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Sample records for severity systematic literature

  1. Backpacks. Several factors likely to influence design and usage: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Golriz, Samira; Walker, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to answer three questions: 1) what is the best backpack positioning on the spine; 2) what are the human effects of front packs and double packs compared to backpacks; and 3) what is best shoulder strap design. A systematic review of the literature using eight databases was carried out. Studies relevant to backpack design were retrieved. Two independent reviewers assessed the papers; a third party was used for consensus decisions. Descriptive characteristics, type of research design and level of evidence of papers were evaluated with a view to pooling data. The trials were also quality appraised using a modified Crombie tool. Thirty papers met the inclusion criteria. There were similarities in methods of measurement between some papers but subject's age group, tasks performed and backpack usages were so different between studies that it prevented data pooling and made it difficult to draw firm generic conclusions. Subsequent qualitative analysis shows that there are conflicting results on best backpack placement and shoulder strap design but front packs and double packs provide better posture than backpacks. Some recommendations for best practice design are made for children and adults based on elements of design and correct spinal placement.

  2. Frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Versluis, A; Knulst, A C; Kruizinga, A G; Michelsen, A; Houben, G F; Baumert, J L; van Os-Medendorp, H

    2015-02-01

    Food allergic patients have to deal with an avoidance diet. Confusing labelling terms or precautionary labels can result in misinterpretation and risk-taking behaviour. Even those patients that strictly adhere to their diet experience (sometimes severe) unexpected allergic reactions to food. The frequency, severity and causes of such reactions are unknown. The objective of this review was to describe the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food in food allergic patients aged > 12 years, in order to develop improved strategies to deal with their allergy. A systematic review was carried out by two researchers, in six electronic databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Medline, Psychinfo and Scopus). The search was performed with keywords relating to the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food. This resulted in 24 studies which met the inclusion criteria; 18 observational and six qualitative studies. This review shows that knowledge about the frequency of unexpected reactions is limited. Peanut, nuts, egg, fruit/vegetables and milk are the main causal foods. Severe reactions and even fatalities occur. Most reactions take place at home, but a significant number also take place when eating at friends' houses or in restaurants. Labelling issues, but also attitude and risky behaviour of patients can attribute to unexpected reactions. We conclude that prospective studies are needed to get more insight in the frequency, severity, quantity of unintended allergen ingested and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food, to be able to optimize strategies to support patients in dealing with their food allergy. Although the exact frequency is not known, unexpected reactions to food occur in a significant number of patients and can be severe. For clinical practice, this means that patient education and dietary instructions are necessary.

  3. Relevance of Non-communicable Comorbidities for the Development of the Severe Forms of Dengue: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Joao; George, Leyanna; Martinez, Eric; Lazaro, Adhara; Han, Wai Wai; Coelho, Giovanini E.; Runge Ranzinger, Silvia; Horstick, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Patients with dengue fever and comorbidities seem to be at higher risk of developing complications and/or severe dengue compared to healthier individuals. This study systematically reviews the evidence related to comorbidities and dengue. A systematic literature review was performed in five databases (EMBASE, PUBMED, Global Health, SciELO, Cochrane) and grey literature for full-text articles since its inceptions until October 10, 2015. A total of 230 articles were retrieved. Sixteen studies were analysed after applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seven case control studies and nine retrospective cohort studies showed that comorbidities may contribute to severe dengue, especially 1) cardiovascular disease, 2) stroke, 3) diabetes, 4) respiratory disease and 5) renal disease, as well as old age. However, due to heterogeneity in studies, the real estimate effect of comorbidities as modifiers of dengue severity could not be established. Further research in regions with high prevalence of dengue infection would contribute to a better understanding of the relevance of comorbidities in severe dengue, especially with a standardised protocol, for outcomes, specific comorbidities, study design—best using prospective designs—and sample sizes. PMID:26727113

  4. Is Asian ethnicity an independent risk factor for severe perineal trauma in childbirth? A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Janet; Davis, Deborah; Fry, Margaret; Brodie, Pat; Homer, Caroline S E

    2012-09-01

    To undertake a systematic review of the literature to determine whether Asian ethnicity is an independent risk factor for severe perineal trauma in childbirth. Ovid Medline, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases published in English were used to identify appropriate research articles from 2000 to 2010, using relevant terms in a variety of combinations. All articles included in this systematic review were assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) 'making sense of evidence' tools. Asian ethnicity does not appear to be a risk factor for severe perineal trauma for women living in Asia. In contrast, studies conducted in some Western countries have identified Asian ethnicity as a risk factor for severe perineal trauma. It is unknown why (in some situations) Asian women are more vulnerable to this birth complication. The lack of an international standard definition for the term Asian further undermines clarification of this issue. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to explore why Asian women are reported to be significantly at risk for severe perineal trauma in some Western countries. Current research on this topic is confusing and conflicting. Further research is urgently required to explore why Asian women are at risk for severe perineal trauma in some birth settings. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A systematic review of the literature for severity predictors in children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Emily Riehm; Fasano, Ross M; Levett, Paul R

    2017-02-02

    All patients with HbSS (SCA) share the same genetic mutation but the clinical phenotype is variable and difficult to predict early in life. A reliable severity predictor would be invaluable toward directing therapeutic decisions in those patients at highest risk of SCA complications. A search of PubMed, Cochrane Clinical Trials Register, and Scopus was performed to determine which SCA severity predictors have been validated in pediatric patients. The full text of 94 of the 590 references identified was reviewed based on the title/abstract. Fifty-four articles were included in the analysis. Alpha globin gene number was the most commonly studied severity predictor, followed by fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and reticulocyte count. Alpha thalassemia trait was protective against overt stroke and abnormal transcranial Doppler (TCD) in all but one study, but not frequency of painful crisis or silent cerebral infarct. Two thirds of the HbF studies reported beneficial effects with increasing HbF levels; however, increased HbF levels were not associated with lower hospitalization or stroke rates in others. The ability to predict SCA complications was mixed for all variables, except TCD and absolute reticulocyte count. More reliable predictors are urgently needed to guide therapeutic decisions in children with SCA.

  6. Reviewing the literature, how systematic is systematic?

    PubMed

    MacLure, Katie; Paudyal, Vibhu; Stewart, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Professor Archibald Cochrane, after whom the Cochrane Collaboration is named, was influential in promoting evidence-based clinical practice. He called for "relevant, valid research" to underpin all aspects of healthcare. Systematic reviews of the literature are regarded as a high quality source of cumulative evidence but it is unclear how truly systematic they, or other review articles, are or 'how systematic is systematic?' Today's evidence-based review industry is a burgeoning mix of specialist terminology, collaborations and foundations, databases, portals, handbooks, tools, criteria and training courses. Aim of the review This study aims to identify uses and types of reviews, key issues in planning, conducting, reporting and critiquing reviews, and factors which limit claims to be systematic. Method A rapid review of review articles published in IJCP. Results This rapid review identified 17 review articles published in IJCP between 2010 and 2015 inclusive. It explored the use of different types of review article, the variation and widely available range of guidelines, checklists and criteria which, through systematic application, aim to promote best practice. It also identified common pitfalls in endeavouring to conduct reviews of the literature systematically. Discussion Although a limited set of IJCP reviews were identified, there is clear evidence of the variation in adoption and application of systematic methods. The burgeoning evidence industry offers the tools and guidelines required to conduct systematic reviews, and other types of review, systematically. This rapid review was limited to the database of one journal over a period of 6 years. Although this review was conducted systematically, it is not presented as a systematic review. Conclusion As a research community we have yet to fully engage with readily available guidelines and tools which would help to avoid the common pitfalls. Therefore the question remains, of not just IJCP but

  7. Severe haematoperitoneum caused by ovarian bleeding after transvaginal oocyte retrieval: a retrospective analysis and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Kazem; Walch, Katharina; Promberger, Regina; Kurz, Christine; Tempfer, Clemens B; Ott, Johannes

    2014-12-01

    A case series of haematoperitoneum caused by ovarian bleeding after transvaginal oocyte retrieval (TVOR) is presented and all published cases summarized. In a retrospective case series, four patients with ovarian bleeding after TVOR were included. In addition, a pooled analysis of all published cases (n = 32) who underwent surgical intervention for severe haematoperitoneum caused by ovarian bleeding after TVOR was carried out. Main outcome measures were incidence, risk factors, course and intraoperative findings. In the pooled analysis, the incidence was 0.08%. The first sign of haematoperitoneum was evident in 33.3% within the first postoperative hour, and, cumulatively, in 93.3% within 24 h. The median time between TVOR and surgical intervention was 10 h. In four patients, the ovary could not be preserved, which was associated with a longer time interval between TVOR and the onset of symptoms (median 18 h versus 2.5 h; P = 0.004) as well as between TVOR and surgical intervention (median 21.5 h versus 8.5 h; 0.004). In conclusion, severe haematoperitoneum occurs in 0.08% after TVOR. Late-onset bleeding is common. A longer time interval between TVOR and surgical intervention might put a patient at risk of ovariectomy.

  8. The "Prediction of Alcohol Withdrawal Severity Scale" (PAWSS): systematic literature review and pilot study of a new scale for the prediction of complicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, José R; Sher, Yelizaveta; Ashouri, Judith F; Hills-Evans, Kelsey; Swendsen, Heavenly; Lolak, Sermsak; Miller, Anne Catherine

    2014-06-01

    To date, no screening tools for alcohol withdrawal syndromes (AWS) have been validated in the medically ill. Although several tools quantify the severity of AWS (e.g., Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol [CIWA]), none identify subjects at risk of AWS, thus missing the opportunity for timely prophylaxis. Moreover, there are no validated tools for the prediction of complicated (i.e., moderate to severe) AWS in the medically ill. Our goals were (1) to conduct a systematic review of the published literature on AWS to identify clinical factors associated with the development of AWS, (2) to use the identified factors to develop a tool for the prediction of alcohol withdrawal among patients at risk, and (3) to conduct a pilot study to assess the validity of the tool. For the creation of the Prediction of Alcohol Withdrawal Severity Scale (PAWSS), we conducted a systematic literature search using PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) guidelines for clinical factors associated with the development of AWS, using PubMed, PsychInfo, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Databases. Eligibility criteria included: (i) manuscripts dealing with human subjects, age 18 years or older, (ii) manuscripts directly addressing descriptions of AWS or its predisposing factors, including case reports, naturalistic case descriptions, and all types of clinical trials (e.g., randomized, single-blind, or open label studies), (iii) manuscripts describing characteristics of alcohol use disorder (AUD), and (iv) manuscripts dealing with animal data (which were considered only if they directly dealt with variables described in humans). Obtained data were used to develop the Prediction of Alcohol Withdrawal Severity Scale, in order to assist in the identification of patients at risk for complicated AWS. A pilot study was conducted to assess the new tool's psychometric qualities on patients admitted to a general inpatient medicine unit over a 2-week period, who

  9. Mountain Child: Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.

  10. Management of severe blunt hepatic injury in the era of computed tomography and transarterial embolization: A systematic review and critical appraisal of the literature.

    PubMed

    Melloul, Emmanuel; Denys, Alban; Demartines, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    During the last decade, the management of blunt hepatic injury has considerably changed. Three options are available as follows: nonoperative management (NOM), transarterial embolization (TAE), and surgery. We aimed to evaluate in a systematic review the current practice and outcomes in the management of Grade III to V blunt hepatic injury. The MEDLINE database was searched using PubMed to identify English-language citations published after 2000 using the key words blunt, hepatic injury, severe, and grade III to V in different combinations. Liver injury was graded according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma classification on computed tomography (CT). Primary outcome analyzed was success rate in intention to treat. Critical appraisal of the literature was performed using the validated National Institute for Health and Care Excellence "Quality Assessment for Case Series" system. Twelve articles were selected for critical appraisal (n = 4,946 patients). The median quality score of articles was 4 of 8 (range, 2-6). Overall, the median Injury Severity Score (ISS) at admission was 26 (range, 0.6-75). A median of 66% (range, 0-100%) of patients was managed with NOM, with a success rate of 94% (range, 86-100%). TAE was used in only 3% of cases (range, 0-72%) owing to contrast extravasation on CT with a success rate of 93% (range, 81-100%); however, 9% to 30% of patients required a laparotomy. Thirty-one percent (range, 17-100%) of patients were managed with surgery owing to hemodynamic instability in most cases, with 12% to 28% requiring secondary TAE to control recurrent hepatic bleeding. Mortality was 5% (range, 0-8%) after NOM and 51% (range, 30-68%) after surgery. NOM of Grade III to V blunt hepatic injury is the first treatment option to manage hemodynamically stable patients. TAE and surgery are considered in a highly selective group of patients with contrast extravasation on CT or shock at admission, respectively. Additional standardization of

  11. Systematic literature review and network meta-analysis in highly active relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis and rapidly evolving severe multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Huisman, Eline; Papadimitropoulou, Katerina; Jarrett, James; Bending, Matthew; Firth, Zoe; Allen, Felicity; Adlard, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, neurodegenerative autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system. Relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) is the most common clinical form of MS and affects ∼85% of cases at onset. Highly active (HA) and rapidly evolving severe (RES) RRMS are 2 forms of RRMS amenable to disease-modifying therapies (DMT). This study explored the efficacy of fingolimod relative to other DMTs for the treatment of HA and RES RRMS. Methods A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted to identify published randomised controlled trials in HA and RES RRMS. Identified evidence was vetted, and a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed to evaluate the relative efficacy of fingolimod versus dimethyl fumarate (DMF) in HA RRMS and versus natalizumab in RES RRMS. Results For HA RRMS, the SLR identified 2 studies with relevant patient subgroup data: 1 comparing fingolimod with placebo and the other comparing DMF with placebo. 3 studies were found for RES RRMS: 1 comparing fingolimod with placebo and 2 studies comparing natalizumab with placebo. NMA results in the HA population showed a favourable numerical trend of fingolimod versus DMF assessed for annualised relapse rate (ARR) and 3-month confirmed disability progression. For the RES population, the results identified an increase of ARR and 3-month confirmed disability progression for fingolimod versus natalizumab (not statistically significant). Sparse study data and the consequently high uncertainty around the estimates restricted our ability to demonstrate statistical significance in the studied subgroups. Conclusions Data limitations are apparent when conducting an informative indirect comparison for the HA and RES RRMS subgroups as the subgroups analyses were retrospective analyses of studies powered to indicate differences across entire study populations. Comparisons across treatments in HA or RES RRMS will be associated with high levels of uncertainty until new data are

  12. A systematic integrated literature review of systematic integrated literature reviews in nursing.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju

    2012-11-01

    As faculty members, we frequently find that first-year doctoral students in nursing are confused about how to conduct a systematic integrated literature review. This could be due to its vague definition and a lack of recent literature that provides directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review. This article aims to provide directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review by identifying the essential components of published literature reviews in nursing. To achieve this goal, the literature was searched by using the keywords nursing, systematic, and review in multiple databases. A total of 267 articles were selected and are included in this systematic integrated literature review. The articles were then sorted by study design and analyzed in six areas of interests. Finally, a practical guideline for conducting systematic integrated literature reviews is proposed based on the analysis of the literature.

  13. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  14. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  15. Clarifying the abstracts of systematic literature reviews*

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Background: There is a small body of research on improving the clarity of abstracts in general that is relevant to improving the clarity of abstracts of systematic reviews. Objectives: To summarize this earlier research and indicate its implications for writing the abstracts of systematic reviews. Method: Literature review with commentary on three main features affecting the clarity of abstracts: their language, structure, and typographical presentation. Conclusions: The abstracts of systematic reviews should be easier to read than the abstracts of medical research articles, as they are targeted at a wider audience. The aims, methods, results, and conclusions of systematic reviews need to be presented in a consistent way to help search and retrieval. The typographic detailing of the abstracts (type-sizes, spacing, and weights) should be planned to help, rather than confuse, the reader. PMID:11055300

  16. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M

    2014-10-01

    Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques.

  17. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. Objective This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. Method We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. Results We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Conclusions Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques. PMID:25125798

  18. Borderline intellectual functioning: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-12-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health problems. When adults with BIF were compared with the general population, they held lower-skilled jobs and earned less money. Although some risk factors (e.g., low birth weight) and preventive factors (e.g., education) were reported, they were not specific to BIF. The review finds that, despite the obvious everyday problems, BIF is almost invisible in the field of research. More research, societal discussion, and flexible support systems are needed.

  19. Tofacitinib versus Biologic Treatments in Moderate-to-Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Who Have Had an Inadequate Response to Nonbiologic DMARDs: Systematic Literature Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Robert A.; Gruben, David; Lukic, Tatjana; Makin, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as monotherapy and combined with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) versus biological DMARDs (bDMARDs) and other novel DMARDs for second-line moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients by means of a systematic literature review (SLR) and network meta-analysis (NMA). Methods. MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published between 1990 and March 2015. Efficacy data based on American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response criteria, improvements in the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) at 6 months, and discontinuation rates due to adverse events were analyzed by means of Bayesian NMAs. Results. 45 RCTs were identified, the majority of which demonstrated a low risk of bias. Tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily (BID) and 10 mg BID monotherapy exhibited comparable efficacy and discontinuation rates due to adverse events versus other monotherapies. Tofacitinib 5 mg BID and 10 mg BID + DMARDs or methotrexate (MTX) were mostly comparable to other combination therapies in terms of efficacy and discontinuation due to adverse events. Conclusion. In most cases, tofacitinib had similar efficacy and discontinuation rates due to adverse events compared to biologic DMARDs. PMID:28377787

  20. Vasculitis as an adverse event following immunization - Systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Bonetto, Caterina; Trotta, Francesco; Felicetti, Patrizia; Alarcón, Graciela S; Santuccio, Carmela; Bachtiar, Novilia Sjafri; Brauchli Pernus, Yolanda; Chandler, Rebecca; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Hadden, Robert D M; Kucuku, Merita; Ozen, Seza; Pahud, Barbara; Top, Karina; Varricchio, Frederick; Wise, Robert P; Zanoni, Giovanna; Živković, Saša; Bonhoeffer, Jan

    2016-12-12

    Several types of vasculitis have been observed and reported in temporal association with the administration of various vaccines. A systematic review of current evidence is lacking. This systematic literature review aimed to assess available evidence and current reporting practice of vasculitides as adverse events following immunization (AEFI). We reviewed the literature from 1st January 1994 to 30th June 2014. This review comprises randomized controlled trials, observational studies, case series, case reports, reviews and comments regardless of vaccine and target population. The initial search resulted in the identification of 6656 articles. Of these, 157 articles were assessed for eligibility and 75 studies were considered for analysis, including 6 retrospective/observational studies, 2 randomized controlled trials, 7 reviews, 11 case series, 46 case reports and 3 comments. Most of the larger, higher quality studies found no causal association between vaccination and subsequent development of vasculitis, including several studies on Kawasaki disease and Henoch-Schönlein purpura (IgA vasculitis). Smaller case series reported a few cases of vasculitis following BCG and vaccines against influenza and hepatitis. Only 24% of the articles reported using a case definition of vasculitis. Existing literature does not allow establishing a causative link between vaccination and vasculitides. Further investigations were strengthened by the use of standardized case definitions and methods for data collection, analysis and presentation to improve data comparability and interpretation of vasculitis cases following immunization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Personal Health Records: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Information and communication technology (ICT) has transformed the health care field worldwide. One of the main drivers of this change is the electronic health record (EHR). However, there are still open issues and challenges because the EHR usually reflects the partial view of a health care provider without the ability for patients to control or interact with their data. Furthermore, with the growth of mobile and ubiquitous computing, the number of records regarding personal health is increasing exponentially. This movement has been characterized as the Internet of Things (IoT), including the widespread development of wearable computing technology and assorted types of health-related sensors. This leads to the need for an integrated method of storing health-related data, defined as the personal health record (PHR), which could be used by health care providers and patients. This approach could combine EHRs with data gathered from sensors or other wearable computing devices. This unified view of patients’ health could be shared with providers, who may not only use previous health-related records but also expand them with data resulting from their interactions. Another PHR advantage is that patients can interact with their health data, making decisions that may positively affect their health. Objective This work aimed to explore the recent literature related to PHRs by defining the taxonomy and identifying challenges and open questions. In addition, this study specifically sought to identify data types, standards, profiles, goals, methods, functions, and architecture with regard to PHRs. Methods The method to achieve these objectives consists of using the systematic literature review approach, which is guided by research questions using the population, intervention, comparison, outcome, and context (PICOC) criteria. Results As a result, we reviewed more than 5000 scientific studies published in the last 10 years, selected the most significant approaches

  2. Personal Health Records: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Roehrs, Alex; da Costa, Cristiano André; Righi, Rodrigo da Rosa; de Oliveira, Kleinner Silva Farias

    2017-01-06

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has transformed the health care field worldwide. One of the main drivers of this change is the electronic health record (EHR). However, there are still open issues and challenges because the EHR usually reflects the partial view of a health care provider without the ability for patients to control or interact with their data. Furthermore, with the growth of mobile and ubiquitous computing, the number of records regarding personal health is increasing exponentially. This movement has been characterized as the Internet of Things (IoT), including the widespread development of wearable computing technology and assorted types of health-related sensors. This leads to the need for an integrated method of storing health-related data, defined as the personal health record (PHR), which could be used by health care providers and patients. This approach could combine EHRs with data gathered from sensors or other wearable computing devices. This unified view of patients' health could be shared with providers, who may not only use previous health-related records but also expand them with data resulting from their interactions. Another PHR advantage is that patients can interact with their health data, making decisions that may positively affect their health. This work aimed to explore the recent literature related to PHRs by defining the taxonomy and identifying challenges and open questions. In addition, this study specifically sought to identify data types, standards, profiles, goals, methods, functions, and architecture with regard to PHRs. The method to achieve these objectives consists of using the systematic literature review approach, which is guided by research questions using the population, intervention, comparison, outcome, and context (PICOC) criteria. As a result, we reviewed more than 5000 scientific studies published in the last 10 years, selected the most significant approaches, and thoroughly surveyed the health

  3. How to Conduct a Systematic Review: A Narrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Nusrat; Zeshan, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad A

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews are ranked very high in research and are considered the most valid form of medical evidence. They provide a complete summary of the current literature relevant to a research question and can be of immense use to medical professionals. Our goal with this paper is to conduct a narrative review of the literature about systematic reviews and outline the essential elements of a systematic review along with the limitations of such a review. PMID:27924252

  4. Searching for Grey Literature for Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-01-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…

  5. Searching for Grey Literature for Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-01-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…

  6. Searching for grey literature for systematic reviews: challenges and benefits.

    PubMed

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-09-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic databases. There are a number of publications that list sources for finding grey literature in systematic reviews. However, there is scant information about how searches for grey literature are executed and how it is included in the review process. This level of detail is important to ensure that reviews follow explicit methodology to be systematic, transparent and reproducible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed account of one systematic review team's experience in searching for grey literature and including it throughout the review. We provide a brief overview of grey literature before describing our search and review approach. We also discuss the benefits and challenges of including grey literature in our systematic review, as well as the strengths and limitations to our approach. Detailed information about incorporating grey literature in reviews is important in advancing methodology as review teams adapt and build upon the approaches described.

  7. [Classification of fibromyalgia. A systematic review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Belenguer, Rafael; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Siso, Antoni; Rivera, Javier

    2009-01-01

    To review the scientific literature concerning the classification of fibromyalgia (FM), including previous studies focusing on the gnosologic evaluation of FM, with the aim of proposing a classificatory hypothesis based on the current scientific evidence. Systematic review using a baseline MEDLINE search. Search terms included «fibromyalgia» and «classification». Additional articles were identified through a comprehensive manual search of the references of retrieved articles. This systematic review has identified, on the one hand, several classificatory proposals based on psychopathological aspects, and, on the other hand, the key role of associated diseases. Based on the scientific evidence currently available, the following FM subsets were defined: patients with no associated processes (type I FM), patients with associated rheumatic/autoimmune chronic diseases (type II FM), patients with severe psychiatric disorders (type III FM) and patients with simulated FM (type IV FM). Few studies have specifically analysed the classification of FM into subgroups with a more homogeneous clinical expression. Correct classification of patients with FM requires the integration of two key concepts (psychopathological evaluation and coexistence of comorbid processes), with an individual diagnostic evaluation by a multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Antihistamines and Birth Defects: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Rai, Ramona P.; Anderson, Jaynia A.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 10-15% of women reportedly take an antihistamine during pregnancy for the relief of nausea and vomiting, allergy and asthma symptoms, or indigestion. Antihistamines include histamine H1-receptor and H2-receptor antagonists. Areas covered This is a systematic evaluation of the peer-reviewed epidemiologic literature published through February 2014 on the association between prenatal exposure to antihistamines and birth defects. Papers addressing histamine H1- or H2-receptor antagonists are included. Papers addressing pyridoxine plus doxylamine (Bendectin in the United States, Debendox in the United Kingdom, Diclectin in Canada, Lenotan and Merbental in other countries) prior to the year 2001 were excluded post-hoc because of several previously published meta-analyses and commentaries on this medication. Expert opinion The literature on the safety of antihistamine use during pregnancy with respect to birth defects is generally reassuring though the positive findings from a few large studies warrant corroboration in other populations. The findings in the literature are considered in light of three critical methodological issues: (1) selection of appropriate study population; (2) ascertainment of antihistamine exposures; and (3) ascertainment of birth defects outcomes. Selected antihistamines have been very well-studied (e.g. loratadine); others, especially H2- receptor antagonists, require additional study before an assessment of safety with respect to birth defects risk could be made. PMID:25307228

  9. Creative Learning Environments in Education--A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Collier, Chris; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny; Howe, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic review of 210 pieces of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools, commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS). Despite the volume of academic literature in this field, the team of six reviewers found comparatively few empirical…

  10. Creative Learning Environments in Education--A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Collier, Chris; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny; Howe, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic review of 210 pieces of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools, commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS). Despite the volume of academic literature in this field, the team of six reviewers found comparatively few empirical…

  11. Systemic treatment of severe atopic eczema: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Schäkel, Knut; Schmitt, Natalie; Meurer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Systemic immunosuppressive agents are recommended for patients with atopic eczema in whom disease activity cannot be controlled adequately with topical treatments. Guidelines do not give clear advice which agents to prefer. We systematically reviewed clinical trials on systemic treatment for severe atopic eczema to provide evidence-based treatment recommendations. Standardized literature search, independent standardized assessment of eligibility and data abstraction was performed by 2 reviewers. Twenty-seven studies totalling 979 patients were included. Eleven studies consistently showed effectiveness of cyclosporine. Cyclosporine is recommended as first option for patients with atopic eczema refractory to conventional treatment. Evidence from randomized controlled trials also exists for interferon-? and azathioprine. Although frequently used in clinical practice, systemic glucocorticosteroids have not been assessed adequately in studies. Mycophenolate mofetile showed effectiveness in 2 small uncontrolled studies. Intravenous immunoglobulins and infliximab are not recommended based on published data.

  12. Fatigue following Acute Q-Fever: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Delsing, Corine E.; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Langendam, Miranda; Timen, Aura; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term fatigue with detrimental effects on daily functioning often occurs following acute Q-fever. Following the 2007–2010 Q-fever outbreak in the Netherlands with over 4000 notified cases, the emphasis on long-term consequences of Q-fever increased. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of all relevant available literature, and to identify knowledge gaps regarding the definition, diagnosis, background, description, aetiology, prevention, therapy, and prognosis, of fatigue following acute Q-fever. Design A systematic review was conducted through searching Pubmed, Embase, and PsycInfo for relevant literature up to 26th May 2015. References of included articles were hand searched for additional documents, and included articles were quality assessed. Results Fifty-seven articles were included and four documents classified as grey literature. The quality of most studies was low. The studies suggest that although most patients recover from fatigue within 6–12 months after acute Q-fever, approximately 20% remain chronically fatigued. Several names are used indicating fatigue following acute Q-fever, of which Q-fever fatigue syndrome (QFS) is most customary. Although QFS is described to occur frequently in many countries, a uniform definition is lacking. The studies report major health and work-related consequences, and is frequently accompanied by nonspecific complaints. There is no consensus with regard to aetiology, prevention, treatment, and prognosis. Conclusions Long-term fatigue following acute Q-fever, generally referred to as QFS, has major health-related consequences. However, information on aetiology, prevention, treatment, and prognosis of QFS is underrepresented in the international literature. In order to facilitate comparison of findings, and as platform for future studies, a uniform definition and diagnostic work-up and uniform measurement tools for QFS are proposed. PMID:27223465

  13. Neonatal testicular torsion: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Biplab; Murphy, Feilim Liam

    2011-10-01

    Neonatal testicular torsion (NTT) is rare and reported salvage rates vary widely both in their cited frequency and plausibility. The timing and necessity of surgery is controversial with different centers arguing for the conservative management of all cases while others argue for prompt exploration for all. Confusion also reigns over the need to fix the contralateral testis. In order to clarify the issue the authors reviewed the literature and found 18 case series of NTT, containing 268 operated cases suitable for analysis. This paper reviews the literature on NTT specifically regarding salvage rates and timing/necessity of surgery. Its primary aim is to produce an overall salvage rate in the operated group. Overall salvage rate was 8.96%, 24 testes. When operation is specified as an emergency, salvage may be as high as 21.7%. While salvage of a testis torted at birth is rare, it is reported. Early asynchronous torsion is also rare but reported. Worryingly, bilateral torsion can present with unilateral signs.Given these findings, we would suggest early surgery with fixation of the contralateral side.

  14. Systematic Instruction of the Severely Handicapped: Teaching Sequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E., Jr.; And Others

    Intended for teachers of severely handicapped students, the volume provides suggestions on systematic instruction based on individual assessment and curriculum development with sample detailed instructional sequences included. Explained in introductory chapters are the need for systematic instruction of the severely handicapped, major components…

  15. [Team work in nursing: systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Abreu, de Ludmila Ornellas; Munari, Denize Bouttelet; de Queiroz, Ana Lúcia Bezerra; Fernandes, Carla Natalina da Silva

    2005-01-01

    The comprehension of the real meaning of team is fundamental, and even necessary for a good and efficient quality in healthcare with, requiring collective involvement of the nursing team. The present article aims to identify and to analyze the national scientific production in Nursing area about team work over the period from 1992 to 2002. It is a literature review proceeded using seven nursing journals. Twenty-four articles concerning the subject were identified and analyzed, with major occurrence in the year of 1997. In the remaining years production is linear and less expressive regarding to publication by year. The issue most emphazised by authors as an estrategic tool and essential in team interaction, was communication.

  16. Occupant injury severity from lateral collisions: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Laberge-Nadeau, Claire; Bellavance, François; Messier, Stéphane; Vézina, Lyne; Pichette, Fernand

    2009-01-01

    Side impacts are a serious automotive injury problem; they represent about 30% of all fatalities for passenger vehicle occupants. This literature review focuses on occupant injuries resulting from real lateral collisions. It emphasizes the interaction between injury patterns and crash factors, taking into account type of injuries and their severity. It highlights what is known on the subject and suggests further studies. We reviewed papers identified by searches in two electronic databases for the 1996-2009 publication period, and in specific journals and conference proceedings. Studies on the Primary Direction of Force (PDOF) have revealed that fatal crashes occur most frequently when the PDOF is at 3 or 9 o'clock. The risk of serious injury is two to three times higher for the near-side occupant than for the far-side occupant. Head injuries predominate in oblique impacts and thoracic injuries in perpendicular ones. A few results are also reported on side airbag protection. This literature review presents an overall picture of the injuries caused by lateral collisions, though each of the papers or articles examined focuses mostly on some particular aspect of the problem. The incidence of specific injuries depends on the data source used. Very few population-based analyses of lateral collision injuries were found. New studies are needed to evaluate new protective devices (e.g., lateral airbags, inflatable curtains). Without interfering with their care duties, Emergency Medical Technicians could be systematically trained to observe the collision's specific characteristics and to report all their relevant observations to the emergency physicians to increase the likelihood of prompt diagnosis and proper care.

  17. Journalists and substance use: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Jasmine B; Saliba, Anthony J; Hodgins, Gene

    2016-01-01

    Journalists' exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs), high levels of job stress, and anecdotal reports within the industry seem to suggest that journalists are at greater risk than the general population to experience substance use disorders. The present systematic literature review (SLR) aims to provide a concise, comprehensive, and systematic review of the quantitative literature relating to journalists' experience of substance use. The systematic review method adopted within the present study was based on that prescribed by Fink in the 2010 book, Conducting systematic literature reviews: From the internet to paper, 3rd ed., which contains three main elements: sampling the literature, screening the literature, and extracting data. Alcohol consumption is the most widely studied substance in journalist samples and is discussed in relation to quantity, level of risk, and potential alcoholism. The review also considers journalists' use of substances, including cigarettes, cannabis, and other illicit substances. In particular, comparisons are made between journalistic roles and gender. The research is piecemeal in nature, in that more recent research does not build upon the research that has come before it. Much of what has been reported does not reflect the progress that has taken place in recent years within the alcohol consumption and substance use field in terms of theory, assessment, scale development, practice, and interventions with those who use or are addicted to various substances. This SLR raises a number of methodological and theoretical issues to be explored and addressed in future research.

  18. The Effectiveness of Intensive Interaction, A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Nick; Bodicoat, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive Interaction is an approach used for communicating with people with profound and multiple intellectual disabilities [PMID] or autism. It has gained increased recognition as a helpful technique, but the evidence has not been systematically reviewed. Method: Computerized and hand searches of the literature were conducted using…

  19. The Effectiveness of Intensive Interaction, A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Nick; Bodicoat, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive Interaction is an approach used for communicating with people with profound and multiple intellectual disabilities [PMID] or autism. It has gained increased recognition as a helpful technique, but the evidence has not been systematically reviewed. Method: Computerized and hand searches of the literature were conducted using…

  20. Natural disasters and suicidal behaviours: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Kõlves, Kairi; Kõlves, Keili E; De Leo, Diego

    2013-03-20

    Various consequences including suicidal behaviours can arise in the aftermath of natural disasters. The aim of the present review was to systematically analyse the existing literature on the potential impact of natural disasters on suicidal behaviours. A systematic search of English-language articles indexed in electronic databases was conducted. The current review covers 42 papers containing empirical analyses of the relationship between natural disasters and suicidal behaviours. In total, 19 papers analysed suicide mortality and 23 non-fatal suicidal behaviours. The effects of earthquakes on suicidal behaviours are the most frequently studied among natural disasters (n=20), followed by hurricanes (n=11). Further, there were four papers about tsunamis, three about floods, three about heat waves and drought, and one investigating the effects of multiple natural disasters. The studies show different directions in suicide mortality following natural disasters. Nevertheless, there seems to be a drop in non-fatal suicidal behaviours in the initial post-disaster period, which has been referred to as the 'honeymoon' phase. A delayed increase in suicidal behaviours has been reported in some studies. However, other factors increasing the risk of suicidal behaviours after natural disasters have been reported, such as previous and current mental health problems. Furthermore, contributing factors, such as economic conditions, should also be considered. The exclusion of non-English articles. In light of the various methodological limitations observed, there is a need for further studies using proper designs. Mental health and suicidal behaviours should continue to be monitored for several years after the disaster. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Child language interventions in public health: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    De Cesaro, Bruna Campos; Gurgel, Léia Gonçalves; Nunes, Gabriela Pisoni Canedo; Reppold, Caroline Tozzi

    2013-01-01

    Systematically review the literature on interventions in children's language in primary health care. One searched the electronic databases (January 1980 to March 2013) MEDLINE (accessed by PubMed), Scopus, Lilacs and Scielo. The search terms used were "child language", "primary health care", "randomized controlled trial" and "intervention studies" (in English, Portuguese and Spanish). There were included any randomized controlled trials that addressed the issues child language and primary health care. The analysis was based on the type of language intervention conducted in primary health care. Seven studies were included and used intervention strategies such as interactive video, guidance for parents and group therapy. Individuals of both genders were included in the seven studies. The age of the children participant in the samples of the articles included in this review ranged from zero to 11 years. These seven studies used approaches that included only parents, parents and children or just children. The mainly intervention in language on primary health care, used in randomized controlled trials, involved the use of interactional video. Several professionals, beyond speech and language therapist, been inserted in the language interventions on primary health care, demonstrating the importance of interdisciplinary work. None of the articles mentioned aspects related to hearing. There was scarcity of randomized controlled trials that address on language and public health, either in Brazil or internationally.

  2. TNF-alpha inhibitors in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. A case report and a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Marta; Tani, Chiara; Filice, Maria Elena; Carli, Linda; Delle Sedie, Andrea; Vagnani, Sabrina; Della Rossa, Alessandra; Baldini, Chiara; Bombardieri, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Joint involvement is a common manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and is described as a non-erosive mild synovitis. However some SLE patients may present a more severe joint involvement requiring aggressive therapy. We describe the case of a SLE patient with a severe arthritis unresponsive to methotrexate, successfully treated with anti-TNF-alpha drug as induction therapy and we report the results of a systematic literature review on the use of TNF-alpha inhibitors in SLE.

  3. Dengue disease surveillance: an updated systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Runge-Ranzinger, S; McCall, P J; Kroeger, A; Horstick, O

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To review the evidence for the application of tools for dengue outbreak prediction/detection and trend monitoring in passive and active disease surveillance systems in order to develop recommendations for endemic countries and identify important research needs. Methods This systematic literature review followed the protocol of a review from 2008, extending the systematic search from January 2007 to February 2013 on PubMed, EMBASE, CDSR, WHOLIS and Lilacs. Data reporting followed the PRISMA statement. The eligibility criteria comprised (i) population at risk of dengue, (ii) dengue disease surveillance, (iii) outcome of surveillance described and (iv) empirical data evaluated. The analysis classified studies based on the purpose of the surveillance programme. The main limitation of the review was expected publication bias. Results A total of 1116 papers were identified of which 36 articles were included in the review. Four cohort-based prospective studies calculated expansion factors demonstrating remarkable levels of underreporting in the surveillance systems. Several studies demonstrated that enhancement methods such as laboratory support, sentinel-based reporting and staff motivation contributed to improvements in dengue reporting. Additional improvements for passive surveillance systems are possible by incorporating simple data forms/entry/electronic-based reporting; defining clear system objectives; performing data analysis at the lowest possible level (e.g. district); seeking regular data feedback. Six studies showed that serotype changes were positively correlated with the number of reported cases or with dengue incidence, with lag times of up to 6 months. Three studies found that data on internet searches and event-based surveillance correlated well with the epidemic curve derived from surveillance data. Conclusions Passive surveillance providing the baseline for outbreak alert should be strengthened and appropriate threshold levels for outbreak

  4. Health economic analyses of psoriasis management: a systematic literature search.

    PubMed

    Gutknecht, Mandy; Krensel, Magdalene; Augustin, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    In the course of the chronic skin disease psoriasis, where a variety of treatment interventions is available, a strong growth of health economic studies comparing treatment costs and benefits can be noticed. The objective was to identify health economic evaluations of psoriasis treatments that have been published to date. Of particular interest were the mostly used analysis and outcome parameters, the compared treatments, and the question, if available health economic studies may be used to perform a meta-analysis of qualitative findings. A systematic literature search using PubMed Medline, Ovid Medline, and Cochrane Library was performed for articles, published and available until mid of January 2016. Among the key words were the terms "psoriasis" and "cost-effectiveness". The search resulted in 318 articles without duplicates. Thereof 60 health economic analyses in psoriasis management were identified. Most of these are cost-effectiveness evaluations (45). The clinical parameter PASI (Psoriasis Area Severity Index) is the most often used cost-effectiveness outcome (33) followed by the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) (6). In case of cost-utility analyses, QALYs (quality-adjusted life-years) were mostly generated with the help of EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) (12), which was partly based on PASI and DLQI values. The majority of health economic studies is focusing on the direct medical and non-medical costs without consideration of productivity losses. Almost 70 % of 60 publications were conducted in Europe. Overall, most considered systemic treatments were the biological agents etanercept (36), adalimumab (27), and infliximab (26) followed by ustekinumab (17) and phototherapy (incl. UV-B, PUVA/psoralen combined with UV-A) (14). Comparisons including only topical treatments mostly focused on vitamin D treatment (14), corticosteroids (13), and coal tar products (6) followed by dithranol (5) and tazarotene (4). Given the setting, compared

  5. [Dentists and National Socialism. Systematic Literature Review and Research Questions].

    PubMed

    Schwanke, Enno; Krischel, Matthis; Gross, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the rich literature on Nazi medicine in general, the connection between dentists and National Socialism is less well documented. Neither the elites of the field from this era nor those excluded from the profession are catalogued in a systematic manner. The aims of this contribution are to assemble and review the relevant literature and show how German dentistry organizations have handled this chapter of their professional history. Trends in the literature since the 1980s are examined and it is pointed out, which areas have received some attention and which have not yet been addressed. Thus, this contribution will serve as both the basis and the starting point for new research into the field.

  6. Systematic Review of the Literature on Pain in Patients with Polytrauma Including Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dobscha, Steven K.; Clark, Michael E.; Morasco, Benjamin J.; Freeman, Michele; Campbell, Rose; Helfand, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the literature addressing the assessment and management of pain in patients with polytraumatic injuries including traumatic brain injury (TBI) and blast-related headache, and to identify patient, clinician and systems factors associated with pain-related outcomes. Design Systematic review. Methods We conducted searches in MEDLINE of literature published from 1950 through July 2008. Due to a limited number of studies using controls or comparators, we included observational and rigorous qualitative studies. We systematically rated the quality of systematic reviews, cohort, and case-control design studies. Results One systematic review, 93 observational studies, and one qualitative research study met inclusion criteria. The literature search yielded no published studies that assessed measures of pain intensity or pain-related functional interference among patients with cognitive deficits due to TBI, that compared patients with blast-related headache with patients with other types of headache, or that assessed treatments for blast-related headache pain. Studies on the association between TBI severity and pain reported mixed findings. There was limited evidence that the following factors are associated with pain among TBI patients: severity, location, and multiplicity of injuries; insomnia; fatigue; depression; and post-traumatic stress disorder. Conclusions Very little evidence is currently available to guide pain assessment and treatment approaches in patients with polytrauma. Further research employing systematic observational as well as controlled intervention designs is clearly indicated. PMID:19818031

  7. Nurse faculty migration: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Benton, D C; González-Jurado, M A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V

    2013-06-01

    To undertake a systematic review of English and Spanish literature relating to nurse faculty migration. A systematic review of both published literature, using CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC and MEDLINE, and grey literature, using Google and Yahoo search engines, utilizing a defined search strategy with key terms, wild card strings and logical operators, was undertaken. An initial limitation of searching for material published in the last ten years was removed due to the poor yield of relevant papers. In total, 18 research-based studies were identified, retrieved and reviewed. Finally, the retrieved material was reviewed and augmented by a group of nurse faculty and migration experts, who offered comments and proposed additional grey literature. With increased globalization, the impact of mutual recognition agreements and associated modes of supply of services as well as those factors influencing clinical nurse migration was also considered. Studies on clinical nurse migration and general academic faculty provided some insights, but nursing faculty differ in a number of key ways and this needs to be considered when interpreting the results. Based on this systematic review, the paper concludes that nurse faculty migration is a neglected topic and one that warrants urgent investigation if health systems redesign and the associated scale-up of nurses are to be achieved. Particular gaps in knowledge relate to nurse faculty workforce planning, and understanding the dynamics and flows of faculty both across and within countries. It is unclear as to the extent to which our knowledge of push and pull factors relating to clinical nurse migration can be used in understanding nurse faculty migration. The current policy position of organizations such as the World Health Organization and individual governments to increase nursing numbers is incomplete without due consideration of faculty migration. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Methodologic Quality of Systematic Reviews Published in the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Literature: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Samargandi, Osama A; Hasan, Haroon; Thoma, Achilleas

    2016-01-01

    Well-conducted systematic reviews have a critical role in informing evidence-based decision-making in plastic surgery. The authors' objective was to assess the methodologic quality of systematic reviews in the plastic surgery literature. The authors systematically assessed all systematic reviews in 10 high-impact plastic surgery journals using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 2003 to 2013. These were evaluated for methodologic quality using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), a validated 11-point instrument. After removal of duplicates and screening titles and abstracts, 190 systematic reviews met eligibility criteria. The majority of systematic reviews were published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (n = 88). The most common domain covered was reconstruction (17.9 percent). Using AMSTAR, the median score was 4 (interquartile range, 2.25 to 6.00) on a scale of 1 to 11. No increase in AMSTAR score was observed with time (p = 0.18). Almost half of all systematic reviews (48.4 percent) included at least two independent data extractors, and less than one-third of them (15.3 percent) searched unpublished studies or provided a list of both included and excluded studies (14.8 percent). The methodologic quality of included primary studies was evaluated in 35.3 percent. Systematic reviews in plastic surgery demonstrated inadequate adherence to methodologic standards of quality, which raises concerns about validity. There has been an increase in the number of systematic reviews published in plastic surgery over the past decade, yet there has been no significant improvement observed in methodologic quality.

  9. Text mining applications in psychiatry: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Abbe, Adeline; Grouin, Cyril; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Falissard, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    The expansion of biomedical literature is creating the need for efficient tools to keep pace with increasing volumes of information. Text mining (TM) approaches are becoming essential to facilitate the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text. We reviewed the applications of TM in psychiatry, and explored its advantages and limitations. A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. In this review, 1103 papers were screened, and 38 were included as applications of TM in psychiatric research. Using TM and content analysis, we identified four major areas of application: (1) Psychopathology (i.e. observational studies focusing on mental illnesses) (2) the Patient perspective (i.e. patients' thoughts and opinions), (3) Medical records (i.e. safety issues, quality of care and description of treatments), and (4) Medical literature (i.e. identification of new scientific information in the literature). The information sources were qualitative studies, Internet postings, medical records and biomedical literature. Our work demonstrates that TM can contribute to complex research tasks in psychiatry. We discuss the benefits, limits, and further applications of this tool in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Systematic Instruction for Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Belva C.

    2012-01-01

    To ensure the best outcomes for students with moderate and severe disabilities, K-12 educators need to understand what constitutes good instructional practices and how to apply them in any classroom, with any curriculum. All the how-to guidance they need is in this accessible text on systematic instruction, a highly effective teaching approach…

  11. Systematic Instruction for Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Belva C.

    2012-01-01

    To ensure the best outcomes for students with moderate and severe disabilities, K-12 educators need to understand what constitutes good instructional practices and how to apply them in any classroom, with any curriculum. All the how-to guidance they need is in this accessible text on systematic instruction, a highly effective teaching approach…

  12. The systematic review of the literature: a tool for evidence-based policy.

    PubMed

    Houde, Susan Crocker

    2009-09-01

    The systematic review of the literature is a valuable tool for gerontological nurses to influence policy decisions. There are several organizations that provide helpful guidelines for the conduct of systematic reviews of the literature, including the Cochrane Collaboration, the Joanna Briggs Institute, and the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information Co-Ordinating Centre at the Institute of Education, University of London. Gerontological nurses who have a strong foundation in research methodology and the skills to synthesize scientific evidence for the purpose of promoting evidence-based policy have the potential to positively influence health care outcomes for older adults. For nurses to assume a leadership role in synthesizing scientific evidence for evidence-based policy development and refinement, nursing education will need to assume a more active role in teaching systematic review methodology. This article presents an overview of resources for con-ducting systematic reviews of the literature and discusses the use of the systematic review as a tool for evidence-based policy.

  13. [Exercise in haemodyalisis patients: a literature systematic review].

    PubMed

    Segura-Ortí, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Exercise as a therapeutic tool used in End-stage renal disease patients (ESRD) in hemodialysis (HD) is not routinately applied, as it occurs with cardiac or respiratory patients. Lack of awareness of research in this field may contribute to the current situation. Thus, the aims of this review are: 1) to systematically review the literature of exercise training on adult HD patients or patients at a pre-HD stage; 2) to show the evidence on the benefits of exercise for counteracting physiological, functional and psychological impairments found even in older ESRD patients; 3) to recommend requirements of future research in order to include exercise prescription in the HD patients treatment. The Data bases reviewed from 2005 to 2009 were: MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOHost), SportDicus (EBSCOHost), Academic Search Complete (EBSCOHost), Fuente Académica (EBSCOHost), MedicLatina (EBSCOHost), PEDro y PubMed. Additionally, references from identified articles, several reviews on ESRD and abstracts to Nephrology Congresses were also reviewed. Randomized Controlled Trials on aerobic, strength and combined programs for HD patients were selected. Data from the studies was compiled and Van Tulder criteria were used for methodological quality assessment. Metanalysis included 6 studies on aerobic exercise, 2 on strength exercise and 5 on combined exercise programs. 640 patients were included in 16 included studies. Effects on physical function, health related quality of life and other secondary measurements were summarized by the Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) Moderate evidence exists on positive effects of aerobic training on peak oxygen consumption at the graded exercise test (SMD 6.55; CI 95%: 4.31-8.78). There is high evidence on positive effects of strength training on health related quality of life (SMD 11.03; CI 95%: 5.63-16.43). Finally, moderate evidence exists on positive effects of combined exercise on peak oxygen consumption at the graded exercise test (SMD 5.57; CI

  14. Education of student nurses - A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Kathrine Håland; Christiansen, Sytter; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this review was to explore the literature on the connection between teaching strategies and nursing students' learning to clarify which teaching strategies provide optimal learning experiences and outcomes. Sources dating from January 2000 to November 2016 were systematically searched in PubMed, Cinahl, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest. A systematic literature review was conducted that included quantitative and qualitative studies. Quality assessment was made in accordance with Malterud's guidelines on qualitative research and Polit and Beck's guidelines on quantitative research. The analysis was guided by Patricia Benner's organisation of teaching as teaching and learning in classroom and skills laboratory and teaching and learning in clinical practice. In this review, 502 titles and abstracts were screened resulting in 45 read and included studies. Teaching in skills lab and simulation laboratories provides a positive learning environment and motivates student nurses to learn. It develops critical thinking and the student nurses' ability to take part in what Benner refers to as problem-based nursing. However, there is a need to transform teaching strategies so that student nurses do not experience classroom and clinical practice teaching as separate parts during their education. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Personal utility in genomic testing: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Jennefer N; Turbitt, Erin; Biesecker, Barbara B

    2017-06-01

    Researchers and clinicians refer to outcomes of genomic testing that extend beyond clinical utility as 'personal utility'. No systematic delineation of personal utility exists, making it challenging to appreciate its scope. Identifying empirical elements of personal utility reported in the literature offers an inventory that can be subsequently ranked for its relative value by those who have undergone genomic testing. A systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature reporting non-health-related outcomes of genomic testing from 1 January 2003 to 5 August 2016. Inclusion criteria specified English language, date of publication, and presence of empirical evidence. Identified outcomes were iteratively coded into unique domains. The search returned 551 abstracts from which 31 studies met the inclusion criteria. Study populations and type of genomic testing varied. Coding resulted in 15 distinct elements of personal utility, organized into three domains related to personal outcomes: affective, cognitive, and behavioral; and one domain related to social outcomes. The domains of personal utility may inform pre-test counseling by helping patients anticipate potential value of test results beyond clinical utility. Identified elements may also inform investigations into the prevalence and importance of personal utility to future test users.

  16. Health economic analyses in medical nutrition: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Stefan; Droeschel, Daniel; Nuijten, Mark; Chevrou-Séverac, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Medical nutrition is a specific nutrition category either covering specific dietary needs and/or nutrient deficiency in patients or feeding patients unable to eat normally. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill in Europe and in the US, with specific legislation and guidelines, and is provided to patients with special nutritional needs and indications for nutrition support. Therefore, medical nutrition products are delivered by medical prescription and supervised by health care professionals. Although these products have existed for more than 2 decades, health economic evidence of medical nutrition interventions is scarce. This research assesses the current published health economic evidence for medical nutrition by performing a systematic literature review related to health economic analysis of medical nutrition. A systematic literature search was done using standard literature databases, including PubMed, the Health Technology Assessment Database, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Additionally, a free web-based search was conducted using the same search terms utilized in the systematic database search. The clinical background and basis of the analysis, health economic design, and results were extracted from the papers finally selected. The Drummond checklist was used to validate the quality of health economic modeling studies and the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) checklist was used for published systematic reviews. Fifty-three papers were identified and obtained via PubMed, or directly via journal webpages for further assessment. Thirty-two papers were finally included in a thorough data extraction procedure, including those identified by a "gray literature search" utilizing the Google search engine and cross-reference searches. Results regarding content of the studies showed that malnutrition was the underlying clinical condition in most cases (32%). In addition, gastrointestinal disorders (eg

  17. Ciprofloxacin use in neonates: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kaguelidou, Florentia; Turner, Mark A; Choonara, Imti; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2011-02-01

    ciprofloxacin has no marketing authorization for use in neonates worldwide but it is prescribed for the treatment of neonatal life-threatening infections, mainly in developing countries and in Europe. Given the concerns about its toxicity in this population and the necessity for its use in specific clinical situations, we conducted a systematic review of the use of ciprofloxacin in neonates. we performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and bibliographies of relevant articles. We included all studies, regardless of design, that reported efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin for the treatment of any neonatal infectious condition. We excluded letters, editorials, preliminary reports, and abstracts. observational cohort studies, case reports, and descriptions of patient series account for all literature reviewed. Ciprofloxacin was administrated in neonates as a salvage therapy for sepsis due to multidrug-resistant strains or with signs of clinical deterioration under first-line antibiotic treatment. Initial administration was always intravenous with variable dosing schedule. Clinical response to treatment was estimated at 64% and 91% in 2 cohort studies, with a median of 83% in case series. Of the 14 case reports, 12 yielded positive clinical outcomes. No serious adverse events, particularly joint toxicity, were observed, although evaluation was predominantly clinical and follow-up limited to few months after the end of treatment. the current literature provides some information to support the use of ciprofloxacin in neonates. Additional high quality studies should be undertaken to provide reliable data on pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and long-term safety.

  18. Home care in Europe: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health and social services provided at home are becoming increasingly important. Hence, there is a need for information on home care in Europe. The objective of this literature review was to respond to this need by systematically describing what has been reported on home care in Europe in the scientific literature over the past decade. Methods A systematic literature search was performed for papers on home care published in English, using the following data bases: Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, and Social Care Online. Studies were only included if they complied with the definition of home care, were published between January 1998 and October 2009, and dealt with at least one of the 31 specified countries. Clinical interventions, instrument developments, local projects and reviews were excluded. The data extracted included: the characteristics of the study and aspects of home care 'policy & regulation', 'financing', 'organisation & service delivery', and 'clients & informal carers'. Results Seventy-four out of 5,133 potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria, providing information on 18 countries. Many focused on the characteristics of home care recipients and on the organisation of home care. Geographical inequalities, market forces, quality and integration of services were also among the issues frequently discussed. Conclusions Home care systems appeared to differ both between and within countries. The papers included, however, provided only a limited picture of home care. Many studies only focused on one aspect of the home care system and international comparative studies were rare. Furthermore, little information emerged on home care financing and on home care in general in Eastern Europe. This review clearly shows the need for more scientific publications on home care, especially studies comparing countries. A comprehensive and more complete insight into the

  19. 'Spin' in published biomedical literature: A methodological systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Kellia; Grundy, Quinn; Bero, Lisa

    2017-09-01

    In the scientific literature, spin refers to reporting practices that distort the interpretation of results and mislead readers so that results are viewed in a more favourable light. The presence of spin in biomedical research can negatively impact the development of further studies, clinical practice, and health policies. This systematic review aims to explore the nature and prevalence of spin in the biomedical literature. We searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and hand searched reference lists for all reports that included the measurement of spin in the biomedical literature for at least 1 outcome. Two independent coders extracted data on the characteristics of reports and their included studies and all spin-related outcomes. Results were grouped inductively into themes by spin-related outcome and are presented as a narrative synthesis. We used meta-analyses to analyse the association of spin with industry sponsorship of research. We included 35 reports, which investigated spin in clinical trials, observational studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. The nature of spin varied according to study design. The highest (but also greatest) variability in the prevalence of spin was present in trials. Some of the common practices used to spin results included detracting from statistically nonsignificant results and inappropriately using causal language. Source of funding was hypothesised by a few authors to be a factor associated with spin; however, results were inconclusive, possibly due to the heterogeneity of the included papers. Further research is needed to assess the impact of spin on readers' decision-making. Editors and peer reviewers should be familiar with the prevalence and manifestations of spin in their area of research in order to ensure accurate interpretation and dissemination of research.

  20. Home care in Europe: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Genet, Nadine; Boerma, Wienke Gw; Kringos, Dionne S; Bouman, Ans; Francke, Anneke L; Fagerström, Cecilia; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Greco, Cosetta; Devillé, Walter

    2011-08-30

    Health and social services provided at home are becoming increasingly important. Hence, there is a need for information on home care in Europe. The objective of this literature review was to respond to this need by systematically describing what has been reported on home care in Europe in the scientific literature over the past decade. A systematic literature search was performed for papers on home care published in English, using the following data bases: Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, and Social Care Online. Studies were only included if they complied with the definition of home care, were published between January 1998 and October 2009, and dealt with at least one of the 31 specified countries. Clinical interventions, instrument developments, local projects and reviews were excluded. The data extracted included: the characteristics of the study and aspects of home care 'policy & regulation', 'financing', 'organisation & service delivery', and 'clients & informal carers'. Seventy-four out of 5,133 potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria, providing information on 18 countries. Many focused on the characteristics of home care recipients and on the organisation of home care. Geographical inequalities, market forces, quality and integration of services were also among the issues frequently discussed. Home care systems appeared to differ both between and within countries. The papers included, however, provided only a limited picture of home care. Many studies only focused on one aspect of the home care system and international comparative studies were rare. Furthermore, little information emerged on home care financing and on home care in general in Eastern Europe. This review clearly shows the need for more scientific publications on home care, especially studies comparing countries. A comprehensive and more complete insight into the state of home care in Europe requires the

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of isolated right pulmonary agenesis using sonography alone: case study and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Meller, Cesar H; Morris, R Katie; Desai, Tarak; Kilby, Mark D

    2012-12-01

    Pulmonary agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly, estimated to complicate around 1 per 15,000 pregnancies, in which there is complete absence or severe hypoplasia of one or both lungs, frequently associated with other abnormalities. A prospective prenatal diagnosis is a challenge, and a substantial proportion of cases are diagnosed by fetal magnetic resonance imaging, postnatal computed tomography, or postmortem. Thus, there are only a few reported cases of prenatal diagnosis in the literature. We report the prenatal diagnosis of isolated right lung agenesis diagnosed with sonography alone at a relatively early gestational age. We also present a systematic review of the literature for this condition to accompany this case study.

  2. Varicella Skin Complications in Childhood: A Case Series and a Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bozzola, Elena; Bozzola, Mauro; Krzysztofiak, Andrzej; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; El Hachem, May; Villani, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Even if varicella is generally considered a harmless disease in childhood, severe complications may occur. We examined varicella skin complications (VSCs) in hospitalized immunologically healthy children, over a nine-year period. We also systematically analyzed previous reports to calculate the rate of VSCs in the literature. VSCs occurred in 16.4% of children hospitalized for varicella. This figure is in accordance with the literature, as the range of VSCs was 2.6%–41.2%. Skin complications may represent determinants of hospitalization and of other indirect costs in young children. PMID:27164095

  3. A systematic review of utilities in hand surgery literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu Kit; Alolabi, Noor; Kaur, Manraj Nirmal; Thoma, Achilleas

    2015-05-01

    To systematically review the literature to determine if utilities (a quantitative way to express patient preferences for health outcomes) have been measured in hand surgery studies. A literature search was conducted using Cochrane, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, MEDLINE, and CINAHL electronic databases (1966-2013). This search was supplemented by cited and manual reference searches and expert consultation to retrieve all relevant studies. Studies were selected by 2 independent reviewers if they pertained to hand or wrist surgery, were published in English, and measured utilities as an outcome. Descriptive data were extracted, including the hand surgery procedure investigated, study design, value of utilities, and methodology of utilities measurement. Eleven studies were included after reviewing 989 studies. Most hand conditions were associated with utilities less than 0.8. Utilities in the reviewed studies were measured using different methods and from different subjects. Three studies paradoxically mapped greater utilities for poorer heath states. Hand conditions cause impairment, as evidenced by their utilities. Measurement of utilities remains uncommon in hand surgery literature. Future studies should not only measure utilities but also do so with consistent and appropriate methodology to ensure that mapped values are valid and comparable. Economic/decision analysis III. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Health Service Impact from Mass Gatherings: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ranse, Jamie; Hutton, Alison; Keene, Toby; Lenson, Shane; Luther, Matt; Bost, Nerolie; Johnston, Amy N B; Crilly, Julia; Cannon, Matt; Jones, Nicole; Hayes, Courtney; Burke, Brandon

    2017-02-01

    During a mass gathering, some participants may receive health care for injuries or illnesses that occur during the event. In-event first responders provide initial assessment and management at the event. However, when further definitive care is required, municipal ambulance services provide additional assessment, treatment, and transport of participants to acute care settings, such as hospitals. The impact on both ambulance services and hospitals from mass-gathering events is the focus of this literature review. Aim This literature review aimed to develop an understanding of the impact of mass gatherings on local health services, specifically pertaining to in-event and external health services. This research used a systematic literature review methodology. Electronic databases were searched to find articles related to the aim of the review. Articles focused on mass-gathering health, provision of in-event health services, ambulance service transportation, and hospital utilization. Twenty-four studies were identified for inclusion in this review. These studies were all case-study-based and retrospective in design. The majority of studies (n=23) provided details of in-event first responder services. There was variation noted in reporting of the number and type of in-event health professional services at mass gatherings. All articles reported that patients were transported to hospital by the ambulance service. Only nine articles reported on patients presenting to hospital. However, details pertaining to the impact on ambulance and hospital services were not reported. There is minimal research focusing on the impact of mass gatherings on in-event and external health services, such as ambulance services and hospitals. A recommendation for future mass-gathering research and evaluation is to link patient-level data from in-event mass gatherings to external health services. This type of study design would provide information regarding the impact on health services from a

  5. Knowledge management in health: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Elyrose Sousa Brito; Nagliate, Patricia; Furlan, Claudia Elisangela Bis; Rocha, Kerson; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge has been used as a resource for intelligent and effective action planning in organizations. Interest in research on knowledge management processes has intensified in different areas. A systematic literature review was accomplished, based on the question: what are the contributions of Brazilian and international journal publications on knowledge management in health? The sample totaled 32 items that complied with the inclusion criteria. The results showed that 78% of journals that published on the theme are international, 77% of researchers work in higher education and 65% have a Ph.D. The texts gave rise to five thematic categories, mainly: development of knowledge management systems in health (37.5%), discussion of knowledge management application in health (28.1%) and nurses' function in knowledge management (18.7%).

  6. Caffeine challenge test and panic disorder: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Vilarim, Marina Machado; Rocha Araujo, Daniele Marano; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2011-08-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine the results of studies that have investigated the induction of panic attacks and/or the anxiogenic effect of the caffeine challenge test in patients with panic disorder. The literature search was performed in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The words used for the search were caffeine, caffeine challenge test, panic disorder, panic attacks and anxiety disorder. In total, we selected eight randomized, double-blind studies where caffeine was administered orally, and none of them controlled for confounding factors in the analysis. The percentage of loss during follow-up ranged between 14.3% and 73.1%. The eight studies all showed a positive association between caffeine and anxiogenic effects and/or panic disorder.

  7. Animal-Assisted Intervention for trauma: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Haire, Marguerite E; Guérin, Noémie A; Kirkham, Alison C

    2015-01-01

    Animals have a long history of inclusion in psychiatric treatment. There has been a recent growth in the empirical study of this practice, known as Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI). We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on AAI for trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ten studies qualified for inclusion, including six peer-reviewed journal articles and four unpublished theses. Participants were predominantly survivors of child abuse, in addition to military veterans. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. The most common animal species were dogs and horses. The most prevalent outcomes were reduced depression, PTSD symptoms, and anxiety. There was a low level of methodological rigor in most studies, indicating the preliminary nature of this area of investigation. We conclude that AAI may provide promise as a complementary treatment option for trauma, but that further research is essential to establish feasibility, efficacy, and manualizable protocols.

  8. Animal-Assisted Intervention for trauma: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.; Guérin, Noémie A.; Kirkham, Alison C.

    2015-01-01

    Animals have a long history of inclusion in psychiatric treatment. There has been a recent growth in the empirical study of this practice, known as Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI). We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on AAI for trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ten studies qualified for inclusion, including six peer-reviewed journal articles and four unpublished theses. Participants were predominantly survivors of child abuse, in addition to military veterans. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. The most common animal species were dogs and horses. The most prevalent outcomes were reduced depression, PTSD symptoms, and anxiety. There was a low level of methodological rigor in most studies, indicating the preliminary nature of this area of investigation. We conclude that AAI may provide promise as a complementary treatment option for trauma, but that further research is essential to establish feasibility, efficacy, and manualizable protocols. PMID:26300817

  9. Anti-bullying interventions in schools: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jorge Luiz da; Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio de; Mello, Flávia Carvalho Malta de; Andrade, Luciane Sá de; Bazon, Marina Rezende; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a systematic literature review addressing rigorously planned and assessed interventions intended to reduce school bullying. The search for papers was performed in four databases (Lilacs, Psycinfo, Scielo and Web of Science) and guided by the question: What are the interventions used to reduce bullying in schools? Only case-control studies specifically focusing on school bullying without a time frame were included. The methodological quality of investigations was assessed using the SIGN checklist. A total of 18 papers composed the corpus of analysis and all were considered to have high methodological quality. The interventions conducted in the revised studies were divided into four categories: multi-component or whole-school, social skills training, curricular, and computerized. The review synthesizes knowledge that can be used to contemplate practices and intervention programs in the education and health fields with a multidisciplinary nature.

  10. Treatment of holistic suffering in cancer: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Best, Megan; Aldridge, Lynley; Butow, Phyllis; Olver, Ian; Price, Melanie A; Webster, Fleur

    2015-12-01

    Holistic suffering is a debilitating problem for cancer patients. Although many treatments have been suggested for its alleviation, they have not been compared for effectiveness. This literature review seeks to identify what interventions are effective in treatment of holistic suffering of cancer patients. A systematic review was conducted to identify and evaluate studies of interventions for holistic suffering in adult cancer patients. Search terms were generated iteratively from the literature. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and PsycINFO databases were searched for the years 1992-2015. Included studies were peer-reviewed, English language reports of either a controlled trial or a randomised controlled trial focusing on therapies aimed at relieving suffering in adult cancer patients. Articles were excluded if focused predominantly on spiritual or existential issues or concerns not leading to suffering. Studies were graded for quality using the QualSyst quantitative checklist. Levels of evidence were ascertained by completing the National Health and Medical Research Council criteria. Results are reported according to AMSTAR guidelines. The studies represented seven intervention types. Meaning-centred, hope-centred and stress-reduction interventions were found to be effective. Results of both psycho-educational and spiritual interventions in improving spiritual well-being were mixed. Supportive-expressive interventions - with the exception of forgiveness therapy - were not efficacious. There was little or no evidence for the efficacy of creative and healing arts and other assessed interventions such as animal therapy and haptotherapy. This systematic review found that spiritual well-being, meaning, hope and benefit finding can be positively impacted by a variety of treatment modalities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Zoonoses in Veterinary Students: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Antonio; Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; Tatay-Dualde, Juan; Paterna, Ana; de la Fe, Christian; Gómez-Martín, Ángel; Corrales, Juan C.; Contreras, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background Veterinary students face diverse potential sources of zoonotic pathogens since the first years of their academic degree. Such sources include different animal species and pathologic materials which are used at university facilities as well as commercial clinics, farms and other external facilities. Objectives The present study utilizes a systematic review of the literature to identify zoonoses described in veterinary students. Data sources Web of Science and PubMed. Results Of the 1,254 titles produced by the bibliographic search, 62 were included in this review. Whereas 28 of these articles (45.2%) described individual cases or outbreaks, the remaining 34 (54.8%) reported serological results. The zoonotic etiological agents described were bacteria, in 39 studies (62.9%), parasites, in 12 works (19.4%), virus, in 9 studies (14.5%) and fungi, in 2 (3.2%) of the selected articles. The selected literature included references from 24 different countries and covered the time period of the last 55 years. Limitations The fact that common cases of disease or cases of little clinical importance without collective repercussions are not usually published in peer-reviewed journals limits the possibility to reach conclusions from a quantitative point of view. Furthermore, most of the selected works (66.1%) refer to European or North American countries, and thus, the number of cases due to pathogens which could appear more frequently in non-occidental countries might be underestimated. Conclusions/implications The results of the present systematic review highlight the need of including training in zoonotic diseases since the first years of Veterinary Science degrees, especially focusing on biosecurity measures (hygienic measures and the utilization of the personal protective equipment), as a way of protecting students, and on monitoring programs, so as to adequately advise affected students or students suspicious of enduring zoonoses. PMID:28052113

  12. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This

  13. Zoonoses in Veterinary Students: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Antonio; Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; Tatay-Dualde, Juan; Paterna, Ana; de la Fe, Christian; Gómez-Martín, Ángel; Corrales, Juan C; Contreras, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary students face diverse potential sources of zoonotic pathogens since the first years of their academic degree. Such sources include different animal species and pathologic materials which are used at university facilities as well as commercial clinics, farms and other external facilities. The present study utilizes a systematic review of the literature to identify zoonoses described in veterinary students. Web of Science and PubMed. Of the 1,254 titles produced by the bibliographic search, 62 were included in this review. Whereas 28 of these articles (45.2%) described individual cases or outbreaks, the remaining 34 (54.8%) reported serological results. The zoonotic etiological agents described were bacteria, in 39 studies (62.9%), parasites, in 12 works (19.4%), virus, in 9 studies (14.5%) and fungi, in 2 (3.2%) of the selected articles. The selected literature included references from 24 different countries and covered the time period of the last 55 years. The fact that common cases of disease or cases of little clinical importance without collective repercussions are not usually published in peer-reviewed journals limits the possibility to reach conclusions from a quantitative point of view. Furthermore, most of the selected works (66.1%) refer to European or North American countries, and thus, the number of cases due to pathogens which could appear more frequently in non-occidental countries might be underestimated. The results of the present systematic review highlight the need of including training in zoonotic diseases since the first years of Veterinary Science degrees, especially focusing on biosecurity measures (hygienic measures and the utilization of the personal protective equipment), as a way of protecting students, and on monitoring programs, so as to adequately advise affected students or students suspicious of enduring zoonoses.

  14. Children Reading to Dogs: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sophie Susannah; Gee, Nancy R.; Mills, Daniel Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in the value of human-animal interactions (HAI) to human mental and physical health the quality of the evidence on which postulated benefits from animals to human psychological health are based is often unclear. To date there exist no systematic reviews on the effects of HAI in educational settings specifically focussing on the perceived benefits to children of reading to dogs. With rising popularity and implementation of these programmes in schools, it is essential that the evidence base exploring the pedagogic value of these initiatives is well documented. Methods Using PRISMA guidelines we systematically investigated the literature reporting the pedagogic effects of reading to dogs. Because research in this area is in the early stages of scientific enquiry we adopted broad inclusion criteria, accepting all reports which discussed measurable effects related to the topic that were written in English. Multiple online databases were searched during January-March 2015; grey literature searches were also conducted. The search results which met the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and discussed, in relation to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine levels of evidence; 27 papers were classified as Level 5, 13 as Level 4, 7 as Level 2c and 1 as Level 2b. Conclusion The evidence suggests that reading to a dog may have a beneficial effect on a number of behavioural processes which contribute to a positive effect on the environment in which reading is practiced, leading to improved reading performance. However, the evidence base on which these inferences are made is of low quality. There is a clear need for the use of higher quality research methodologies and the inclusion of appropriate controls in order to draw causal inferences on whether or how reading to dogs may benefit children’s reading practices. The mechanisms for any effect remain a matter of conjecture. PMID:26901412

  15. Children Reading to Dogs: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sophie Susannah; Gee, Nancy R; Mills, Daniel Simon

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the value of human-animal interactions (HAI) to human mental and physical health the quality of the evidence on which postulated benefits from animals to human psychological health are based is often unclear. To date there exist no systematic reviews on the effects of HAI in educational settings specifically focussing on the perceived benefits to children of reading to dogs. With rising popularity and implementation of these programmes in schools, it is essential that the evidence base exploring the pedagogic value of these initiatives is well documented. Using PRISMA guidelines we systematically investigated the literature reporting the pedagogic effects of reading to dogs. Because research in this area is in the early stages of scientific enquiry we adopted broad inclusion criteria, accepting all reports which discussed measurable effects related to the topic that were written in English. Multiple online databases were searched during January-March 2015; grey literature searches were also conducted. The search results which met the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and discussed, in relation to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine levels of evidence; 27 papers were classified as Level 5, 13 as Level 4, 7 as Level 2c and 1 as Level 2b. The evidence suggests that reading to a dog may have a beneficial effect on a number of behavioural processes which contribute to a positive effect on the environment in which reading is practiced, leading to improved reading performance. However, the evidence base on which these inferences are made is of low quality. There is a clear need for the use of higher quality research methodologies and the inclusion of appropriate controls in order to draw causal inferences on whether or how reading to dogs may benefit children's reading practices. The mechanisms for any effect remain a matter of conjecture.

  16. [Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Silva, Bianca Del Ponte da; Anselmi, Luciana; Schmidt, Vera; Santos, Iná S

    2015-04-01

    This aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review on the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. The systematic multiple-stage literature search in PubMed, LILACS, BIREME, and PsycINFO was limited to research in human subjects and published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. A total of 373 references were retrieved. Of these, only five met the study's objectives and were kept in the review. Most of the studies employed a longitudinal design, were conducted in developed countries, and were published in the last five years. Only one study found a positive association. Studies on caffeine consumption during pregnancy and ADHD are scarce, with conflicting results and several methodological difficulties such as lack of standardized outcome measures.

  17. Definition of compassion in healthcare: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Perez-Bret, Encarnación; Altisent, Rogelio; Rocafort, Javier

    2016-12-01

    To reflect on the definition of compassion and analyse the concepts encompassed by the term. A large number of authors have defined compassion, with certain nuances that differ from case to case. This raises the need for specificity in the definition of the term. First, a systematic search was conducted of scientific databases. Second, a selection of experts were consulted and a request made to them for specific articles. Third, the snowball method was used. The keywords used in the literature search were 'compassion' and 'empathy', a MeSH term given for compassion. There are terms, such as self-compassion, compassion meditation, compassion fatigue and mindfulness, which, owing to their specific nature, were not included, because this study deals with the general aspects of compassion. The systematic search found 104 articles, of which 6 articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The eight experts provided a total of 14 references, of which seven articles met the inclusion criteria. Finally, 15 references were identified with the snowball method (n=28). Compassion originates as an empathic response to suffering, as a rational process which pursues patients' wellbeing, through specific, ethical actions directed at finding a solution to their suffering. We therefore define the term compassion to mean the sensitivity shown in order to understand another person's suffering, combined with a willingness to help and to promote the wellbeing of that person, in order to find a solution to their situation. This should be a duty in healthcare professionals' daily work.

  18. Economic Burden of Obesity: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tremmel, Maximilian; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Nilsson, Peter M; Saha, Sanjib

    2017-04-19

    Background: The rising prevalence of obesity represents an important public health issue. An assessment of its costs may be useful in providing recommendations for policy and decision makers. This systematic review aimed to assess the economic burden of obesity and to identify, measure and describe the different obesity-related diseases included in the selected studies. Methods: A systematic literature search of studies in the English language was carried out in Medline (PubMed) and Web of Science databases to select cost-of-illness studies calculating the cost of obesity in a study population aged ≥18 years with obesity, as defined by a body mass index of ≥30 kg/m², for the whole selected country. The time frame for the analysis was January 2011 to September 2016. Results: The included twenty three studies reported a substantial economic burden of obesity in both developed and developing countries. There was considerable heterogeneity in methodological approaches, target populations, study time frames, and perspectives. This prevents an informative comparison between most of the studies. Specifically, there was great variety in the included obesity-related diseases and complications among the studies. Conclusions: There is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent obesity in order to save societal resources. Moreover, international consensus is required on standardized methods to calculate the cost of obesity to improve homogeneity and comparability. This aspect should also be considered when including obesity-related diseases.

  19. Economic Burden of Obesity: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tremmel, Maximilian; Gerdtham, Ulf-G.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Saha, Sanjib

    2017-01-01

    Background: The rising prevalence of obesity represents an important public health issue. An assessment of its costs may be useful in providing recommendations for policy and decision makers. This systematic review aimed to assess the economic burden of obesity and to identify, measure and describe the different obesity-related diseases included in the selected studies. Methods: A systematic literature search of studies in the English language was carried out in Medline (PubMed) and Web of Science databases to select cost-of-illness studies calculating the cost of obesity in a study population aged ≥18 years with obesity, as defined by a body mass index of ≥30 kg/m², for the whole selected country. The time frame for the analysis was January 2011 to September 2016. Results: The included twenty three studies reported a substantial economic burden of obesity in both developed and developing countries. There was considerable heterogeneity in methodological approaches, target populations, study time frames, and perspectives. This prevents an informative comparison between most of the studies. Specifically, there was great variety in the included obesity-related diseases and complications among the studies. Conclusions: There is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent obesity in order to save societal resources. Moreover, international consensus is required on standardized methods to calculate the cost of obesity to improve homogeneity and comparability. This aspect should also be considered when including obesity-related diseases. PMID:28422077

  20. Readability of Internet Information on Hearing: Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Thorén, Elisabet Sundewall

    2015-09-01

    This systematic literature review asks the following question: “ What is the readability of Internet information on hearing that people with hearing impairment and their significant others can access in the context of their hearing care?” Searches were completed in three databases: CINAHL, PubMed, and Scopus. Seventy-eight records were identified and systematically screened for eligibility: 8 records were included that contained data on the readability of Internet information on hearing that people with hear ing impairment and their significant others can access in the context of their hearing care. Records reported mean readability levels from 9 to over 14. In other words, people with hearing impairment and their significant others need 9 to 14 years of education to read and understand Internet information on hearing that they access in the context of their hearing care. The poor readability of Internet information on hearing has been well documented; it is time to focus on valid and sustainable initiatives that address this problem.

  1. Occupational therapy and return to work: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this review study was to gather evidence on the effectiveness in terms of return to work (RTW) of occupational therapy interventions (OTIs) in rehabilitation patients with non-congenital disorders. A secondary aim was to be able to select the most efficient OTI. Methods A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed papers was conducted using electronic databases (Cinahl, Cochrane Library, Ebsco, Medline (Pubmed), and PsycInfo). The search focussed on randomised controlled trials and cohort studies published in English from 1980 until September 2010. Scientific validity of the studies was assessed. Results Starting from 1532 papers with pertinent titles, six studies met the quality criteria. Results show systematic reviewing of OTIs on RTW was challenging due to varying populations, different outcome measures, and poor descriptions of methodology. There is evidence that OTIs as part of rehabilitation programs, increase RTW rates, although the methodological evidence of most studies is weak. Conclusions Analysis of the selected papers indicated that OTIs positively influence RTW; two studies described precisely what the content of their OTI was. In order to identify the added value of OTIs on RTW, studies with well-defined OT intervention protocols are necessary. PMID:21810228

  2. Spiritually and Religiously Integrated Group Psychotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We systematically reviewed the research literature on spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy to answer the following three questions: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group psychotherapy; and, third, what is the outcome of the group psychotherapies? We searched in two databases: PsycINFO and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and checklists from standardized assessment tools were applied to the research literature. Qualitative and quantitative papers were included. In total, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded. PMID:24288557

  3. The economic impact of gout: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Trieste, Leopoldo; Palla, Ilaria; Fusco, Francesco; Tani, Chiara; Baldini, Chiara; Mosca, Marta; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This article performs a systematic literature review of the last decade studies assessing the economic impact of gout. The literature review confirms the fact that gout reduces productivity and increases annual total healthcare costs, since care of gout absorbs relevant amounts of healthcare resources. One important aspect to be considered is represented by prevention and monitoring of the disease after the diagnosis, as gout is sometimes underestimated by patients and this leads to a reduced adherence to follow up and to treatment with consequences on the disease course and outcome. In fact, the lack of prevention and the scarce adherence to monitoring increase the number and costs of hospitalisation. Prevention, monitoring the level of sUA and using a urate-lowering therapy appear to have a central role for controlling gout and reducing hospitalisation, with positive advantages in terms of healthcare costs and healthcare utilisation. One limitation on the analysis of gout related costs, however, resides in the fact that the majority of the retrieved studies are retrospective and the definition of the economic impact of the disease is made difficult by differences in inclusion criteria, costs assessment, use of gout-related healthcare resources.

  4. Sexting prevalence and correlates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David J; Mellor, David J

    2014-02-01

    Despite considerable controversy and speculation regarding sexting behaviour and its associated risks, to date there has been no integration and analysis of empirical literature on this topic. To collect and synthesise findings of the prevalence of sexting, its correlates, and the context in which it occurs, a systematic search of databases was conducted. Thirty-one studies, reporting on sexting prevalence and a diverse range of related variables, met inclusion criteria. The estimated mean prevalence weighted by sample size was calculated, with trends indicating sexting is more prevalent amongst adults than adolescents, older age is predictive of sexting for adolescents but not adults, and more individuals report receiving sexts than sending them. The correlates of sexting behaviour were grouped in terms of demographic variables, sexual and sexual risk behaviours, attitudes towards sexting, perceived outcomes of sexting, motivations for sexting, mental health and well-being variables, and attachment dimensions. Findings are discussed in terms of the trends indicated by the data, which provided substantiation that sexting behaviour is associated with numerous behavioural, psychological, and social factors. Limitations of the current research literature and future directions are also presented.

  5. [Vital prognosis in advanced cancer patients: a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Tavares, Teresa; Gonçalves, Edna

    2013-01-01

    Prognostication is a critical medical task for the adequacy of treatment and management of priorities and expectations of patients and families. In 2005, the European Association of Palliative Care (EAPC) published recommendations on the formulation of vital prognosis in advanced cancer patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the literature subsequent to this review and to update the presented recommendations. Using the same strategy of the EAPC group, we performed a systematic literature search in the electronic databases PubMed and Scopus, which included original studies in adults with advanced cancer, without tumor-directed treatment, with a median survival of less than 90 days. The articles were analyzed and classified according to the level of evidence by two independent reviewers. The 41 articles analyzed allowed to keep grade A recommendations for clinical estimation of survival and Palliative Prognostic score and now also for Palliative Prognostic Index, performance status, dyspnea, lymphopenia and lactate dehydrogenase. Recommendations regarding the use of C-reactive protein, leukocytosis, azotemia, hypoalbuminemia and male gender as predictors reached grade B. To formulate the vital prognosis and to communicate it properly to the patient and family are core competencies of physicians, particularly of those who deal with end of life patients. The clinical impression combined with scientific evidence allows us to estimate more accurately the survival, allowing prioritizing and managing more appropriately the existing resources.

  6. Management and leadership competence in hospitals: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pihlainen, Vuokko; Kivinen, Tuula; Lammintakanen, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of management and leadership competence of health-care leaders and managers, especially in the hospital environment. Health-care leaders and managers in this study were both nursing and physician managers. Competence was assessed by evaluating the knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities that enable management and leadership tasks. Design/methodology/approach - A systematic literature review was performed to find articles that identify and describe the characteristics of management and leadership competence. Searches of electronic databases were conducted using set criteria for article selection. Altogether, 13 papers underwent an inductive content analysis. Findings - The characteristics of management and leadership competence were categorized into the following groups: health-care-context-related, operational and general. Research limitations/implications - One limitation of the study is that only 13 articles were found in the literature regarding the characteristics of management and leadership competence. However, the search terms were relevant, and the search process was endorsed by an information specialist. The study findings imply the need to shift away from the individual approach to leadership and management competence. Management and leadership need to be assessed more frequently from a holistic perspective, and not merely on the basis of position in the organizational hierarchy or of profession in health care. Originality/value - The authors' evaluation of the characteristics of management and leadership competence without a concentrated profession-based approach is original.

  7. The emerging informationist specialty: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jocelyn A; Grefsheim, Suzanne F; Canto, Candace C

    2008-07-01

    A systematic literature review was conducted to synthesize what is known about informationists, highlight program models, and suggest areas for future research. Articles retrieved through database searching were reviewed for relevance. Informationist case reports were identified and coded according to an attributes checklist. Data from other retained publications were synthesized under broad themes. The few research studies found were reviewed for level of evidence. Of 113 papers reviewed, the study identified 7 classic and 8 emerging informationist programs. Two major models are apparent, clinical and research, with priorities differing according to program maturity. The literature synthesis also brought together current thinking about informationist qualifications; practice roles; setting characteristics; education and training; organizational, programmatic, and service provider success factors; and challenges and barriers. Program outcomes to date are reported, and future research topics suggested. Specific findings will assist informationist program planners. While the informationist concept remains in the early adopter stage, it appears that domain knowledge, continuous learning, and embedding (working in context) are essential to success. The need for librarians to transition to greater specialization and libraries to emphasize customized service was underscored. A research agenda focused on information management, dissemination, behaviors, and economics is proposed.

  8. Cartilage failures. Systematic literature review, critical survey analysis, and definition.

    PubMed

    Filardo, Giuseppe; Andriolo, Luca; Balboni, Federica; Marcacci, Maurilio; Kon, Elizaveta

    2015-12-01

    While midterm results of matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) are now available, less attention has been paid to the evaluation of failures of this surgical approach. Aim of this study was to analyse how "failures" are generally defined in cartilage surgery, in order to understand how the survival rate may change according to different definitions of failure. A systematic review on MACT in the knee was conducted to report failure rates as well as different failure definitions in the available literature. Afterwards, we analysed the survival curve at 8.5-year follow-up of a survey of 193 patients treated with MACT. Using different definitions to identify failures, we compared how the survival rate changed according to the different definitions of failure. The systematic review on 93 papers showed that the average failure rate reported on 3,289 patients was 5.2 % at a mean 34 months of follow-up. However, 41 studies (44.1 %) did not even consider this aspect, and failures were variously defined, thus generating confusing data that make a meta-analysis or a study comparison meaningless. The failure analysis of the MACT survey showed that the survival curve changed significantly depending on the definition applied; in fact, the failure rate ranged from 3.6 to 33.7 %. According to a critical literature and survey analysis, we proposed a combined surgical- and improvement-based definition which led to a failure rate of 25.9 % at midterm/long-term follow-up. Nowadays, failure definitions of cartilage treatments differ in scientific articles, thus generating confusion and heterogeneous data even when applied to the same cohort of patients. While the literature analysis shows a low number of failures, this study demonstrated that if properly addressed with a comprehensive definition, the real failure rate of cartilage surgical procedures in the knee is higher than previously reported. Recognizing failures would give a better understanding and a more

  9. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor mushroom improved survival and

  10. Classifications of Acute Scaphoid Fractures: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ten Berg, Paul W; Drijkoningen, Tessa; Strackee, Simon D; Buijze, Geert A

    2016-05-01

    Background In the lack of consensus, surgeon-based preference determines how acute scaphoid fractures are classified. There is a great variety of classification systems with considerable controversies. Purposes The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the different classification systems, clarifying their subgroups and analyzing their popularity by comparing citation indexes. The intention was to improve data comparison between studies using heterogeneous fracture descriptions. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature based on a search of medical literature from 1950 to 2015, and a manual search using the reference lists in relevant book chapters. Only original descriptions of classifications of acute scaphoid fractures in adults were included. Popularity was based on citation index as reported in the databases of Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar. Articles that were cited <10 times in WoS were excluded. Results Our literature search resulted in 308 potentially eligible descriptive reports of which 12 reports met the inclusion criteria. We distinguished 13 different (sub) classification systems based on (1) fracture location, (2) fracture plane orientation, and (3) fracture stability/displacement. Based on citations numbers, the Herbert classification was most popular, followed by the Russe and Mayo classifications. All classification systems were based on plain radiography. Conclusions Most classification systems were based on fracture location, displacement, or stability. Based on the controversy and limited reliability of current classification systems, suggested research areas for an updated classification include three-dimensional fracture pattern etiology and fracture fragment mobility assessed by dynamic imaging.

  11. Classifications of Acute Scaphoid Fractures: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ten Berg, Paul W.; Drijkoningen, Tessa; Strackee, Simon D.; Buijze, Geert A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the lack of consensus, surgeon-based preference determines how acute scaphoid fractures are classified. There is a great variety of classification systems with considerable controversies. Purposes The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the different classification systems, clarifying their subgroups and analyzing their popularity by comparing citation indexes. The intention was to improve data comparison between studies using heterogeneous fracture descriptions. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature based on a search of medical literature from 1950 to 2015, and a manual search using the reference lists in relevant book chapters. Only original descriptions of classifications of acute scaphoid fractures in adults were included. Popularity was based on citation index as reported in the databases of Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar. Articles that were cited <10 times in WoS were excluded. Results Our literature search resulted in 308 potentially eligible descriptive reports of which 12 reports met the inclusion criteria. We distinguished 13 different (sub) classification systems based on (1) fracture location, (2) fracture plane orientation, and (3) fracture stability/displacement. Based on citations numbers, the Herbert classification was most popular, followed by the Russe and Mayo classifications. All classification systems were based on plain radiography. Conclusions Most classification systems were based on fracture location, displacement, or stability. Based on the controversy and limited reliability of current classification systems, suggested research areas for an updated classification include three-dimensional fracture pattern etiology and fracture fragment mobility assessed by dynamic imaging. PMID:27104083

  12. Fibrin Sealants in Dura Sealing: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Felice; Angileri, Filippo Flavio; Kruse, Peter; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; Solari, Domenico; Esposito, Vincenzo; Tomasello, Francesco; Cappabianca, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Fibrin sealants are widely used in neurosurgery to seal the suture line, provide watertight closure, and prevent cerebrospinal fluid leaks. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current efficacy and safety literature of fibrin sealants in dura sealing and the prevention/treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. A comprehensive electronic literature search was run in the following databases: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Resister of Controlled Trials, clinicaltrials.gov, MEDLINE/PubMed, and EMBASE. Titles and abstracts of potential articles of interest were reviewed independently by 3 of the authors. A total of 1006 database records and additional records were identified. After screening for duplicates and relevance, a total of 78 articles were assessed by the investigators for eligibility. Thirty-eight were excluded and the full-text of 40 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. Seven of these included only safety data and were included in the safety assessment. The remaining 33 articles included findings from 32 studies that enrolled a total of 2935 patients who were exposed to fibrin sealant. Among these 33 studies there were only 3 randomized controlled trials, with the remaining being prospective cohort analysis, case controlled studies, prospective or retrospective case series. One randomized controlled trial, with 89 patients exposed to fibrin sealant, found a greater rate of intraoperative watertight dura closure in the fibrin sealant group than the control group (92.1% versus 38.0%, p<0.001); however, post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in more fibrin sealant than control patients (6.7% versus 2.0%, p>0.05). Other clinical trials evaluated the effect of fibrin sealant in the postoperative prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. These were generally lower level evidence studies (ie, not prospective, randomized, controlled trials) that were not designed or powered to demonstrate a

  13. Fibrin Sealants in Dura Sealing: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibrin sealants are widely used in neurosurgery to seal the suture line, provide watertight closure, and prevent cerebrospinal fluid leaks. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current efficacy and safety literature of fibrin sealants in dura sealing and the prevention/treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Methods A comprehensive electronic literature search was run in the following databases: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Resister of Controlled Trials, clinicaltrials.gov, MEDLINE/PubMed, and EMBASE. Titles and abstracts of potential articles of interest were reviewed independently by 3 of the authors. Results A total of 1006 database records and additional records were identified. After screening for duplicates and relevance, a total of 78 articles were assessed by the investigators for eligibility. Thirty-eight were excluded and the full-text of 40 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. Seven of these included only safety data and were included in the safety assessment. The remaining 33 articles included findings from 32 studies that enrolled a total of 2935 patients who were exposed to fibrin sealant. Among these 33 studies there were only 3 randomized controlled trials, with the remaining being prospective cohort analysis, case controlled studies, prospective or retrospective case series. One randomized controlled trial, with 89 patients exposed to fibrin sealant, found a greater rate of intraoperative watertight dura closure in the fibrin sealant group than the control group (92.1% versus 38.0%, p<0.001); however, post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in more fibrin sealant than control patients (6.7% versus 2.0%, p>0.05). Other clinical trials evaluated the effect of fibrin sealant in the postoperative prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. These were generally lower level evidence studies (ie, not prospective, randomized, controlled trials) that were not designed or

  14. Interventions for tophi in gout: a Cochrane systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Sriranganathan, Melonie K; Vinik, Ophir; Falzon, Louise; Bombardier, Claire; van der Heijde, Desiree M; Edwards, Christopher J

    2014-09-01

    To systematically review the available literature on the management of tophi in gout. This article is based on the Cochrane Review Interventions for Tophi in Gout published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were searched using a strategy developed with an experienced librarian. We also searched American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism conference abstracts from 2010-2011. Included articles were reviewed in detail and a risk of bias (using the Cochrane tool) and quality assessment were performed. In total, 3206 references were recovered. Of these, 72 articles were selected based on our inclusion criteria. This included 1 report of 2 randomized controlled trials, 2 nonrandomized studies, and 69 case series and reports. The study with 2 randomized controlled trials looked at pegloticase. This showed improvement in tophi with treatment. One observational prospective trial looked at allopurinol and benzbromarone individually and in combination. It noted that achieving lower serum urate levels was associated with a faster reduction of tophi. An open-label extension trial noted that longterm maintenance of serum uric acid < 6.0 mg/dl with febuxostat led to a reduction in tophi. The case series and reports looked at surgical, pharmacological, and other interventions, as well as combination therapies. All surgical interventions reported improvement in pain and/or function. No report had objective measures of outcome. Treatment with urate-lowering therapy such as allopurinol, benzbromarone, allopurinol + benzbromarone in combination, febuxostat, or pegloticase can lead to reduction in tophi. There is some evidence that achieving a lower serum urate level leads to a faster rate of tophi reduction.

  15. Defining Chronic Cough: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiological Literature

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo-Jung; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Faruqi, Shoaib; Kang, Min-Koo; Kim, Ju-Young; Kang, Min-Gyu; Kim, Sujeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Min-Hye; Plevkova, Jana; Park, Heung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent evidence suggests a global burden of chronic cough in general populations. However, the definitions vary greatly among epidemiological studies, and none have been validated for clinical relevance. We aimed to examine previous epidemiological definitions in detail and explore the operational characteristics. Methods A systematic review was conducted for epidemiological surveys that reported the prevalence of chronic cough in general adult populations during the years 1980 to 2013. A literature search was performed on Pubmed and Embase without language restriction. Epidemiological definitions for chronic cough were classified according to their components, such as cutoff duration. Meta-analyses were performed for the male-to-female ratio of chronic cough prevalence to explore operational characteristics of epidemiological definitions. Results A total of 70 studies were included in the systematic review. The most common epidemiological definition was identified as 'cough ≥3 months' duration without specification of phlegm (n=50); however, it conflicted with the cutoff duration in current clinical guidelines (cough ≥8 weeks). Meta-analyses were performed for the male-to-female ratio of chronic cough among 28 studies that reported sex-specific prevalence using the most common definition. The pooled male-to-female odds ratio was 1.26 (95% confidence interval 0.92-1.73) with significant heterogeneity (I2=96%, P<0.001), which was in contrast to clinical observations of female predominance from specialist clinics. Subgroup analyses did not reverse the ratio or reduce the heterogeneity. Conclusions This study identified major issues in defining chronic cough in future epidemiological studies. The conflict between epidemiological and clinical diagnostic criteria needs to be resolved. The unexpected difference in the gender predominance between the community and clinics warrants further studies. Clinical validation of the existing definition is required

  16. Acknowledging patient heterogeneity in economic evaluation : a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Grutters, Janneke P C; Sculpher, Mark; Briggs, Andrew H; Severens, Johan L; Candel, Math J; Stahl, James E; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Boer, Albert; Ramaekers, Bram L T; Joore, Manuela A

    2013-02-01

    Patient heterogeneity is the part of variability that can be explained by certain patient characteristics (e.g. age, disease stage). Population reimbursement decisions that acknowledge patient heterogeneity could potentially save money and increase population health. To date, however, economic evaluations pay only limited attention to patient heterogeneity. The objective of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding patient heterogeneity within economic evaluation of healthcare programmes. A systematic literature review was performed to identify methodological papers on the topic of patient heterogeneity in economic evaluation. Data were obtained using a keyword search of the PubMed database and manual searches. Handbooks were also included. Relevant data were extracted regarding potential sources of patient heterogeneity, in which of the input parameters of an economic evaluation these occur, methods to acknowledge patient heterogeneity and specific concerns associated with this acknowledgement. A total of 20 articles and five handbooks were included. The relevant sources of patient heterogeneity (demographics, preferences and clinical characteristics) and the input parameters where they occurred (baseline risk, treatment effect, health state utility and resource utilization) were combined in a framework. Methods were derived for the design, analysis and presentation phases of an economic evaluation. Concerns related mainly to the danger of false-positive results and equity issues. By systematically reviewing current knowledge regarding patient heterogeneity within economic evaluations of healthcare programmes, we provide guidance for future economic evaluations. Guidance is provided on which sources of patient heterogeneity to consider, how to acknowledge them in economic evaluation and potential concerns. The improved acknowledgement of patient heterogeneity in future economic evaluations may well improve the

  17. Workplace health promotion for older workers: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Poscia, Andrea; Moscato, Umberto; La Milia, Daniele Ignazio; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Borghini, Alice; Collamati, Agnese; Ricciardi, Walter; Magnavita, Nicola

    2016-09-05

    Aging of the workforce is a growing problem. As workers age, their physical, physiological and psychosocial capabilities change. Keeping older workers healthy and productive is a key goal of European labor policy and health promotion is a key to achieve this result. Previous studies about workplace health promotion (WHP) programs are usually focused on the entire workforce or to a specific topic. Within the framework of the EU-CHAFEA ProHealth65+ project, this paper aims to systematically review the literature on WHP interventions specifically targeted to older workers (OWs). This systematic review was conducted by making a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsychINFO databases. Search terms included ageing (and synonyms), worker (and synonyms), intervention (and synonyms), and health (and synonyms). The search was limited to papers in English or Italian published between January, 1(st) 2000 and May, 31(st) 2015. Relevant references in the selected articles were also analyzed. Of the 299 articles initially identified as relating to the topic, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. The type, methods and outcome of interventions in the WHP programs retrieved were heterogenous, as was the definition of the age at which a worker is considered to be 'older'. Most of the available studies had been conducted on small samples for a limited period of time. Our review shows that, although this issue is of great importance, studies addressing WHP actions for OWs are few and generally of poor quality. Current evidence fails to show that WHP programs improve the work ability, productivity or job retention of older workers. In addition, there is limited evidence that WHP programs are effective in improving lifestyles and concur to maintain the health and well-being of older workers. There is a need for future WHP programs to be well-designed so that the effectiveness and cost-benefit of workplace interventions can be

  18. The Omaha System: a systematic review of the recent literature

    PubMed Central

    Topaz, Maxim; Golfenshtein, Nadya; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2014-01-01

    Background The Omaha System (OS) is one of the oldest of the American Nurses Association recognized standardized terminologies describing and measuring the impact of healthcare services. This systematic review presents the state of science on the use of the OS in practice, research, and education. Aims (1) To identify, describe and evaluate the publications on the OS between 2004 and 2011, (2) to identify major trends in the use of the OS in research, practice, and education, and (3) to suggest areas for future research. Methods Systematic search in the largest online healthcare databases (PUBMED, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, Ovid) from 2004 to 2011. Methodological quality of the reviewed research studies was evaluated. Results 56 publications on the OS were identified and analyzed. The methodological quality of the reviewed research studies was relatively high. Over time, publications’ focus shifted from describing clients’ problems toward outcomes research. There was an increasing application of advanced statistical methods and a significant portion of authors focused on classification and interoperability research. There was an increasing body of international literature on the OS. Little research focused on the theoretical aspects of the OS, the effective use of the OS in education, or cultural adaptations of the OS outside the USA. Conclusions The OS has a high potential to provide meaningful and high quality information about complex healthcare services. Further research on the OS should focus on its applicability in healthcare education, theoretical underpinnings and international validity. Researchers analyzing the OS data should address how they attempted to mitigate the effects of missing data in analyzing their results and clearly present the limitations of their studies. PMID:23744786

  19. Rheumatology Workforce Planning in Western Countries: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Dejaco, Christian; Lackner, Angelika; Buttgereit, Frank; Matteson, Eric L; Narath, Markus; Sprenger, Martin

    2016-12-01

    To compare health care planning models forecasting rheumatology workforce requirements in western countries. A systematic literature review was conducted through medical databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library) and the grey literature. All articles reporting a rheumatology workforce model were included. The search yielded 6,508 articles, and 14 publications (on 12 studies) were included. Workforce models were available for the US (n = 3), Canada (n = 3), the US plus Canada (n = 1), Germany (n = 2), Spain (n = 1), and the UK (n = 2). The number of rheumatologists required to serve a population of 100,000 people was calculated, with a range of 0.7 (UK, calculated for 1988) to 3.5 (Spain, calculated for 2021). Most models used a needs-based approach (n = 6); 3 studies each applied a supply- or demand-based method. The following variables were considered by ≥1 model: disease prevalence, patients' referral to rheumatologists, clinical visits/patient/year, population development, factors influencing performance of rheumatologists, patient flow/care sharing, and medical technologies/infrastructure development. Heterogeneity in methods used, the period or calendar years for which the estimates were projected, and heterogeneity of variables evaluated led to disparate estimates, with results ranging from 0.7 to 3.5 rheumatologists per 100,000 population. An international initiative is needed to agree upon a common approach for a reliable estimation of manpower requirements in rheumatology. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Guidelines for overcoming hospital managerial challenges: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The need to respond to accreditation institutes' and patients' requirements and to align health care results with increased medical knowledge is focusing greater attention on quality in health care. Different tools and techniques have been adopted to measure and manage quality, but clinical errors are still too numerous, suggesting that traditional quality improvement systems are unable to deal appropriately with hospital challenges. The purpose of this paper is to grasp the current tools, practices, and guidelines adopted in health care to improve quality and patient safety and create a base for future research on this young subject. A systematic literature review was carried out. A search of academic databases, including papers that focus not only on lean management, but also on clinical errors and risk reduction, yielded 47 papers. The general characteristics of the selected papers were analyzed, and a content analysis was conducted. A variety of managerial techniques, tools, and practices are being adopted in health care, and traditional methodologies have to be integrated with the latest ones in order to reduce errors and ensure high quality and patient safety. As it has been demonstrated, these tools are useful not only for achieving efficiency objectives, but also for providing higher quality and patient safety. Critical indications and guidelines for successful implementation of new health managerial methodologies are provided and synthesized in an operative scheme useful for extending and deepening knowledge of these issues with further studies. This research contributes to introducing a new theme in health care literature regarding the development of successful projects with both clinical risk management and health lean management objectives, and should address solutions for improving health care even in the current context of decreasing resources.

  1. Guidelines for overcoming hospital managerial challenges: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The need to respond to accreditation institutes’ and patients’ requirements and to align health care results with increased medical knowledge is focusing greater attention on quality in health care. Different tools and techniques have been adopted to measure and manage quality, but clinical errors are still too numerous, suggesting that traditional quality improvement systems are unable to deal appropriately with hospital challenges. The purpose of this paper is to grasp the current tools, practices, and guidelines adopted in health care to improve quality and patient safety and create a base for future research on this young subject. Methods A systematic literature review was carried out. A search of academic databases, including papers that focus not only on lean management, but also on clinical errors and risk reduction, yielded 47 papers. The general characteristics of the selected papers were analyzed, and a content analysis was conducted. Results A variety of managerial techniques, tools, and practices are being adopted in health care, and traditional methodologies have to be integrated with the latest ones in order to reduce errors and ensure high quality and patient safety. As it has been demonstrated, these tools are useful not only for achieving efficiency objectives, but also for providing higher quality and patient safety. Critical indications and guidelines for successful implementation of new health managerial methodologies are provided and synthesized in an operative scheme useful for extending and deepening knowledge of these issues with further studies. Conclusion This research contributes to introducing a new theme in health care literature regarding the development of successful projects with both clinical risk management and health lean management objectives, and should address solutions for improving health care even in the current context of decreasing resources. PMID:24307833

  2. Physician leadership in e-health? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Keijser, Wouter; Smits, Jacco; Penterman, Lisanne; Wilderom, Celeste

    2016-07-04

    Purpose This paper aims to systematically review the literature on roles of physicians in virtual teams (VTs) delivering healthcare for effective "physician e-leadership" (PeL) and implementation of e-health. Design/methodology/approach The analyzed studies were retrieved with explicit keywords and criteria, including snowball sampling. They were synthesized with existing theoretical models on VT research, healthcare team competencies and medical leadership. Findings Six domains for further PeL inquiry are delineated: resources, task processes, socio-emotional processes, leadership in VTs, virtual physician-patient relationship and change management. We show that, to date, PeL studies on socio-technical dynamics and their consequences on e-health are found underrepresented in the health literature; i.e. no single empirical, theoretic or conceptual study with a focus on PeL in virtual healthcare work was identified. Research limitations/implications E-health practices could benefit from organization-behavioral type of research for discerning effective physicians' roles and inter-professional relations and their (so far) seemingly modest but potent impact on e-health developments. Practical implications Although best practices in e-health care have already been identified, this paper shows that physicians' roles in e-health initiatives have not yet received any in-depth study. This raises questions such as are physicians not yet sufficiently involved in e-health? If so, what (dis)advantages may this have for current e-health investments and how can they best become involved in (leading) e-health applications' design and implementation in the field? Originality/value If effective medical leadership is being deployed, e-health effectiveness may be enhanced; this new proposition needs urgent empirical scrutiny.

  3. Pregnancy and genital sarcoma: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koji; Eno, Michele L; Im, Dwight D; Rosenshein, Neil B

    2009-08-01

    We conducted a literature review to determine the clinical characteristics of genital sarcoma during pregnancy. The systematic literature search was conducted using the search engines PubMed and MEDLINE with keywords "sarcoma" and "pregnancy" and was limited to female genital organs such as ovary, uterus, cervix, vagina, vulva, and retroperitoneal sarcoma. Kaposi's sarcoma, metastatic sarcoma, history of sarcoma, bone sarcoma located in pelvis, and fetal sarcoma were excluded in this study. There were 40 cases of genital sarcoma during pregnancy between 1955 and 2007. The majority of the cases were uterine sarcoma (37.5%), followed by retroperitoneal sarcoma (27.5%), vulvar sarcoma (22.5%), and vaginal sarcoma (12.5%). Mean age of the patient was 27.8 +/- 7.0. The distribution in the onset of symptoms had two peaks: first trimester (27.5%) and third trimester (50.0%). Growing mass (42.5%), abdominal pain (30.0%), and vaginal bleeding (22.5%) were the three most common symptoms. Incidental diagnosis was made in 22.5% and included during cesarean section (12.5%) and routine pelvic exam (7.5%). The cases initially not suspicious for malignancy were 42.5%. Thirty-three (82.5%) cases had live-born infants with term delivery in 55.2%. Mean birth weight was 2843 +/- 791 g, and male infants were more common (66.7%). Intrauterine growth retardation was seen in 12.5% of cases. Preterm labor was a common complication. Median survival period was 2.5 years (95% confidence, 1.9 to 3.1). The 2-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative survival rates were 60%, 38%, and 17%, respectively. Genital sarcomas in pregnancy are rare. There is a delay in diagnosis due to low index of suspicion. A majority had live births, and the 5-year survival is similar to that of advanced-stage sarcoma in nonpregnant women.

  4. Oats and bowel disease: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Thies, Frank; Masson, Lindsey F; Boffetta, Paolo; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    Whole-grain foods such as oats may protect against colorectal cancer and have benefits on inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature describing intervention studies that investigated the effects of oats or oat bran on risk factors for bowel disease. A literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and the Cochrane library, which identified 654 potential articles. Thirty-eight articles describing twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Two studies carried out in participants with a history of colorectal adenomas found no effects of increased oat-bran intake on indirect risk makers for colorectal cancer. One of two interventions with oat bran in patients with ulcerative colitis showed small improvements in the patients' conditions. Most of the eleven studies carried out in adults with coeliac disease showed no negative effects of uncontaminated oat consumption. The fourteen studies carried out in volunteers with no history of bowel disease suggest that oats or oat bran can significantly increase stool weight and decrease constipation, but there is a lack of evidence to support a specific effect of oats on bowel function compared with other cereals. A long-term dietary intake of oats or oat bran could benefit inflammatory bowel disorders, but this remains to be proven. A protective effect on colorectal adenoma and cancer incidence has not yet been convincingly shown. The majority of patients with coeliac disease could consume up to 100 g/d of uncontaminated oats, which would increase the acceptability of, and adherence to, a gluten-free diet.

  5. Oats and CVD risk markers: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Thies, Frank; Masson, Lindsey F; Boffetta, Paolo; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    High consumption of whole-grain food such as oats is associated with a reduced risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature describing long-term intervention studies that investigated the effects of oats or oat bran on CVD risk factors. The literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and the Cochrane library, which identified 654 potential articles. Seventy-six articles describing sixty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies lacked statistical power to detect a significant effect of oats on any of the risk factors considered: 59 % of studies had less than thirty subjects in the oat intervention group. Out of sixty-four studies that assessed systemic lipid markers, thirty-seven (58 %) and thirty-four (49 %) showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol (2-19 % reduction) and LDL-cholesterol (4-23 % reduction) respectively, mostly in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Few studies (three and five, respectively) described significant effects on HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations. Only three out of twenty-five studies found a reduction in blood pressure after oat consumption. None of the few studies that measured markers of insulin sensitivity and inflammation found any effect after long-term oat consumption. Long-term dietary intake of oats or oat bran has a beneficial effect on blood cholesterol. However, there is no evidence that it favourably modulates insulin sensitivity. It is still unclear whether increased oat consumption significantly affects other risk markers for CVD risk, and comprehensive, adequately powered and controlled intervention trials are required to address this question.

  6. Medical devices early assessment methods: systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, Katarzyna; van Til, Janine A; IJzerman, Maarten J

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to get an overview of current theory and practice in early assessments of medical devices, and to identify aims and uses of early assessment methods used in practice. A systematic literature review was conducted in September 2013, using computerized databases (PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus), and references list search. Selected articles were categorized based on their type, objective, and main target audience. The methods used in the application studies were extracted and mapped throughout the early stages of development and for their particular aims. Of 1,961 articles identified, eighty-three studies passed the inclusion criteria, and thirty were included by searching reference lists. There were thirty-one theoretical papers, and eighty-two application papers included. Most studies investigated potential applications/possible improvement of medical devices, developed early assessment framework or included stakeholder perspective in early development stages. Among multiple qualitative and quantitative methods identified, only few were used more than once. The methods aim to inform strategic considerations (e.g., literature review), economic evaluation (e.g., cost-effectiveness analysis), and clinical effectiveness (e.g., clinical trials). Medical devices were often in the prototype product development stage, and the results were usually aimed at informing manufacturers. This study showed converging aims yet widely diverging methods for early assessment during medical device development. For early assessment to become an integral part of activities in the development of medical devices, methods need to be clarified and standardized, and the aims and value of assessment itself must be demonstrated to the main stakeholders for assuring effective and efficient medical device development.

  7. Hip arthroscopy in osteoarthritis: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Piuzzi, Nicolas S; Slullitel, Pablo A I; Bertona, Agustin; Oñativia, José I.; Albergo, Ignacio; Zanotti, Gerardo; Buttaro, Martin A; Piccaluga, Francisco; Comba, Fernando M

    2016-01-01

    Hip arthroscopy treatment in patients with osteoarthritis is controversial. To systematically review the clinical outcome of patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) treated with arthroscopy and what proportion of these patients subsequently underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA). Systematic review. PubMed, Cochrane library and LILACS were searched from January 1990 through December 2013 for eligible studies. The methodological quality of the collected data (applied to each study) was performed with a modified version of the Coleman methodology score (mCMS). 11 studies were included in this review. Most of the studies included reported clinical improvements. The overall conversion rate to THA ranged from 9.5% to 50%. Mean time between arthroscopy and THA was 13.5 months. The quality of studies is low. We have found inconclusive evidence to make categorical indications for hip arthroscopy in the treatment of OA, although we have found that there is some postoperative clinical outcome improvement of pain and function in a short-term evaluation. Increasingly worse outcomes were seen as the severity of OA increased.

  8. Classification of pressure ulcers: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Stausberg, Jürgen; Kiefer, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Different classifications of pressure ulcer are in use making national and international studies on epidemiological issues as well as on effects of prophylactical and therapeutical interventions difficult. A systematic literature search identified 31 pressure ulcer classifications. Thirteen could be retrieved and were further analyzed. Six variants of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) differ totally in number of classes, hierarchical structure, characteristics included, and level of detail. They share only the fact of a "pressure ulcer". Recommendations of expert organizations and clinical classifications differ as well. The currently introduced grade "suspected deep tissue injury" in the classification proposed by the US-National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) is neither present in the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) one, nor in the ICD variants. Being aware of the reliability issue in pressure ulcer diagnosis and grading, the situation is appalling. Furthermore, stage adjusted quality assessment, prophylaxis and therapy ends with the borders of a classification. We call the WHO to initiate a harmonization of the ICD variants of pressure ulcer classification and to cooperate with experts' organizations in this field, particularly with regard to the development of ICD-11. Reports on pressure ulcer should always mention the classification used.

  9. Effectiveness of alcohol media literacy programmes: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Chloe S; Hindmarsh, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To provide insight into some of these questions, a systematic literature review of alcohol media literacy studies was conducted. The review was guided by the following research question: What considerations are needed to develop an effective school-based alcohol media literacy programme? On the basis of a critical synthesis of 10 interventions (published in the period 1997 to May 2014), our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the descriptive, methodological and outcome characteristics of this small body of significant research. The review provides considerations for future alcohol media literacy programmes, including the need for an interactive pedagogical approach within the naturalistic school setting, implementation fidelity and a holistic approach to programme evaluation, a means for maintaining relevance, consideration of gender differences, relevance for an international audience and use of follow-up and longitudinal data.

  10. Conceptualisation of patient satisfaction: a systematic narrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Batbaatar, Enkhjargal; Dorjdagva, Javkhlanbayar; Luvsannyam, Ariunbat; Amenta, Pietro

    2015-09-01

    Patient satisfaction concept is widely measured due to its appropriateness to health service; however, evidence suggests that it is a poorly developed concept. This article is a first part of a two-part series of research with a goal to review a current conceptual framework of patient satisfaction and to bring the concept for further operationalisation procedures. The current article aimed to review a theoretical framework that helps the next article to review determinants of patient satisfaction for designing a measurement system. The study used a systematic review method, meta-narrative review, based on the RAMESES guideline with the phases of screening evidence, appraisal evidence, data extraction and synthesis. Patient satisfaction theoretical articles were searched on the two databases MEDLINE and CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were articles published between 1980 and 2014, and English language papers only. There were 36 articles selected for the synthesis. Results showed that most of the patient satisfaction theories and formulations are based on marketing theories and defined as how well health service fulfils patient expectations. However, review demonstrated that a relationship between expectation and satisfaction is unclear and the concept expectation itself is not distinctly theorised as well. Researchers brought satisfaction theories from other fields to the current healthcare literature without much adaptation. Thus, there is a need to attempt to define the patient satisfaction concept from other perspectives or to learn how patients evaluate the care rather than struggling to describe it by consumerist theories. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  11. Brief Mindfulness Practices for Healthcare Providers - A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Heather; Goyal, Anupama; Hamati, Mary C; Mann, Jason; Saint, Sanjay; Chopra, Vineet

    2017-10-01

    Mindfulness practice, where an individual maintains openness, patience, and acceptance while focusing attention on a situation in a nonjudgmental way, can improve symptoms of anxiety, burnout, and depression. The practice is relevant for health care providers; however, the time commitment is a barrier to practice. For this reason, brief mindfulness interventions (eg, ≤ 4 hours) are being introduced. We systematically reviewed the literature from inception to January 2017 about the effects of brief mindfulness interventions on provider well-being and behavior. Studies that tested a brief mindfulness intervention with hospital providers and measured change in well-being (eg, stress) or behavior (eg, tasks of attention or reduction of clinical or diagnostic errors) were selected for narrative synthesis. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria; 7 were randomized controlled trials. Nine of 14 studies reported positive changes in levels of stress, anxiety, mindfulness, resiliency, and burnout symptoms. No studies found an effect on provider behavior. Brief mindfulness interventions may be effective in improving provider well-being; however, larger studies are needed to assess an impact on clinical care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Family dynamics during the grieving process: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Delalibera, Mayra; Presa, Joana; Coelho, Alexandra; Barbosa, António; Franco, Maria Helena Pereira

    2015-04-01

    The loss of a loved one can affect family dynamics by changing the family system and creating the need for family members to reorganize. Good family functioning, which is characterized by open communication, expression of feelings and thoughts and cohesion among family members, facilitates adaptive adjustment to the loss. This study conducted a systematic review of the literature on family dynamics during the grieving process. A search was conducted in the EBSCO, Web of Knowledge and Bireme databases for scientific articles published from January 1980 to June 2013. Of the 389 articles found, only 15 met all the inclusion criteria. The selected studies provided evidence that dysfunctional families exhibit more psychopathological symptoms, more psychosocial morbidity, poorer social functioning, greater difficulty accessing community resources, lower functional capacity at work, and a more complicated grieving process. Family conflicts were also emphasized as contributing to the development of a complicated grieving process, while cohesion, expression of affection and good communication in families are believed to mitigate grief symptoms.

  13. Robotic surgery for colorectal cancer: systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis G

    2014-12-01

    Surgical practice has been changed since the introduction of robotic techniques and robotic colorectal surgery is an emerging field. Innovative robotic technologies have helped surgeons overcome many technical difficulties of conventional laparoscopic surgery. Herein, we review the clinical studies regarding the application of surgical robots in resections for colorectal cancer. A systematic review of the literature was conducted for articles published up to September 9, 2012, using the MEDLINE database. The keywords that were used in various combinations were: "surgical robotics," "robotic surgery," "computer-assisted surgery," "colectomy," "sigmoid resection," "sigmoidectomy," and "rectal resection." Fifty-nine articles reporting on robot-assisted resections of colon and/or rectum were identified and 41 studies were finally included in the analysis. A total of 1635 colorectal procedures were performed: 254 right colectomies, 185 left colectomies/sigmoid resections, 969 anterior resections, 182 abdominoperineal or intersphincteric resections, 34 colectomies (without being specified as right or left), and 11 total/subtotal colectomies. In general, blood loss, conversion rates, and complications were low but the operative time was longer than the open procedures, whereas the duration of hospitalization was shorter. The number of harvested lymph nodes was also quite satisfactory. Robotic colorectal operations provide favorable results, with acceptable operative times and low conversion rates and morbidity. Surgical robots may provide additional benefits treating challenging pathologies, such as rectal cancer. Further clinical studies and long-term follow-up are required to better evaluate the outcomes of robotic colorectal surgery.

  14. [Child maltreatment in binge eating disorder: a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Röhr, Susanne; Dölemeyer, Ruth; Klinitzke, Grit; Steinig, Jana; Wagner, Birgit; Kersting, Annette

    2015-04-01

    This review is to provide a first overview about prevalences and associations of forms of child maltreatment in binge eating disorder (BED). Systematic literature search in PubMed and Web of Science in December 2013. Terms considered were "binge eating disorder" AND "child* maltreatment", "child* abuse", "child* sexual abuse", "child* emotional abuse", "child* physical abuse", "child* emotional neglect" as well as "child* physical neglect". Inclusion criteria were studies published between 1990 and 2013, publications in English or German, adult patients, studies that considered patients with full DSM criteria for BED, and studies that reported prevalences of forms of child maltreatment. Eight studies out of 366 met criteria. Child maltreatment rates in BED were more than two times higher than in representative samples, but they were similar to psychiatric comparisons. Up to 83 % of patients with BED reported at least one form of child maltreatment. There were associations to psychiatric comorbidity, but not to gender, obesity and specific features of the eating behaviour. Child maltreatment is very prevalent among BED. Its contribution to the development and the maintenance of BED is not understood yet. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Urinothorax: Case report and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Casallas, Alexander; Castañeda-Cardona, Camilo; Rosselli, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Urinothorax, the presence of urine in the pleural space, is a rare cause of pleural effusion, usually associated with obstructive uropathy, or urinary trauma. We present the case of a 3 year-old boy and a systematic review of the literature of the 44 cases encountered. After resection of a Wilm's tumour in the right kidney our patient presented acute respiratory distress associated with radiographically confirmed pleural effusion. With the initial diagnosis of pneumonia or malignant pleural effusion, a closed thoracotomy was performed. The liquid obtained suggested urine, which was confirmed by the laboratory. Cystoscopy with retrograde pyelography detected a fistula on the posterior wall of the right kidney. The report of cases worldwide is low, probably due to its low incidence but also to underdiagnosis. Respiratory symptoms are not always present and urological symptoms usually predominate. Diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and is confirmed by the main biochemical marker: The ratio >1.0 pleural fluid creatinine and creatinine serum. PMID:26834411

  16. Food and Beverage Marketing to Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2015-10-01

    Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers realize they cannot ignore this growing, high-spending, media-consuming segment. Studies examining food and beverage marketing strategies tend to discuss minority groups in general but do not account for racial and ethnic differences, reducing our ability to explain existing inequities. This article aimed to identify the food and beverage marketing strategies used to influence food environments for Latinos versus non-Latinos. A systematic literature review and analysis, guided by an established marketing conceptual framework, determined that the food and beverage marketing environment for Latinos is less likely to promote healthy eating and more likely to encourage consumption of low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. This analysis also determined that Latinos' food environment and the placement of food retail stores appears to influence their body mass index; however, placement of these stores cannot be generalized, as geographical differences exist. While food and beverage marketing is only one of many sources of influence on food and beverage consumption, these findings reinforce the notion that Latinos are at a disadvantage when it comes to exposure of healthy lifestyle messaging and health-promoting food environments.

  17. Childhood trauma and schizotypy: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Velikonja, T; Fisher, H L; Mason, O; Johnson, S

    2015-04-01

    Schizotypy is a complex concept, commonly defined as a genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia that falls on a continuum between healthy variation and severe mental illness. There is a growing body of evidence supporting an association between childhood trauma and increased psychotic experiences and disorders. However, the evidence as to whether there is a similar association with schizotypy has yet to be systematically synthesized and assessed. We conducted a systematic search of published articles on the association between childhood trauma and schizotypy in four major databases. The search covered articles from 1806 to 1 March 2013 and resulted in 17,003 articles in total. Twenty-five original research studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. All 25 studies supported the association between at least one type of trauma and schizotypy, with odds ratios (ORs) ranging between 2.01 and 4.15. There was evidence supporting the association for all types of trauma, with no differential effects. However, there was some variability in the quality of the studies, with most using cross-sectional designs. Individuals who reported adverse experiences in childhood scored significantly higher on positive and negative/disorganized schizotypy compared to those who did not report such experiences. All forms of childhood trauma and other stressful events (e.g. bullying) were found to be associated with schizotypy, with especially strong associations with positive schizotypy. However, because of the methodological limitations of several studies and a lack of further exploration of different possible mechanistic pathways underlying this association, more research is required.

  18. Anhedonia in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Assogna, Francesca; Cravello, Luca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2011-08-15

    Anhedonia, defined as lowered ability to experience physical or social pleasure, is a key symptom of several psychiatric illnesses. In this systematic review, we aimed to evaluate the role of anhedonia in Parkinson's Disease and its relationships with other clinical characteristics, dopamine dysfunction, and antiparkinsonian therapy. The database was selected using PubMed Services. Relevant journals were hand-searched, and the bibliographies of all the important articles were scrutinized to find additional publications. Fifteen studies assessed the topic of anhedonia in Parkinson's disease from 1984 to 2009 and mainly described it as a core symptom of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease. Some studies investigated the relationship between anhedonia and neuropsychological symptoms and found correlations with frontal lobe functions. Reports on the relationship between anhedonia and illness severity or motor symptoms are rather inconclusive. No definitive conclusions can be drawn because few studies have been published on this topic. Nevertheless, some evidence suggests that in Parkinson's disease anhedonia is a secondary phenomenon linked to depression, apathy severity, and frontal lobe dysregulation and that it could respond to antiparkinsonian treatment. Future studies of larger samples of patients are strongly required to definitively clarify the relationship between anhedonia and other clinical features, such as depression, anxiety, apathy, cognition, and motor status. Furthermore, more reliable tools and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess anhedonia in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  19. A Systematic Review of Exercise Systematic Reviews in the Cancer Literature (2005-2017).

    PubMed

    Stout, Nicole L; Baima, Jennifer; Swisher, Anne K; Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Welsh, Judith

    2017-09-01

    Evidence supports the benefits of exercise for patients with cancer; however, specific guidance for clinical decision making regarding exercise timing, frequency, duration, and intensity is lacking. Efforts are needed to optimize clinical recommendations for exercise in the cancer population. To aggregate information regarding the benefit of exercise through a systematic review of existing systematic reviews in the cancer exercise literature. PubMed, CINAHL Plus, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the impact of movement-based exercise on the adult cancer population. Two author teams reviewed 302 abstracts for inclusion with 93 selected for full-text review. A total of 53 studies were analyzed. A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) was used as a quality measure of the reviews. Information was extracted using the PICO format (ie, participants, intervention, comparison, outcomes). Descriptive findings are reported. Mean AMSTAR score = 7.66/11 (±2.04) suggests moderate quality of the systematic reviews. Exercise is beneficial before, during, and after cancer treatment, across all cancer types, and for a variety of cancer-related impairments. Moderate-to-vigorous exercise is the best level of exercise intensity to improve physical function and mitigate cancer-related impairments. Therapeutic exercises are beneficial to manage treatment side effects, may enhance tolerance to cancer treatments, and improve functional outcomes. Supervised exercise yielded superior benefits versus unsupervised. Serious adverse events were not common. Movement-based exercise intervention outcomes are reported. No analysis of pooled effects was calculated across reviews due to significant heterogeneity within the systematic reviews. Findings do not consider exercise in advanced cancers or pediatric populations. Exercise promotes significant improvements in clinical, functional, and in some populations, survival outcomes and can be

  20. Cost of severe asthma in Brazil-systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stirbulov, Roberto; Lopes da Silva, Nilceia; Maia, Sarah Cristina Oliveira Machado; Carvalho-Netto, Eduardo; Angelini, Luciene

    2016-12-01

    Severe asthma is characterized by frequent exacerbations, symptoms limiting daily activities and nocturnal symptoms. It requires the continuous use of medications, at high doses, and, sometimes, continuous use of oral corticosteroids, representing a significant burden to health system and society. This systematic review sought to address economic data related to severe asthma in Brazil. In June 2014, electronic searches were conducted to identify relevant publications. Quality criteria were developed and applied to each selected study. In order to compare results across the selected studies, costs were refined to an annual basis, grouped according to the study perspective, inflated and converted to 2014 USD. Cost analyses from the Brazilian public health system perspective were derived from two studies and showed an average annual hospital cost per patient of 135 USD and 733 USD, respectively. From the family perspective, average annual direct costs per patient varied from 764 USD to 929 USD. Hospitalizations and medications seem to be the most important resources funded by the Brazilian public health system and by patients and their families. Although further studies are necessary, as information on cost of this disease is scarce in Brazil, these findings suggest that there is a potential room for improving severe asthma care among Brazilian patients.

  1. Severity indices in rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Esther; García de Yébenes, M Jesús; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Carmona, Loreto

    2017-08-11

    To identify tools designed to evaluate the severity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in order to use them in the investigation of prognostic markers in early arthritis. We conducted a systematic review of studies that developed/validated an index for RA disease severity. They were analyzed using the COSMIN checklist to assess their methodological quality. In addition, all the variables included were evaluated for their clarity of definition, feasibility and probability of being present in each outcome during the first 2 years of the disease course. To estimate redundancy, variables were grouped by domains. After reviewing 3,519 articles, 3 studies were included. The first study, the PAS, assessed whether current and lifetime treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and/or biologics accurately predicted RA severity, as measured by the patient-reported PAS. Treatment variables did not fully distinguish patients in the highest and lowest quartiles of PAS scores. Another severity index, the Claims-Based Index for RA Severity (CIRAS), included the variables age, sex, Felty's syndrome, number of rehabilitation and rheumatology visits, test for inflammatory markers, number of chemistry panels/platelet counts ordered and rheumatoid factor test. The correlation was low (r=0.56) with an index previously validated by the same research group, the RA medical records-based index of severity (RARBIS), with Disease Activity Score-C-reactive protein (DAS28-PCR) (r=0.07) and Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MD-HAQ) (r=0.008). Finally, the RARBIS, used to validate the CIRAS, was devised as an RA severity index based on medical records. It includes as domains surgery, radiology, extra-articular manifestations, clinical and laboratory variables, previously chosen by an expert panel. RARBIS had a weak correlation with treatment intensity (r=0.35) and with DAS28 (r=0.41). There is no index to assess the severity of RA based on the course of the

  2. Is management of acute traumatic brain injury effective? A literature review of published Cochrane Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jin; Gao, Guo-Yi; Jiang, Ji-Yao

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate all the possible therapeutic measures concerning the acute management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) mentioned in Cochrane Systematic Reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). An exhausted literature search for all published Cochrane Systematic Reviews discussing therapeutic rather than prevention or rehabilitative interventions of TBI was conducted. We retrieved such databases as CDSR and Cochrane Injury Group, excluded the duplications, and eventually obtained 20 results, which stand for critical appraisal for as many as 20 different measures for TBI patients. The important data of each systematic review, including total population, intervention, outcome, etc, were collected and presented in a designed table. Besides, we also tried to find out the possible weakness of these clinical trials included in each review. Analysis of these reviews yielded meanfuling observations: (1) The effectiveness of most ordinary treatments in TBI is inconclusive except that corticosteroids are likely to be ineffective or harmful, and tranexamic acid, nimodipine and progesterone show a promising effect in bleeding trauma, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, TBI or severe TBI. (2) A majority of the systematic reviews include a small number of clinical trials and the modest numbers of patients, largely due to the uncertainty of the effectiveness. (3) The quality of most trials reported in the systematic reviews is more or less questionable. (4) In addition, lots of other complex factors together may lead to the inconclusive results demonstrated in the Cochrane Systematic Reviews. For clinical physicians, to translate these conclusions into practice with caution is essential. Basic medication and nursing care deserve additional attention as well and can be beneficial. For researchers, high quality trials with perfect design and comprehensive consideration of various factors are urgently required.

  3. Causes of dysphagia among different age groups: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roden, Dylan F; Altman, Kenneth W

    2013-12-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem that has the potential to result in severe complications such as malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. Based on the complexity of swallowing, there may be many different causes. This article presents a systematic literature review to assess different comorbid disease associations with dysphagia based on age. The causes of dysphagia are different depending on age, affecting between 1.7% and 11.3% of the general population. Dysphagia can be a symptom representing disorders pertinent to any specialty of medicine. This review can be used to aid in the diagnosis of patients presenting with the complaint of dysphagia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. How does burnout affect physician productivity? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Loong, Desmond; Bonato, Sarah; Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Jacobs, Philip

    2014-07-28

    Interest in the well-being of physicians has increased because of their contributions to the healthcare system quality. There is growing recognition that physicians are exposed to workplace factors that increase the risk of work stress. Long-term exposure to high work stress can result in burnout. Reports from around the world suggest that about one-third to one-half of physicians experience burnout. Understanding the outcomes associated with burnout is critical to understanding its affects on the healthcare system. Productivity outcomes are among those that could have the most immediate effects on the healthcare system. This systematic literature review is one of the first to explore the evidence for the types of physician productivity outcomes associated with physician burnout. It answers the question, "How does burnout affect physician productivity?" A systematic search was performed of: Medline Current, Medline in process, PsycInfo, Embase and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002 to 2012. The searches identified articles about practicing physicians working in civilian settings. Articles that primarily looked only at residents or medical students were excluded. Productivity was captured by hours worked, patients seen, sick leave, leaving the profession, retirement, workload and presenteeism. Studies also were excluded if: (1) the study sample was not comprised of at least 50% physicians, (2) the study did not examine the relationship between burnout and productivity or (3) a validated measure of burnout was not used. The search identified 870 unique citations; 5 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. This review indicates that globally there is recognition of the potential impact of physician burnout on productivity. Productivity was examined using: number of sick leave days, work ability, intent to either continue practicing or change jobs. The majority of the studies indicate there is a negative relationship between burnout and productivity. However

  5. Does Engagement in Meaningful Occupation Reduce Challenging Behaviour in People with Intellectual Disabilities? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jo; Fazil, Qulsom

    2013-01-01

    Over several years, there has been much debate about the best way to manage challenging behaviour. Although national guidance highlights the importance of meaningful occupation, it is unclear to what extent this helps. This systematic review of the literature aimed to answer the question, "does engagement in meaningful occupation reduce…

  6. Google Scholar as replacement for systematic literature searches: good relative recall and precision are not enough

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research indicates a high recall in Google Scholar searches for systematic reviews. These reports raised high expectations of Google Scholar as a unified and easy to use search interface. However, studies on the coverage of Google Scholar rarely used the search interface in a realistic approach but instead merely checked for the existence of gold standard references. In addition, the severe limitations of the Google Search interface must be taken into consideration when comparing with professional literature retrieval tools. The objectives of this work are to measure the relative recall and precision of searches with Google Scholar under conditions which are derived from structured search procedures conventional in scientific literature retrieval; and to provide an overview of current advantages and disadvantages of the Google Scholar search interface in scientific literature retrieval. Methods General and MEDLINE-specific search strategies were retrieved from 14 Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane systematic review search strategies were translated to Google Scholar search expression as good as possible under consideration of the original search semantics. The references of the included studies from the Cochrane reviews were checked for their inclusion in the result sets of the Google Scholar searches. Relative recall and precision were calculated. Results We investigated Cochrane reviews with a number of included references between 11 and 70 with a total of 396 references. The Google Scholar searches resulted in sets between 4,320 and 67,800 and a total of 291,190 hits. The relative recall of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 76.2% and a maximum of 100% (7 searches). The precision of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 0.05% and a maximum of 0.92%. The overall relative recall for all searches was 92.9%, the overall precision was 0.13%. Conclusion The reported relative recall must be interpreted with care. It is a quality

  7. Google Scholar as replacement for systematic literature searches: good relative recall and precision are not enough.

    PubMed

    Boeker, Martin; Vach, Werner; Motschall, Edith

    2013-10-26

    Recent research indicates a high recall in Google Scholar searches for systematic reviews. These reports raised high expectations of Google Scholar as a unified and easy to use search interface. However, studies on the coverage of Google Scholar rarely used the search interface in a realistic approach but instead merely checked for the existence of gold standard references. In addition, the severe limitations of the Google Search interface must be taken into consideration when comparing with professional literature retrieval tools.The objectives of this work are to measure the relative recall and precision of searches with Google Scholar under conditions which are derived from structured search procedures conventional in scientific literature retrieval; and to provide an overview of current advantages and disadvantages of the Google Scholar search interface in scientific literature retrieval. General and MEDLINE-specific search strategies were retrieved from 14 Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane systematic review search strategies were translated to Google Scholar search expression as good as possible under consideration of the original search semantics. The references of the included studies from the Cochrane reviews were checked for their inclusion in the result sets of the Google Scholar searches. Relative recall and precision were calculated. We investigated Cochrane reviews with a number of included references between 11 and 70 with a total of 396 references. The Google Scholar searches resulted in sets between 4,320 and 67,800 and a total of 291,190 hits. The relative recall of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 76.2% and a maximum of 100% (7 searches). The precision of the Google Scholar searches had a minimum of 0.05% and a maximum of 0.92%. The overall relative recall for all searches was 92.9%, the overall precision was 0.13%. The reported relative recall must be interpreted with care. It is a quality indicator of Google Scholar confined to

  8. Barriers to Electronic Health Record Adoption: a Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Kristof, Caitlin; Jones, Beau; Mitchell, Erica; Martinez, Angelica

    2016-12-01

    Federal efforts and local initiatives to increase adoption and use of electronic health records (EHRs) continue, particularly since the enactment of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act. Roughly one in four hospitals not adopted even a basic EHR system. A review of the barriers may help in understanding the factors deterring certain healthcare organizations from implementation. We wanted to assemble an updated and comprehensive list of adoption barriers of EHR systems in the United States. Authors searched CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar, and accepted only articles relevant to our primary objective. Reviewers independently assessed the works highlighted by our search and selected several for review. Through multiple consensus meetings, authors tapered articles to a final selection most germane to the topic (n = 27). Each article was thoroughly examined by multiple authors in order to achieve greater validity. Authors identified 39 barriers to EHR adoption within the literature selected for the review. These barriers appeared 125 times in the literature; the most frequently mentioned barriers were regarding cost, technical concerns, technical support, and resistance to change. Despite federal and local incentives, the initial cost of adopting an EHR is a common existing barrier. The other most commonly mentioned barriers include technical support, technical concerns, and maintenance/ongoing costs. Policy makers should consider incentives that continue to reduce implementation cost, possibly aimed more directly at organizations that are known to have lower adoption rates, such as small hospitals in rural areas.

  9. Sealants in dentistry: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Condò, R; Cioffi, A; Riccio, A; Totino, M; Condò, S G; Cerroni, L

    2013-03-01

    The occlusal surface is the most affected area by dental caries and the sealing of the pits and of the fissures has been found, in time, the preventive method most effective trying to counteract the onset. Currently, the WHO considers it as a primary preventive measure, in other words one of the most effective and least invasive available to ensure the complete protection and the total preservation of the occlusal carious by the phenomenon. THE AIM OF THIS WORK HAS BEEN TO PERFORM A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON CLINICAL TRIALS OF DIFFERENT SEALING MATERIALS, IN ORDER TO: compare their individual characteristics, highlight the reliability and the long-term efficacy and identify the most significant variables, both technological and clinics, in order to declare whether or not the success of this method prior. The research has been carried out in the MEDLINE database by choosing keywords as "sealants" and "follow up". Only studies published in the last thirteen years have been considered and have been evaluated only types of scientific articles that fall within the definition of Anglo-Saxon "Clinical Trial" and "Controlled Clinical Trial", excluding all experimental works in vitro, case-reports, meta-analyzes and literature reviews. Have been also considered only scientific papers on patients between the ages of 0 and 18 years. Out of 29 studies, evaluating a total of 2900 individuals (aged between 2.5 and 17 years), 7411 seals made by using resin-based sealants (RB Sealants), modified glass ionomer sealants (RMGI) and compomer sealants have been analyzed. The best retention capacity of the material in time has been obtained from the use of RB Sealants compared to RMGI, demonstrating retention values much lower with partial loss of material at a distance of one year from the clinic. The compomers demonstrate retention values intermediates. The incidence of caries in a year is negligible for all sealants application. In terms of retention, resin

  10. Sealants in dentistry: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    CONDÒ, R.; CIOFFI, A.; RICCIO, A.; TOTINO, M.; CONDÒ, S.G.; CERRONI, L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The occlusal surface is the most affected area by dental caries and the sealing of the pits and of the fissures has been found, in time, the preventive method most effective trying to counteract the onset. Currently, the WHO considers it as a primary preventive measure, in other words one of the most effective and least invasive available to ensure the complete protection and the total preservation of the occlusal carious by the phenomenon. Purpose. The aim of this work has been to perform a systematic review of the literature on clinical trials of different sealing materials, in order to: compare their individual characteristics, highlight the reliability and the long-term efficacy and identify the most significant variables, both technological and clinics, in order to declare whether or not the success of this method prior. Materials and methods. The research has been carried out in the MEDLINE database by choosing keywords as “sealants” and “follow up”. Only studies published in the last thirteen years have been considered and have been evaluated only types of scientific articles that fall within the definition of Anglo-Saxon “Clinical Trial” and “Controlled Clinical Trial”, excluding all experimental works in vitro, case-reports, meta-analyzes and literature reviews. Have been also considered only scientific papers on patients between the ages of 0 and 18 years. Results. Out of 29 studies, evaluating a total of 2900 individuals (aged between 2.5 and 17 years), 7411 seals made by using resin-based sealants (RB Sealants), modified glass ionomer sealants (RMGI) and compomer sealants have been analyzed. The best retention capacity of the material in time has been obtained from the use of RB Sealants compared to RMGI, demonstrating retention values much lower with partial loss of material at a distance of one year from the clinic. The compomers demonstrate retention values intermediates. The incidence of caries in a year is negligible for all

  11. Cancer risk in dermatomyositis: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Di Rollo, D; Abeni, D; Tracanna, M; Capo, A; Amerio, P

    2014-10-01

    The association between idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) and cancer has been extensively studied in adults. Many epidemiological studies demonstrated this association, which appears stronger for dermatomyositis (DM) than for polymyositis (PM). The first case suggesting an association between cancer and DM was reported in 1916. At present the reported incidence of cancer association with DM varies widely, from less than 7% to over 30%. Many early evidences came from case reports, but this association was later confirmed in case-control as well as in population-based studies. Ovarian cancer or breast cancer in females and lung cancer in males are the main malignancies associated with DM. Given the frequency of the association of dermatomyositis with cancer, for cost-effectiveness reasons it might be important to develop simple and appropriate diagnostic tests for identification of patients with DM, who may be at higher risk of developing a malignancy. Clinicians should plan follow-up schedules to optimize both cancer detection and treatment, and thus to improve patient survival. Many different clinical and serological signs have been suggested as possible predictive factors for malignancy in dermatomyositis: age, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), presence of cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis, cutaneous rash and skin lesions as cutaneous necrosis and periungueal erythemas, neoplastic markers or dysphagia. The results of the different studies are quite discordant. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature to evaluate the level of the risk of cancer in patients with dermatomyositis and to explore whether certain patient characteristics may be linked to different levels of cancer risk.

  12. What is kangaroo mother care? Systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Grace J; Valsangkar, Bina; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Boundy, Ellen O; Wall, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC), often defined as skin–to–skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent or exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from the hospital has been effective in reducing the risk of mortality among preterm and low birth weight infants. Research studies and program implementation of KMC have used various definitions. Objectives To describe the current definitions of KMC in various settings, analyze the presence or absence of KMC components in each definition, and present a core definition of KMC based on common components that are present in KMC literature. Methods We conducted a systematic review and searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Regional Databases for studies with key words “kangaroo mother care”, “kangaroo care” or “skin to skin care” from 1 January 1960 to 24 April 2014. Two independent reviewers screened articles and abstracted data. Findings We screened 1035 articles and reports; 299 contained data on KMC and neonatal outcomes or qualitative information on KMC implementation. Eighty–eight of the studies (29%) did not define KMC. Two hundred and eleven studies (71%) included skin–to–skin contact (SSC) in their KMC definition, 49 (16%) included exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding, 22 (7%) included early discharge criteria, and 36 (12%) included follow–up after discharge. One hundred and sixty–seven studies (56%) described the duration of SSC. Conclusions There exists significant heterogeneity in the definition of KMC. A large number of studies did not report definitions of KMC. Skin–to–skin contact is the core component of KMC, whereas components such as breastfeeding, early discharge, and follow–up care are context specific. To implement KMC effectively development of a global standardized definition of KMC is needed. PMID:27231546

  13. Preterm human milk composition: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Catherine; Watson, Mistral; Lazidis, Grace; Reeve, Sarah; Dods, Kenneth; Simmer, Karen; McLeod, Gemma

    2016-09-01

    There are wide variations in the macronutrient values adopted by neonatal intensive care units and industry to fortify milk in efforts to achieve recommended intakes for preterm infants. Contributing to this is the variation in macronutrient composition of preterm milk between and within mothers and the variable quality of milk analyses used to determine the macronutrient content of milk. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using articles published in English between 1959 and 2013 that reported the concentrations of one or more macronutrients or energy content in human preterm milk, sampled over a representative 24-h period. Searched medical databases included Ovid Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Results are presented as mean values and ranges for each macronutrient during weeks 1-8 of lactation, and preferred mean values (g/100 ml) for colostrum (week 1) and mature milk (weeks 2-8; protein: 1·27, fat: 3·46, lactose: 6·15 and carbohydrate: 7·34), using data from studies employing the highest-quality analyses. Industry-directed fortification practices using these mean values fail to meet protein targets for infants weighing <1000 g when the fortified milk is fed <170-190 ml/kg per d, and the protein:energy ratio of the fortified milk is inadequate. This study aimed to provide additional information to industry in order to guide their future formulation of breast milk fortifiers. Quality macronutrient analyses of adequately sampled preterm breast milk would improve our understanding of the level of fortification needed to meet recommended protein and energy intakes and growth targets, as well as support standardised reporting of nutritional outcomes.

  14. Economic evaluation of dental sealants: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Akinlotan, Marvellous; Chen, Bradley; Fontanilla, Tiana M; Chen, Annie; Fan, Victoria Y

    2017-09-06

    To systematically review the literature on economic evaluations of dental sealants and examine the costs and effectiveness of caries prevention using sealants. Of 21 full-text articles examined, a total of 13 were included in this study. These studies are grouped by the type of intervention as follows: (i) sealants compared with no sealants; (ii) sealants compared with other forms of caries prevention; (iii) resin-based sealants compared with glass-ionomer sealants; (iv) different sealing strategies in primary teeth; (v) different sealing strategies in permanent teeth; and (vi) sealants based on school- or clinic-based setting of delivery. All currency is reported in constant 2010 US$. Cost-effectiveness analyses differed due to varying study designs, assumptions, sealant delivery settings, outcomes, caries risk assessment and study durations. Findings varied on the cost-effectiveness of sealants compared with other caries-preventive strategies. Under the assumption of equal caries risk, always sealing primary molars appeared to be the most effective strategy, whereas risk-based sealing was the optimal strategy with differing caries risk. Studies that assessed sealing strategies in permanent teeth reported that risk-based sealing was more cost-effective than not sealing, but they differed on the cost-effectiveness of risk-based seal compared with non-risk-based seal. Sealants delivered in school settings had mixed results on costs but were as equally effective as sealants delivered in private practices. The cost-effectiveness of sealants is dependent on the conditions of delivery. The list of cost-effectiveness ratios for each intervention can support policy makers to estimate expected returns on their investments in dental sealants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Symptomatic Fibroid Management: Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Setton, Robert; Carlow, John J.; Shaktman, Barry D.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Symptomatic uterine fibroids are a societal and healthcare burden with no clear consensus among medical professionals as to which procedural treatment is most appropriate for each symptomatic patient. Our purpose was to determine whether recommendations can be made regarding best practice based on review and analysis of the literature since 2006. Database: A systematic search of journal articles relevant to the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids was performed within PubMed, clinical society websites, and medical device manufacturers' websites. All clinical trials published in English, representing original research, and reporting clinical outcomes associated with interventions for the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids were considered. Each article was screened and selected based on study type, content, relevance, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists score, and internal/external validity. Outcomes of interest were patient baseline characteristics, fibroid characteristics, procedural details, complications, and long-term follow-up. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to test the quantitative data. Assessment of 143 full-length articles through January 2016 produced 45 articles for the quantitative analysis. The weighted combined results from hysterectomy trials were compared with those from uterine-preserving fibroid studies (myomectomy, uterine artery embolization, laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation, and magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound). Conclusion: We explored trends that might guide clinicians when counseling patients who need treatment of symptomatic fibroids. We found that fibroid therapy is trending toward uterine-conserving treatments and outcomes are comparable across those treatments. Since minimally invasive options are increasing, it is important for the clinician to provide the patient with evidence-based therapeutic strategies.

  16. Intellectual capital in the healthcare sector: a systematic review and critique of the literature.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jenna M; Brown, Adalsteinn; Baker, G Ross

    2015-12-15

    Variations in the performance of healthcare organizations may be partly explained by differing "stocks" of intellectual capital (IC), and differing approaches and capacities for leveraging IC. This study synthesizes what is currently known about the conceptualization, management and measurement of IC in healthcare through a review of the literature. Peer-reviewed papers on IC in healthcare published between 1990 and 2014 were identified through searches of five databases using the following key terms: intellectual capital/assets, knowledge capital/assets/resources, and intangible assets/resources. Articles deemed relevant for inclusion underwent systematic data extraction to identify overarching themes and were assessed for their methodological quality. Thirty-seven papers were included in the review. The primary research method used was cross-sectional questionnaires focused on hospital managers' perceptions of IC, followed by semi-structured interviews and analysis of administrative data. Empirical studies suggest that IC is linked to subjective process and performance indicators in healthcare organizations. Although the literature on IC in healthcare is growing, it is not advanced. In this paper, we identify and examine the conceptual, theoretical and methodological limitations of the literature. The concept and framework of IC offer a means to study the value of intangible resources in healthcare organizations, how to manage systematically these resources together, and their mutually enhancing interactions on performance. We offer several recommendations for future research.

  17. Child and adolescent self-report symptom measurement in pediatric oncology research: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Laura C; McFatrich, Molly; Lucas, Nicole; Walker, Jennifer S; Withycombe, Janice S; Hinds, Pamela S; Sung, Lillian; Tomlinson, Deborah; Freyer, David R; Mack, Jennifer W; Baker, Justin N; Reeve, Bryce B

    2017-09-06

    Previous work in pediatric oncology has found that clinicians and parents tend to under-report the frequency and severity of treatment-related symptoms compared to child self-report. As such, there is a need to identify high-quality self-report instruments to be used in pediatric oncology research studies. This study's objective was to conduct a systematic literature review of existing English language instruments used to measure self-reported symptoms in children and adolescents undergoing cancer treatment. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO to identify relevant articles published through November 10, 2016. Using pre-specified inclusion/exclusion criteria, six trained reviewers carefully screened abstracts and full-text articles for eligibility. There were 7738 non-duplicate articles identified in the literature search. Forty articles met our eligibility criteria, and within these articles, there were 38 self-report English symptom instruments. Most studies evaluated only cross-sectional psychometric properties, such as reliability or validity. Ten studies assessed an instrument's responsiveness or ability to detect changes in symptoms over time. Eight instruments met our criteria for use in future longitudinal pediatric oncology studies. This systematic review aids pediatric oncology researchers in identifying and selecting appropriate symptom measures with strong psychometric evidence for their studies. Enhancing the child's voice in pediatric oncology research studies allows us to better understand the impact of cancer and its treatment on the lives of children.

  18. Red meat consumption and ischemic heart disease. A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian

    2015-10-01

    Several lines of evidence attest that diet may strongly influence the cardiovascular risk. We performed an electronic search in Medline (with PubMed interface), Scopus and ISI Web of Science, to identify epidemiological studies on the association between red meat intake and the overall risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Eleven studies (8 prospective and 3 case-control) were finally selected for this systematic literature review. Although a larger intake of red meat was found to be a significant risk factor for IHD in four studies (2 prospective and 2 case-control), no significant association was found in five other trials (4 prospective and 1 case-control). We suggest that future diet recommendations for prevention of cardiovascular disease should take into account that the current literature data does not support the existence of a clear relationship between large intake of red meat and increased risk of myocardial ischemia.

  19. Ankle arthrodesis: A systematic approach and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Youichi; Hannon, Charles P; Seow, Dexter; Kennedy, John G

    2016-01-01

    Ankle arthrodesis is a common treatment used for patients with end-stage ankle arthritis (ESAA). The surgical goal of ankle arthrodesis is to obtain bony union between the tibia and talus with adequate alignment [slight valgus (0°-5°)], neutral dorsiflexion, and slight external rotation positions) in order to provide a pain-free plantigrade foot for weightbearing activities. There are many variations in operative technique including deferring approaches (open or arthroscopic) and differing fixation methods (internal or external fixation). Each technique has its advantage and disadvantages. Success of ankle arthrodesis can be dependent on several factors, including patient selection, surgeons’ skills, patient comorbidities, operative care, etc. However, from our experience, the majority of ESAA patients obtain successful clinical outcomes. This review aims to outline the indications and goals of arthrodesis for treatment of ESAA and discuss both open and arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis. A systematic step by step operative technique guide is presented for both the arthroscopic and open approaches including a postoperative protocol. We review the current evidence supporting each approach. The review finishes with a report of the most recent evidence of outcomes after both approaches and concerns regarding the development of hindfoot arthritis. PMID:27900266

  20. Ankle arthrodesis: A systematic approach and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Youichi; Hannon, Charles P; Seow, Dexter; Kennedy, John G

    2016-11-18

    Ankle arthrodesis is a common treatment used for patients with end-stage ankle arthritis (ESAA). The surgical goal of ankle arthrodesis is to obtain bony union between the tibia and talus with adequate alignment [slight valgus (0°-5°)], neutral dorsiflexion, and slight external rotation positions) in order to provide a pain-free plantigrade foot for weightbearing activities. There are many variations in operative technique including deferring approaches (open or arthroscopic) and differing fixation methods (internal or external fixation). Each technique has its advantage and disadvantages. Success of ankle arthrodesis can be dependent on several factors, including patient selection, surgeons' skills, patient comorbidities, operative care, etc. However, from our experience, the majority of ESAA patients obtain successful clinical outcomes. This review aims to outline the indications and goals of arthrodesis for treatment of ESAA and discuss both open and arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis. A systematic step by step operative technique guide is presented for both the arthroscopic and open approaches including a postoperative protocol. We review the current evidence supporting each approach. The review finishes with a report of the most recent evidence of outcomes after both approaches and concerns regarding the development of hindfoot arthritis.

  1. Chiropractic management of fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Michael; Vernon, Howard; Ko, Gordon; Lawson, Gordon; Perera, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is one of the most commonly diagnosed nonarticular soft tissue conditions in all fields of musculoskeletal medicine, including chiropractic. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive review of the literature for the most commonly used treatment procedures in chiropractic for FMS and to provide evidence ratings for these procedures. The emphasis of this literature review was on conservative and nonpharmaceutical therapies. The Scientific Commission of the Council on Chiropractic Guidelines and Practice Parameters (CCGPP) was charged with developing literature syntheses, organized by anatomical region, to evaluate and report on the evidence base for chiropractic care. This article is the outcome of this charge. As part of the CCGPP process, preliminary drafts of these articles were posted on the CCGPP Web site www.ccgpp.org (2006-8) to allow for an open process and the broadest possible mechanism for stakeholder input. Online comprehensive literature searches were performed of the following databases: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; National Guidelines Clearinghouse; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Manual, Alternative, and Natural Therapy Index System; Index to Chiropractic Literature, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Allied and Complementary Medicine; and PubMed up to June 2006. Our search yielded the following results: 8 systematic reviews, 3 meta-analyses, 5 published guidelines, and 1 consensus document. Our direct search of the databases for additional randomized trials did not find any chiropractic randomized clinical trials that were not already included in one or more of the systematic reviews/guidelines. The review of the Manual, Alternative, and Natural Therapy Index System and Index to Chiropractic Literature databases yielded an additional 38 articles regarding various nonpharmacologic therapies such as chiropractic, acupuncture, nutritional/herbal supplements

  2. Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Dahl, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation) in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status) during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion). No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account. PMID:23060737

  3. Behavioral functionality of mobile apps in health interventions: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Payne, Hannah E; Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-02-26

    Several thousand mobile phone apps are available to download to mobile phones for health and fitness. Mobile phones may provide a unique means of administering health interventions to populations. The purpose of this systematic review was to systematically search and describe the literature on mobile apps used in health behavior interventions, describe the behavioral features and focus of health apps, and to evaluate the potential of apps to disseminate health behavior interventions. We conducted a review of the literature in September 2014 using key search terms in several relevant scientific journal databases. Only English articles pertaining to health interventions using mobile phone apps were included in the final sample. The 24 studies identified for this review were primarily feasibility and pilot studies of mobile apps with small sample sizes. All studies were informed by behavioral theories or strategies, with self-monitoring as the most common construct. Acceptability of mobile phone apps was high among mobile phone users. The lack of large sample studies using mobile phone apps may signal a need for additional studies on the potential use of mobile apps to assist individuals in changing their health behaviors. Of these studies, there is early evidence that apps are well received by users. Based on available research, mobile apps may be considered a feasible and acceptable means of administering health interventions, but a greater number of studies and more rigorous research and evaluations are needed to determine efficacy and establish evidence for best practices.

  4. The global pharmacy workforce: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Hawthorne, Nicola; Anderson, Claire

    2009-01-01

    The importance of health workforce provision has gained significance and is now considered one of the most pressing issues worldwide, across all health professions. Against this background, the objectives of the work presented here were to systematically explore and identify contemporary issues surrounding expansion of the global pharmacy workforce in order to assist the International Pharmaceutical Federation working group on the workforce. International peer and non-peer-reviewed literature published between January 1998 and February 2008 was analysed. Articles were collated by performing searches of appropriate databases and reference lists of relevant articles; in addition, key informants were contacted. Information that met specific quality standards and pertained to the pharmacy workforce was extracted to matrices and assigned an evidence grade. Sixty-nine papers were identified for inclusion (48 peer reviewed and 21 non-peer-reviewed). Evaluation of evidence revealed the global pharmacy workforce to be composed of increasing numbers of females who were working fewer hours; this decreased their overall full-time equivalent contribution to the workforce, compared to male pharmacists. Distribution of pharmacists was uneven with respect to location (urban/rural, less-developed/more-developed countries) and work sector (private/public). Graduates showed a preference for completing pre-registration training near where they studied as an undergraduate; this was of considerable importance to rural areas. Increases in the number of pharmacy student enrolments and pharmacy schools occurred alongside an expansion in the number and roles of pharmacy technicians. Increased international awareness and support existed for the certification, registration and regulation of pharmacy technicians and accreditation of training courses. The most common factors adding to the demand for pharmacists were increased feminization, clinical governance measures, complexity of medication

  5. Mindfulness interventions for psychosis: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Aust, J; Bradshaw, T

    2017-02-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychosis and the more specific diagnosis of schizophrenia constitute a major psychiatric disorder which impacts heavily on the self-esteem, functioning and quality of life of those affected. A number of mindfulness therapies have been developed in recent years, showing promising results when used with people with the disorder. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This review of the literature included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs), rather than other typically less robust methods of research (e.g. case studies, noncontrolled studies). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: We concluded that mindfulness therapies can be safely used with people with psychosis and that they provide a number of therapeutic benefits compared with routine care and, in some cases, other interventions. Larger, methodologically improved trials are now recommended to evaluate the benefits of mindfulness therapies further. Introduction A growing number of mindfulness interventions are being used with individuals with psychosis. These therapies employ elements of acceptance and compassion in addition to mindfulness. A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of these interventions have emerged in recent years, but no review of these latest trials exists. Question 'For individuals with psychosis, are mindfulness interventions more effective than treatment as usual or an alternative intervention, in improving patient-related outcomes as demonstrated in RCTs?' Method We undertook a systematic review of randomized controlled studies of mindfulness interventions for psychosis and schizophrenia (MIps). Studies were identified by searching the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Allied and Complementary Medicine. Findings The review identified 11 RCTs investigating eight mindfulness interventions. Significant improvements were reported on a number of measures, although gains were mostly

  6. Eurythmy Therapy in clinical studies: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Büssing, Arndt; Ostermann, Thomas; Majorek, Magdalena; Matthiessen, Peter F

    2008-03-31

    We aimed to overview the current literature on eurythmy therapy (EYT) which is an integral part of Anthroposophic Medicine. EYT can be described as a movement therapy in which speech movements are transposed into exercises which address the patient's capability to soul expression and strengthen his salutogenetic resources. We searched several databases such as Cochrane, EMBASE, NCCAM, NLM, DIMDI, CAMbase, and Medline for case-control studies, cohort studies and randomised controlled trials on the treatment effects of EYT in a clinical setting. In a second search we included journal databases from Karger, Kluwer, Springer, Thieme, and Merkurstab archive. We found 8 citations which met the inclusion criterion: 4 publications referring to a prospective cohort study without control group (the AMOS study), and 4 articles referring to 2 explorative pre-post studies without control group, 1 prospective, non-randomized comparative study, and 1 descriptive study with a control group. The methodological quality of studies ranged in from poor to good, and in sample size from 5 to 898 patients. In most studies, EYT was used as an add-on, not as a mono-therapy. The studies described positive treatment effects with clinically relevant effect sizes in most cases. Indications, study designs and the usage of additional treatments within the identified studies were quite heterogeneous. Despite of this, EYT can be regarded as a potentially relevant add-on in a therapeutic concept, although its specific relevance remains to be clarified. Well performed controlled studies on this unique treatment are highly recommended.

  7. Interleukin gene polymorphisms and breast cancer: a case control study and systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, SP; Azmy, IAF; Higham, SE; Wilson, AG; Cross, SS; Cox, A; Brown, NJ; Reed, MW

    2006-01-01

    Background Interleukins and cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of many solid cancers. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in cytokine genes are thought to influence the expression or function of these proteins and many have been evaluated for their role in inflammatory disease and cancer predisposition. The aim of this study was to evaluate any role of specific SNPs in the interleukin genes IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL4R, IL6 and IL10 in predisposition to breast cancer susceptibility and severity. Methods Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key cytokine genes were genotyped in breast cancer patients and in appropriate healthy volunteers who were similar in age, race and sex. Genotyping was performed using a high throughput allelic discrimination method. Data on clinico-pathological details and survival were collected. A systematic review of Medline English literature was done to retrieve previous studies of these polymorphisms in breast cancer. Results None of the polymorphisms studied showed any overall predisposition to breast cancer susceptibility, severity or to time to death or occurrence of distant metastases. The results of the systematic review are summarised. Conclusion Polymorphisms within key interleukin genes (IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL4R, IL6 and IL10 do not appear to play a significant overall role in breast cancer susceptibility or severity. PMID:16842617

  8. [Quality appraisal in systematic reviews of normative literature. A problem analysis].

    PubMed

    Mertz, Marcel

    2017-08-30

    Systematic reviews aim at searching, selecting, analyzing and synthesizing scientific literature in a transparent and systematic way in order to inform decision-making in the health care system on the basis of the best available evidence. In recent years, such reviews gained in importance also in bio-, public health- and research ethics, as well as in health technology assessment. Such reviews do not only analyze ethically relevant empirical literature (e.g. on risk and benefit), but normative literature as well, i.e. literature consisting of ethical arguments. As the appraisal of the literature that should be included is paramount for a systematic review, the problem of how to appraise the quality of normative literature arises. To date, this problem is solved unsatisfactorily. After developing a pragmatic definition for "normative literature", a typology of different types of systematic reviews of normative literature is presented. Based on existing approaches for quality appraisal, this paper identifies three possible strategies for solving the problem of quality appraisal of normative literature, and discusses their respective strength and weaknesses relative to the different types of systematic reviews. It becomes apparent that none of the existing approaches is able to solve the problem of quality appraisal in a general and convincing way. The paper concludes with stating minimal conditions regarding the elaboration of future strategies, and outlines a promising strategy that is theoretically acceptable and practically feasible. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Patient Dissatisfaction Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Rajitha; Pratt, Dylan N; Banda, Joseph; Fick, Daniel P; Khan, Riaz J K; Robertson, Brett W

    2017-07-21

    Dissatisfaction following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is common. Approximately 20% of patients report dissatisfaction following primary TKA. This systematic literature review explores key factors affecting patient dissatisfaction following TKA. Six literature databases published between 2005 and 1 January 2016 were searched using 3 key search phrases. Papers were included if the study investigated patient dissatisfaction in primary unilateral or bilateral TKA. Information from each article was categorized to the domains of socioeconomic, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors affecting patient dissatisfaction. This review found that patient dissatisfaction pertains to several key factors. Patient expectations prior to surgery, the degree of improvement in knee function, and pain relief following surgery were commonly cited in the literature. Fewer associations were found in the socioeconomic and surgical domains. Identifying who may be dissatisfied after their TKA is mystifying; however, we note several strategies that target factors whereby an association exists. Further research is needed to better quantify dissatisfaction, so that the causal links underpinning dissatisfaction can be more fully appreciated and strategies employed to target them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of monoamniotic twin pregnancies: a case series and systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Allen, V M; Windrim, R; Barrett, J; Ohlsson, A

    2001-09-01

    To review the experience of the University of Toronto Perinatal Complex, Ontario, Canada concerning antenatally diagnosed monoamniotic twin pregnancies; and to compare our results with cases reported in the literature with respect to antenatal surveillance and perinatal outcome. A retrospective chart review of all twin gestations from 1993 to April 2000 was performed. A systematic review of the literature, 1966 to April 2000, of perinatal outcome in monoamniotic twin pregnancies was undertaken. All monoamniotic twin gestations at the University of Toronto. Case-series: 25 prenatally diagnosed monoamniotic twin pregnancies were identified. Seven pregnancies were affected by fetal anomalies. One fetus died at 29 weeks. Neonatal complications occurred below 33 weeks of gestational age and were related to immaturity. Systematic review of the literature: 49 studies met our selection criteria and reported 88 cases diagnosed antenatally. Fourteen pregnancies were affected by major congenital anomalies. Twenty fetuses died after 24 weeks of gestation. Neonatal complications varied widely in severity and depended on gestational age at birth. The risk of intrauterine fetal death was 10% at the University of Toronto and 12% in the review of the literature. Our experience, the largest so far, suggests that regular fetal surveillance and appropriate steroid administration leads to a good perinatal outcome. The risk of fetal death (10%-12%) is lower than the previously quoted risk of 30%-70%. A careful review of obstetric interventions and further work examining outpatient surveillance of monoamniotic twin pregnancies are needed. The best treatment of monoamniotic twin pregnancies can only be determined by randomised trials.

  11. Palliative care for people with severe persistent mental illness: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Woods, Anne; Willison, Kathleen; Kington, Cindy; Gavin, Alan

    2008-11-01

    A systematic overview of the literature on palliative care for people with severe persistent mental illness (SPMI) was conducted to inform clinical practice, research, and education. Empirical studies and nonempirical papers were included. Few empirical studies exist. There is even less information about the palliative care needs of, or the nature of palliative care provided to, people with SPMI. Mental health, primary care, and palliative care providers need to partner with people who have SPMI in developing and providing palliative care. The field of palliative care for people with SPMI is wide open and in need of methodologically sound studies that will help define the issues that exist for this vulnerable population. Recognizing the similarities between mental health and palliative care should lead to collaborative ventures and discussions in an attempt to address common and parallel issues.

  12. Eurythmy Therapy in clinical studies: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Büssing, Arndt; Ostermann, Thomas; Majorek, Magdalena; Matthiessen, Peter F

    2008-01-01

    Background We aimed to overview the current literature on eurythmy therapy (EYT) which is an integral part of Anthroposophic Medicine. EYT can be described as a movement therapy in which speech movements are transposed into exercises which address the patient's capability to soul expression and strengthen his salutogenetic resources. Methods We searched several databases such as Cochrane, EMBASE, NCCAM, NLM, DIMDI, CAMbase, and Medline for case-control studies, cohort studies and randomised controlled trials on the treatment effects of EYT in a clinical setting. In a second search we included journal databases from Karger, Kluwer, Springer, Thieme, and Merkurstab archive. Results We found 8 citations which met the inclusion criterion: 4 publications referring to a prospective cohort study without control group (the AMOS study), and 4 articles referring to 2 explorative pre-post studies without control group, 1 prospective, non-randomized comparative study, and 1 descriptive study with a control group. The methodological quality of studies ranged in from poor to good, and in sample size from 5 to 898 patients. In most studies, EYT was used as an add-on, not as a mono-therapy. The studies described positive treatment effects with clinically relevant effect sizes in most cases. Conclusion Indications, study designs and the usage of additional treatments within the identified studies were quite heterogeneous. Despite of this, EYT can be regarded as a potentially relevant add-on in a therapeutic concept, although its specific relevance remains to be clarified. Well performed controlled studies on this unique treatment are highly recommended. PMID:18377647

  13. Triage for Patients with Spinal Complaints: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Claire; Wiles, Louise; Bernhardsson, Susanne; Grimmer, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a systematic overview of the past decade of literature on processes of triage for patients with spinal pain, outcomes measured and markers of effectiveness. A systematic search of the literature with narrative synthesis of findings was conducted. Studies in English language of any design concerning spinal triage programmes for adults with acute or chronic spinal complaints were considered for inclusion. Electronic database searches were conducted in OVID, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Health Source Nursing, Scopus and Web of Science. Additional references were sourced through pearling reference lists, and expert input. Findings were synthesized descriptively. Of 216 potentially relevant records, 21 papers (20 studies) were included. There was little commonality in triage activities/programmes and outcomes, although physiotherapists were common members of triage programmes. Positive outcomes were reported most commonly for wait times, with several studies also reporting high levels of patient and physician satisfaction. Outcomes such as surgical conversion rates and selection accuracy were less clear. Spinal triage programmes have the potential to improve efficiency of care for outpatients with spinal complaints. The evidence gaps in health outcomes, service models and cost effectiveness should be addressed by more robust prospective research designs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications.

  15. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications. PMID:27177402

  16. Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to the Craniovertebral Junction: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Tatsuhiro; Platt, Andrew; Zada, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Background We reviewed the current literature pertaining to extended endoscopic endonasal approaches to the craniovertebral junction. Methods A systematic literature review was utilized to identify published surgical cases of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the craniovertebral junction. Full-text manuscripts were examined for various measures of surgical indications, patient characteristics, operative technique, and surgical outcomes. Results We identified 71 cases involving endoscopic endonasal approaches for surgical management of a variety of pathologies located within the craniovertebral junction. Patient ages ranged from 3 to 87 years, with 40 females and 31 males. Five patients required tracheostomy, two were reintubated, and all others experienced an average intubation duration of 0.54 days following surgery. Fifty-eight patients (81.7%) underwent an additional posterior decompression or fusion either before or after the endonasal procedure. A complete resection of the pathologic lesion was reported in 57 cases (83.8%), another five were successful biopsies, and four resulted in partial resection. The follow-up time ranged from 0.5 to 57 months. Conclusion Although the transoral approach has been the standard for anterior surgical management for the past several decades, our systematic review illustrates that the extended endoscopic endonasal approach is a safe and effective alternative for most pathologies affecting the craniovertebral junction. PMID:26682128

  17. Severe strongyloidiasis: a systematic review of case reports

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis is commonly a clinically unapparent, chronic infection, but immuno suppressed subjects can develop fatal disease. We carried out a review of literature on hyperinfection syndrome (HS) and disseminated strongyloidiasis (DS), in order to describe the most challenging aspects of severe strongyloidiasis. Methods We conducted a structured search using PubMed to collect case reports and short case series on HS/DS published from 1991 to 2011. We restricted search to papers in English, Spanish, Italian and French. Case reports were classified as HS/DS according to given definitions. Results Records screened were 821, and 311 were excluded through titles and abstract evaluation. Of 510 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, 213 were included in qualitative analysis. As some of them were short case series, eventually the number of cases analyzed was 244. Steroids represented the main trigger predisposing to HS and DS (67% cases): they were mostly administered to treat underlying conditions (e.g. lymphomas, rheumatic diseases). However, sometimes steroids were empirically prescribed to treat signs and symptoms caused by unsuspected/unrecognized strongyloidiasis. Diagnosis was obtained by microscopy examination in 100% cases, while serology was done in a few cases (6.5%). Only in 3/29 cases of solid organ/bone marrow transplantation there is mention of pre-transplant serological screening. Therapeutic regimens were different in terms of drugs selection and combination, administration route and duration. Similar fatality rate was observed between patients with DS (68.5%) and HS (60%). Conclusions Proper screening (which must include serology) is mandatory in high - risk patients, for instance candidates to immunosuppressive medications, currently or previously living in endemic countries. In some cases, presumptive treatment might be justified. Ivermectin is the gold standard for treatment, although the optimal dosage is not clearly defined in

  18. Accuracy of prehospital triage protocols in selecting severely injured patients: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Rein, Eveline A J; Houwert, R Marijn; Gunning, Amy C; Lichtveld, Rob A; Leenen, Luke P H; van Heijl, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Prehospital trauma triage ensures proper transport of patients at risk of severe injury to hospitals with an appropriate corresponding level of trauma care. Incorrect triage results in undertriage and overtriage. The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma recommends an undertriage rate below 5% and an overtriage rate below 50% for prehospital trauma triage protocols. To find the most accurate prehospital trauma triage protocol, a clear overview of all currently available protocols and corresponding outcomes is necessary. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current literature on all available prehospital trauma triage protocols and determine accuracy of protocol-based triage quality in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A search of Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases was performed to identify all studies describing prehospital trauma triage protocols before November 2016. The search terms included "trauma," "trauma center," or "trauma system" combined with "triage," "undertriage," or "overtriage." All studies describing protocol-based triage quality were reviewed. To assess the quality of these type of studies, a new critical appraisal tool was developed. In this review, 21 articles were included with numbers of patients ranging from 130 to over 1 million. Significant predictors for severe injury were: vital signs, suspicion of certain anatomic injuries, mechanism of injury, and age. Sensitivity ranged from 10% to 100%; specificity from 9% to 100%. Nearly all protocols had a low sensitivity, thereby failing to identify severely injured patients. Additionally, the critical appraisal showed poor quality of the majority of included studies. This systematic review shows that nearly all protocols are incapable of identifying severely injured patients. Future studies of high methodological quality should be performed to improve prehospital trauma triage protocols. Systematic review, level III.

  19. School Leadership and Management in South Africa: Findings from a Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature on school leadership and management in South Africa, linked to the 20th anniversary of democratic government and integrated education. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors conducted a systematic review of all published work since 2007 with a more selective…

  20. School Leadership and Management in South Africa: Findings from a Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature on school leadership and management in South Africa, linked to the 20th anniversary of democratic government and integrated education. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors conducted a systematic review of all published work since 2007 with a more selective…

  1. A multidisciplinary systematic literature review on frailty: overview of the methodology used by the Canadian Initiative on Frailty and Aging.

    PubMed

    Karunananthan, Sathya; Wolfson, Christina; Bergman, Howard; Béland, François; Hogan, David B

    2009-10-12

    Over the past two decades, there has been a substantial growth in the body of literature on frailty in older persons. However, there is no consensus on its definition or the criteria used to identify frailty. In response to this lack of consensus, the Canadian Initiative on Frailty and Aging carried out a set of systematic reviews of the literature in ten areas of frailty research: biological basis; social basis; prevalence; risk factors; impact; identification; prevention and management; environment and technology; health services; health and social policy. This paper describes the methodology that was developed for the systematic reviews. A Central Coordination Group (CCG) was responsible for developing the methodology. This involved the development of search strategies and keywords, article selection processes, quality assessment tools, and guidelines for the synthesis of results. Each review was conducted by two experts in the content area, with the assistance of methodologists and statisticians from the CCG. Conducting a series of systematic literature reviews involving a range of disciplines on a concept that does not have a universally accepted definition posed several conceptual and methodological challenges. The most important conceptual challenge was determining what would qualify as literature on frailty. The methodological challenges arose from our goal of structuring a consistent methodology for reviewing literature from diverse fields of research. At the outset, certain methodological guidelines were deemed essential to ensure the validity of all the reviews. Nevertheless, it was equally important to permit flexibility in the application of the proposed methodology to capture the essence of frailty research within the given fields. The results of these reviews allowed us to establish the status of current knowledge on frailty and promote collaboration between disciplines. Conducting systematic literature reviews in health science that involve multiple

  2. Nurses' shift reports: a systematic literature search and critical review of qualitative field studies.

    PubMed

    Buus, Niels; Hoeck, Bente; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    To identify reporting practices that feature in studies of nurses' shift reports across diverse nursing specialities. The objectives were to perform an exhaustive systematic literature search and to critically review the quality and findings of qualitative field studies of nurses' shift reports. Nurses' shift reports are routine occurrences in healthcare organisations that are viewed as crucial for patient outcomes, patient safety and continuity of care. Studies of communication between nurses attend primarily to 1:1 communication and analyse the adequacy and accuracy of patient information and feature handovers at the bedside. Still, verbal reports between groups of nurses about patients are commonplace. Shift reports are obvious sites for studying the situated accomplishment of professional nursing at the group level. This review is focused exclusively on qualitative field research for nuanced and contextualised insights into nurses' everyday shift reporting practices. The study is a systematic literature search and critical review of qualitative field analyses of nurses' shift reports. We searched in the databases CIHAHL, PubMed and PsycINFO and identified and reviewed 19 articles published 1992-2014. Data were systematically extracted using criteria for the evaluation of qualitative research reports. The studies described shift report practices and identified several factors contributing to distribution of clinical knowledge. Shift report practices were described as highly conventionalised and locally situated, but with occasional opportunities for improvisation and negotiation between nurses. Finally, shift reports were described as multifunctional meetings, with individual and social effects for nurses and teams. Innovations in between-shift communications can benefit from this analysis, by providing for the many functions of handovers that are revealed in field studies. Leaders and practising nurses may consider what are the best opportunities for nurses to

  3. Peer-based health interventions for people with serious mental illness: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Camacho, David; Vélez-Grau, Carolina M; Stefancic, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Health interventions delivered by peer specialists or co-facilitated by peer specialists and health professionals can help improve the physical health of people with serious mental illness (SMI). Yet, the quality of the studies examining these health interventions and their impact on health outcomes remains unclear. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic literature review of peer-based health interventions for people with SMI. We rated the methodological quality of studies, summarized intervention strategies and health outcomes, and evaluated the inclusion of racial and ethnic minorities in these studies. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines to conduct our systematic literature review. Electronic bibliographic databases and manual searches were used to locate articles that were published in English in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2015, described peer-based health interventions for people with SMI, and evaluated the impact of the interventions on physical health outcomes. Two independent reviewers used a standardized instrument to rate studies' methodological quality, abstracted study characteristics, and evaluated the effects of the interventions on different health outcomes. Eighteen articles were reviewed. Findings indicated that the strength of the evidence generated from these studies is limited due to several methodological limitations. Mixed and limited intervention effects were reported for most health outcomes. The most promising interventions were self-management and peer-navigator interventions. Efforts to strengthen the evidence of peer-based interventions require a research agenda that focuses on establishing the efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions across different populations and settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Global and regional burden of infective endocarditis, 1990-2010: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bin Abdulhak, Aref A; Baddour, Larry M; Erwin, Patricia J; Hoen, Bruno; Chu, Vivian H; Mensah, George A; Tleyjeh, Imad M

    2014-03-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disease associated with serious complications. The GBD 2010 (Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors) study IE expert group conducted a systematic review of IE epidemiology literature to inform estimates of the burden on IE in 21 world regions in 1990 and 2010. The disease model of IE for the GBD 2010 study included IE death and 2 sequelae: stroke and valve surgery. Several medical and science databases were searched for IE epidemiology studies in GBD high-, low-, and middle-income regions published between 1980 and 2008. The epidemiologic parameters of interest were IE incidence, proportions of IE patients who developed stroke or underwent valve surgery, and case fatality. Literature searches yielded 1,975 unique papers, of which 115 published in 10 languages were included in the systematic review. Eligible studies were population-based (17%), multicenter hospital-based (11%), and single-center hospital-based studies (71%). Population-based studies were reported from only 6 world regions. Data were missing or sparse in many low- and middle-income regions. The crude incidence of IE ranged between 1.5 and 11.6 cases per 100,000 people and was reported from 10 countries. The overall mean proportion of IE patients that developed stroke was 0.158 ± 0.091, and the mean proportion of patients that underwent valve surgery was 0.324 ± 0.188. The mean case fatality risk was 0.211 ± 0.104. A systematic review for the GBD 2010 study provided IE epidemiology estimates for many world regions, but highlighted the lack of information about IE in low- and middle-income regions. More complete knowledge of the global burden of IE will require improved IE surveillance in all world regions.

  5. Attitudes, Beliefs, and Trends Regarding Adolescent Oncofertility Discussions: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Barlevy, Dorit; Wangmo, Tenzin; Elger, Bernice S; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2016-06-01

    Due to improved survival rates of adolescent cancers, increasing attention is paid to addressing patients' future quality of life after treatment. A salient quality of life issue for adolescent survivors is reproductive capacity. Discussing oncofertility, that is, cancer treatment's possible effects on fertility and fertility preservation (FP) options, is a means to address this concern by informing patients and parents regarding options available to them to prevent future struggles with infertility. This systematic literature review aggregates and summarizes the attitudes, beliefs, and patterns of behavior of all stakeholders (i.e., patients, parents, and healthcare providers) in oncofertility discussions when the patient is an adolescent (12-17 years old). English, French, and German literature was systematically identified according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, via four databases, using several combinations of search terms. Book chapters, dissertations, and peer-reviewed qualitative and quantitative studies are included in this review. Adolescents and parents have similar informational and counseling needs. Both seek to be fully informed about cancer treatment's effects on fertility and FP options. Adolescents have varying experiences of oncofertility discussions and decision making due to sex and/or age differences. Parents and healthcare professionals alike sometimes underestimate the importance of fertility for adolescent cancer patients. Healthcare professionals hold various beliefs and practices with respect to adolescent oncofertility discussions. Many are cognizant of the various barriers that impede successful discussion and strive to overcome them. In order to overcome discussion barriers and meet adolescent patients and their parents' informational needs, it is essential to create and implement practice guidelines, as well as properly educate and train healthcare professionals about

  6. Design and implementation of Metta, a metasearch engine for biomedical literature retrieval intended for systematic reviewers.

    PubMed

    Smalheiser, Neil R; Lin, Can; Jia, Lifeng; Jiang, Yu; Cohen, Aaron M; Yu, Clement; Davis, John M; Adams, Clive E; McDonagh, Marian S; Meng, Weiyi

    2014-01-01

    Individuals and groups who write systematic reviews and meta-analyses in evidence-based medicine regularly carry out literature searches across multiple search engines linked to different bibliographic databases, and thus have an urgent need for a suitable metasearch engine to save time spent on repeated searches and to remove duplicate publications from initial consideration. Unlike general users who generally carry out searches to find a few highly relevant (or highly recent) articles, systematic reviewers seek to obtain a comprehensive set of articles on a given topic, satisfying specific criteria. This creates special requirements and challenges for metasearch engine design and implementation. We created a federated search tool that is connected to five databases: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Retrieved bibliographic records were shown online; optionally, results could be de-duplicated and exported in both BibTex and XML format. The query interface was extensively modified in response to feedback from users within our team. Besides a general search track and one focused on human-related articles, we also added search tracks optimized to identify case reports and systematic reviews. Although users could modify preset search options, they were rarely if ever altered in practice. Up to several thousand retrieved records could be exported within a few minutes. De-duplication of records returned from multiple databases was carried out in a prioritized fashion that favored retaining citations returned from PubMed. Systematic reviewers are used to formulating complex queries using strategies and search tags that are specific for individual databases. Metta offers a different approach that may save substantial time but which requires modification of current search strategies and better indexing of randomized controlled trial articles. We envision Metta as one piece of a multi-tool pipeline that will assist

  7. Intersection of health, immigration, and youth: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Roxana

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this literature review is to provide a critical overview of existing research on the health of immigrant youth within the last decade. Although the review focuses primarily on Canada, the findings have implications for public health planning, policy, and settlement/immigration services in other immigrant-receiving countries. The main objectives are: (i) to locate relevant literature written in the past 10 years (January 1998-January 2008); (ii) to undertake a critical review of retrieved studies; (iii) to highlight gaps in the current state of our knowledge and make recommendations for future research directions. The review focuses on the influence of migration experience on health of youth.

  8. Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Chen, Jack J.; Frei, Karen; Nahab, Fatta; Tagliati, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim was to elucidate clinical trial efficacy, safety, and dosing practices of abobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) treatment in adult patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. To date, most literature reviews for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm have examined the effectiveness of all botulinum neurotoxin type A products as a class. However, differences in dosing units and recommended schemes provide a clear rationale for reviewing each product separately. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials and other comparative clinical studies of ABO in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm published in English between January 1991 and March 2015. Medical literature databases (PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE) were searched. A total of five primary publications that evaluated ABO for the management of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm were identified and summarized. Results Data included 374 subjects with blepharospasm and 172 subjects with hemifacial spasm treated with ABO. Total ABO doses ranged between 80 and 340 U for blepharospasm and 25 and 85 U for hemifacial spasm, depending on the severity of the clinical condition. All studies showed statistically significant benefits for the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. ABO was generally well tolerated across the individual studies. Adverse events considered to be associated with ABO treatment included: ptosis, tearing, blurred vision, double vision, dry eyes, and facial weakness. Discussion These data from 5 randomized clinical studies represents the available evidence base of ABO in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Future studies in this area will add to this evidence base. PMID:26566457

  9. Characteristics of nursing home residents and physical restraint: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Hedi; Hahn, Sabine

    2014-11-01

    To analyse and to summarise factors associated with nursing home residents' characteristics which could lead to physical restraint, and to investigate the consequences of physical restraint use for this population. Even though the application of physical restraint is highly controversial, prevalence rates show that it is a common intervention in nursing homes. Residents' characteristics seem to be important to predict the use of physical restraint. Evidence suggests that restrained nursing home residents may have physical and psychological disadvantages as a consequence of being restrained. A systematic literature research involving the databases PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library was carried out for articles published from January 2005-November 2011. Nine Studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and the quality assessment. Restrained residents had low activities of daily living (ADL) scores and severe cognitive impairment. Residents with low cognitive status and serious mobility impairments were at high risk to be restrained, as well as residents with previous fall and/or fracture. Repeated verbal and physical agitation was found to be positively associated with restraint use. Possible consequences of physical restraint were as follows: lower cognitive and ADL performance, higher walking dependence, furthermore falls, pressure ulcers, urinary and faecal incontinence. This systematic literature review reveals notable resident-related factors for physical restraint use. The consequences of restraint seem to negatively influence residents' physical and psychological well-being. Physical restraint seems to be an important risk factor for residents' further health problems. Resident's characteristics appear to be decisive factors for the use of physical restraint. Nurses need a high level of expertise and competence in evaluating the individual residents' situation and deciding further steps, with

  10. The effect of coloured overlays and lenses on reading: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Philip G; Taylor, Robert H; Henderson, Lisa M; Barrett, Brendan T

    2016-09-01

    There are many anecdotal claims and research reports that coloured lenses and overlays improve reading performance. Here we present the results of a systematic review of this literature and examine the quality of the evidence. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning the effect of coloured lenses or overlays on reading performance by searching the PsychInfo, Medline and Embase databases. This revealed 51 published items (containing 54 data sets). Given that different systems are in use for issuing coloured overlays or lenses, we reviewed the evidence under four separate system headings (Intuitive, Irlen, Harris/Chromagen and Other), classifying each published item using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Although the different colour systems have been subjected to different amounts of scientific scrutiny, the results do not differ according to the system type, or whether the sample under investigation was classified as having visual stress (or a similarly defined condition), reading difficulty, or both. The majority of studies are subject to 'high' or 'uncertain' risk of bias in one or more key aspects of study design or outcome, with studies at lower risk from bias providing less support for the benefit of coloured lenses/overlays on reading ability. While many studies report improvements with coloured lenses, the effect size is generally small and/or similar to the improvement found with a placebo condition. We discuss the strengths and shortcomings of the published literature and, whilst acknowledging the difficulties associated with conducting trials of this type, offer some suggestions about how future trials might be conducted. Consistent with previous reviews and advice from several professional bodies, we conclude that the use of coloured lenses or overlays to ameliorate reading difficulties cannot be endorsed and that any benefits reported by individuals in clinical settings are likely to be the result of placebo, practice or Hawthorne effects.

  11. Kefir and Cancer: A Systematic Review of Literatures.

    PubMed

    Rafie, Nahid; Golpour Hamedani, Sahar; Ghiasvand, Reza; Miraghajani, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    Some studies have suggested chemopreventive effects of kefir, a fermented milk product, on carcinogenesis. The aim of this review study was to evaluate the scientific evidence for effects of kefir on cancer prevention and treatment. We systematically searched for all relevant studies published before June 2015, using PubMed, Google scholar, Cochrane and Science Direct, SID, MedLib and Srlst databases. Relevant studies were reviewed based on systematic review (PRISMA) guidelines. From a total of 2208 papers obtained at the initial database search, 11 publications including 7 in vitro and 4 experimental studies were eligible. In vitro studies on breast, colon, skin and gastric cancers and leukemia cell lines and experimental studies on different sarcomas consistently showed beneficial effects of kefir on cancer prevention and treatment. The results of this systematic review suggest that kefir may be associated with cancer prevention and it also has beneficial effects in cancer treatment. This protection may be associated with kefir bioactive components including peptides, polysaccharides and sphingolipids.

  12. Dengue data and surveillance in Tanzania: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tara; Samuel, Moody; Maoz, Dorit; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Boyce, Ross; Toledo, Joao; Velayudhan, Raman; Horstick, Olaf

    2017-08-01

    Although there is evidence that dengue virus is circulating in Tanzania, the country lacks a dengue surveillance system. Consequently, the true estimate of dengue seroprevalence, as well as the incidence in the population, the frequency and magnitude of outbreaks is unknown. This study therefore sought to systematically review available dengue data from Tanzania. The systematic review was conducted and reported using the PRISMA tool. Five databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, WHOLIS and Google Scholar) were searched for articles using various keywords on the illness, data and geographical location. Identified articles were assessed for inclusion based on predefined eligibility criteria. Data were extracted from included articles, analysed and reported. Based on the 10 seroprevalence studies in defined populations with estimates of acute confirmed infections that were included in the review, the estimated seroprevalence of past dengue infection in Tanzania ranged from 50.6% in a health facility-based study to 11% in a population-based study. Acute confirmed infections of dengue were estimated to be as high as 38.2% of suspected cases. Only one study reported on an outbreak. It is evident that dengue needs to become part of regular disease surveillance in Tanzania. Control measures need to be instituted with a focus on building human resource capacity and integrating dengue control measures in ongoing health programmes, for both preventive and curative interventions. Systematic reviews are valuable in assessing health issues when surveillance data are not available. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Productization and Commercialization of IT-Enabled Higher Education in Computer Science: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaanpää, Irja; Isomäki, Hannakaisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature on the production and commercialization of IT-enabled higher education in computer science. Systematic literature review (SLR) was carried out in order to find out to what extent this area has been studied, more specifically how much it has been studied and to what detail. The results of this paper make a…

  14. Effectiveness of Intraventricular Endoscopic Lamina Terminalis Fenestration in Comparison with Standard ETV: Systematic Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Carlo; Guida, Lelio; Trezza, Andrea; Sganzerla, Erik Pietro

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is a consolidated technique for the treatment of hydrocephalus. Despite its effectiveness and feasibility, several technical limitations about its use in certain situations have been described. Lamina terminalis-endoscopic third ventriculostomy (LT-ETV) has been proposed as an alternative technique. Authors systematically reviewed the literature in order to define the effectiveness and limits in comparison with standard ETV. This systematic review followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. It has also been registered with the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42016041596). MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, and EMBASE were independently searched. Seven studies were found to be eligible. A case of ours was added to the series, totaling 41 patients (mean patient age ± SD was 21.6 ± 20.7 years). Endoscopic findings leading surgeons to perform LT-ETV were abnormal ventricular anatomy (24, 57%), inadequate/insufficient interpeduncular subarachnoid space (11, 26%), a combination of both (5, 12%), and intraoperatory, unsatisfactory third ventricle floor fenestration (2, 5%). Most common pathologies were neurocysticercosis (12, 28.57%), aqueductal stenosis (8, 19%), tuberculous meningitis (4, 9.52%), and medulloblastoma (3, 7.14%). A flexible endoscope was the most used device (36 procedures, 86%), while not determining a statistical relevant diminution of complications in comparison with a rigid endoscope (P = 1.0). An overall success rate of 69% was registered, increasing to 89% if just the first year of follow-up was considered. LT-ETV can be considered a successful technical option when standard ETV cannot be performed, although more complex cerebrovascular anatomy is involved. Therefore we suggest that lateral terminalis fenestration is a valid technical option in experienced hands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Justice in Practitioner Publications: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meister, Samantha M.; Zimmer, Wendi Kamman; Wright, Katherine Landau

    2017-01-01

    A review of the current research literature demonstrates that teaching for social justice has been accepted by the research community as best practice for students, especially diverse students from traditionally marginalized populations and communities. However, best practices do no practical good if they are not implemented into real classroom…

  16. A Systematic Review of the Empirical Literature on Intercessory Prayer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Perhaps surprisingly, many social workers appear to use intercessory prayer in direct practice settings. To help inform practitioners' use of this intervention, this article evaluates the empirical literature on the topic using the following three methods: (a) an individual assessment of each study, (b) an evaluation of intercessory prayer as an…

  17. Reviewing Literature in Bioethics Research: Increasing Rigour in Non-Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy.

  18. Volunteering in the care of people with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Much of the literature to date concerning public attitudes towards people with severe mental illness (SMI) has focused on negative stereotypes and discriminatory behaviour. However, there also exists a tradition of volunteering with these people, implying a more positive attitude. Groups with positive attitudes and behaviours towards people with SMI have received relatively little attention in research. They merit further attention, as evidence on characteristics and experiences of volunteers may help to promote volunteering. The present paper aims to systematically review the literature reporting characteristics, motivations, experiences, and benefits of volunteers in the care of people with SMI. Methods In November 2010, a systematic electronic search was carried out in BNI, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Cochrane Registers and Web of Science databases, using a combination of ‘volunteer’, ‘mental health’ and ‘outcome’ search terms. A secondary hand search was performed in relevant psychiatric journals, grey literature and references. Results 14 papers met the inclusion criteria for the review, with data on a total of 540 volunteers. The results suggest that volunteers are a mostly female, but otherwise heterogeneous group. Motivations for volunteering are a combination of what they can ‘give’ to others and what they can ‘get’ for themselves. Overall volunteers report positive experiences. The main benefit to persons with a psychiatric illness is the gaining of a companion, who is non-stigmatizing and proactive in increasing their social-community involvement. Conclusions The evidence base for volunteers in care of people with SMI is small and inconsistent. However there are potential implications for both current and future volunteering programmes from the data. As the data suggests that there is no ‘typical’ volunteer, volunteering programmes should recruit individuals from a variety of backgrounds. The act of volunteering

  19. Quality of life following road traffic injury: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Ritva; Berg, Hans-Yngve; Hasselberg, Marie

    2017-09-19

    To assess and provide a systematic overview of current knowledge about the relationship between quality of life (QoL) and road traffic injury, and to appraise how QoL is affected by road traffic injury. A systematic review of the literature published since 1990 on QoL after a road traffic injury, including adult and paediatric populations, from three databases (Pubmed, PsychInfo and SafetyLit) was undertaken. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Thirty articles were included and assessed for quality. The QoL scores of those injured were similar to population norms at the first assessment, followed by a drop at the second assessment. An increase of QoL from the second to third assessment was reported, but participants never reached the population norms at the last follow-up (range six weeks to two years), with an exception of those claiming compensation and those with lower extremity fractures. Age, gender, socioeconomic status, injury severity, injury type and post-traumatic stress disorder were associated with reduced QoL. Available literature regarding QoL among injured in road traffic crashes is heterogeneous with regard to aims and tools used for assessment. Our review confirmed that independent of measure, the overall QoL was significantly reduced after a road traffic injury compared to the general population norms. Persons who are older, of female gender, lower socioeconomic status, diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder, with more severe injuries or injuries to the lower limbs are more vulnerable to loss of QoL following road traffic injury compared to other patient groups injured in road traffic crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors predicting persistence of early wheezing through childhood and adolescence: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Sossa-Briceño, Monica P; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Background For the early identification of persistent asthma symptoms among young children with recurrent wheezing, it would be helpful to identify all available studies that have identified at least one factor for predicting the persistence of early wheezing. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of all studies that have identified factors that predict the persistence of symptoms among young patients with recurring wheezing. Methods A systematic review of relevant studies was conducted through searching in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and SCOPUS databases up to June 2016. Studies that identified predictors of persistence of wheezing illness among young children with recurrent wheezing were retrieved. Two independent reviewers screened the literature and extracted relevant data. Results The literature search returned 649 references, 619 of which were excluded due to their irrelevance. Five additional studies were identified from reference lists, and 35 studies were finally included in the review. Among all the identified predictors, the most frequently identified ones were the following: family asthma or atopy; personal history of atopic diseases; allergic sensitization early in life; and frequency, clinical pattern, or severity of wheezing/symptoms. Conclusion Parental asthma (especially maternal), parental allergy, eczema, allergic rhinitis, persistent wheezing, wheeze without colds, exercise-induced wheeze, severe wheezing episodes, allergic sensitization (especially polysensitization), eosinophils (blood or eosinophil cationic protein in nasal sample), and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide were risk factors predicting persistence of early wheezing through school age. All of them are included in conventional algorithms, for example, Asthma Predictive Index and its modifications, for predicting future asthma. PMID:28392707

  1. Disease burden of systemic light-chain (AL) amyloidosis: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huamao Mark; Gao, Xin; Cooke, Catherine E; Berg, Deborah; Labotka, Richard; Faller, Douglas V; Seal, Brian; Hari, Parameswaran

    2017-02-21

    A systematic literature review on AL amyloidosis was conducted in order to understand the disease burden, and identify unmet medical needs and knowledge gaps. MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE databases were searched for English language studies published in the last 10 years using search terms that focused on the clinical, economic, and patient-reported outcome (PRO) aspects of AL amyloidosis. There was a low yield of articles in the economic and PRO categories and additional searches were conducted in clinical conference proceedings, and using Google and Google Scholar. After review, there were 65 articles included for data extraction. AL amyloidosis is a rare disorder without any FDA or EMA approved indications for drug therapy. Using off-label therapies, there is a high rate, 42-64%, of non-response or progression, and an associated high mortality. Toxicities during therapy are common with estimates of up to 30-40% of patients experiencing severity of grade 3 or higher. Patients with AL amyloidosis report severe psychological distress, anxiety and clinical depression. There is a deficiency in the literature on the economic costs associated with AL amyloidosis, and information on costs has been derived from studies that examined multiple myeloma or other disease or treatment components common to AL amyloidosis.

  2. Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Brazil (2000–2010): A Systematic Literature Search and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Maria Glória; Siqueira,, João Bosco; Ferreira, Germano L. C.; Bricks, Lucia; Joint, Graham

    2013-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis was conducted to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease in Brazil reported between 2000 and 2010. The protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42011001826: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42011001826). Between 31 July and 4 August 2011, the published literature was searched for epidemiological studies of dengue disease, using specific search strategies for each electronic database. A total of 714 relevant citations were identified, 51 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The epidemiology of dengue disease in Brazil, in this period, was characterized by increases in the geographical spread and incidence of reported cases. The overall increase in dengue disease was accompanied by a rise in the proportion of severe cases. The epidemiological pattern of dengue disease in Brazil is complex and the changes observed during this review period are likely to have been influenced by multiple factors. Several gaps in epidemiological knowledge regarding dengue disease in Brazil were identified that provide avenues for future research, in particular, studies of regional differences, genotype evolution, and age-stratified seroprevalence. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42011001826. PMID:24386496

  3. Prosthetic treatment outcome in patients with severe hypodontia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Filius, M A; Cune, M S; Raghoebar, G M; Vissink, A; Visser, A

    2016-05-01

    Severe hypodontia (≥6 missing teeth) is associated with aesthetic and functional problems. Its presentation is heterogenic, and a variety of treatment modalities are used resulting in different treatment outcomes. As there is currently no standard treatment approach for patients with severe hypodontia, the literature was systematically reviewed with the focus on treatment outcomes. Medline, Embase and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched (last search 24 August 2015). This was completed with a manual search of the reference lists of the selected studies. To be included, studies had to describe dental treatment outcome measure(s) in patients with severe hypodontia; there were no language restrictions. The methodological quality was assessed using MINORS criteria. Twenty-one studies were eligible, but the diversity in type and quality did not allow for a meta-analysis; seventeen studies had a retrospective design; sixteen studies described the results of implant treatment. Treatment with (partial) dentures, orthodontics, fixed crowns or bridges was sparsely presented in the eligible studies. Implant survival, the most frequently reported treatment outcome, ranging from 35·7% to 98·7%, was influenced by 'location' and 'bone volume'. The results of implant treatment in severe hypodontia patients are promising, but due to its heterogenic presentation, its low prevalence and the poor quality of the studies, evidence-based decision-making in the treatment of severe hypodontia is not yet feasible, thus prompting further research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Self-weighing in weight management: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yaguang; Klem, Mary Lou; Sereika, Susan M; Danford, Cynthia A; Ewing, Linda J; Burke, Lora E

    2015-02-01

    Regular self-weighing, which in this article is defined as weighing oneself regularly over a period of time (e.g., daily, weekly), is recommended as a weight loss strategy. However, the published literature lacks a review of the recent evidence provided by prospective, longitudinal studies. Moreover, no paper has reviewed the psychological effects of self-weighing. Therefore, the objective is to review the literature related to longitudinal associations between self-weighing and weight change as well as the psychological outcomes. Electronic literature searches in PubMed, Ovid PsycINFO, and Ebscohost CINAHL were conducted. Keywords included overweight, obesity, self-weighing, etc. Inclusion criteria included trials that were published in the past 25 years in English; participants were adults seeking weight loss treatment; results were based on longitudinal data. The results (N=17 studies) revealed that regular self-weighing was associated with more weight loss and not with adverse psychological outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety). Findings demonstrated that the effect sizes of association between self-weighing and weight change varied across studies and also that the reported frequency of self-weighing varied across studies. The findings from prospective, longitudinal studies provide evidence that regular self-weighing has been associated with weight loss and not with negative psychological outcomes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  5. Information skills training: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brettle, Alison

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to undertake a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of information skills training, to identify effective methods of training and to determine whether information skills training affects patient care. A systematic review, using an iterative approach to searching, was employed. Studies selected for inclusion in the review were critically appraised using a tool used in previous reviews. A tabular approach was used to provide a summary of each paper allowing synthesis of results. One thousand, three hundred and fifty-seven potentially relevant papers were located. On the basis of titles and abstracts, 41 potentially relevant studies were identified for potential inclusion. Further reading and application of the inclusion criteria left 24 studies for critical appraisal and inclusion in the review. Study designs included randomised controlled trials, cohort designs and qualitative studies. The majority of studies took place in US medical schools. Wide variations were found in course content and training methods. Eight studies used objective methods to test skills, two compared training methods and two examined the effects on patient care. There was limited evidence to show that training improves skills, insufficient evidence to determine the most effective methods of training and limited evidence to show that training improves patient care. Further research is needed in a number of areas.

  6. Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scales Based on Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Paul D; Hersey, Denise P; Leder, Steven B

    2016-06-01

    Identification of pharyngeal residue severity located in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses has always been a primary goal during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Pharyngeal residue is a clinical sign of potential prandial aspiration making an accurate description of its severity an important but difficult challenge. A reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scale for FEES would be beneficial. A systematic review of the published English language literature since 1995 was conducted to determine the quality of existing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales based on FEES. Databases were searched using controlled vocabulary words and synonymous free text words for topics of interest (deglutition disorders, pharyngeal residue, endoscopy, videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic technology, aspiration, etc.) and outcomes of interest (scores, scales, grades, tests, FEES, etc.). Search strategies were adjusted for syntax appropriate for each database/platform. Data sources included MEDLINE (OvidSP 1946-April Week 3 2015), Embase (OvidSP 1974-2015 April 20), Scopus (Elsevier), and the unindexed material in PubMed (NLM/NIH) were searched for relevant articles. Supplementary efforts to identify studies included checking reference lists of articles retrieved. Scales were compared using qualitative properties (sample size, severity definitions, number of raters, and raters' experience and training) and psychometric analyses (randomization, intra- and inter-rater reliability, and construct validity). Seven articles describing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales met inclusion criteria. Six of seven scales had insufficient data to support their use as evidenced by methodological weaknesses with both qualitative properties and psychometric analyses. There is a need for qualitative and psychometrically reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scales that are anatomically specific, image

  7. Comparative Health Systems Research among Kaiser Permanente and Other Integrated Delivery Systems: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Jared Lane K; Lee, Karen M; Horberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Context: Because of rising health care costs, wide variations in quality, and increased patient complexity, the US health care system is undergoing rapid changes that include payment reform and movement toward integrated delivery systems. Well-established integrated delivery systems, such as Kaiser Permanente (KP), should work to identify the specific system-level factors that result in superior patient outcomes in response to policymakers’ concerns. Comparative health systems research can provide insights into which particular aspects of the integrated delivery system result in improved care delivery. Objective: To provide a baseline understanding of comparative health systems research related to integrated delivery systems and KP. Design: Systematic literature review. Methods: We conducted a literature search on PubMed and the KP Publications Library. Studies that compared KP as a system or organization with other health care systems or across KP facilities internally were included. The literature search identified 1605 articles, of which 65 met the study inclusion criteria and were examined by 3 reviewers. Results: Most comparative health systems studies focused on intra-KP comparisons (n = 42). Fewer studies compared KP with other US (n = 15) or international (n = 12) health care systems. Several themes emerged from the literature as possible factors that may contribute to improved care delivery in integrated delivery systems. Conclusions: Of all studies published by or about KP, only a small proportion of articles (4%) was identified as being comparative health systems research. Additional empirical studies that compare the specific factors of the integrated delivery system model with other systems of care are needed to better understand the “system-level” factors that result in improved and/or diminished care delivery. PMID:24937150

  8. Acute alerting effects of light: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Souman, Jan L; Tinga, Angelica M; Te Pas, Susan F; van Ee, Raymond; Vlaskamp, Björn N S

    2017-09-12

    Periodic, well timed exposure to light is important for our health and wellbeing. Light, in particular in the blue part of the spectrum, is thought to affect alertness both indirectly, by modifying circadian rhythms, and directly, giving rise to acute effects. We performed a systematic review of empirical studies on direct, acute effects of light on alertness to evaluate the reliability of these effects. In total, we identified 68 studies in which either light intensity, spectral distribution, or both were manipulated, and evaluated the effects on behavioral measures of alertness, either subjectively or measured in reaction time performance tasks. The results show that increasing the intensity of polychromatic white light has been found to increase subjective ratings of alertness in a majority of studies, though a substantial proportion of studies failed to find significant effects, possibly due to small sample sizes or high baseline light intensities. The effect of the color temperature of white light on subjective alertness is less clear. Some studies found increased alertness with higher color temperatures, but other studies reported no detrimental effects of filtering out the short wavelengths from the spectrum. Similarly, studies that used monochromatic light exposure showed no systematic pattern for the effects of blue light compared to longer wavelengths. Far fewer studies investigated the effects of light intensity or spectrum on alertness as measured with reaction time tasks and of those, very few reported significant effects. In general, the small sample sizes used in studies on acute alerting effects of light make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions and better powered studies are needed, especially studies that allow for the construction of dose-response curves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Adolescent Depression in the Arab Region: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Dardas, Latefa A; Bailey, Donald E; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2016-08-01

    Adolescent depression is a primary cause of global disability and burden with considerable variability across countries in its prevalence, diagnosis, management, and prognosis. No systematic reviews have been published on adolescent depression in Arab countries despite the unique sociocultural background that can play a major role in shaping Arab depressed adolescents' prognosis and response to treatment. The purpose of this study was to provide such a review with the goal of identifying the necessary foundations for culturally competent mental health care practices to address the unique needs of Arab adolescents and their families. We systematically reviewed PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and available Arabic databases. We adhered to the PRISMA statement to guide the process of identification, selection, and appraisal of the reviewed articles. No restrictions were applied on publication date. The search was completed in December 2015. A total of 199 unique articles met criteria for screening at the abstract level; 47 articles were selected for review in full text; and 27 articles were included in the final analysis. Four emerging themes were identified: (1) few robust prevalence estimates of adolescent depression are available in Arab countries; (2) depression varies based on the individual characteristics of Arab adolescents; (3) context influences Arab adolescents' risk of experiencing depression; and (4) the stigma of depression negatively impacts help-seeking process among Arab adolescents. This review highlights the need for more community-based detection efforts that employ developmentally and culturally appropriate measurement instruments for adolescent depression. Furthermore, findings suggest the need for culturally competent care that integrates indigenous health practices into modern mental health systems. Nurses, who form the greatest proportion of health personnel in all Arab countries, are uniquely situated to help Arab adolescents experiencing

  10. Compliance of systematic reviews articles in brain arteriovenous malformation with PRISMA statement guidelines: Review of literature.

    PubMed

    Akhigbe, T; Zolnourian, A; Bulters, D

    2017-05-01

    The knowledge of reporting compliance of systematic reviews with PRISMA guidelines may assist in improving the quality of secondary research in brain AVM management and subsequently application to patient population and clinical practice. This may allow researchers and clinicians to be equipped to appraise existing literatures based on known deficit to look for or expect. The objective of this study was to assess the compliance of systematic reviews and meta-analysis in the management of brain AVM. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses articles published in medical journals between 1st of May 2011 and 30th April 2016 (five-year period) were examined. Exclusion criteria were articles that were not systematic reviews and not meta-analyses, narrative literature reviews, historical literature reviews, animal studies, unpublished articles, commentaries and letter to the editor. Electronic database search performed through Medline PubMed on 20th September 2016. This systematic review examined seven systematic review articles on intracranial arteriovenous malformation compliance with PRISMA statement guidelines. The mean percentage of applicable PRISMA items across all studies was 74% (range 67-93%). Protocol registration and declaration, risk of bias and funding sources were the most poorly reported of the PRISMA items (14% each). A significant variance in the total percentages was evident between studies (67-93%). Systematic review reporting in medical literature is excessively variable and overall poor. As these papers are being published with increasing frequency, need to fully adhere to PRISMA statement guide for systematic review to ensure high-quality publications. Complete reporting of PRISMA items within systematic reviews in cerebral arteriovenous malformation enhance quality assessment, robust critical appraisal, better judgement and ultimately sound application to practice thereby improving research standards and patients care. Crown Copyright © 2017

  11. Effect of foot orthoses on lower extremity kinetics during running: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Andrew; Payne, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Background Throughout the period of one year, approximately 50% of recreational runners will sustain an injury that disrupts their training regimen. Foot orthoses have been shown to be clinically effective in the prevention and treatment of several running-related conditions, yet the physical effect of this intervention during running remains poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was therefore to evaluate the effect of foot orthoses on lower extremity forces and pressure (kinetics) during running. Methods A systematic search of electronic databases including Medline (1966-present), CINAHL, SportDiscus, and The Cochrane Library occurred on 7 May 2008. Eligible articles were selected according to pre-determined criteria. Methodological quality was evaluated by use of the Quality Index as described by Downs & Black, followed by critical analysis according to outcome variables. Results The most widely reported kinetic outcomes were loading rate and impact force, however the effect of foot orthoses on these variables remains unclear. In contrast, current evidence suggests that a reduction in the rearfoot inversion moment is the most consistent kinetic effect of foot orthoses during running. Conclusion The findings of this review demonstrate systematic effects that may inform the direction of future research, as further evidence is required to define the mechanism of action of foot orthoses during running. Continuation of research in this field will enable targeting of design parameters towards biomechanical variables that are supported by evidence, and may lead to advancements in clinical efficacy. PMID:19014705

  12. Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta in trauma: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Emiliano; Coccolini, Federico; Tamagnini, Beatrice; Martino, Costanza; Albarello, Vittorio; Benni, Marco; Bisulli, Marcello; Fabbri, Nicola; Hörer, Tal Martin; Ansaloni, Luca; Coniglio, Carlo; Barozzi, Marco; Agnoletti, Vanni

    2017-01-01

    Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta has been a hot topic in trauma resuscitation during these last years. The aims of this systematic review are to analyze when, how, and where this technique is performed and to evaluate preliminary results. The literature search was performed on online databases in December 2016, without time limits. Studies citing endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta in trauma were retrieved for evaluation. Sixty-one articles met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the systematic review. Overall, they included 1355 treated with aortic endovascular balloon occlusion, and 883 (65%) patients died after the procedure. In most of the included cases, a shock state seemed to be present before the procedure. Time of death and inflation site was not described in the majority of included studies. Procedure-related and shock-related complications are described. Introducer sheath size and comorbidity seems to play the role of risk factors. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta is increasingly used in trauma victim resuscitation all over the world, to elevate blood pressure and limit fluid infusion, while other procedures aimed to stop the bleeding are performed. High mortality rate is probably due to the severity of the injuries. Time and place of balloon insertion, zone of balloon inflation, and inflation cutoff time are very heterogeneous.

  13. Breastfeeding-Associated Hypernatremia: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Lavagno, Camilla; Camozzi, Pietro; Renzi, Samuele; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-02-01

    There are increasing reports on hypernatremia, a potentially devastating condition, in exclusively breastfed newborn infants. Our purposes were to describe the clinical features of the condition and identify the risk factors for it. We performed a review of the existing literature in the National Library of Medicine database and in the search engine Google Scholar. A total of 115 reports were included in the final analysis. Breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia was recognized in infants who were ≤ 21 days of age and had ≥ 10% weight loss of birth weight. Cesarean delivery, primiparity, breast anomalies or breastfeeding problems, excessive prepregnancy maternal weight, delayed first breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level were significantly associated with breastfeeding-associated hypernatremia. In addition to excessive weight loss (≥ 10%), the following clinical findings were observed: poor feeding, poor hydration state, jaundice, excessive body temperature, irritability or lethargy, decreased urine output, and epileptic seizures. In conclusion, the present survey of the literature identifies the following risk factors for breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia: cesarean delivery, primiparity, breastfeeding problems, excessive maternal body weight, delayed breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. The Internationalization of the Academic Library: A Systematic Review of 25 Years of Literature on International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Click, Amanda B.; Wiley, Claire Walker; Houlihan, Meggan

    2017-01-01

    This study is a systematic review of the library and information science (LIS) literature related to international students and academic libraries. A systematic review involves the methodical collection and analysis of a body of literature and is growing in popularity in the LIS field. Three well-known LIS databases were systematically searched…

  15. Assessment and classification of cancer breakthrough pain: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Dagny Faksvåg; Hjermstad, Marianne Jensen; Hagen, Neil; Caraceni, Augusto; Kaasa, Stein

    2010-06-01

    Temporal variations in cancer pain intensity are highly prevalent, and are often difficult to manage. However, the phenomenon is not well understood: several definitions and approaches to classification and bedside assessment of cancer breakthrough pain (BTP) have been described. The present study is a systematic review of published literature on cancer BTP to answer the following questions: which terms and definitions have been used; are there validated assessment tools; which domains of BTP do the tools delineate, and which items do they contain; how have assessment tools been applied within clinical studies; and are there validated classification systems for BTP. A systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature was performed using five major databases. Of 375 titles and abstracts initially identified, 51 articles were examined in detail. Analysis of these publications indicates a range of overlapping but distinct definitions have been used to characterize BTP; 42 of the included papers presented one or more ways of classifying BTP; and while 10 tools to assess patients' experience of BTP were identified, only 2 have been partially validated. We conclude that there is no widely accepted definition, classification system or well-validated assessment tool for cancer-related breakthrough pain, but there is strong concurrence on most of its key attributes. With further work in this area, an internationally agreed upon definition and classification system for cancer-related breakthrough pain, and a standard approach on how to measure it, hold the promise to improve patient care and support research in this poor-prognosis cancer pain syndrome.

  16. How economic recessions and unemployment affect illegal drug use: A systematic realist literature review.

    PubMed

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Hummel, Karin; de Goeij, Moniek C M; de Vries, Hein; Kaner, Eileen; Lemmens, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Economic recessions may influence illegal drug use via different mechanisms, for example increased use due to more psychological distress or decreased use due to lower incomes and purchasing power. This paper reviews the literature on how economic recessions and unemployment affect the use of illegal drugs among adults. We conducted a systematic realist literature review, which is an explanatory method that aims to understand underlying mechanisms that connect an event to an outcome in a specific context. A systematic search was performed in EconLit, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, SocIndex, and Web of Science for studies examining mechanisms explaining how recessions or unemployment affect illegal drug use. We synthesized 28 studies published between 1990 and 2015. Most evidence (17 studies) was found for the counter-cyclical mechanism that recessions and unemployment increase psychological distress, which increases drug use. Mainly supportive evidence for this mechanism was found in several high quality studies, in different contexts, and in a diverse number of countries and samples. In contrast, decreased income did not seem to decrease drug use (10 studies). Little evidence was available on the non-working time mechanism (4 studies) and the social exclusion mechanism (5 studies). Most of the studies that did examine these latter mechanisms confirmed the hypothesized counter-cyclical associations. The current evidence is in line with the hypothesis that drug use increases in times of recession because unemployment increases psychological distress which increases drug use. During times of recession, psychological support for those who lost their job and are vulnerable to drug use (relapse) is likely to be important. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Medication errors in the Middle East countries: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Alsulami, Zayed; Conroy, Sharon; Choonara, Imti

    2013-04-01

    Medication errors are a significant global concern and can cause serious medical consequences for patients. Little is known about medication errors in Middle Eastern countries. The objectives of this systematic review were to review studies of the incidence and types of medication errors in Middle Eastern countries and to identify the main contributory factors involved. A systematic review of the literature related to medication errors in Middle Eastern countries was conducted in October 2011 using the following databases: Embase, Medline, Pubmed, the British Nursing Index and the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature. The search strategy included all ages and languages. Inclusion criteria were that the studies assessed or discussed the incidence of medication errors and contributory factors to medication errors during the medication treatment process in adults or in children. Forty-five studies from 10 of the 15 Middle Eastern countries met the inclusion criteria. Nine (20 %) studies focused on medication errors in paediatric patients. Twenty-one focused on prescribing errors, 11 measured administration errors, 12 were interventional studies and one assessed transcribing errors. Dispensing and documentation errors were inadequately evaluated. Error rates varied from 7.1 % to 90.5 % for prescribing and from 9.4 % to 80 % for administration. The most common types of prescribing errors reported were incorrect dose (with an incidence rate from 0.15 % to 34.8 % of prescriptions), wrong frequency and wrong strength. Computerised physician rder entry and clinical pharmacist input were the main interventions evaluated. Poor knowledge of medicines was identified as a contributory factor for errors by both doctors (prescribers) and nurses (when administering drugs). Most studies did not assess the clinical severity of the medication errors. Studies related to medication errors in the Middle Eastern countries were relatively few in number and of poor quality

  18. Can economic evaluation in telemedicine be trusted? A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bergmo, Trine S

    2009-01-01

    Background Telemedicine has been advocated as an effective means to provide health care services over a distance. Systematic information on costs and consequences has been called for to support decision-making in this field. This paper provides a review of the quality, validity and generalisability of economic evaluations in telemedicine. Methods A systematic literature search in all relevant databases was conducted and forms the basis for addressing these issues. Only articles published in peer-reviewed journals and written in English in the period from 1990 to 2007 were analysed. The literature search identified 33 economic evaluations where both costs (resource use) and outcomes (non-resource consequences) were measured. Results This review shows that economic evaluations in telemedicine are highly diverse in terms of both the study context and the methods applied. The articles covered several medical specialities ranging from cardiology and dermatology to psychiatry. The studies analysed telemedicine in home care, and in primary and secondary care settings using a variety of different technologies including videoconferencing, still-images and monitoring (store-and-forward telemedicine). Most studies used multiple outcome measures and analysed the effects using disaggregated cost-consequence frameworks. Objectives, study design, and choice of comparators were mostly well reported. The majority of the studies lacked information on perspective and costing method, few used general statistics and sensitivity analysis to assess validity, and even fewer used marginal analysis. Conclusion As this paper demonstrates, the majority of the economic evaluations reviewed were not in accordance with standard evaluation techniques. Further research is needed to explore the reasons for this and to address how economic evaluation in telemedicine best can take advantage of local constraints and at the same time produce valid and generalisable results. PMID:19852828

  19. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography for psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis patients: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Zabotti, Alen; Bandinelli, Francesca; Batticciotto, Alberto; Scirè, Carlo Alberto; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Sakellariou, Garifallia

    2017-09-01

    To systematically review the role of musculoskeletal US in patients suffering from PsA or psoriasis (Pso) in terms of prevalence, diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring and treatment. A systematic literature review was conducted through medical databases (MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase) and the grey literature up to September 2015 to inform a new study of the Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Study Group of the Italian Society for Rheumatology. All articles reporting data on musculoskeletal US in PsA or Pso were included and extracted according to the underlying clinical question. A total of 86 publications were included. The prevalence of US abnormalities showed a wide range for each examined feature (e.g. 37-95% for entheses thickness of the lower limbs). The performance of US for diagnosis of disease or elementary lesions was variable across studies, but no study evaluated the overall performance of US in addition to clinical findings for diagnosing PsA. Considering US in defining PsA and Pso prognosis, several works focused on US of entheses of lower limbs in Pso, while for the monitoring of PsA activity five different scoring systems were identified. Last, the results of the role of US in guiding intra-articular interventions were controversial for the clinical outcomes, but in favour of US for accuracy. despite the recognized importance of US in the management of PsA and Pso, this review clearly demonstrated the need of pivotal research in order to optimize the use of US in the diagnosis and monitoring of psoriatic disease.

  20. Prescription Medication Sharing: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Beyene, Kebede A.; Sheridan, Janie; Aspden, Trudi

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on nonrecreational prescription medication sharing. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and a customized multidatabase for all relevant articles published through 2013; our final sample comprised 19 studies from 9 countries with 36 182 participants, ranging in age from children to older adults, and published between 1990 and 2011. The prevalence rate for borrowing someone’s prescription medication was 5% to 51.9% and for lending prescription medication to someone else was 6% to 22.9%. A wide range of medicines were shared between family members, friends, and acquaintances. Sharing of many classes of prescription medication was common. Further research should explore why people share, how they decide to lend or borrow, whether they are aware of the risks, and how they assess the relevance of those risks. PMID:24524496

  1. An Overview of Chronic Disease Models: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Ashoo; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The objective of our study was to examine various existing chronic disease models, their elements and their role in the management of Diabetes, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and Cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed and CINHAL during a period of January 2003- March 2011. Following key terms were used either in single or in combination such as “Chronic Disease Model” AND “Diabetes Mellitus” OR “COPD” OR ‘CVD”. Results: A total of 23 studies were included in the final analysis. Majority of the studies were US-based. Five chronic disease models included Chronic Care Model (CCM), Improving Chronic Illness Care (ICIC), and Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions (ICCC), Stanford Model (SM) and Community based Transition Model (CBTM). CCM was the most studied model. Elements studied included delivery system design and self-management support (87%), clinical information system and decision support (57%) and health system organization (52%). Elements including center care on the patient and family (13%), patient safety (4%), community policies (4%), built integrated health care (4%) and remote patient monitoring (4%) have not been well studied. Other elements including support paradigm shift, manage political environment, align sectoral policies for health, use healthcare personnel more effectively, support patients in their communities, emphasize prevention, identify patient specific concerns related to the transition process, and health literacy between visits and treatments have also not been well studied in the existing literature. Conclusions: It was unclear to what extent the results generated is applicable to different populations and locations and therefore is an area of future research. Future studies are also needed to test chronic disease models in settings where more racially and ethnically representative patients receive chronic care. Future program development should also

  2. Cross-cultural interview studies using interpreters: systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Anne-Marie; Ahlström, Gerd

    2006-09-01

    This paper reviews how the interpreter's role is described in empirically based, qualitative cross-cultural interview studies and how trustworthiness is determined. Increased immigration during the past decades has created a multiethnic society in many countries. This development poses a challenge to healthcare staff, in that they need to understand how people from different cultures experience health and illness. One way to assess immigrants' experiences is through cross-cultural interview studies, involving an interpreter. Thorough knowledge of the interpreter's role is needed in order to increase the trustworthiness of this kind of nursing research. Literature searches were conducted from October to November 2004 using PubMed, CINAHL, Psycinfo, Sociological abstract, Your Journals@ovid, and Eric databases. Qualitative interview studies written in English and performed with an interpreter were included. The Matrix Method was used to review the literature. In almost all of the 13 relevant papers found, the role of the interpreter(s) in the research process was only sparsely described. In addition, all studies except one employed different techniques to established trustworthiness. The most common techniques were prolonged engagement, member check or triangulation, the latter performed either on the data, investigators or methods. Methodological issues with respect to interpreters have received only limited attention in cross-cultural interview studies. Researchers in the field of nursing need to consider (1) the interpreter's role/involvement in the research process; (2) the interpreter's competence and the style of interpreting; (3) the interpreter's impact on the findings. This information is a prerequisite when trying to determine the trustworthiness of a cross-cultural study.

  3. Dietary Acrylamide and Human Cancer: A Systematic Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Tim R.; Barnes, Stephen; Groopman, John

    2014-01-01

    Cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States, and the numbers of cases are expected to continue to rise worldwide. Cancer prevention strategies are crucial for reducing the cancer burden. The carcinogenic potential of dietary acrylamide exposure from cooked foods is unknown. Acrylamide is a by-product of the common Maillard reaction where reducing sugars (i.e., fructose and glucose) react with the amino acid, asparagine. Based on the evidence of acrylamide carcinogenicity in animals, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified acrylamide as a group 2A carcinogen for humans. Since the discovery of acrylamide in foods in 2002, a number of studies have explored its potential as a human carcinogen. This paper outlines a systematic review of dietary acrylamide and human cancer, acrylamide exposure and internal dose, exposure assessment methods in the epidemiologic studies, existing data gaps, and future directions. A majority of the studies reported no statistically significant association between dietary acrylamide intake and various cancers, and few studies reported increased risk for renal, endometrial, and ovarian cancers; however, the exposure assessment has been inadequate leading to potential misclassification or underestimation of exposure. Future studies with improved dietary acrylamide exposure assessment are encouraged. PMID:24875401

  4. Complications in adolescent pregnancy: systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo, Walter Fernandes; Diniz, Michele Baffi; da Fonseca, Eduardo Sérgio Valério Borges; de Azevedo, Lícia Maria Ricarte; Evangelista, Carla Braz

    2015-01-01

    Sexual activity during adolescence can lead to unwanted pregnancy, which in turn can result in serious maternal and fetal complications. The present study aimed to evaluate the complications related to adolescent pregnancy, through a systematic review using the Medical Subject Headings: “pregnancy complication” AND “adolescent” OR “pregnancy in adolescence”. Only full original articles in English or Portuguese with a clearly described methodology, were included. No qualitative studies, reviews or meta-analyses, editorials, case series, or case reports were included. The sample consisted of 15 articles; in that 10 were cross-sectional and 5 were cohort studies. The overall prevalence of adolescent pregnancy was 10%, and among the Brazilian studies, the adolescent pregnancy rate was 26%. The cesarean delivery rate was lower than that reported in the general population. The main maternal and neonatal complications were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, prematurity and low birth weight, respectively. Adolescent pregnancy is related to increased frequency of neonatal and maternal complications and lower prevalence of cesarean delivery. PMID:26061075

  5. Workplace empowerment and nurses' job satisfaction: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Cicolini, Giancarlo; Comparcini, Dania; Simonetti, Valentina

    2014-10-01

    This systematic review aimed to synthesize and analyse the studies that examined the relationship between nurse empowerment and job satisfaction in the nursing work environment. Job dissatisfaction in the nursing work environment is the primary cause of nursing turnover. Job satisfaction has been linked to a high level of empowerment in nurses. We reviewed 596 articles, written in English, that examined the relationship between structural empowerment, psychological empowerment and nurses' job satisfaction. Twelve articles were included in the final analysis. A significant positive relation was found between empowerment and nurses' job satisfaction. Structural empowerment and psychological empowerment affect job satisfaction differently. A satisfying work environment for nurses is related to structural and psychological empowerment in the workplace. Structural empowerment is an antecedent of psychological empowerment and this relationship culminates in positive retention outcomes such as job satisfaction. This review could be useful for guiding leaders' strategies to develop and maintain an empowering work environment that enhances job satisfaction. This could lead to nurse retention and positive organisational and patient outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Aetiology of bronchiectasis in adults: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Hua; Guan, Wei-Jie; Liu, Shao-Xia; Wang, Lei; Cui, Juan-Juan; Chen, Rong-Chang; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-11-01

    While identifying the underlying aetiology is a key part of bronchiectasis management, the prevalence and impact of identifying the aetiologies on clinical management remain unclear. We aimed to determine the etiological spectrum of bronchiectasis, and how often etiological assessment could lead to the changes in patients' management. A comprehensive search was conducted using MEDLINE (via PubMed) and EMBASE for observational studies published before October 2015 reporting aetiologies in adults with bronchiectasis. Of the 8216 citations identified, 56 studies including 8608 adults with bronchiectasis were relevant for this systematic review. The crude prevalence for the identified aetiologies ranged from 18% to 95%, which possibly resulted from the differences in the geographic regions and diagnostic workup. Post-infective (29.9%), immunodeficiency (5%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (3.9%), connective tissue disease (3.8%), ciliary dysfunction (2.5%), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (2.6%) were the most common aetiologies. In 1577 patients (18.3%), identifying the aetiologies led to changes in patient's management. Aetiologies varied considerably among different geographic regions (P < 0.001). Intensive investigations of these aetiologies might help change patient's management and therefore should be incorporated into routine clinical practice.

  7. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Yalda; Stringer, Helen; Klee, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Iran. Consequently, there is no information about the prevalence of child language disorders in Iranian population. This review summarizes Iranian studies on child language development and disorder in the preschool years and aims to systematically find the most studied topics in the field of normal development, the assessment and diagnosis of language impairments as well as exploring the current gaps within the body of literature. Three main Iranian academic websites of indexed articles along with four other nonIranian databases were scrutinized for all relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria: Iranian studies within the field of Persian language development and disorders in preschool children published up to December 2013. They are classified according to the hierarchy of evidence and weighed against the criteria of critical appraisal of study types. As this is a type of nonintervention systematic review, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses is modified to be more compatible to the designs of eligible studies, including descriptive studies, test-developing and/or diagnostic studies. Several limitations made the process of searching and retrieving problematic; e.g., lack of unified keywords and incompatibility of Persian typing structure embedded in Iranian search engines. Overall, eligible studies met the criteria up to the third level of the hierarchy of evidence that shows the necessity of conducting studies with higher levels of

  8. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Yalda; Stringer, Helen; Klee, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Iran. Consequently, there is no information about the prevalence of child language disorders in Iranian population. This review summarizes Iranian studies on child language development and disorder in the preschool years and aims to systematically find the most studied topics in the field of normal development, the assessment and diagnosis of language impairments as well as exploring the current gaps within the body of literature. Three main Iranian academic websites of indexed articles along with four other nonIranian databases were scrutinized for all relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria: Iranian studies within the field of Persian language development and disorders in preschool children published up to December 2013. They are classified according to the hierarchy of evidence and weighed against the criteria of critical appraisal of study types. As this is a type of nonintervention systematic review, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses is modified to be more compatible to the designs of eligible studies, including descriptive studies, test-developing and/or diagnostic studies. Several limitations made the process of searching and retrieving problematic; e.g., lack of unified keywords and incompatibility of Persian typing structure embedded in Iranian search engines. Overall, eligible studies met the criteria up to the third level of the hierarchy of evidence that shows the necessity of conducting studies with higher levels of

  9. Core stability exercises for low back pain in athletes: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stuber, Kent J; Bruno, Paul; Sajko, Sandy; Hayden, Jill A

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence for the effectiveness of core stability exercises for treating athletes with low back pain (LBP). We searched several databases (Medline, AMED, CINAHL, SportDiscus, and EMBASE). Our eligibility criteria consisted of articles published in a peer-reviewed journal in English, using any prospective clinical study design, where athletes with nonspecific LBP were treated with core stability exercises in at least 1 study arm, and back pain intensity and/or disability were used as outcome measures. All included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were assessed for risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, whereas non-RCT studies were assessed for quality using the Downs and Black checklist. Five studies including 151 participants met the inclusion criteria, including 2 RCTs. The quality of the literature on this topic was deemed to be low overall, with only 1 non-RCT having a moderate quality score, and 1 RCT having a lower risk of bias. Four studies reported statistically significant decreases in back pain intensity in their core stability intervention group. The quantity and quality of literature on the use of core stability exercises for treating LBP in athletes is low. The existing evidence has been conducted on small and heterogeneous study populations using interventions that vary drastically with only mixed results and short-term follow-up. This precludes the formulation of strong conclusions, and additional high quality research is clearly needed.

  10. Injuries in judo: a systematic literature review including suggestions for prevention.

    PubMed

    Pocecco, Elena; Ruedl, Gerhard; Stankovic, Nemanja; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Del Vecchio, Fabricio Boscolo; Gutiérrez-García, Carlos; Rousseau, Romain; Wolf, Mirjam; Kopp, Martin; Miarka, Bianca; Menz, Verena; Krüsmann, Philipp; Calmet, Michel; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Burtscher, Martin

    2013-12-01

    There is limited knowledge on epidemiological injury data in judo. To systematically review scientific literature on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. The available literature up to June 2013 was searched for prospective as well as retrospective studies on injuries in judo. Data extraction and presentation focused on the incidence rate, injury risk, types, location and causes of injuries. During the Olympic Games in 2008 and 2012, an average injury risk of about 11-12% has been observed. Sprains, strains and contusions, usually of the knee, shoulder and fingers, were the most frequently reported injuries, whereas being thrown was the most common injury mechanism. Severe injuries were quite rare and usually affected the brain and spine, whereas chronic injuries typically affected the finger joints, lower back and ears. The most common types of injuries in young judo athletes were contusions/abrasions, fractures and sprains/strains. Sex-differences data on judo injuries were mostly inconsistent. Some studies suggested a relationship between nutrition, hydration and/or weight cycling and judo injuries. Also, psychological factors may increase the risk of judo injuries. The present review provides the latest knowledge on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. Comprehensive knowledge about the risk of injury during sport activity and related risk factors represents an essential basis to develop effective strategies for injury prevention. Thus, the introduction of an ongoing injury surveillance system in judo is of utmost importance.

  11. The use of spinal manipulative therapy for pediatric health conditions: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gleberzon, Brian J.; Arts, Jenna; Mei, Amanda; McManus, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study had two purposes. These were: (i) to conduct a search of the literature between 2007 and 2011 investigating the use of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for pediatric health conditions and (ii) to perform a systematic review of eligible retrieved clinical trials. Methods The Index of Chiropractic Literature and PubMed were electronically searched using appropriate search words and MeSH terms, respectively, as well as reference tracking of previous reviews. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated using an instrument that assessed their methodological quality. Results Sixteen clinical trials were found that met the inclusion criteria and were scored. Discussion Six clinical trials investigated the effectiveness of SMT on colic, two each on asthma and enuresis, and one each on hip extension, otitis media, suboptimal breastfeeding, autism, idiopathic scoliosis and jet lag. None investigated the effectiveness of SMT on spinal pain. Conclusion Studies that monitored both subjective and objective outcome measures of relevance to both patients and parents tended to report the most favorable response to SMT, especially among children with asthma. Many studies reviewed suffered from several methodological limitations. Further research is clearly required in this area of chiropractic health care, especially with respect to the clinical effectiveness of SMT on pediatric back pain. PMID:22675226

  12. Novel keyword co-occurrence network-based methods to foster systematic reviews of scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Erbis, Serkan; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Kamarthi, Sagar

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of scientific literature are important for mapping the existing state of research and highlighting further growth channels in a field of study, but systematic reviews are inherently tedious, time consuming, and manual in nature. In recent years, keyword co-occurrence networks (KCNs) are exploited for knowledge mapping. In a KCN, each keyword is represented as a node and each co-occurrence of a pair of words is represented as a link. The number of times that a pair of words co-occurs in multiple articles constitutes the weight of the link connecting the pair. The network constructed in this manner represents cumulative knowledge of a domain and helps to uncover meaningful knowledge components and insights based on the patterns and strength of links between keywords that appear in the literature. In this work, we propose a KCN-based approach that can be implemented prior to undertaking a systematic review to guide and accelerate the review process. The novelty of this method lies in the new metrics used for statistical analysis of a KCN that differ from those typically used for KCN analysis. The approach is demonstrated through its application to nano-related Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) risk literature. The KCN approach identified the knowledge components, knowledge structure, and research trends that match with those discovered through a traditional systematic review of the nanoEHS field. Because KCN-based analyses can be conducted more quickly to explore a vast amount of literature, this method can provide a knowledge map and insights prior to undertaking a rigorous traditional systematic review. This two-step approach can significantly reduce the effort and time required for a traditional systematic literature review. The proposed KCN-based pre-systematic review method is universal. It can be applied to any scientific field of study to prepare a knowledge map.

  13. Novel keyword co-occurrence network-based methods to foster systematic reviews of scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Jacqueline A.

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of scientific literature are important for mapping the existing state of research and highlighting further growth channels in a field of study, but systematic reviews are inherently tedious, time consuming, and manual in nature. In recent years, keyword co-occurrence networks (KCNs) are exploited for knowledge mapping. In a KCN, each keyword is represented as a node and each co-occurrence of a pair of words is represented as a link. The number of times that a pair of words co-occurs in multiple articles constitutes the weight of the link connecting the pair. The network constructed in this manner represents cumulative knowledge of a domain and helps to uncover meaningful knowledge components and insights based on the patterns and strength of links between keywords that appear in the literature. In this work, we propose a KCN-based approach that can be implemented prior to undertaking a systematic review to guide and accelerate the review process. The novelty of this method lies in the new metrics used for statistical analysis of a KCN that differ from those typically used for KCN analysis. The approach is demonstrated through its application to nano-related Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) risk literature. The KCN approach identified the knowledge components, knowledge structure, and research trends that match with those discovered through a traditional systematic review of the nanoEHS field. Because KCN-based analyses can be conducted more quickly to explore a vast amount of literature, this method can provide a knowledge map and insights prior to undertaking a rigorous traditional systematic review. This two-step approach can significantly reduce the effort and time required for a traditional systematic literature review. The proposed KCN-based pre-systematic review method is universal. It can be applied to any scientific field of study to prepare a knowledge map. PMID:28328983

  14. Simplified Complete Denture: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ye; Sun, Jian

    2017-06-01

    Many procedures are used to construct traditional (T) complete dentures; however, a simplified (S) method requiring fewer steps and less time is available. This systematic review intends to summarize the modeling of simplified methods for complete dentures and evaluate the differences between the T method and S method. With this review, we hope to lay the foundation for proposing a standardized fabrication method for "simplified dentures." The MEDLINE (via PubMed) and EMBASE databases were searched for articles on simplified complete dentures published in English before April 2014. Eleven articles were included. One was about one-step complete dentures, two were about SET (simplified treatment of edentulous patients), and the others were about the normal simplified method, which includes impression, occlusal registration, and try-in. Seven were randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). The time, cost, patient satisfaction, clinical effects, masticatory performance, masticatory ability, and professional evaluation reported in these studies were compared. We summarized the different techniques of fabricating complete dentures and discussed the RCTs of the normal complete technique. None of the RCTs identified significant differences between the S and T groups in terms of patient ratings for general satisfaction, OHIP-edentulous scale, denture quality, or masticatory ability. At the same time, the T method was significantly more expensive and required more time to complete than the S method. Current scientific evidence suggests that the S method can replace or partly replace the T method. Moreover, specific rules should be devised to restrict the simplified construction, and detailed research should be conducted. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Doctors discussing religion and spirituality: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Best, Megan; Butow, Phyllis; Olver, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Discussion of religion and/or spirituality in the medical consultation is desired by patients and known to be beneficial. However, it is infrequent. We aimed to identify why this is so. We set out to answer the following research questions: Do doctors report that they ask their patients about religion and/or spirituality and how do they do it? According to doctors, how often do patients raise the issue of religion and/or spirituality in consultation and how do doctors respond when they do? What are the known facilitators and barriers to doctors asking their patients about religion and/or spirituality? A mixed qualitative/quantitative review was conducted to identify studies exploring the physician's perspective on discussion of religion and/or spirituality in the medical consultation. We searched nine databases from inception to January 2015 for original research papers reporting doctors' views on discussion of religion and/or spirituality in medical consultations. Papers were assessed for quality using QualSyst and results were reported using a measurement tool to assess systematic review guidelines. Overall, 61 eligible papers were identified, comprising over 20,044 physician reports. Religion and spirituality are discussed infrequently by physicians although frequency increases with terminal illness. Many physicians prefer chaplain referral to discussing religion and/or spirituality with patients themselves. Such discussions are facilitated by prior training and increased physician religiosity and spirituality. Insufficient time and training were the most frequently reported barriers. This review found that physician enquiry into the religion and/or spirituality of patients is inconsistent in frequency and nature and that in order to meet patient needs, barriers to discussion need to be overcome. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. A Systematic Literature Review of US Engineering Ethics Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hess, Justin L; Fore, Grant

    2017-04-11

    Promoting the ethical formation of engineering students through the cultivation of their discipline-specific knowledge, sensitivity, imagination, and reasoning skills has become a goal for many engineering education programs throughout the United States. However, there is neither a consensus throughout the engineering education community regarding which strategies are most effective towards which ends, nor which ends are most important. This study provides an overview of engineering ethics interventions within the U.S. through the systematic analysis of articles that featured ethical interventions in engineering, published in select peer-reviewed journals, and published between 2000 and 2015. As a core criterion, each journal article reviewed must have provided an overview of the course as well as how the authors evaluated course-learning goals. In sum, 26 articles were analyzed with a coding scheme that included 56 binary items. The results indicate that the most common methods for integrating ethics into engineering involved exposing students to codes/standards, utilizing case studies, and discussion activities. Nearly half of the articles had students engage with ethical heuristics or philosophical ethics. Following the presentation of the results, this study describes in detail four articles to highlight less common but intriguing pedagogical methods and evaluation techniques. The findings indicate that there is limited empirical work on ethics education within engineering across the United States. Furthermore, due to the large variation in goals, approaches, and evaluation methods described across interventions, this study does not detail "best" practices for integrating ethics into engineering. The science and engineering education community should continue exploring the relative merits of different approaches to ethics education in engineering.

  17. Suicide among immigrants in Europe--a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Spallek, Jacob; Reeske, Anna; Norredam, Marie; Nielsen, Signe Smith; Lehnhardt, Jessica; Razum, Oliver

    2015-02-01

    Concerns about increased suicide risk among immigrants to European countries have been raised. We review the scientific literature on differences in suicide among immigrants compared with the majority populations in Europe's major immigration countries. We searched the databases PubMed and PsycINFO for peer-reviewed epidemiological studies published in 1990-2011, which compared suicide risks of adult immigrant groups with the risks of the majority population in European countries. Hits were screened by two researchers. We included 24 studies in the review. No generalizable pattern of suicide among immigrants was found. Immigrants from countries in which suicide risks are particularly high, i.e. countries in Northern and Eastern Europe, experienced higher suicide rates relative to groups without migration background. Gender and age differences were observed. Young female immigrants from Turkey, East Africa and South Asia are a risk group. Immigrants 'bring along' their suicide risk, at least for the initial period they spend in the immigration country. Health-care planners and providers need to be aware of this 'imported risks'. However, most immigrant groups do not have an increased suicide risk relative to the local-born population; some may even experience substantially lower risks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. A systematic literature review on the effectiveness of eurythmy therapy.

    PubMed

    Lötzke, Désirée; Heusser, Peter; Büssing, Arndt

    2015-07-01

    Eurythmy therapy is a movement therapy of anthroposophic medicine that can have effects on a person's physical body, spirit, and soul. The aim of this publication was to update and summarize the relevant literature on the effectiveness of eurythmy in a therapeutic context since 2008. Different databases like PubMed, MEDPILOT, Research Gate, The Cochrane Library, DIMDI, Arthe and also the journal databases Der Merkurstab and the European Journal of Integrative Medicine were searched for prospective and retrospective clinical trials in German or English language. There were no limitations for indication, considered outcome or age of participants. Studies were evaluated with regard to their description of the assembly process and treatment, adequate reporting of follow-ups, and equality of comparison groups in controlled trials. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. These included two single-arm, non-controlled pilot studies, two publications on the same non-randomized controlled trial and one case study; six further studies referred to a prospective cohort study, the Anthroposophic Medicine Outcome Study. Most of these studies described positives treatment effects with varying effect sizes. The studies were heterogynous according to the indications, age groups, study design and measured outcome. The methodological quality of the studies varied considerably. There were no clear improvements since 2008, when the recommendations were published in the first review. Eurythmy seems to be a beneficial add-on in a therapeutic context that can improve the health conditions of affected persons. More methodologically sound studies are needed to substantiate this positive impression.

  19. Magnesium in cystic fibrosis--Systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Santi, Maristella; Milani, Gregorio P; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Fossali, Emilio F; Bianchetti, Mario G; Lava, Sebastiano A G

    2016-02-01

    The metabolism of sodium, potassium, and chloride and the acid-base balance are sometimes altered in cystic fibrosis. Textbooks and reviews only marginally address the homeostasis of magnesium in cystic fibrosis. We performed a search of the Medical Subject Headings terms (cystic fibrosis OR mucoviscidosis) AND (magnesium OR hypomagnes[a]emia) in the US National Library of Medicine and Excerpta Medica databases. We identified 25 reports dealing with magnesium and cystic fibrosis. The results of the review may be summarized as follows. First, hypomagnesemia affects more than half of the cystic fibrosis patients with advanced disease; second, magnesemia, which is normally age-independent, relevantly decreases with age in cystic fibrosis; third, aminoglycoside antimicrobials frequently induce both acute and chronic renal magnesium-wasting; fourth, sweat magnesium concentration was normal in cystic fibrosis patients; fifth, limited data suggest the existence of an impaired intestinal magnesium balance. Finally, stimulating observations suggest that magnesium supplements might achieve an improvement in respiratory muscle strength and mucolytic activity of both recombinant and endogenous deoxyribonuclease. The first comprehensive review of the literature confirms that, despite being one of the most prevalent minerals in the body, the importance of magnesium in cystic fibrosis is largely overlooked. In these patients, hypomagnesemia should be sought once a year. Furthermore, the potential of supplementation with this cation deserves more attention. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Night sweats: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mold, James W; Holtzclaw, Barbara J; McCarthy, Laine

    2012-01-01

    Much of primary care involves helping patients manage symptoms. Nighttime sweating is a symptom linked to menopause, malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and infections. However, in primary care settings, night sweats are commonly reported by persons without these conditions. We conducted a literature review, focusing on questions about definition, mechanisms, incidence/prevalence, measurement, clinical causes, evaluation, treatment, and prognosis. We limited our search to English language studies of adult humans published since 1966. Because studies of estrogen and androgen deficiency states had been reviewed by others, we excluded them. Search criteria were developed for each question. Publications meeting criteria were reviewed by the first 2 authors and consensus was reached through discussion. Prevalence estimates ranged from 10% among older primary care patients to 60% among women on an obstetrics inpatient unit. Life expectancy of primary care patients reporting night sweats did not appear to be reduced. Although many clinical causes have been suggested, most are not well supported. Algorithmic approaches to evaluation are not evidence-based. Alpha adrenergic blockers may reduce night sweats in patients taking serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Thalidomide and thioridazine may benefit some terminal cancer patients with night sweats. The symptom, night sweats, appears to be nonspecific. Many questions about causation, evaluation, and management remain unanswered.

  1. The methodological quality of systematic reviews published in high-impact nursing journals: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pölkki, Tarja; Kanste, Outi; Kääriäinen, Maria; Elo, Satu; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2014-02-01

    To analyse systematic review articles published in the top 10 nursing journals to determine the quality of the methods employed within them. Systematic review is defined as a scientific research method that synthesises high-quality scientific knowledge on a given topic. The number of such reviews in nursing science has increased dramatically during recent years, but their methodological quality has not previously been assessed. A review of the literature using a narrative approach. Ranked impact factor scores for nursing journals were obtained from the Journal Citation Report database of the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI Web of Knowledge). All issues from the years 2009 and 2010 of the top 10 ranked journals were included. CINAHL and MEDLINE databases were searched to locate studies using the search terms 'systematic review' and 'systematic literature review'. A total of 39 eligible studies were identified. Their methodological quality was evaluated through the specific criteria of quality assessment, description of synthesis and strengths and weaknesses reported in the included studies. Most of the eligible systematic reviews included several different designs or types of quantitative study. The majority included a quality assessment, and a total of 17 different criteria were identified. The method of synthesis was mentioned in about half of the reviews, the most common being narrative synthesis. The weaknesses of reviews were discussed, while strengths were rarely highlighted. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews examined varied considerably, although they were all published in nursing journals with a high-impact factor. Despite the fact that systematic reviews are considered the most robust source of research evidence, they vary in methodological quality. This point is important to consider in clinical practice when applying the results to patient care. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament injury in football players: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Volpi, Piero; Bisciotti, Gian Nicola; Chamari, Karim; Cena, Emanuela; Carimati, Giulia; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The ACL lesion represents one of the most dramatic injuries in a sportsman’s career. There are many injury risk factors related to intrinsic, or non-modifiable, and extrinsic, or modifiable, factors. In literature at today current evidence suggests that ACL injury risk is multifactorial and involves biomechanical, anatomical, hormonal and neuromuscular factors. Purpose To perform a systematic review of the literature concerning the ACL injury risk factors in soccer. Conclusion The injury risk factors show a low level of evidence, further studies in the field are needed. Study design Systematic review. PMID:28217570

  3. Acceptability of HIV self-testing: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Krause, Janne; Subklew-Sehume, Friederike; Kenyon, Chris; Colebunders, Robert

    2013-08-08

    The uptake of HIV testing and counselling services remains low in risk groups around the world. Fear of stigmatisation, discrimination and breach of confidentiality results in low service usage among risk groups. HIV self-testing (HST) is a confidential HIV testing option that enables people to find out their status in the privacy of their homes. We evaluated the acceptability of HST and the benefits and challenges linked to the introduction of HST. A literature review was conducted on the acceptability of HST in projects in which HST was offered to study participants. Besides acceptability rates of HST, accuracy rates of self-testing, referral rates of HIV-positive individuals into medical care, disclosure rates and rates of first-time testers were assessed. In addition, the utilisation rate of a telephone hotline for counselling issues and clients` attitudes towards HST were extracted. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria (HST had been offered effectively to study participants and had been administered by participants themselves) and demonstrated universally high acceptability of HST among study populations. Studies included populations from resource poor settings (Kenya and Malawi) and from high-income countries (USA, Spain and Singapore). The majority of study participants were able to perform HST accurately with no or little support from trained staff. Participants appreciated the confidentiality and privacy but felt that the provision of adequate counselling services was inadequate. The review demonstrates that HST is an acceptable testing alternative for risk groups and can be performed accurately by the majority of self-testers. Clients especially value the privacy and confidentiality of HST. Linkage to counselling as well as to treatment and care services remain major challenges.

  4. Robots and ICT to support play in children with severe physical disabilities: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Renée J F; Lexis, Monique A S; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; Jansens, Rianne M L; de Witte, Luc P

    2015-09-02

    Play is an essential part of children's lives. Children with physical disabilities experience difficulties in play, especially those with severe physical disabilities. With the progress of innovative technology, the possibilities to support play are increasing. The purpose of this literature study is to gain insight into the aims, control options and commercial availability of information and communication technology (ICT) and robots to support play (especially play for the sake of play) in children with severe physical disabilities. A systematic literature search in the databases PubMed, CINAHL, IEEE and ERIC was carried out. Titles and abstracts were assessed independently by three reviewers. In addition, studies were selected using Google Scholar, conference proceedings and reference lists. Three main groups of technology for play could be distinguished: robots (n = 8), virtual reality systems (n = 15) and computer systems (n = 4). Besides, ICT and robots developed for specific therapy or educational goals using play-like activities, five of the in total 27 technologies in this study described the aim of "play for play's sake". Many ICT systems and robots to support play in children with physical disabilities were found. Numerous technologies use play-like activities to achieve therapeutic or educational goals. Robots especially are used for "play for play's sake". Implications for Rehabilitation This study gives insight into the aims, control options and commercial availability for application of robots and ICT to support play in children with severe physical disabilities. This overview can be used in both the fields of rehabilitation and special education to search for new innovative intervention options and it can stimulate them to use these innovative play materials. Especially robots may have great potential in supporting "play for play's sake".

  5. Ethical issues in autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in advanced breast cancer: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An effectiveness assessment on ASCT in locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer identified serious ethical issues associated with this intervention. Our objective was to systematically review these aspects by means of a literature analysis. Methods We chose the reflexive Socratic approach as the review method using Hofmann's question list, conducted a comprehensive literature search in biomedical, psychological and ethics bibliographic databases and screened the resulting hits in a 2-step selection process. Relevant arguments were assembled from the included articles, and were assessed and assigned to the question list. Hofmann's questions were addressed by synthesizing these arguments. Results Of the identified 879 documents 102 included arguments related to one or more questions from Hofmann's question list. The most important ethical issues were the implementation of ASCT in clinical practice on the basis of phase-II trials in the 1990s and the publication of falsified data in the first randomized controlled trials (Bezwoda fraud), which caused significant negative effects on recruiting patients for further clinical trials and the doctor-patient relationship. Recent meta-analyses report a marginal effect in prolonging disease-free survival, accompanied by severe harms, including death. ASCT in breast cancer remains a stigmatized technology. Reported health-related-quality-of-life data are often at high risk of bias in favor of the survivors. Furthermore little attention has been paid to those patients who were dying. Conclusions The questions were addressed in different degrees of completeness. All arguments were assignable to the questions. The central ethical dimensions of ASCT could be discussed by reviewing the published literature. PMID:21496244

  6. Current state of ethics literature synthesis: a systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Marcel; Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel

    2016-10-03

    Modern standards for evidence-based decision making in clinical care and public health still rely solely on eminence-based input when it comes to normative ethical considerations. Manuals for clinical guideline development or health technology assessment (HTA) do not explain how to search, analyze, and synthesize relevant normative information in a systematic and transparent manner. In the scientific literature, however, systematic or semi-systematic reviews of ethics literature already exist, and scholarly debate on their opportunities and limitations has recently bloomed. A systematic review was performed of all existing systematic or semi-systematic reviews for normative ethics literature on medical topics. The study further assessed how these reviews report on their methods for search, selection, analysis, and synthesis of ethics literature. We identified 84 reviews published between 1997 and 2015 in 65 different journals and demonstrated an increasing publication rate for this type of review. While most reviews reported on different aspects of search and selection methods, reporting was much less explicit for aspects of analysis and synthesis methods: 31 % did not fulfill any criteria related to the reporting of analysis methods; for example, only 25 % of the reviews reported the ethical approach needed to analyze and synthesize normative information. While reviews of ethics literature are increasingly published, their reporting quality for analysis and synthesis of normative information should be improved. Guiding questions are: What was the applied ethical approach and technical procedure for identifying and extracting the relevant normative information units? What method and procedure was employed for synthesizing normative information? Experts and stakeholders from bioethics, HTA, guideline development, health care professionals, and patient organizations should work together to further develop this area of evidence-based health care.

  7. What is the effect of the weather on trauma workload? A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ali, A M; Willett, K

    2015-01-01

    Hospital admission rates for a number of conditions have been linked to variations in the weather. It is well established that trauma workload displays significant seasonal variation. A reliable predictive model might enable targeting of high-risk groups for intervention and planning of hospital staff levels. To our knowledge there have been no systematic reviews of the literature on the relationship between weather and trauma workload, and predictive models have thus far been informed by the results of single studies. We conducted a systematic review of bibliographic databases and reference lists up to June 2014 to identify primary research papers assessing the effect of specified weather conditions including temperature, rainfall, snow, fog, hail, humidity and wind speed on trauma workload, defined as admission to hospital, fracture or a Road Traffic Accident (RTA) resulting in a seriously injured casualty or fatality. 11,083 papers were found through electronic and reference search. 83 full papers were assessed for eligibility. 28 met inclusion criteria and were included in the final review; 6 of these related to the effect of the weather on trauma admissions, one to ambulance call out for trauma, 13 to fracture rate and 8 to RTAs. Increased temperature is positively correlated with trauma admissions. The rate of distal radius fractures is more sensitive to adverse weather than the rate of hip fractures. Paediatric trauma, both in respect of trauma admissions and fracture rate, is more sensitive to the weather than adult trauma. Adverse weather influences both RTA frequency and severity, but the nature of the relationship is dependent upon the timecourse of the weather event and the population studied. Important methodological differences between studies limit the value of the existing literature in building consensus for a generalisable predictive model. Weather conditions may have a substantial effect on trauma workload independent of the effects of seasonal

  8. Making literature reviews more reliable through application of lessons from systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Haddaway, N R; Woodcock, P; Macura, B; Collins, A

    2015-12-01

    Review articles can provide valuable summaries of the ever-increasing volume of primary research in conservation biology. Where findings may influence important resource-allocation decisions in policy or practice, there is a need for a high degree of reliability when reviewing evidence. However, traditional literature reviews are susceptible to a number of biases during the identification, selection, and synthesis of included studies (e.g., publication bias, selection bias, and vote counting). Systematic reviews, pioneered in medicine and translated into conservation in 2006, address these issues through a strict methodology that aims to maximize transparency, objectivity, and repeatability. Systematic reviews will always be the gold standard for reliable synthesis of evidence. However, traditional literature reviews remain popular and will continue to be valuable where systematic reviews are not feasible. Where traditional reviews are used, lessons can be taken from systematic reviews and applied to traditional reviews in order to increase their reliability. Certain key aspects of systematic review methods that can be used in a context-specific manner in traditional reviews include focusing on mitigating bias; increasing transparency, consistency, and objectivity, and critically appraising the evidence and avoiding vote counting. In situations where conducting a full systematic review is not feasible, the proposed approach to reviewing evidence in a more systematic way can substantially improve the reliability of review findings, providing a time- and resource-efficient means of maximizing the value of traditional reviews. These methods are aimed particularly at those conducting literature reviews where systematic review is not feasible, for example, for graduate students, single reviewers, or small organizations.

  9. Transfemoral prosthesis suspension systems: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Hossein; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Eshraghi, Arezoo; Ali, Sadeeq

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the scientific evidence pertaining to various transfemoral suspension systems to provide selection criteria for clinicians. To this end, databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect were explored. The following key words, as well as their combinations and synonyms, were used for the search: transfemoral prosthesis, prosthetic suspension, lower limb prosthesis, above-knee prosthesis, prosthetic liner, transfemoral, and prosthetic socket. The study design, research instrument, sampling method, outcome measures, and protocols of articles were reviewed. On the basis of the selection criteria, 16 articles (11 prospective studies and 5 surveys) were reviewed. The main causes of reluctance to prosthesis, aside from energy expenditure, were socket-related problems such as discomfort, perspiration, and skin problems. Osseointegration was a suspension option, yet it is rarely applied because of several drawbacks, such as extended rehabilitation process, risk for fracture, and infection along with excessive cost. In conclusion, no clinical evidence was found as a "standard" system of suspension and socket design for all transfemoral amputees. However, among various suspension systems for transfemoral amputees, the soft insert or double socket was favored by most users in terms of function and comfort.

  10. Severe burn injury in europe: a systematic review of the incidence, etiology, morbidity, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Burn injury is a serious pathology, potentially leading to severe morbidity and significant mortality, but it also has a considerable health-economic impact. The aim of this study was to describe the European hospitalized population with severe burn injury, including the incidence, etiology, risk factors, mortality, and causes of death. Methods The systematic literature search (1985 to 2009) involved PubMed, the Web of Science, and the search engine Google. The reference lists and the Science Citation Index were used for hand searching (snowballing). Only studies dealing with epidemiologic issues (for example, incidence and outcome) as their major topic, on hospitalized populations with severe burn injury (in secondary and tertiary care) in Europe were included. Language restrictions were set on English, French, and Dutch. Results The search led to 76 eligible studies, including more than 186,500 patients in total. The annual incidence of severe burns was 0.2 to 2.9/10,000 inhabitants with a decreasing trend in time. Almost 50% of patients were younger than 16 years, and ~60% were male patients. Flames, scalds, and contact burns were the most prevalent causes in the total population, but in children, scalds clearly dominated. Mortality was usually between 1.4% and 18% and is decreasing in time. Major risk factors for death were older age and a higher total percentage of burned surface area, as well as chronic diseases. (Multi) organ failure and sepsis were the most frequently reported causes of death. The main causes of early death (<48 hours) were burn shock and inhalation injury. Conclusions Despite the lack of a large-scale European registration of burn injury, more epidemiologic information is available about the hospitalized population with severe burn injury than is generally presumed. National and international registration systems nevertheless remain necessary to allow better targeting of prevention campaigns and further improvement of cost

  11. [Neuropsychology of eating disorders: a systematic review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Monica; Mattos, Paulo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Veiga, Heloisa; Rizo, Luciana; Appolinario, José C

    2004-06-01

    The pathophysiology of eating disorders is still unknown, with many factors possibly involved. The existence of a central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction is being investigated with particular interest. One of the most employed strategies to reach this goal is the evaluation of cognitive functioning of patients with eating disorders with neuropsychological tests. To evaluate the current knowledge about the neuropsychology of ED. We performed a review of several data bases (including MedLINE, PsychoINFO, LILACS and Cochrane Data Bank), using terms related to main theme of interest. The review comprised articles published up to January, 2004. Anorexia Nervosa (AN) was the most studied ED from the neuropsychological point-of-view, with studies tending to elicit attentive, visuo-spatial, and visuo-constructive deficits among such patients. On the other side, patients with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) exhibited deficits in the selective aspects of attention and in executive functions. As yet, there is no study covering the neuropsychological aspects of binge-eating disorder. After successful treatment, individuals show improvement of some cognitive deficits, while other seem to persist. The ED are possibly associated with a certain degree of neuropsychological dysfunction, even though there is no consensus with regard to which function is particularly impaired. The fact that some cognitive dysfunction tend to disappear after treatment argues in favor of the hypothesis that these are functional deficits. Other deficits, however, tend to persist, suggesting that they may precede the development of eating disorders or even contribute to their development or to a worse prognosis. The study of the neuropsychological aspects of ED may help tailoring more selective therapeutic approaches to patients suffering from these disorders.

  12. Markers of dengue severity: a systematic review of cytokines and chemokines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yie Hou; Leong, Wei-Yee; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-12-01

    The prognosis of dengue remains a challenge in the early, objective triage of patients with dengue fever of differing severity. Circulating immuno-modulating proteins have brought new possibilities as prognostic markers of severe dengue (SD). This systematic review is devoted to understanding the potential utility of blood-based cytokines and chemokines as prognostication markers of SD based on the current literature. PubMed and Embase were searched. Of 794 candidate articles, 685 abstracts were screened against our exclusion/inclusion criteria and 25 (3.6 %) studies met the quality assessments. A total of 18 studies were retrospective observational and 2 were prospective cohort studies. Elevated IL-10, up to day 7 of fever onset, stood out as a candidate prognostic marker for SD using the 1997 and 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) case definitions. IFNγ was another potential prognostic marker of SD (1997 WHO case definition), but its levels varied between studies. Significant heterogeneity in methodologies and patient cohorts prevent ready application of IL-10 and IFNγ as prognostic markers to other dengue populations. Our results suggest that the current non-randomized studies are delivering inconsistent messages and higher-quality studies, with consistent methodologies and validation in independent patient cohorts, are needed to delineate confounding variables. Major gaps identified were full accounting and transparency of sampling days, dengue virus type, infection status and age group.

  13. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  14. Educational Interventions for Children with ASD: A Systematic Literature Review 2008-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Caroline; Symes, Wendy; Hebron, Judith; Humphrey, Neil; Morewood, Gareth; Woods, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Systematic literature reviews can play a key role in underpinning evidence-based practice. To date, large-scale reviews of interventions for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have focused primarily on research quality. To assist practitioners, the current review adopted a broader framework which allowed for greater consideration of…

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  16. Strategies for Implementing School-Located Influenza Vaccination of Children: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Hull, Harry F.; Rousculp, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends influenza vaccinations for all children 6 months to 18 years of age, which includes school-aged children. Influenza immunization programs may benefit schools by reducing absenteeism. Methods: A systematic literature review of PubMed, PsychLit, and Dissertation Abstracts…

  17. Nutrition and Adults with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: Systematic Literature Review Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Kathleen; Traci, Meg Ann; Seekins, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 4.5 million Americans have an intellectual or developmental disability. Concern is increasing about these individuals' nutrition-related behavior and its implications for their health. This article reports on a systematic search of the current literature listed in the "PsycINFO" and "PubMed" databases related to nutritional status of…

  18. School Leadership in West Africa: Findings from a Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The literature shows that leadership is the second most important factor influencing school and learner outcomes, including levels of literacy and numeracy, school leaving examination results, and progression to secondary and higher education. This article focuses on school leadership in West Africa, drawing on a systematic review of the academic…

  19. The Lived Experience of Heart Failure at the End of Life: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Faith Pratt; Thornton, Nancy; Martin, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    The growing number of older adults with heart failure (HF) suggests the need for more information about how people with this condition experience their illness and strategies for coping with this condition. To address this need, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature and an in-depth, thematic analysis of qualitative…

  20. The Use of Motivation Theory in Engineering Education Research: A Systematic Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Philip R.; McCord, Rachel E.; Matusovich, Holly M.; Kajfez, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation is frequently studied in the context of engineering education. However, the use of the term motivation can be inconsistent, both in how clearly it is defined and in how it is implemented in research designs and practice. This systematic literature review investigates the use of motivation across recent engineering education…

  1. The Impact of Creative Learning Environments on Learners: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jindal-Snape, Divya; Davies, Dan; Collier, Chris; Howe, Alan; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a systematic review of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools. Despite the search yielding 210 documents, comparatively few empirical studies were published between 2005 and 2011 that addressed the review objectives. Only 18 studies included in the…

  2. A Systematic Literature Review of Funding for Higher Education Institutions in Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qilong; Ning, Kang; Barnes, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation and funding in higher education is crucial to the success of reform and transformation of our higher education system. With a view to identifying trends and best practices in the area, utilizing a method of systematic literature review, we have critically reviewed relevant theories and practices from developed counties that are…

  3. Integrating Enterprise Resource Planning (SAP) in the Accounting Curriculum: A Systematic Literature Review and Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blount, Yvette; Abedin, Babak; Vatanasakdakul, Savanid; Erfani, Seyedezahra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how an enterprise resource planning (ERP) software package SAP was integrated into the curriculum of an accounting information systems (AIS) course in an Australian university. Furthermore, the paper provides a systematic literature review of articles published between 1990 and 2013 to understand how ERP systems were…

  4. The Potentials of Using Cloud Computing in Schools: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Simon Birk; Braae, Lotte Qulleq Nygaard; Pedersen, Sine; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2017-01-01

    Cloud Computing (CC) refers to the physical structure of a communications network, where data is stored in large data centers and can be accessed anywhere, at any time, and from different devices. This systematic literature review identifies and categorizes the potential and barriers of cloud-based teaching in schools from an international…

  5. Coordinated School Health Programs and Academic Achievement: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Nancy G.; Low, Barbara J.; Hollis, Christine; Cross, Alan W.; Davis, Sally M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Few evaluations of school health programs measure academic outcomes. K-12 education needs evidence for academic achievement to implement school programs. This article presents a systematic review of the literature to examine evidence that school health programs aligned with the Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) model improve…

  6. The Clinical Aspects of Mirror Therapy in Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothgangel, Andreas Stefan; Braun, Susy M.; Beurskens, Anna J.; Seitz, Rudiger J.; Wade, Derick T.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical aspects of mirror therapy (MT) interventions after stroke, phantom limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome. A systematic literature search of the Cochrane Database of controlled trials, PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PEDro, RehabTrials and Rehadat, was made by two…

  7. The Clinical Aspects of Mirror Therapy in Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothgangel, Andreas Stefan; Braun, Susy M.; Beurskens, Anna J.; Seitz, Rudiger J.; Wade, Derick T.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical aspects of mirror therapy (MT) interventions after stroke, phantom limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome. A systematic literature search of the Cochrane Database of controlled trials, PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PEDro, RehabTrials and Rehadat, was made by two…

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  9. Strategies for Implementing School-Located Influenza Vaccination of Children: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Hull, Harry F.; Rousculp, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends influenza vaccinations for all children 6 months to 18 years of age, which includes school-aged children. Influenza immunization programs may benefit schools by reducing absenteeism. Methods: A systematic literature review of PubMed, PsychLit, and Dissertation Abstracts…

  10. Chemical sympathectomy for neuropathic pain: does it work? Case report and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Furlan, A D; Lui, P W; Mailis, A

    2001-12-01

    To determine if chemical sympathectomy successfully reduces limb neuropathic pain. Systematic literature review of the effectiveness of phenol or alcohol sympathectomy for extremity neuropathic pain. A 29-year-old female with complex regional pain syndrome of both lower extremities after back surgery who was submitted to bilateral lumbar chemical sympathectomy. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, and EMBASE were systematically searched. (1) For the patient in question: spontaneous pain, allodynia, pinprick hyperalgesia, pressure evoked pain; (2) For the literature review: meaningful versus nonmeaningful pain relief based on degree and duration (>2 weeks) of pain relief. (1) The case reported experienced partial temporary relief of pain primarily related to selective modulation of allodynia, but not deep pain or pinprick hyperalgesia; (2) 44% of 66 patients in 13 studies that met the authors' inclusion criteria experienced meaningful pain relief. Whereas 19% experienced no meaningful relief, for the remaining 37% of the patients no conclusions regarding duration and degree of relief could be drawn due to poor reporting of outcomes. Based on the case reported and systematic literature review, chemical sympathectomy seems to have at best a temporary effect, limited to cutaneous allodynia. Despite the popularity of chemical sympatholysis, only few patients and poorly defined outcomes are reported in the literature, substantiating the need for well-designed studies on the effectiveness of the procedure.

  11. Perceiving Learning at a Glance: A Systematic Literature Review of Learning Dashboard Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendimann, Beat A.; Rodriguez-Triana, Maria Jesus; Vozniuk, Andrii; Prieto, Luis P.; Boroujeni, Mina Shirvani; Holzer, Adrian; Gillet, Denis; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic literature review of the state-of-the-art of research on learning dashboards in the fields of Learning Analytics and Educational Data Mining. Research on learning dashboards aims to identify what data is meaningful to different stakeholders and how data can be presented to support sense-making processes. Learning…

  12. The Lived Experience of Heart Failure at the End of Life: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Faith Pratt; Thornton, Nancy; Martin, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    The growing number of older adults with heart failure (HF) suggests the need for more information about how people with this condition experience their illness and strategies for coping with this condition. To address this need, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature and an in-depth, thematic analysis of qualitative…

  13. Nutrition and Adults with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: Systematic Literature Review Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Kathleen; Traci, Meg Ann; Seekins, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 4.5 million Americans have an intellectual or developmental disability. Concern is increasing about these individuals' nutrition-related behavior and its implications for their health. This article reports on a systematic search of the current literature listed in the "PsycINFO" and "PubMed" databases related to nutritional status of…

  14. Lesbian and Gay Parents in Early Childhood Settings: A Systematic Review of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averett, Paige; Hegde, Archana; Smith, Justin

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the first systematic review of all the existing peer-reviewed literature (n = 20) on gay and lesbian parents and their children in early childhood education settings. The review includes articles that were empirical or pedagogical practice oriented, focused exclusively on early childhood education (Birth to 5 years), and…

  15. School Leadership in West Africa: Findings from a Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The literature shows that leadership is the second most important factor influencing school and learner outcomes, including levels of literacy and numeracy, school leaving examination results, and progression to secondary and higher education. This article focuses on school leadership in West Africa, drawing on a systematic review of the academic…

  16. The Use of Motivation Theory in Engineering Education Research: A Systematic Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Philip R.; McCord, Rachel E.; Matusovich, Holly M.; Kajfez, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation is frequently studied in the context of engineering education. However, the use of the term motivation can be inconsistent, both in how clearly it is defined and in how it is implemented in research designs and practice. This systematic literature review investigates the use of motivation across recent engineering education…

  17. Computer-Based Graphic Organizers for Students with LD: A Systematic Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciullo, Stephen; Reutebuch, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of the literature for studies that utilized computer-based graphic organizers for students with learning disabilities. A comprehensive search yielded 12 studies that were coded and analyzed. The authors investigated the effectiveness of the treatments on academic outcomes, and selected integral…

  18. Integrating Enterprise Resource Planning (SAP) in the Accounting Curriculum: A Systematic Literature Review and Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blount, Yvette; Abedin, Babak; Vatanasakdakul, Savanid; Erfani, Seyedezahra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how an enterprise resource planning (ERP) software package SAP was integrated into the curriculum of an accounting information systems (AIS) course in an Australian university. Furthermore, the paper provides a systematic literature review of articles published between 1990 and 2013 to understand how ERP systems were…

  19. The Impact of Creative Learning Environments on Learners: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jindal-Snape, Divya; Davies, Dan; Collier, Chris; Howe, Alan; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a systematic review of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools. Despite the search yielding 210 documents, comparatively few empirical studies were published between 2005 and 2011 that addressed the review objectives. Only 18 studies included in the…

  20. Computer-Based Graphic Organizers for Students with LD: A Systematic Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciullo, Stephen; Reutebuch, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of the literature for studies that utilized computer-based graphic organizers for students with learning disabilities. A comprehensive search yielded 12 studies that were coded and analyzed. The authors investigated the effectiveness of the treatments on academic outcomes, and selected integral…

  1. Assessing Grant Capacity and Readiness: A Systematic Review of the Periodical Literature of Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuss, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The author knew of no formalized system for appraising grant capacity and readiness so, in an effort to understand the current state of knowledge regarding assessment of these institutional factors, conducted a systematic review of the research administration literature. Every article published from 1982 through 2013 by five major journals in the…

  2. Return to play in athletes with spinal cord concussion: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Narihito; Tetreault, Lindsay; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Nouri, Aria; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-02-01

    This is a systematic review. The study aimed to evaluate whether spinal cord concussion (SCC) patients can safely return to play sports and if there are factors that can predict SCC recurrence or the development of a spinal cord injury (SCI). Although SCC is a reversible neurologic disturbance of spinal cord function, its management and the implications for return to play are controversial. We conducted a systematic search of the literature using the keywords Cervical Spine AND Sports AND Injuries in six databases. We examined return to play in patients (1) without stenosis, (2) with stenosis, and (3) who underwent single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). We also investigated predictors for the risk of SCC recurrence or SCI. We identified 3,655 unique citations, 16 of which met our inclusion criteria. The included studies were case-control studies or case series and reports. Two studies reported on patients without stenosis: pediatric cases returned without recurrence, whereas an adult case experienced recurrent SCC after returning to play. Seven studies described patients with stenosis. These studies included cases with and without recurrence after return to play, as well as patients who suffered SCI with permanent neurologic deficits. Three studies reported on patients who underwent an ACDF. Although some patients played after surgery without problems, several patients experienced recurrent SCC due to herniation at levels adjacent to the surgical sites. With respect to important predictors, a greater frequency of patients who experienced recurrence of symptoms or SCI following return to play had a "long" duration of symptoms (>24 hours; 36.36%) compared with those who were problem-free (11.11%; p=.0311). There is limited evidence on current practice standards for return to play following SCC and important risk factors for SCC recurrence or SCI. Because of small sample sizes, future prospective multicenter studies are needed to determine

  3. Clinical association between Kikuchi׳s disease and systemic lupus erythematosus: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Sopeña, Bernardo; Rivera, Alberto; Chamorro, Antonio; Freire, Mayka; Alende, Vanessa; Seco, Elena; González-Gay, Miguel A; González-Quintela, Arturo

    2017-08-01

    To perform a systematic review of all cases of the association between Kikuchi's disease (KD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to ascertain the clinical and laboratory characteristics of this association (KD-SLE). We conducted a systematic search of the scientific literature until 31 January 2016. For study purposes, only patients aged >14 years, with histologically proven KD, definite SLE and adequate clinical data were included. To compare KD-SLE against isolated KD and SLE, we selected 2 large series of patients with KD and 4 series of SLE patients. The search found 158 adults with proven KD-SLE. Of these, 113 with sufficient clinical information were included; 86 were women (female:male ratio = 5.0); mean age at diagnosis was 34 years (range: 14-56 years); and an ethnic distribution of 50.5% Asian, 34% Caucasian, and 15% other. KD-SLE patients differed significantly from patients with isolated KD, presenting with a higher frequency of high fever (90%), severe KD (88%), and extranodal manifestations. When compared to patients with SLE, those with KD-SLE presented with a higher frequency of fever and systemic symptoms and a lower frequency of lupus nephritis (22%). SLE had been diagnosed before KD in 18% of cases, simultaneously in 51%, and after KD in 31%. No significant differences were found in terms of time of diagnosis. While KD-SLE patients share many clinical and laboratory manifestations with SLE, they differ in a lower frequency of lupus nephritis. The relative time of diagnosis of each disease did not affect the clinical expression of KD-SLE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic Analysis of Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson Disease: Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Jaime Eduardo; Zorro, Oscar; Ruiz-Gaviria, Rafael; Castañeda-Cardona, Camilo; Otálora-Esteban, Margarita; Henao, Sara; Navarrete, Sergio; Acevedo, Juan Carlos; Rosselli, Diego

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic multifaceted neurodegenerative disorder of adult onset that affects quality of life and places a burden on patients, caregivers, and society. In early disease, dopaminergic therapy improves motor symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms tend to increase in frequency and severity, even with best medical treatment (BMT). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) becomes an option for certain patients, but cost becomes an important issue. We performed a systematic review of the literature of economic studies of the use of DBS in patients with PD, including costs studies or economic evaluations expressed as cost per improvement in quality life, decrease in dose of pharmacological treatments, and the decrease of caregiver burden. We reviewed the following databases: Medline/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, LILACS, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform ICTRP portal and ClinicalTrials.gov from 1980 to 2015. Costs have been converted or adjusted to 2016 US dollars (US$). Nine studies were identified. The average cost of DBS for a patient with PD in 5 years is US$186,244. The quality-adjusted life year was higher in DBS compared with BMT after at least 2 years of treatment, with an average incremental cost utility ratio of US$41,932 per additional quality-adjusted life year gained. Costs in the first year are higher with DBS because of direct costs related to the surgical procedure, the device, and the more frequent controls. Studies show better results with a longer time horizon (up to 5 years). DBS is a cost-effective intervention for patients with advanced PD, but it has a high initial cost compared with BMT. However, DBS reduces pharmacologic treatment costs and should also reduce direct, indirect, and social costs of PD on the long term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antiviral treatment of Bell's palsy based on baseline severity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Ricky D; Wilby, Kyle J; Ensom, Mary H H

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral agents on complete recovery of Bell's palsy. We searched CENTRAL, Embase, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and sources of unpublished literature to November 1, 2014. Primary and secondary outcomes were complete and satisfactory recovery, respectively. To evaluate statistical heterogeneity, we performed subgroup analysis of baseline severity of Bell's palsy and between-study sensitivity analyses based on risk of allocation and detection bias. The 10 included randomized controlled trials (2419 patients; 807 with severe Bell's palsy at onset) had variable risk of bias, with 9 trials having a high risk of bias in at least 1 domain. Complete recovery was not statistically significantly greater with antiviral use versus no antiviral use in the random-effects meta-analysis of 6 trials (relative risk, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.16; I(2) = 65%). Conversely, random-effects meta-analysis of 9 trials showed a statistically significant difference in satisfactory recovery (relative risk, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.18; I(2) = 63%). Response to antiviral agents did not differ visually or statistically between patients with severe symptoms at baseline and those with milder disease (test for interaction, P = .11). Sensitivity analyses did not show a clear effect of bias on outcomes. Antiviral agents are not efficacious in increasing the proportion of patients with Bell's palsy who achieved complete recovery, regardless of baseline symptom severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rape in Armed Conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Kabengele Mpinga, Emmanuel; Koya, Mapendo; Hasselgard-Rowe, Jennifer; Jeannot, Emilien; Rehani, Sylvie B; Chastonay, Philippe

    2016-05-19

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature between 1996 and 2013 on rape in war-ridden Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in order to better understand the interest of the scientific community in describing the magnitude and characteristics of the problem. The literature search was conducted in French and English using several databases (Pubmed, PsycInfo, Sapphire, BDSP, Embase, Rero, and Web of Science) with the key words "rape and DRC" combined with several Medical Subject Headings concepts. Our systematic review yielded 2,087 references, among which only 27 are original studies, that is 20 are based on population surveys and the remaining 7 are original data based on case studies and reviews. Ten studies provided prevalence rates of rape victims, 18 provided specific information on the profile of the victims, 10 reported that most of the perpetrators of rape were military personnel, 14 referred to the negligence of the government in protecting victims, and 10 reported a lack of competent health-care facilities. The awareness of rape in conflict-ridden DRC is still limited as reported in the scientific literature: Published scientific papers are scarce. Yet more research would probably help mobilize local authorities and the international community against this basic human rights violation.

  7. A systematic review of the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Bick, Debra

    2012-11-10

    The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries as a consequence, in part, of increased obstetric intervention and increasingly complex medical needs of women who become pregnant. Access to emergency obstetric care means that for the majority of women in these countries, an experience of severe maternal morbidity is unlikely to result in loss of life. However, little is known about the subsequent impact on postnatal psychological health resulting in an evidence gap to support provision of appropriate care for these women. There has recently been increasing recognition that childbirth can be a cause of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The combination of experiencing a life-threatening complication and its management may culminate in psychological trauma. This systematic review examined the association between women's experience of severe maternal morbidity during labour, at the time of giving birth or within the first week following birth, and PTSD and its symptoms. Relevant literature was identified through multiple databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Cochrane library and the British Library, using predetermined search strategies. The search terms included "post-traumatic stress disorder", "PTSD", "stress disorders, post-traumatic", "maternal morbidity", "pregnancy complications" "puerperal disorders", "obstetric labo(u)r complication", "postpartum h(a)emorrhage", "eclampsia". Studies identified were categorised according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was assessed using the relevant CASP appraisal tools. Eleven primary studies met review criteria. Evidence of a relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD/PTSD symptoms was inconsistent and findings varied between studies. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that severe pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for PTSD and its symptoms, an association possibly

  8. A systematic review of the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries as a consequence, in part, of increased obstetric intervention and increasingly complex medical needs of women who become pregnant. Access to emergency obstetric care means that for the majority of women in these countries, an experience of severe maternal morbidity is unlikely to result in loss of life. However, little is known about the subsequent impact on postnatal psychological health resulting in an evidence gap to support provision of appropriate care for these women. There has recently been increasing recognition that childbirth can be a cause of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The combination of experiencing a life-threatening complication and its management may culminate in psychological trauma. This systematic review examined the association between women’s experience of severe maternal morbidity during labour, at the time of giving birth or within the first week following birth, and PTSD and its symptoms. Methods Relevant literature was identified through multiple databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Cochrane library and the British Library, using predetermined search strategies. The search terms included "post-traumatic stress disorder", "PTSD", "stress disorders, post-traumatic", "maternal morbidity", “pregnancy complications” “puerperal disorders”, "obstetric labo(u)r complication", "postpartum h(a)emorrhage", "eclampsia”. Studies identified were categorised according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was assessed using the relevant CASP appraisal tools. Results Eleven primary studies met review criteria. Evidence of a relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD/PTSD symptoms was inconsistent and findings varied between studies. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that severe pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for PTSD and its

  9. Neighborhood safety factors associated with older adults' health-related outcomes: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Won, Jaewoong; Lee, Chanam; Forjuoh, Samuel N; Ory, Marcia G

    2016-09-01

    Neighborhood safety is important for older adults' health and wellbeing, but there has not been a synthesis in the literature of what is currently known about this construct. This systematic literature review, following the PRISMA guidelines, focuses on identifying neighborhood safety factors associated with health-related outcomes and behaviors of older adults in the U.S. A search was conducted in 2014 via Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, SportDis, and Transportation Databases. Based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified thirty-two articles for review. Sixteen studies examined health outcomes such as health status, mental health, physical function, morbidity/mortality, and obesity; the other sixteen studies focused on health behaviors, such as physical activity and walking. Four domains of neighborhood safety were identified: overall/general neighborhood safety; crime-related safety; traffic-related safety; and proxies for safety (e.g., vandalism, graffiti). Overall/general neighborhood safety appeared most relevant to mental health and physical function. Traffic-related safety was most pertinent to physical activity, while crime-related safety was more consistently associated with mental health and walking. While all safety variables were significantly associated with mental health, no significant associations were found for obesity. We also found that specific measures or constructs of safety were not applied consistently across the examined studies, making it difficult to compare the results. This review identified several important gaps in the existing studies dealing with neighborhood safety-health relationships among older adults. Further studies are needed that examine the different roles of multidimensional neighborhood safety in promoting the community health, not only in the U.S., but globally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Systematic review of the quality of economic evaluations in the otolaryngology literature.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Carrie; Lui, Justin; Oddone Paolucci, Elizabeth; Rudmik, Luke

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of economic evaluations published in the otolaryngology--head and neck surgery literature, which will identify methodologic weaknesses that can be improved on in future studies. A secondary objective is to identify factors that may be associated with higher quality economic evaluations. Ovid Medline (including PubMed), Embase, and the National Health Services Economic Evaluation databases. A systematic search was performed of the aforementioned databases according to PRISMA guidelines. The search was performed using otolaryngology key terms combined with the term cost. A manual search of 36 otolaryngology journals was also performed. Included studies were graded using the Quality of Health Economics Studies instrument, a 16-item checklist providing a total quality score of 100. Fifty studies were identified, and the mean quality rating was 54.7/100 (SD = 30.9). The most commonly omitted methodology components were a lack of discussion of limitations and biases, failure to address the negative outcomes of examined interventions, and a lack of a robust sensitivity analysis. Higher quality economic evaluations were associated with a higher journal impact factor (correlation coefficient r = 0.62, P = .0001), having an author with a PhD in health economics (r = 0.56, P = .0001), and having authors who have published prior economic evaluations (r = 0.46, P = .001). Results from this study have demonstrated that there are several methodological domains that can be improved on when publishing economic evaluations in the otolaryngology literature. Authors should follow recommended methodological and reporting guidelines to optimize the transparency and accuracy of the overall conclusions. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  11. A Systematic Literature Review of Studies Analyzing Inequalities in Health Expectancy among the Older Population

    PubMed Central

    Pongiglione, Benedetta; De Stavola, Bianca L.; Ploubidis, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To collect, organize and appraise evidence of socioeconomic and demographic inequalities in health and mortality among the older population using a summary measure of population health: Health Expectancy. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted. Literature published in English before November 2014 was searched via two possible sources: three electronic databases (Web of Science, Medline and Embase), and references in selected articles. The search was developed combining terms referring to outcome, exposure and participants, consisting in health expectancy, socioeconomic and demographic groups, and older population, respectively. Results Of 256 references identified, 90 met the inclusion criteria. Six references were added after searching reference lists of included articles. Thirty-three studies were focused only on gender-based inequalities; the remaining sixty-three considered gender along with other exposures. Findings were organized according to two leading perspectives: the type of inequalities considered and the health indicators chosen to measure health expectancy. Evidence of gender-based differentials and a socioeconomic gradient were found in all studies. A remarkable heterogeneity in the choice of health indicators used to compute health expectancy emerged as well as a non-uniform way of defining same health conditions. Conclusions Health expectancy is a useful and convenient measure to monitor and assess the quality of ageing and compare different groups and populations. This review showed a general agreement of results obtained in different studies with regard to the existence of inequalities associated with several factors, such as gender, education, behaviors, and race. However, the lack of a standardized definition of health expectancy limits its comparability across studies. The need of conceiving health expectancy as a comparable and repeatable measure was highlighted as fundamental to make it an informative instrument for policy

  12. Rapid prototyping for patient-specific surgical orthopaedics guides: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Diana; Laptoiu, Dan

    2016-06-01

    There has been a lot of hype surrounding the advantages to be gained from rapid prototyping processes in a number of fields, including medicine. Our literature review aims objectively to assess how effective patient-specific surgical guides manufactured using rapid prototyping are in a number of orthopaedic surgical applications. To this end, we carried out a systematic review to identify and analyse clinical and experimental literature studies in which rapid prototyping patient-specific surgical guides are used, focusing especially on those that entail quantifiable outcomes and, at the same time, providing details on the guides' design and type of manufacturing process. Here, it should be mentioned that in this field there are not yet medium- or long-term data, and no information on revisions. In the reviewed studies, the reported positive opinions on the use of rapid prototyping patient-specific surgical guides relate to the following main advantages: reduction in operating times, low costs and improvements in the accuracy of surgical interventions thanks to guides' personalisation. However, disadvantages and sources of errors which can cause patient-specific surgical guide failures are as well discussed by authors. Stereolithography is the main rapid prototyping process employed in these applications although fused deposition modelling or selective laser sintering processes can also satisfy the requirements of these applications in terms of material properties, manufacturing accuracy and construction time. Another of our findings was that individualised drill guides for spinal surgery are currently the favourite candidates for manufacture using rapid prototyping. Other emerging applications relate to complex orthopaedic surgery of the extremities: the forearm and foot. Several procedures such as osteotomies for radius malunions or tarsal coalition could become standard, thanks to the significant assistance provided by rapid prototyping patient-specific surgical

  13. Delay in Diagnosis of Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Kalb, Stephanie J; Yeh, Wei-Shi

    2015-10-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a rare genetic disease with devastating neurodegenerative consequences. Timing of diagnosis is crucial for spinal muscular atrophy because early diagnosis may lead to early supportive care and reduction in patient and caregiver stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the published literature for diagnostic delay in spinal muscular atrophy. A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed and Web of Science databases for studies published between 2000 and 2014 that listed any type of spinal muscular atrophy and without molecular, mouse, or pathology in the keywords. Mean and/or median age of onset and diagnosis and delay in diagnosis was extracted or calculated. All estimates were weighted by the number of patients and descriptive statistics are reported. A total of 21 studies were included in the final analysis. The weighted mean (standard deviation) ages of onset were 2.5 (0.6), 8.3 (1.6), and 39.0 (32.6) months for spinal muscular atrophy types I, II, and III, respectively, and the weighted mean (standard deviation) ages of confirmed spinal muscular atrophy genetic diagnosis were 6.3 (2.2), 20.7 (2.6), and 50.3 (12.9) months, respectively, for types I, II, and III. For studies reporting both age of onset and diagnosis, the weighted diagnostic delay was 3.6, 14.3, and 43.6 months for types I, II, and III, respectively. Diagnostic delay is common in spinal muscular atrophy. The length of delay varied by severity (type) of spinal muscular atrophy. Further studies evaluating this delay and tools such as newborn screening are warranted to end the diagnostic delay in spinal muscular atrophy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diabetes management in the nursing home: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Theresa J; Brown, Sharon A

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease with debilitating potential. Growing numbers of elderly individuals are being admitted to under-resourced nursing homes with this often complicated, time-intensive, and costly diagnosis. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature was to determine the trends in diabetes management in nursing homes over the last decade including the use of clinical practice guidelines and the evaluation of management outcomes. Ten medical, nursing, psychological, legal, and business databases were searched for articles written in English between 2000 and 2010 addressing diabetes management in nursing homes or long-term care settings. They were analyzed to determine diabetes management characteristics, use of clinical practice guidelines, resident outcomes associated with different regimens, and implications for improved management and outcomes. A total of 20 studies from 6 countries, primarily the United States, including both qualitative and quantitative designs and a combined sample of 779,707 residents, met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies described frequencies of various management practices and found rare clinical practice guideline adherence. A severe lack of research relating management practices to health and quality-of-life outcomes was evident as was a lack of the voice of the resident in determining the diabetes regimen. Clear implications were found for improvement in diabetes management education for residents, families, and all health care providers in this setting.

  15. [Bruxism--confirmed and potential risk factors. A systematic review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Kulis, Andreja; Türp, Jens Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Considering a point prevalence of up to 20% among adults, bruxism is a clinically significant phenomenon. It was the aim of the present work to systematically review the literature published until June 2007 in order to identify contributions on risk factors for bruxism in adults. Prerequisite for consideration were reported measures of risk assessment, such as odds ratios (OR). Seven relevant articles were found. Depending on the value of the OR and the position of the lower limit of the reported confidence interval (CI(LL)), we distinguished four risk groups (A to D). Three variables--severe stress experience; age between 25 and 44 years; age between 45 and 64 years--were grouped into category A (very strong indication for clinically relevant risk factor: OR >2; CI(LL) >2). Five variables fell into category B (strong indication for clinically relevant risk factor: OR >2; 1 1) was composed of 16 variables, while category D (possible indication for risk factor: 1 < OR < or = 2; CI(LL) < or = 1) embraced 11 variables. On the other hand, the presence of occlusal interferences was not a risk factor.

  16. Fever of unknown origin: a systematic review of the literature for 1995-2004.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Giovanni B; Fusco, Francesco M; Nardiello, Salvatore

    2006-03-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) identifies a pattern of fever with temperature higher than 38.3 degrees C on several occasions over more than 3 weeks, in which the diagnosis remains uncertain after an initial diagnostic work-up. The identification of the cause of FUO is a challenge in clinical practice despite recent advances in diagnostic techniques. There are more than 200 reported causes of FUO and they can be classified in four diagnostic categories: infections, neoplasms, non-infectious inflammatory diseases and miscellaneous. We performed a systematic research of the literature on classical FUO to retrieve the review articles and case series published from 1995 to 2004, including articles from developing countries. The case series were reviewed to identify the tests commonly used both to qualify a fever as FUO and to determine the cause of the FUO, and to design an updated flow chart for the diagnosis of classical FUO. No standardized diagnostic strategy could be determined. The diagnostic process should be guided by the potential diagnostic clues (PDCs) emerging from the history, physical examination and baseline tests. A standardized flow chart can be applied only in absence of PDCs or when the PDCs are contradictory.Nuclear medicine techniques are a valuable aid in the search for the origin of FUO due to bacterial infections or in the absence of PDCs.

  17. Factors Influencing Food Choice for Independently Living Older People-A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Host, Alison; McMahon, Anne-Therese; Walton, Karen; Charlton, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Unyielding, disproportionate growth in the 65 years and older age group has precipitated serious concern about the propensity of health and aged-care services to cope in the very near future. Preservation of health and independence for as long as possible into later life will be necessary to attenuate demand for such services. Maintenance of nutritional status is acknowledged as fundamental for achievement of this aim. Determinants of food choice within this age group need to be identified and better understood to facilitate the development of pertinent strategies for encouraging nutritional intakes supportive of optimal health. A systematic review of the literature consistent with PRISMA guidelines was performed to identify articles investigating influences on food choice among older people. Articles were limited to those published between 1996 and 2014 and to studies conducted within countries where the dominant cultural, political and economic situations were comparable to those in Australia. Twenty-four articles were identified and subjected to qualitative analysis. Several themes were revealed and grouped into three broad domains: (i) changes associated with ageing; (ii) psychosocial aspects; and (iii) personal resources. Food choice among older people is determined by a complex interaction between multiple factors. Findings suggest the need for further investigations involving larger, more demographically diverse samples of participants, with the inclusion of a direct observational component in the study design.

  18. Clinimetric evaluation of shoulder disability questionnaires: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bot, S; Terwee, C; van der Windt, D A W M; Bouter, L; Dekker, J; de Vet, H C W

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed to identify self administered shoulder disability questionnaires. A checklist was developed to evaluate and compare the clinimetric quality of the instruments. Results: Two reviewers identified and evaluated 16 questionnaires by our checklist. Most studies were found for the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scale (DASH), the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardised Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES). None of the questionnaires demonstrated satisfactory results for all properties. Most questionnaires claim to measure several domains (for example, pain, physical, emotional, and social functioning), yet dimensionality was studied in only three instruments. The internal consistency was calculated for seven questionnaires and only one received an adequate rating. Twelve questionnaires received positive ratings for construct validity, although depending on the population studied, four of these questionnaires received poor ratings too. Seven questionnaires were shown to have adequate test-retest reliability (ICC >0.70), but five questionnaires were tested inadequately. In most clinimetric studies only small sample sizes (n<43) were used. Nearly all publications lacked information on the interpretation of scores. Conclusion: The DASH, SPADI, and ASES have been studied most extensively, and yet even published validation studies of these instruments have limitations in study design, sample sizes, or evidence for dimensionality. Overall, the DASH received the best ratings for its clinimetric properties. PMID:15020324

  19. Methodological Considerations in Social Cost Studies of Addictive Substances: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Verhaeghe, Nick; Lievens, Delfine; Annemans, Lieven; Vander Laenen, Freya; Putman, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and psychoactive pharmaceuticals' use is associated with a higher likelihood of developing several diseases and injuries and, as a consequence, considerable health-care expenditures. There is yet a lack of consistent methodologies to estimate the economic impact of addictive substances to society. The aim was to assess the methodological approaches applied in social cost studies estimating the economic impact of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and psychoactive pharmaceuticals. A systematic literature review through the electronic databases, Medline (PubMed) and Web of Science, was performed. Studies in English published from 1997 examining the social costs of the addictive substances alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and psychoactive pharmaceuticals were eligible for inclusion. Twelve social cost studies met the inclusion criteria. In all studies, the direct and indirect costs were measured, but the intangible costs were seldom taken into account. A wide variety in cost items included across studies was observed. Sensitivity analyses to address the uncertainty around certain cost estimates were conducted in eight studies considered in the review. Differences in cost items included in cost-of-illness studies limit the comparison across studies. It is clear that it is difficult to deal with all consequences of substance use in cost-of-illness studies. Future social cost studies should be based on sound methodological principles in order to result in more reliable cost estimates of the economic burden of substance use.

  20. A meta-synthesis study of literature review and systematic review published in nurse prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Darvishpour, Azar; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prescribing represents a new aspect of practice for nurses. To make qualitative results more accessible to clinicians, researchers, and policy makers, individuals are urged to synthesize findings from related studies. Therefore this study aimed to aggregate and interpret existing literature review and systematic studies to obtain new insights on nurse prescription. Methods: This was a qualitative meta synthesis study using Walsh and Downe process. In order to obtain data all Digital National Library of Medicine's databases, search engines and several related sites were used. Full texts with "review and nurs* prescri* " words in the title or abstract in English language and published without any time limitation were considered. After eliminating duplicate and irrelevant studies, 11 texts were selected. Data analysis was conducted using qualitative content analysis. Multiple codes were compared based on the differences and similarities and divided to the categories and themes. Results: The results from the meta synthesis of the 11 studies revealed 8 themes namely: leading countries in prescribing, views, features, infrastructures, benefits, disadvantages, facilitators and barriers of nursing prescription that are discussed in this article. The results led to a schematic model. Conclusion: Despite the positive view on nurse prescribing, there are still issues such as legal, administrative, weak research and educational deficiencies in academic preparation of nurses that needs more effort in these areas and requires further research. PMID:25405142

  1. Biological invasions: a field synopsis, systematic review, and database of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Edward; Rollinson, Emily J; Laybourn, Adam J; Scott, Tracy E; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E; Gray, Sarah M; Mickley, James; Gurevitch, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Species introductions of anthropogenic origins are a major aspect of rapid ecological change globally. Research on biological invasions has generated a large literature on many different aspects of this phenomenon. Here, we describe and categorize some aspects of this literature, to better understand what has been studied and what we know, mapping well-studied areas and important gaps. To do so, we employ the techniques of systematic reviewing widely adopted in other scientific disciplines, to further the use of approaches in reviewing the literature that are as scientific, repeatable, and transparent as those employed in a primary study. We identified 2398 relevant studies in a field synopsis of the biological invasions literature. A majority of these studies (58%) were concerned with hypotheses for causes of biological invasions, while studies on impacts of invasions were the next most common (32% of the publications). We examined 1537 papers in greater detail in a systematic review. Superior competitive abilities of invaders, environmental disturbance, and invaded community species richness were the most common hypotheses examined. Most studies examined only a single hypothesis. Almost half of the papers were field observational studies. Studies of terrestrial invasions dominate the literature, with most of these concerning plant invasions. The focus of the literature overall is uneven, with important gaps in areas of theoretical and practical importance. PMID:23404636

  2. Biological invasions: a field synopsis, systematic review, and database of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Edward; Rollinson, Emily J; Laybourn, Adam J; Scott, Tracy E; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E; Gray, Sarah M; Mickley, James; Gurevitch, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Species introductions of anthropogenic origins are a major aspect of rapid ecological change globally. Research on biological invasions has generated a large literature on many different aspects of this phenomenon. Here, we describe and categorize some aspects of this literature, to better understand what has been studied and what we know, mapping well-studied areas and important gaps. To do so, we employ the techniques of systematic reviewing widely adopted in other scientific disciplines, to further the use of approaches in reviewing the literature that are as scientific, repeatable, and transparent as those employed in a primary study. We identified 2398 relevant studies in a field synopsis of the biological invasions literature. A majority of these studies (58%) were concerned with hypotheses for causes of biological invasions, while studies on impacts of invasions were the next most common (32% of the publications). We examined 1537 papers in greater detail in a systematic review. Superior competitive abilities of invaders, environmental disturbance, and invaded community species richness were the most common hypotheses examined. Most studies examined only a single hypothesis. Almost half of the papers were field observational studies. Studies of terrestrial invasions dominate the literature, with most of these concerning plant invasions. The focus of the literature overall is uneven, with important gaps in areas of theoretical and practical importance.

  3. [Antidepressants for treatment of depression in palliative patients : a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Ujeyl, M; Müller-Oerlinghausen, B

    2012-09-01

    Treatment of depression in palliative care must take into account expected benefits and risks of antidepressants in patients with potentially limited life expectancy, poor medical condition, advanced age and higher risk to suffer from side effects and drug interactions. This systematic review assesses evidence of the efficacy and safety of different classes of antidepressants depending on the type and severity of the physical illness. A systematic database search (Medline, EMBASE) for clinical studies was carried out and references of identified literature were checked. To be included in the review studies had to be performed in illnesses that were part of in the search strategy, such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, HIV/AIDS, cancer, COPD and heart failure. Considered were controlled studies comparing the efficacy of antidepressants to placebo, other classes of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, psychostimulants or psychotherapy. In a first step only studies with patients meeting established diagnostic criteria of depression and where depression was a primary endpoint were included. In a second step, additional studies were included that did not meet both of the latter criteria but were performed in patients at the end of life. A total of 40 trials (mostly using SSRI or NSMRI) were included, 16 studies were performed in neurological, 24 in general medical conditions and 9 studies were performed in patients at the end of life or in advanced disease stages. Due to heterogeneous study designs no conclusions can be drawn if efficacy or tolerability is dependent on disease severity. In most cases, studies might have been too small to detect limited treatment effects. As a lack of efficacy was predominantly shown in larger trials, publication bias might have been present. In most of the reviewed general medical conditions study results were heterogeneous. In contrast to the popularity of the treatment approach, results suggest that SSRIs

  4. Impact of librarians on reporting of the literature searching component of pediatric systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Meert, Deborah; Torabi, Nazi; Costella, John

    2016-10-01

    A critical element in conducting a systematic review is the identification of studies. To date, very little empirical evidence has been reported on whether the presence of a librarian or information professional can contribute to the quality of the final product. The goal of this study was to compare the reporting rigor of the literature searching component of systematic reviews with and without the help of a librarian. Systematic reviews published from 2002 to 2011 in the twenty highest impact factor pediatrics journals were collected from MEDLINE. Corresponding authors were contacted via an email survey to determine if a librarian was involved, the role that the librarian played, and functions that the librarian performed. The reviews were scored independently by two reviewers using a fifteen-item checklist. There were 186 reviews that met the inclusion criteria, and 44% of the authors indicated the involvement of a librarian in conducting the systematic review. With the presence of a librarian as coauthor or team member, the mean checklist score was 8.40, compared to 6.61 (p<0.001) for reviews without a librarian. Findings indicate that having a librarian as a coauthor or team member correlates with a higher score in the literature searching component of systematic reviews.

  5. Impact of librarians on reporting of the literature searching component of pediatric systematic reviews*

    PubMed Central

    Meert, Deborah; Torabi, Nazi; Costella, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective A critical element in conducting a systematic review is the identification of studies. To date, very little empirical evidence has been reported on whether the presence of a librarian or information professional can contribute to the quality of the final product. The goal of this study was to compare the reporting rigor of the literature searching component of systematic reviews with and without the help of a librarian. Method Systematic reviews published from 2002 to 2011 in the twenty highest impact factor pediatrics journals were collected from MEDLINE. Corresponding authors were contacted via an email survey to determine if a librarian was involved, the role that the librarian played, and functions that the librarian performed. The reviews were scored independently by two reviewers using a fifteen-item checklist. Results There were 186 reviews that met the inclusion criteria, and 44% of the authors indicated the involvement of a librarian in conducting the systematic review. With the presence of a librarian as coauthor or team member, the mean checklist score was 8.40, compared to 6.61 (p<0.001) for reviews without a librarian. Conclusions Findings indicate that having a librarian as a coauthor or team member correlates with a higher score in the literature searching component of systematic reviews. PMID:27822147

  6. High condylectomy for the treatment of mandibular condylar hyperplasia: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ghawsi, S; Aagaard, E; Thygesen, T H

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular condylar hyperplasia (MCH) is a rare, idiopathic disorder, which can cause both functional and aesthetic problems. MCH has often been described in the literature, but a comprehensive analysis of the current literature on MCH has not been undertaken. This study presents a systematic review analyzing the efficacy of high condylectomy in patients with MCH, with an emphasis on its role in the management of unilateral condylar hyperplasia. A systematic search of the current literature on high condylectomy was performed to find studies with sample sizes of more than five patients using a set of inclusion/exclusion criteria. The search terms revealed 664 studies, of which only 11 articles with a total of 289 patients were eligible for inclusion. Due to differences in the presentation of data, a meta-analysis was not conducted. High condylectomy appears to be a relevant surgical method to correct unilateral condylar hyperplasia. The current literature indicates large variations in terms of aetiology, use of diagnostic tools, and preferred time of intervention. Thus, further systematic studies are needed to determine which procedures offer the best aesthetic and functional results. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Titanium or steel as osteosynthesis material : Systematic literature search for clinical evidence].

    PubMed

    Joeris, Alexander; Goldhahn, Sabine; Rometsch, Elke; Höntzsch, Dankward

    2017-02-01

    The selection of the appropriate implant material, stainless steel or titanium, is still the decision of the surgeon and/or the affiliated institution. Additionally, remarkable international differences can be found between the different markets, which cannot really be explained. A systematic literature search was performed to verify whether there is clinical evidence for the preference of one material over the other. The systematic literature search was performed utilizing the internet databases PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science. Comparative studies were included that reported on adult patients with osteosynthesis of extremities after trauma using either stainless steel or titanium implants. Information was extracted about infection rates, incidence of clinically relevant allergies, problems with implant removal and other complications. A total of 18 publications were identified to be eligible and 2 referenced articles were added. In summary, there is insufficient clinical evidence that the use of titanium or steel implants has a positive or negative effect on fracture healing, shows different rates of allergies, different rates of infections or mechanical failure. No supporting evidence could be identified for the difficulties with removal of titanium implants reported by surgeons. This systematic literature search did not provide any clinical evidence for material-related differences between titanium or stainless steel implants for fracture fixation. Based on the current clinical evidence both titanium and steel implants can be considered to be of equal value. The reported difficulties with implant removal are not reflected in the published literature.

  8. Iatrogenic surgical microscope skin burns: A systematic review of the literature and case report.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Joseph; Soni, Ashwin; Calva, Daniel; Susarla, Srinivas M; Jallo, George I; Redett, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous burns associated with microscope-use are perceived to be uncommon adverse events in microsurgery. Currently, it is unknown what factors are associated with these iatrogenic events. In this report, we describe the case of a 1-year-old patient who suffered a full thickness skin burn from a surgical microscope after a L4-S1 laminectomy. Additionally, we present a systematic review of the literature that assessed the preoperative risk, outcome, and management of iatrogenic microscope skin burns. Lastly, a summary of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database of voluntary adverse events was reviewed and analyzed for clinical cases of microscope thermal injuries. The systematic literature review identified only seven articles related to microsurgery-related cutaneous burns. From these seven studies, 15 clinical cases of iatrogenic skin burns were extracted for analysis. The systematic review of the FDA MAUDE database revealed only 60 cases of cutaneous burns associated with surgical microscopes since 2004. Few cases of microscope burns have been described in the literature; this report is, to our knowledge, one of the first comprehensive reports of this iatrogenic event in the literature.

  9. Assessment of the methodological quality of systematic reviews published in the urological literature from 1998 to 2008.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Susan L; Canfield, Steven E; Fesperman, Susan F; Dahm, Philipp

    2010-08-01

    Well done systematic reviews provide the highest quality evidence for clinical questions of therapeutic effectiveness. We assessed the methodological quality of systematic reviews in the urological literature. We systematically investigated all systematic reviews published in 4 major urological journals from 1998 to 2008. Studies were identified using a predefined search strategy in PubMed and confirmed by a hand search of journal tables of contents. A validated 11-point instrument to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews was applied by 2 independent reviewers after a pilot testing phase. Disagreements were discussed and resolved by consensus. The systematic literature search identified 217 individual systematic reviews, of which 57 ultimately met study eligibility criteria. Ten (17.5%), 20 (35.1%) and 27 (47.4%) systematic reviews were published in 1998 to 2001, 2002 to 2005 and 2006 to 2008, respectively. Using the measurement tool to assess systematic reviews the mean +/- SD score was 4.8 +/- 2.0 points. Fewer than half of all systematic reviews performed a systematic literature search that included at least 2 databases (49.1%) or unpublished studies (31.6%), or provided a list of included and excluded studies (45.6%). Of the systematic reviews 63.2% assessed and documented the methodological quality of included studies. Systematic reviews with The Cochrane Collaboration authorship affiliation had a higher mean score than those with no such reported affiliation (6.5 +/- 1.2 vs 4.4 +/- 1.9 points, p <0.001). Results suggest that an increasing number of systematic reviews are published in the urological literature. However, many systematic reviews fail to meet established methodological standards, raising concerns about validity. Increased efforts are indicated to promote quality standards for performing systematic reviews among the authors and readership of the urological literature. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education

  10. The Effects of Systematic and Explicit Instruction with Shared Stories on Comprehension and Generalization of Responding during Book Club for Students with Severe Disibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp-Inman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The present study used a multiple probe across participants design to examine the effects of systematic and explicit instruction to teach students with severe disabilities (SD) to comprehend and discuss grade-aligned literature. The text was adapted and formatted as a read-aloud on an iPad2®. Using a modified system of least prompts, participants…

  11. Developing a Teacher Identity in the University Context: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lankveld, Thea; Schoonenboom, Judith; Volman, Monique; Croiset, Gerda; Beishuizen, Jos

    2017-01-01

    This literature review summarises the growing body of literature discussing teacher identities of university teachers. The aim was to understand what strengthens or constrains the development of a teacher identity. A qualitative synthesis of 59 studies was carried out. The review showed that several factors contribute to the development of teacher…

  12. Developing a Teacher Identity in the University Context: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lankveld, Thea; Schoonenboom, Judith; Volman, Monique; Croiset, Gerda; Beishuizen, Jos

    2017-01-01

    This literature review summarises the growing body of literature discussing teacher identities of university teachers. The aim was to understand what strengthens or constrains the development of a teacher identity. A qualitative synthesis of 59 studies was carried out. The review showed that several factors contribute to the development of teacher…

  13. Productivity Loss Related to Neglected Tropical Diseases Eligible for Preventive Chemotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rijnsburger, Adriana J.; Severens, Johan L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) not only cause health and life expectancy loss, but can also lead to economic consequences including reduced ability to work. This article describes a systematic literature review of the effect on the economic productivity of individuals affected by one of the five worldwide most prevalent NTDs: lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infection) and trachoma. These diseases are eligible to preventive chemotherapy (PCT). Methodology/Principal Findings Eleven bibliographic databases were searched using different names of all NTDs and various keywords relating to productivity. Additional references were identified through reference lists from relevant papers. Of the 5316 unique publications found in the database searches, thirteen papers were identified for lymphatic filariasis, ten for onchocerciasis, eleven for schistosomiasis, six for soil-transmitted helminths and three for trachoma. Besides the scarcity in publications reporting the degree of productivity loss, this review revealed large variation in the estimated productivity loss related to these NTDs. Conclusions It is clear that productivity is affected by NTDs, although the actual impact depends on the type and severity of the NTD as well as on the context where the disease occurs. The largest impact on productivity loss of individuals affected by one of these diseases seems to be due to blindness from onchocerciasis and severe schistosomiasis manifestations; productivity loss due to trachoma-related blindness has never been studied directly. However, productivity loss at an individual level might differ from productivity loss at a population level because of differences in the prevalence of NTDs. Variation in estimated productivity loss between and within diseases is caused by differences in research methods and setting. Publications should provide enough information to enable

  14. Non-surgical correction of congenital deformities of the auricle: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, M P; Breugem, C C; Kon, M

    2009-06-01

    Splinting is an elegant non-surgical method to correct ear deformities in the newborn. Since the late 1980s, many authors demonstrated that permanent correction occurs by forcing the ear into the proper position for several weeks. The external ear anomalies suitable for splinting have a common feature that no skin or cartilage is absent; the protruding, lop and Stahl's ears are good examples of these anomalies. Surprisingly, this technique is relatively unknown to plastic surgeons and is hardly ever communicated to the general public. To review the literature on non-surgical correction of ear deformities, focussing on indications, technique, results and possible complications. A systematic literature search was performed in July 2008 using PubMed. Twenty papers were suitable for review. Splinting can be performed in many ways, provided that the ear is permanently kept in the desired shape without distorting it. It is disputable until what age splinting therapy can reasonably be offered--opinions vary from 'newborn only' to well up to 3 or 6 months of age. A rigid fixation seems to allow correction in older children. The time needed to splint for permanent correction depends upon the age at the time of starting the treatment. For a newborn, 2 weeks often suffice, whereas for older children splinting time becomes more variable--up to 6 months. Most patients we treated had lop, Stahl's or prominent ears. In a case series in Japan, cryptotia was the most frequent deformity encountered. Most authors made their own judgement on the results, categorising their outcomes from poor to excellent, or asked a lay opinion. Fair-to-excellent results were reported in 70-100% of the cases. The results tended to be poor in older children. Recurrence was seldom described clearly in the literature and was probably listed as poor result. No serious complications occurred and skin irritation was seen sporadically. Ear splinting is an elegant technique that should be practised on a wider

  15. Severe Intellectual Disability: Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Nature of Presentation of Unipolar Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Catherine; Kerr, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of depression in severe and profound intellectual disability is challenging. Without adequate skills in verbal self-expression, standardized diagnostic criteria cannot be used with confidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the assessment and diagnosis of unipolar depression in severe and…

  16. Severe Intellectual Disability: Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Nature of Presentation of Unipolar Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Catherine; Kerr, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of depression in severe and profound intellectual disability is challenging. Without adequate skills in verbal self-expression, standardized diagnostic criteria cannot be used with confidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the assessment and diagnosis of unipolar depression in severe and…

  17. Searching for schizophrenia in ancient Greek and Roman literature: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Evans, K; McGrath, J; Milns, R

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically examine ancient Roman and Greek texts to identify descriptions of schizophrenia and related disorders. Material from Greek and Roman literature dating from the 5th Century BC to the beginning of the 2nd Century AD was systematically reviewed for symptoms of mental illness. DSM IV criteria were applied in order to identify material related to schizophrenia and related disorders. The general public had an awareness of psychotic disorders, because the symptoms were described in works of fiction and in historical accounts of malingering. There were isolated instances of text related to psychotic symptoms in the residents of ancient Rome and Greece, but no written material describing a condition that would meet modern diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. In contrast to many other psychiatric disorders that are represented in ancient Greek and Roman literature, there were no descriptions of individuals with schizophrenia in the material assessed in this review.

  18. Integration of Chiropractic Services in Military and Veteran Health Care Facilities: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Green, Bart N; Johnson, Claire D; Daniels, Clinton J; Napuli, Jason G; Gliedt, Jordan A; Paris, David J

    2016-04-01

    This literature review examined studies that described practice, utilization, and policy of chiropractic services within military and veteran health care environments. A systematic search of Medline, CINAHL, and Index to Chiropractic Literature was performed from inception through April 2015. Thirty articles met inclusion criteria. Studies reporting utilization and policy show that chiropractic services are successfully implemented in various military and veteran health care settings and that integration varies by facility. Doctors of chiropractic that are integrated within military and veteran health care facilities manage common neurological, musculoskeletal, and other conditions; severe injuries obtained in combat; complex cases; and cases that include psychosocial factors. Chiropractors collaboratively manage patients with other providers and focus on reducing morbidity for veterans and rehabilitating military service members to full duty status. Patient satisfaction with chiropractic services is high. Preliminary findings show that chiropractic management of common conditions shows significant improvement.

  19. Methods for systematic reviews of health economic evaluations: a systematic review, comparison, and synthesis of method literature.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Tim; Walgenbach, Maren; Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Pieper, Dawid; Eikermann, Michaela

    2014-10-01

    The quality of systematic reviews of health economic evaluations (SR-HE) is often limited because of methodological shortcomings. One reason for this poor quality is that there are no established standards for the preparation of SR-HE. The objective of this study is to compare existing methods and suggest best practices for the preparation of SR-HE. To identify the relevant methodological literature on SR-HE, a systematic literature search was performed in Embase, Medline, the National Health System Economic Evaluation Database, the Health Technology Assessment Database, and the Cochrane methodology register, and webpages of international health technology assessment agencies were searched. The study selection was performed independently by 2 reviewers. Data were extracted by one reviewer and verified by a second reviewer. On the basis of the overlaps in the recommendations for the methods of SR-HE in the included papers, suggestions for best practices for the preparation of SR-HE were developed. Nineteen relevant publications were identified. The recommendations within them often differed. However, for most process steps there was some overlap between recommendations for the methods of preparation. The overlaps were taken as basis on which to develop suggestions for the following process steps of preparation: defining the research question, developing eligibility criteria, conducting a literature search, selecting studies, assessing the methodological study quality, assessing transferability, and synthesizing data. The differences in the proposed recommendations are not always explainable by the focus on certain evaluation types, target audiences, or integration in the decision process. Currently, there seem to be no standard methods for the preparation of SR-HE. The suggestions presented here can contribute to the harmonization of methods for the preparation of SR-HE. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Worldwide Prevalence and Trends in Unintentional Drug Overdose: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Martins, Silvia S; Sampson, Laura; Cerdá, Magdalena; Galea, Sandro

    2015-11-01

    Drug overdose is an important, yet an inadequately understood, public health problem. Global attention to unintentional drug overdose has been limited by comparison with the scope of the problem. There has been a substantial increase in drug overdose incidence and prevalence in several countries worldwide over the past decade, contributing to both increased costs and mortality. The aim of this study was to systematically synthesize the peer-reviewed literature to document the global epidemiological profile of unintentional drug overdoses and the prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates of drug overdoses. We searched different combinations of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms in PubMed for articles published from 1980 until July 2013, and we organized these results in tabular spreadsheets and compared them. We restricted the search to English-language articles that deal with unintentional overdose, focusing on 1 or more of the following key constructs: prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates. The term "overdose" as a MeSH major topic yielded 1076 publications. In addition, we searched the following combinations of nonmajor MeSH terms: "street drugs" and "overdose" yielded 180, "death" and "overdose" yielded 114, and "poisoning" and "drug users" yielded 17. There was some overlap among the searches. Based on the search and inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected a total of 169 relevant articles for this article based on a close review of abstracts. We found wide variability in lifetime prevalence of experiencing a nonfatal overdose or witnessing an overdose, and in mortality rates attributable to overdose. Lifetime prevalence of witnessed overdose among drug users (n = 17 samples) ranged from 50% to 96%, with a mean of 73.3%, a median of 70%, and a standard deviation of 14.1%. Lifetime prevalence of drug users personally experiencing a nonfatal overdose (n = 27 samples), ranged from 16.6% to 68.0% with a mean of 45

  1. Systematic literature review of bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Chamizo Carmona, Eugenio; Gallego Flores, Adela; Loza Santamaría, Estíbaliz; Herrero Olea, Aurora; Rosario Lozano, María Piedad

    2013-01-01

    To systematically assess the literature related to the occurrence of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) using bisphosphonates (BP) in the treatment of osteoporosis (OP). We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to July 2010, including terms relating to OP, ONJ, and BP (MeSH and free text). We selected meta-analysis, systematic reviews and clinical trials (CT), English or Spanish, including patients > 18 years of both sexes with OP treated with BF (intravenous and oral). Furthermore, studies should evaluate the occurrence of ONJ during treatment with BF. We excluded studies that included patients with cancer or diseases other than OP, animal studies and basic science. The selection of articles both by title and 2 independent reviewers conducted a detailed review of the abstracts. We used the modified Oxford Scale (version 2001) to assess the quality of the included studies. We identified 1422 articles of which we included 18 (8 systematic reviews, 8 CT and 2 meta-analysis). Most studies were of good quality and examined the use of BF in middle-aged women with OP. Frequency of ONJ was low. We found insufficient evidence to affirm that intravenous or oral BF used exclusively for the treatment of OP lead to a significant risk of ONJ (evidence level 2a, grade B recommendation). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Infectious disease risks associated with occupational exposure: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Haagsma, Juanita A; Tariq, Luqman; Heederik, Dick J; Havelaar, Arie H

    2012-02-01

    Employees in different types of work may be intentionally or accidentally exposed to biological agents. Improved risk assessment is needed to identify opportunities to prevent work-related infectious disease. The objective of the current study was to perform a systematic literature review of work-related infectious disease to assist in the identification of occupational infectious disease risks. A literature search of papers on work-related infectious disease published between 1999 and 2008 yielded 1239 papers of which 242 met the selection criteria and were included in the review. The results of the systematic literature review were arranged in a matrix of occupational groups and exposure pathways. Increased risk from infectious diseases appeared to be concentrated in specific professions. Healthcare workers, workers in contact with animals, laboratory workers and refuse workers seem to have the highest risk of infection by a variety of pathogens. However, pathogens reported to be associated with closely related professions were different, indicating qualitative under-reporting. Arranging the results of this systematic review on work-related infectious diseases in a matrix of occupational groups and exposure pathways allowed the reliable identification of exposure hazards for specific occupational groups beyond currently reported diseases.

  3. Genetic Factors in Tendon Injury: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Natalie H.; Stepanyan, Hayk; Gallo, Robert A.; Dhawan, Aman

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tendon injury such as tendinopathy or rupture is common and has multiple etiologies, including both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The genetic influence on susceptibility to tendon injury is not well understood. Purpose: To analyze the published literature regarding genetic factors associated with tendon injury. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A systematic review of published literature was performed in concordance with the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to identify current evidence for genetic predisposition to tendon injury. PubMed, Ovid, and ScienceDirect databases were searched. Studies were included for review if they specifically addressed genetic factors and tendon injuries in humans. Reviews, animal studies, or studies evaluating the influence of posttranscription factors and modifications (eg, proteins) were excluded. Results: Overall, 460 studies were available for initial review. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 11 articles were ultimately included for qualitative synthesis. Upon screening of references of these 11 articles, an additional 15 studies were included in the final review, for a total of 26 studies. The genetic factors with the strongest evidence of association with tendon injury were those involving type V collagen A1, tenascin-C, matrix metalloproteinase–3, and estrogen-related receptor beta. Conclusion: The published literature is limited to relatively homogenous populations, with only level 3 and level 4 data. Additional research is needed to make further conclusions about the genetic factors involved in tendon injury. PMID:28856171

  4. Genetic Factors in Tendon Injury: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Natalie H; Stepanyan, Hayk; Gallo, Robert A; Dhawan, Aman

    2017-08-01

    Tendon injury such as tendinopathy or rupture is common and has multiple etiologies, including both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The genetic influence on susceptibility to tendon injury is not well understood. To analyze the published literature regarding genetic factors associated with tendon injury. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3. A systematic review of published literature was performed in concordance with the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to identify current evidence for genetic predisposition to tendon injury. PubMed, Ovid, and ScienceDirect databases were searched. Studies were included for review if they specifically addressed genetic factors and tendon injuries in humans. Reviews, animal studies, or studies evaluating the influence of posttranscription factors and modifications (eg, proteins) were excluded. Overall, 460 studies were available for initial review. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 11 articles were ultimately included for qualitative synthesis. Upon screening of references of these 11 articles, an additional 15 studies were included in the final review, for a total of 26 studies. The genetic factors with the strongest evidence of association with tendon injury were those involving type V collagen A1, tenascin-C, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and estrogen-related receptor beta. The published literature is limited to relatively homogenous populations, with only level 3 and level 4 data. Additional research is needed to make further conclusions about the genetic factors involved in tendon injury.

  5. A systematic literature review of Releasing Time to Care: The Productive Ward.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stella; McSherry, Wilfred

    2013-05-01

    This systematic review provides an overview of the literature published on Releasing Time to Care: The Productive Ward between 2005 and June 2011. Releasing Time to Care: The Productive Ward programme was developed by the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement and launched in England in 2007. The programme comprises thirteen modules that aim to increase time for direct patient care, improve the patient and staff experience and make changes to the ward environment to improve efficiency. A systematic literature review. The terms 'Releasing Time to Care' and 'Productive Ward' were applied to key healthcare databases; CINAHL, Medline, Science Direct, ProQuest, Health Business Elite, British Nursing Index, Embase, Health Management Information Consortium and PsychInfo. All papers were read and subject to a quality assessment. The literature search identified 95 unique sources. A lack of research on The Productive Ward programme meant it was necessary to include non-empirical literature. In total, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. Seven key themes were identified: the patient and staff experience, direct care time, patient safety, financial impact, embedding and sustainability, executive support and leadership, and common barriers and determinants of success. It also highlighted areas that require further exploration such as long-term sustainability of the programme and consistent data measurement between organisations. The review tentatively reports how The Productive Ward programme has been used to transform nursing practice for the benefit of patients and frontline staff, and how it resulted in cost savings. The literature review identified a potential positive results bias in the current literature whereby favourable outcomes were reported. This paper summarises the types of evidence and current literature on The Productive Ward providing a reference for frontline staff implementing the programme. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Reviewing the research methods literature: principles and strategies illustrated by a systematic overview of sampling in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Gentles, Stephen J; Charles, Cathy; Nicholas, David B; Ploeg, Jenny; McKibbon, K Ann

    2016-10-11

    Overviews of methods are potentially useful means to increase clarity and enhance collective understanding of specific methods topics that may be characterized by ambiguity, inconsistency, or a lack of comprehensiveness. This type of review represents a distinct literature synthesis method, although to date, its methodology remains relatively undeveloped despite several aspects that demand unique review procedures. The purpose of this paper is to initiate discussion about what a rigorous systematic approach to reviews of methods, referred to here as systematic methods overviews, might look like by providing tentative suggestions for approaching specific challenges likely to be encountered. The guidance offered here was derived from experience conducting a systematic methods overview on the topic of sampling in qualitative research. The guidance is organized into several principles that highlight specific objectives for this type of review given the common challenges that must be overcome to achieve them. Optional strategies for achieving each principle are also proposed, along with discussion of how they were successfully implemented in the overview on sampling. We describe seven paired principles and strategies that address the following aspects: delimiting the initial set of publications to consider, searching beyond standard bibliographic databases, searching without the availability of relevant metadata, selecting publications on purposeful conceptual grounds, defining concepts and other information to abstract iteratively, accounting for inconsistent terminology used to describe specific methods topics, and generating rigorous verifiable analytic interpretations. Since a broad aim in systematic methods overviews is to describe and interpret the relevant literature in qualitative terms, we suggest that iterative decision making at various stages of the review process, and a rigorous qualitative approach to analysis are necessary features of this review type

  7. A systematic scoping review of adherence to reporting guidelines in health care literature

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, Zainab; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Kosa, Daisy; Debono, Victoria Borg; Dillenburg, Rejane; Zhang, Shiyuan; Fruci, Vincent; Dennis, Brittany; Bawor, Monica; Thabane, Lehana

    2013-01-01

    Background Reporting guidelines have been available for the past 17 years since the inception of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement in 1996. These guidelines were developed to improve the quality of reporting of studies in medical literature. Despite the widespread availability of these guidelines, the quality of reporting of medical literature remained suboptimal. In this study, we assess the current adherence practice to reporting guidelines; determine key factors associated with better adherence to these guidelines; and provide recommendations to enhance adherence to reporting guidelines for future studies. Methods We undertook a systematic scoping review of systematic reviews of adherence to reporting guidelines across different clinical areas and study designs. We searched four electronic databases (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Embase, and Medline) from January 1996 to September 2012. Studies were included if they addressed adherence to one of the following guidelines: Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT), Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), Quality of Reporting of Meta-analysis (QUOROM), Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Nonrandomized Designs (TREND), Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). A protocol for this study was devised. A literature search, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two authors in duplicate. This study reporting follows the PRISMA guidelines. Results Our search retrieved 5159 titles, of which 50 were eligible. Overall, 86.0% of studies reported suboptimal levels of adherence to reporting guidelines. Factors associated with better adherence included journal impact factor and endorsement of guidelines, publication date, funding source, multisite studies, pharmacological

  8. Evaluating the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for informal palliative caregivers: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Jaffray, Linda; Bridgman, Heather; Stephens, Miranda; Skinner, Timothy

    2016-02-01

    There is a need to identify proactive, evidence-based interventions to support informal palliative caregivers. Mindfulness-based interventions, evidenced in the literature as providing physical and mental health benefits for diverse populations, may have application in the setting of palliative caregiving. To describe, evaluate and synthesise the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for informal palliative caregivers. A Systematic Literature Review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta Analyses guidelines and a Narrative synthesis. The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE databases, searched from inception to February 2014 and references of included studies. A total of 13 articles, reporting 10 studies (n = 432 participants) were included. All studies were conducted in the last 5 years. Dementia caregivers were the most frequently researched population (n = 7). Results suggest that mindfulness-based interventions are feasible and acceptable to offer to informal palliative caregivers and may provide benefit, particularly in terms of reducing depression and caregiver burden and increasing quality of life. However, effects were not as robust as findings in the wider mindfulness intervention literature. This is the first systematic literature review on this topic. Results suggest both feasibility and potential benefit. Further qualitative research is required to explore the outcomes identified by informal caregivers themselves as the reduced magnitude of effect may suggest that we are not measuring the right outcomes in this context. This would inform more sensitive outcome measures for future intervention studies and guide the development and application of mindfulness-based models in this area. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Links of Adolescents Identity Development and Relationship with Peers: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ragelienė, Tija

    2016-01-01

    Objective: According to Erik Erikson, the main task of adolescents is to solve the crisis of identity versus role confusion. Research has shown that a stable and strong sense of identity is associated with better mental health of adolescents. Good relationships with peers are also linked with better emotional and psychological well-being of adolescents. However, there is a lack of reviews of studies in the scientific literature examining the relationship between the adolescents’ identity development and relationships with peers. The aims of this article were to analyze links between adolescent identity development and relationships with peers identified from a literature review, summarize the results, and discuss the theoretical factors that may predict these relationships. Method: A systematic literature review. Results: Analysis of findings from the systematic literature review revealed that a good relationship with peers is positively related to adolescent identity development, but empirical research in this area is extremely limited. Conclusions: The links between adolescents’ identity development and their relationship with peers are not completely clear. The possible intermediate factors that could determine the relationship between adolescent identity development and their relationships with peers are discussed. Further empirical researches is needed in this area. PMID:27274745

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing outcome of severely injured patients treated in trauma centers following the establishment of trauma systems.

    PubMed

    Celso, Brian; Tepas, Joseph; Langland-Orban, Barbara; Pracht, Etienne; Papa, Linda; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Flint, Lewis

    2006-02-01

    The establishment of trauma systems was anticipated to improve overall survival for the severely injured patient. We systematically reviewed the published literature to assess if outcome from severe traumatic injury is improved for patients following the establishment of a trauma system. A systematic literature review of all population-based studies that evaluated trauma system performance was conducted. A qualitative analysis of each study's design and methodology and a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the evidence to date of trauma system effectiveness. A search of the literature yielded 14 published articles. Trauma systems demonstrated improved odds of survival in 8 of the 14 reports. The overall quality-weighted odds ratio was 0.85 lower mortality following trauma system implementation. The results of the meta-analysis showed a 15% reduction in mortality in favor of the presence of a trauma system. Evaluation of trauma system effectiveness must remain an uncompromising commitment to optimal outcome for the injured patient.

  11. Men who have sex with men in India: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Brassard, Paul; Jerajani, Hemangi R; Bharat, Shalini; Gogate, Alka; Kumta, Sameer; Row-Kavi, Ashok; Anand, Vivek; Boivin, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    This study systematically reviews the existing literature on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the men who have sex with men (MSM) in India. After a comprehensive literature search of Medline (1950-June 2008), Embase (1980-June 2008), and the Cochrane Library (1950-June 2008), 12 published studies met the inclusion criteria. The link between sexual identity and sexual behavior is a complex phenomenon strongly embedded in a very specific context in India. MSM in India are an important risk group for acquiring STIs/HIV and effective culturally sensitive prevention programs should be designed for them. The combined estimate of HIV prevalence in the MSM population in India calculated from 5 included studies was 16.5% (95% confidence intervals: 11% to 22%). The review also identifies the lacunae in existing literature and provides future directions for research in the MSM community in India.

  12. Systematic Review and Evidence Integration for Literature-Based Environmental Health Science Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Boyles, Abee L.; Wolfe, Mary S.; Bucher, John R.; Thayer, Kristina A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Systematic-review methodologies provide objectivity and transparency to the process of collecting and synthesizing scientific evidence in reaching conclusions on specific research questions. There is increasing interest in applying these procedures to address environmental health questions. Objectives: The goal was to develop a systematic-review framework to address environmental health questions by extending approaches developed for clinical medicine to handle the breadth of data relevant to environmental health sciences (e.g., human, animal, and mechanistic studies). Methods: The Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) adapted guidance from authorities on systematic-review and sought advice during development of the OHAT Approach through consultation with technical experts in systematic review and human health assessments, as well as scientific advisory groups and the public. The method was refined by considering expert and public comments and through application to case studies. Results and Discussion: Here we present a seven-step framework for systematic review and evidence integration for reaching hazard identification conclusions: 1) problem formulation and protocol development, 2) search for and select studies for inclusion, 3) extract data from studies, 4) assess the quality or risk of bias of individual studies, 5) rate the confidence in the body of evidence, 6) translate the confidence ratings into levels of evidence, and 7) integrate the information from different evidence streams (human, animal, and “other relevant data” including mechanistic or in vitro studies) to develop hazard identification conclusions. Conclusion: The principles of systematic review can be successfully applied to environmental health questions to provide greater objectivity and transparency to the process of developing conclusions. Citation: Rooney AA, Boyles AL, Wolfe MS, Bucher JR, Thayer KA. 2014. Systematic review and evidence integration for

  13. Analysing Psychosocial Difficulties in Depression: A Content Comparison between Systematic Literature Review and Patient Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Mellor-Marsá, Blanca; Leal, Itziar; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Cabello, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Despite all the knowledge on depression, it is still unclear whether current literature covers all the psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) important for depressed patients. The aim of the present study was to identify the gaps in the recent literature concerning PSDs and their related variables. Psychosocial difficulties were defined according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). A comparative approach between a systematic literature review, a focus group, and individual interviews with depressed patients was used. Literature reported the main psychosocial difficulties almost fully, but not in the same degree of importance as patients' reports. Furthermore, the covered areas were very general and related to symptomatology. Regarding the related variables, literature focused on clinical variables and treatments above all but did not report that many psychosocial difficulties influence other PSDs. This study identified many existing research gaps in recent literature mainly in the area of related variables of PSDs. Future steps in this direction are needed. Moreover, we suggest that clinicians select interventions covering not only symptoms, but also PSDs and their modifiable related variables. Furthermore, identification of interventions for particular psychosocial difficulties and personalisation of therapies according to individuals' PSDs are necessary. PMID:25009814

  14. Incidence rates of sickness absence related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, growing attention has been given to the mental health of workers. One way to examine the mental health of workers is to look at the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence. There is a scarcity of literature in which the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence among different countries have been considered together. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to address the question: Are there similarities and differences in the incidence rates of mental disorder-related sickness absence among and within OECD identified Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American country categories? In this paper, we seek to identify differences and similarities in the literature rather than to explain them. With this review, we lay the groundwork for and point to areas for future research as well as to raise questions regarding reasons for the differences and similarities. Methods A systematic literature search of the following databases were performed: Medline Current, Medline In-process, PsycINFO, Econlit and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002–2013. The systematic literature search focused on working adults between 18–65 years old who had not retired and who had mental and/or substance abuse disorders. Intervention studies were excluded. The search focused on medically certified sickness absences. Results A total of 3,818 unique citations were identified. Of these, 10 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria; six were from Social Democratic countries. Their quality ranged from good to excellent. There was variation in the incidence rates reported by the studies from the Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American countries in this review. Conclusions The results of this systematic review suggest that this is an emerging area of inquiry that needs to continue to grow. Priority areas to support growth include cross jurisdictional collaboration and development of a typology

  15. Neuroimaging in social anxiety disorder: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Ferrari, Maria Cecilia; Hallak, Jaime E C; Trzesniak, Clarissa; Filho, Alaor Santos; Machado-de-Sousa, João Paulo; Chagas, Marcos Hortes N; Nardi, Antonio E; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2010-05-30

    Brain imaging techniques allow the in vivo evaluation of the human brain, leading to a better understanding of its anatomical, functional and metabolic substrate. The aim of this current report is to present a systematic and critical review of neuroimaging findings in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). A literature review was performed in the PubMed Medline, Scielo and Web of Science databases using the following keywords: 'MRI', 'functional', 'tomography', 'PET', 'SPECT', 'spectroscopy', 'relaxometry', 'tractography' and 'voxel' crossed one by one with the terms 'social anxiety' and 'social phobic', with no limit of time. We selected 196 articles and 48 of them were included in our review. Most of the included studies have explored the neural response to facial expressions of emotion, symptoms provocation paradigms, and disorder-related abnormalities in dopamine or serotonin neurotransmission. The most coherent finding among the brain imaging techniques reflects increased activity in limbic and paralimbic regions in SAD. The predominance of evidence implicating the amygdala strengthens the notion that it plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of SAD. The observation of alterations in pre-frontal regions and the reduced activity observed in striatal and parietal areas show that much remains to be investigated within the complexity of SAD. Interesting, follow-up designed studies observed a decrease in perfusion in these same areas after either by pharmacological or psychological treatment. The medial prefrontal cortex provided additional support for a corticolimbic model of SAD pathophysiology, being a promising area to investigation. Furthermore, the dopaminergic and GABAergic hypotheses seem directed related to its physiopathology. The present review indicates that neuroimaging has contributed to a better understanding of the neurobiology of SAD. Although there were several methodological differences among the studies, the global results have often been

  16. Flexibility: beyond the buzzword-practical findings from a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Carthey, Jane; Chow, Vivien; Jung, Yong-Moon; Mills, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The goal was to identify practical, cost-effective, design-related strategies for "future-proofing" the buildings of a major Australian health department. Many health buildings become obsolete before the end of their effective physical lives, requiring extensive reconfiguration or replacement. This study sought to move beyond the oft-used buzzword flexibility to seek effective strategies to accommodate future change (future-proofing) that could be further explored in Australia and other developed countries. A systematic literature review compiled definitions of flexibility and adaptability from a range of sources. Nineteen case studies were identified that illustrated various future-proofing strategies. A matrix was developed to classify different approaches to flexibility and then used to assess the case studies. Analysis was hampered by inconsistent use of terminology and limited availability of quantifiable methods for assessing the long-term success of approaches to future-proofing. Several key strategies were identified, classified, and discussed in terms of their relevance and application. More rigorous definitions of flexibility, adaptability, and related terms are needed to enable more useful comparisons of the strategies implemented to future-proof health projects. Local conditions often affect both the strategies adopted and the degree to which they can be considered successful. Many of the case studies analyzed in this research were not operational long enough to enable assessment of their claims of being future-proofed. Therefore, review of lifetime facility costs, including the service life periods of major facility components, should be considered, and some older projects should be evaluated in terms of these criteria.

  17. The Association Between Cervical Spine Manipulation and Carotid Artery Dissection: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chadwick L R; Côté, Pierre; Stern, Paula; L'Espérance, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the safety of cervical spine manipulation. Ischemic stroke secondary to cervical spine manipulation is a hypothesized adverse event. In Canada, the seriousness of these events and their perceived association to cervical spine manipulation has led some members of the public to call for a ban of the procedure. The primary objective of this study was to determine the incidence of internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection after cervical spine manipulation in patients who experience neck pain and its associated disorders. The secondary objective was to determine whether cervical spine manipulation is associated with an increased risk of ICA dissection in patients with neck pain, upper back pain, or headaches. We systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, Alternative Health, AMED, Index to Chiropractic Literature, and EMBASE from 1970 to November 2012. Two independent reviewers used standardized criteria to screen the eligibility of articles. We considered cohort studies, case-control studies, and randomized clinical trials that addressed our objectives. We planned to critically appraise eligible articles using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network methodology. We did not find any epidemiologic studies that measured the incidence of cervical spine manipulation and ICA dissection. Similarly, we did not find any studies that determined whether cervical spine manipulation is associated with ICA dissection. The incidence of ICA dissection after cervical spine manipulation is unknown. The relative risk of ICA dissection after cervical spine manipulation compared with other health care interventions for neck pain, back pain, or headache is also unknown. Although several case reports and case series raise the hypothesis of an association, we found no epidemiologic studies that validate this hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimizing Outcomes following Total and Subtotal Tongue Reconstruction: A Systematic Review of the Contemporary Literature.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Oscar J; Leland, Hyuma A; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Wong, Alex; Carey, Joseph N; Ciudad, Pedro; Chen, Hung-Chi; Patel, Ketan M

    2017-02-01

    Background More than 45,000 Americans are diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancer annually and multimodal treatment often requires wide excision, lymphadenectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation. Total and subtotal lingual resection severely impairs speech, swallow, and quality of life (QoL). This study investigates functional outcomes and QoL following subtotal and total tongue resection with free tissue transfer reconstruction. Materials and Methods A systematic review of the English language literature was performed using PubMed, Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane databases based on predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Included studies were reviewed for surgical technique, adjuvant treatment, surgical and functional outcomes, and QoL. Results From an initial search yield of 1,467 articles, 22 studies were included for final analysis. Speech intelligibility was correlated with the volume and degree of protuberance of the neotongue. Adjuvant therapy (radiation) and large tumor size were associated with worse speech and swallow recovery. At 1 year follow-up, despite 14 to 20% rates of silent aspiration, 82 to 97% of patients resumed oral feeding. Neurotized flaps have been demonstrated to improve flap sensation but have not yet demonstrated any significant impact on speech or swallow recovery. Finally, many patients continue to experience pain after surgery, but patient motivation, family support with physician, and speech therapist follow-up are associated with improved QoL scores. Conclusion Tongue reconstruction is dictated by the amount of soft tissue resection. Taking into consideration the most common factors involved after tongue resection and reconstruction, further studies should focus on more objective measurements to offer solutions and maximize final outcomes.

  19. Clinical efficacy and safety in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Njue, Annete; Colosia, Ann; Trask, Peter C; Olivares, Robert; Khan, Shahnaz; Abbe, Adeline; Police, Rachel; Wang, Jianmin; Ruiz-Soto, Rodrigo; Kaye, James A; Awan, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review was performed to collect and review information on the clinical efficacy and safety of treatments for relapsed/refractory (R/R) mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), with a meta-analysis, if possible. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published in English from January 1, 1997, to August 2, 2012. Conference proceedings, bibliographic reference lists of included articles, recent reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for phase II to IV studies displaying results. Studies were included if they reported on patients with R/R MCL who were ineligible to receive high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant. Studies of patients with several non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes were only included if they reported MCL outcomes separately. We identified 59 studies in R/R MCL. Forty distinct treatment regimens were evaluated. Thirty studies included more than 15 patients with R/R MCL. Six studies were comparative (including 5 randomized controlled trials [RCTs]); 53 were single-arm. There were no common treatments among the RCTs; therefore, a meta-analysis was not feasible. Thirty-one of 59 studies reported baseline data for patients with R/R MCL. Of the 30 studies with > 15 patients with R/R MCL, 30 reported overall response rate data, 14 reported progression-free survival (PFS), and 12 reported overall survival (OS). The small number of RCTs in R/R MCL precludes identifying an optimal treatment. Small sample sizes, infrequent reporting of OS and PFS, and limited information on patient characteristics made a comparison of results difficult. High-quality comparative studies of novel therapies that have the potential to demonstrate OS advantages in R/R MCL are needed.

  20. Is mercury exposure causing diabetes, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance? A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roy, Cynthia; Tremblay, Pierre-Yves; Ayotte, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Several populations are exposed to mercury (Hg) via their environment, occupation or diet. It is hypothesized that Hg exposure can lead to the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Metabolic syndrome (MS) is also a possible outcome as its symptoms are closely linked to those of DM. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by screening Web of Science, MEDLINE, SciFinder and Embase and we included original studies pertaining to the relationship of total Hg exposure (elemental, inorganic or organic) to DM, MS or insulin resistance. The studies were selected based on the PICOS (patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes and study design) criteria and their quality assessed using a nine-point scale. Study characteristics and results were extracted and presented in structured tables. We also extracted covariates entered as confounding factors to evaluate possible biases in selected studies. Finally, a weight of evidence approach was used to assess the causality of the relationship. A total of 34 studies were included in the present review. Epidemiological data assessment suggests a possible association between total Hg concentrations in different biological matrices and incidence of DM or MS, but the relationship is not consistent. In vivo and in vitro studies support the biological plausibility of the relation between Hg exposure and DM or MS. Five out of nine of Bradford Hill's criteria were fulfilled: strength, temporality, plausibility, coherence and analogy. Increased total Hg exposure may augment the risk of DM and MS, but the lack of consistency of the epidemiological evidence prevents inference of a causal relationship. Additional prospective cohort studies and careful consideration of confounding variables and interactions are required to conclude on the causal relationship of total Hg exposure on the development of DM or MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Incontinence--a common issue for people with Parkinson's disease. A systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Siegl, Eva; Lassen, Britta; Saxer, Susi

    2013-09-01

    Parkinson's disease is among the most common neurological diseases. About 4.1 million people are attected worldwide. The course of Parkinson's disease is chronically progressive. With L-Dopa therapy the life expectancy of people being affected by Parkinon's disease is not shortened compared with people who are not affected. Therefore people with Parkinson's disease often suffer from the serious effects for decades which include motor symptoms as well as vegetative disturbance, which concerns bladder function and functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Urinary and fecal incontinence involve severe impairment of quality of life. In this review the occurence of urinary and fecal incontinence should be determined in order to be able to describe its extent. There are different measures for treatment or improvement. These are reviewed based on the following research question: Which effects do interventions have in improving urinary and fecal incontinence in persons with Parkinson's disease compared to usual care? In order to answer the questions a systematic review was conducted. The literature search occured in the electronic databases Cochrane database, PubMed and CINAHL. Three studies investigating the prevalence with a total sample size of n = 1077 and for the evaluation of interventions four studies with a total sample size of n = 48 have been included. 25 percent of the women with Parkinson's disease suffer from urgency incontinence compared to seven percent of the women without Parkinson's disease (p < 0.01). Among men with Parkison's disease 28 percent are affected and six percent among men without Parkinson's disease (p < 0.01). In respect to stress and fecal incontinence there were no significant differences between people affected and people not affected by Parkinson's disease. With pelvic floor muscle exercises and accompanying measures as well as with injections of botulinum toxin A a reduction of urinary incontinence seems to be possible. Due to

  2. Trocar Injuries in Laparoscopy: Techniques, Tools, and Means for Prevention. A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Cornette, Bram; Berrevoet, Frederik

    2016-10-01

    Trocar injuries are a possible cause for severe morbidity and mortality when performing laparoscopic surgery. This systematic review investigates the differences in the incidence of complications depending on the method of entry. A meta-analysis of the medical literature was performed. Search results were limited to clinical trials and the following languages: English, French, German, or Dutch. All results that compared the Veress, Hasson, and direct entry technique or compared sharp, blunt, and radially expanding trocars (RET) were included (n = 19). Studies involving pediatric and pregnant patients were excluded. When comparing the Veress needle to direct trocar insertion (DTI), pooled analysis showed a borderline significant reduction for major complications (p = 0.04) based on five events in 2 RCT's (n = 978) and a reduction in minor complications (p < 0.001) in favor of DTI. RCT's comparing the Hasson and Veress techniques showed no significant reduction in major complications (p = 0.17), but the Hasson technique showed significantly less minor complications (p = 0.01) and failed entries (p = 0.002). CO2 leakage was far more common when using the Hasson technique (p < 0.001). Our search method did not reveal any studies comparing the Hasson technique to DTI. When comparing bladed to RET, three studies (n = 408) showed less minor complications when using a RET (p = 0.003) and a qualitative analysis showed a trend toward pain reduction when using RET. This meta-analysis concludes that there are less minor complications and failed attempts when using the Hasson or direct entry technique when compared to the Veress method, but there is limited evidence regarding major complications. RET reduce minor vascular complications when compared to bladed trocars.

  3. Pulmonary hypertension in childhood interstitial lung disease: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bromley, Susan; Vizcaya, David

    2016-10-23

    Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) comprises a wide heterogeneous group of rare parenchymal lung disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary hypertension is a common comorbidity in adults with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and associated with poor survival. We aimed to systematically review the literature regarding the occurrence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in chILD, its effect on prognosis and healthcare use, and its treatment in clinical practice. Searches of PubMed and EMBASE databases (up to February 2016), and American Thoracic Society conference abstracts (2009-2015) were conducted using relevant keywords. References from selected articles and review papers were scanned to identify further relevant articles. A total of 20 articles were included; estimates of PH in chILD ranged from 1% to 64% with estimates among specific chILD entities ranging from 0% to 43%. Comparisons between studies were limited by differences in the study populations, including the size, age range, and heterogeneous composition of the ILD case series in terms of the nature and severity of the clinical entities, and also the methods used to diagnose PH. Three studies found that among patients with chILD, those with PH had a significantly higher risk (up to sevenfold) of death compared with those without PH. Information on the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in chILD or the effect of PH on healthcare use was not available. Data on the use and effectiveness of treatments for pulmonary hypertension in chILD are required to address this area of unmet need. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016; 9999:XX-XX. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE RELATING TO CAPTIVE GREAT APE MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY.

    PubMed

    Strong, Victoria J; Grindlay, Douglas; Redrobe, Sharon; Cobb, Malcolm; White, Kate

    2016-09-01

    Wild bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus, Pongo abelii) are threatened with extinction. In order to help maintain a self-sustaining zoo population, clinicians require a sound understanding of the diseases with which they might be presented. To provide an up-to-date perspective on great ape morbidity and mortality, a systematic review of the zoological and veterinary literature of great apes from 1990 to 2014 was conducted. This is the first review of the great ape literature published since 1990 and the first-ever systematic literature review of great ape morbidity and mortality. The following databases were searched for relevant articles: CAB Abstracts, Web of Science Core Collection, BIOSIS Citation Index, BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents Connect, Data Citation Index, Derwent Innovations Index, MEDLINE, SciELO Citation Index, and Zoological Record. A total of 189 articles reporting on the causes of morbidity and mortality among captive great apes were selected and divided into comparative morbidity-mortality studies and case reports-series or single-disease prevalence studies. The content and main findings of the morbidity-mortality studies were reviewed and the main limitations identified. The case reports-case series and single-disease prevalence studies were categorized and coded according to taxa, etiology, and body system. Subsequent analysis allowed the amount of literature coverage afforded to each category to be calculated and the main diseases and disorders reported within the literature to be identified. This review concludes that reports of idiopathic and infectious diseases along with disorders of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal body systems were particularly prominent within the great ape literature during 1990-2014. However, recent and accurate prevalence figures are lacking and there are flaws in those reviews that do exist. There is

  5. Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Published in the Urological Literature from 1998 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Corbyons, Katherine; Han, Julia; Neuberger, Molly M; Dahm, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Systematic reviews synthesize the current best evidence to address a clinical question. Given the growing emphasis on evidence-based clinical practice, systematic reviews are being increasingly sought after and published. We previously reported limitations in the methodological quality of 57 individual systematic reviews published from 1998 to 2008. We provide an update to our previous study, adding systematic reviews published from 2009 to 2012. We systematically searched PubMed® and hand searched the table of contents of 4 major urological journals to identify systematic reviews related to questions of prevention and therapy. Two independent reviewers with prior formal evidence-based medicine training assessed the methodological quality using the validated 11-point AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) instrument. We performed predefined statistical hypothesis testing for differences by publication period (1998 to 2008 vs 2009 to 2012) and journal of publication. We performed statistical testing using SPSS®, version 23.0 with a 2-sided α of 0.05 using the Student t-test, ANOVA and the chi-square test. A total of 113 systematic reviews published from 2009 to 2012 met study inclusion criteria. The most common topics were oncology (44 reviews or 38.9%), voiding dysfunction (26 or 23.0%) and stones/endourology (13 or 11.5%). The largest contributor was European Urology (46 reviews or 40.7%), followed by BJU International (31 or 27.4%) and The Journal of Urology® (22 or 19.5%). The mean ± SD AMSTAR score for the 2009 to 2012 period was 5.3 ± 2.3 compared to 4.8 ± 2.0 for 1998 to 2008 with a mean difference of 0.5 (95% CI 0.2 to 1.2, p = 0.133). While the number of systematic reviews published in the urological literature has increased substantially, the methodological quality of these studies remains suboptimal. Systematic review authors and editors should make every effort to adhere to well established methodological standards to enhance

  6. Randomised controlled trials of veterinary homeopathy: characterising the peer-reviewed research literature for systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mathie, Robert T; Hacke, Daniela; Clausen, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Systematic review of the research evidence in veterinary homeopathy has never previously been carried out. This paper presents the search methods, together with categorised lists of retrieved records, that enable us to identify the literature that is acceptable for future systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in veterinary homeopathy. All randomised and controlled trials of homeopathic intervention (prophylaxis and/or treatment of disease, in any species except man) were appraised according to pre-specified criteria. The following databases were systematically searched from their inception up to and including March 2011: AMED; Carstens-Stiftung Homeopathic Veterinary Clinical Research (HomVetCR) database; CINAHL; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Embase; Hom-Inform; LILACS; PubMed; Science Citation Index; Scopus. One hundred and fifty records were retrieved; 38 satisfied the acceptance criteria (substantive report of a clinical treatment or prophylaxis trial in veterinary homeopathic medicine randomised and controlled and published in a peer-reviewed journal), and were thus eligible for future planned systematic review. Approximately half of the rejected records were theses. Seven species and 27 different species-specific medical conditions were represented in the 38 papers. Similar numbers of papers reported trials of treatment and prophylaxis (n=21 and n=17 respectively) and were controlled against placebo or other than placebo (n=18, n=20 respectively). Most research focused on non-individualised homeopathy (n=35 papers) compared with individualised homeopathy (n=3). The results provide a complete and clarified view of the RCT literature in veterinary homeopathy. We will systematically review the 38 substantive peer-reviewed journal articles under the main headings: treatment trials; prophylaxis trials. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Randomised controlled trials of homeopathy in humans: characterising the research journal literature for systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mathie, Robert T; Hacke, Daniela; Clausen, Jürgen; Nicolai, Ton; Riley, David S; Fisher, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A new programme of systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in homeopathy will distinguish important attributes of RCT records, including: placebo controlled versus other-than-placebo (OTP) controlled; individualised versus non-individualised homeopathy; peer-reviewed (PR) versus non peer-reviewed (NPR) sources. (a) To outline the methods used to search and categorise the RCT literature; (b) to report details of the records retrieved; (c) to compare our retrieved records with those reported in two previous systematic reviews (Linde et al., 1997; Shang et al., 2005). Ten major electronic databases were searched for records published up to the end of 2011. A record was accepted for subsequent systematic review if it was a substantive report of a clinical trial of homeopathic treatment or prophylaxis in humans, randomised and controlled, and published in a PR or NPR journal. 489 records were potentially eligible: 226 were rejected as non-journal, minor or repeat publications, or lacking randomisation and/or controls and/or a 'homeopathic' intervention; 263 (164 PR, 99 NPR) were acceptable for systematic review. The 263 accepted records comprised 217 (137 PR, 80 NPR) placebo-controlled RCTs, of which 121 were included by, 66 were published after, and 30 were potentially eligible for, but not listed by, Linde or Shang. The 137 PR records of placebo-controlled RCTs comprise 41 on individualised homeopathy and 96 on non-individualised homeopathy. Our findings clarify the RCT literature in homeopathy. The 263 accepted journal papers will be the basis for our forthcoming programme of systematic reviews. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Substance use education in US schools of pharmacy: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Muzyk, Andrew J; Peedin, Emily; Lipetzky, Juliana; Parker, Haley; McEachern, Mark P; Thomas, Kelan

    2017-06-12

    The authors sought to systematically review the quantity and quality of literature describing substance use disorders (SUDs) education in US schools of pharmacy and determine the effectiveness of the educational interventions employed. The authors conducted a systematic review of SUDs education studies in US pharmacy schools. All literature database searches were performed on April 30, 2016, in 5 databases: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase.com, ERIC via FirstSearch, and CINAHL via EBSCOhost. The study authors conducted this systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines and registered it with PROSPERO, which is an international prospective register of systematic reviews. The PROSPERO registration number is CRD42016037443. The study authors created a modified data extraction sheet based on the Best Evidence in Medical Education coding sheet. A Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI) score was calculated for included articles. Results: From the 1626 retrieved records, 7 were included in the present review. The studies assessed students' impressions and abilities regarding SUDs pre- and post-intervention. The mean ± SD MERSQI score of the 7 studies was 9.86 ± 1.21 (range: 8-11.5). The included articles assessed pharmacy students at various academic years, with the majority students in either their first or second year of pharmacy school, and described both required and elective courses. The educational interventions varied in design and outcomes measured. Education included nicotine, alcoholism, and SUDs in general. None of the included articles reported on education regarding opioid use disorders. Conclusions: The studies included in this systematic review demonstrate that teaching pharmacy students about SUDs produces a positive impact in their attitudes and knowledge on this subject.

  9. Contemporary applications of frontal sinus trephination: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alpen B; Cain, Rachel B; Lal, Devyani

    2015-09-01

    Our objective was to perform a systematic review of the literature on contemporary indications and outcomes for frontal sinus trephination and present an illustrative case of an endoscopically assisted repair of a subcutaneous frontal sinus fistula by trephination technique. PubMed and Ovid databases were used as data sources. A systematic review of the English literature was completed to review reports of frontal trephination from 1980 to 2014. Articles meeting inclusion criteria for inflammatory and noninflammatory indications were reviewed. Articles were systematically reviewed and graded by evidence-based medicine level. An illustrative case from our institution is then presented. The systematic review identified 2,621 published studies. Thirty-eight studies were identified for inclusion. The indications, techniques, outcomes, safety, and complications were reviewed for noninflammatory and inflammatory conditions. There were 32 retrospective case series, reports, or cohort studies (level 4), four systematic reviews (level 3), one prospective analysis (level 3), and one meta-analysis (level 2). Due to the heterogeneity of study cases and inclusion criteria, a meta-analysis was not feasible. We also present a novel closure of an anterior skull base defect resulting in a subcutaneous fistula with use of a frontal trephination approach. The frontal sinus trephination should not be regarded as a procedure of the past, as it useful in the armamentarium of the modern sinus and skull base surgeon. This approach provides access for instrumentation for hard-to-reach frontal sinus disease either purely through a trephination approach or as a supplementation to the transnasal endoscopic approach. Evidence supporting frontal sinus trephination is of levels 2, 3, and 4. Level of evidence: NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Patients' preferences for primary health care - a systematic literature review of discrete choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Kleij, Kim-Sarah; Tangermann, Ulla; Amelung, Volker E; Krauth, Christian

    2017-07-11

    Primary care is a key element of health care systems and addresses the main health problems of the population. Due to the demographic change, primary care even gains in importance. The knowledge of the patients' preferences can help policy makers as well as physicians to set priorities in their effort to make health care delivery more responsive to patients' needs. Our objective was to describe which aspects of primary care were included in preference studies and which of them were the most preferred aspects. In order to elicit the preferences for primary care, a systematic literature search was conducted. Two researchers searched three electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO) and conducted a narrative synthesis. Inclusion criteria were: focus on primary health care delivery, discrete choice experiment as elicitation method, and studies published between 2006 and 2015 in English language. We identified 18 studies that elicited either the patients' or the population's preferences for primary care based on a discrete choice experiment. Altogether the studies used 16 structure attributes, ten process attributes and four outcome attributes. The most commonly applied structure attribute was "Waiting time till appointment", the most frequently used process attribute was "Shared decision making / professional's attention paid to your views". "Receiving the 'best' treatment" was the most commonly applied outcome attribute. Process attributes were most often the ones of highest importance for patients or the population. The attributes and attribute levels used in the discrete choice experiments were identified by literature research, qualitative research, expert interviews, or the analysis of policy documents. The results of the DCE studies show different preferences for primary health care. The diversity of the results may have several reasons, such as the method of analysis, the selection procedure of the attributes and their levels or the specific research

  11. Influence of mhealth interventions on gender relations in developing countries: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Research has shown that mHealth initiatives, or health programs enhanced by mobile phone technologies, can foster women’s empowerment. Yet, there is growing concern that mobile-based programs geared towards women may exacerbate gender inequalities. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the empirical evidence of changes in men and women’s interactions as a result of mHealth interventions. To be eligible, studies had to have been published in English from 2002 to 2012, conducted in a developing country, included an evaluation of a mobile health intervention, and presented findings on resultant dynamics between women and men. The search strategy comprised four electronic bibliographic databases in addition to a manual review of the reference lists of relevant articles and a review of organizational websites and journals with recent mHealth publications. The methodological rigor of selected studies was appraised by two independent reviewers who also abstracted data on the study’s characteristics. Iterative thematic analyses were used to synthesize findings relating to gender-transformative and non-transformative experiences. Results Out of the 173 articles retrieved for review, seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were retained in the final analysis. Most mHealth interventions were SMS-based and conducted in sub-Saharan Africa on topics relating to HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, health-based microenterprise, and non-communicable diseases. Several methodological limitations were identified among eligible quantitative and qualitative studies. The current literature suggests that mobile phone programs can influence gender relations in meaningfully positive ways by providing new modes for couple’s health communication and cooperation and by enabling greater male participation in health areas typically targeted towards women. MHealth initiatives also increased women’s decision-making, social status, and

  12. Pretreatment serum albumin as a predictor of cancer survival: A systematic review of the epidemiological literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are several methods of assessing nutritional status in cancer of which serum albumin is one of the most commonly used. In recent years, the role of malnutrition as a predictor of survival in cancer has received considerable attention. As a result, it is reasonable to investigate whether serum albumin has utility as a prognostic indicator of cancer survival in cancer. This review summarizes all available epidemiological literature on the association between pretreatment serum albumin levels and survival in different types of cancer. Methods A systematic search of the literature using the MEDLINE database (January 1995 through June 2010) to identify epidemiologic studies on the relationship between serum albumin and cancer survival. To be included in the review, a study must have: been published in English, reported on data collected in humans with any type of cancer, had serum albumin as one of the or only predicting factor, had survival as one of the outcome measures (primary or secondary) and had any of the following study designs (case-control, cohort, cross-sectional, case-series prospective, retrospective, nested case-control, ecologic, clinical trial, meta-analysis). Results Of the 29 studies reviewed on cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, all except three found higher serum albumin levels to be associated with better survival in multivariate analysis. Of the 10 studies reviewed on lung cancer, all excepting one found higher serum albumin levels to be associated with better survival. In 6 studies reviewed on female cancers and multiple cancers each, lower levels of serum albumin were associated with poor survival. Finally, in all 8 studies reviewed on patients with other cancer sites, lower levels of serum albumin were associated with poor survival. Conclusions Pretreatment serum albumin levels provide useful prognostic significance in cancer. Accordingly, serum albumin level could be used in clinical trials to better define the baseline

  13. Influence of mHealth interventions on gender relations in developing countries: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Gagliardi, Laina

    2013-10-16

    Research has shown that mHealth initiatives, or health programs enhanced by mobile phone technologies, can foster women's empowerment. Yet, there is growing concern that mobile-based programs geared towards women may exacerbate gender inequalities. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the empirical evidence of changes in men and women's interactions as a result of mHealth interventions. To be eligible, studies had to have been published in English from 2002 to 2012, conducted in a developing country, included an evaluation of a mobile health intervention, and presented findings on resultant dynamics between women and men. The search strategy comprised four electronic bibliographic databases in addition to a manual review of the reference lists of relevant articles and a review of organizational websites and journals with recent mHealth publications. The methodological rigor of selected studies was appraised by two independent reviewers who also abstracted data on the study's characteristics. Iterative thematic analyses were used to synthesize findings relating to gender-transformative and non-transformative experiences. Out of the 173 articles retrieved for review, seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were retained in the final analysis. Most mHealth interventions were SMS-based and conducted in sub-Saharan Africa on topics relating to HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, health-based microenterprise, and non-communicable diseases. Several methodological limitations were identified among eligible quantitative and qualitative studies. The current literature suggests that mobile phone programs can influence gender relations in meaningfully positive ways by providing new modes for couple's health communication and cooperation and by enabling greater male participation in health areas typically targeted towards women. MHealth initiatives also increased women's decision-making, social status, and access to health resources. However

  14. A systematic review of the literature on the chiropractic care of patients with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Joel; Alcantara, Joey D; Alcantara, Junjoe

    2011-01-01

    In addition to impacting the affected child and his/her family's quality of life, recent estimates place the lifetime cost for an individual with ASD at $3.2 million and $35 billion for the entire birth cohort. Given the clinical heterogeneity of ASD, treatment approaches are multidisciplinary including alternative therapies, particularly when no pharmaceutical agent is effective for the core symptoms of ASD. Chiropractic is a popular alternative therapy for children. A systematic review of the literature was performed to provide context for future research endeavors in this field. A systematic review of the literature on the chiropractic care of patients with ASD utilized 8 databases. Eligibility criteria for inclusion included: (1) the study was a primary investigation/report published in an English peer-reviewed journal; (2) the study involved patients ≤18 years; and (3) patients are diagnosed with autism, Asperger's Syndrome, PDD-NOS, or ASD. Our systematic review of the literature revealed a total of five articles consisting of three case reports, one cohort study and one randomized comparison trial. The literature is lacking on documenting the chiropractic care of children with ASD. At the heart of the core symptoms of ASD (ie, impaired social interactions, deficits in communication and repetitive or restricted behavioral patterns) is abnormal sensory processing. Preliminary studies indicate that the chiropractic adjustment may attenuate sensorimotor integration based on somatosensory evoked potentials studies. We encourage further research for definitive studies on chiropractic's effectiveness for ASD. However, given the ineffectiveness of pharmaceutical agents, a trial of chiropractic care for sufferers of autism is prudent and warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Results of Surgical Treatment of Chronic Patellar Tendinosis (Jumper's Knee): A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Matthias; Diehl, Nora; Schmitt, Cornelia; Kohn, Dieter M; Lorbach, Olaf

    2015-12-01

    To review the literature concerning surgical treatment options for chronic patellar tendinosis (jumper's knee), a common problem among athletes. When conservative treatment fails, surgical treatment is required. Systematic review of the literature concerning the results of current surgical treatment options for chronic patellar tendinosis. All articles of studies with an evidence level ≥IV from January 2000 until February 2015 presenting the surgical outcome after arthroscopic as well as open treatment of chronic patellar tendinosis were included. The literature research of the PubMed database was performed using the following key words: "patellar" and "tendinitis," "tendonitis," "tendinosis" or "tendinopathy"; "inferior patellar pole"; "jumper's knee"; "surgical treatment" and "open" or "arthroscopic patellar tenotomy." A systematic review of the literature was performed especially to point out the effectiveness of arthroscopic treatment of chronic patellar tendinosis. The results revealed good clinical results for arthroscopic as well as open treatment of chronic patellar tendinosis that is refractory to conservative treatment in athletes. An average success rate of 87% was found for the open treatment group and of 91% for the arthroscopic treatment group. However, after open surgery, the mean time of return to the preinjury level of activity is 8 to 12 months, with a certain number of patients/athletes who cannot return to the preinjury level of activity. Minimally invasive, arthroscopically assisted or all-arthroscopic procedures may lead to a significantly faster return to sporting activities and may, therefore, be the preferred method of surgical treatment. Level IV, systematic review of Level I-IV studies. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Milner, Kerry A

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews are a type of literature review in which authors systematically search for, critically appraise, and synthesize evidence from several studies on the same topic (Grant & Booth, 2009). The precise and systematic method differentiates systematic reviews from traditional reviews (Khan, Kunz, Kleijnen, & Antes, 2003). In all types of systematic reviews, a quality assessment is done of the individual studies that meet inclusion criteria. These individual assessments are synthesized, and aggregated results are reported. Systematic reviews are considered the highest level of evidence in evidence-based health care because the reviewers strive to use transparent, rigorous methods that minimize bias.

  17. Critical Components of Successful Inclusion of Students with Severe Disabilities: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquraini, Turki; Gut, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the critical components of successful inclusion for students with severe disabilities. This review sets out to provide an overview of literature regarding effective practices for inclusion with a focus on critical components of successful inclusion that assist in preparing the stakeholders worldwide to work and engage…

  18. Recognition of facial expressions by alcoholic patients: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Donadon, Mariana Fortunata; Osório, Flávia de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence can cause a wide variety of cognitive, psychomotor, and visual-spatial deficits. It is questionable whether this condition is associated with impairments in the recognition of affective and/or emotional information. Such impairments may promote deficits in social cognition and, consequently, in the adaptation and interaction of alcohol abusers with their social environment. The aim of this systematic review was to systematize the literature on alcoholics' recognition of basic facial expressions in terms of the following outcome variables: accuracy, emotional intensity, and latency time. A systematic literature search in the PsycINFO, PubMed, and SciELO electronic databases, with no restrictions regarding publication year, was employed as the study methodology. The findings of some studies indicate that alcoholics have greater impairment in facial expression recognition tasks, while others could not differentiate the clinical group from controls. However, there was a trend toward greater deficits in alcoholics. Alcoholics displayed less accuracy in recognition of sadness and disgust and required greater emotional intensity to judge facial expressions corresponding to fear and anger. The current study was only able to identify trends in the chosen outcome variables. Future studies that aim to provide more precise evidence for the potential influence of alcohol on social cognition are needed.

  19. Quantitative radiologic criteria for the diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Beside symptoms and clinical signs radiological findings are crucial in the diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). We investigate which quantitative radiological signs are described in the literature and which radilogical criteria are used to establish inclusion criteria in clincical studies evaluating different treatments in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods A literature search was performed in Medline, Embase and the Cochrane library to identify papers reporting on radiological criteria to describe LSS and systematic reviews investigating the effects of different treatment modalities. Results 25 studies reporting on radiological signs of LSS and four systematic reviews related to the evaluation of different treatments were found. Ten different parameters were identified to quantify lumbar spinal stenosis. Most often reported measures for central stenosis were antero-posterior diameter (< 10 mm) and cross-sectional area (< 70 mm2) of spinal canal. For lateral stenosis height and depth of the lateral recess, and for foraminal stenosis the foraminal diameter were typically used. Only four of 63 primary studies included in the systematic reviews reported on quantitative measures for defining inclusion criteria of patients in prognostic studies. Conclusions There is a need for consensus on well-defined, unambiguous radiological criteria to define lumbar spinal stenosis in order to improve diagnostic accuracy and to formulate reliable inclusion criteria for clinical studies. PMID:21798008

  20. Paranoia and self-concepts in psychosis: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, Bridget; Tracey, Rebecca; Shannon, Ciaran

    2014-05-30

    The purpose of the present study was to review systematically, research exploring the relationship between self-concepts and paranoia in psychosis. A literature search was performed by two independent raters in relevant databases (MedLine, PsychInfo and Web of Science) and articles meeting the inclusion criteria were cross-referenced. Following scrutiny according to inclusion criteria, 18 studies were selected for review. A narrative synthesis of findings, in which methodological variability is discussed, is presented relative to three key areas: the nature of the relationship between paranoia and self-concepts; the association between paranoia and discrepancies in self-concepts; the nature of the relationship between paranoia and self-concepts when other, dimensional aspects of these constructs are taken into account. The systematic literature review indicated relatively consistent findings, that paranoia is associated with more negative self-concepts when measured cross-sectionally. Results are somewhat more mixed in regards to research on paranoia and self-concept discrepancies. Studies investigating dimensional aspects of self-concepts and paranoia yield findings of particular interest, especially in regards to the association indicated between instability of self-concepts and paranoia. Limitations in research and of the present systematic review are discussed. Clinical and theoretical implications of findings are outlined and possible directions for future research are suggested.

  1. A systematic literature review of neuroimaging research on developmental stuttering between 1995 and 2016.

    PubMed

    Etchell, Andrew C; Civier, Oren; Ballard, Kirrie J; Sowman, Paul F

    2017-03-12

    Stuttering is a disorder that affects millions of people all over the world. Over the pasttwo decades, there has been a great deal of interest in investigating the neural basis of the disorder. This systematic literature review is intended to provide a comprehensive summary of theneuroimaging literature on developmental stuttering. It is a resource for researchers to quicklyand easily identify relevant studies for their areas of interest and enable them to determine themost appropriate methodology to utilize in their work. The review also highlights gaps in the literature in terms of methodology and areas of research. We conducted a systematic literature review on neuroimaging studies on developmental stuttering according to the PRISMA guidelines. We searched for articles in the pubmed database containing "stuttering" OR "stammering" AND either "MRI", "PET", "EEG", "MEG", "TMS"or "brain" that were published between 1995/​01/​01 and 2016/​01/​01. The search returned a total of 359 items with an additional 26 identified from a manualsearch. Of these, there were a total of 111 full text articles that met criteria for inclusion in thesystematic literature review. We also discuss neuroimaging studies on developmental stutteringpublished throughout 2016. The discussion of the results is organized first by methodology andsecond by population (i.e., adults or children) and includes tables that contain all items returnedby the search. There are widespread abnormalities in the structural architecture and functional organization of the brains of adults and children who stutter. These are evident not only in speechtasks, but also non-speech tasks. Future research should make greater use of functional neuroimaging and noninvasive brain stimulation, and employ structural methodologies that havegreater sensitivity. Newly planned studies should also investigate sex differences, focus on augmenting treatment, examine moments of dysfluency and longitudinally or cross

  2. Does current provision of undergraduate education prepare UK medical students in ENT? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Gary R; Bacila, Irina A; Swamy, Meenakshi

    2016-04-15

    To systematically identify and analyse all published literature relating to the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery, as perceived by medical students and clinicians in the UK. Systematic literature review. 5 major databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, Cochrane and Web of Science. The literature search was conducted from February to April 2015. Primary research or studies that report on the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ENT, from the perspective of medical students and clinicians in the UK. The timescale of searches was limited from 1999 onwards (ie, the past 15 years). The literature search was conducted by 2 independent reviewers. Search terms used involved the combination and variation of 5 key concepts, namely: medical student, clinician, ENT, undergraduate medical education and UK. A data extraction form was designed for and used in this study, based on guidelines provided by the UK National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Textual narrative synthesis was used for data analysis. A total of 7 studies were included in the final review. 4 main themes were identified: confidence in managing patients, teaching delivery, student assessment and duration of rotations. A consistent finding in this review was that the majority of final year medical students and junior doctors did not feel adequately prepared to practise ENT. Important factors influencing preparedness in ENT included the duration of clinical rotations, the opportunity for hands-on learning and formal assessment. The findings of this review suggest the need for further development of the ENT undergraduate curricula across the UK. However, there is insufficient evidence from which to draw strong conclusions; this in itself is beneficial as it highlights a gap in the existing literature and supports the need for primary research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  3. The chiropractic care of patients with cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Joel; Alcantara, Joey D; Alcantara, Junjoe

    2012-12-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and accounted for 7.4 million deaths in 2004. By 2030, deaths from cancer have been estimated at 12 million with 30% being preventable. Complementary and alternative medicine remains popular among cancer patients; particularly with chiropractic services. However, the nature of the chiropractic clinical encounter and its reported benefits remains to be fully investigated. Towards these efforts, we begin with a systematic review of the literature on the chiropractic care of patients with cancer. The following electronic databases were searched: MANTIS [1965-2010]; Index to Chiropractic Literature [1984-2010]; Pubmed [1966-2010]; Medline [1965-2010] EMBASE [1974-2010], AMED [1975-2010], CINAHL Plus [1965-2010], Alt-Health Watch [1965-2010] and PsychINFO [1965-2010]. Key words used were "cancer" and "neoplasm" in Boolean combination with "chiropractic." Primary investigation/reports in peer-reviewed English journals involving chiropractic care were reviewed. Our review revealed 60 case reports, 2 case series, 21 commentaries, 2 survey studies, and 2 literature reviews. The case reports were diagnostic with commentaries highlighting the importance of recognizing the patient presenting with NMS complaints due to an underlying neoplasm. The chiropractic clinical encounter prior to cancer diagnosis and subsequent medical referral is poorly characterized in the literature. Patients with cancer seek the care of chiropractors. The literature does not reflect or describe the totality of the chiropractic clinical encounter. We encourage further research in this field.

  4. Speech-language pathology findings in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Machado-Nascimento, Nárli; Melo E Kümmer, Arthur; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the scientific production on the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Speech-language Pathology and to methodologically analyze the observational studies on the theme. Systematic review of the literature conducted at the databases Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System online (MEDLINE, USA), Literature of Latin America and the Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Brazil) and Spanish Bibliographic Index of Health Sciences (IBECS, Spain) using the descriptors: "Language", "Language Development", "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder", "ADHD" and "Auditory Perception". Articles published between 2008 and 2013. Inclusion criteria: full articles published in national and international journals from 2008 to 2013. Exclusion criteria: articles not focused on the speech-language pathology alterations present in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The articles were read in full and the data were extracted for characterization of methodology and content. The 23 articles found were separated according to two themes: Speech-language Pathology and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The study of the scientific production revealed that the alterations most commonly discussed were reading disorders and that there are few reports on the relationship between auditory processing and these disorders, as well as on the role of the speech-language pathologist in the evaluation and treatment of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

  5. The uses of smartphones and tablet devices in surgery: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mobasheri, Mohammad H; Johnston, Maximilian; Syed, Usama M; King, Dominic; Darzi, Ara

    2015-11-01

    Smartphones and tablet devices have become ubiquitous, and their adoption in the health care arena is growing. Reviews have looked at their utilities within medical specialties. Despite the many surgical apps available currently, there has not been a comprehensive literature review evaluating uses of these platforms within surgical disciplines. We reviewed the literature systematically in this regard. Embase, MEDLINE, Health Management Informatics Consortium, and PsychINFO databases were searched for empiric quantitative studies evaluating interventions based in the use of smartphone or tablet device within surgical disciplines targeted at surgeons, patients, or the wider public. Of the 39 studies included, 24 evaluated smartphone-based interventions and 15 looked at tablet devices, whereas 30 were app-based interventions and 9 were not. A wide range of effective and innovative utilities were identified and categorized into 8 domains; Diagnostics (n = 11), telemedicine (n = 9), operative navigation (n = 6), training (n = 5), data collection (n = 3), patient education (n = 2), behavior change (n = 2), and operative planning (n = 1). This comprehensive systematic literature review of smartphone and tablet device use in surgery demonstrates a wide range of innovative utilities in the pre-, intra-, and postoperative contexts. Although results of individual studies generally were favorable, limitations in methodologies existed in many, and although studies clearly highlight the substantial potential of smartphone and tablet devices in the surgical setting, trials of greater quality will be necessary to pave the way for their widespread adoption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Semi-automating the manual literature search for systematic reviews increases efficiency.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Andrea L; Morgan, Laura C; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2010-03-01

    To minimise retrieval bias, manual literature searches are a key part of the search process of any systematic review. Considering the need to have accurate information, valid results of the manual literature search are essential to ensure scientific standards; likewise efficient approaches that minimise the amount of personnel time required to conduct a manual literature search are of great interest. The objective of this project was to determine the validity and efficiency of a new manual search method that utilises the scopus database. We used the traditional manual search approach as the gold standard to determine the validity and efficiency of the proposed scopus method. Outcome measures included completeness of article detection and personnel time involved. Using both methods independently, we compared the results based on accuracy of the results, validity and time spent conducting the search, efficiency. Regarding accuracy, the scopus method identified the same studies as the traditional approach indicating its validity. In terms of efficiency, using scopus led to a time saving of 62.5% compared with the traditional approach (3 h versus 8 h). The scopus method can significantly improve the efficiency of manual searches and thus of systematic reviews.

  7. Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in trans people: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Haycraft, Emma; Murjan, Sarah; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction plays a prominent role in gender dysphoria. In some individuals body dissatisfaction appears to manifest disordered eating in order to suppress bodily features of natal gender and accentuate features of gender identity. To date, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in trans individuals. Such a review may highlight important implications for clinicians working with trans people. Therefore, the aim was to critically and systematically review the available literature examining body dissatisfaction or disordered eating in a trans population, and also the literature pertaining to how body dissatisfaction and disordered eating are related in trans people. This review found three studies that explored disordered eating in trans people, five studies that explored body image and disordered eating in trans people, and 18 studies that explored body image in trans people. The findings from this review suggest that body dissatisfaction is core to the distress trans people experience and that this dissatisfaction may also put some individuals at risk of developing disordered eating. Additionally, the findings appear to suggest that gender dysphoria treatment is successful at increasing body satisfaction and improving body image. The clinical implications are discussed.

  8. Interactive media for parental education on managing children chronic condition: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Annaim, Ali; Lassiter, Mia; Viera, Anthony J; Ferris, Maria

    2015-12-03

    Although some research has examined the use of games for the education of pediatric patients, the use of technology for parental education seems like an appropriate application as it has been a part of the popular culture for at least 30 years. The main objective of this systematic review is to examine the literature for research evaluating the use of interactive media in the education of parents of children with chronic conditions. We searched the MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane database of systematic reviews and EMBASE databases from 1986 to 2014 seeking original investigations on the use of interactive media and video games to educate parents of children with chronic conditions. Cohort studies, randomized control trials, and observational studies were included in our search of the literature. Two investigators reviewed abstracts and full texts as necessary. The quality of the studies was assessed using the GRADE guidelines. Overall trend in the results and the degree of certainty in the results were considered when assessing the body of literature pertaining to our focused questions. Our initial search identified 4367 papers, but only 12 fulfilled the criterion established for final analysis, with the majority of the studies having flaws that reduced their quality. These papers reported mostly positive results supporting the idea that parent education is possible through interactive media. We found limited evidence of the effectiveness of using serious games and or interactive media to educate parents of children with chronic conditions.

  9. Does PTSD occur in sentenced prison populations? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Goff, Ashley; Rose, Emmeline; Rose, Suzanna; Purves, David

    2007-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature on mental disorder in prisoners, published in 2002, made no mention of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but indicators from other studies suggest that a history of serious and chronic trauma is common among offenders. To conduct a systematic review of the literature with the specific questions: does any epidemiological study of sentenced prisoners include data on prevalence of PTSD while in prison? If so, what is the prevalence in this group? Literature databases EMBASE, Medline, PsychInfo, PILOTS and SIGLE were searched. The Journal of Traumatic Stress was searched manually. Preliminary screening was conducted by reading abstracts of hundreds of papers. Ten exclusion criteria were then applied to the screened selection. Reference sections of all accessed papers were searched for any further studies. One hundred and three potentially relevant papers were identified after preliminary screening. Four met all criteria for inclusion and suffered none of the exclusion criteria. PTSD rates ranged from 4% of the sample to 21%. Women were disproportionately affected. All four papers suggested that the prevalence of PTSD among sentenced prisoners is higher than that in the general population, as reported elsewhere. Overall the findings suggest a likely need for PTSD treatment services for sentenced prisoners. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. How have systematic priority setting approaches influenced policy making? A synthesis of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Kapiriri, Lydia; Razavi, Donya

    2017-09-01

    There is a growing body of literature on systematic approaches to healthcare priority setting from various countries and different levels of decision making. This paper synthesizes the current literature in order to assess the extent to which program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA), burden of disease & cost-effectiveness analysis (BOD/CEA), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), and accountability for reasonableness (A4R), are reported to have been institutionalized and influenced policy making and practice. We searched for English language publications on health care priority setting approaches (2000-2017). Our sources of literature included PubMed and Ovid databases (including Embase, Global Health, Medline, PsycINFO, EconLit). Of the four approaches PBMA and A4R were commonly applied in high income countries while BOD/CEA was exclusively applied in low income countries. PBMA and BOD/CEA were most commonly reported to have influenced policy making. The explanations for limited adoption of an approach were related to its complexity, poor policy maker understanding and resource requirements. While systematic approaches have the potential to improve healthcare priority setting; most have not been adopted in routine policy making. The identified barriers call for sustained knowledge exchange between researchers and policy-makers and development of practical guidelines to ensure that these frameworks are more accessible, applicable and sustainable in informing policy making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Impact of Environmental Design on Teamwork and Communication in Healthcare Facilities: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Gharaveis, Arsalan; Hamilton, D Kirk; Pati, Debajyoti

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the current knowledge about the impact of healthcare facility design on teamwork and communication by exploring the relevant literature. Teamwork and communication are behavioral factors that are impacted by physical design. However, the effects of environmental factors on teamwork and communication have not been investigated extensively in healthcare design literature. There are no published systematic reviews on the current topic. Searches were conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar databases in addition to targeted design journals including Health Environmental Research & Design, Environment and Behavior, Environmental Psychology, and Applied Ergonomics. Inclusion criteria were (a) full-text English language articles related to teamwork and communication and (b) involving any healthcare built environment and space design published in peer-reviewed journals between 1984 and 2017. Studies were extracted using defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the first phase, 26 of the 195 articles most relevant to teamwork and 19 studies of the 147 were identified and reviewed to understand the impact of communication in healthcare facilities. The literature regarding the impact of built environment on teamwork and communication were reviewed and explored in detail. Eighteen studies were selected and succinctly summarized as the final product of this review. Environmental design, which involves nurses, support staff, and physicians, is one of the critical factors that promotes the efficiency of teamwork and collaborative communication. Layout design, visibility, and accessibility levels are the most cited aspects of design which can affect the level of communication and teamwork in healthcare facilities.

  12. Fatal river drowning: the identification of research gaps through a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Leggat, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Drowning is a leading cause of unintentional death. Rivers are a common location for drowning. Unlike other location-specific prevention efforts (home swimming pools and beaches), little is known about prevention targeting river drowning deaths. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken using English language papers published between 1980 and 2014, exploring gaps in the literature, with a focus on epidemiology, risk factors and prevention strategies for river drowning. Results Twenty-nine papers were deemed relevant to the study design including 21 (72.4%) on epidemiology, 18 (62.1%) on risk factors and 10 (34.5%) that proposed strategies for prevention. Risk factors identified included age, falls into water, swimming, using watercraft, sex and alcohol. Discussion Gaps were identified in the published literature. These included a lack of an agreed definition for rivers, rates for fatal river drowning (however, crude rates were calculated for 12 papers, ranging from 0.20 to 1.89 per 100 000 people per annum), and consensus around risk factors, especially age. There was only one paper that explored a prevention programme; the remaining nine outlined proposed prevention activities. There is a need for studies into exposure patterns for rivers and an agreed definition (with consistent coding). Conclusions This systematic review has identified that river drowning deaths are an issue in many regions and countries around the world. Further work to address gaps in the published research to date would benefit prevention efforts. PMID:26728005

  13. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kilic, O; Maas, M; Verhagen, E; Zwerver, J; Gouttebarge, V

    2017-07-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific evidence on the incidence, prevalence, aetiology and preventive measures of volleyball injuries. To this end, a highly sensitive search strategy was built based on two groups of keywords (and their synonyms). Two electronic databases were searched, namely Medline (biomedical literature) via Pubmed, and SPORTDiscus (sports and sports medicine literature) via EBSCOhost. The results showed that ankle, knee and shoulder injuries are the most common injuries sustained while playing volleyball. Results are presented separately for acute and overuse injuries, as well as for contact and non-contact injuries. Measures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries, anterior knee injuries and ankle injuries were identified in the scientific literature. These preventive measures were found to have a significant effect on decreasing the occurrence of volleyball injuries (for instance on ankle injuries with a reduction from 0.9 to 0.5 injuries per 1000 player hours). Our systematic review showed that musculoskeletal injuries are common among volleyball players, while effective preventive measures remain scarce. Further epidemiological studies should focus on other specific injuries besides knee and ankle injuries, and should also report their prevalence and not only the incidence. Additionally, high-quality studies on the aetiology and prevention of shoulder injuries are lacking and should be a focus of future studies.

  14. Victim Satisfaction With the Criminal Justice System and Emotional Recovery: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kunst, Maarten; Popelier, Lieke; Varekamp, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    The current study systematically and critically reviewed the empirical literature to evaluate the association between satisfaction with the criminal justice system and adult crime victims' emotional recovery. Despite the widely accepted notion that involvement in the criminal justice system may impact recovery from crime victimization--either beneficially or maliciously--a systematic review of empirical studies that addresses this topic has never been conducted. Electronic literature databases (ISI Web of Knowledge [including Web of Science and MEDLINE], EBSCO host [including PsychInfo, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, ERIC, PsychARTICLES, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection], and ProQuest [including PILOTS, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts]) were searched to identify relevant quantitative studies. The Cambridge Quality Checklists were used to evaluate the quality of selected studies. These checklists can be used to assess the quality of risk and protective factors in criminal justice research. In this study they were used to explore the impact of victim satisfaction on crime victims' emotional and cognitive states post-victimization. The review process revealed mixed results, with some studies suggesting a healing impact of victim satisfaction and others not. More consistent were findings regarding the existence of an association between victim satisfaction and (alterations in) positive cognitions. However, since the majority of studies suffered from severe methodological shortcomings, definite conclusions cannot be drawn yet. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Systematic study of retinal vein occlusion in young patients. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Camps, I; Hernández-Martínez, P; Dolz-Marco, R; Gallego-Pinazo, R

    2016-03-01

    To report the case of a young woman with retinal vein occlusion and prothrombin heterozygous mutation, and to review the current evidence on the systematic study in cases of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in young patients. Eligible articles were identified using a comprehensive literature search of PubMed. RVO risk factors may have different relevance depending on each age group. In the systematic study of cases in young patients, it is recommended to look for "emerging" risk factors, bilateral involvement, or absence of "classic" risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy and Dental Plaque: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Santin, G. C.; Oliveira, D. S. B.; Galo, R.; Borsatto, M. C.; Corona, S. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDTa) on cariogenic dental biofilm. Types of Studies Reviewed. Studies in vivo, in vitro, and in situ were included. Articles that did not address PDTa, those that did not involve cariogenic biofilm, those that used microorganisms in the plankton phase, and reviews were excluded. Data extraction and quality assessments were performed independently by two raters using a scale. Results. Two hundred forty articles were retrieved; only seventeen of them met the eligibility criteria and were analyzed in the present review. Considerable variability was found regarding the methodologies and application protocols for antimicrobial PDTa. Two articles reported unfavorable results. Practical Implications. The present systematic review does not allow drawing any concrete conclusions regarding the efficacy of antimicrobial PDTa, although this method seems to be a promising option. PMID:25379545

  17. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy and dental plaque: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Santin, G C; Oliveira, D S B; Galo, R; Borsatto, M C; Corona, S A M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDTa) on cariogenic dental biofilm. Studies in vivo, in vitro, and in situ were included. Articles that did not address PDTa, those that did not involve cariogenic biofilm, those that used microorganisms in the plankton phase, and reviews were excluded. Data extraction and quality assessments were performed independently by two raters using a scale. Two hundred forty articles were retrieved; only seventeen of them met the eligibility criteria and were analyzed in the present review. Considerable variability was found regarding the methodologies and application protocols for antimicrobial PDTa. Two articles reported unfavorable results. The present systematic review does not allow drawing any concrete conclusions regarding the efficacy of antimicrobial PDTa, although this method seems to be a promising option.

  18. What is sensitive skin? A systematic literature review of objective measurements.

    PubMed

    Richters, Renée; Falcone, Denise; Uzunbajakava, Natallia; Verkruysse, Willem; van Erp, Piet; van de Kerkhof, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Despite sensitive skin being highly prevalent, no consensus on the definition and pathomechanism of sensitive skin exists. Here we report the results of a systematic literature review of diagnostic methods for sensitive skin at clinical, histological and biophysical levels. A systematic search revealed 27 out of 1,701 articles which we appraised in detail. Impaired skin barrier function and increased vascular reactivity are most often associated with sensitive skin. We identified key reasons causing an ambiguity around the sensitive skin phenomenon. We propose using standardized selection methods of subjects by a multifactorial questionnaire spanning a range of provocations, including those of chemical, mechanical and environmental origin, followed by clinical, histological and top-notch biophysical measurements. This could lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the sensitive skin phenomenon, fueling advances of biomedical and dermatological science. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Religion, Spirituality, and HIV Clinical Outcomes: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, B R; Justice, A C; Fiellin, D A

    2016-12-21

    This systematic review evaluates the association between religion, spirituality and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected individuals. A systematic literature review was conducted for all English language articles published between 1980 and 2016 in relevant databases. Six hundred fourteen studies were evaluated. 15 met inclusion criteria. Ten (67%) studies reported a positive association between religion or spirituality and a clinical HIV outcome. Two (13%) studies failed to detect such an association; and two (13%) demonstrated a negative association. One study (7%) identified features of religiosity and spirituality that had both negative and positive associations with HIV clinical outcomes. Recognizing the religious or spiritual commitments of patients may serve as an important component of patient care. Further longitudinal studies and interventions might be required to further clarify the potential impact of religion and spirituality on HIV clinical outcomes.

  20. Minimally invasive therapy for epiphrenic diverticula: Systematic review of literature and report of six cases

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Calatayud, Mariel; Targarona, Eduardo M; Balague, Carmen; Rodriguez-Luppi, Carlos; Martin, Ana B; Trias, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epiphrenic diverticula (ED) are infrequent and conventional surgical treatment entails aggressive open or transthoracic surgery. Minimally invasive treatment has changed the surgical approach but some surgical controversies are not resolved. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe our experience in minimally invasive treatment of the ED and to perform a systematic review of the current literature in this subject. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed all data from the Hospital de Sant Pau, focusing on patients that underwent minimally invasive treatment for an ED since 1998 to date. Furthermore, we performed a systematic literature review focused on the minimally invasive approach for ED. RESULTS: A total of 6 patients have been treated (5 transhiatal and 1 with abdominal and thoracic approach). We found a predominance of males with a median age of 63. The diagnosis was made with an endoscopy, barium swallow and manometry. Half of the manometry results were pathologic. The surgical technique involved a diverticulectomy, myotomy and a Dor partial founduplication. Two patients that presented suture line leakage (SLL) were treated conservatively. No mortality was reported. The systematic review was carried out under the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses scheme, with a total of 20 studies where 189 patients were found. No comparative or prospective randomised trials were found. Overall morbidity was 24%, with a SLL rate of 12%, hospital stay of 5 days and mortality of 1.5%. After a median follow-up of 42 months, 81.5% of the patients were asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: The minimally invasive approach for ED is a safe and feasible procedure. PMID:25336815

  1. A systematic literature search to identify performance measure outcomes used in clinical studies of racehorses.

    PubMed

    Wylie, C E; Newton, J R

    2017-09-08

    Racing performance is often used as a measurable outcome variable in research studies investigating clinical diagnoses or interventions. However, the use of many different performance measures largely precludes conduct of meaningful comparative studies and, to date, those being used have not been collated. To systematically review the veterinary scientific literature for the use of racing performance as a measurable outcome variable in clinical studies of racehorses, collate and identify those most popular, and identify their advantages and disadvantages. Systematic literature search. The search criteria "((racing AND performance) AND (horses OR equidae))" were adapted for both MEDLINE and CAB Abstracts databases. Data were collected in standardised recording forms for binary, categorical and quantitative measures, and the use of performance indices. In total, 217 studies that described racing performance were identified, contributing 117 different performance measures. No one performance measure was used in all studies, despite 90.3% using more than one variable. Data regarding race starts and earnings were used most commonly, with 88.0% and 54.4% of studies including at least one measure of starts and earnings, respectively. Seventeen variables were used 10 times or more, with the top five comprising: 'return to racing', 'number of starts', 'days to first start', 'earnings per period of time' and 'earnings per start'. The search strategies may not have identified all relevant papers, introducing bias to the review. Performance indices have been developed to improve assessment of interventions; however, they are not widely adopted in the scientific literature. Use of the two most commonly identified measures, whether the horse returned to racing and number of starts over a defined period of time, would best facilitate future systematic reviews and meta-analyses in advance of the development of a gold-standard measure of race performance outcome. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Primary hip replacement prostheses and their evidence base: systematic review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kynaston-Pearson, F; Ashmore, A M; Malak, T T; Rombach, I; Taylor, A; Beard, D; Arden, N K; Price, A; Prieto-Alhambra, D; Judge, A; Carr, A J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which prostheses with no readily available evidence to support their use are being implanted in primary total hip arthroplasty. Design Systematic review of the literature. Data sources The 9th annual report of the National Joint Registry of England and Wales (NJR) was analysed to identify prostheses with an Orthopaedic Data Evaluation Panel rating of “unclassified” or “pre-entry” used in primary total hip arthroplasty in 2011. A systematic review of those prostheses was carried out using PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, OVID, and Google databases. Study selection Prostheses used in primary total hip arthroplasty as published in the NJR’s 9th annual report were analysed. Only literature that included the name of the prosthesis was included. Literature yielded in the search results was excluded if it reported animal, non-orthopaedic, non-total hip arthroplasty, or non-device related studies. Results The systematic review found that 24% (57/235) of all hip replacement implants available to surgeons in the UK have no evidence for their clinical effectiveness. It also shows that 10 617 (7.8%) of the 136 593 components used in primary hip replacements in 2011 were implanted without readily identifiable evidence of clinical effectiveness. These comprised 157 cemented stems (0.5% of 34 655 implanted), 936 (2.8% of 33 367) uncemented stems, 1732 (7.1% of 24 349) cemented cups, and 7577 (17.1% of 44 222) uncemented cups. Conclusions This study shows that a considerable proportion of prostheses available to orthopaedic surgeons have no readily available evidence of clinical effectiveness to support their use. Concern exists about the current system of device regulation, and the need for a revised process for introducing new orthopaedic devices is highlighted. PMID:24355538

  3. Simulation Modelling in Healthcare: An Umbrella Review of Systematic Literature Reviews.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Syed; Thokala, Praveen; Brennan, Alan; Hughes, Ruby; Booth, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Numerous studies examine simulation modelling in healthcare. These studies present a bewildering array of simulation techniques and applications, making it challenging to characterise the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the level of activity of simulation modelling in healthcare and the key themes. We performed an umbrella review of systematic literature reviews of simulation modelling in healthcare. Searches were conducted of academic databases (JSTOR, Scopus, PubMed, IEEE, SAGE, ACM, Wiley Online Library, ScienceDirect) and grey literature sources, enhanced by citation searches. The articles were included if they performed a systematic review of simulation modelling techniques in healthcare. After quality assessment of all included articles, data were extracted on numbers of studies included in each review, types of applications, techniques used for simulation modelling, data sources and simulation software. The search strategy yielded a total of 117 potential articles. Following sifting, 37 heterogeneous reviews were included. Most reviews achieved moderate quality rating on a modified AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool used to Assess systematic Reviews) checklist. All the review articles described the types of applications used for simulation modelling; 15 reviews described techniques used for simulation modelling; three reviews described data sources used for simulation modelling; and six reviews described software used for simulation modelling. The remaining reviews either did not report or did not provide enough detail for the data to be extracted. Simulation modelling techniques have been used for a wide range of applications in healthcare, with a variety of software tools and data sources. The number of reviews published in recent years suggest an increased interest in simulation modelling in healthcare.

  4. Systematic assessment of the representativeness of published collections of the traditional literature on Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Yubo; Lu, Chuanjian; Zhang, Anthony L; Chang, Suyueh; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-05-01

    The traditional Chinese medical literature provides a substantial resource for natural products research. When undertaking systematic searches, investigators need to assess the scope, content, and relevance of collections both singly and in comparison. This study examines eight collections of pre-modern literature, develops an approach to quantitatively assess their content, and compares their relative inclusivity. All publications listed in each collection were collated and a uniform scoring system was developed to account for variant editions, incorporation of multiple books under a single title, addition of commentaries, and other factors affecting content. Comparisons were undertaken between collections to determine the degree of overlap, genres of literature represented, and relevance to natural products research. Following adjustments for differences in how books were listed, duplications, and variant editions, Zhong Hua Yi Dian (Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine) (4th edition CD) is the largest collection of complete books containing 1009 different books. Zhong Guo Ben Cao Quan Shu (The Complete Collection of Traditional Texts on Chinese Materia Medica) contains 2026 titles including multiple editions and extracts, so after adjustments the number of different complete books is approximately 740. No collection was fully inclusive of the others, but Zhong Hua Yi Dian includes between 52.1% and 91.5% of the books in the six smaller collections. Comparing traditional collections is complex due to variant editions and multiple titles. This necessitates examination of the text rather than title alone. Prior to undertaking systematic searches, the characteristics of collections need to be investigated, duplicated books identified, and differences between editions should be assessed. Its size, electronic format, and broad spread of genres makes Zhong Hua Yi Dian suitable for systematic searches, but due to the lack of bibliographical detail on included

  5. Impact of Peer Nutrition Education on Dietary Behaviors and Health Outcomes among Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Vega-Lopez, Sonia; Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Segura-Perez, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review assesses the impact of peer education/counseling on nutrition and health outcomes among Latinos and identifies future research needs. Design: A systematic literature search was conducted by: (1) searching Internet databases; (2) conducting backward searches from reference lists of articles of interest; (3)…

  6. Systematic Literature Review of Randomized Control Trials Assessing the Effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wong, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition interventions may play an important role in maintaining the health and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. To the authors' knowledge, no systematic literature review has been conducted on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in the community-dwelling older adult population. Design: Systematic literature…

  7. Systematic Literature Review of Randomized Control Trials Assessing the Effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wong, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition interventions may play an important role in maintaining the health and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. To the authors' knowledge, no systematic literature review has been conducted on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in the community-dwelling older adult population. Design: Systematic literature…

  8. Impact of Peer Nutrition Education on Dietary Behaviors and Health Outcomes among Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Vega-Lopez, Sonia; Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Segura-Perez, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review assesses the impact of peer education/counseling on nutrition and health outcomes among Latinos and identifies future research needs. Design: A systematic literature search was conducted by: (1) searching Internet databases; (2) conducting backward searches from reference lists of articles of interest; (3)…

  9. Patient disclosure of medical errors in paediatrics: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Koller, Donna; Rummens, Anneke; Le Pouesard, Morgane; Espin, Sherry; Friedman, Jeremy; Coffey, Maitreya; Kenneally, Noah

    2016-05-01

    Medical errors are common within paediatrics; however, little research has examined the process of disclosing medical errors in paediatric settings. The present systematic review of current research and policy initiatives examined evidence regarding the disclosure of medical errors involving paediatric patients. Peer-reviewed research from a range of scientific journals from the past 10 years is presented, and an overview of Canadian and international policies regarding disclosure in paediatric settings are provided. The purpose of the present review was to scope the existing literature and policy, and to synthesize findings into an integrated and accessible report. Future research priorities and policy implications are then identified.

  10. Impact of mobile apps to combat obesity in children and adolescents: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Quelly, Susan B; Norris, Anne E; DiPietro, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the impact of mobile app technology on obesity-related anthropometric, psychosocial, and behavioral outcomes in children and adolescents. Nine research articles retrieved from a systematic review of the literature met criteria. Evidence is limited and mixed, but argues for an impact of mobile app use on motivation and goal-setting behavior, and supports further study of the impact on childhood obesity-related outcomes such as attitudes, perceptions, physical activity, and dietary habits. Nurses can use this evidence to discuss potential benefits of health promotion mobile apps with parents, children, and adolescents to combat childhood obesity. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Patient disclosure of medical errors in paediatrics: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Donna; Rummens, Anneke; Le Pouesard, Morgane; Espin, Sherry; Friedman, Jeremy; Coffey, Maitreya; Kenneally, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Medical errors are common within paediatrics; however, little research has examined the process of disclosing medical errors in paediatric settings. The present systematic review of current research and policy initiatives examined evidence regarding the disclosure of medical errors involving paediatric patients. Peer-reviewed research from a range of scientific journals from the past 10 years is presented, and an overview of Canadian and international policies regarding disclosure in paediatric settings are provided. The purpose of the present review was to scope the existing literature and policy, and to synthesize findings into an integrated and accessible report. Future research priorities and policy implications are then identified. PMID:27429578

  12. Public stigma of mental illness in the United States: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Parcesepe, Angela M; Cabassa, Leopoldo J

    2013-09-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public's stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public's stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public's stigma of mental illness.

  13. The management of greater trochanteric pain syndrome: A systematic literature review☆

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a common cause of lateral hip pain. Most cases respond to conservative treatments with a few refractory cases requiring surgical intervention. For many years, this condition was believed to be caused by trochanteric bursitis, with treatments targeting the bursitis. More recently gluteal tendinopathy/tears have been proposed as potential causes. Treatments are consequently developing to target these proposed pathologies. At present there is no defined treatment protocol for GTPS. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to evaluate the current evidence for the effectiveness of GTPS interventions, both conservative and surgical. PMID:26955229

  14. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) are less physically active than the general population. One important barrier contributing to this inactivity is lack of motivation. The aim of this paper is to systematically review all cross-sectional literature on motivation for physical activity among people with SMI and to use the results as basis for guidance on how mental health nurses can facilitate motivation for physical activity. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they included participants with SMI and reported data on motivation for physical activity. In total, 21 articles were included and over half them were published in 2011 or later. The present results indicate preliminary evidence of how the motivational processes do not differ between individuals with SMI and the general population, and that they are independent of diagnosis, medication, age, gender, and body mass index. Results from the current systematic review can give some tentative guidance on how to facilitate motivation for physical activity within mental health-care. However, there is still a great need for developing and examining practical strategies that can enhance adoption and adherence of physical activity among people with SMI. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. Migraine headache and bipolar disorder comorbidity: A systematic review of the literature and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Leo, Raphael J; Singh, Joshna

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric disorders, e.g., depression, are often comorbid with, and can complicate the treatment of, patients with migraine headache. Although empirical work has increasingly focused on the association between migraine and bipolar disorder, this topic has received little attention in the pain literature. Bipolar disorder is a chronic and recurrent mood disorder characterized by cyclic occurrence of elevated (i.e., manic or hypomanic) and depressed mood states. Bipolar I disorder is diagnosed when patients present with at least one abnormally and persistently elevated manic episode; bipolar II disorder is characterized by the presence of hypomanic episodes. Bipolar disorder warrants attention as depressive phases of the disorder can prevail and are often misconstrued by the unwary clinician as unipolar depression. However, treatment for bipolar disorder is distinct from that of unipolar depression and use of antidepressants, which are often invoked in migraine prophylaxis as well as the treatment of depression, may precipitate significant mood changes among bipolar disorder patients. A systematic review of the literature addressing the co-occurrence of bipolar disorder and migraine was conducted. The treatment of dually affected patients is also discussed. In order to review the literature to date on migraine and bipolar disorder co-occurrence, a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and CINAHL for clinic-based and epidemiological studies was conducted using terms related to migraine and bipolar disorder. Studies were selected for review if they included subjects meeting validated diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder as well as migraine headache and if a quantitative description of prevalence rates of comorbid bipolar disorder and migraine were reported. Weighted means of the prevalence rates were calculated to compare with general epidemiological prevalence trends for migraine and bipolar disorder, respectively. Eleven

  16. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Terrorist Attacks.

    PubMed

    Paz García-Vera, María; Sanz, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Sara

    2016-08-01

    This article was aimed at systematically reviewing the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of terrorist attacks. Electronic and hand searches of the literature identified 35 studies addressing PTSD prevalence based on validated diagnostic interviews. Overall, in the year after terrorist attacks, 33% to 39% of direct victims developed PTSD, whereas the percentage of indirect victims with PTSD was lower (4% in the affected community, 5%-6% among emergency, rescue, and recovery workers, and 17%-29% among relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims), but nonetheless above the prevalence in the general population. With the passing of time, a significant reduction of PTSD can be expected in the affected community and in the emergency and rescue personnel, but not in the injured victims, in the relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims, and in nontraditional, more vulnerable disaster workers. The implications of these results for the psychological treatment of terrorism victims are discussed.

  17. What are Asian-American youth consuming? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Diep, Cassandra S; Foster, Margaret J; McKyer, E Lisako J; Goodson, Patricia; Guidry, Jeffrey J; Liew, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Numerous studies have explored dietary practices among children, but there are limited studies on children of Asian background in the US. This review had three aims: (a) review literature regarding Asian-American youth's dietary behaviors, (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of such research, and (c) provide recommendations for future nutrition-related research on Asian-American youth. The authors conducted a systematic literature review through MEDLINE (EBSCO), CINAHL Plus with Full Text (EBSCO), and Embase (Ovid); extracted descriptive data; and evaluated methodological quality. Thirteen articles were included. Major findings included: (a) frequent consumption of milk, fruit, meat, unenriched white rice, vegetables, and high-fat and high-sugar items among Asian-American children and (b) acculturation's influences on diet, resulting in Asian-American youth consuming diets characterized by both Asian and American foods. Findings from this review may inform education and promotion programs and services for Asian Americans in the US.

  18. Effects of aging on Type II muscle fibers: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Florian; Schmid, Annina; Sheikhzadeh, Ali; Nordin, Margareta; Yoon, Jangwhon; Frankel, Victor

    2007-07-01

    The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature for scientific articles in selected databases to determine the effects of aging on Type II muscle fibers in human skeletal muscles. They found that aging of Type II muscle fibers is primarily associated with a loss of fibers and a decrease in fiber size. Morphological changes with increasing age particularly included Type II fiber grouping. There is conflicting evidence regarding the change of proportion of Type II fibers. Type II muscle fibers seem to play an important role in the aging process of human skeletal muscles. According to this literature review, loss of fibers, decrease in size, and fiber-type grouping represent major quantitative changes. Because the process of aging involves various complex phenomena such as fiber-type coexpression, however, it seems difficult to assign those changes solely to a specific fiber type.

  19. Major depressive disorder in Africa and the Middle East: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Travers, Karin U; Pokora, Tiffany D; Cadarette, Sarah M; Mould, Joaquin F

    2013-10-01

    With major depressive disorder (MDD) associated with significant clinical, economic and health-related quality of life impact, we sought to systematically review and synthesize information relevant to the burden of MDD in Africa and the Middle East, from which published evidence is slim. Our literature search identified 54 publications assessing epidemiological (43), humanistic (5), clinical/treatment (7) or economic outcomes (2). General population MDD prevalence and that among chronic disease populations were similar in Africa and the Middle East. No MDD-related economic literature specific to Africa or the Middle East was identified. Five studies of humanistic outcomes were identified; four African studies documented significant reduction of health-related quality of life related to MDD. The frequency of certain risk factors for MDD, such as disease, trauma and associated stress, as well as patterns of MDD treatment, suggest the potential for a higher burden of disease in Africa and the Middle East than in western countries.

  20. Ethnic Density Effects on Physical Morbidity, Mortality, and Health Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Richard; Nazroo, James; Stafford, Mai; Albor, Christo; Atkin, Karl; Kiernan, Kathleen; Wilkinson, Richard; Pickett, Kate

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that people in racial/ethnic minority groups are healthier when they live in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. Ethnic density effects are still contested, and the pathways by which ethnic density operates are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature examining the ethnic density effect on physical health, mortality, and health behaviors. Most studies report a null association between ethnic density and health. Protective ethnic density effects are more common than adverse associations, particularly for health behaviors and among Hispanic people. Limitations of the literature include inadequate adjustment for area deprivation and limited statistical power across ethnic density measures and study samples. PMID:23078507

  1. Psychosocial Determinants of Health among Incarcerated Black Women: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Carlos; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'

    2016-01-01

    Black women are disproportionately incarcerated and experience greater health outcomes compared to White and Hispanic women. This systematic literature review aims to identify the major psychosocial determinants of health and service utilization among incarcerated Black women. The ecological model for health behavior was used to frame the literature presented and explain how individual, interpersonal, and societal level factors impact health. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria for this review. Psychosocial factors were identified at each level such as: mental health problems (individual); sexual behavior (interpersonal); and dysfunctional/negative relationships (community). The factors form a dynamic relationship that influences the health and service utilization of Black women and do not exist independently. Future research should examine within-group differences to highlight the unique needs and culture within the Black community in the context of psychosocial determinants. This synthesis of relevant studies can serve to inform change in correctional policies, practices, and reduce health disparities. PMID:27133512

  2. A Systematic Review of the Literature on the Sustainability of Community Health Collaboratives.

    PubMed

    Hearld, Larry R; Bleser, William K; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Wolf, Laura J

    2016-04-01

    Recent interest in community health collaboratives has been driven by the potential of these types of organizations to solve complex health problems at the local level by bringing together stakeholders that have traditionally operated independently, and often at cross-purposes. Much of the work that is central to the mission of collaboratives can take years to reach fruition, however, and there are a number of challenges to sustaining their activities. In this article, we systematically reviewed the theoretical and empirical literature on health care collaborative sustainability, focusing on definitions and antecedents of sustainability. Given the diversity and fragmentation of this literature, we used this review as a foundation to develop a synthesized definition, conceptual groups of antecedents, and potential research propositions to help guide future research, planning, and practice of sustainable community health collaboratives.

  3. Co-victims of Homicide: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Jennifer; Gordon, Ronit

    2015-10-01

    This systematic literature review examines the effects of homicide on surviving family members, the "co-victims" or "survivors" of homicide. A content analysis was conducted on 40 articles identified through a search of the literature. The research samples were predominately located in the United States, but included two U.K. samples, one Jamaican sample, and one sample from Israel. All articles were written in English. Three themes were identified. Nineteen articles explored the psychological, academic, social, occupational, and familial effects of homicide. Thirteen articles considered survivors' grieving process and how it was altered by experiences with the criminal justice system as well as coping strategies used by survivors to deal with their grief. Eight articles explored treatment interventions available to help surviving family members deal with their grief. Key findings from the articles, limitations of the current research, and implications for future research, policy, and practice are included.

  4. Pharmacotherapy for inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia: a systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Banu; Wilkins, Kirsten; Muralee, Sunanda; Tampi, Rajesh R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to systematically review the published literature on pharmacotherapy for inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia. Literature search of the 5 databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and COCHRANE collaboration) and the analysis of the data available for the pharmacotherapeutic treatments of inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia were carried out. There are no published randomized controlled trials of pharmacotherapy for inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia, but available data form uncontrolled trials, case series, and individual case reports suggest efficacy for antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, hormonal agents, cimetidine, and pindolol for the treatment of these behaviors. Although there are no controlled data for the treatment of inappropriate sexual behaviors in dementia, available data suggest efficacy for some commonly used pharmacotherapeutic agents.

  5. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) for the control of dengue vectors: systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Boyce, R; Lenhart, A; Kroeger, A; Velayudhan, R; Roberts, B; Horstick, O

    2013-05-01

    To systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), when used as a single agent in the field, for the control of dengue vectors. Systematic literature search of the published and grey literature was carried out using the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, WHOLIS, ELDIS, the New York Academy of Medicine Gray Literature Report, Africa-Wide and Google. All results were screened for duplicates and assessed for eligibility. Relevant data were extracted, and a quality assessment was conducted using the CONSORT 2010 checklist. Fourteen studies satisfied the eligibility criteria, incorporating a wide range of interventions and outcome measures. Six studies were classified as effectiveness studies, and the remaining eight examined the efficacy of Bti in more controlled settings. Twelve (all eight efficacy studies and 4 of 6 effectiveness studies) reported reductions in entomological indices with an average duration of control of 2-4 weeks. The two effectiveness studies that did not report significant entomological reductions were both cluster-randomised study designs that utilised basic interventions such as environmental management or general education on environment control practices in their respective control groups. Only one study described a reduction in entomological indices together with epidemiological data, reporting one dengue case in the treated area compared to 15 dengue cases in the untreated area during the observed study period. While Bti can be effective in reducing the number of immature Aedes in treated containers in the short term, there is very limited evidence that dengue morbidity can be reduced through the use of Bti alone. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend the use of Bti as a single agent for the long-term control of dengue vectors and prevention of dengue fever. Further studies examining the role of Bti in combination

  6. Conceptualization and Assessment of Hypersexual Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Montgomery-Graham, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Despite the rejection of hypersexual disorder (HD) as a new diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), clinical and research interest in HD continues. To systematically review the existing scientific literature on the conceptualization and assessment of HD and out-of-control sexual behavior. Studies were identified from PsychInfo, PubMed, JSTOR, Google Scholar, and Scholar's Portal using an exhaustive list of key terms. Of 299 total articles identified and screened, 252 were excluded, and 47 are included in this review. To review two categories of articles: HD conceptualization and HD psychometric assessment. First, results of the review of theoretical conceptualizations of HD reflected a large proportion of the peer-reviewed literature devoted to discussing conceptualizations of HD without reaching consensus. Second, results of the review of HD psychometric assessments were analyzed using Hunsley and Mash's (2008) criteria to evaluate psychometric adequacy of evidence-based assessment measurements. The six most researched measurements of HD were evaluated, including the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory, the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, the Sexual Compulsivity Scale, the Sexual Addiction Screening Test, the Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised, and the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory. Psychometric properties of the scales are reviewed, evaluated, and discussed. The Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory, the measurement proposed for the clinical screening of HD by the DSM-5 workgroup, currently has the strongest psychometric support. Future research and clinical directions are discussed in light of findings after the literature review and synthesis. Montgomery-Graham S. Conceptualization and Assessment of Hypersexual Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Sex Med Rev 2017;5:146-162. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Disaster-Driven Evacuation and Medication Loss: a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Sae; Hodgson, Susan; Landeg, Owen; Mayner, Lidia; Murray, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify the extent and implications of medication loss and the burden of prescription refill on medical relief teams following extreme weather events and other natural hazards. METHOD: The search strategy followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Key health journal databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC)) were searched via the OvidSP search engine. Search terms were identified by consulting MeSH terms. The inclusion criteria comprised articles published from January 2003 to August 2013, written in English and containing an abstract. The exclusion criteria included abstracts for conferences or dissertations, book chapters and articles written in a language other than English. A total of 70 articles which fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review. RESULTS: All relevant information was collated regarding medication loss, prescription loss and refills, and medical aids loss which indicated a significant burden on the medical relief teams. Data also showed the difficulty in filling prescriptions due to lack of information from the evacuees. People with chronic conditions are most at risk when their medication is not available. This systematic review also showed that medical aids such as eye glasses, hearing aids as well as dental treatment are a high necessity among evacuees. DISCUSSION: This systematic review revealed that a considerable number of patients lose their medication during evacuation, many lose essential medical aids such as insulin pens and many do not bring prescriptions with them when evacuated.. Since medication loss is partly a responsibility of evacuees, understanding the impact of medication loss may lead to raising awareness and better preparations among the patients and health care professionals. People who are not prepared could have

  8. Disaster-driven evacuation and medication loss: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Sae; Hodgson, Susan; Landeg, Owen; Mayner, Lidia; Murray, Virginia

    2014-07-18

    The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify the extent and implications of medication loss and the burden of prescription refill on medical relief teams following extreme weather events and other natural hazards. The search strategy followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Key health journal databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC)) were searched via the OvidSP search engine. Search terms were identified by consulting MeSH terms. The inclusion criteria comprised articles published from January 2003 to August 2013, written in English and containing an abstract. The exclusion criteria included abstracts for conferences or dissertations, book chapters and articles written in a language other than English. A total of 70 articles which fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review. All relevant information was collated regarding medication loss, prescription loss and refills, and medical aids loss which indicated a significant burden on the medical relief teams. Data also showed the difficulty in filling prescriptions due to lack of information from the evacuees. People with chronic conditions are most at risk when their medication is not available. This systematic review also showed that medical aids such as eye glasses, hearing aids as well as dental treatment are a high necessity among evacuees. This systematic review revealed that a considerable number of patients lose their medication during evacuation, many lose essential medical aids such as insulin pens and many do not bring prescriptions with them when evacuated.. Since medication loss is partly a responsibility of evacuees, understanding the impact of medication loss may lead to raising awareness and better preparations among the patients and health care professionals. People who are not prepared could have worse outcomes and many risk dying

  9. Grey Literature Searching for Health Sciences Systematic Reviews: A Prospective Study of Time Spent and Resources Utilized.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ahlam A; Ratajeski, Melissa A; Bertolet, Marnie

    To identify estimates of time taken to search grey literature in support of health sciences systematic reviews and to identify searcher or systematic review characteristics that may impact resource selection or time spent searching. A survey was electronically distributed to searchers embarking on a new systematic review. Characteristics of the searcher and systematic review were collected along with time spent searching and what resources were searched. Time and resources were tabulated and resources were categorized as grey or non-grey. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Out of 81 original respondents, 21% followed through with completion of the surveys in their entirety. The median time spent searching all resources was 471 minutes, and of those a median of 85 minutes were spent searching grey literature. The median number of resources used in a systematic review search was four and the median number of grey literature sources searched was two. The amount of time spent searching was influenced by whether the systematic review was grant funded. Additionally, the number of resources searched was impacted by institution type and whether systematic review training was received. This study characterized the amount of time for conducting systematic review searches including searching the grey literature, in addition to the number and types of resources used. This may aid searchers in planning their time, along with providing benchmark information for future studies. This paper contributes by quantifying current grey literature search patterns and associating them with searcher and review characteristics. Further discussion and research into the search approach for grey literature in support of systematic reviews is encouraged.

  10. Grey Literature Searching for Health Sciences Systematic Reviews: A Prospective Study of Time Spent and Resources Utilized

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Ahlam A.; Ratajeski, Melissa A.; Bertolet, Marnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify estimates of time taken to search grey literature in support of health sciences systematic reviews and to identify searcher or systematic review characteristics that may impact resource selection or time spent searching. Methods A survey was electronically distributed to searchers embarking on a new systematic review. Characteristics of the searcher and systematic review were collected along with time spent searching and what resources were searched. Time and resources were tabulated and resources were categorized as grey or non-grey. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Out of 81 original respondents, 21% followed through with completion of the surveys in their entirety. The median time spent searching all resources was 471 minutes, and of those a median of 85 minutes were spent searching grey literature. The median number of resources used in a systematic review search was four and the median number of grey literature sources searched was two. The amount of time spent searching was influenced by whether the systematic review was grant funded. Additionally, the number of resources searched was impacted by institution type and whether systematic review training was received. Conclusions This study characterized the amount of time for conducting systematic review searches including searching the grey literature, in addition to the number and types of resources used. This may aid searchers in planning their time, along with providing benchmark information for future studies. This paper contributes by quantifying current grey literature search patterns and associating them with searcher and review characteristics. Further discussion and research into the search approach for grey literature in support of systematic reviews is encouraged. PMID:25914722

  11. Sexuality in institutionalized elderly persons: a systematic review of argument-based ethics literature.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, Lieslot; Gastmans, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Admission to a nursing home might challenge the way in which individuals experience their own sexuality, but it does not automatically diminish their need and desire for sexual fulfillment. Despite the fact that sexuality proves to be an intrinsic part of human existence, the sexual expression of geriatric residents remains a sensitive subject for many caregivers and family members. It evokes a variety of ethical issues and concerns, especially when dementia patients are involved. The overall objective of this review was to examine the ethical arguments and concepts about the debate on sexuality within a nursing home environment. We conducted a systematic search for argument-based ethics literature focusing on sexuality in institutionalized elderly people. Twenty-five appropriate studies were identified. A thematic analysis of the included literature led us to distinguish two major groups of ethical arguments: (i) principles and (ii) care. Ethics arguments on sexuality in institutionalized elderly are particularly guided by the principle of respect for autonomy and the concomitant notion of informed consent. Arguments related to care were also apparent within the research literature although they received considerably less attention than the arguments related to the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice. The lack of clarity in the conceptualization of the arguments referred to in the research literature indicates that there is a pressing need for a better defined, more fundamental philosophical-ethical analysis of the values at stake.

  12. Smell and taste in palliative care: a systematic analysis of literature.

    PubMed

    Heckel, Maria; Stiel, Stephanie; Ostgathe, Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Little is known on the role of the senses smell and taste in end-of-life care. The presented systematic literature analysis investigates the significance of smell and taste in palliative care. The online databases PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Deutsche Nationalbibliothek and British National Library were searched for English and German literature published between 1970 and April 2013 containing any kind of original data on the impact of smell and taste in patients in a palliative care situation. All retrieved publications were screened for relevance and full text was obtained for all articles identified as relevant. We integrated 13 papers for further analysis (explorative surveys 5, clinical trials 3, case studies 2, qualitative study 1, brief report 1, clinical report 1). Prevalence of smell and taste alterations in palliative care ranges between 60 and 86%. Existing literature reflects the significance of smells and tastes in palliative care setting in two main streams--smell and taste alterations as symptoms and malodorous wounds. Prevalence of smell and taste alterations in palliative care is high. However, in palliative care literature concepts for the assessment and fostering of subjective significance of smell and taste and the individual impact of significant smells and tastes are predominantly neglected. Available instruments should be characterized, validated and adapted for the use for palliative care patients.

  13. Transformation in the pharmaceutical industry--a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Nader; Ford, James L; Morecroft, Charles W; Lisboa, Paulo J; Taylor, Mark J; Mouzughi, Yusra

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary development of pharmaceutical transformation was studied through systematic review of the literature. Fourteen triggers were identified that will affect the pharmaceutical business, regulatory science, and enabling technologies in future years. The relative importance ranking of the transformation triggers was computed based on their prevalence within the articles studied. The four main triggers with the strongest literature evidence were Fully Integrated Pharma Network, Personalized Medicine, Translational Research, and Pervasive Computing. The theoretical quality risks for each of the four main transformation triggers are examined, and the remaining ten triggers are described. The pharmaceutical industry is currently going through changes that affect the way it performs its research, manufacturing, and regulatory activities (this is termed pharmaceutical transformation). The impact of these changes on the approaches to quality risk management requires more understanding. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the academic, regulatory, and industry literature were used to identify 14 triggers that influence pharmaceutical transformation. The four main triggers, namely Fully Integrated Pharma Network, Personalized Medicine, Translational Research, and Pervasive Computing, were selected as the most important based on the strength of the evidence found during the literature review activity described in this paper. Theoretical quality risks for each of the four main transformation triggers are examined, and the remaining ten triggers are described.

  14. The diagnostic credibility of second impact syndrome: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Olivia; Schlueter, Kaitlyn; Hornsby, Meg; Van Gorder, Samantha; Snodgrass, Suzanne; Cook, Chad

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine current literature to determine whether or not enough evidence exists to support a World Health Organization (WHO) recognized ICD-10 case definition for Second Impact Syndrome (SIS). Systematic literature review. A sensitive search strategy was developed in order to include all relevant literature. Data were extracted and placed into a diagnostic framework constructed based upon previously accepted ICD-10 diagnoses. The quality of included studies was assessed using a checklist developed specifically for case reports. The literature search yielded 338 articles. After duplicates were removed, the remaining 222 articles were screened. Seventy-five articles were assessed for full-text eligibility, which resulted in eight case studies appropriate for this review. Significant information regarding imaging and confirmed signs and symptoms is mixed or absent. Information exists to support possible at-risk populations, signs and symptoms. At present, there lacks a unique presentation scheme of SIS to support a standardized WHO case definition. Furthermore, future studies are needed to better understand and define at risk populations, diagnostic signs and symptoms, and the multisystem consequences of Second Impact Syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aspirin desensitization for aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (Samter's Triad): a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jason J; Sowerby, Leigh; Rotenberg, Brian W

    2013-11-01

    To critically review the current literature regarding aspirin desensitization treatment for nasal polyposis in patients with Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease (AERD). Systematic review of the literature. All English literature published between January 1995 and February 2013 reporting specifically nasal outcomes following aspirin desensitization in AERD patients were eligible for inclusion. Exclusion criteria were non-investigative, non-human, and ex-vivo studies. Studies were categorized by level of evidence and evaluated for quality using the Downs and Black scale. A total of 614 citations were retrieved and eleven studies met the criteria for analysis. Outcome measurements included self-reported symptom scores, amount of corticosteroid use, rate of revision surgery, and quantitative measurements such as rhinomanometry. Overall, most studies reported a significant improvement in symptom scores, decrease in corticosteroid use, and decrease in revision surgery. A few studies showed promising results with quantitative outcomes. However, most studies were of Level 2 evidence with small samples sizes. Rates of adverse events ranged from 12.5% to 23%. Unlike traditional treatments for nasal polyposis, aspirin desensitization targets AERD etiology rather than phenotype and can be an effective therapeutic option. While the current literature shows encouraging results, additional studies are needed to better define clinical benefits. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  16. Studies on forensic nursing in Brazil: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pereira de Paiva, M H; Pinheiro Lages, L; Cavalcanti de Medeiros, Z

    2017-06-01

    To identify and synthesize the national and international literature on forensic nursing in Brazil. Forensic nursing is a new specialty to the nursing practice in Brazil, being recognized by the Federal Nursing Council of Brazil in 2011. In 2016, the first forensic nursing specialization programme was authorized in the country. The implementation of forensic nursing specialty in Brazil marks new possibilities for the nursing practice, making it possible for nurses to develop additional skills to intervene in various situations under the Brazilian Unified Healthcare System. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the keyword 'Forensic nursing' in combination with 'Brazil'. LILACS, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched. Studies were also retrieved from the grey literature. Once literature had been identified, a thematic analysis was undertaken in order to extract themes, which were: establishment of the forensic nursing specialty and its contributions to Brazil and its practical implications. Eight manuscripts and 20 studies from the grey literature were included in the final review. Most studies (54%) were literature reviews that indicated forensic nursing as an emerging specialty in Brazil, addressing educational, instructional, communicative or contextual aspects of the specialty in the country. In the nursing profession in Brazil, few studies exist on forensic nursing and those are limited to short communications. Although most studies address the definition of forensic nursing, others present its implications in various situations such as intimate partner violence, domestic violence, sexual abuse and elder mistreatment. Despite the study limitations, it provides evidence that forensic nursing has been silently implemented in the country with the need for more evidence-based studies to support its constitution as a specialty in Brazil. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  17. Work reintegration for veterans with mental disorders: a systematic literature review to inform research.

    PubMed

    Van Til, Linda; Fikretoglu, Deniz; Pranger, Tina; Patten, Scott; Wang, Jianli; Wong, May; Zamorski, Mark; Loisel, Patrick; Corbiére, Marc; Shields, Norman; Thompson, Jim; Pedlar, David

    2013-09-01

    Some veterans, and especially those with mental disorders, have difficulty reintegrating into the civilian workforce. The objectives of this study were to describe the scope of the existing literature on mental disorders and unemployment and to identify factors potentially associated with reintegration of workers with mental disorders into the workforce. The following databases were searched from their respective inception dates: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index Nursing Allied Health (CINAHL), and PsycINFO. In-scope studies had quantitative measures of employment and study populations with well-described mental disorders (eg, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance-use disorders). A systematic and comprehensive search of the relevant published literature up to July 2009 was conducted that identified a total of 5,195 articles. From that list, 81 in-scope studies were identified. An update to July 2012 identified 1,267 new articles, resulting in an additional 16 in-scope articles. Three major categories emerged from the in-scope articles: return to work, supported employment, and reintegration. The literature on return to work and supported employment is well summarized by existing reviews. The reintegration literature included 32 in-scope articles; only 10 of these were conducted in populations of veterans. Studies of reintegration to work were not similar enough to synthesize, and it was inappropriate to pool results for this category of literature. Comprehensive literature review found limited knowledge about how to integrate people with mental disorders into a new workplace after a prolonged absence (>1 year). Even more limited knowledge was found for veterans. The results informed the next steps for our research team to enhance successful reintegration of veterans with mental disorders into the civilian workplace.

  18. Work Reintegration for Veterans With Mental Disorders: A Systematic Literature Review to Inform Research

    PubMed Central

    Fikretoglu, Deniz; Pranger, Tina; Patten, Scott; Wang, JianLi; Wong, May; Zamorski, Mark; Loisel, Patrick; Corbiére, Marc; Shields, Norman; Thompson, Jim; Pedlar, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Some veterans, and especially those with mental disorders, have difficulty reintegrating into the civilian workforce. Purpose The objectives of this study were to describe the scope of the existing literature on mental disorders and unemployment and to identify factors potentially associated with reintegration of workers with mental disorders into the workforce. Data Sources The following databases were searched from their respective inception dates: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index Nursing Allied Health (CINAHL), and PsycINFO. Study Selection In-scope studies had quantitative measures of employment and study populations with well-described mental disorders (eg, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance-use disorders). Data Extraction A systematic and comprehensive search of the relevant published literature up to July 2009 was conducted that identified a total of 5,195 articles. From that list, 81 in-scope studies were identified. An update to July 2012 identified 1,267 new articles, resulting in an additional 16 in-scope articles. Data Synthesis Three major categories emerged from the in-scope articles: return to work, supported employment, and reintegration. The literature on return to work and supported employment is well summarized by existing reviews. The reintegration literature included 32 in-scope articles; only 10 of these were conducted in populations of veterans. Limitations Studies of reintegration to work were not similar enough to synthesize, and it was inappropriate to pool results for this category of literature. Conclusions Comprehensive literature review found limited knowledge about how to integrate people with mental disorders into a new workplace after a prolonged absence (>1 year). Even more limited knowledge was found for veterans. The results informed the next steps for our research team to enhance successful reintegration of veterans with mental disorders into the civilian workplace. PMID:23043148

  19. Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Haycraft, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In addition, some transgender people who engage in sport, both competitively and for leisure, report discrimination and victimisation. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to sport participation or competitive sport policies in transgender people. Therefore, this review aimed to address this gap in the literature. Eight research articles and 31 sport policies were reviewed. In relation to sport-related physical activity, this review found the lack of inclusive and comfortable environments to be the primary barrier to participation for transgender people. This review also found transgender people had a mostly negative experience in competitive sports because of the restrictions the sport's policy placed on them. The majority of transgender competitive sport policies that were reviewed were not evidence based. Currently, there is no direct or consistent research suggesting transgender female individuals (or male individuals) have an athletic advantage at any stage of their transition (e.g. cross-sex hormones, gender-confirming surgery) and, therefore, competitive sport policies that place restrictions on transgender people need to be considered and potentially revised.

  20. The Influence of Context on Quality Improvement Success in Health Care: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Heather C; Brady, Patrick W; Dritz, Michele C; Hooper, David K; Linam, W Matthew; Froehle, Craig M; Margolis, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Context: The mixed results of success among QI initiatives may be due to differences in the context of these initiatives. Methods: The business and health care literature was systematically reviewed to identify contextual factors that might influence QI success; to categorize, summarize, and synthesize these factors; and to understand the current stage of development of this research field. Findings: Forty-seven articles were included in the final review. Consistent with current theories of implementation and organization change, leadership from top management, organizational culture, data infrastructure and information systems, and years involved in QI were suggested as important to QI success. Other potentially important factors identified in this review included: physician involvement in QI, microsystem motivation to change, resources for QI, and QI team leadership. Key limitations in the existing literature were the lack of a practical conceptual model, the lack of clear definitions of contextual factors, and the lack of well-specified measures. Conclusions: Several contextual factors were shown to be important to QI success, although the current body of literature lacks adequate definitions and is characterized by considerable variability in how contextual factors are measured across studies. Future research should focus on identifying and developing measures of context tied to a conceptual model that examines context across all levels of the health care system and explores the relationships among various aspects of context. PMID:21166868

  1. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. Methods A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Conclusion Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are

  2. Examining the Effects of Preschool Writing Instruction on Emergent Literacy Skills: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Anna H.; Simpson, Amber; Guo, Ying; Wang, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of the literature involving writing interventions in the preschool setting. The information presented is timely considering the current expectations for young children to write. Framing the empirical literature within different philosophical approaches, trends were analyzed to identify…

  3. Examining the Effects of Preschool Writing Instruction on Emergent Literacy Skills: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Anna H.; Simpson, Amber; Guo, Ying; Wang, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of the literature involving writing interventions in the preschool setting. The information presented is timely considering the current expectations for young children to write. Framing the empirical literature within different philosophical approaches, trends were analyzed to identify…

  4. Emerging Evidence on the Use of Big Data and Analytics in Workplace Learning: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacumo, Lisa A.; Breman, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a systematic literature review about nonprofit and for-profit organizations using "big data" to inform performance improvement initiatives. The review of literature resulted in 4 peer-reviewed articles and an additional 33 studies covering the topic for these contexts. The review found that big data and analytics…

  5. A Systematic Literature Review of the Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of several reviews of the literature, Lynn [Lynn, R., (2006). Race differences in intelligence: An evolutionary analysis. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] and Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T., (2006). IQ and global inequality. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] concluded that the average IQ of the…

  6. A Systematic Literature Review of the Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of several reviews of the literature, Lynn [Lynn, R., (2006). Race differences in intelligence: An evolutionary analysis. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] and Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T., (2006). IQ and global inequality. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] concluded that the average IQ of the…

  7. Predictive factors of work disability in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    de Croon, E M; Sluiter, J K; Nijssen, T F; Dijkmans, B A C; Lankhorst, G J; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2004-11-01

    Work disability-a common outcome of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-is a societal (for example, financial costs) and individual problem (for example, loss of status, income, social support, and distraction from pain and distress). Until now, factors that predict work disability in RA have not been systematically reviewed. To determine predictive factors of work disability in RA as reported in the literature. A systematic literature search in Cinahl (1988-2004), Embase (1988-2004), and Medline (1989-2004) was followed by the application of two sets of criteria related to: (a) methodological quality, and (b) measurement of the predictive factor. Based on the quality and the consistency of the findings, a rating system was used to assess the level of evidence for each predictive factor. Nineteen publications (17 cohorts) were identified, of which 13 met the general methodological quality criteria. Results provided strong evidence that physical job demands, low functional capacity, old age, and low education predict work disability in RA. Remarkably, biomedical variables did not consistently predict work disability. Moreover, owing to the lack of high quality studies no evidence was found for personal factors such as coping style, and work environmental factors such as work autonomy, support, work adjustments that are presumed crucial in the work disablement process. The results indicate that work disability in RA is a biopsychosocially determined misfit between individual capability and work demands.

  8. Cardiovascular Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Literature Review in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan Camilo; Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Espinosa-Serna, Juan Sebastián; Herrera-Díaz, Catalina; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major predictor of poor prognosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. There is an increasing interest to identify “nontraditional” risk factors for this condition. Latin Americans (LA) are considered as a minority subpopulation and ethnically different due to admixture characteristics. To date, there are no systematic reviews of the literature published in LA and the Caribbean about CVD in RA patients. Methods. The systematic literature review was done by two blinded reviewers who independently assessed studies for eligibility. The search was completed through PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, and Virtual Health Library scientific databases. Results. The search retrieved 10,083 potential studies. A total of 16 articles concerning cardiovascular risk factors and measurement of any cardiovascular outcome in LA were included. The prevalence of CVD in LA patients with RA was 35.3%. Non-traditional risk factors associated to CVD in this population were HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles, rheumatoid factor, markers of chronic inflammation, long duration of RA, steroids, familial autoimmunity, and thrombogenic factors. Conclusions. There is limited data about CVD and RA in LA. We propose to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors comprehensively in the Latin RA patient and to generate specific public health policies in order to diminish morbi-mortality rates. PMID:23193471

  9. Environmental Flows Can Reduce the Encroachment of Terrestrial Vegetation into River Channels: A Systematic Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kimberly A.; Webb, J. Angus; de Little, Siobhan C.; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2013-11-01

    Encroachment of riparian vegetation into regulated river channels exerts control over fluvial processes, channel morphology, and aquatic ecology. Reducing encroachment of terrestrial vegetation is an oft-cited objective of environmental flow recommendations, but there has been no systematic assessment of the evidence for and against the widely-accepted cause-and-effect mechanisms involved. We systematically reviewed the literature to test whether environmental flows can reduce the encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into river channels. We quantified the level of support for five explicit cause-effect hypotheses drawn from a conceptual model of the effects of flow on vegetation. We found that greater inundation, variously expressed as changes in the area, depth, duration, frequency, seasonality, and volume of surface water, generally reduces riparian vegetation abundance in channels, but most studies did not investigate the specific mechanisms causing these changes. Those that did show that increased inundation results in increased mortality, but also increased germination. The evidence was insufficient to determine whether increased inundation decreases reproduction. Our results contribute to hydro-ecological understanding by using the published literature to test for general cause-effect relationships between flow regime and terrestrial vegetation encroachment. Reviews of this nature provide robust support for flow management, and are more defensible than expert judgement-based approaches. Overall, we predict that restoration of more natural flow regimes will reduce encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into regulated river channels, partly through increased mortality. Conversely, infrequent deliveries of environmental flows may actually increase germination and subsequent encroachment.

  10. Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening in women with mental illness: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Arpita; Pandurangi, Ananda; Smith, Wally

    2013-04-01

    Breast and cervical cancer screening rates have improved substantially in the U.S. during the past decade. Cancer screening and other health outcomes in patients with mental illnesses, such as major depression and schizophrenia, remain suboptimal. Understanding the prevalence and root causes of these disparities is an essential first step toward developing effective interventions. This paper presents a systematic literature review of current evidence on breast and cervical cancer screening disparities in women with mental illness. A systematic PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO search completed in May 2012 retrieved articles pertaining to cancer screening and mentally ill patients using pertinent search terms. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were appraised critically for evidence quality related to screening disparities using defined criteria. Articles that reported cancer screening rates in patients with mental illness were reviewed to determine whether any barriers to screening or factors that promote screening were identified. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Many articles contributed to more than one of the identified areas of interest (i.e., screening utilization, barriers to screening, and factors that encourage screening). Substantial evidence in the current literature confirms disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening rates among women with mental illness. However, the mentally ill population is more complex and diverse than many studies imply. Using a global functional indicator that measures the overall impact of mental illness may yield a more useful categorization of influences on cancer screening. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Axial interbody arthrodesis of the L5-S1 segment: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2015-09-01

    The object of this study was to determine the fusion rate and safety profile of an axial interbody arthrodesis of the L5-S1 motion segment. A systematic search of MEDLINE was conducted for literature published between January 1, 2000, and August 17, 2014. All peer-reviewed articles related to the fusion rate of L5-S1 and the safety profile of an axial interbody arthrodesis were evaluated. Seventy-four articles were identified, but only 15 (13 case series and 2 retrospective cohort studies) met the study inclusion criteria. The overall pseudarthrosis rate at L5-S1 was 6.9%, and the rate of all other complications was 12.9%. A total of 14.4% of patients required additional surgery, and the infection rate was 5.4%. Deformity studies reported a significantly increased rate of complications (46.3%), and prospectively collected data demonstrated significantly higher complication (36.8%) and revision (22.6%) rates. Lastly, studies with a conflict of interest reported lower complication rates (12.4%). A systematic review of the literature indicates that an axial interbody fusion performed at the lumbosacral junction is associated with a high fusion rate (93.15%) and an acceptable complication rate (12.90%). However, these results are based mainly on retrospective case series by authors with a conflict of interest. The limited prospective data available indicate that the actual fusion rate may be lower and the complication rate may be higher than currently reported.

  12. Measurement of the dimensions of food insecurity in developed countries: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Stephanie; Kleve, Suzanne; McKechnie, Rebecca; Palermo, Claire

    2016-11-01

    Food insecurity is a salient health issue comprised of four dimensions - food access, availability, utilization and stability over time. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic literature review to identify all multi-item tools that measure food insecurity and explore which of the dimensions they assess. Five databases were searched (CENTRAL, CINAHL plus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, TRIP) for studies published in English since 1999. Inclusion criteria included human studies using multi-item tools to measure food security and studies conducted in developed countries. Manuscripts describing the US Department of Agriculture Food Security Survey Module, that measures 'food access', were excluded due to wide acceptance of the validity and reliability of this instrument. Two authors extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies. Data were summarized against the dimensions of food insecurity. A systematic review of the literature. The majority of tools were developed in the USA and had been used in different age groups and cultures. Eight multi-item tools were identified. All of the tools assessed the 'food access' dimension and two partially assessed the dimensions 'food utilization' and 'stability over time', respectively. 'Food availability' was not assessed by existing tools. Current tools available for measuring food insecurity are subjective, limited in scope, with a majority assessing only one dimension of food insecurity (access). To more accurately assess the true burden of food insecurity, tools should be adapted or developed to assess all four dimensions of food insecurity.

  13. Taking stock -- what is known about suicide in Sri Lanka: a systematic review of diverse literature.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Melissa; Zwi, Anthony B; Rouse, Amanda K; Fernando, Ravindra; Buckley, Nicholas A; McDuie-Ra, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is and has been a major public health problem in Sri Lanka and has generated a wide range of literature. This review aimed to systematically appraise what is known about suicide in Sri Lanka. The patterns and content of articles were examined and recommendations for further research proposed. The paper describes the systematic search, retrieval, and quality assessment of studies. Thematic analysis techniques were applied to the full text of the articles to explore the range and extent of issues covered. Local authors generated a large body of evidence of the problem in early studies. The importance of the method of suicide, suicidal intention, and the high incidence of suicide were identified as key foci for publications. Neglected areas have been policy and health service research, gender analysis, and contextual issues. The literature reviewed has produced a broad understanding of the clinical factors, size of the problem, and social aspects. However, there remains limited evidence of prevention, risk factors, health services, and policy. A wide range of solutions have been proposed, but only regulation of pesticides and improved medical management proved to be effective to date.

  14. The match between institutional elderly care management research and management challenges - a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elderly care practice and its management together with policy and research play a crucial role in responding to increasing challenges in institutional care for elderly people. Successful dialogue between these is necessary. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to compare how institutional elderly care management research meets the care challenges currently emphasized in international long-term care policy documents. Methods This paper was based on a systematic literature review. After screening 1971 abstracts using inclusion/exclusion criteria, 58 refereed articles published between 2000 and 2010 remained for analysis. The articles were analyzed using theory-based content analysis by comparing the results to the framework based on analysis of international long-term care management policy documents. Results The current challenges of long-term care management identified from policy documents were Integrated Care Management, Productivity Management, Quality Management, Workforce Management and ICT Management. The research on institutional elderly care management responded somewhat to the challenges mentioned in policy documents. However, some of the challenges were studied broadly and some were paid only minor attention. Further, only few studies focused on the core items of challenges addressed in policy documents. Conclusions Institutional care management research needs to focus more on challenges in integrated care, productivity, ICT and division of labor. Managers, researchers and policy-makers should assume more active collaborative roles in processes of research, policymaking and policy implementation. In addition managers’ and policymakers’ scientific literacy needs to be enhanced. PMID:23137416

  15. Psychometric properties of questionnaires on functional health status in oropharyngeal dysphagia: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature.

  16. Environmental flows can reduce the encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into river channels: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kimberly A; Webb, J Angus; de Little, Siobhan C; Stewardson, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Encroachment of riparian vegetation into regulated river channels exerts control over fluvial processes, channel morphology, and aquatic ecology. Reducing encroachment of terrestrial vegetation is an oft-cited objective of environmental flow recommendations, but there has been no systematic assessment of the evidence for and against the widely-accepted cause-and-effect mechanisms involved. We systematically reviewed the literature to test whether environmental flows can reduce the encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into river channels. We quantified the level of support for five explicit cause-effect hypotheses drawn from a conceptual model of the effects of flow on vegetation. We found that greater inundation, variously expressed as changes in the area, depth, duration, frequency, seasonality, and volume of surface water, generally reduces riparian vegetation abundance in channels, but most studies did not investigate the specific mechanisms causing these changes. Those that did show that increased inundation results in increased mortality, but also increased germination. The evidence was insufficient to determine whether increased inundation decreases reproduction. Our results contribute to hydro-ecological understanding by using the published literature to test for general cause-effect relationships between flow regime and terrestrial vegetation encroachment. Reviews of this nature provide robust support for flow management, and are more defensible than expert judgement-based approaches. Overall, we predict that restoration of more natural flow regimes will reduce encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into regulated river channels, partly through increased mortality. Conversely, infrequent deliveries of environmental flows may actually increase germination and subsequent encroachment.

  17. Psychometric Properties of Questionnaires on Functional Health Status in Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Methods. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Results. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. Conclusions. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature. PMID:24877095

  18. [Utilization of tacit knowledge by maternal healthcare providers: a systematic mapping of the literature].

    PubMed

    Calderón Espinosa, Emmanuel; Becerril Montekio, Víctor; Alcalde Rabanal, Jacqueline; García Bello, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The search for efficient answers to strengthen maternal health care has included various sources of evidence for decision making. In this article, we present a systematic mapping of the scientific literature on the use of tacit knowledge in relation to maternal healthcare. A systematic mapping was conducted of scientific articles published in Spanish and English between 1971 and 2014 following the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Of 793 articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria; 60% were from high-income countries and 66.7% were focused on health professionals. We identified a predominance of qualitative methodologies (62%). Four categories regarding the use of tacit knowledge were generated: proposals to improve the organization of the maternal care system (30%) and to improve the care provided to women during the continuum of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum (26.7%), determination of health workers' perception and skill levels (26.7%) and the interactions between tacit and explicit knowledge in clinical decision making (16.7%). This mapping shows that tacit knowledge is an emerging, innovative and versatile research approach used primarily in high-income countries and that includes interesting possibilities for its use as evidence to improve maternal healthcare, particularly in middle- and low-income countries, where it needs to be strengthened. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint: a case description with systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Guarda-Nardini, L; Piccotti, F; Ferronato, G; Manfredini, D

    2010-08-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a rare disease characterized by the presence of calcified loose bodies within the joint, and few systematically gathered data are available about its epidemiology. The aim of this paper was to describe a case of SC of the TMJ, and to carry out a systematic review of the literature on epidemiology over the past decade. A case of a 53-year-old female with the classical triad of signs and symptoms of SC (pain, swelling, restricted mouth opening) is described. A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Database was performed. 155 cases were described in 103 publications. Most dealt with single case reports. Females are affected more than males with a 2.5:1 ratio and the mean age of patients was about 46 years. Late diagnosis is common and in most cases more than 2 years elapsed between symptom onset and surgical intervention. Open TMJ surgery is the treatment of choice, since less invasive techniques, such as arthroscopy, allowed complete removal of the loose bodies only in about half of cases. A single recurrence was described, confirming the benign nature of the disease. Copyright 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The controversial role of electrochemotherapy in head and neck cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Riccardo; Muscatello, Luca; Saibene, Alberto Maria; Felisati, Giovanni; Pipolo, Carlotta

    2017-02-24

    Electroporation, also known as electrochemotherapy, combines an antineoplastic agent with electroporation, causing localized progressive necrosis in the treated area. Today it is primarily used in the palliative treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases and has been found to be safe and efficacious in head and neck cancer recurrences. Despite the steady increase in the number of published studies this treatment is not universally available and used systematically in head and neck carcinomas. To shed light on its limitations and analyze treatment outcome we have, therefore, reviewed all available literature regarding this topic. This systematic review includes 16 studies on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and reports the data of 200 treated patients. The combined results show a very heterogeneous overall response rate, ranging from 0 to 100%, while the complete response rate ranges between 0 and 83.3%. No major side effects have been described in those who used electrochemotherapy as a mono modality palliative treatment. This systematic review shows how standardization of treatment is still pivotal to achieve a more homogeneous response rate in the approach to head and neck tumors. In conclusion, due to the scarcity of alternatives of treatment in advanced stage cancer in this anatomical region and the good tolerability and mostly high success rates of electrochemotherapy, this palliative approach should be taken into consideration in these patients.

  1. The Role of Mifepristone in Meningiomas Management: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Levivier, Marc; Daniel, Roy Thomas; Messerer, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We performed a systematic literature review to analyze the clinical application and the safety of mifepristone, a prominent antiprogesterone agent, in meningioma patients. Materials and Methods. A systematic search was performed through Medline, Cochrane, and clinicaltrials.gov databases from 1960 to 2014. Study Selection. Studies were selected through a PICO approach. Population was meningioma patients, meningioma cells cultures, and animal models. Intervention was mifepristone administration. Control was placebo administration or any other drug tested. Outcomes were clinical and radiological responsiveness, safety profile, and cell growth inhibition. Results. A total of 7 preclinical and 6 clinical studies and one abstract were included. Encouraging results were found in preclinical studies. Concerning clinical studies, the response rate to mifepristone in terms of radiological regression and symptomatic improvement/stability in patients with inoperable meningioma was low. In meningiomatosis, favorable preliminary results were recorded. The safety profile was good. Limitations were as follows. The tumoral expression of progesterone receptors was not analyzed systematically in every study considered. Conclusions. No clear evidence exists to recommend mifepristone in inoperable meningiomas. Preliminary encouraging results were found in diffuse meningiomatosis. Mifepristone is a well-tolerated treatment. Patients' selection and hormonal profile analysis in meningiomas are fundamental for a better understanding of its benefit. Multicenter placebo-controlled trials are required. PMID:26146614

  2. The Role of Mifepristone in Meningiomas Management: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Giulia; Levivier, Marc; Daniel, Roy Thomas; Messerer, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature review to analyze the clinical application and the safety of mifepristone, a prominent antiprogesterone agent, in meningioma patients. A systematic search was performed through Medline, Cochrane, and clinicaltrials.gov databases from 1960 to 2014. Study Selection. Studies were selected through a PICO approach. Population was meningioma patients, meningioma cells cultures, and animal models. Intervention was mifepristone administration. Control was placebo administration or any other drug tested. Outcomes were clinical and radiological responsiveness, safety profile, and cell growth inhibition. A total of 7 preclinical and 6 clinical studies and one abstract were included. Encouraging results were found in preclinical studies. Concerning clinical studies, the response rate to mifepristone in terms of radiological regression and symptomatic improvement/stability in patients with inoperable meningioma was low. In meningiomatosis, favorable preliminary results were recorded. The safety profile was good. Limitations were as follows. The tumoral expression of progesterone receptors was not analyzed systematically in every study considered. No clear evidence exists to recommend mifepristone in inoperable meningiomas. Preliminary encouraging results were found in diffuse meningiomatosis. Mifepristone is a well-tolerated treatment. Patients' selection and hormonal profile analysis in meningiomas are fundamental for a better understanding of its benefit. Multicenter placebo-controlled trials are required.

  3. Psychosocial interventions for patients with advanced cancer – a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Uitterhoeve, R J; Vernooy, M; Litjens, M; Potting, K; Bensing, J; De Mulder, P; van Achterberg, T

    2004-01-01

    Advanced cancer is associated with emotional distress, especially depression and feelings of sadness. To date, it is unclear which is the most effective way to address these problems. This review focuses on the effects of psychosocial interventions on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with advanced cancer. It was hypothesised that patients will benefit from psychosocial interventions by improving QoL, especially in the domain of emotional functioning. The review was conducted using systematic review methodology involving a systematic search of the literature published between 1990 and 2002, quality assessment of included studies, systematic data extraction and narrative data synthesis. In all, 10 randomised controlled studies involving 13 trials were included. Overall interventions and outcome measures across studies were heterogeneous. Outcome measures, pertaining to the QoL dimension of emotional functioning, were most frequently measured. A total of 12 trials evaluating behaviour therapy found positive effects on one or more indicators of QoL, for example, depression. The results of the review support recommendation of behaviour therapy in the care of patients with advanced cancer. PMID:15316564

  4. Worldwide Prevalence and Trends in Unintentional Drug Overdose: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Laura; Cerdá, Magdalena; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Background. Drug overdose is an important, yet an inadequately understood, public health problem. Global attention to unintentional drug overdose has been limited by comparison with the scope of the problem. There has been a substantial increase in drug overdose incidence and prevalence in several countries worldwide over the past decade, contributing to both increased costs and mortality. Objectives. The aim of this study was to systematically synthesize the peer-reviewed literature to document the global epidemiological profile of unintentional drug overdoses and the prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates of drug overdoses. We searched different combinations of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms in PubMed for articles published from 1980 until July 2013, and we organized these results in tabular spreadsheets and compared them. We restricted the search to English-language articles that deal with unintentional overdose, focusing on 1 or more of the following key constructs: prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates. The term “overdose” as a MeSH major topic yielded 1076 publications. In addition, we searched the following combinations of nonmajor MeSH terms: “street drugs” and “overdose” yielded 180, “death” and “overdose” yielded 114, and “poisoning” and “drug users” yielded 17. There was some overlap among the searches. Based on the search and inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected a total of 169 relevant articles for this article based on a close review of abstracts. Results. We found wide variability in lifetime prevalence of experiencing a nonfatal overdose or witnessing an overdose, and in mortality rates attributable to overdose. Lifetime prevalence of witnessed overdose among drug users (n = 17 samples) ranged from 50% to 96%, with a mean of 73.3%, a median of 70%, and a standard deviation of 14.1%. Lifetime prevalence of drug users personally experiencing a nonfatal overdose (n

  5. Pre-hospital management of mass casualty civilian shootings: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Turner, Conor D A; Lockey, David J; Rehn, Marius

    2016-11-08

    Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of indexed and non-indexed literature on the pre-hospital management of modern civilian mass shootings to guide future practice. Systematic literature searches of PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus were conducted in conjunction with simple searches of non-indexed databases; Web of Science, OpenDOAR and Evidence Search. The searches were last carried out on 20 April 2016 and only identified those papers published after the 1 January 1980. Included documents had to contain descriptions, discussions or experiences of the pre-hospital management of civilian mass shootings. From the 494 identified manuscripts, 73 were selected on abstract and title and after full text reading 47 were selected for inclusion in analysis. The search yielded reports of 17 mass shooting events, the majority from the USA with additions from France, Norway, the UK and Kenya. Between 1994 and 2015 the shooting of 1649 people with 578 deaths at 17 separate events are described. Quality appraisal demonstrated considerable heterogeneity in reporting and revealed limited data on mass shootings globally. Key themes were identified to improve future practice: tactical emergency medical support may harmonise inner cordon interventions, a need for inter-service education on effective haemorrhage control, the value of senior triage operators and the need for regular mass casualty incident simulation.

  6. Can Screening Tools for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Predict Postoperative Complications? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Lilia; Macavei, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common, underdiagnosed condition that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the perioperative setting. Increasing evidence suggests that the utility of preoperative screening tools may go beyond identification of OSA, to the prediction of perioperative complications. The primary objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on all studies assessing whether high risk scores on the STOP-Bang questionnaire, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) checklist, and the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) are associated with higher rates of postoperative complications. Methods: A systematic review of English language records was performed using Medline, EMBASE, and PsychInfo with additional studies identified by manual search through reference lists. Only studies that evaluated the ability of the STOP-Bang, the BQ, and ASA checklist to predict postoperative complications in adults were included. Results: Twelve studies were included in the final review. Eight studies looked at STOP-Bang, 3 at the Berlin Questionnaire, and 2 at the ASA Checklist. Significant differences across study characteristics prevented a meta-analysis and the studies were evaluated qualitatively. Conclusions: The ASA checklist, Berlin Questionnaire, and STOP-Bang questionnaire may be able to risk stratify patients for perioperative and postoperative complications. Further research is required, with a particular focus on specific surgery types and adjustment of potentially confounding factors in the analysis. Citation: Dimitrov L, Macavei V. Can screening tools for obstructive sleep apnea predict postoperative complications? A systematic review of the literature. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(9):1293–1300. PMID:27448417

  7. Touchless interaction with software in interventional radiology and surgery: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Mewes, André; Hensen, Bennet; Wacker, Frank; Hansen, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In this article, we systematically examine the current state of research of systems that focus on touchless human-computer interaction in operating rooms and interventional radiology suites. We further discuss the drawbacks of current solutions and underline promising technologies for future development. A systematic literature search of scientific papers that deal with touchless control of medical software in the immediate environment of the operation room and interventional radiology suite was performed. This includes methods for touchless gesture interaction, voice control and eye tracking. Fifty-five research papers were identified and analyzed in detail including 33 journal publications. Most of the identified literature (62 %) deals with the control of medical image viewers. The others present interaction techniques for laparoscopic assistance (13 %), telerobotic assistance and operating room control (9 % each) as well as for robotic operating room assistance and intraoperative registration (3.5 % each). Only 8 systems (14.5 %) were tested in a real clinical environment, and 7 (12.7 %) were not evaluated at all. In the last 10 years, many advancements have led to robust touchless interaction approaches. However, only a few have been systematically evaluated in real operating room settings. Further research is required to cope with current limitations of touchless software interfaces in clinical environments. The main challenges for future research are the improvement and evaluation of usability and intuitiveness of touchless human-computer interaction and the full integration into productive systems as well as the reduction of necessary interaction steps and further development of hands-free interaction.

  8. Quality indicators for care of osteoarthritis in primary care settings: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Petrosyan, Yelena; Sahakyan, Yeva; Barnsley, Jan M; Kuluski, Kerry; Liu, Barbara; Wodchis, Walter P

    2017-09-16

    Despite the high prevalence of osteoarthritis and the prominence of primary care in managing this condition, there is no systematic summary of quality indicators applicable for osteoarthritis care in primary care settings. This systematic review aimed to identify evidence-based quality indicators for monitoring, evaluating and improving the quality of care for adults with osteoarthritis in primary care settings. Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE databases and grey literature, including relevant organizational websites, were searched from 2000 to 2015. Two reviewers independently selected studies if (i) the study methodology combined a systematic literature search with assessment of quality indicators by an expert panel and (ii) quality indicators were applicable to assessment of care for adults with osteoarthritis in primary care settings. Included studies were appraised using the Appraisal of Indicators through Research and Evaluation (AIRE) instrument. A narrative synthesis was used to combine the indicators within themes. Applicable quality indicators were categorized according to Donabedian's 'structure-process-outcome' framework. The search revealed 4526 studies, of which 32 studies were reviewed in detail and 4 studies met the inclusion criteria. According to the AIRE domains, all studies were clear on purpose and stakeholder involvement, while formal endorsement and use of indicators in practice were scarcely described. A total of 20 quality indicators were identified from the included studies, many of which overlapped conceptually or in content. The process of developing quality indicators was methodologically suboptimal in most cases. There is a need to develop specific process, structure and outcome measures for adults with osteoarthritis using appropriate methodology.

  9. Arteriovenous malformations of the corpus callosum: Pooled analysis and systematic review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Pabaney, Aqueel H.; Ali, Rushna; Kole, Maximillian; Malik, Ghaus M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the corpus callosum (CC) are rare entities. We performed a systematic review of the available literature to better define the natural history, patient characteristics, and treatment options for these lesions. Methods: A MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and The Cochrane Library search were performed for studies published through June 2015. Data from all eligible studies were used to examine epidemiology, natural history, clinical features, treatment strategies, and outcomes of patients with CC-AVMs. A systematic review and pooled analysis of the literature were performed. Results: Our search yielded 37 reports and 230 patients. Mean age at presentation was 26.8 years (±13.12 years). AVMs were most commonly located in the splenium (43%), followed by the body (31%), and then the genu (23%) of the CC. A Spetzler-Martin grade of III was the most common (37%). One hundred eighty-seven (81.3%) patients presented with hemorrhage, 91 (40%) underwent microsurgical excision, and 87 (38%) underwent endovascular embolization. Radiosurgery was performed on 57 (25%) patients. Complete obliteration of the AVM was achieved in 102 (48.1%) patients and approximately twice as often when microsurgery was performed alone or in combination with other treatment modalities (94% vs. 49%; P < 0.001). Mean modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at presentation was 1.54 and mean mRS at last follow-up was 1.31. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.35). Conclusion: We present an analysis of the pooled data in the form of a systematic review focusing on management of CC-AVMs. This review aims to provide a valuable tool to aid in decision making when dealing with this particular subtype of AVM. PMID:27127713

  10. Economic resources consumption structure in severe hypoglycemia episodes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Michał; Rdzanek, Elżbieta; Niewada, Maciej; Czech, Marcin

    2015-08-13

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with severe hypoglycemia events (SHEs) that vary in severity and resource consumption. Here we perform a systematic review in Medline of studies evaluating SHE-related health resource use. Eligible studies investigated patients with DM and included ≥10 SHEs. We also assessed studies identified in another systematic review, and through references from the included studies. We identified 14 relevant studies and used data from 11 (encompassing 6075 patients). Study results were interpreted to fit our definitions, which sometimes required assumptions. SHE type structure was synthesized using Bayesian modeling. Estimating Type 1 & 2 DM separately revealed only small differences; therefore, we used joint results. Of the analyzed SHEs, 9.97% were hospital-treated, 22.3% medical professional-treated, and 67.73% family-treated. These meta-analysis results help in understanding the structure of resource consumption following SHE and can be used in economic studies.

  11. Economic resources consumption structure in severe hypoglycemia episodes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Michał; Rdzanek, Elżbieta; Niewada, Maciej; Czech, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with severe hypoglycemia events (SHEs) that vary in severity and resource consumption. Here we perform a systematic review in Medline of studies evaluating SHE-related health resource use. Eligible studies investigated patients with DM and included ≥10 SHEs. We also assessed studies identified in another systematic review, and through references from the included studies. We identified 14 relevant studies and used data from 11 (encompassing 6075 patients). Study results were interpreted to fit our definitions, which sometimes required assumptions. SHE type structure was synthesized using Bayesian modeling. Estimating Type 1 & 2 DM separately revealed only small differences; therefore, we used joint results. Of the analyzed SHEs, 9.97% were hospital-treated, 22.3% medical professional-treated, and 67.73% family-treated. These meta-analysis results help in understanding the structure of resource consumption following SHE and can be used in economic studies.

  12. Prevalence, Duration and Severity of Parkinson's Disease in Germany: A Combined Meta-Analysis from Literature Data and Outpatient Samples.

    PubMed

    Enders, Dirk; Balzer-Geldsetzer, Monika; Riedel, Oliver; Dodel, Richard; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Sensken, Sven-Christian; Wolff, Björn; Reese, Jens-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological data on the prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Germany are limited. The aims of this study were to estimate the age- and gender-specific prevalence of PD in Germany as well as the severity and illness duration. A systematic literature search was performed in 5 different databases. European studies were included if they reported age- and gender-specific numbers of prevalence rates of PD. Meta-analytic approaches were applied to derive age- and gender-specific pooled prevalence estimates. Data of 4 German outpatient samples were incorporated to calculate the proportion of patients with PD in Germany grouped by Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stages and disease duration. In the German population, 178,169 cases of PD were estimated (prevalence: 217.22/100,000). The estimated relative illness duration was 40% with less than 5 years, 31% with 5-9 years, and 29% with more than 9 years. The proportions for different HY stages were estimated at 13% (I), 30% (II), 35% (III), 17% (IV), and 4% (V), respectively. Key Message: We provide an up-to-date estimation of age- and gender-specific as well as severity-based prevalence figures for PD in Germany. Further community studies are needed to estimate population-based severity distributions and distributions of non-motor symptoms in PD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Quality of life in adolescent and young adult cancer patients: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gonçalves, Vânia; Sehovic, Ivana; Bowman, Meghan L; Reed, Damon R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors experience many unique challenges and quality of life (QoL) effects that persist beyond cancer diagnosis and treatment. Due to continuous improvements in technology and cancer treatments resulting in improved survival rates, the identification of late effects, survivorship issues, and QoL is moving to the forefront of cancer research. The goal of this systematic review was to identify key psychosocial factors impacting QoL in AYA oncology populations. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted using combinations of these phrases or keywords: “adolescent and young adult or AYA” AND “health outcomes OR quality of life OR psychology” AND “neoplasm OR cancer OR oncology”. A total of 35 articles were included in this review. Studies were classified into two categories: AYA perceptions and stakeholder perceptions. Results AYA cancer survivors were more likely to have “worse” or impaired QoL compared with the general population, regardless of other demographic factors. AYAs described both positive and negatives experiences with their medical care, the educational information received, and the supportive care services. Although health care professionals were likely to underestimate or misjudge the health preferences and support needs of AYAs, these perceptions varied across disciplines and levels of experience. Conclusion The literature is lacking in sufficient evidence-based interventions to improve QoL in AYA cancer populations. Further, the tools to adequately measure QoL in this population are also unsatisfactory. The literature, however, consistently shows agreement regarding the unique needs of this population, indicating a trend toward health care standardization within age ranges or life stages. We suggest the need for AYA-specific programs in health care institutions that comprise a multidisciplinary team that addresses all the unique medical and QoL needs of AYAs. PMID

  14. Minors and euthanasia: a systematic review of argument-based ethics literature.

    PubMed

    Cuman, Giulia; Gastmans, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Euthanasia was first legalised in the Netherlands in 2002, followed by similar legislation in Belgium the same year. Since the beginning, however, only the Netherlands included the possibility for minors older than 12 years to request euthanasia. In 2014, the Belgian Act legalising euthanasia was amended to include requests by minors who possess the capacity of discernment. This amendment sparked great debate, and raised difficult ethical questions about when and how a minor can be deemed competent. We conducted a systematic review of argument-based literature on euthanasia in minors. The search process followed PRISMA guidelines. Thirteen publications were included. The four-principle approach of medical ethics was used to organise the ethical arguments underlying this debate. The justification for allowing euthanasia in minors is buttressed mostly by the principles of beneficence and respect for autonomy. Somewhat paradoxically, both principles are also used in the literature to argue against the extension of legislation to minors. Opponents of euthanasia generally rely on the principle of non-maleficence. The present analysis reveals that the debate surrounding euthanasia in minors is at an early stage. In order to allow a more in-depth ethical discussion, we suggest enriching the four-principle approach by including a care-ethics approach. What is Known: • The Netherlands and Belgium are the only two countries in the world with euthanasia legislation making it possible for minors to receive euthanasia. • This legislation provoked great debate globally, with ethical arguments for and against this legislation. What is New: • A systematic description of the ethical concepts and arguments grounding the debate on euthanasia in minors, as reported in the argument-based ethics literature. • A need has been identified to enrich the debate with a care-ethics approach to avoid oversimplifying the ethical decision-making process.

  15. Health Benefits of Digital Videogames for Older Adults: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amanda K; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Maneeratana, Vasana; Chaney, Beth H; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2012-12-01

    This article is a systematic review conducted of the research literature on digital videogames played by older adults and health outcomes associated with game play. Findings from each study meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed and summarized into emergent themes to determine the impact of digital games in promoting healthy behaviors among older adults. A systematic review of the research literature was conducted through multiple academic databases for works, published between the years 2000 and 2011, looking at digital videogame interventions with adults 65 years of age and older. Multiple combinations of search terms and Boolean operators relevant to digital videogames and older adults were queried. A criteria matrix was created to code and evaluate studies. Thirteen studies met specific criteria for inclusion and were analyzed in the final review. Significant mental, physical, and social health factors, type of digital game platform, study design, and measurements are among emergent themes summarized from the reviewed research literature. Significant mental health outcomes of digital game interventions were found in the majority of the reviewed studies, followed by physical and lastly social health outcomes in older adults. A majority of the studies revealed significant positive effects on health outcomes associated with digital videogame play among older adults. With current advancements in technology, including advanced motion sensing, digital game platforms have significant potential for positive health impact among older populations. More robust and rigorous research designs are needed to increase validity and reliability of results and establish stronger causal relationships on the health benefits of digital videogame play for older adults.

  16. Community-Effectiveness of Temephos for Dengue Vector Control: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    George, Leyanna; Lenhart, Audrey; Toledo, Joao; Lazaro, Adhara; Han, Wai Wai; Velayudhan, Raman; Runge Ranzinger, Silvia; Horstick, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    The application of the organophosphate larvicide temephos to water storage containers is one of the most commonly employed dengue vector control methods. This systematic literature review is to the knowledge of the authors the first that aims to assess the community-effectiveness of temephos in controlling both vectors and dengue transmission when delivered either as a single intervention or in combination with other interventions. A comprehensive literature search of 6 databases was performed (PubMed, WHOLIS, GIFT, CDSR, EMBASE, Wiley), grey literature and cross references were also screened for relevant studies. Data were extracted and methodological quality of the studies was assessed independently by two reviewers. 27 studies were included in this systematic review (11 single intervention studies and 16 combined intervention studies). All 11 single intervention studies showed consistently that using temephos led to a reduction in entomological indices. Although 11 of the 16 combined intervention studies showed that temephos application together with other chemical vector control methods also reduced entomological indices, this was either not sustained over time or–as in the five remaining studies—failed to reduce the immature stages. The community-effectiveness of temephos was found to be dependent on factors such as quality of delivery, water turnover rate, type of water, and environmental factors such as organic debris, temperature and exposure to sunlight. Timing of temephos deployment and its need for reapplication, along with behavioural factors such as the reluctance of its application to drinking water, and operational aspects such as cost, supplies, time and labour were further limitations identified in this review. In conclusion, when applied as a single intervention, temephos was found to be effective at suppressing entomological indices, however, the same effect has not been observed when temephos was applied in combination with other

  17. ‘Spin’ in published biomedical literature: A methodological systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Kellia; Grundy, Quinn

    2017-01-01

    In the scientific literature, spin refers to reporting practices that distort the interpretation of results and mislead readers so that results are viewed in a more favourable light. The presence of spin in biomedical research can negatively impact the development of further studies, clinical practice, and health policies. This systematic review aims to explore the nature and prevalence of spin in the biomedical literature. We searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and hand searched reference lists for all reports that included the measurement of spin in the biomedical literature for at least 1 outcome. Two independent coders extracted data on the characteristics of reports and their included studies and all spin-related outcomes. Results were grouped inductively into themes by spin-related outcome and are presented as a narrative synthesis. We used meta-analyses to analyse the association of spin with industry sponsorship of research. We included 35 reports, which investigated spin in clinical trials, observational studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. The nature of spin varied according to study design. The highest (but also greatest) variability in the prevalence of spin was present in trials. Some of the common practices used to spin results included detracting from statistically nonsignificant results and inappropriately using causal language. Source of funding was hypothesised by a few authors to be a factor associated with spin; however, results were inconclusive, possibly due to the heterogeneity of the included papers. Further research is needed to assess the impact of spin on readers’ decision-making. Editors and peer reviewers should be familiar with the prevalence and manifestations of spin in their area of research in order to ensure accurate interpretation and dissemination of research. PMID:28892482

  18. Screening for Behavioral Health Conditions in Primary Care Settings: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Marshall, Tina; Downey Piscopo, Kathryn; Korsen, Neil; Lynch, Sean; Karnell, Lucy H; Moran, Garrett E; Daniels, Allen S; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma

    2017-09-25

    Mounting evidence indicates that early recognition and treatment of behavioral health disorders can prevent complications, improve quality of life, and help reduce health care costs. The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify and evaluate publicly available, psychometrically tested tools that primary care physicians (PCPs) can use to screen adult patients for common mental and substance use disorders such as depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders. We followed the Institute of Medicine (IOM) systematic review guidelines and searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Health and Psychosocial Instruments databases to identify literature addressing tools for screening of behavioral health conditions. We gathered information on each tool's psychometrics, applicability in primary care, and characteristics such as number of items and mode of administration. We included tools focused on adults and the most common behavioral health conditions; we excluded tools designed for children, youth, or older adults; holistic health scales; and tools screening for serious but less frequently encountered disorders, such as bipolar disorder. We identified 24 screening tools that met the inclusion criteria. Fifteen tools were subscales stemming from multiple-disorder assessments or tools that assessed more than one mental disorder or more than one substance use disorder in a single instrument. Nine were ultra-short, single-disorder tools. The tools varied in psychometrics and the extent to which they had been administered and studied in primary care settings. Tools stemming from the Patient Health Questionnaire had the most testing and application in primary care settings. However, numerous other tools could meet the needs of primary care practices. This review provides information that PCPs can use to select appropriate tools to incorporate into a screening protocol.

  19. Industry and evidence-based medicine: Believable or conflicted? A systematic review of the surgical literature.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Chris S; Fehlings, Michael G; Rampersaud, Y Raja; Hall, Hamilton; Wai, Eugene K; Fisher, Charles G

    2011-10-01

    Over the last few decades medical research and development has come to depend more heavily on the financial support of industry. However, there is concern that financial relations between the medical community and medical industry could unduly influence medical research and therefore patient care. Our objective was to determine whether conflict of interest owing to authors'/investigators' financial affiliation with industry associated with their academic research has been identified in the surgical literature. In particular, we sought to answer the following questions: What is the extent of such conflict of interest? Does conflict of interest bias the results of academic surgical research in favour of industry? What are the potential causes of this proindustry bias? We conducted a systematic review of the literature in May 2008 using the OVID SP search engine of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE and Health Technology Assessment. Quantitative studies that included a methods section and reported on conflict of interest as a result of industry funding in surgery-related research specifically were included in our analysis. The search identified 190 studies that met our criteria. Author/investigator conflict of interest owing to financial affiliation with industry associated with their academic research is well documented in the surgical literature. Six studies demonstrated that authors with such conflicts of interest were significantly more likely to report a positive outcome than authors without industry funding, which demonstrates a proindustry bias. Two studies found that the proindustry bias could not be explained by variations in study quality or sample size. The conflict of interest that exists when surgical research is sponsored by industry is a genuine concern.

  20. mHealth for HIV Treatment & Prevention: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Catalani, Caricia; Philbrick, William; Fraser, Hamish; Mechael, , Patricia; Israelski, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review assesses the published literature to describe the landscape of mobile health technology (mHealth) for HIV/AIDS and the evidence supporting the use of these tools to address the HIV prevention, care, and treatment cascade. The speed of innovation, broad range of initiatives and tools, and heterogeneity in reporting have made it difficult to uncover and synthesize knowledge on how mHealth tools might be effective in addressing the HIV pandemic. To do address this gap, a team of reviewers collected literature on the use of mobile technology for HIV/AIDS among health, engineering, and social science literature databases and analyzed a final set of 62 articles. Articles were systematically coded, assessed for scientific rigor, and sorted for HIV programmatic relevance. The review revealed evidence that mHealth tools support HIV programmatic priorities, including: linkage to care, retention in care, and adherence to antiretroviral treatment. In terms of technical features, mHealth tools facilitate alerts and reminders, data collection, direct voice communication, educational messaging, information on demand, and more. Studies were mostly descriptive with a growing number of quasi-experimental and experimental designs. There was a lack of evidence around the use of mHealth tools to address the needs of key populations, including pregnant mothers, sex workers, users of injection drugs, and men who have sex with men. The science and practice of mHealth for HIV are evolving rapidly, but still in their early stages. Small-scale efforts, pilot projects, and preliminary descriptive studies are advancing and there is a promising trend toward implementing mHealth innovation that is feasible and acceptable within low-resource settings, positive program outcomes, operational improvements, and rigorous study design PMID:24133558

  1. A systematic literature review of the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of filgrastim.

    PubMed

    Dale, David C; Crawford, Jeffrey; Klippel, Zandra; Reiner, Maureen; Osslund, Timothy; Fan, Ellen; Morrow, Phuong Khanh; Allcott, Kim; Lyman, Gary H

    2017-09-22

    Filgrastim (NEUPOGEN(®)) is the originator recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor widely used for preventing neutropenia-related infections and mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells. This report presents findings of a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of efficacy and safety of originator filgrastim to update previous reports. A literature search of electronic databases, congress abstracts, and bibliographies of recent reviews was conducted to identify English-language reports of clinical trials and observational studies evaluating filgrastim in its US-approved indications up to February 2015. Two independent reviewers assessed titles/abstracts and full texts of publications, and extracted data from studies that compared originator filgrastim vs placebo or no treatment. For outcomes with sufficient homogeneous data reported across studies, meta-analysis was performed and relative risk (RR) determined. Data were summarized descriptively for all other evaluated outcomes. A total of 1194 unique articles evaluating originator filgrastim were identified, with 25 meeting eligibility criteria for data extraction: 18 randomized controlled trials, 2 nonrandomized clinical trials, and 5 observational studies. In chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN), filgrastim vs plac