; Heiser, Sarah; Arias McLaughlin, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    In modern language (ML) distance learning programmes, teachers and students use online tools to facilitate, reinforce and support independent learning. This makes it essential for teachers to develop pedagogical expertise in using online communication tools to perform their role. Teachers frequently raise questions of how best to support the needs…

  12. Genetic predisposition increases the tic severity, rate of comorbidities, and psychosocial and educational difficulties in children with Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eysturoy, Absalon Niclas; Skov, Liselotte; Debes, Nanette Mol

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine whether there are differences in tic severity, comorbidities, and psychosocial and educational consequences in children with Tourette syndrome and genetic predisposition to Tourette syndrome compared with children with Tourette syndrome without genetic predisposition to Tourette syndrome. A total of 314 children diagnosed with Tourette syndrome participated in this study. Validated diagnostic tools were used to assess tic severity, comorbidities, and cognitive performance. A structured interview was used to evaluate psychosocial and educational consequences related to Tourette syndrome. The children with Tourette syndrome and genetic predisposition present with statistically significant differences in terms of severity of tics, comorbidities, and a range of psychosocial and educational factors compared with the children with Tourette syndrome without genetic predisposition. Professionals need to be aware of genetic predisposition to Tourette syndrome, as children with Tourette syndrome and genetic predisposition have more severe symptoms than those children with Tourette syndrome who are without genetic predisposition.

  13. Amnesia in an actor: Learning and re-learning of play passages despite severe autobiographical amnesia.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Michael D; Morton, John

    2015-06-01

    We describe the case of an accomplished actor, whom we term AB, who suffered severe amnesia following a cardiac arrest and hypoxic brain damage, affecting medial temporal and thalamic structures. His performance on standard episodic memory tests, and on measures of retrograde amnesia, including autobiographical memory, was severely impaired. When presented with passages from plays he had not appeared in, AB showed a severe impairment at the first learning trial, but thereafter showed a 'normal' learning curve for this semantically and syntactically complex material. On being presented with passages from plays he had performed in the past, AB did not show any recognition of them whatsoever, as one might expect from his severe episodic memory impairment. However, AB showed a striking benefit (savings score) in relearning passages he had previously performed, compared with new passages, despite not having any autobiographical recall of having performed the relearned passages before. Moreover, although his initial recall performance in learning these passages was impaired compared with healthy control actors of similar age and experience, AB demonstrated the same incremental learning rate on subsequent learning trials of the passages as did the controls. We conclude that, although severely impaired at the first learning trial (on both 'new' and 'old' passages), AB was able to employ his long-established semantic and procedural skills to attempt the task, and that thereafter he showed a 'normal' rate of incremental learning from a lower baseline.

  14. Reading Stories to Learn Math: Mathematics Vocabulary Instruction for Children with Early Numeracy Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Jordan, Nancy C; Dyson, Nancy

    2015-12-01

    The present study involved examining whether a storybook reading intervention targeting mathematics vocabulary, such as "equal," "more," and "less," and associated number concepts would increase at-risk children's vocabulary knowledge and number competencies. Children with early numeracy difficulties (N = 124) were recruited from kindergarten classes in four schools. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a storybook number competencies (SNC) intervention, a number sense intervention, or a business-as-usual control. Interventions were carried out in groups of four children over 8 weeks (24 thirty-minute sessions). Findings demonstrated that the SNC intervention group outperformed the other groups on measures of mathematics vocabulary, both in terms of words that were closely aligned to the intervention and those that were not. There was no effect of the SNC intervention, however, on general mathematics measures, suggesting a need to provide the mathematics vocabulary work along with more intensive instruction in number concepts.

  15. On the Roots of Difficulties in Learning about Cell Division: Process-Based Analysis of Students' Conceptual Development in Teaching Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riemeier, Tanja; Gropengiesser, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Empirical investigations on students' conceptions of cell biology indicate major misunderstandings of scientific concepts even after thorough teaching. Therefore, the main aim of our research project was to investigate students' difficulties in learning this topic and to study the impact of learning activities on students' conceptions. Using the…

  16. The Effect of the Difficulty of One Task on the Simultaneous Learning of Another Task.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    the learning of word pairs and the components of word pairs. NMery & Cognition, 1974, 2, 742-748. . .r 42 Thoradike, E . L., & Lorge, 1. The teacher’s...536 S. Clark Street Washington, DC 20361 Chicago, IL 60605 NORTIIW) E :;TERN/UNDERWOOD July 10, 1980 Page 2 Navy Navy 5 Personnel & Training Research...MICHAEL ATWOOD 1 Dr. Joseph I. Lipson SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INSTITUTE SEDR W-638 40 DENVER TECH. CENTER WEST National Science Foundation 7935 E . PRENTICE

  17. Frontostriatal anatomical connections predict age- and difficulty-related differences in reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Harsay, Helga; Reneman, Liesbeth; Cavanagh, James F; Buitenweg, Jessika I V; Cohen, Michael X

    2016-10-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) is supported by a network of striatal and frontal cortical structures that are connected through white-matter fiber bundles. With age, the integrity of these white-matter connections declines. The role of structural frontostriatal connectivity in individual and age-related differences in RL is unclear, although local white-matter density and diffusivity have been linked to individual differences in RL. Here we show that frontostriatal tract counts in young human adults (aged 18-28), as assessed noninvasively with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and probabilistic tractography, positively predicted individual differences in RL when learning was difficult (70% valid feedback). In older adults (aged 63-87), in contrast, learning under both easy (90% valid feedback) and difficult conditions was predicted by tract counts in the same frontostriatal network. Furthermore, network-level analyses showed a double dissociation between the task-relevant networks in young and older adults, suggesting that older adults relied on different frontostriatal networks than young adults to obtain the same task performance. These results highlight the importance of successful information integration across striatal and frontal regions during RL, especially with variable outcomes.

  18. Reading Stories to Learn Math: Mathematics Vocabulary Instruction for Children with Early Numeracy Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Jordan, Nancy C.; Dyson, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The present study involved examining whether a storybook reading intervention targeting mathematics vocabulary, such as “equal,” “more,” and “less,” and associated number concepts would increase at-risk children’s vocabulary knowledge and number competencies. Children with early numeracy difficulties (N = 124) were recruited from kindergarten classes in four schools. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a storybook number competencies (SNC) intervention, a number sense intervention, or a business-as-usual control. Interventions were carried out in groups of four children over 8 weeks (24 thirty-minute sessions). Findings demonstrated that the SNC intervention group outperformed the other groups on measures of mathematics vocabulary, both in terms of words that were closely aligned to the intervention and those that were not. There was no effect of the SNC intervention, however, on general mathematics measures, suggesting a need to provide the mathematics vocabulary work along with more intensive instruction in number concepts. PMID:26726261

  19. Eye movement difficulties in autism spectrum disorder: implications for implicit contextual learning.

    PubMed

    Kourkoulou, Anastasia; Kuhn, Gustav; Findlay, John M; Leekam, Susan R

    2013-06-01

    It is widely accepted that we use contextual information to guide our gaze when searching for an object. People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also utilise contextual information in this way; yet, their visual search in tasks of this kind is much slower compared with people without ASD. The aim of the current study was to explore the reason for this by measuring eye movements. Eye movement analyses revealed that the slowing of visual search was not caused by making a greater number of fixations. Instead, participants in the ASD group were slower to launch their first saccade, and the duration of their fixations was longer. These results indicate that slowed search in ASD in contextual learning tasks is not due to differences in the spatial allocation of attention but due to temporal delays in the initial-reflexive orienting of attention and subsequent-focused attention. These results have broader implications for understanding the unusual attention profile of individuals with ASD and how their attention may be shaped by learning.

  20. The utility of math difficulties, internalized psychopathology, and visual-spatial deficits to identify children with the nonverbal learning disability syndrome: evidence for a visualspatial disability.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Bonny J

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the criteria currently employed to identify children with the nonverbal learning disability syndrome (NVLD). The most widely accepted definition of NVLD relies on deficits in visual-spatial-organizational, tactile-perceptual, psychomotor, and nonverbal problem-solving skills. These deficits are believed to coexist with strengths in rote verbal learning, phoneme-grapheme matching, verbal output, and verbal classification. The combination of these assets and deficits has been hypothesized to lead to psychosocial and academic problems, including difficulties with mathematics and increased rates of psychopathology. This study compared performance of three groups of children: those with NVLD, those with verbal learning disabilities (VLD), and controls. The results show that the criteria currently employed to identify children with NVLD may not adequately differentiate them. In contrast to previous findings, the study reveals that children with NVLD can demonstrate good math abilities when performing certain types of math tasks, especially those that draw on their robust verbal skills. Also in contrast to most previous findings, in this study children with NVLD (and normal controls) demonstrated lower rates of psychopathology than children with VLD. Finally, for children with NVLD it appears that their visual-perceptual deficits may include a primary deficit in locating objects in space. Based in part on the findings of this study, it may be helpful for diagnostic and treatment purposes to reserve the term Nonverbal Learning Disability for children whose visual-spatial deficits are primary and severe enough to affect academic performance in subjects such as written mathematics. Given the integral nature of social relations in children's lives, a separate category (e.g., social processing disorder) could be created for children whose social skills deficits are primary and impair their social interactions. A broader nonverbal learning model or syndrome

  1. A Longitudinal Study on Predictors of Early Calculation Development among Young Children At-Risk for Learning Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Peng; Namkung, Jessica M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Patton, Samuel; Yen, Loulee; Compton, Donald L.; Zhang, Wenjuan; Miller, Amanda; Hamlett, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore domain-general cognitive skills, domain-specific academic skills, and demographic characteristics that are associated with calculation development from first through third grade among young children with learning difficulties. Participants were 176 children identified with reading and mathematics difficulties at the beginning of first grade. Data were collected on working memory, language, nonverbal reasoning, processing speed, decoding, numerical competence, incoming calculations, socioeconomic status, and gender at the beginning of first grade and on calculation performance at 4 time points: the beginning of first grade, the end of first grade, the end of second grade, and the end of third grade. Latent growth modelling analysis showed that numerical competence, incoming calculation, processing speed, and decoding skills significantly explained the variance of calculation performance at the beginning of first grade. Numerical competence and processing speed significantly explained the variance of calculation performance at the end of third grade. However, numerical competence was the only significant predictor of calculation development from the beginning of first grade to the end of third grade. Implications of these findings for early calculation instructions among young at-risk children are discussed. PMID:27572520

  2. Pragmatics of language and theory of mind in children with dyslexia with associated language difficulties or nonverbal learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Cardillo, Ramona; Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2017-03-15

    The present study aims to find empirical evidence of deficits in linguistic pragmatic skills and theory of mind (ToM) in children with dyslexia with associated language difficulties or nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), when compared with a group of typically developing (TD) children matched for age and gender. Our results indicate that children with dyslexia perform less well than TD children in most of the tasks measuring pragmatics of language, and in one of the tasks measuring ToM. In contrast, children with NLD generally performed better than the dyslexia group, and performed significantly worse than the TD children only in a metaphors task based on visual stimuli. A discriminant function analysis confirmed the crucial role of the metaphors subtest and the verbal ToM task in distinguishing between the groups. We concluded that, contrary to a generally-held assumption, children with dyslexia and associated language difficulties may be weaker than children with NLD in linguistic pragmatics and ToM, especially when language is crucially involved. The educational and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. A longitudinal study on predictors of early calculation development among young children at risk for learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Peng, Peng; Namkung, Jessica M; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S; Patton, Samuel; Yen, Loulee; Compton, Donald L; Zhang, Wenjuan; Miller, Amanda; Hamlett, Carol

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore domain-general cognitive skills, domain-specific academic skills, and demographic characteristics that are associated with calculation development from first grade to third grade among young children with learning difficulties. Participants were 176 children identified with reading and mathematics difficulties at the beginning of first grade. Data were collected on working memory, language, nonverbal reasoning, processing speed, decoding, numerical competence, incoming calculations, socioeconomic status, and gender at the beginning of first grade and on calculation performance at four time points: the beginning of first grade, the end of first grade, the end of second grade, and the end of third grade. Latent growth modeling analysis showed that numerical competence, incoming calculation, processing speed, and decoding skills significantly explained the variance in calculation performance at the beginning of first grade. Numerical competence and processing speed significantly explained the variance in calculation performance at the end of third grade. However, numerical competence was the only significant predictor of calculation development from the beginning of first grade to the end of third grade. Implications of these findings for early calculation instructions among young at-risk children are discussed.

  4. Case report: two patients with partial DiGeorge syndrome presenting with attention disorder and learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Hacıhamdioğlu, Bülent; Berberoğlu, Merih; Şıklar, Zeynep; Doğu, Figen; Bilir, Pelin; Savaş Erdeve, Şenay; İkincioğulları, Aydan; Öçal, Gönül

    2011-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) has classically been characterized by the triad of clinical features including congenital cardiac defects, immune deficiencies secondary to aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus, and hypocalcaemia due to small or absent parathyroid glands. The phenotypic features of these patients are much more variable and extensive than previously recognized. The acknowledgement of similarities and phenotypic overlap of DGS with other disorders associated with genetic defects in 22q11 has led to an expanded description of the phenotypic features of DGS including palatal/speech abnormalities, as well as cognitive, neurological and psychiatric disorders. Here, we report the cases of two DGS patients with dysmorphic facial features who were initially admitted to the Psychiatry Department for attention disorder and learning difficulties.

  5. Artificial grammar learning in individuals with severe aphasia.

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, Vitor C; Cowell, Patricia E; Varley, Rosemary A

    2014-01-01

    One factor in syntactic impairment in aphasia might be damage to general structure processing systems. In such a case, deficits would be evident in the processing of syntactically structured non-linguistic information. To explore this hypothesis, we examined performances on artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks in which the grammar was expressed in non-linguistic visual forms. In the first experiment, AGL behavior of four aphasic participants with severe syntactic impairment, five aphasic participants without syntactic impairment, and healthy controls was examined. Participants were trained on sequences of nonsense stimuli with the structure A(n)B(n). Data were analyzed at an individual level to identify different behavioral profiles and account for heterogeneity in aphasic as well as healthy groups. Healthy controls and patients without syntactic impairment were more likely to learn configurational (item order) than quantitative (counting) regularities. Quantitative regularities were only detected by individuals who also detected the configurational properties of the stimulus sequences. By contrast, two individuals with syntactic impairment learned quantitative regularities, but showed no sensitivity towards configurational structure. They also failed to detect configurational structure in a second experiment in which sequences were structured by the grammar A(+)B(+). We discuss the potential relationship between AGL and processing of word order as well as the potential of AGL in clinical practice.

  6. Assessing self-regulated learning in early childhood education: Difficulties, needs, and prospects.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Lozano Díaz, Antonia

    2010-05-01

    Self-regulated learning is one of the main processes being investigated today within developmental and educational psychology; however, the research has come up against a number of challenges for which no satisfactory response has been found, and which are impeding progress in the field. These challenges are two-fold: one part is methodological, as the process of self-regulation must be evaluated at the very moment in which it occurs, and the other part is developmental, as these processes have not been fully assessed in children under the age of 6 years. This article gives a broad overview of these challenges, as well as prospects for future solutions which are beginning to take shape.

  7. Learning Goals and Conceptual Difficulties in Cell Metabolism--An Explorative Study of University Lecturers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degerman, Mari Stadig; Tibell, Lena A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development and increasing inter- and multi-disciplinarity of life sciences invokes revisions of life science course curricula, recognizing ("inter alia") the need to compromise between covering specific phenomena and general processes/principles. For these reasons there have been several initiatives to standardize curricula,…

  8. Co-operative Learning for Students with Difficulties in Learning: A Description of Models and Guidelines for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen; Grey, Ian M.; Honan, Rita

    2005-01-01

    As part of a larger study regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream classroom settings, Ellen Murphy, of the D Clin Psych programme at NUI Galway, with Ian Grey and Rita Honan, from Trinity College, Dublin, reviewed existing literature on co-operative learning in the classroom. In this article, they identify four models…

  9. Emotional and behavioural difficulties in children referred for learning disabilities from two Arab countries: A cross-cultural examination of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    El-Keshky, Mogeda; Emam, Mahmoud

    2014-11-11

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a widely used child mental health questionnaire with five hypothesized subscales. There is theoretical and preliminary empirical support for combining the SDQ's hypothesized emotional and peer subscales into an 'internalizing' subscale and the hypothesized behavioural and hyperactivity subscales into an 'externalizing' subscale (alongside the fifth prosocial subscale). We examined both structures using the teacher informant version data from two Arab countries, namely Saudi Arabia (323) and Oman (439). Multigroup CFAs based on structural equation modelling revealed culture invariance for the SDQ. The three-factor model showed a better description of the SDQ structure. The analysis also revealed gender invariance for the SDQ three and five factor models in both the Omani and Saudi samples. There were gender differences in all the three and five factors between the Saudi and Omani samples.

  10. The Role of Metacognitive Reading Strategies, Metacognitive Study and Learning Strategies, and Behavioral Study and Learning Strategies in Predicting Academic Success in Students with and without a History of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Thérèse M.; Parrila, Rauno; Ritchie, Krista C.; Deacon, S. Hélène

    2017-01-01

    We examined the self-reported use of reading, study, and learning strategies in university students with a history of reading difficulties (HRD; n = 77) and with no history of reading difficulties (NRD; n = 295). We examined both between-groups differences in strategy use and strategy use as a predictive measure of academic success. Participants…

  11. Genotype-phenotype correlations in hyperekplexia: apnoeas, learning difficulties and speech delay.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rhys H; Chung, Seo-Kyung; Wood, Sian E; Cushion, Thomas D; Drew, Cheney J G; Hammond, Carrie L; Vanbellinghen, Jean-Francois; Mullins, Jonathan G L; Rees, Mark I

    2013-10-01

    Congenital hyperekplexia is a rare, potentially treatable neuromotor disorder. Three major genes of effect are known, and all three affect glycinergic neurotransmission. Two genes encode for subunits of the postsynaptic inhibitory glycine receptor, GLRA1 encoding the α1 subunit and GLRB encoding the β subunit. The third, SLC6A5, encodes the cognate presynaptic glycine transporter 2. Ninety-seven individuals had a clinical diagnosis of hyperekplexia confirmed by genetic testing: 61 cases had mutations in GLRA1, 24 cases in SLC6A5 and 12 in GLRB. Detailed retrospective clinical analysis ascertained that all gene-positive cases present in the neonatal period (occasionally prenatally) and that clonazepam is the treatment of choice (95% found it to be efficacious). We confirm that hyperekplexia is predominantly a recessive condition but dominant cases are seen (16%). We found no genetic evidence for 'major' or 'minor' forms of hyperekplexia on a population basis. Thirty-five gene-negative cases were studied for comparison, their cardinal feature was presentation after the first month of life (P < 0.001). In addition to the characteristic 'stiffness, startles and stumbles' of hyperekplexia, apnoea attacks (50 of 89) and delayed development (47 of 92) were frequently reported. Patients with SLC6A5 mutations were significantly more likely to have had recurrent infantile apnoeas (RR1.9; P < 0.005) than those with GLRA1 mutations. Patients with GLRB and SLC6A5 mutations were more likely to have developmental delay (RR1.5 P < 0.01; RR1.9 P < 0.03) than those with GLRA1 mutations; 92% of GLRB cases reported a mild to severe delay in speech acquisition. Molecular modelling of pathogenic mutations demonstrates specific patterns of protein disruption that can be used to predict phenotype severity. The developmental delay in hyperekplexia, and speech acquisition in particular, may represent failure of developmental neural networks or subtle neurogenic migration defects in the

  12. Does Hearing Several Speakers Reduce Foreign Word Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludington, Jason Darryl

    2016-01-01

    Learning spoken word forms is a vital part of second language learning, and CALL lends itself well to this training. Not enough is known, however, about how auditory variation across speech tokens may affect receptive word learning. To find out, 144 Thai university students with no knowledge of the Patani Malay language learned 24 foreign words in…

  13. Performance of Children With Developmental Dyslexia on Two Skill Learning Tasks-Serial Reaction Time and Tower of Hanoi Puzzle: A Test of the Specific Procedural Learning Difficulties Theory.

    PubMed

    Vakil, Eli; Lowe, Michal; Goldfus, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Among the various theories proposed to explain developmental dyslexia (DD), the theory of specific procedural learning difficulties has gained certain support and is the framework for the current research. This theory claims that an inability to achieve skill automaticity explains the difficulties experienced by individuals with DD. Previous research on automaticity and DD has exhibited methodological issues such as a failure to test a range of skills. The current study broadens previous findings by delineating various reading skills correlated with several aspects of skill acquisition. Furthermore, the study utilizes two nonverbal tasks that reflect distinct types of skills: Serial Reaction Time (SRT) and the Tower of Hanoi Puzzle (TOHP). A total of 53 children aged 11 to 13 participated in the study, of whom 23 were children with DD and 30 were controls. Participants completed a test battery that consisted of reading tests, the SRT, and the TOHP. Results show no differences in learning rate between individuals with or without DD, although individuals with DD performed both tasks at a slower rate. Correlations were identified between a number of reading measures and measures of skill acquisition, expressed primarily in individuals with DD. Implications are examined in the discussion.

  14. Learning Potential Among the Moderately and Severely Retarded. Studies in Learning Potential, Volume 3, Number 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, James L.; Budoff, Milton

    The study investigated the feasibility of M. Budoff and M. Friedman's (1964) learning potential paradigm as an assessment approach with 40 moderately and severely mentally retarded persons (aged 12 to 22 years). Ss were tested three times: initially, after one week, and after one month with a match-to-sample block design test. Twenty of the Ss…

  15. Evaluation of the level of difficulty of patient cases for veterinary problem-solving examination: a preliminary comparison of three taxonomies of learning.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Heli

    2007-01-01

    An important issue that has received insufficient attention in the use of problem-based learning in the medical curriculum is the mode of assessing the level of difficulty of patient cases. In the present study, the level of difficulty of case-based questions in a veterinary degree final examination in reproduction was evaluated. First, cognitive taxonomies were evaluated to clarify whether qualitative methods such as Bloom's taxonomy, the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy, and the Amsterdam Clinical Challenge Scale (ACCS) differed from each other as evaluation tools for problem-based cases. Using these taxonomies, 30 case-based questions from the final examination in reproduction in the Helsinki veterinary program were initially evaluated to determine which one was best suited to the evaluation of the difficulty of cases. In follow-up, the same cases were also evaluated by an experienced veterinary instructor in reproduction, with the aim of gaining insight into using these approaches to evaluating difficulty. It would appear, from this preliminary assessment, that the SOLO taxonomy may be the most suitable for evaluating the difficulty of patient cases, since the instructor's quality rating resembled more closely the SOLO than the Bloom taxonomy or the ACCS. It is to be emphasized that the purpose of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of possible approaches that might be used to assess patient-case difficulty. Resolving all issues will require a greater number of evaluations of all components.

  16. Teachers' Perceptions of the Availability and Need of a Support Program for Students with Learning Difficulties Attending Elementary Schools in the Atlantic Union Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Lileth Althea

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study. Support programs have been known to be very effective in helping students succeed academically, socially, behaviorally, and emotionally. The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' perceptions of the availability and need of a support program for students with learning difficulties who attend elementary schools…

  17. The Effectiveness of the Instrumental Enrichment Approach on the Enhancement of Reading Comprehension Skills of Preparatory Stage Pupils with English Language Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Nifayee, Amani Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the effectiveness of the Instrumental Enrichment Approach on the enhancement of the reading comprehension skills of learners with English Language Learning Difficulties. It aims at identifying the reading comprehension skills required for preparatory stage English language learners, re-develop and teach sample materials…

  18. An Analysis of Attitudes towards the Gifted Students with Learning Difficulties Using Two Samples of Greek and Czech Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gari, Aikaterini; Mylonas, Kostas; Portešová, Sarka

    2015-01-01

    The provision of gifted students with learning difficulties (GSLD) composes a complicated educational problem that deserves special care. This study explores teachers' attitudes towards the GSLD in two samples of primary school teachers: 225 Greek teachers and 158 teachers in the Czech Republic, 40-59 years of age and with 14-28 years of teaching…

  19. Pre-Service Science Teachers' PCK: Inconsistency of Pre-Service Teachers' Predictions and Student Learning Difficulties in Newton's Third Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Shaona; Wang, Yanlin; Zhang, Chunbin

    2016-01-01

    There is widespread agreement that science learning always builds upon students' existing ideas and that science teachers should possess knowledge of learners. This study aims at investigating pre-service science teachers' knowledge of student misconceptions and difficulties, a crucial component of PCK, on Newton's Third Law. A questionnaire was…

  20. Comparison of a Targeted Intervention Program Delivered Face-to-Face and by Personal Videoconferencing for Primary and Middle School Students with Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestel, Eugénie

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes part of a mixed-methods study comparing the effectiveness of an individual, conceptual instruction based, tuition program delivered face-to-face and by personal videoconferencing (PVC) for 30 upper primary and middle school students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLDs). The experimental intervention targeted number…

  1. Using Tic-Tac Software to Reduce Anxiety-Related Behaviour in Adults with Autism and Learning Difficulties during Waiting Periods: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campillo, Cristina; Herrera, Gerardo; Remírez de Ganuza, Conchi; Cuesta, José L.; Abellán, Raquel; Campos, Arturo; Navarro, Ignacio; Sevilla, Javier; Pardo, Carlos; Amati, Fabián

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in the perception of time and processing of changes across time are commonly observed in individuals with autism. This pilot study evaluated the efficacy of the use of the software tool Tic-Tac, designed to make time visual, in three adults with autism and learning difficulties. This research focused on applying the tool in waiting…

  2. A Comparative Study of Teachers' Pedagogical Competencies in Supporting Children with Learning Difficulties in Primary Schools in Ghana and Brunei Darussalam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abosi, Okechukwu; Alhassan, Abdul Razak Kuyini

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' pedagogical competencies level is increasingly affecting the implementation of inclusive education policy in many countries. The aimed at comparing primary school teachers' competence levels in supporting children with learning difficulties in Brunei Darussalam and Ghana. Descriptive survey design was used and 188 primary school teachers…

  3. Do Learning Difficulties Differentiate Elementary Teachers' Attributional Patterns for Students' Academic Failure? A Comparison between Greek Regular and Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Eleftheriadou, Dimitra; Metallidou, Panayiota

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to (a) investigate whether the presence of learning difficulties (LD) in primary school children differentiates Greek teachers' attributional patterns, emotional responses, expectations and evaluative feedback for the children's academic failures and (b) to examine possible differences between regular and special education…

  4. Learning difficulties: a retrospective study of their co morbidity and continuity as indicators of adult criminal behaviour in 18-70-year-old prisoners.

    PubMed

    Zakopoulou, Victoria; Pashou, Theodora; Tzavelas, Panagiotis; Christodoulides, Pavlos; Anna, Milona; Iliana, Kolotoura

    2013-11-01

    The development of learning difficulties is associated with problems in external (executive) and extensive behaviour in a co-occurrence with psycho-emotional problems beginning from pre-school, school age, and adolescence up to adulthood. Through the current survey, we aim to emphasise the early role of learning difficulties during the school age and adolescence of prisoners and their effects on the onset of offending behaviours in adulthood, such as criminal behaviour. Altogether, we studied 117 Greek adult prisoners from 18 to 70 years old who were accused of different types or degrees of offences. Through statistical analyses, the following factors were observed with high statistical significance as early indicators of criminal behaviour in the adult lives of the prisoners: (i) learning difficulties, (ii) family problems, (iii) behaviour disorders, (iv) developmental disorders, and (v) psycho-emotional disorders. As a result, the learning difficulties were assumed to be the most decisive factor in the developmental progression of prisoners because they manifested early in the prisoners' lives, weakened the prisoners to be competitive and robust, provoked a bad self-image and low self-esteem, and, in the frame of a weak or negative family and educational environment, they accompanied antisocial behaviour and psycho-emotional disorders even from adolescence, which continued into adulthood.

  5. Teachers' Understandings of Curriculum Adaptations for Learners with Learning Difficulties in Primary Schools in Botswana: Issues and Challenges of Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otukile-Mongwaketse, Mpho; Mangope, Boitumelo; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2016-01-01

    This paper derives from research carried out in a number of Botswana primary schools on teachers' understanding of curriculum adaptations for learners who experience learning difficulties (LD) as part of implementing inclusive education. Teachers' understanding play a crucial role in how they make curriculum accessible for learners with LD during…

  6. What About Us? Promoting Emotional Well-Being and Inclusion by Working with Young People with Learning Difficulties in Schools and Colleges. Summary Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Hazel; Byers, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in education policy over recent decades has been on inclusion in mainstream schools and colleges. There has also been a focus on promoting the emotional well-being of young people. The "What about us?" project enabled young people with learning difficulties in three localities to bring about changes in their schools and…

  7. What about Us? Promoting Emotional Well-Being and Inclusion by Working with Young People with Learning Difficulties in Schools and Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Richard; Davies, Jill; Fergusson, Ann; Marvin, Claire

    2008-01-01

    "What about us?" was a participative action research project promoting the emotional well-being of young people with learning difficulties in inclusive secondary schools and colleges. The project began by reviewing the impact of inclusion on the emotional well-being and personal and social development of young people with learning…

  8. An Examination of the Relationship among Teachers' Perceptions of Social-Emotional Learning, Teaching Efficacy, Teacher-Student Interactions, and Students' Behavioral Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated how teachers' perceptions of emotional intelligence (EI), social and emotional learning (SEL) skills, and teaching efficacy relate to perceptions of teacher-student relationships and students' emotional and behavioral difficulties. Ninety-eight elementary teachers from public schools in central Greece completed the…

  9. Final Results from a Large-Scale National Study of General Education Astronomy Students’ Learning Difficulties with Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Colin Scott; Prather, E. E.; Duncan, D. K.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2012-01-01

    We recently completed a large-scale, systematic study of general education introductory astronomy students’ conceptual and reasoning difficulties related to cosmology. As part of this study, we analyzed a total of 4359 surveys (pre- and post-instruction) containing students’ responses to questions about the Big Bang, the evolution and expansion of the universe, using Hubble plots to reason about the age and expansion rate of the universe, and using galaxy rotation curves to infer the presence of dark matter. We also designed, piloted, and validated a new suite of five cosmology Lecture-Tutorials. We found that students who use the new Lecture-Tutorials can achieve larger learning gains than their peers who did not. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. 0833364 and 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  10. Final Results from a Large-Scale National Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Learning Difficulties with Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Colin; Prather, Edward; Duncan, Douglas

    2011-10-01

    We recently completed a large-scale, systematic study of general education introductory astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties related to cosmology. As part of this study, we analyzed a total of 4359 surveys (pre- and post-instruction) containing students' responses to questions about the Big Bang, the evolution and expansion of the universe, using Hubble plots to reason about the age and expansion rate of the universe, and using galaxy rotation curves to infer the presence of dark matter. We also designed, piloted, and validated a new suite of five cosmology Lecture-Tutorials. We found that students who use the new Lecture-Tutorials can achieve larger learning gains than their peers who did not. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. 0833364 and 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  11. Students' Difficulties with Integration in Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the common difficulties that students in introductory physics experience when solving problems involving integration in the context of electricity. We conducted teaching-learning interviews with 15 students in a second-semester calculus-based introductory physics course on several problems involving integration. We found…

  12. Breathing difficulty

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficulty in which you make a high-pitched sound when you breathe out. Causes Shortness of breath has many different causes. For ... episode have a similar pattern? Does breathing difficulty cause you to wake up at ... or wheezing sounds while breathing? Tests that may be ordered include: ...

  13. Learning environment simulator for decision making in severe weather

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Dennis R.; LeClaire, Rene J.

    2010-10-04

    The Severe Weather Planning Simulator (SWPS), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), is a computer-based learning environment of conditions and response options to potential severe weather conditions at the Macondo Well (MC252) during response and recovery operations. SWPS is a computer aid designed to expose users to uncertain hurricane conditions and allow them to make decisions at a high level about ship deployment and operations and be exposed to potential consequences in personnel and equipment safety and pollution prevention efforts. The goal is not to predict the future but rather to expose decision makers to potential scenarios and the tradeoffs that will need to be considered when making decisions about personnel and ship deployment. Although this work is focused solely on Macondo response operations, it is readily extensible to other recovery operations involving a range of conditions, geographic locations and exploration assets. Documented herein is a brief summary of the results of an initial trial of SWPS with four employees of BP involved with Macondo response operations. SWPS uses system level models to represent ship operations including movements to port under storm threat and the return to operations, ship fragility, personnel movements and vulnerability in storm conditions, pollution prevention results, a hurricane scenario generation model and a decision model. The models are wrapped in an interface enabling users to observe conditions, make decisions on ship and personnel movements and evaluate the results of their actions. A two hour workshop was conducted on August 18 at the BP Westlake offices in Houston to assess a preliminary version of the simulator. The workshop goal was to assess the potential utility of SWPS, evaluate its interface, and function and gather suggestions for further development. Four BP employees - Ed Bracken, Hugh Banon, Earnest Bush, and Troy Endicott - were introduced to the simulator and asked to run

  14. Plain Talk about K.I.D.S. (Kids Inclined toward Difficulty in School). A Summit on Learning Disorders: Transforming Crisis into Success. Proceedings (New Orleans, Louisiana, January 18-20, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Alice P., Ed.

    The "Plain Talk about K.I.D.S. (Kids Inclined toward Difficulty in School)" summit on learning disorders was held in 1995 to bring together experts in the field of learning disorders to help disseminate the knowledge that will bring progress in the educational management of students who have difficulty in school. The first 10 chapters present…

  15. The Effectiveness of Semantic Therapy for the Word Finding Difficulties of Children with Severe and Complex Speech, Language and Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jean; Aldersley, Anna; Dobson, Catherine; Edgar, Silke; Harding, Christian; Luckins, Jessie; Wiseman, Fiona; Pring, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often seen in children with language difficulties. Their problem is readily observed and has led to investigations of its nature and encouraged attempts at intervention. Semantic errors in their naming suggest that their knowledge of items is poorly developed and that therapies to strengthen it may be effective.…

  16. Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sittiprapaporn, Wichian, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Learning disability is a classification that includes several disorders in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner. Depending on the type and severity of the disability, interventions may be used to help the individual learn strategies that will foster future success. Some interventions can be quite simplistic, while others are…

  17. Severe Asthma in Children: Lessons Learned and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Severe asthma in children is a complicated and heterogeneous disorder that is extremely challenging to treat. Although most children with asthma derive clinical benefit from daily administration of low-to-medium-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy, a small subset of children with "severe" or "refractory" asthma require high doses of ICS and even systemic corticosteroids to maintain symptom control. These children with severe asthma are at increased risk for adverse outcomes including medication-related side effects and recurrent and life-threatening exacerbations that significantly impair quality of life. This review highlights findings on severe asthma in school-age children (age 6-17 years) from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) over a 10-year period, between 2001 and 2011. Although SARP has advanced knowledge of the unique clinical, biological, and molecular attributes of severe asthma in children, considerable gaps remain for which additional studies are needed.

  18. Severe asthma: lessons learned from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program.

    PubMed

    Jarjour, Nizar N; Erzurum, Serpil C; Bleecker, Eugene R; Calhoun, William J; Castro, Mario; Comhair, Suzy A A; Chung, Kian Fan; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Dweik, Raed A; Fain, Sean B; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Gaston, Benjamin M; Israel, Elliot; Hastie, Annette; Hoffman, Eric A; Holguin, Fernando; Levy, Bruce D; Meyers, Deborah A; Moore, Wendy C; Peters, Stephen P; Sorkness, Ronald L; Teague, W Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E; Busse, William W

    2012-02-15

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) has characterized over the past 10 years 1,644 patients with asthma, including 583 individuals with severe asthma. SARP collaboration has led to a rapid recruitment of subjects and efficient sharing of samples among participating sites to conduct independent mechanistic investigations of severe asthma. Enrolled SARP subjects underwent detailed clinical, physiologic, genomic, and radiological evaluations. In addition, SARP investigators developed safe procedures for bronchoscopy in participants with asthma, including those with severe disease. SARP studies revealed that severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease with varying molecular, biochemical, and cellular inflammatory features and unique structure-function abnormalities. Priorities for future studies include recruitment of a larger number of subjects with severe asthma, including children, to allow further characterization of anatomic, physiologic, biochemical, and genetic factors related to severe disease in a longitudinal assessment to identify factors that modulate the natural history of severe asthma and provide mechanistic rationale for management strategies.

  19. Teachers' Attitudes to Signing for Children with Severe Learning Disabilities in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Kieron; Budiyanto

    2014-01-01

    The Indonesian education system is striving for an inclusive approach and techniques are needed which can support children with severe learning disabilities and their peers in this context. Manually signed language has proved useful both in supporting the development and empowerment of children with severe learning disabilities and supporting…

  20. Development and clinical testing of multivalent vaccines based on a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine: difficulties encountered and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Capiau, Carine; Poolman, Jan; Hoet, Bernard; Bogaerts, Hugues; Andre, Francis

    2003-06-02

    The widespread use of whole-cell pertussis vaccines in the second half of the 20th century have reduced the incidence of the disease significantly. However, in some countries, concerns about the reactogenicity and potential neurological damage associated with whole-cell vaccines led to a decrease in vaccine acceptance and an increase in morbidity and mortality of pertussis in several countries. This prompted the development of less reactogenic acellular pertussis vaccines combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, initially in Japan and later in other countries. In Europe, the improved diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTPa) vaccine was first introduced in March 1994. The pertussis component of this DTPa vaccine, developed by Glaxo SmithKline, consists of pertussis toxoid, filamentous haemagglutinin and pertactin. The vaccine is well tolerated, with a lower incidence of adverse reactions than after administration of whole-cell vaccines. The long-lasting efficacy and effectiveness of DTPa vaccines have been extensively documented and these are now the cornerstone of a large range of combined vaccines including DTPa-hepatitis B (HBV), DTPa-inactivated polio (IPV) and DTPa-HBV-IPV. A lyophilised Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine can be reconstituted with all of these liquid combinations. The introduction of well-tolerated and efficacious DTPa vaccines and their more polyvalent combinations has improved the acceptance and simplified the implementation of childhood immunisation. This paper is a review of the technical and scientific difficulties encountered and the lessons learned over the 10-year period that it took to develop and introduce six multivalent vaccines using the Glaxo SmithKline DTPa as a building block.

  1. The Assessment of Math Learning Difficulties in a Primary Grade-4 Child with High Support Needs: Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundia, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study incorporated elements of survey, case study and action research approaches in investigating an at-risk child. Using an in-take interview, a diagnostic test, an error analysis, and a think-aloud clinical interview, the study identified the child's major presenting difficulties. These included: inability to use the four…

  2. "*Why You Can't Ask a Proper Question?"--The Learning Difficulties of Hong Kong ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jackie F. K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high frequency of occurrences of "wh"-interrogatives in daily use, there are repeated negative comments about the poor mastery of the wh-interrogative structure among Hong Kong students. However, so far little attention has been paid to their difficulties in the acquisition of the structure. There is a strong need to…

  3. A Phenomenological Study Highlighting the Voices of Students with Mental Health Difficulties Concerning Barriers to Classroom Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Despite the Mental Health Foundation (2012) stating that each year, one in four people in the United Kingdom (UK) will have some kind of mental health difficulty, students from this group are underrepresented in further education (FE) colleges. In light of this, the purpose of this exploratory research, which was rooted in the phenomenological…

  4. Using Aromatherapy Massage to Increase Shared Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Severe Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomons, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) characteristically display a lack of shared attention behaviours and the lack of these behaviours impacts on their ability to develop social interactions and relationships with others. Steve Solomons, assistant headteacher at Rectory Paddock School and Research Unit in the London Borough of Bromley,…

  5. Access to Mainstream Health Services: A Case Study of the Difficulties Faced by a Child with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Freddy Jackson; Cooper, Kate; Diebel, Tara

    2013-01-01

    People with learning disabilities have higher levels of health needs compared with the general population (Nocon, 2006, Background evidence for the DRC's formal investigation into health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities or mental health problems. London and Manchester, Disability Rights Commission). Research has shown…

  6. Toward a Resolution of Inconsistencies in the Phonological Deficit Theory of Reading Disorders: Phonological Reading Difficulties Are More Severe in High-IQ Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Rhona S.; Morrison, Marjorie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether high-and low-IQ poor readers differed in patterns of reading performance. Ten-year-old poor readers with IQ scores of 110 and higher showed difficulty in taking a phonological approach to reading, failing to show an advantage in reading high-frequency regular versus irregular words and showing impaired nonword reading…

  7. Severe Thunderstorm Detection by Visual Learning Using Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Wistar, Stephen; Li, Jia; Steinberg, Michael A.; Wang, James Z.

    2017-02-01

    Computers are widely utilized in today's weather forecasting as a powerful tool to leverage an enormous amount of data. Yet, despite the availability of such data, current techniques often fall short of producing reliable detailed storm forecasts. Each year severe thunderstorms cause significant damage and loss of life, some of which could be avoided if better forecasts were available. We propose a computer algorithm that analyzes satellite images from historical archives to locate visual signatures of severe thunderstorms for short-term predictions. While computers are involved in weather forecasts to solve numerical models based on sensory data, they are less competent in forecasting based on visual patterns from satellite images. In our system, we extract and summarize important visual storm evidence from satellite image sequences in the way that meteorologists interpret the images. In particular, the algorithm extracts and fits local cloud motion from image sequences to model the storm-related cloud patches. Image data from the year 2008 have been adopted to train the model, and historical thunderstorm reports in continental US from 2000 through 2013 have been used as the ground-truth and priors in the modeling process. Experiments demonstrate the usefulness and potential of the algorithm for producing more accurate thunderstorm forecasts.

  8. Toward a resolution of inconsistencies in the phonological deficit theory of reading disorders: phonological reading difficulties are more severe in high-IQ poor readers.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rhona S; Morrison, Marjorie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether high- and low-IQ poor readers differed in patterns of reading performance. Ten-year-old poor readers with IQ scores of 110 and higher showed difficulty in taking a phonological approach to reading, failing to show an advantage in reading high-frequency regular versus irregular words and showing impaired nonword reading accuracy for their reading age. However, poor readers with IQ scores of 90 and below showed a more phonological approach to reading, with better reading of regular than irregular words of both high and low frequency, and with nonword reading skills slower than, but as accurate as, those of reading-age controls. We concluded that the high-IQ poor readers experienced difficulty in taking a phonological approach to reading, whereas the low-IQ poor readers had much less marked phonological problems, supporting Stanovich's phonological-core variable-difference model.

  9. Effects of Relocation on the Communication and Challenging Behaviours of Four People with Severe Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Fiona J.; Morrison, Fred; Swanston, Michael; Lindsay, William

    2002-01-01

    A study examined relocation effects on challenging and communicative behaviors of four individuals with severe learning disabilities who moved from a hospital for people with learning disabilities into a community project home. There was an overall decrease in adaptive behaviors and inactivity levels and increases in communicative and challenging…

  10. Creating Learning Opportunities for Students with Severe Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, June E.; Eichinger, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how professionals can recognize learning opportunities for students with severe disabilities within general education activities. It also includes examples of additional learning opportunities that provide ways for students to work on their individualized objectives in various settings. Recommendations are provided for…

  11. Not worth the risk? Attitudes of adults with learning difficulties, and their informal and formal carers to the hazards of everyday life.

    PubMed

    Heyman, B; Huckle, S

    1993-12-01

    Twenty adults with learning difficulties (adults) living at home with informal carers, mostly parents, and attending Adult Training Centres (ATCs) were interviewed about their everyday lives and information was also obtained from informal and formal carers. The problem of dealing with the hazards of everyday life emerged as an important theme. The thinking of adults and informal carers could be understood in terms of the moral dimension of hazards, through the distinction between risks, to be calculated, and dangers, to be avoided. Adults and informal carers within families largely agreed in their categorization of hazards but differences were found. In families where the head of the household had had a professional or skilled manual occupation, adults and informal carers were most likely to agree that hazards for the adult were dangers to be avoided. In families which had a history of unemployment or unskilled occupations, adults and informal carers were most likely to treat certain hazards as risks to be taken. The latter families were also less likely to have 2 informal carers. Adults from more risk-tolerant families appeared to be achieving more of their potential in everyday living skills. Formal carers at ATCs were more accepting of risks for adults with learning difficulties than informal carers and there was misunderstanding and conflict between formal and informal carers as a result.

  12. Characteristics, Assessment, and Treatment of Writing Difficulties in College Students with Language Disorders and/or Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Many students currently are enrolled in colleges and universities across the country with language disorders and/or learning disabilities (LLD). The majority of these students struggle with writing, creating a need to identify and provide them with writing intervention services. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) may provide this intervention;…

  13. Helping Second Language Literature Learners Overcome E-Learning Difficulties: LET-NET Team Teaching with Online Peer Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pin-Hsiang Natalie; Marek, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents and discusses results from an EFL second language literature program in which the instructional design included a team teaching scheme, blended learning practice, and computer-mediated peer-interaction. The team teaching plan used a Mandarin speaking English teacher and a Native English-speaking teacher collaborating and…

  14. Predicting Literacy Achievement in Young English Language Learners: A Question of Language Proficiency or of Learning Difficulty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenman, Sara; Madelaine, Alison

    2012-01-01

    In this article empirical research regarding the best predictors of literacy achievement for English language learning students (ELLs) in English-only classrooms is reviewed. These students comprise an ever-increasing population in these settings, but there is considerable confusion in differentiating between ELLs who are low-achievement readers…

  15. Checklist of Terms and Names Pertinent to Assessment and Remediation of Learning Difficulties for Teacher Training Participants Only.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, N. J.

    This 46-item teacher rating form assesses the respondent's knowledge of basic concepts and teaching techniques related to the education of learning disabled children. The respondents are asked to rate their personal understanding of these terms along a five-point scale, ranging from excellent understanding (complete familiarity) to poor…

  16. Subgroups of Attributional Profiles in Students with Learning Difficulties and Their Relation to Self-Concept and Academic Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Jose Carlos; Gonzalez-Pienda, Julio A.; Gonzalez-Pumariega, Soledad; Roces, Cristina; Alvarez, Luis; Gonzalez, Paloma; Cabanach, Ramon G.; Valle, Antonio; Rodriguez, Susana

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article was fourfold: first, to determine whether there are significant differences between students with (N=173) and without learning disabilities (LD; N=172) in the dimensions of self-concept, causal attributions, and academic goals. Second, to determine whether students with LD present a uniform attributional profile or whether…

  17. The Impact of Current Developments in Post-Compulsory Education on Young People with Learning Difficulties and/or Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    This article considers ways in which opportunities for children with special educational needs in England and Wales are being affected by current developments in post-compulsory education. The development of a Lifelong Learning Partnership by the Milton Keynes Council is used to illustrate how major developments affect local authorities.…

  18. The relationship between multiple developmental difficulties in very low birth weight children at 3½ years of age and the need for learning support at 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether multiple developmental difficulties are more frequent in very low birth weight (VLBW) children than in those born full term. The association between multiple developmental difficulties assessed at 3½ years of age and educational provision for the child at 5½ years was also investigated, with 'educational provision' referring to the curriculum, school placement and the level of learning support. There were 143 VLBW children without cerebral palsy (CP) and 41 term-born peers assessed at 3½ years of age. The assessment included 6 measures of development: word comprehension, visual motor integration, visual perception, motor coordination, executive functioning and behaviour. Educational provision was determined at age 5½ years. A mildly abnormal score (score <1 standard deviation) was considered to indicate developmental difficulty. Scores from the six measures of development were analysed to determine the difficulty frequency and the presence of multiple difficulties (>1 difficulty score) in each child. This study showed that at 3½ years of age, the VLBW children had significantly more difficulty with motor coordination than their term-born peers. In addition, 27% of the VLBW children had multiple difficulties compared to 10% in the term-born group. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that of the difficulties, impaired motor coordination was most strongly associated with the requirement for learning support two years later. Regression analyses showed that having multiple difficulties was significantly associated with the need for learning support (Odds Ratio of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.5-7.8). These results show that the presence of multiple difficulties in a VLBW child of preschool age, can impact the child's educational provision two years later.

  19. Calibrating perceived understanding and competency in probability concepts: A diagnosis of learning difficulties based on Rasch probabilistic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Zamalia; Porter, Anne; Salikin, Masniyati; Ghani, Nor Azura Md

    2015-12-01

    Students' understanding of probability concepts have been investigated from various different perspectives. Competency on the other hand is often measured separately in the form of test structure. This study was set out to show that perceived understanding and competency can be calibrated and assessed together using Rasch measurement tools. Forty-four students from the STAT131 Understanding Uncertainty and Variation course at the University of Wollongong, NSW have volunteered to participate in the study. Rasch measurement which is based on a probabilistic model is used to calibrate the responses from two survey instruments and investigate the interactions between them. Data were captured from the e-learning platform Moodle where students provided their responses through an online quiz. The study shows that majority of the students perceived little understanding about conditional and independent events prior to learning about it but tend to demonstrate a slightly higher competency level afterward. Based on the Rasch map, there is indication of some increase in learning and knowledge about some probability concepts at the end of the two weeks lessons on probability concepts.

  20. An image retrieval approach to setup difficulty levels in training systems for endomicroscopy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    André, Barbara; Vercauteren, Tom; Buchner, Anna M; Shahid, Muhammad Waseem; Wallace, Michael B; Ayache, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Learning medical image interpretation is an evolutive process that requires modular training systems, from non-expert to expert users. Our study aims at developing such a system for endomicroscopy diagnosis. It uses a difficulty predictor to try and shorten the physician learning curve. As the understanding of video diagnosis is driven by visual similarities, we propose a content-based video retrieval approach to estimate the level of interpretation difficulty. The performance of our retrieval method is compared with several state of the art methods, and its genericity is demonstrated with two different clinical databases, on the Barrett's Esophagus and on colonic polyps. From our retrieval results, we learn a difficulty predictor against a ground truth given by the percentage of false diagnoses among several physicians. Our experiments show that, although our datasets are not large enough to test for statistical significance, there is a noticeable relationship between our retrieval-based difficulty estimation and the difficulty experienced by the physicians.

  1. Prediction and Stability of Mathematics Skill and Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Rebecca B.; Cirino, Paul T.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the stability of math learning difficulties over a 2-year period and investigated several factors that might influence this stability (categorical vs. continuous change, liberal vs. conservative cut point, broad vs. specific math assessment); the prediction of math performance over time and by performance level was also…

  2. Arithmetic strategy development and its domain-specific and domain-general cognitive correlates: a longitudinal study in children with persistent mathematical learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Vanbinst, Kiran; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2014-11-01

    Deficits in arithmetic fact retrieval constitute the hallmark of children with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD). It remains, however, unclear which cognitive deficits underpin these difficulties in arithmetic fact retrieval. Many prior studies defined MLD by considering low achievement criteria and not by additionally taking the persistence of the MLD into account. Therefore, the present longitudinal study contrasted children with persistent MLD (MLD-p; mean age: 9 years 2 months) and typically developing (TD) children (mean age: 9 years 6 months) at three time points, to explore whether differences in arithmetic strategy development were associated with differences in numerical magnitude processing, working memory and phonological processing. Our longitudinal data revealed that children with MLD-p had persistent arithmetic fact retrieval deficits at each time point. Children with MLD-p showed persistent impairments in symbolic, but not in nonsymbolic, magnitude processing at each time point. The two groups differed in phonological processing, but not in working memory. Our data indicate that both domain-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities contribute to individual differences in children's arithmetic strategy development, and that the symbolic processing of numerical magnitudes might be a particular risk factor for children with MLD-p.

  3. Second language learning difficulties in Chinese children with dyslexia: what are the reading-related cognitive skills that contribute to English and Chinese word reading?

    PubMed

    Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children-28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls-participated and were administered measures of word reading, rapid naming, visual-orthographic skills, and phonological and morphological awareness in both L1 and L2. Children with dyslexia showed weaker performance than CA controls in both languages and had more difficulties in phonological awareness in English but not in Chinese. In addition, reading-related cognitive skills in Chinese contributed significantly to the ability to read English words, suggesting cross-linguistic transfer from L1 to L2. Results found evidence for different phonological units of awareness related to the characteristics of the different languages being learned, supporting the psycholinguistic grain size and linguistic coding differences hypotheses.

  4. Using Tic-Tac software to reduce anxiety-related behaviour in adults with autism and learning difficulties during waiting periods: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Cristina; Herrera, Gerardo; Remírez de Ganuza, Conchi; Cuesta, José L; Abellán, Raquel; Campos, Arturo; Navarro, Ignacio; Sevilla, Javier; Pardo, Carlos; Amati, Fabián

    2014-04-01

    Deficits in the perception of time and processing of changes across time are commonly observed in individuals with autism. This pilot study evaluated the efficacy of the use of the software tool Tic-Tac, designed to make time visual, in three adults with autism and learning difficulties. This research focused on applying the tool in waiting situations where the participants exhibited anxiety-related behaviour. The intervention followed a baseline and intervention (AB) design, and a partial interval recording procedure was used to code the presence of stereotypes, nervous utterances, wandering or other examples of nervousness during the selected waiting situations. The results showed that the use of Tic-Tac resulted in lower levels of anxiety-related behaviour in all three participants, compared to the baseline, suggesting that this software may be an effective technology for helping people with autism with organisation and predictability during waiting periods. The results are discussed in terms of limitations and implications for further study.

  5. Generalized language learning by children with severe mental retardation: effects of peers' expressive modeling.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, H; Mousetis, L

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the conditions that contribute to observational learning of generalized language in children with severe mental retardation. Matrix-training strategies were used to teach 6 children with mental retardation to combine known words into two- or three-word utterances consistent with syntactic rules. Subsequently, the children learned two or more unknown words concurrently, inducing word-referent relations consistent with these word order rules. Generalized learning of responses not taught directly was shown to be under experimental control using a multiple baseline design across submatrices. Expressive modeling of only four or five responses was sufficient to promote recombinative generalization in the expressive and receptive modalities. Thus, 95% to 98% of subjects' learning was attributed to generalization processes. This study demonstrates how the efficiency of language training with children with mental retardation might be enhanced by coupling observational learning and matrix-training strategies. PMID:2793632

  6. Variables in a Hierarchy of Difficulty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickel, Gerhard

    1971-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to show what parameters come into play when dealing with the problem of difficulty in foreign language learning. After subjecting the hierarchy of difficulty set up by R.P. Stockwell and J.D. Bowen to a critical examination, the author discusses various parameters such as individual and national difficulties, the…

  7. The Role of Metacognitive Reading Strategies, Metacognitive Study and Learning Strategies, and Behavioral Study and Learning Strategies in Predicting Academic Success in Students With and Without a History of Reading Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Thérèse M; Parrila, Rauno; Ritchie, Krista C; Deacon, S Hélène

    2017-01-01

    We examined the self-reported use of reading, study, and learning strategies in university students with a history of reading difficulties (HRD; n = 77) and with no history of reading difficulties (NRD; n = 295). We examined both between-groups differences in strategy use and strategy use as a predictive measure of academic success. Participants completed online questionnaires regarding reading history and strategy use. GPA and frequency of use of academic support services were also obtained for all students. University students with HRD reported a different profile of strategy use than their NRD peers, and self-reported strategy use was differentially predictive of GPA for students with HRD and NRD. For students with HRD, the use of metacognitive reading strategies and the use of study aids predicted academic success. Implications for university student services providers are discussed.

  8. Using Electronic Storybooks to Support Word Learning in Children with Severe Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeets, Daisy J. H.; van Dijken, Marianne J.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2014-01-01

    Novel word learning is reported to be problematic for children with severe language impairments (SLI). In this study, we tested electronic storybooks as a tool to support vocabulary acquisition in SLI children. In Experiment 1, 29 kindergarten SLI children heard four e-books each four times: (a) two stories were presented as video books with…

  9. Making Music, Making Friends: Long-Term Music Therapy with Young Adults with Severe Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlicevic, Mercédès; O'Neil, Nicky; Powell, Harriet; Jones, Oonagh; Sampathianaki, Ergina

    2014-01-01

    This collaborative practitioner research study emerged from music therapists' concerns about the value of improvisational, music-centred music therapy for young adults with severe learning disabilities (SLDs), given the long-term nature of such work. Concerns included the relevance, in this context, of formulating, and reporting on, therapeutic…

  10. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Learners with Severe Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework as one way to understand how to support learners with severe disabilities and how to support their access to authentic and appropriate curricula that improves their quality of life. Two key ideas from the UDL framework, (a) understanding learner variability and (b) supporting…

  11. Raising the Bar: Significant Advances and Future Needs for Promoting Learning for Students with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Fred; Browder, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    This essay describes major advances in educating students with severe disabilities. The authors propose that applied behavior analysis, the focus on functional life skills, and the promotion of academic content have been the major advances in the "how" and "what" of learning for this population. An increased focus on literacy,…

  12. Exclusion Learning and Emergent Symbolic Category Formation in Individuals with Severe Language Impairments and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Rosenquist, Celia; McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated formation of simple symbolic categories from initial learning of specific dictated word-picture relations through emergence of untaught or derived relations. Participants were 10 individuals with severe intellectual and language limitations. Three experimental categories were constructed, each containing 1 spoken word (Set A), 1…

  13. Response to Intervention versus Severe Discrepancy: Identification of Students with a Specific Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armendariz, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed the perceptions of general education teachers, special education teachers, and school psychologists in the acceptability of the either the Response to Intervention model (RTI) or the Severe Discrepancy model in the identification of a student with a Specific Learning Disability (SLD). The study consisted of 363…

  14. Supporting New Students from Vocational Education and Training: Finding a Reusable Solution to Address Recurring Learning Difficulties in e-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Dai Fei; Catterall, Janice; Davis, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a project that investigated the first year, online experiences of vocational education and training (VET) pathway students studying at university. It was found that, although some students embraced online learning, more than twenty percent of new VET students suffered from high levels of anxiety and frustration when learning…

  15. Common Difficulties with Probabilistic Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Jack A.; Kelly, Ivan W.

    1983-01-01

    Several common errors reflecting difficulties in probabilistic reasoning are identified, relating to ambiguity, previous outcomes, sampling, unusual events, and estimating. Knowledge of these mistakes and interpretations may help mathematics teachers understand the thought processes of their students. (MNS)

  16. Using electronic storybooks to support word learning in children with severe language impairments.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Daisy J H; van Dijken, Marianne J; Bus, Adriana G

    2014-01-01

    Novel word learning is reported to be problematic for children with severe language impairments (SLI). In this study, we tested electronic storybooks as a tool to support vocabulary acquisition in SLI children. In Experiment 1, 29 kindergarten SLI children heard four e-books each four times: (a) two stories were presented as video books with motion pictures, music, and sounds, and (b) two stories included only static illustrations without music or sounds. Two other stories served as the control condition. Both static and video books were effective in increasing knowledge of unknown words, but static books were most effective. Experiment 2 was designed to examine which elements in video books interfere with word learning: video images or music or sounds. A total of 23 kindergarten SLI children heard 8 storybooks each four times: (a) two static stories without music or sounds, (b) two static stories with music or sounds, (c) two video stories without music or sounds, and (d) two video books with music or sounds. Video images and static illustrations were equally effective, but the presence of music or sounds moderated word learning. In children with severe SLI, background music interfered with learning. Problems with speech perception in noisy conditions may be an underlying factor of SLI and should be considered in selecting teaching aids and learning environments.

  17. The long-term stability of sociometric status classification: a longitudinal study of included pupils who have moderate learning difficulties and their mainstream peers.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, N L; Furnham, A F

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal stability of sociometric classification in two groups of children aged 8 to 10 years over a 2-year period. Two simple, but sensitive and valid forced-choice sociometric measures were completed by 41 children with moderate learning difficulties (MLD) and 375 mainstream children. On both occasions and on both measures (one using a "work with" and one a "play with" sociometric criterion) MLD pupils were significantly less likely to be classified as popular and more likely to be classified as rejected. Over the 2-year period just over half of the children, whether MLD or mainstream, were classified in the same sociometric category. However, the stability coefficients for the rejected and popular sociometric status groups were found to be higher in the included sample than in the mainstream sample. The results of this study are compared with previous longitudinal studies in the area that have focused on mainstream pupils, and implications for the use of sociometric measures in evaluating the outcomes of inclusion are discussed.

  18. Improving condition severity classification with an efficient active learning based framework.

    PubMed

    Nissim, Nir; Boland, Mary Regina; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Elovici, Yuval; Hripcsak, George; Shahar, Yuval; Moskovitch, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Classification of condition severity can be useful for discriminating among sets of conditions or phenotypes, for example when prioritizing patient care or for other healthcare purposes. Electronic Health Records (EHRs) represent a rich source of labeled information that can be harnessed for severity classification. The labeling of EHRs is expensive and in many cases requires employing professionals with high level of expertise. In this study, we demonstrate the use of Active Learning (AL) techniques to decrease expert labeling efforts. We employ three AL methods and demonstrate their ability to reduce labeling efforts while effectively discriminating condition severity. We incorporate three AL methods into a new framework based on the original CAESAR (Classification Approach for Extracting Severity Automatically from Electronic Health Records) framework to create the Active Learning Enhancement framework (CAESAR-ALE). We applied CAESAR-ALE to a dataset containing 516 conditions of varying severity levels that were manually labeled by seven experts. Our dataset, called the "CAESAR dataset," was created from the medical records of 1.9 million patients treated at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC). All three AL methods decreased labelers' efforts compared to the learning methods applied by the original CAESER framework in which the classifier was trained on the entire set of conditions; depending on the AL strategy used in the current study, the reduction ranged from 48% to 64% that can result in significant savings, both in time and money. As for the PPV (precision) measure, CAESAR-ALE achieved more than 13% absolute improvement in the predictive capabilities of the framework when classifying conditions as severe. These results demonstrate the potential of AL methods to decrease the labeling efforts of medical experts, while increasing accuracy given the same (or even a smaller) number of acquired conditions. We also demonstrated that the methods included in

  19. Severity of spatial learning impairment in aging: Development of a learning index for performance in the Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Michela; Burwell, Rebecca; Burchinal, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    The Morris water maze task was originally designed to assess the rat's ability to learn to navigate to a specific location in a relatively large spatial environment. This article describes new measures that provide information about the spatial distribution of the rat's search during both training and probe trial performance. The basic new measure optimizes the use of computer tracking to identify the rat's position with respect to the target location. This proximity measure was found to be highly sensitive to age-related impairment in an assessment of young and aged male Long-Evans rats. Also described is the development of a learning index that provides a continuous, graded measure of the severity of age-related impairment in the task. An index of this type should be useful in correlational analyses with other neurobiological or behavioral measures for the study of individual differences in functional/biological decline in aging.

  20. Increasing probability of sign language learning by severely mentally retarded individuals: a discussion of learner, sign production, and linguistic variables.

    PubMed

    Luftig, R L

    1982-01-01

    A pervasive problem for educators of the severely mentally retarded is language training. In spite of extensive oral language training, many severely mentally retarded individuals never acquire functional oral language. Many of these clients, however, are able to acquire sign language communication skills. The present article discusses sign language learning in terms of learner attributes, production variables in sign, and the referential concepts which the signs represent. More specifically, it is hypothesized that by taking into account variables such as sign translucency, referential concreteness, learning readiness, and by externally organizing the signs to be learned along visual continuums, the probability of sign learning by severely mentally retarded individuals can be increased.

  1. Do nutrient supplements and dietary changes affect learning and emotional reactions of children with learning difficulties? A controlled series of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Colgan, M; Colgan, L

    1984-01-01

    Detailed dietary and biochemical analyses were done on 16 consecutive cases of children aged 5-15 years referred for a combined remedial reading/behaviour modification program. Each child was given an individually designed vitamin and mineral supplement. Diets were also changed to reduce sugars and refined foods and toxic metals contamination. Cases were matched in pairs with 16 other cases on the program who were given no dietary changes but who received a one-a-day vitamin/mineral capsule as part of standard procedure at the clinic. Over 22 weeks on the program, the experimental group showed significantly greater improvements than the control group in behaviour assessed at school, at home and in the clinic. The experimental group also made significantly greater gains in reading skills. Routine Stanford-Binet intelligence tests given at week 2 and week 20 or 21 showed increased IQ scores of 5 to 35 points (mean = 17.9) for the experimental group. Increases for the control group were 0-21 points (mean = 8.4). Results suggest that subtle nutritional variables exert a substantial influence on learning and behaviour.

  2. Big brother is watching you--the ethical implications of electronic surveillance measures in the elderly with dementia and in adults with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Welsh, S; Hassiotis, A; O'Mahoney, G; Deahl, M

    2003-09-01

    Electronic surveillance has insidiously seeped into the fabric of society with little public debate about its moral implications. Perceived by some as a sinister Orwellian tool of repression and social control, the new technologies offer comfort and security to others; a benevolent parental watchful eye. Nervousness at being watched has been replaced increasingly by nervousness if we're not. These technologies are now becoming widely available to health care professionals who have had little opportunity to consider their ethical and moral ramifications. Electronic tagging and tracking devices may be seen as away of creating a more secure environment for vulnerable individuals such as the elderly with dementia or people with learning disabilities. However, the proponents of surveillance devices have met with considerable resistance and opposition,from those who perceive it as contrary to human dignity and freedom, with its connotations of criminal surveillance. In addition, they cite increased opportunity for abuse through, for example, the withdrawal of staff and financial resources from the care of people with complex needs. Implementing these technologies, therefore, has ethical implications for human rights and civil liberties. Optional alternatives to long-term and/or restrictive care, in the context of the practical difficulties involved in caring for those who represent a risk to themselves from wandering, demands rigorous exploration of pragmatic questions of morality, with reference to risk versus benefit strategies. Like reproductive cloning techniques, the mere existence of surveillance technologies is morally neutral. Rather it is the use (in this instance that of health and social care settings) to which it is put which has the potential for good or bad.

  3. A genome wide association study of mathematical ability reveals an association at chromosome 3q29, a locus associated with autism and learning difficulties: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Laura; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Craig, Ian; Mallya, Uma; Lakatošová, Silvia; Rehnstrom, Karola; Peltonen, Leena; Wheelwright, Sally; Allison, Carrie; Fisher, Simon E; Warrier, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical ability is heritable, but few studies have directly investigated its molecular genetic basis. Here we aimed to identify specific genetic contributions to variation in mathematical ability. We carried out a genome wide association scan using pooled DNA in two groups of U.K. samples, based on end of secondary/high school national academic exam achievement: high (n = 419) versus low (n = 183) mathematical ability while controlling for their verbal ability. Significant differences in allele frequencies between these groups were searched for in 906,600 SNPs using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping version 6.0 array. After meeting a threshold of p<1.5×10(-5), 12 SNPs from the pooled association analysis were individually genotyped in 542 of the participants and analyzed to validate the initial associations (lowest p-value 1.14 ×10(-6)). In this analysis, one of the SNPs (rs789859) showed significant association after Bonferroni correction, and four (rs10873824, rs4144887, rs12130910 rs2809115) were nominally significant (lowest p-value 3.278 × 10(-4)). Three of the SNPs of interest are located within, or near to, known genes (FAM43A, SFT2D1, C14orf64). The SNP that showed the strongest association, rs789859, is located in a region on chromosome 3q29 that has been previously linked to learning difficulties and autism. rs789859 lies 1.3 kbp downstream of LSG1, and 700 bp upstream of FAM43A, mapping within the potential promoter/regulatory region of the latter. To our knowledge, this is only the second study to investigate the association of genetic variants with mathematical ability, and it highlights a number of interesting markers for future study.

  4. The Nature of Difficulty: Clues from Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Frances

    1974-01-01

    In order to fully appreciate the nature of children's learning difficulties, it is necessary to analyze the qualitative differences in their intellectual functioning, i.e., their modes and styles of sensing, responding, organizing, and interpreting. (EH)

  5. A study on several machine-learning methods for classification of malignant and benign clustered microcalcifications.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liyang; Yang, Yongyi; Nishikawa, Robert M; Jiang, Yulei

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate several state-of-the-art machine-learning methods for automated classification of clustered microcalcifications (MCs). The classifier is part of a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) scheme that is aimed to assisting radiologists in making more accurate diagnoses of breast cancer on mammograms. The methods we considered were: support vector machine (SVM), kernel Fisher discriminant (KFD), relevance vector machine (RVM), and committee machines (ensemble averaging and AdaBoost), of which most have been developed recently in statistical learning theory. We formulated differentiation of malignant from benign MCs as a supervised learning problem, and applied these learning methods to develop the classification algorithm. As input, these methods used image features automatically extracted from clustered MCs. We tested these methods using a database of 697 clinical mammograms from 386 cases, which included a wide spectrum of difficult-to-classify cases. We analyzed the distribution of the cases in this database using the multidimensional scaling technique, which reveals that in the feature space the malignant cases are not trivially separable from the benign ones. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate and to compare classification performance by the different methods. In addition, we also investigated how to combine information from multiple-view mammograms of the same case so that the best decision can be made by a classifier. In our experiments, the kernel-based methods (i.e., SVM, KFD, and RVM) yielded the best performance (Az = 0.85, SVM), significantly outperforming a well-established, clinically-proven CADx approach that is based on neural network (Az = 0.80).

  6. Compiling a register of patients with moderate or severe learning disabilities: experience at one United Kingdom general practice.

    PubMed

    Lodge, Keri-Michèle; Milnes, David; Gilbody, Simon M

    2011-03-01

    Background Identifying patients with learning disabilities within primary care is central to initiatives for improving the health of this population. UK general practitioners (GPs) receive additional income for maintaining registers of patients with learning disabilities as part of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), and may opt to provide Directed Enhanced Services (DES), which requires practices to maintain registers of patients with moderate or severe learning disabilities and offer them annual health checks.Objectives This paper describes the development of a register of patients with moderate or severe learning disabilities at one UK general practice.Methods A Read code search of one UK general practice's electronic medical records was conducted in order to identify patients with learning disabilities. Confirmation of diagnoses was sought by scrutinising records and GP verification. Cross-referencing with the practice QOF register of patients with learning disabilities of any severity, and the local authority's list of clients with learning disabilities, was performed.Results Of 15 001 patients, 229 (1.5%) were identified by the Read code search as possibly having learning disabilities. Scrutiny of records and GP verification confirmed 64 had learning disabilities and 24 did not, but the presence or absence of learning disability remained unclear in 141 cases. Cross-referencing with the QOF register (n=81) and local authority list (n=49) revealed little overlap.Conclusion Identifying learning disability and assessing its severity are tasks GPs may be unfamiliar with, and relying on Read code searches may result in under-detection. Further research is needed to define optimum strategies for identifying, cross-referencing and validating practice-based registers of patients with learning disabilities.

  7. Dickens for All: Inclusive Approaches to Literature and Communication with People with Severe and Profound Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the potential uses of literature with people with severe and profound learning disabilities and describes a series of multisensory interactive drama games re-telling the story of "A Christmas Carol" by Charles Dickens. (Author/DB)

  8. Closing the Summer Learning Gap for Vulnerable Learners: An Exploratory Study of a Summer Literacy Programme for Kindergarten Children At-Risk for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Ashley; McNamara, John K.; Van Lankveld, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    School summer vacation may create a significant gap in the learning cycle. Such a gap may be particularly detrimental for vulnerable children such as those with lower academic achievement due to learning and language disabilities, lower socio-economic environments or learning in a language other than their native language. The current exploratory…

  9. The Concept of Electrical Resistance: How Cassirer's Philosophy, and the Early Developments of Electric Circuit Theory, Allow a Better Understanding of Students' Learning Difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viard, Jerome; Khantine-Langlois, Francoise

    While students' difficulties concerning the concepts of voltage and intensity have been investigated by many science education researchers, difficulties related to the concept of electrical resistance and circuit are less known. Some researchers in science education even state that students have no preconception about this concept before being taught. Our observations are in disagreement with this assumption. In the first section of this paper the main basic features of the difficulties of students confronted with the concept of electrical resistance are investigated. In the second section we discuss the nature of the electrical resistance concept in the light of Cassirer philosophy while in the third section we give an analysis of this concept going back to its origins in the nineteenth century. Finally, an analysis of the way this concept is taught in French high schools is presented and the first results of a experimentation using an alternative teaching strategy are briefly reported.c

  10. Evaluating machine learning algorithms estimating tremor severity ratings on the Bain-Findley scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohanandan, Shivanthan A. C.; Jones, Mary; Peppard, Richard; Tan, Joy L.; McDermott, Hugh J.; Perera, Thushara

    2016-12-01

    Tremor is a debilitating symptom of some movement disorders. Effective treatment, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), is contingent upon frequent clinical assessments using instruments such as the Bain-Findley tremor rating scale (BTRS). Many patients, however, do not have access to frequent clinical assessments. Wearable devices have been developed to provide patients with access to frequent objective assessments outside the clinic via telemedicine. Nevertheless, the information they report is not in the form of BTRS ratings. One way to transform this information into BTRS ratings is through linear regression models (LRMs). Another, potentially more accurate method is through machine learning classifiers (MLCs). This study aims to compare MLCs and LRMs, and identify the most accurate model that can transform objective tremor information into tremor severity ratings on the BTRS. Nine participants with upper limb tremor had their DBS stimulation amplitude varied while they performed clinical upper-extremity exercises. Tremor features were acquired using the tremor biomechanics analysis laboratory (TREMBAL). Movement disorder specialists rated tremor severity on the BTRS from video recordings. Seven MLCs and 6 LRMs transformed TREMBAL features into tremor severity ratings on the BTRS using the specialists’ ratings as training data. The weighted Cohen’s kappa ({κ\\text{w}} ) defined the models’ rating accuracy. This study shows that the Random Forest MLC was the most accurate model ({κ\\text{w}}   =  0.81) at transforming tremor information into BTRS ratings, thereby improving the clinical interpretation of tremor information obtained from wearable devices.

  11. Evaluation of children with reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, S Sutton; Glascoe, Frances P

    2006-12-15

    Reading difficulties are common and are associated with poor long-term academic achievement. Evaluation of a child's developmental, educational, and family histories in conjunction with standardized screening tests (e.g., Ages and Stages Questionnaires, Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status, Safety Word Inventory and Literacy Screener) can increase recognition of risk factors for reading difficulties. Validated, office-based, standardized screening tests and school-administered standardized achievement tests (e.g., California Achievement Tests, Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, Metropolitan Achievement Tests, Stanford Achievement Test) can be used to assess school-age children with reading difficulties. Reading difficulties in children often are caused by environmental and organic risk factors. However, many children have reading or learning disabilities and will have lifelong difficulties with reading despite adequate intervention. Children with substantial reading difficulties should receive a full educational assessment. There is good evidence that individualized instruction emphasizing increased phonologic awareness can have a favorable long-term effect on academic achievement.

  12. Making music, making friends: Long-term music therapy with young adults with severe learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Pavlicevic, Mercédès; O'Neil, Nicky; Powell, Harriet; Jones, Oonagh; Sampathianaki, Ergina

    2014-03-01

    This collaborative practitioner research study emerged from music therapists' concerns about the value of improvisational, music-centred music therapy for young adults with severe learning disabilities (SLDs), given the long-term nature of such work. Concerns included the relevance, in this context, of formulating, and reporting on, therapeutic aims, development, change; and working in 'goal-oriented' way. Focus groups with the young adults' families and a range of professionals suggest that, rather than leading to developmental change, long-term shared therapeutic musicking provides young adults with ongoing opportunities for experiencing confidence and self-esteem, with feelings of shared acceptance and success, and also provides young adults and their families with opportunities for developing and sustaining friendships. In addition, families experienced meeting other parents and carers in the communal reception area as supportive and countering their isolation. Focus groups assigned intrapersonal, relational and social values to long-term music therapy for young adults with SLDs.

  13. Chronic, Severe Hypertension Does Not Impair Spatial Learning and Memory in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kadish, Inga; van Groen, Thomas; Wyss, J. Michael

    2001-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that long-term hypertension impairs spatial learning and memory in rats. In 6-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats, chronic hypertension was induced by placing one of three sizes of stainless steel clips around the descending aorta (above the renal artery), resulting in a 20–80-mm Hg increase of arterial pressure in all arteries above the clip, that is, the upper trunk and head. Ten months later, the rats were tested for 5 d in a repeated-acquisition water maze task, and on the fifth day, they were tested in a probe trial; that is, there was no escape platform present. At the end of the testing period, the nonsurgical and sham control groups had similar final escape latencies (16 ± 4 sec and 23 ± 9 sec, respectively) that were not significantly different from those of the three hypertensive groups. Rats with mild hypertension (140–160 mm Hg) had a final escape latency of 25 ± 6 sec, whereas severely hypertensive rats (170–199 mm Hg) had a final escape latency of 21 ± 7 sec and extremely hypertensive rats (>200 Hg) had a final escape latency of 19 ± 5 sec. All five groups also displayed a similar preference for the correct quadrant in the probe trial. Together, these data suggest that sustained, severe hypertension for over 10 mo is not sufficient to impair spatial learning and memory deficits in otherwise normal rats. PMID:11274256

  14. Development and pretesting of an electronic learning module to train health care professionals on the use of the Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure to assess acute asthma severity

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Anab R; McKinney, Martha L; Gouin, Serge; Blais, Jean-Guy; Pusic, MV; Ducharme, Francine M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severity-specific guidelines based on the Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM), a validated clinical score, reduce pediatric asthma hospitalization rates. OBJECTIVE: To develop, pretest the educational value of and revise an electronic learning module to train health care professionals on the use of the PRAM. METHODS: The respiratory efforts of 32 children with acute asthma were videotaped and pulmonary auscultation was recorded. A pilot module, composed of a tutorial and 18 clinical cases, was developed in French and English. Health care professionals completed the module and provided feedback. The performance of participants, case quality and difficulty, and learning curve were assessed using the Rasch test; quantitative and qualitative feedback served to revise the module. RESULTS: Seventy-two participants (19 physicians, 22 nurses, four respiratory therapists and 27 health care trainees) with a balanced distribution across self-declared expertise (26% beginner, 35% competent and 39% expert) were included. The accuracy of experts was superior to beginners (OR 1.79, 1.15 and 2.79, respectively). Overall performance significantly improved between the first and latter half of cases (P<0.001). Participants assessed the module to be clear (96%), relevant (98%), realistic (94%) and useful (99%) to learn the PRAM. The qualitative/quantitative analysis led to the deletion of three cases, modification of remaining cases to further enhance quality and reordering within three levels of difficulty. DISCUSSION: Using rigorous educational methods, an electronic module was developed to teach health care professionals on use of the PRAM score. Using the back-translation technique, both French and English versions were developed and validated simultaneously. The pilot module comprised a tutorial and three case-scenario sections, and was tested on a target audience of physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists and medical trainees. CONCLUSION: The final

  15. Helping Children Overcome Reading Difficulties. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl B.; Sensenbaugh, Roger

    This digest discusses children with reading difficulties and how these children can be helped to read and learn more effectively. The digest offers a definition and discussion of dyslexia, examines instructional conditions that help the reading comprehension of children labeled as learning disabled, offers suggestions for choosing helpful reading…

  16. Using Video Self-Modelling to Increase Active Learning Responses during Small-Group Reading Instruction for Primary School Pupils with Social Emotional and Mental Health Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Pelton, Cheryl A.; Bushman, Samantha L.

    2015-01-01

    Effectiveness of a video self-modelling (VSM) intervention was examined with primary schoolchildren who attended a full-time special education programme for pupils with social emotional and behavioural difficulties and who exhibited inappropriate behaviour during small-group reading instruction. A randomised multiple-probe baseline design was used…

  17. Supporting Students with Language Learning Difficulties in Secondary Schools through Collaboration: The Use of Concept Maps to Investigate the Impact on Teachers' Knowledge of Vocabulary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Gemma; Nash, Marysia; Earl, Gill

    2010-01-01

    Language difficulties persist in a proportion of young people first identified in their early school years (Bishop and Adams, 1990; Stothard et al., 1998), and speech and language therapy (SLT) within secondary education is a developing area of expertise. This article briefly describes the rationale for collaboration between teachers and SLT…

  18. The Concept of Electrical Resistance: How Cassirer's Philosophy, and the Early Developments of Electric Circuit Theory, Allow a Better Understanding of Students' Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viard, Jerome; Khantine-Langlois, Francoise

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the difficulties students are confronted with when facing the concept of electrical resistance. Discusses the nature of the electrical resistance concept in light of Cassirer philosophy and its origin in the 19th century. Presents an analysis of the way this concept is taught in French high schools. (SAH)

  19. Analysis of the Difficulty and Discrimination Indices of Multiple-Choice Questions According to Cognitive Levels in an Open and Distance Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koçdar, Serpil; Karadag, Nejdet; Sahin, Murat Dogan

    2016-01-01

    This is a descriptive study which intends to determine whether the difficulty and discrimination indices of the multiple-choice questions show differences according to cognitive levels of the Bloom's Taxonomy, which are used in the exams of the courses in a business administration bachelor's degree program offered through open and distance…

  20. Defective Number Module or Impaired Access? Numerical Magnitude Processing in First Graders with Mathematical Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Gilmore, Camilla K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined numerical magnitude processing in first graders with severe and mild forms of mathematical difficulties, children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) and children with low achievement (LA) in mathematics, respectively. In total, 20 children with MLD, 21 children with LA, and 41 regular achievers completed a numerical…

  1. The Trouble with Maths: A Practical Guide to Helping Learners with Numeracy Difficulties, 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Now in a second edition, the award-winning "The Trouble with Maths" offers important insights into the often confusing world of numeracy. By looking at learning difficulties in maths from several perspectives, including the language of mathematics, thinking styles and the demands of individual topics, this book offers a complete overview of the…

  2. Teaching Kids with Learning Difficulties in Today's Classroom: How Every Teacher Can Help Struggling Students Succeed. Revised and Updated Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winebrenner, Susan

    2014-01-01

    A gold mine of practical, easy­-to-­use teaching methods, strategies, and tips to improve learning outcomes for students who score below proficiency levels. This fully revised and updated third edition provides information on integrated learning, problem solving, and critical thinking in line with Common Core State Standards and 21st-­century…

  3. [The time-course change of brain activity during learning new movement patterns of pronunciation with orthodontic appliances and its correlation with self-evaluation of pronunciation difficulty: an fMRI study].

    PubMed

    Kaneshima, Takako

    2014-03-01

    Pronunciation requires speed and accuracy, like many other fundamental activities such as breathing, eating, and walking. People can pronounce almost automatically without paying much attention to correctness, also like other activities. However, people may have to focus carefully on pronunciation when learning a foreign language, wearing dental appliances or rehabilitating after an injury or disease that affects speech. In the present study, we investigated neural changes underlying the process of learning new movement patterns of pronunciation in such cases. Nine healthy adults participated in the study. Difficulty of pronunciation was evaluated and cortical activity was measured under three conditions (overt and covert speaking, and silent reading) by fMRI three times after they wore orthodontic appliances. We found that the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) was involved in the auditory feedback control of pronunciation with the appliances, and the activity of the right STG was well correlated with the subjective difficulty of pronunciation and its time-dependent reduction. On the other hand, neural changes related to somatosensory feedback control and motor control of pronunciation did not show any time-dependent change. Our findings indicate that auditory feedback control of pronunciation is more important than motor control and somatosensory feedback control for learning new movements related to pronunciation.

  4. Prediction and stability of mathematics skill and difficulty.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rebecca B; Cirino, Paul T; Barnes, Marcia A; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Fuchs, Lynn S; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the stability of math learning difficulties over a 2-year period and investigated several factors that might influence this stability (categorical vs. continuous change, liberal vs. conservative cut point, broad vs. specific math assessment); the prediction of math performance over time and by performance level was also evaluated. Participants were 144 students initially identified as having a math difficulty (MD) or no learning difficulty according to low achievement criteria in the spring of Grade 3 or Grade 4. Students were reassessed 2 years later. For both measure types, a similar proportion of students changed whether assessed categorically or continuously. However, categorical change was heavily dependent on distance from the cut point and so more common for MD, who started closer to the cut point; reliable change index change was more similar across groups. There were few differences with regard to severity level of MD on continuous metrics or in terms of prediction. Final math performance on a broad computation measure was predicted by behavioral inattention and working memory while considering initial performance; for a specific fluency measure, working memory was not uniquely related, and behavioral inattention more variably related to final performance, again while considering initial performance.

  5. Item Difficulty Estimation: An Auspicious Collaboration between Data and Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauters, Kelly; Desmet, Piet; Van Den Noortgate, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The evolution from static to dynamic electronic learning environments has stimulated the research on adaptive item sequencing. A prerequisite for adaptive item sequencing, in which the difficulty of the item is constantly matched to the ability level of the learner, is to have items with a known difficulty level. The difficulty level can be…

  6. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003143.htm Urination - difficulty with flow To use the sharing features on this page, ... at night? Has the force of your urine flow decreased? Do you have dribbling or leaking urine? ...

  7. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    MedlinePlus

    Waking at night short of breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Cor pulmonale Heart failure ... conditions that lead to it) Panic disorder Sleep apnea Snoring

  8. From "five" to 5 for 5 minutes: Arabic number transcoding as a short, specific, and sensitive screening tool for mathematics learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Moura, Ricardo; Lopes-Silva, Júlia Beatriz; Vieira, Laura Rodrigues; Paiva, Giulia Moreira; Prado, Ana Carolina de Almeida; Wood, Guilherme; Haase, Vitor Geraldi

    2015-02-01

    Number transcoding (e.g., writing 29 when hearing "twenty-nine") is one of the most basic numerical abilities required in daily life and is paramount for mathematics achievement. The aim of this study is to investigate psychometric properties of an Arabic number-writing task and its capacity to identify children with mathematics difficulties. We assessed 786 children (55% girls) from first to fourth grades, who were classified as children with mathematics difficulties (n = 103) or controls (n = 683). Although error rates were low, the task presented adequate internal consistency (0.91). Analyses revealed effective diagnostic accuracy in first and second school grades (specificity equals to 0.67 and 0.76 respectively, and sensitivity equals to 0.70 and 0.88 respectively). Moreover, items tapping the understanding of place-value syntax were the most sensitive to mathematics achievement. Overall, we propose that number transcoding is a useful tool for the assessment of mathematics abilities in early elementary school.

  9. Obtaining Views on Health Care from People with Learning Disabilities and Severe Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anita F.; Chesson, Rosemary A.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the rhetoric of involvement of people with learning disabilities in health care there is a dearth of research which examines the extent to which service users are included in evaluating their own care. This paper describes a study of methods for enabling people with learning disabilities and complex health needs to comment on the…

  10. Impact of iPod Touch-Supported Repeated Reading on the English Oral Reading Fluency of L2 Students with Specific Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadima-Sophocleous, Salomi; Charalambous, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the use of new technologies has been extensively explored in different aspects of language learning pedagogy. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact Repeated Reading activity, supported by iPod Touch could have on the English Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) of second language university students with Special…

  11. Enhancing Social Integration of Immigrant Pupils at Risk for Social, Emotional and/or Behavioural Difficulties: The Outcomes of a Small-Scale Social-Emotional Learning Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doikou-Avlidou, Maro; Dadatsi, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the outcomes of a small-scale social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention programme regarding the social behaviour and the social position of pupils from culturally diverse backgrounds. Seven primary and secondary education teachers participated in the study along with the pupils attending their classes;…

  12. An Evaluation of Research and Training Resources for the Sex Education of People with Moderate to Severe Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieve, Alan; McLaren, Shona; Lindsay, William R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature on issues surrounding the sexuality of people with moderate to severe learning disability (SLD), and evaluate available assessment and training methods. This research arose from an increasing number of referrals for clinical intervention in the training and education of appropriate social and…

  13. ClereMed: Lessons Learned From a Pilot Study of a Mobile Screening Tool to Identify and Support Adults Who Have Difficulty With Medication Labels

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Allison; Dolovich, Lisa; Slavcev, Roderick; Drimmie, Rob; Aghaei, Behzad; Poon, Calvin; Khan, Shamrozé; Leat, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to take medications safely and effectively, individuals need to be able to see, read, and understand the medication labels. However, one-half of medication labels are currently misunderstood, often because of low literacy, low vision, and cognitive impairment. We sought to design a mobile tool termed ClereMed that could rapidly screen for adults who have difficulty reading or understanding their medication labels. Objective The aim of this study was to build the ClereMed prototype; to determine the usability of the prototype with adults 55 and over; to assess its accuracy for identifying adults with low-functional reading ability, poor ability on a real-life pill-sorting task, and low cognition; and to assess the acceptability of a touchscreen device with older adults with age-related changes to vision and cognition. Methods This pilot study enrolled adults (≥55 years) who were recruited through pharmacies, retirement residences, and a low-vision optometry clinic. ClereMed is a hypertext markup language (HTML)-5 prototype app that simulates medication taking using an iPad, and also provides information on how to improve the accessibility of prescription labels. A paper-based questionnaire included questions on participant demographics, computer literacy, and the Systems Usability Scale (SUS). Cognition was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool, and functional reading ability was measured using the MNRead Acuity Chart. Simulation results were compared with a real-life, medication-taking exercise using prescription vials, tablets, and pillboxes. Results The 47 participants had a mean age of 76 (SD 11) years and 60% (28/47) were female. Of the participants, 32% (15/47) did not own a computer or touchscreen device. The mean SUS score was 76/100. ClereMed correctly identified 72% (5/7) of participants with functional reading difficulty, and 63% (5/8) who failed a real-life pill-sorting task, but only 21% (6/28) of participants with

  14. Limited Near and Far Transfer Effects of Jungle Memory Working Memory Training on Learning Mathematics in Children with Attentional and Mathematical Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Nelwan, Michel; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate whether Jungle Memory working memory training (JM) affects performance on working memory tasks, performance in mathematics and gains made on a mathematics training (MT) in school aged children between 9–12 years old (N = 64) with both difficulties in mathematics, as well as attention and working memory. Children were randomly assigned to three groups and were trained in two periods: (1) JM first, followed by MT, (2) MT first, followed by JM, and (3) a control group that received MT only. Bayesian analyses showed possible short term effects of JM on near transfer measures of verbal working memory, but none on visual working memory. Furthermore, support was found for the hypothesis that children that received JM first, performed better after MT than children who did not follow JM first or did not train with JM at all. However, these effects could be explained at least partly by frequency of training effects, possibly due to motivational issues, and training-specific factors. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether the effects found on improving mathematics were actually mediated by gains in working memory. It is argued that JM might not train the components of working memory involved in mathematics sufficiently. Another possible explanation can be found in the training’s lack of adaptivity, therefore failing to provide the children with tailored instruction and feedback. Finally, it was hypothesized that, since effect sizes are generally small, training effects are bound to a critical period in development. PMID:27708595

  15. Limited Near and Far Transfer Effects of Jungle Memory Working Memory Training on Learning Mathematics in Children with Attentional and Mathematical Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Nelwan, Michel; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate whether Jungle Memory working memory training (JM) affects performance on working memory tasks, performance in mathematics and gains made on a mathematics training (MT) in school aged children between 9-12 years old (N = 64) with both difficulties in mathematics, as well as attention and working memory. Children were randomly assigned to three groups and were trained in two periods: (1) JM first, followed by MT, (2) MT first, followed by JM, and (3) a control group that received MT only. Bayesian analyses showed possible short term effects of JM on near transfer measures of verbal working memory, but none on visual working memory. Furthermore, support was found for the hypothesis that children that received JM first, performed better after MT than children who did not follow JM first or did not train with JM at all. However, these effects could be explained at least partly by frequency of training effects, possibly due to motivational issues, and training-specific factors. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether the effects found on improving mathematics were actually mediated by gains in working memory. It is argued that JM might not train the components of working memory involved in mathematics sufficiently. Another possible explanation can be found in the training's lack of adaptivity, therefore failing to provide the children with tailored instruction and feedback. Finally, it was hypothesized that, since effect sizes are generally small, training effects are bound to a critical period in development.

  16. Spatial learning while navigating with severely degraded viewing: The role of attention and mobility monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rand, Kristina M; Creem-Regehr, Sarah H; Thompson, William B

    2015-06-01

    The ability to navigate without getting lost is an important aspect of quality of life. In 5 studies, we evaluated how spatial learning is affected by the increased demands of keeping oneself safe while walking with degraded vision (mobility monitoring). We proposed that safe low vision mobility requires attentional resources, providing competition for those needed to learn a new environment. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants navigated along paths in a real-world indoor environment with simulated degraded vision or normal vision. Memory for object locations seen along the paths was better with normal compared with degraded vision. With degraded vision, memory was better when participants were guided by an experimenter (low monitoring demands) versus unguided (high monitoring demands). In Experiments 3 and 4, participants walked while performing an auditory task. Auditory task performance was superior with normal compared with degraded vision. With degraded vision, auditory task performance was better when guided compared with unguided. In Experiment 5, participants performed both the spatial learning and auditory tasks under degraded vision. Results showed that attention mediates the relationship between mobility-monitoring demands and spatial learning. These studies suggest that more attention is required and spatial learning is impaired when navigating with degraded viewing.

  17. Spatial learning while navigating with severely degraded viewing: The role of attention and mobility monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Kristina M.; Creem-Regehr, Sarah H.; Thompson, William B.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to navigate without getting lost is an important aspect of quality of life. In five studies, we evaluated how spatial learning is affected by the increased demands of keeping oneself safe while walking with degraded vision (mobility monitoring). We proposed that safe low-vision mobility requires attentional resources, providing competition for those needed to learn a new environment. In Experiments 1 and 2 participants navigated along paths in a real-world indoor environment with simulated degraded vision or normal vision. Memory for object locations seen along the paths was better with normal compared to degraded vision. With degraded vision, memory was better when participants were guided by an experimenter (low monitoring demands) versus unguided (high monitoring demands). In Experiments 3 and 4, participants walked while performing an auditory task. Auditory task performance was superior with normal compared to degraded vision. With degraded vision, auditory task performance was better when guided compared to unguided. In Experiment 5, participants performed both the spatial learning and auditory tasks under degraded vision. Results showed that attention mediates the relationship between mobility-monitoring demands and spatial learning. These studies suggest that more attention is required and spatial learning is impaired when navigating with degraded viewing. PMID:25706766

  18. Difficulties when assessing birdsong learning programmes under field conditions: a re-evaluation of song repertoire flexibility in the great tit.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Gutierrez, Hector F; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2011-01-17

    There is a remarkable diversity of song-learning strategies in songbirds. Establishing whether a species is closed- or open-ended is important to be able to interpret functional and evolutionary consequences of variation in repertoire size. Most of our knowledge regarding the timing of vocal learning is based on laboratory studies, despite the fact that these may not always replicate the complex ecological and social interactions experienced by birds in the wild. Given that field studies cannot provide the experimental control of laboratory studies, it may not be surprising that species such as the great tit that were initially assumed to be closed-ended learners have later been suggested to be open-ended learners. By using an established colour-ringed population, by following a standardized recording protocol, and by taking into account the species' song ecology (using only recordings obtained during peak of singing at dawn), we replicated two previous studies to assess song repertoire learning and flexibility in adult wild great tits elicited by social interactions. First, we performed a playback experiment to test repertoire plasticity elicited by novel versus own songs. Additionally, in a longitudinal study, we followed 30 males in two consecutive years and analysed whether new neighbours influenced any change in the repertoire. Contrary to the previous studies, song repertoire size and composition were found to be highly repeatable both between years and after confrontation with a novel song. Our results suggest that great tits are closed-ended learners and that their song repertoire probably does not change during adulthood. Methodological differences that may have led to an underestimation of the repertoires or population differences may explain the discrepancy in results with previous studies. We argue that a rigorous and standardized assessment of the repertoire is essential when studying age- or playback-induced changes in repertoire size and composition

  19. Mathematics Difficulties: Does One Approach Fit All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Sue; Rockliffe, Freda

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the nature of learning difficulties in mathematics and, in particular, the nature and prevalence of dyscalculia, a condition that affects the acquisition of arithmetical skills. The evidence reviewed suggests that younger children (under the age of 10) often display a combination of problems, including minor physical…

  20. Pupils' Difficulties: What Can the Teacher Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses how the teacher can deal with difficulties pupils of varying ages have in understanding certain chemical ideas. The article does not support using a Piagetian model for science courses in secondary schools. It suggests that Ausubel's learning theory is of much more use to the practicing teacher. (HM)

  1. [The Influence of the Functioning of Brain Regulatory Systems onto the Voluntary Regulation of Cognitive Performance in Children. Report 2. Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Assessment of Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 10-12 with Learning Difficulties].

    PubMed

    Semenova, O A; Machinskaya, R I

    2015-01-01

    A total number of 172 children aged 10-12 were electrophysiologically and neuropsychologically assessed in order to analyze the influence of the functioning of brain regulatory systems onto the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance during the preteen years. EEG patterns associated with the nonoptimal functioning of brain regulatory systems, particularly fronto-thalamic, limbic and fronto-striatal structures were significantly more often observed in children with learning and behavioral difficulties, as compared to the control group. Neuropsychological assessment showed that the nonoptimal functioning of different brain regulatory systems specifically affect the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-thalamic nonoptimal functioning demonstrated poor voluntary regulation such as impulsiveness and difficulties in continuing the same algorithms. Children with EEG patterns of limbic nonoptimal functioning showed a less pronounced executive dysfunction manifested only in poor switching between program units within a task. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-striatal nonoptimal functioning struggled with such executive dysfunctions as motor and tactile perseverations and emotional-motivational deviations such as poor motivation and communicative skills.

  2. An E2-guided E3 Screen Identifies the RNF17-UBE2U Pair as Regulator of the Radiosensitivity, Immunodeficiency, Dysmorphic Features, and Learning Difficulties (RIDDLE) Syndrome Protein RNF168.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yingying; An, Liwei; Ng, Hoi-Man; Sy, Shirley M H; Huen, Michael S Y

    2017-01-20

    Protein ubiquitination has emerged as a pivotal regulatory reaction that promotes cellular responses to DNA damage. With a goal to delineate the DNA damage signal transduction cascade, we systematically analyzed the human E2 ubiquitin- and ubiquitin-like-conjugating enzymes for their ability to mobilize the DNA damage marker 53BP1 onto ionizing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. An RNAi-based screen identified UBE2U as a candidate regulator of chromatin responses at double strand breaks. Further mining of the UBE2U interactome uncovered its cognate E3 RNF17 as a novel factor that, via the radiosensitivity, immunodeficiency, dysmorphic features, and learning difficulties (RIDDLE) syndrome protein RNF168, enforces DNA damage responses. Our screen allowed us to uncover new players in the mammalian DNA damage response and highlights the instrumental roles of ubiquitin machineries in promoting cell responses to genotoxic stress.

  3. [School difficulties in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Schwarzenberg, T L; Buffone, M R; Scardia, C; Facente, C

    2002-12-01

    Loss, failure and desertion are those words, which better describe the most frequent difficulties incurred by teenagers, and their relation to the school environment, and indicate, as well, the lack of connection between individual aspirations and school achievements obtained. Despite the likelihood of school difficulties throughout the entire educational career, from the kindergarten to the college, we are able to recognize certain specific "disturbances" which come out during the adolescence, basically relating to the school experiences. School failure, school desertion and school abandonment are, in fact, issues mainly discussed in coincidence with the beginning of the adolescent age and the attending of the high school. The aetiopathogenesis of school discomfort is mostly determined by more than only one factor: psychological, physical, cognitive and environmental aspects, all together, contribute in various ways, to the rise and persisting of the above described problems. Suggesting a univocal characterization of the adolescent with school difficulties, is indeed a hard task, since school failure is not an exclusive feature of only one kind of personality or the expression of only one type of conflict. Once identified the individuals more subject to risk, and the warning signs of actual uneasiness, it is important therefore to intervene timely and in different ways in order to avoid the worsening or the excessive extension of the school difficulties and of their frequent and serious consequences on the teenagers' individual and domestic well-being. Such type of prevention definitely belongs to the Adolescent Medicine, and must be developed on different levels, by involving not only the teenagers, but also their families, the school, and the whole social environment in which the teenagers live and with which they interact.

  4. A dynamic test to assess learning capacity in people with severe impairments.

    PubMed

    Hessels-Schlatter, Christine

    2002-09-01

    Because traditional intelligence tests do not allow a reliable and valid estimate of the general cognitive abilities of individuals with IQs lower than 55, a dynamic test of analogical reasoning (Analogical Reasoning Learning Test-ARLT) was constructed for use with this population. The aim of the test is to distinguish individuals who could undergo more ambitious schooling and cognitive training from those who would profit little or none from such an intervention. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of this measure are high. Discriminant and predictive validity, assessed with another learning test and with a one-month training on inductive reasoning, respectively, are satisfactory. The test is seen as a useful tool for diagnostic differentiation among low performers.

  5. The Professionalization of Teaching and Learning for Children with Severe Disabilities: The Creation of TASH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Ed; Haring, Norris G.

    1996-01-01

    This article recounts the founding of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps (TASH) in the context of the history of teaching children with severe disabilities. The role of the Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children consent decree and the contributions of applied behavior analysis are stressed. (DB)

  6. Severe malaria: lessons learned from the management of critical illness in children.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Kathryn

    2006-10-01

    Two hypotheses have recently been raised to explain the metabolic acidosis (increased blood acidity) of severe malaria, and both are relevant to treatment. The first suggests that a decreased blood volume (hypovolaemia) has an important role in severe malaria; following this, treatment should be based on the current standard paediatric management of acidosis in children with features of cardiovascular compromise. The second hypothesis contends that acidosis in malaria has a metabolic cause and proposes treatment with dichloroacetate. Both hypotheses are plausible and are not mutually exclusive. In truth, the risks and benefits of either treatment are uncertain, and will remain so until large multicentre, randomised controlled trials provide appropriate supportive evidence. As both views involve complex physiological rationales, beyond the usual scope of this journal, I attempt here to present the largely academic aspects of these hypotheses within the practical and contextual aspects of childhood severe malaria.

  7. The effects of task difficulty and workload on training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mane, Amir; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1986-01-01

    Four hypotheses regarding the possible effects of workload and task difficulty on training are proposed. These are: (1) increased levels of task difficulty will facilitate learning to the extent that these increases are (a) resource loading and (b) intrinsic to the component task to be learned; (2) decrease of task difficulty will facilitate learning to the extent that these decreases (a) reduce the resource load and (b) are extrinsic of the component task to be learned; (3) the lerner's tendency to conserve resources may bead to the adoption of undesirable, short-term, low resource strategies early in training; and (4) the effect of changes in resource demand on learning will depend upon the similarity of the resource whose demand is changed to the resource involved in learning.

  8. Relating Difficulty in School Mathematics to Nature of Mathematics: Perception of High School Students from Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Sarabi, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    This study relates factors in nature of Mathematics and its teaching learning to student difficulties for diverse mathematics tasks. Descriptive survey was done on a sample of 300 high school students in Kerala with a questionnaire on difficulties in learning. Student perception of difficulty on 26 types of tasks, under five heads that students…

  9. Using Curriculum Based Measurement To Increase Psychomotor Learning Gains in Severely Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, P. J.; Edeburn, Carl

    This study examined the effectiveness of a 9-month highly structured program of psychomotor development with 174 severely handicapped students ranging in age from 2 to 20 years. Curriculum based measures (CBM) of exemplary performance objectives were developed. Teaching was individualized by a teaching research model of instruction in both public…

  10. Response to Intervention vs. Severe Discrepancy Model: Identification of Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armendariz, Gina; Jung, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of educators on the acceptance of either the Response to Intervention (RTI) model or the Severe Discrepancy (SD) model in the identification of students with a SLD. The study consisted of 160 general education (GE) teachers and 119 special education (SPED) teachers. The study used a…

  11. Improving Educational Planning for Students with Severe Disabilities: An Evaluation of School-Based Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The components of quality educational planning for students with moderate and severe intellectual disability are well established, but schools and special educators may not always achieve a desirable standard. This article reports on the change in quality of documentation related to individual planning and programming over a span of 4 years in a…

  12. Neural Correlates of Reversal Learning in Severe Mood Dysregulation and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adleman, Nancy E.; Kayser, Reilly; Dickstein, Daniel; Blair, R. James R.; Pine, Daniel; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Outcome and family history data differentiate children with severe mood dysregulation (SMD), a syndrome characterized by chronic irritability, from children with "classic" episodic bipolar disorder (BD). Nevertheless, the presence of cognitive inflexibility in SMD and BD highlights the need to delineate neurophysiologic similarities and…

  13. The Learning of Difficult Visual Discriminations by the Moderately and Severely Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marc W.; Barclay, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    A procedure to effectively and efficiently train moderately and severely retarded individuals to make fine visual discriminations is described. Results suggest that expectancies for such individuals are in need of examination. Implications for sheltered workshops, work activity centers and classrooms are discussed. [This article appeared…

  14. The Cognitive Profile of Chinese Children with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Becky Mee-yin; Ho, Connie Suk-han

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how four domain-specific skills (arithmetic procedural skills, number fact retrieval, place value concept, and number sense) and two domain-general processing skills (working memory and processing speed) may account for Chinese children's mathematics learning difficulties. Children with mathematics difficulties (MD) of two age…

  15. Multigenerational exposure to dietary nonylphenol has no severe effects on spatial learning in female rats.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Katherine M; Newbold, Retha R; Ferguson, Sherry A

    2002-05-01

    Nonylphenol is a common intermediate in the production of many consumer compounds and reportedly acts as an estrogen mimic. Because estrogen affects the spatial learning and memory in rats, the effects of nonylphenol exposure on the performance of female rats in the Morris water maze were investigated. Here, Sprague-Dawley rats (F0) consumed soy-free diets containing 0, 25, 200 or 750 ppm nonylphenol (0, 2, 16 or 60 mg/kg per day) beginning on postnatal day (PND) 42 and continuing for two generations (F1 and F2) with breeding occurring within treatments. Females to be behaviorally tested (n = 7-8 per treatment per generation) were ovariectomized at adulthood and assessed for spatial learning and memory between PND 125-150 (young adult age). Each rat was tested for four consecutive days (three trials per day) in the Morris water maze with the platform in a fixed location. One week later, each subject was primed with estrogen and progesterone and assessed on a single day (three trials). The F1 rats continued on the same diets until PND 380-395 (middle aged) when they were re-tested as above (four consecutive days followed 1 week later with hormonal priming and a single test day). Latency to find the platform, path length and swim speed were averaged over the three trials per day and analyzed using repeated measures analyses of variance. There were no consistent effects of dietary nonylphenol exposure and no interactions of nonylphenol exposure on any measure of performance in either generation at the young age nor at the middle age in the F1 generation. When tested at the young adult age, however, hormone priming resulted in latencies and path lengths that were significantly shorter than in those exhibited during the unprimed test days, and there was no such effect when tested at middle age. Middle aged rats exhibited better performance than the same animals tested at a young age, likely as a result of familiarity and practice with the test paradigm. These data

  16. Learning-based automatic detection of severe coronary stenoses in CT angiographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melki, Imen; Cardon, Cyril; Gogin, Nicolas; Talbot, Hugues; Najman, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    3D cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is becoming a standard routine for non-invasive heart diseases diagnosis. Thanks to its high negative predictive value, CCTA is increasingly used to decide whether or not the patient should be considered for invasive angiography. However, an accurate assessment of cardiac lesions using this modality is still a time consuming task and needs a high degree of clinical expertise. Thus, providing automatic tool to assist clinicians during the diagnosis task is highly desirable. In this work, we propose a fully automatic approach for accurate severe cardiac stenoses detection. Our algorithm uses the Random Forest classi cation to detect stenotic areas. First, the classi er is trained on 18 CT cardiac exams with CTA reference standard. Then, then classi cation result is used to detect severe stenoses (with a narrowing degree higher than 50%) in a 30 cardiac CT exam database. Features that best captures the di erent stenoses con guration are extracted along the vessel centerlines at di erent scales. To ensure the accuracy against the vessel direction and scale changes, we extract features inside cylindrical patterns with variable directions and radii. Thus, we make sure that the ROIs contains only the vessel walls. The algorithm is evaluated using the Rotterdam Coronary Artery Stenoses Detection and Quantication Evaluation Framework. The evaluation is performed using reference standard quanti cations obtained from quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and consensus reading of CTA. The obtained results show that we can reliably detect severe stenosis with a sensitivity of 64%.

  17. Geospatial and machine learning techniques for wicked social science problems: analysis of crash severity on a regional highway corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effati, Meysam; Thill, Jean-Claude; Shabani, Shahin

    2015-04-01

    The contention of this paper is that many social science research problems are too "wicked" to be suitably studied using conventional statistical and regression-based methods of data analysis. This paper argues that an integrated geospatial approach based on methods of machine learning is well suited to this purpose. Recognizing the intrinsic wickedness of traffic safety issues, such approach is used to unravel the complexity of traffic crash severity on highway corridors as an example of such problems. The support vector machine (SVM) and coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) algorithms are tested as inferential engines to predict crash severity and uncover spatial and non-spatial factors that systematically relate to crash severity, while a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the relative influence of crash severity factors. Different specifications of the two methods are implemented, trained, and evaluated against crash events recorded over a 4-year period on a regional highway corridor in Northern Iran. Overall, the SVM model outperforms CANFIS by a notable margin. The combined use of spatial analysis and artificial intelligence is effective at identifying leading factors of crash severity, while explicitly accounting for spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity effects. Thanks to the demonstrated effectiveness of a sensitivity analysis, this approach produces comprehensive results that are consistent with existing traffic safety theories and supports the prioritization of effective safety measures that are geographically targeted and behaviorally sound on regional highway corridors.

  18. Review of student difficulties in upper-level quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Chandralekha; Marshman, Emily

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Learning advanced physics, in general, is challenging not only due to the increased mathematical sophistication but also because one must continue to build on all of the prior knowledge acquired at the introductory and intermediate levels. In addition, learning quantum mechanics can be especially challenging because the paradigms of classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are very different. Here, we review research on student reasoning difficulties in learning upper-level quantum mechanics and research on students' problem-solving and metacognitive skills in these courses. Some of these studies were multiuniversity investigations. The investigations suggest that there is large diversity in student performance in upper-level quantum mechanics regardless of the university, textbook, or instructor, and many students in these courses have not acquired a functional understanding of the fundamental concepts. The nature of reasoning difficulties in learning quantum mechanics is analogous to reasoning difficulties found via research in introductory physics courses. The reasoning difficulties were often due to overgeneralizations of concepts learned in one context to another context where they are not directly applicable. Reasoning difficulties in distinguishing between closely related concepts and in making sense of the formalism of quantum mechanics were common. We conclude with a brief summary of the research-based approaches that take advantage of research on student difficulties in order to improve teaching and learning of quantum mechanics.

  19. The Effects of Locus of Control and Task Difficulty on Procrastination.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Tracy; Carton, John S

    1999-12-01

    The authors investigated the effects of locus of control expectancies and task difficulty on procrastination. Forty-two college students were administered an academic locus of control scale and a task that was similar to a typical college homework assignment. The students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 task difficulty levels. Although none of the results involving task difficulty was significant, several results involving locus of control were significant. Specifically, analyses revealed that students with internal locus of control expectancies tended to begin working on the assignment sooner than students with external locus of control expectancies. In addition, students with internal locus of control completed and returned the assignment sooner than students with external locus of control. The results are discussed within the context of J. B. Rotter's (1966, 1975, 1982) social learning theory.

  20. Lessons Learned in Building VO Resources: Binding Together Several VO Standards into an Operational Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, I.; Bonnarel, F.; Louys, M.; Le Sidaner, P.

    2012-09-01

    The International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) developed numerous interoperability standards during the last several years. Most of them are quite simple to implement from the technical point of view and even contain “SIMPLE” in the title. Does it mean that it is also simple to build a working VO resource using those standards? Yes and no. “Yes” because the standards are indeed simple, and “no” because usually one needs to implement a lot more than it was thought in the beginning of the project so the time management of the team becomes difficult. In our presentation we will start with a basic case of a simple spectral data collection. Then we will describe several examples of “small” technologically advanced VO resources built in CDS and VO-Paris and will show that many standards are hidden from managers' eyes at the initial stage of the project development. The projects will be: (1) the GalMer database providing access to the results of numerical simulations of galaxy interactions; (2) the full spectrum fitting service that allows one to extract internal kinematics and stellar populations from spectra of galaxies available in the VO. We conclude that: (a) with the existing set of IVOA standards one can already build very advanced VO-enabled archives and tools useful for scientists; (b) managers have to be very careful when estimating the project development timelines for VO-enabled resources.

  1. Inducible ablation of dopamine D2 receptors in adult mice impairs locomotion, motor skill learning and leads to severe parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Bello, E P; Casas-Cordero, R; Galiñanes, G L; Casey, E; Belluscio, M A; Rodríguez, V; Noaín, D; Murer, M G; Rubinstein, M

    2017-04-01

    Motor execution and planning are tightly regulated by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors present in basal ganglia circuits. Although stimulation of D1 receptors is known to enhance motor function, the global effect of D2 receptor (D2R) stimulation or blockade remains highly controversial, with studies showing increasing, decreasing or no changes in motor activity. Moreover, pharmacological and genetic attempts to block or eliminate D2R have led to controversial results that questioned the importance of D2R in motor function. In this study, we generated an inducible Drd2 null-allele mouse strain that circumvented developmental compensations found in constitutive Drd2(-/-) mice and allowed us to directly evaluate the participation of D2R in spontaneous locomotor activity and motor learning. We have found that loss of D2R during adulthood causes severe motor impairments, including hypolocomotion, deficits in motor coordination, impaired learning of new motor routines and spontaneous catatonia. Moreover, severe motor impairment, resting tremor and abnormal gait and posture, phenotypes reminiscent of Parkinson's disease, were evident when the mutation was induced in aged mice. Altogether, the conditional Drd2 knockout model studied here revealed the overall fundamental contribution of D2R in motor functions and explains some of the side effects elicited by D2R blockers when used in neurological and psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Tourette's syndrome, dementia, alcohol-induced delusions and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  2. A Comparison between National and Transnational Students' Access of Online Learning Support Materials and Experience of Technical Difficulties on a Fully Online Distance Learning Master of Public Health Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemmell, Isla; Harrison, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Online distance learning (ODL) is now recognised as a mainstream teaching method for undergraduate and postgraduate students around the world. However, differences in learner characteristics such as help-seeking behaviour between transnational students and home students may impact on student attainment. 64 students undertaking an online master of…

  3. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wound. Bandage such wounds at once. A "sucking" chest wound allows air to enter the person's ... things you can do to help prevent breathing problems: If you have a history of severe allergic ...

  4. Analysis of the Difficulties and Improvement Method on Introduction of PBL Approach in Developing Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Takasei; Sessa, Salvatore

    In the field of international cooperation, it is increasing to introduce Japanese engineering educational model in the developing country to improve the quality of education and research activity. A naive implementation of such model in different cultures and educational systems may lead to several problems. In this paper, we evaluated the Project Based Learning (PBL) class, developed at Waseda University in Japan, and employed to the Egyptian education context at the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST) . We found difficulties such as : non-homogeneous student’ s background, disconnection with the student’ s research, weak learning style adaptation, and irregular course conduction. To solve these difficulties at E-JUST, we proposed : the groupware introduction, project theme choice based on student’ s motivation, and curriculum modification.

  5. A novel mutation of 5alpha-steroid reductase 2 deficiency (CD 65 ALA-PRO) with severe virilization defect in a Turkish family and difficulty in gender assignment.

    PubMed

    Savas Erdeve, Senay; Aycan, Zehra; Berberoglu, Merih; Siklar, Zeynep; Hacihamdioglu, Bulent; Sipahi, Kadir; Akar, Nejat; Ocal, Gonul

    2010-08-01

    Molecular genetic characterization of mutations in SRD5A2 gene is used as an essential procedure for the final diagnosis of 5alpha-reductase deficiency. Here, we report a novel homozygous point mutation of SRD5A2 gene at codon 65 in exon 1, due to a proline for alanine substitution in a Turkish family whose proband has severe undervirilization. This mutation has not been reported up to date in association with 5alpha-reductase deficiency in various ethnic groups. We discussed some questions about gender assignment in addition to the molecular and clinical characteristics of the disease.

  6. Who Needs Learning Theory Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemke, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Looks at a variety of learning theories: andragogy, behaviorism, cognitivism, conditions of learning, Gestalt, and social learning. Addresses the difficulty of selecting an appropriate theory for training. (JOW)

  7. Students' Difficulties With Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Research in physics education indicates that the use of multiple representations in teaching and learning helps students become better problem-solvers. We report on a study to investigate students' difficulties in solving mechanics problems presented in multiple representations. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a…

  8. Judgments of physics problem difficulty among experts and novices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakcharoenphol, Witat; Morphew, Jason W.; Mestre, José P.

    2015-12-01

    Students' ability to effectively study for an exam, or to manage their time during an exam, is related to their metacognitive capacity. Prior research has demonstrated the effective use of metacognitive strategies during learning and retrieval is related to content expertise. Students also make judgments of their own learning and of problem difficulty to guide their studying. This study extends prior research by investigating the accuracy of novices' and experts' ability to judge problem difficulty across two experiments; here "accuracy" refers to whether or not their judgments of problem difficulty corresponds with actual exam performance in an introductory mechanics physics course. In the first experiment, physics education research (PER) experts judged the difficulty of introductory physics problems and provided the rationales behind their judgments. Findings indicate that experts use a number of different problem features to make predictions of problem difficulty. While experts are relatively accurate in judging problem difficulty, their content expertise may interfere with their ability to predict student performance on some question types. In the second experiment novices and "near experts" (graduate TAs) judged which question from a problem pair (taken from a real exam) was more difficult. The results indicate that judgments of problem difficulty are more accurate for those with greater content expertise, suggesting that the ability to predict problem difficulty is a trait of expertise which develops with experience.

  9. Interventions for children's language and literacy difficulties.

    PubMed

    Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Against a backdrop of research on individual differences in reading disorders, this review considers a range of effective interventions to promote reading and language skills evaluated by our group. The review begins by contrasting the reading profiles seen in dyslexia and reading comprehension impairment and then argues that different interventions will be required. It is well established that effective interventions for decoding deficits (dyslexia) involve work on letter-sound knowledge, phonological awareness and reading practice to reinforce emergent skills. In contrast, effective interventions for reading comprehension difficulties involve training to promote oral language skills and text comprehension strategies. Together the findings of controlled trials provide a robust evidence base that can be used to devise plans for the management of pre-school and school-aged children with language learning difficulties.

  10. Interventions for children's language and literacy difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Against a backdrop of research on individual differences in reading disorders, this review considers a range of effective interventions to promote reading and language skills evaluated by our group. The review begins by contrasting the reading profiles seen in dyslexia and reading comprehension impairment and then argues that different interventions will be required. It is well established that effective interventions for decoding deficits (dyslexia) involve work on letter–sound knowledge, phonological awareness and reading practice to reinforce emergent skills. In contrast, effective interventions for reading comprehension difficulties involve training to promote oral language skills and text comprehension strategies. Together the findings of controlled trials provide a robust evidence base that can be used to devise plans for the management of pre-school and school-aged children with language learning difficulties. PMID:22268899

  11. Severe early life stress hampers spatial learning and neurogenesis, but improves hippocampal synaptic plasticity and emotional learning under high-stress conditions in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Oomen, Charlotte A; Soeters, Heleen; Audureau, Nathalie; Vermunt, Lisa; van Hasselt, Felisa N; Manders, Erik M M; Joëls, Marian; Lucassen, Paul J; Krugers, Harm

    2010-05-12

    Early life stress increases the risk for developing stress-related pathologies later in life. Recent studies in rats suggest that mild early life stress, rather than being overall unfavorable, may program the hippocampus such that it is optimally adapted to a stressful context later in life. Here, we tested whether this principle of "adaptive programming" also holds under severely adverse early life conditions, i.e., 24 h of maternal deprivation (MD), a model for maternal neglect. In young adult male rats subjected to MD on postnatal day 3, we observed reduced levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis as measured by cell proliferation, cell survival, and neuronal differentiation. Also, mature dentate granule cells showed a change in their dendritic morphology that was most noticeable in the proximal part of the dendritic tree. Lasting structural changes due to MD were paralleled by impaired water maze acquisition but did not affect long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus. Importantly, in the presence of high levels of the stress hormone corticosterone, even long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of MD animals was facilitated. In addition to this, contextual learning in a high-stress environment was enhanced in MD rats. These morphological, electrophysiological, and behavioral observations show that even a severely adverse early life environment does not evolve into overall impaired hippocampal functionality later in life. Rather, adversity early in life can prepare the organism to perform optimally under conditions associated with high corticosteroid levels in adulthood.

  12. The Severe Nature of Verbal Learning Deficits in Preschool Down's Syndrome (Mongoloid) Children. Research Report No. 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rynders, John E.; And Others

    Twenty 3-year-old, home reared, Down's Syndrome children and eight 3-year-old normal children were studied to examine the verbal learning characteristics of Down's Syndrome children in typical preschool learning tasks. Prior to the study, research on characteristics of verbal learning deficits in retarded individuals and on verbal skill training…

  13. Infantile Feeding Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Venkedesh; Kandikattu, Bhavana S.; Mitchell, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Gastric volvulus refers to a torsion of all or part of the stomach that may cause an obstruction of the foregut. The clinical symptoms of gastric volvulus range from asymptomatic to life-threatening and thus must be rapidly diagnosed. However, the presenting symptoms of gastric volvulus vary widely, which may cause diagnosis to be delayed or missed. Objective. Describe varying presentations of gastric volvulus (including a case report of a rare presentation), pathophysiology of the entity, and how to diagnose/treat the phenomenon. Design/Method. Article review and case presentation. Results. Our patient was taken to the operating room for a gastropexy and G-tube placement. During surgery, the stomach was redundant and large, but not currently torsed, consistent with intermittent organoaxial volvulus. There are several approaches to classifying gastric volvulus as well as different theories on how to treat the volvulus based on type and degree of rotation that this article aims to detail more thoroughly. Conclusion. There are a growing number of case reports describing gastric volvulus, which had historically been viewed as a rare finding. The presenting symptoms of gastric volvulus commonly mimic other, more benign newborn diagnoses, and thus can be difficult to diagnose. We present our patient as well as an article review of other cases to highlight the diverse presentations of gastric volvulus so this potentially devastating disease can be diagnosed quickly with prompt treatment initiation. PMID:27335912

  14. Sentence Imitation as a Tool in Identifying Expressive Morphosyntactic Difficulties in Children with Severe Speech Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeff-Gabriel, Belinda; Chiat, Shula; Dodd, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sentence imitation has been identified as a good indicator of children's language skills, with performance differentiating children with specific language impairment and showing relationships with other language measures. It has a number of advantages over other methods of assessment. The assessment of morphosyntax in children who have…

  15. Multispectral imaging burn wound tissue classification system: a comparison of test accuracies between several common machine learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squiers, John J.; Li, Weizhi; King, Darlene R.; Mo, Weirong; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Yang; Sellke, Eric W.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael; Thatcher, Jeffrey E.

    2016-03-01

    The clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons is currently the standard on which diagnostic and therapeutic decisionmaking regarding burn injuries is based. Multispectral imaging (MSI) has the potential to increase the accuracy of burn depth assessment and the intraoperative identification of viable wound bed during surgical debridement of burn injuries. A highly accurate classification model must be developed using machine-learning techniques in order to translate MSI data into clinically-relevant information. An animal burn model was developed to build an MSI training database and to study the burn tissue classification ability of several models trained via common machine-learning algorithms. The algorithms tested, from least to most complex, were: K-nearest neighbors (KNN), decision tree (DT), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), weighted linear discriminant analysis (W-LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), ensemble linear discriminant analysis (EN-LDA), ensemble K-nearest neighbors (EN-KNN), and ensemble decision tree (EN-DT). After the ground-truth database of six tissue types (healthy skin, wound bed, blood, hyperemia, partial injury, full injury) was generated by histopathological analysis, we used 10-fold cross validation to compare the algorithms' performances based on their accuracies in classifying data against the ground truth, and each algorithm was tested 100 times. The mean test accuracy of the algorithms were KNN 68.3%, DT 61.5%, LDA 70.5%, W-LDA 68.1%, QDA 68.9%, EN-LDA 56.8%, EN-KNN 49.7%, and EN-DT 36.5%. LDA had the highest test accuracy, reflecting the bias-variance tradeoff over the range of complexities inherent to the algorithms tested. Several algorithms were able to match the current standard in burn tissue classification, the clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons. These results will guide further development of an MSI burn tissue classification system. Given that there are few surgeons and facilities specializing in burn care

  16. Learner-Controlled Practice Difficulty in the Training of a Complex Task: Cognitive and Motivational Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Michael G.; Day, Eric Anthony; Wang, Xiaoqian; Schuelke, Matthew J.; Arsenault, Matthew L.; Harkrider, Lauren N.; Cooper, Olivia D.

    2013-01-01

    An inherent aspect of learner-controlled instructional environments is the ability of learners to affect the degree of difficulty faced during training. However, research has yet to examine how learner-controlled practice difficulty affects learning. Based on the notion of "desirable difficulties" (Bjork, 1994), this study examined the…

  17. The difficulties of using MACSYMA and the function of user aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genesereth, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    The size and complexity of the MACSYMA system may create learning difficulties for users. Deficiency in understanding the system leads to resource knowledge difficulties. A communication factor arises from a difference between the primitive objects, actions, and relations of a user's problem and those provided by the system. The functions of various user aids in handling each of these difficulties are discussed.

  18. Aiming ARROW at Learning Targets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Colin

    1987-01-01

    ARROW (Aural-Read-Respond-Oral-Written) is a multisensory teaching approach where children listen to their own voices on tape recorders. Advantages of the ARROW program as demonstrated at four sites in Blackford, Somerset (England), with elementary/secondary students presenting moderate to severe learning difficulties, reading/spelling/vocabulary…

  19. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia) Updated:Nov 15,2016 Excerpted and adapted ... stiffness (spasticity), fatigue and more. Let's Talk About Stroke Fact Sheets Our stroke fact sheets cover treatments, ...

  20. Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Education.

    Information is provided regarding major learning styles and other factors important to student learning. Several typically asked questions are presented regarding different learning styles (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic, and multisensory learning), associated considerations, determining individuals' learning styles, and appropriate…