Science.gov

Sample records for severity systematic literature

  1. Frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Versluis, A; Knulst, A C; Kruizinga, A G; Michelsen, A; Houben, G F; Baumert, J L; van Os-Medendorp, H

    2015-02-01

    Food allergic patients have to deal with an avoidance diet. Confusing labelling terms or precautionary labels can result in misinterpretation and risk-taking behaviour. Even those patients that strictly adhere to their diet experience (sometimes severe) unexpected allergic reactions to food. The frequency, severity and causes of such reactions are unknown. The objective of this review was to describe the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food in food allergic patients aged > 12 years, in order to develop improved strategies to deal with their allergy. A systematic review was carried out by two researchers, in six electronic databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Medline, Psychinfo and Scopus). The search was performed with keywords relating to the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food. This resulted in 24 studies which met the inclusion criteria; 18 observational and six qualitative studies. This review shows that knowledge about the frequency of unexpected reactions is limited. Peanut, nuts, egg, fruit/vegetables and milk are the main causal foods. Severe reactions and even fatalities occur. Most reactions take place at home, but a significant number also take place when eating at friends' houses or in restaurants. Labelling issues, but also attitude and risky behaviour of patients can attribute to unexpected reactions. We conclude that prospective studies are needed to get more insight in the frequency, severity, quantity of unintended allergen ingested and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food, to be able to optimize strategies to support patients in dealing with their food allergy. Although the exact frequency is not known, unexpected reactions to food occur in a significant number of patients and can be severe. For clinical practice, this means that patient education and dietary instructions are necessary.

  2. A systematic review of the literature for severity predictors in children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Emily Riehm; Fasano, Ross M; Levett, Paul R

    2017-02-02

    All patients with HbSS (SCA) share the same genetic mutation but the clinical phenotype is variable and difficult to predict early in life. A reliable severity predictor would be invaluable toward directing therapeutic decisions in those patients at highest risk of SCA complications. A search of PubMed, Cochrane Clinical Trials Register, and Scopus was performed to determine which SCA severity predictors have been validated in pediatric patients. The full text of 94 of the 590 references identified was reviewed based on the title/abstract. Fifty-four articles were included in the analysis. Alpha globin gene number was the most commonly studied severity predictor, followed by fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and reticulocyte count. Alpha thalassemia trait was protective against overt stroke and abnormal transcranial Doppler (TCD) in all but one study, but not frequency of painful crisis or silent cerebral infarct. Two thirds of the HbF studies reported beneficial effects with increasing HbF levels; however, increased HbF levels were not associated with lower hospitalization or stroke rates in others. The ability to predict SCA complications was mixed for all variables, except TCD and absolute reticulocyte count. More reliable predictors are urgently needed to guide therapeutic decisions in children with SCA.

  3. Severe haematoperitoneum caused by ovarian bleeding after transvaginal oocyte retrieval: a retrospective analysis and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Kazem; Walch, Katharina; Promberger, Regina; Kurz, Christine; Tempfer, Clemens B; Ott, Johannes

    2014-12-01

    A case series of haematoperitoneum caused by ovarian bleeding after transvaginal oocyte retrieval (TVOR) is presented and all published cases summarized. In a retrospective case series, four patients with ovarian bleeding after TVOR were included. In addition, a pooled analysis of all published cases (n = 32) who underwent surgical intervention for severe haematoperitoneum caused by ovarian bleeding after TVOR was carried out. Main outcome measures were incidence, risk factors, course and intraoperative findings. In the pooled analysis, the incidence was 0.08%. The first sign of haematoperitoneum was evident in 33.3% within the first postoperative hour, and, cumulatively, in 93.3% within 24 h. The median time between TVOR and surgical intervention was 10 h. In four patients, the ovary could not be preserved, which was associated with a longer time interval between TVOR and the onset of symptoms (median 18 h versus 2.5 h; P = 0.004) as well as between TVOR and surgical intervention (median 21.5 h versus 8.5 h; 0.004). In conclusion, severe haematoperitoneum occurs in 0.08% after TVOR. Late-onset bleeding is common. A longer time interval between TVOR and surgical intervention might put a patient at risk of ovariectomy.

  4. Mountain Child: Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.

  5. Systematic literature review and network meta-analysis in highly active relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis and rapidly evolving severe multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Huisman, Eline; Papadimitropoulou, Katerina; Jarrett, James; Bending, Matthew; Firth, Zoe; Allen, Felicity; Adlard, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, neurodegenerative autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system. Relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) is the most common clinical form of MS and affects ∼85% of cases at onset. Highly active (HA) and rapidly evolving severe (RES) RRMS are 2 forms of RRMS amenable to disease-modifying therapies (DMT). This study explored the efficacy of fingolimod relative to other DMTs for the treatment of HA and RES RRMS. Methods A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted to identify published randomised controlled trials in HA and RES RRMS. Identified evidence was vetted, and a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed to evaluate the relative efficacy of fingolimod versus dimethyl fumarate (DMF) in HA RRMS and versus natalizumab in RES RRMS. Results For HA RRMS, the SLR identified 2 studies with relevant patient subgroup data: 1 comparing fingolimod with placebo and the other comparing DMF with placebo. 3 studies were found for RES RRMS: 1 comparing fingolimod with placebo and 2 studies comparing natalizumab with placebo. NMA results in the HA population showed a favourable numerical trend of fingolimod versus DMF assessed for annualised relapse rate (ARR) and 3-month confirmed disability progression. For the RES population, the results identified an increase of ARR and 3-month confirmed disability progression for fingolimod versus natalizumab (not statistically significant). Sparse study data and the consequently high uncertainty around the estimates restricted our ability to demonstrate statistical significance in the studied subgroups. Conclusions Data limitations are apparent when conducting an informative indirect comparison for the HA and RES RRMS subgroups as the subgroups analyses were retrospective analyses of studies powered to indicate differences across entire study populations. Comparisons across treatments in HA or RES RRMS will be associated with high levels of uncertainty until new data are

  6. A systematic integrated literature review of systematic integrated literature reviews in nursing.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju

    2012-11-01

    As faculty members, we frequently find that first-year doctoral students in nursing are confused about how to conduct a systematic integrated literature review. This could be due to its vague definition and a lack of recent literature that provides directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review. This article aims to provide directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review by identifying the essential components of published literature reviews in nursing. To achieve this goal, the literature was searched by using the keywords nursing, systematic, and review in multiple databases. A total of 267 articles were selected and are included in this systematic integrated literature review. The articles were then sorted by study design and analyzed in six areas of interests. Finally, a practical guideline for conducting systematic integrated literature reviews is proposed based on the analysis of the literature.

  7. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  8. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. Objective This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. Method We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. Results We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Conclusions Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques. PMID:25125798

  9. Tofacitinib versus Biologic Treatments in Moderate-to-Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Who Have Had an Inadequate Response to Nonbiologic DMARDs: Systematic Literature Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Robert A.; Gruben, David; Lukic, Tatjana; Makin, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as monotherapy and combined with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) versus biological DMARDs (bDMARDs) and other novel DMARDs for second-line moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients by means of a systematic literature review (SLR) and network meta-analysis (NMA). Methods. MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published between 1990 and March 2015. Efficacy data based on American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response criteria, improvements in the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) at 6 months, and discontinuation rates due to adverse events were analyzed by means of Bayesian NMAs. Results. 45 RCTs were identified, the majority of which demonstrated a low risk of bias. Tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily (BID) and 10 mg BID monotherapy exhibited comparable efficacy and discontinuation rates due to adverse events versus other monotherapies. Tofacitinib 5 mg BID and 10 mg BID + DMARDs or methotrexate (MTX) were mostly comparable to other combination therapies in terms of efficacy and discontinuation due to adverse events. Conclusion. In most cases, tofacitinib had similar efficacy and discontinuation rates due to adverse events compared to biologic DMARDs. PMID:28377787

  10. Personal Health Records: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Information and communication technology (ICT) has transformed the health care field worldwide. One of the main drivers of this change is the electronic health record (EHR). However, there are still open issues and challenges because the EHR usually reflects the partial view of a health care provider without the ability for patients to control or interact with their data. Furthermore, with the growth of mobile and ubiquitous computing, the number of records regarding personal health is increasing exponentially. This movement has been characterized as the Internet of Things (IoT), including the widespread development of wearable computing technology and assorted types of health-related sensors. This leads to the need for an integrated method of storing health-related data, defined as the personal health record (PHR), which could be used by health care providers and patients. This approach could combine EHRs with data gathered from sensors or other wearable computing devices. This unified view of patients’ health could be shared with providers, who may not only use previous health-related records but also expand them with data resulting from their interactions. Another PHR advantage is that patients can interact with their health data, making decisions that may positively affect their health. Objective This work aimed to explore the recent literature related to PHRs by defining the taxonomy and identifying challenges and open questions. In addition, this study specifically sought to identify data types, standards, profiles, goals, methods, functions, and architecture with regard to PHRs. Methods The method to achieve these objectives consists of using the systematic literature review approach, which is guided by research questions using the population, intervention, comparison, outcome, and context (PICOC) criteria. Results As a result, we reviewed more than 5000 scientific studies published in the last 10 years, selected the most significant approaches

  11. How to Conduct a Systematic Review: A Narrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Nusrat; Zeshan, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad A

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews are ranked very high in research and are considered the most valid form of medical evidence. They provide a complete summary of the current literature relevant to a research question and can be of immense use to medical professionals. Our goal with this paper is to conduct a narrative review of the literature about systematic reviews and outline the essential elements of a systematic review along with the limitations of such a review. PMID:27924252

  12. Searching for Grey Literature for Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-01-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…

  13. Searching for grey literature for systematic reviews: challenges and benefits.

    PubMed

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-09-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic databases. There are a number of publications that list sources for finding grey literature in systematic reviews. However, there is scant information about how searches for grey literature are executed and how it is included in the review process. This level of detail is important to ensure that reviews follow explicit methodology to be systematic, transparent and reproducible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed account of one systematic review team's experience in searching for grey literature and including it throughout the review. We provide a brief overview of grey literature before describing our search and review approach. We also discuss the benefits and challenges of including grey literature in our systematic review, as well as the strengths and limitations to our approach. Detailed information about incorporating grey literature in reviews is important in advancing methodology as review teams adapt and build upon the approaches described.

  14. Antihistamines and Birth Defects: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Rai, Ramona P.; Anderson, Jaynia A.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 10-15% of women reportedly take an antihistamine during pregnancy for the relief of nausea and vomiting, allergy and asthma symptoms, or indigestion. Antihistamines include histamine H1-receptor and H2-receptor antagonists. Areas covered This is a systematic evaluation of the peer-reviewed epidemiologic literature published through February 2014 on the association between prenatal exposure to antihistamines and birth defects. Papers addressing histamine H1- or H2-receptor antagonists are included. Papers addressing pyridoxine plus doxylamine (Bendectin in the United States, Debendox in the United Kingdom, Diclectin in Canada, Lenotan and Merbental in other countries) prior to the year 2001 were excluded post-hoc because of several previously published meta-analyses and commentaries on this medication. Expert opinion The literature on the safety of antihistamine use during pregnancy with respect to birth defects is generally reassuring though the positive findings from a few large studies warrant corroboration in other populations. The findings in the literature are considered in light of three critical methodological issues: (1) selection of appropriate study population; (2) ascertainment of antihistamine exposures; and (3) ascertainment of birth defects outcomes. Selected antihistamines have been very well-studied (e.g. loratadine); others, especially H2- receptor antagonists, require additional study before an assessment of safety with respect to birth defects risk could be made. PMID:25307228

  15. Creative Learning Environments in Education--A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Collier, Chris; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny; Howe, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic review of 210 pieces of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools, commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS). Despite the volume of academic literature in this field, the team of six reviewers found comparatively few empirical…

  16. Systemic treatment of severe atopic eczema: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Schäkel, Knut; Schmitt, Natalie; Meurer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Systemic immunosuppressive agents are recommended for patients with atopic eczema in whom disease activity cannot be controlled adequately with topical treatments. Guidelines do not give clear advice which agents to prefer. We systematically reviewed clinical trials on systemic treatment for severe atopic eczema to provide evidence-based treatment recommendations. Standardized literature search, independent standardized assessment of eligibility and data abstraction was performed by 2 reviewers. Twenty-seven studies totalling 979 patients were included. Eleven studies consistently showed effectiveness of cyclosporine. Cyclosporine is recommended as first option for patients with atopic eczema refractory to conventional treatment. Evidence from randomized controlled trials also exists for interferon-? and azathioprine. Although frequently used in clinical practice, systemic glucocorticosteroids have not been assessed adequately in studies. Mycophenolate mofetile showed effectiveness in 2 small uncontrolled studies. Intravenous immunoglobulins and infliximab are not recommended based on published data.

  17. Neonatal testicular torsion: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Biplab; Murphy, Feilim Liam

    2011-10-01

    Neonatal testicular torsion (NTT) is rare and reported salvage rates vary widely both in their cited frequency and plausibility. The timing and necessity of surgery is controversial with different centers arguing for the conservative management of all cases while others argue for prompt exploration for all. Confusion also reigns over the need to fix the contralateral testis. In order to clarify the issue the authors reviewed the literature and found 18 case series of NTT, containing 268 operated cases suitable for analysis. This paper reviews the literature on NTT specifically regarding salvage rates and timing/necessity of surgery. Its primary aim is to produce an overall salvage rate in the operated group. Overall salvage rate was 8.96%, 24 testes. When operation is specified as an emergency, salvage may be as high as 21.7%. While salvage of a testis torted at birth is rare, it is reported. Early asynchronous torsion is also rare but reported. Worryingly, bilateral torsion can present with unilateral signs.Given these findings, we would suggest early surgery with fixation of the contralateral side.

  18. The Effectiveness of Intensive Interaction, A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Nick; Bodicoat, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive Interaction is an approach used for communicating with people with profound and multiple intellectual disabilities [PMID] or autism. It has gained increased recognition as a helpful technique, but the evidence has not been systematically reviewed. Method: Computerized and hand searches of the literature were conducted using…

  19. Health economic analyses of psoriasis management: a systematic literature search.

    PubMed

    Gutknecht, Mandy; Krensel, Magdalene; Augustin, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    In the course of the chronic skin disease psoriasis, where a variety of treatment interventions is available, a strong growth of health economic studies comparing treatment costs and benefits can be noticed. The objective was to identify health economic evaluations of psoriasis treatments that have been published to date. Of particular interest were the mostly used analysis and outcome parameters, the compared treatments, and the question, if available health economic studies may be used to perform a meta-analysis of qualitative findings. A systematic literature search using PubMed Medline, Ovid Medline, and Cochrane Library was performed for articles, published and available until mid of January 2016. Among the key words were the terms "psoriasis" and "cost-effectiveness". The search resulted in 318 articles without duplicates. Thereof 60 health economic analyses in psoriasis management were identified. Most of these are cost-effectiveness evaluations (45). The clinical parameter PASI (Psoriasis Area Severity Index) is the most often used cost-effectiveness outcome (33) followed by the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) (6). In case of cost-utility analyses, QALYs (quality-adjusted life-years) were mostly generated with the help of EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) (12), which was partly based on PASI and DLQI values. The majority of health economic studies is focusing on the direct medical and non-medical costs without consideration of productivity losses. Almost 70 % of 60 publications were conducted in Europe. Overall, most considered systemic treatments were the biological agents etanercept (36), adalimumab (27), and infliximab (26) followed by ustekinumab (17) and phototherapy (incl. UV-B, PUVA/psoralen combined with UV-A) (14). Comparisons including only topical treatments mostly focused on vitamin D treatment (14), corticosteroids (13), and coal tar products (6) followed by dithranol (5) and tazarotene (4). Given the setting, compared

  20. [Dentists and National Socialism. Systematic Literature Review and Research Questions].

    PubMed

    Schwanke, Enno; Krischel, Matthis; Gross, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the rich literature on Nazi medicine in general, the connection between dentists and National Socialism is less well documented. Neither the elites of the field from this era nor those excluded from the profession are catalogued in a systematic manner. The aims of this contribution are to assemble and review the relevant literature and show how German dentistry organizations have handled this chapter of their professional history. Trends in the literature since the 1980s are examined and it is pointed out, which areas have received some attention and which have not yet been addressed. Thus, this contribution will serve as both the basis and the starting point for new research into the field.

  1. TNF-alpha inhibitors in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. A case report and a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Marta; Tani, Chiara; Filice, Maria Elena; Carli, Linda; Delle Sedie, Andrea; Vagnani, Sabrina; Della Rossa, Alessandra; Baldini, Chiara; Bombardieri, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Joint involvement is a common manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and is described as a non-erosive mild synovitis. However some SLE patients may present a more severe joint involvement requiring aggressive therapy. We describe the case of a SLE patient with a severe arthritis unresponsive to methotrexate, successfully treated with anti-TNF-alpha drug as induction therapy and we report the results of a systematic literature review on the use of TNF-alpha inhibitors in SLE.

  2. Systematic Instruction for Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Belva C.

    2012-01-01

    To ensure the best outcomes for students with moderate and severe disabilities, K-12 educators need to understand what constitutes good instructional practices and how to apply them in any classroom, with any curriculum. All the how-to guidance they need is in this accessible text on systematic instruction, a highly effective teaching approach…

  3. The systematic review of the literature: a tool for evidence-based policy.

    PubMed

    Houde, Susan Crocker

    2009-09-01

    The systematic review of the literature is a valuable tool for gerontological nurses to influence policy decisions. There are several organizations that provide helpful guidelines for the conduct of systematic reviews of the literature, including the Cochrane Collaboration, the Joanna Briggs Institute, and the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information Co-Ordinating Centre at the Institute of Education, University of London. Gerontological nurses who have a strong foundation in research methodology and the skills to synthesize scientific evidence for the purpose of promoting evidence-based policy have the potential to positively influence health care outcomes for older adults. For nurses to assume a leadership role in synthesizing scientific evidence for evidence-based policy development and refinement, nursing education will need to assume a more active role in teaching systematic review methodology. This article presents an overview of resources for con-ducting systematic reviews of the literature and discusses the use of the systematic review as a tool for evidence-based policy.

  4. [Exercise in haemodyalisis patients: a literature systematic review].

    PubMed

    Segura-Ortí, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Exercise as a therapeutic tool used in End-stage renal disease patients (ESRD) in hemodialysis (HD) is not routinately applied, as it occurs with cardiac or respiratory patients. Lack of awareness of research in this field may contribute to the current situation. Thus, the aims of this review are: 1) to systematically review the literature of exercise training on adult HD patients or patients at a pre-HD stage; 2) to show the evidence on the benefits of exercise for counteracting physiological, functional and psychological impairments found even in older ESRD patients; 3) to recommend requirements of future research in order to include exercise prescription in the HD patients treatment. The Data bases reviewed from 2005 to 2009 were: MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOHost), SportDicus (EBSCOHost), Academic Search Complete (EBSCOHost), Fuente Académica (EBSCOHost), MedicLatina (EBSCOHost), PEDro y PubMed. Additionally, references from identified articles, several reviews on ESRD and abstracts to Nephrology Congresses were also reviewed. Randomized Controlled Trials on aerobic, strength and combined programs for HD patients were selected. Data from the studies was compiled and Van Tulder criteria were used for methodological quality assessment. Metanalysis included 6 studies on aerobic exercise, 2 on strength exercise and 5 on combined exercise programs. 640 patients were included in 16 included studies. Effects on physical function, health related quality of life and other secondary measurements were summarized by the Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) Moderate evidence exists on positive effects of aerobic training on peak oxygen consumption at the graded exercise test (SMD 6.55; CI 95%: 4.31-8.78). There is high evidence on positive effects of strength training on health related quality of life (SMD 11.03; CI 95%: 5.63-16.43). Finally, moderate evidence exists on positive effects of combined exercise on peak oxygen consumption at the graded exercise test (SMD 5.57; CI

  5. Home care in Europe: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health and social services provided at home are becoming increasingly important. Hence, there is a need for information on home care in Europe. The objective of this literature review was to respond to this need by systematically describing what has been reported on home care in Europe in the scientific literature over the past decade. Methods A systematic literature search was performed for papers on home care published in English, using the following data bases: Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, and Social Care Online. Studies were only included if they complied with the definition of home care, were published between January 1998 and October 2009, and dealt with at least one of the 31 specified countries. Clinical interventions, instrument developments, local projects and reviews were excluded. The data extracted included: the characteristics of the study and aspects of home care 'policy & regulation', 'financing', 'organisation & service delivery', and 'clients & informal carers'. Results Seventy-four out of 5,133 potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria, providing information on 18 countries. Many focused on the characteristics of home care recipients and on the organisation of home care. Geographical inequalities, market forces, quality and integration of services were also among the issues frequently discussed. Conclusions Home care systems appeared to differ both between and within countries. The papers included, however, provided only a limited picture of home care. Many studies only focused on one aspect of the home care system and international comparative studies were rare. Furthermore, little information emerged on home care financing and on home care in general in Eastern Europe. This review clearly shows the need for more scientific publications on home care, especially studies comparing countries. A comprehensive and more complete insight into the

  6. Varicella Skin Complications in Childhood: A Case Series and a Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bozzola, Elena; Bozzola, Mauro; Krzysztofiak, Andrzej; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; El Hachem, May; Villani, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Even if varicella is generally considered a harmless disease in childhood, severe complications may occur. We examined varicella skin complications (VSCs) in hospitalized immunologically healthy children, over a nine-year period. We also systematically analyzed previous reports to calculate the rate of VSCs in the literature. VSCs occurred in 16.4% of children hospitalized for varicella. This figure is in accordance with the literature, as the range of VSCs was 2.6%–41.2%. Skin complications may represent determinants of hospitalization and of other indirect costs in young children. PMID:27164095

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of isolated right pulmonary agenesis using sonography alone: case study and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Meller, Cesar H; Morris, R Katie; Desai, Tarak; Kilby, Mark D

    2012-12-01

    Pulmonary agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly, estimated to complicate around 1 per 15,000 pregnancies, in which there is complete absence or severe hypoplasia of one or both lungs, frequently associated with other abnormalities. A prospective prenatal diagnosis is a challenge, and a substantial proportion of cases are diagnosed by fetal magnetic resonance imaging, postnatal computed tomography, or postmortem. Thus, there are only a few reported cases of prenatal diagnosis in the literature. We report the prenatal diagnosis of isolated right lung agenesis diagnosed with sonography alone at a relatively early gestational age. We also present a systematic review of the literature for this condition to accompany this case study.

  8. Animal-Assisted Intervention for trauma: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Haire, Marguerite E; Guérin, Noémie A; Kirkham, Alison C

    2015-01-01

    Animals have a long history of inclusion in psychiatric treatment. There has been a recent growth in the empirical study of this practice, known as Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI). We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on AAI for trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ten studies qualified for inclusion, including six peer-reviewed journal articles and four unpublished theses. Participants were predominantly survivors of child abuse, in addition to military veterans. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. The most common animal species were dogs and horses. The most prevalent outcomes were reduced depression, PTSD symptoms, and anxiety. There was a low level of methodological rigor in most studies, indicating the preliminary nature of this area of investigation. We conclude that AAI may provide promise as a complementary treatment option for trauma, but that further research is essential to establish feasibility, efficacy, and manualizable protocols.

  9. Caffeine challenge test and panic disorder: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Vilarim, Marina Machado; Rocha Araujo, Daniele Marano; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2011-08-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine the results of studies that have investigated the induction of panic attacks and/or the anxiogenic effect of the caffeine challenge test in patients with panic disorder. The literature search was performed in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The words used for the search were caffeine, caffeine challenge test, panic disorder, panic attacks and anxiety disorder. In total, we selected eight randomized, double-blind studies where caffeine was administered orally, and none of them controlled for confounding factors in the analysis. The percentage of loss during follow-up ranged between 14.3% and 73.1%. The eight studies all showed a positive association between caffeine and anxiogenic effects and/or panic disorder.

  10. Animal-Assisted Intervention for trauma: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.; Guérin, Noémie A.; Kirkham, Alison C.

    2015-01-01

    Animals have a long history of inclusion in psychiatric treatment. There has been a recent growth in the empirical study of this practice, known as Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI). We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on AAI for trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ten studies qualified for inclusion, including six peer-reviewed journal articles and four unpublished theses. Participants were predominantly survivors of child abuse, in addition to military veterans. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. The most common animal species were dogs and horses. The most prevalent outcomes were reduced depression, PTSD symptoms, and anxiety. There was a low level of methodological rigor in most studies, indicating the preliminary nature of this area of investigation. We conclude that AAI may provide promise as a complementary treatment option for trauma, but that further research is essential to establish feasibility, efficacy, and manualizable protocols. PMID:26300817

  11. Zoonoses in Veterinary Students: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Antonio; Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; Tatay-Dualde, Juan; Paterna, Ana; de la Fe, Christian; Gómez-Martín, Ángel; Corrales, Juan C.; Contreras, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background Veterinary students face diverse potential sources of zoonotic pathogens since the first years of their academic degree. Such sources include different animal species and pathologic materials which are used at university facilities as well as commercial clinics, farms and other external facilities. Objectives The present study utilizes a systematic review of the literature to identify zoonoses described in veterinary students. Data sources Web of Science and PubMed. Results Of the 1,254 titles produced by the bibliographic search, 62 were included in this review. Whereas 28 of these articles (45.2%) described individual cases or outbreaks, the remaining 34 (54.8%) reported serological results. The zoonotic etiological agents described were bacteria, in 39 studies (62.9%), parasites, in 12 works (19.4%), virus, in 9 studies (14.5%) and fungi, in 2 (3.2%) of the selected articles. The selected literature included references from 24 different countries and covered the time period of the last 55 years. Limitations The fact that common cases of disease or cases of little clinical importance without collective repercussions are not usually published in peer-reviewed journals limits the possibility to reach conclusions from a quantitative point of view. Furthermore, most of the selected works (66.1%) refer to European or North American countries, and thus, the number of cases due to pathogens which could appear more frequently in non-occidental countries might be underestimated. Conclusions/implications The results of the present systematic review highlight the need of including training in zoonotic diseases since the first years of Veterinary Science degrees, especially focusing on biosecurity measures (hygienic measures and the utilization of the personal protective equipment), as a way of protecting students, and on monitoring programs, so as to adequately advise affected students or students suspicious of enduring zoonoses. PMID:28052113

  12. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This

  13. Children Reading to Dogs: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sophie Susannah; Gee, Nancy R.; Mills, Daniel Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in the value of human-animal interactions (HAI) to human mental and physical health the quality of the evidence on which postulated benefits from animals to human psychological health are based is often unclear. To date there exist no systematic reviews on the effects of HAI in educational settings specifically focussing on the perceived benefits to children of reading to dogs. With rising popularity and implementation of these programmes in schools, it is essential that the evidence base exploring the pedagogic value of these initiatives is well documented. Methods Using PRISMA guidelines we systematically investigated the literature reporting the pedagogic effects of reading to dogs. Because research in this area is in the early stages of scientific enquiry we adopted broad inclusion criteria, accepting all reports which discussed measurable effects related to the topic that were written in English. Multiple online databases were searched during January-March 2015; grey literature searches were also conducted. The search results which met the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and discussed, in relation to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine levels of evidence; 27 papers were classified as Level 5, 13 as Level 4, 7 as Level 2c and 1 as Level 2b. Conclusion The evidence suggests that reading to a dog may have a beneficial effect on a number of behavioural processes which contribute to a positive effect on the environment in which reading is practiced, leading to improved reading performance. However, the evidence base on which these inferences are made is of low quality. There is a clear need for the use of higher quality research methodologies and the inclusion of appropriate controls in order to draw causal inferences on whether or how reading to dogs may benefit children’s reading practices. The mechanisms for any effect remain a matter of conjecture. PMID:26901412

  14. The economic impact of gout: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Trieste, Leopoldo; Palla, Ilaria; Fusco, Francesco; Tani, Chiara; Baldini, Chiara; Mosca, Marta; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This article performs a systematic literature review of the last decade studies assessing the economic impact of gout. The literature review confirms the fact that gout reduces productivity and increases annual total healthcare costs, since care of gout absorbs relevant amounts of healthcare resources. One important aspect to be considered is represented by prevention and monitoring of the disease after the diagnosis, as gout is sometimes underestimated by patients and this leads to a reduced adherence to follow up and to treatment with consequences on the disease course and outcome. In fact, the lack of prevention and the scarce adherence to monitoring increase the number and costs of hospitalisation. Prevention, monitoring the level of sUA and using a urate-lowering therapy appear to have a central role for controlling gout and reducing hospitalisation, with positive advantages in terms of healthcare costs and healthcare utilisation. One limitation on the analysis of gout related costs, however, resides in the fact that the majority of the retrieved studies are retrospective and the definition of the economic impact of the disease is made difficult by differences in inclusion criteria, costs assessment, use of gout-related healthcare resources.

  15. Management and leadership competence in hospitals: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pihlainen, Vuokko; Kivinen, Tuula; Lammintakanen, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of management and leadership competence of health-care leaders and managers, especially in the hospital environment. Health-care leaders and managers in this study were both nursing and physician managers. Competence was assessed by evaluating the knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities that enable management and leadership tasks. Design/methodology/approach - A systematic literature review was performed to find articles that identify and describe the characteristics of management and leadership competence. Searches of electronic databases were conducted using set criteria for article selection. Altogether, 13 papers underwent an inductive content analysis. Findings - The characteristics of management and leadership competence were categorized into the following groups: health-care-context-related, operational and general. Research limitations/implications - One limitation of the study is that only 13 articles were found in the literature regarding the characteristics of management and leadership competence. However, the search terms were relevant, and the search process was endorsed by an information specialist. The study findings imply the need to shift away from the individual approach to leadership and management competence. Management and leadership need to be assessed more frequently from a holistic perspective, and not merely on the basis of position in the organizational hierarchy or of profession in health care. Originality/value - The authors' evaluation of the characteristics of management and leadership competence without a concentrated profession-based approach is original.

  16. Sexting prevalence and correlates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David J; Mellor, David J

    2014-02-01

    Despite considerable controversy and speculation regarding sexting behaviour and its associated risks, to date there has been no integration and analysis of empirical literature on this topic. To collect and synthesise findings of the prevalence of sexting, its correlates, and the context in which it occurs, a systematic search of databases was conducted. Thirty-one studies, reporting on sexting prevalence and a diverse range of related variables, met inclusion criteria. The estimated mean prevalence weighted by sample size was calculated, with trends indicating sexting is more prevalent amongst adults than adolescents, older age is predictive of sexting for adolescents but not adults, and more individuals report receiving sexts than sending them. The correlates of sexting behaviour were grouped in terms of demographic variables, sexual and sexual risk behaviours, attitudes towards sexting, perceived outcomes of sexting, motivations for sexting, mental health and well-being variables, and attachment dimensions. Findings are discussed in terms of the trends indicated by the data, which provided substantiation that sexting behaviour is associated with numerous behavioural, psychological, and social factors. Limitations of the current research literature and future directions are also presented.

  17. [Vital prognosis in advanced cancer patients: a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Tavares, Teresa; Gonçalves, Edna

    2013-01-01

    Prognostication is a critical medical task for the adequacy of treatment and management of priorities and expectations of patients and families. In 2005, the European Association of Palliative Care (EAPC) published recommendations on the formulation of vital prognosis in advanced cancer patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the literature subsequent to this review and to update the presented recommendations. Using the same strategy of the EAPC group, we performed a systematic literature search in the electronic databases PubMed and Scopus, which included original studies in adults with advanced cancer, without tumor-directed treatment, with a median survival of less than 90 days. The articles were analyzed and classified according to the level of evidence by two independent reviewers. The 41 articles analyzed allowed to keep grade A recommendations for clinical estimation of survival and Palliative Prognostic score and now also for Palliative Prognostic Index, performance status, dyspnea, lymphopenia and lactate dehydrogenase. Recommendations regarding the use of C-reactive protein, leukocytosis, azotemia, hypoalbuminemia and male gender as predictors reached grade B. To formulate the vital prognosis and to communicate it properly to the patient and family are core competencies of physicians, particularly of those who deal with end of life patients. The clinical impression combined with scientific evidence allows us to estimate more accurately the survival, allowing prioritizing and managing more appropriately the existing resources.

  18. [Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Silva, Bianca Del Ponte da; Anselmi, Luciana; Schmidt, Vera; Santos, Iná S

    2015-04-01

    This aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review on the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. The systematic multiple-stage literature search in PubMed, LILACS, BIREME, and PsycINFO was limited to research in human subjects and published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. A total of 373 references were retrieved. Of these, only five met the study's objectives and were kept in the review. Most of the studies employed a longitudinal design, were conducted in developed countries, and were published in the last five years. Only one study found a positive association. Studies on caffeine consumption during pregnancy and ADHD are scarce, with conflicting results and several methodological difficulties such as lack of standardized outcome measures.

  19. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor mushroom improved survival and

  20. Fibrin Sealants in Dura Sealing: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibrin sealants are widely used in neurosurgery to seal the suture line, provide watertight closure, and prevent cerebrospinal fluid leaks. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current efficacy and safety literature of fibrin sealants in dura sealing and the prevention/treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Methods A comprehensive electronic literature search was run in the following databases: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Resister of Controlled Trials, clinicaltrials.gov, MEDLINE/PubMed, and EMBASE. Titles and abstracts of potential articles of interest were reviewed independently by 3 of the authors. Results A total of 1006 database records and additional records were identified. After screening for duplicates and relevance, a total of 78 articles were assessed by the investigators for eligibility. Thirty-eight were excluded and the full-text of 40 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. Seven of these included only safety data and were included in the safety assessment. The remaining 33 articles included findings from 32 studies that enrolled a total of 2935 patients who were exposed to fibrin sealant. Among these 33 studies there were only 3 randomized controlled trials, with the remaining being prospective cohort analysis, case controlled studies, prospective or retrospective case series. One randomized controlled trial, with 89 patients exposed to fibrin sealant, found a greater rate of intraoperative watertight dura closure in the fibrin sealant group than the control group (92.1% versus 38.0%, p<0.001); however, post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in more fibrin sealant than control patients (6.7% versus 2.0%, p>0.05). Other clinical trials evaluated the effect of fibrin sealant in the postoperative prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. These were generally lower level evidence studies (ie, not prospective, randomized, controlled trials) that were not designed or

  1. Defining Chronic Cough: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiological Literature

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo-Jung; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Faruqi, Shoaib; Kang, Min-Koo; Kim, Ju-Young; Kang, Min-Gyu; Kim, Sujeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Min-Hye; Plevkova, Jana; Park, Heung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent evidence suggests a global burden of chronic cough in general populations. However, the definitions vary greatly among epidemiological studies, and none have been validated for clinical relevance. We aimed to examine previous epidemiological definitions in detail and explore the operational characteristics. Methods A systematic review was conducted for epidemiological surveys that reported the prevalence of chronic cough in general adult populations during the years 1980 to 2013. A literature search was performed on Pubmed and Embase without language restriction. Epidemiological definitions for chronic cough were classified according to their components, such as cutoff duration. Meta-analyses were performed for the male-to-female ratio of chronic cough prevalence to explore operational characteristics of epidemiological definitions. Results A total of 70 studies were included in the systematic review. The most common epidemiological definition was identified as 'cough ≥3 months' duration without specification of phlegm (n=50); however, it conflicted with the cutoff duration in current clinical guidelines (cough ≥8 weeks). Meta-analyses were performed for the male-to-female ratio of chronic cough among 28 studies that reported sex-specific prevalence using the most common definition. The pooled male-to-female odds ratio was 1.26 (95% confidence interval 0.92-1.73) with significant heterogeneity (I2=96%, P<0.001), which was in contrast to clinical observations of female predominance from specialist clinics. Subgroup analyses did not reverse the ratio or reduce the heterogeneity. Conclusions This study identified major issues in defining chronic cough in future epidemiological studies. The conflict between epidemiological and clinical diagnostic criteria needs to be resolved. The unexpected difference in the gender predominance between the community and clinics warrants further studies. Clinical validation of the existing definition is required

  2. Physician leadership in e-health? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Keijser, Wouter; Smits, Jacco; Penterman, Lisanne; Wilderom, Celeste

    2016-07-04

    Purpose This paper aims to systematically review the literature on roles of physicians in virtual teams (VTs) delivering healthcare for effective "physician e-leadership" (PeL) and implementation of e-health. Design/methodology/approach The analyzed studies were retrieved with explicit keywords and criteria, including snowball sampling. They were synthesized with existing theoretical models on VT research, healthcare team competencies and medical leadership. Findings Six domains for further PeL inquiry are delineated: resources, task processes, socio-emotional processes, leadership in VTs, virtual physician-patient relationship and change management. We show that, to date, PeL studies on socio-technical dynamics and their consequences on e-health are found underrepresented in the health literature; i.e. no single empirical, theoretic or conceptual study with a focus on PeL in virtual healthcare work was identified. Research limitations/implications E-health practices could benefit from organization-behavioral type of research for discerning effective physicians' roles and inter-professional relations and their (so far) seemingly modest but potent impact on e-health developments. Practical implications Although best practices in e-health care have already been identified, this paper shows that physicians' roles in e-health initiatives have not yet received any in-depth study. This raises questions such as are physicians not yet sufficiently involved in e-health? If so, what (dis)advantages may this have for current e-health investments and how can they best become involved in (leading) e-health applications' design and implementation in the field? Originality/value If effective medical leadership is being deployed, e-health effectiveness may be enhanced; this new proposition needs urgent empirical scrutiny.

  3. Guidelines for overcoming hospital managerial challenges: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Crema, Maria; Verbano, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The need to respond to accreditation institutes’ and patients’ requirements and to align health care results with increased medical knowledge is focusing greater attention on quality in health care. Different tools and techniques have been adopted to measure and manage quality, but clinical errors are still too numerous, suggesting that traditional quality improvement systems are unable to deal appropriately with hospital challenges. The purpose of this paper is to grasp the current tools, practices, and guidelines adopted in health care to improve quality and patient safety and create a base for future research on this young subject. Methods A systematic literature review was carried out. A search of academic databases, including papers that focus not only on lean management, but also on clinical errors and risk reduction, yielded 47 papers. The general characteristics of the selected papers were analyzed, and a content analysis was conducted. Results A variety of managerial techniques, tools, and practices are being adopted in health care, and traditional methodologies have to be integrated with the latest ones in order to reduce errors and ensure high quality and patient safety. As it has been demonstrated, these tools are useful not only for achieving efficiency objectives, but also for providing higher quality and patient safety. Critical indications and guidelines for successful implementation of new health managerial methodologies are provided and synthesized in an operative scheme useful for extending and deepening knowledge of these issues with further studies. Conclusion This research contributes to introducing a new theme in health care literature regarding the development of successful projects with both clinical risk management and health lean management objectives, and should address solutions for improving health care even in the current context of decreasing resources. PMID:24307833

  4. Oats and bowel disease: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Thies, Frank; Masson, Lindsey F; Boffetta, Paolo; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    Whole-grain foods such as oats may protect against colorectal cancer and have benefits on inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature describing intervention studies that investigated the effects of oats or oat bran on risk factors for bowel disease. A literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and the Cochrane library, which identified 654 potential articles. Thirty-eight articles describing twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Two studies carried out in participants with a history of colorectal adenomas found no effects of increased oat-bran intake on indirect risk makers for colorectal cancer. One of two interventions with oat bran in patients with ulcerative colitis showed small improvements in the patients' conditions. Most of the eleven studies carried out in adults with coeliac disease showed no negative effects of uncontaminated oat consumption. The fourteen studies carried out in volunteers with no history of bowel disease suggest that oats or oat bran can significantly increase stool weight and decrease constipation, but there is a lack of evidence to support a specific effect of oats on bowel function compared with other cereals. A long-term dietary intake of oats or oat bran could benefit inflammatory bowel disorders, but this remains to be proven. A protective effect on colorectal adenoma and cancer incidence has not yet been convincingly shown. The majority of patients with coeliac disease could consume up to 100 g/d of uncontaminated oats, which would increase the acceptability of, and adherence to, a gluten-free diet.

  5. Oats and CVD risk markers: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Thies, Frank; Masson, Lindsey F; Boffetta, Paolo; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    High consumption of whole-grain food such as oats is associated with a reduced risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature describing long-term intervention studies that investigated the effects of oats or oat bran on CVD risk factors. The literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and the Cochrane library, which identified 654 potential articles. Seventy-six articles describing sixty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies lacked statistical power to detect a significant effect of oats on any of the risk factors considered: 59 % of studies had less than thirty subjects in the oat intervention group. Out of sixty-four studies that assessed systemic lipid markers, thirty-seven (58 %) and thirty-four (49 %) showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol (2-19 % reduction) and LDL-cholesterol (4-23 % reduction) respectively, mostly in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Few studies (three and five, respectively) described significant effects on HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations. Only three out of twenty-five studies found a reduction in blood pressure after oat consumption. None of the few studies that measured markers of insulin sensitivity and inflammation found any effect after long-term oat consumption. Long-term dietary intake of oats or oat bran has a beneficial effect on blood cholesterol. However, there is no evidence that it favourably modulates insulin sensitivity. It is still unclear whether increased oat consumption significantly affects other risk markers for CVD risk, and comprehensive, adequately powered and controlled intervention trials are required to address this question.

  6. Urinothorax: Case report and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Casallas, Alexander; Castañeda-Cardona, Camilo; Rosselli, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Urinothorax, the presence of urine in the pleural space, is a rare cause of pleural effusion, usually associated with obstructive uropathy, or urinary trauma. We present the case of a 3 year-old boy and a systematic review of the literature of the 44 cases encountered. After resection of a Wilm's tumour in the right kidney our patient presented acute respiratory distress associated with radiographically confirmed pleural effusion. With the initial diagnosis of pneumonia or malignant pleural effusion, a closed thoracotomy was performed. The liquid obtained suggested urine, which was confirmed by the laboratory. Cystoscopy with retrograde pyelography detected a fistula on the posterior wall of the right kidney. The report of cases worldwide is low, probably due to its low incidence but also to underdiagnosis. Respiratory symptoms are not always present and urological symptoms usually predominate. Diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and is confirmed by the main biochemical marker: The ratio >1.0 pleural fluid creatinine and creatinine serum. PMID:26834411

  7. Food and Beverage Marketing to Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2015-10-01

    Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers realize they cannot ignore this growing, high-spending, media-consuming segment. Studies examining food and beverage marketing strategies tend to discuss minority groups in general but do not account for racial and ethnic differences, reducing our ability to explain existing inequities. This article aimed to identify the food and beverage marketing strategies used to influence food environments for Latinos versus non-Latinos. A systematic literature review and analysis, guided by an established marketing conceptual framework, determined that the food and beverage marketing environment for Latinos is less likely to promote healthy eating and more likely to encourage consumption of low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. This analysis also determined that Latinos' food environment and the placement of food retail stores appears to influence their body mass index; however, placement of these stores cannot be generalized, as geographical differences exist. While food and beverage marketing is only one of many sources of influence on food and beverage consumption, these findings reinforce the notion that Latinos are at a disadvantage when it comes to exposure of healthy lifestyle messaging and health-promoting food environments.

  8. Effectiveness of alcohol media literacy programmes: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Chloe S; Hindmarsh, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To provide insight into some of these questions, a systematic literature review of alcohol media literacy studies was conducted. The review was guided by the following research question: What considerations are needed to develop an effective school-based alcohol media literacy programme? On the basis of a critical synthesis of 10 interventions (published in the period 1997 to May 2014), our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the descriptive, methodological and outcome characteristics of this small body of significant research. The review provides considerations for future alcohol media literacy programmes, including the need for an interactive pedagogical approach within the naturalistic school setting, implementation fidelity and a holistic approach to programme evaluation, a means for maintaining relevance, consideration of gender differences, relevance for an international audience and use of follow-up and longitudinal data.

  9. Family dynamics during the grieving process: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Delalibera, Mayra; Presa, Joana; Coelho, Alexandra; Barbosa, António; Franco, Maria Helena Pereira

    2015-04-01

    The loss of a loved one can affect family dynamics by changing the family system and creating the need for family members to reorganize. Good family functioning, which is characterized by open communication, expression of feelings and thoughts and cohesion among family members, facilitates adaptive adjustment to the loss. This study conducted a systematic review of the literature on family dynamics during the grieving process. A search was conducted in the EBSCO, Web of Knowledge and Bireme databases for scientific articles published from January 1980 to June 2013. Of the 389 articles found, only 15 met all the inclusion criteria. The selected studies provided evidence that dysfunctional families exhibit more psychopathological symptoms, more psychosocial morbidity, poorer social functioning, greater difficulty accessing community resources, lower functional capacity at work, and a more complicated grieving process. Family conflicts were also emphasized as contributing to the development of a complicated grieving process, while cohesion, expression of affection and good communication in families are believed to mitigate grief symptoms.

  10. Anhedonia in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Assogna, Francesca; Cravello, Luca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2011-08-15

    Anhedonia, defined as lowered ability to experience physical or social pleasure, is a key symptom of several psychiatric illnesses. In this systematic review, we aimed to evaluate the role of anhedonia in Parkinson's Disease and its relationships with other clinical characteristics, dopamine dysfunction, and antiparkinsonian therapy. The database was selected using PubMed Services. Relevant journals were hand-searched, and the bibliographies of all the important articles were scrutinized to find additional publications. Fifteen studies assessed the topic of anhedonia in Parkinson's disease from 1984 to 2009 and mainly described it as a core symptom of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease. Some studies investigated the relationship between anhedonia and neuropsychological symptoms and found correlations with frontal lobe functions. Reports on the relationship between anhedonia and illness severity or motor symptoms are rather inconclusive. No definitive conclusions can be drawn because few studies have been published on this topic. Nevertheless, some evidence suggests that in Parkinson's disease anhedonia is a secondary phenomenon linked to depression, apathy severity, and frontal lobe dysregulation and that it could respond to antiparkinsonian treatment. Future studies of larger samples of patients are strongly required to definitively clarify the relationship between anhedonia and other clinical features, such as depression, anxiety, apathy, cognition, and motor status. Furthermore, more reliable tools and validated diagnostic criteria are necessary to assess anhedonia in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  11. Causes of dysphagia among different age groups: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roden, Dylan F; Altman, Kenneth W

    2013-12-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem that has the potential to result in severe complications such as malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. Based on the complexity of swallowing, there may be many different causes. This article presents a systematic literature review to assess different comorbid disease associations with dysphagia based on age. The causes of dysphagia are different depending on age, affecting between 1.7% and 11.3% of the general population. Dysphagia can be a symptom representing disorders pertinent to any specialty of medicine. This review can be used to aid in the diagnosis of patients presenting with the complaint of dysphagia.

  12. Cancer risk in dermatomyositis: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Di Rollo, D; Abeni, D; Tracanna, M; Capo, A; Amerio, P

    2014-10-01

    The association between idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) and cancer has been extensively studied in adults. Many epidemiological studies demonstrated this association, which appears stronger for dermatomyositis (DM) than for polymyositis (PM). The first case suggesting an association between cancer and DM was reported in 1916. At present the reported incidence of cancer association with DM varies widely, from less than 7% to over 30%. Many early evidences came from case reports, but this association was later confirmed in case-control as well as in population-based studies. Ovarian cancer or breast cancer in females and lung cancer in males are the main malignancies associated with DM. Given the frequency of the association of dermatomyositis with cancer, for cost-effectiveness reasons it might be important to develop simple and appropriate diagnostic tests for identification of patients with DM, who may be at higher risk of developing a malignancy. Clinicians should plan follow-up schedules to optimize both cancer detection and treatment, and thus to improve patient survival. Many different clinical and serological signs have been suggested as possible predictive factors for malignancy in dermatomyositis: age, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), presence of cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis, cutaneous rash and skin lesions as cutaneous necrosis and periungueal erythemas, neoplastic markers or dysphagia. The results of the different studies are quite discordant. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature to evaluate the level of the risk of cancer in patients with dermatomyositis and to explore whether certain patient characteristics may be linked to different levels of cancer risk.

  13. What is kangaroo mother care? Systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Grace J; Valsangkar, Bina; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Boundy, Ellen O; Wall, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC), often defined as skin–to–skin contact between a mother and her newborn, frequent or exclusive breastfeeding, and early discharge from the hospital has been effective in reducing the risk of mortality among preterm and low birth weight infants. Research studies and program implementation of KMC have used various definitions. Objectives To describe the current definitions of KMC in various settings, analyze the presence or absence of KMC components in each definition, and present a core definition of KMC based on common components that are present in KMC literature. Methods We conducted a systematic review and searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization Regional Databases for studies with key words “kangaroo mother care”, “kangaroo care” or “skin to skin care” from 1 January 1960 to 24 April 2014. Two independent reviewers screened articles and abstracted data. Findings We screened 1035 articles and reports; 299 contained data on KMC and neonatal outcomes or qualitative information on KMC implementation. Eighty–eight of the studies (29%) did not define KMC. Two hundred and eleven studies (71%) included skin–to–skin contact (SSC) in their KMC definition, 49 (16%) included exclusive or nearly exclusive breastfeeding, 22 (7%) included early discharge criteria, and 36 (12%) included follow–up after discharge. One hundred and sixty–seven studies (56%) described the duration of SSC. Conclusions There exists significant heterogeneity in the definition of KMC. A large number of studies did not report definitions of KMC. Skin–to–skin contact is the core component of KMC, whereas components such as breastfeeding, early discharge, and follow–up care are context specific. To implement KMC effectively development of a global standardized definition of KMC is needed. PMID:27231546

  14. Ankle arthrodesis: A systematic approach and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Youichi; Hannon, Charles P; Seow, Dexter; Kennedy, John G

    2016-01-01

    Ankle arthrodesis is a common treatment used for patients with end-stage ankle arthritis (ESAA). The surgical goal of ankle arthrodesis is to obtain bony union between the tibia and talus with adequate alignment [slight valgus (0°-5°)], neutral dorsiflexion, and slight external rotation positions) in order to provide a pain-free plantigrade foot for weightbearing activities. There are many variations in operative technique including deferring approaches (open or arthroscopic) and differing fixation methods (internal or external fixation). Each technique has its advantage and disadvantages. Success of ankle arthrodesis can be dependent on several factors, including patient selection, surgeons’ skills, patient comorbidities, operative care, etc. However, from our experience, the majority of ESAA patients obtain successful clinical outcomes. This review aims to outline the indications and goals of arthrodesis for treatment of ESAA and discuss both open and arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis. A systematic step by step operative technique guide is presented for both the arthroscopic and open approaches including a postoperative protocol. We review the current evidence supporting each approach. The review finishes with a report of the most recent evidence of outcomes after both approaches and concerns regarding the development of hindfoot arthritis. PMID:27900266

  15. Ankle arthrodesis: A systematic approach and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Youichi; Hannon, Charles P; Seow, Dexter; Kennedy, John G

    2016-11-18

    Ankle arthrodesis is a common treatment used for patients with end-stage ankle arthritis (ESAA). The surgical goal of ankle arthrodesis is to obtain bony union between the tibia and talus with adequate alignment [slight valgus (0°-5°)], neutral dorsiflexion, and slight external rotation positions) in order to provide a pain-free plantigrade foot for weightbearing activities. There are many variations in operative technique including deferring approaches (open or arthroscopic) and differing fixation methods (internal or external fixation). Each technique has its advantage and disadvantages. Success of ankle arthrodesis can be dependent on several factors, including patient selection, surgeons' skills, patient comorbidities, operative care, etc. However, from our experience, the majority of ESAA patients obtain successful clinical outcomes. This review aims to outline the indications and goals of arthrodesis for treatment of ESAA and discuss both open and arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis. A systematic step by step operative technique guide is presented for both the arthroscopic and open approaches including a postoperative protocol. We review the current evidence supporting each approach. The review finishes with a report of the most recent evidence of outcomes after both approaches and concerns regarding the development of hindfoot arthritis.

  16. Iodine intake in human nutrition: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Dahl, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    The present literature review is a part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. The main objective of the review is to assess the influence of different intakes of iodine at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation) in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. The literature search resulted in 1,504 abstracts. Out of those, 168 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 40 papers that were quality assessed (A, B, or C). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, and no conclusion. We found suggestive evidence for improved maternal iodine status and thyroid function by iodine supplementation during pregnancy. Suggestive evidence was found for the relationship between improved thyroid function (used as an indicator of iodine status) during pregnancy and cognitive function in the offspring up to 18 months of age. Moderately to severely iodine-deficient children will probably benefit from iodine supplementation or improved iodine status in order to improve their cognitive function, while only one study showed improved cognitive function following iodine supplementation in children from a mildly iodine-deficient area (no conclusion). No conclusions can be drawn related to other outcomes included in our review. There are no new data supporting changes in dietary reference values for children or adults. The rationale for increasing the dietary reference values for pregnant and lactating women in the NNR5 needs to be discussed in a broader perspective, taking iodine status of pregnant women in the Nordic countries into account. PMID:23060737

  17. Red meat consumption and ischemic heart disease. A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian

    2015-10-01

    Several lines of evidence attest that diet may strongly influence the cardiovascular risk. We performed an electronic search in Medline (with PubMed interface), Scopus and ISI Web of Science, to identify epidemiological studies on the association between red meat intake and the overall risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Eleven studies (8 prospective and 3 case-control) were finally selected for this systematic literature review. Although a larger intake of red meat was found to be a significant risk factor for IHD in four studies (2 prospective and 2 case-control), no significant association was found in five other trials (4 prospective and 1 case-control). We suggest that future diet recommendations for prevention of cardiovascular disease should take into account that the current literature data does not support the existence of a clear relationship between large intake of red meat and increased risk of myocardial ischemia.

  18. Severe strongyloidiasis: a systematic review of case reports

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis is commonly a clinically unapparent, chronic infection, but immuno suppressed subjects can develop fatal disease. We carried out a review of literature on hyperinfection syndrome (HS) and disseminated strongyloidiasis (DS), in order to describe the most challenging aspects of severe strongyloidiasis. Methods We conducted a structured search using PubMed to collect case reports and short case series on HS/DS published from 1991 to 2011. We restricted search to papers in English, Spanish, Italian and French. Case reports were classified as HS/DS according to given definitions. Results Records screened were 821, and 311 were excluded through titles and abstract evaluation. Of 510 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, 213 were included in qualitative analysis. As some of them were short case series, eventually the number of cases analyzed was 244. Steroids represented the main trigger predisposing to HS and DS (67% cases): they were mostly administered to treat underlying conditions (e.g. lymphomas, rheumatic diseases). However, sometimes steroids were empirically prescribed to treat signs and symptoms caused by unsuspected/unrecognized strongyloidiasis. Diagnosis was obtained by microscopy examination in 100% cases, while serology was done in a few cases (6.5%). Only in 3/29 cases of solid organ/bone marrow transplantation there is mention of pre-transplant serological screening. Therapeutic regimens were different in terms of drugs selection and combination, administration route and duration. Similar fatality rate was observed between patients with DS (68.5%) and HS (60%). Conclusions Proper screening (which must include serology) is mandatory in high - risk patients, for instance candidates to immunosuppressive medications, currently or previously living in endemic countries. In some cases, presumptive treatment might be justified. Ivermectin is the gold standard for treatment, although the optimal dosage is not clearly defined in

  19. Eurythmy Therapy in clinical studies: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Büssing, Arndt; Ostermann, Thomas; Majorek, Magdalena; Matthiessen, Peter F

    2008-01-01

    Background We aimed to overview the current literature on eurythmy therapy (EYT) which is an integral part of Anthroposophic Medicine. EYT can be described as a movement therapy in which speech movements are transposed into exercises which address the patient's capability to soul expression and strengthen his salutogenetic resources. Methods We searched several databases such as Cochrane, EMBASE, NCCAM, NLM, DIMDI, CAMbase, and Medline for case-control studies, cohort studies and randomised controlled trials on the treatment effects of EYT in a clinical setting. In a second search we included journal databases from Karger, Kluwer, Springer, Thieme, and Merkurstab archive. Results We found 8 citations which met the inclusion criterion: 4 publications referring to a prospective cohort study without control group (the AMOS study), and 4 articles referring to 2 explorative pre-post studies without control group, 1 prospective, non-randomized comparative study, and 1 descriptive study with a control group. The methodological quality of studies ranged in from poor to good, and in sample size from 5 to 898 patients. In most studies, EYT was used as an add-on, not as a mono-therapy. The studies described positive treatment effects with clinically relevant effect sizes in most cases. Conclusion Indications, study designs and the usage of additional treatments within the identified studies were quite heterogeneous. Despite of this, EYT can be regarded as a potentially relevant add-on in a therapeutic concept, although its specific relevance remains to be clarified. Well performed controlled studies on this unique treatment are highly recommended. PMID:18377647

  20. Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to the Craniovertebral Junction: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Tatsuhiro; Platt, Andrew; Zada, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Background We reviewed the current literature pertaining to extended endoscopic endonasal approaches to the craniovertebral junction. Methods A systematic literature review was utilized to identify published surgical cases of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the craniovertebral junction. Full-text manuscripts were examined for various measures of surgical indications, patient characteristics, operative technique, and surgical outcomes. Results We identified 71 cases involving endoscopic endonasal approaches for surgical management of a variety of pathologies located within the craniovertebral junction. Patient ages ranged from 3 to 87 years, with 40 females and 31 males. Five patients required tracheostomy, two were reintubated, and all others experienced an average intubation duration of 0.54 days following surgery. Fifty-eight patients (81.7%) underwent an additional posterior decompression or fusion either before or after the endonasal procedure. A complete resection of the pathologic lesion was reported in 57 cases (83.8%), another five were successful biopsies, and four resulted in partial resection. The follow-up time ranged from 0.5 to 57 months. Conclusion Although the transoral approach has been the standard for anterior surgical management for the past several decades, our systematic review illustrates that the extended endoscopic endonasal approach is a safe and effective alternative for most pathologies affecting the craniovertebral junction. PMID:26682128

  1. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications. PMID:27177402

  2. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications.

  3. School Leadership and Management in South Africa: Findings from a Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature on school leadership and management in South Africa, linked to the 20th anniversary of democratic government and integrated education. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors conducted a systematic review of all published work since 2007 with a more selective…

  4. Intersection of health, immigration, and youth: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Roxana

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this literature review is to provide a critical overview of existing research on the health of immigrant youth within the last decade. Although the review focuses primarily on Canada, the findings have implications for public health planning, policy, and settlement/immigration services in other immigrant-receiving countries. The main objectives are: (i) to locate relevant literature written in the past 10 years (January 1998-January 2008); (ii) to undertake a critical review of retrieved studies; (iii) to highlight gaps in the current state of our knowledge and make recommendations for future research directions. The review focuses on the influence of migration experience on health of youth.

  5. Peer-based health interventions for people with serious mental illness: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Camacho, David; Vélez-Grau, Carolina M; Stefancic, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Health interventions delivered by peer specialists or co-facilitated by peer specialists and health professionals can help improve the physical health of people with serious mental illness (SMI). Yet, the quality of the studies examining these health interventions and their impact on health outcomes remains unclear. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic literature review of peer-based health interventions for people with SMI. We rated the methodological quality of studies, summarized intervention strategies and health outcomes, and evaluated the inclusion of racial and ethnic minorities in these studies. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines to conduct our systematic literature review. Electronic bibliographic databases and manual searches were used to locate articles that were published in English in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2015, described peer-based health interventions for people with SMI, and evaluated the impact of the interventions on physical health outcomes. Two independent reviewers used a standardized instrument to rate studies' methodological quality, abstracted study characteristics, and evaluated the effects of the interventions on different health outcomes. Eighteen articles were reviewed. Findings indicated that the strength of the evidence generated from these studies is limited due to several methodological limitations. Mixed and limited intervention effects were reported for most health outcomes. The most promising interventions were self-management and peer-navigator interventions. Efforts to strengthen the evidence of peer-based interventions require a research agenda that focuses on establishing the efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions across different populations and settings.

  6. Global and regional burden of infective endocarditis, 1990-2010: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bin Abdulhak, Aref A; Baddour, Larry M; Erwin, Patricia J; Hoen, Bruno; Chu, Vivian H; Mensah, George A; Tleyjeh, Imad M

    2014-03-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disease associated with serious complications. The GBD 2010 (Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors) study IE expert group conducted a systematic review of IE epidemiology literature to inform estimates of the burden on IE in 21 world regions in 1990 and 2010. The disease model of IE for the GBD 2010 study included IE death and 2 sequelae: stroke and valve surgery. Several medical and science databases were searched for IE epidemiology studies in GBD high-, low-, and middle-income regions published between 1980 and 2008. The epidemiologic parameters of interest were IE incidence, proportions of IE patients who developed stroke or underwent valve surgery, and case fatality. Literature searches yielded 1,975 unique papers, of which 115 published in 10 languages were included in the systematic review. Eligible studies were population-based (17%), multicenter hospital-based (11%), and single-center hospital-based studies (71%). Population-based studies were reported from only 6 world regions. Data were missing or sparse in many low- and middle-income regions. The crude incidence of IE ranged between 1.5 and 11.6 cases per 100,000 people and was reported from 10 countries. The overall mean proportion of IE patients that developed stroke was 0.158 ± 0.091, and the mean proportion of patients that underwent valve surgery was 0.324 ± 0.188. The mean case fatality risk was 0.211 ± 0.104. A systematic review for the GBD 2010 study provided IE epidemiology estimates for many world regions, but highlighted the lack of information about IE in low- and middle-income regions. More complete knowledge of the global burden of IE will require improved IE surveillance in all world regions.

  7. Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Chen, Jack J.; Frei, Karen; Nahab, Fatta; Tagliati, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim was to elucidate clinical trial efficacy, safety, and dosing practices of abobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) treatment in adult patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. To date, most literature reviews for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm have examined the effectiveness of all botulinum neurotoxin type A products as a class. However, differences in dosing units and recommended schemes provide a clear rationale for reviewing each product separately. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials and other comparative clinical studies of ABO in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm published in English between January 1991 and March 2015. Medical literature databases (PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE) were searched. A total of five primary publications that evaluated ABO for the management of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm were identified and summarized. Results Data included 374 subjects with blepharospasm and 172 subjects with hemifacial spasm treated with ABO. Total ABO doses ranged between 80 and 340 U for blepharospasm and 25 and 85 U for hemifacial spasm, depending on the severity of the clinical condition. All studies showed statistically significant benefits for the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. ABO was generally well tolerated across the individual studies. Adverse events considered to be associated with ABO treatment included: ptosis, tearing, blurred vision, double vision, dry eyes, and facial weakness. Discussion These data from 5 randomized clinical studies represents the available evidence base of ABO in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Future studies in this area will add to this evidence base. PMID:26566457

  8. Productization and Commercialization of IT-Enabled Higher Education in Computer Science: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaanpää, Irja; Isomäki, Hannakaisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature on the production and commercialization of IT-enabled higher education in computer science. Systematic literature review (SLR) was carried out in order to find out to what extent this area has been studied, more specifically how much it has been studied and to what detail. The results of this paper make a…

  9. Reviewing Literature in Bioethics Research: Increasing Rigour in Non-Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy.

  10. Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scales Based on Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Paul D; Hersey, Denise P; Leder, Steven B

    2016-06-01

    Identification of pharyngeal residue severity located in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses has always been a primary goal during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Pharyngeal residue is a clinical sign of potential prandial aspiration making an accurate description of its severity an important but difficult challenge. A reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scale for FEES would be beneficial. A systematic review of the published English language literature since 1995 was conducted to determine the quality of existing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales based on FEES. Databases were searched using controlled vocabulary words and synonymous free text words for topics of interest (deglutition disorders, pharyngeal residue, endoscopy, videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic technology, aspiration, etc.) and outcomes of interest (scores, scales, grades, tests, FEES, etc.). Search strategies were adjusted for syntax appropriate for each database/platform. Data sources included MEDLINE (OvidSP 1946-April Week 3 2015), Embase (OvidSP 1974-2015 April 20), Scopus (Elsevier), and the unindexed material in PubMed (NLM/NIH) were searched for relevant articles. Supplementary efforts to identify studies included checking reference lists of articles retrieved. Scales were compared using qualitative properties (sample size, severity definitions, number of raters, and raters' experience and training) and psychometric analyses (randomization, intra- and inter-rater reliability, and construct validity). Seven articles describing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales met inclusion criteria. Six of seven scales had insufficient data to support their use as evidenced by methodological weaknesses with both qualitative properties and psychometric analyses. There is a need for qualitative and psychometrically reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scales that are anatomically specific, image

  11. Information skills training: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brettle, Alison

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to undertake a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of information skills training, to identify effective methods of training and to determine whether information skills training affects patient care. A systematic review, using an iterative approach to searching, was employed. Studies selected for inclusion in the review were critically appraised using a tool used in previous reviews. A tabular approach was used to provide a summary of each paper allowing synthesis of results. One thousand, three hundred and fifty-seven potentially relevant papers were located. On the basis of titles and abstracts, 41 potentially relevant studies were identified for potential inclusion. Further reading and application of the inclusion criteria left 24 studies for critical appraisal and inclusion in the review. Study designs included randomised controlled trials, cohort designs and qualitative studies. The majority of studies took place in US medical schools. Wide variations were found in course content and training methods. Eight studies used objective methods to test skills, two compared training methods and two examined the effects on patient care. There was limited evidence to show that training improves skills, insufficient evidence to determine the most effective methods of training and limited evidence to show that training improves patient care. Further research is needed in a number of areas.

  12. Factors predicting persistence of early wheezing through childhood and adolescence: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Sossa-Briceño, Monica P; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Background For the early identification of persistent asthma symptoms among young children with recurrent wheezing, it would be helpful to identify all available studies that have identified at least one factor for predicting the persistence of early wheezing. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of all studies that have identified factors that predict the persistence of symptoms among young patients with recurring wheezing. Methods A systematic review of relevant studies was conducted through searching in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, and SCOPUS databases up to June 2016. Studies that identified predictors of persistence of wheezing illness among young children with recurrent wheezing were retrieved. Two independent reviewers screened the literature and extracted relevant data. Results The literature search returned 649 references, 619 of which were excluded due to their irrelevance. Five additional studies were identified from reference lists, and 35 studies were finally included in the review. Among all the identified predictors, the most frequently identified ones were the following: family asthma or atopy; personal history of atopic diseases; allergic sensitization early in life; and frequency, clinical pattern, or severity of wheezing/symptoms. Conclusion Parental asthma (especially maternal), parental allergy, eczema, allergic rhinitis, persistent wheezing, wheeze without colds, exercise-induced wheeze, severe wheezing episodes, allergic sensitization (especially polysensitization), eosinophils (blood or eosinophil cationic protein in nasal sample), and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide were risk factors predicting persistence of early wheezing through school age. All of them are included in conventional algorithms, for example, Asthma Predictive Index and its modifications, for predicting future asthma. PMID:28392707

  13. Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Brazil (2000–2010): A Systematic Literature Search and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Maria Glória; Siqueira,, João Bosco; Ferreira, Germano L. C.; Bricks, Lucia; Joint, Graham

    2013-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis was conducted to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease in Brazil reported between 2000 and 2010. The protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42011001826: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42011001826). Between 31 July and 4 August 2011, the published literature was searched for epidemiological studies of dengue disease, using specific search strategies for each electronic database. A total of 714 relevant citations were identified, 51 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The epidemiology of dengue disease in Brazil, in this period, was characterized by increases in the geographical spread and incidence of reported cases. The overall increase in dengue disease was accompanied by a rise in the proportion of severe cases. The epidemiological pattern of dengue disease in Brazil is complex and the changes observed during this review period are likely to have been influenced by multiple factors. Several gaps in epidemiological knowledge regarding dengue disease in Brazil were identified that provide avenues for future research, in particular, studies of regional differences, genotype evolution, and age-stratified seroprevalence. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42011001826. PMID:24386496

  14. Disease burden of systemic light-chain (AL) amyloidosis: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huamao Mark; Gao, Xin; Cooke, Catherine E; Berg, Deborah; Labotka, Richard; Faller, Douglas V; Seal, Brian; Hari, Parameswaran

    2017-02-21

    A systematic literature review on AL amyloidosis was conducted in order to understand the disease burden, and identify unmet medical needs and knowledge gaps. MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE databases were searched for English language studies published in the last 10 years using search terms that focused on the clinical, economic, and patient-reported outcome (PRO) aspects of AL amyloidosis. There was a low yield of articles in the economic and PRO categories and additional searches were conducted in clinical conference proceedings, and using Google and Google Scholar. After review, there were 65 articles included for data extraction. AL amyloidosis is a rare disorder without any FDA or EMA approved indications for drug therapy. Using off-label therapies, there is a high rate, 42-64%, of non-response or progression, and an associated high mortality. Toxicities during therapy are common with estimates of up to 30-40% of patients experiencing severity of grade 3 or higher. Patients with AL amyloidosis report severe psychological distress, anxiety and clinical depression. There is a deficiency in the literature on the economic costs associated with AL amyloidosis, and information on costs has been derived from studies that examined multiple myeloma or other disease or treatment components common to AL amyloidosis.

  15. Palliative care for people with severe persistent mental illness: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Woods, Anne; Willison, Kathleen; Kington, Cindy; Gavin, Alan

    2008-11-01

    A systematic overview of the literature on palliative care for people with severe persistent mental illness (SPMI) was conducted to inform clinical practice, research, and education. Empirical studies and nonempirical papers were included. Few empirical studies exist. There is even less information about the palliative care needs of, or the nature of palliative care provided to, people with SPMI. Mental health, primary care, and palliative care providers need to partner with people who have SPMI in developing and providing palliative care. The field of palliative care for people with SPMI is wide open and in need of methodologically sound studies that will help define the issues that exist for this vulnerable population. Recognizing the similarities between mental health and palliative care should lead to collaborative ventures and discussions in an attempt to address common and parallel issues.

  16. Mindfulness interventions for psychosis: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Aust, J; Bradshaw, T

    2017-02-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychosis and the more specific diagnosis of schizophrenia constitute a major psychiatric disorder which impacts heavily on the self-esteem, functioning and quality of life of those affected. A number of mindfulness therapies have been developed in recent years, showing promising results when used with people with the disorder. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This review of the literature included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs), rather than other typically less robust methods of research (e.g. case studies, noncontrolled studies). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: We concluded that mindfulness therapies can be safely used with people with psychosis and that they provide a number of therapeutic benefits compared with routine care and, in some cases, other interventions. Larger, methodologically improved trials are now recommended to evaluate the benefits of mindfulness therapies further.

  17. Prescription Medication Sharing: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Beyene, Kebede A.; Sheridan, Janie; Aspden, Trudi

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on nonrecreational prescription medication sharing. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and a customized multidatabase for all relevant articles published through 2013; our final sample comprised 19 studies from 9 countries with 36 182 participants, ranging in age from children to older adults, and published between 1990 and 2011. The prevalence rate for borrowing someone’s prescription medication was 5% to 51.9% and for lending prescription medication to someone else was 6% to 22.9%. A wide range of medicines were shared between family members, friends, and acquaintances. Sharing of many classes of prescription medication was common. Further research should explore why people share, how they decide to lend or borrow, whether they are aware of the risks, and how they assess the relevance of those risks. PMID:24524496

  18. An Overview of Chronic Disease Models: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Ashoo; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The objective of our study was to examine various existing chronic disease models, their elements and their role in the management of Diabetes, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and Cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed and CINHAL during a period of January 2003- March 2011. Following key terms were used either in single or in combination such as “Chronic Disease Model” AND “Diabetes Mellitus” OR “COPD” OR ‘CVD”. Results: A total of 23 studies were included in the final analysis. Majority of the studies were US-based. Five chronic disease models included Chronic Care Model (CCM), Improving Chronic Illness Care (ICIC), and Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions (ICCC), Stanford Model (SM) and Community based Transition Model (CBTM). CCM was the most studied model. Elements studied included delivery system design and self-management support (87%), clinical information system and decision support (57%) and health system organization (52%). Elements including center care on the patient and family (13%), patient safety (4%), community policies (4%), built integrated health care (4%) and remote patient monitoring (4%) have not been well studied. Other elements including support paradigm shift, manage political environment, align sectoral policies for health, use healthcare personnel more effectively, support patients in their communities, emphasize prevention, identify patient specific concerns related to the transition process, and health literacy between visits and treatments have also not been well studied in the existing literature. Conclusions: It was unclear to what extent the results generated is applicable to different populations and locations and therefore is an area of future research. Future studies are also needed to test chronic disease models in settings where more racially and ethnically representative patients receive chronic care. Future program development should also

  19. Dietary Acrylamide and Human Cancer: A Systematic Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Tim R.; Barnes, Stephen; Groopman, John

    2014-01-01

    Cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States, and the numbers of cases are expected to continue to rise worldwide. Cancer prevention strategies are crucial for reducing the cancer burden. The carcinogenic potential of dietary acrylamide exposure from cooked foods is unknown. Acrylamide is a by-product of the common Maillard reaction where reducing sugars (i.e., fructose and glucose) react with the amino acid, asparagine. Based on the evidence of acrylamide carcinogenicity in animals, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified acrylamide as a group 2A carcinogen for humans. Since the discovery of acrylamide in foods in 2002, a number of studies have explored its potential as a human carcinogen. This paper outlines a systematic review of dietary acrylamide and human cancer, acrylamide exposure and internal dose, exposure assessment methods in the epidemiologic studies, existing data gaps, and future directions. A majority of the studies reported no statistically significant association between dietary acrylamide intake and various cancers, and few studies reported increased risk for renal, endometrial, and ovarian cancers; however, the exposure assessment has been inadequate leading to potential misclassification or underestimation of exposure. Future studies with improved dietary acrylamide exposure assessment are encouraged. PMID:24875401

  20. Aetiology of bronchiectasis in adults: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Hua; Guan, Wei-Jie; Liu, Shao-Xia; Wang, Lei; Cui, Juan-Juan; Chen, Rong-Chang; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-11-01

    While identifying the underlying aetiology is a key part of bronchiectasis management, the prevalence and impact of identifying the aetiologies on clinical management remain unclear. We aimed to determine the etiological spectrum of bronchiectasis, and how often etiological assessment could lead to the changes in patients' management. A comprehensive search was conducted using MEDLINE (via PubMed) and EMBASE for observational studies published before October 2015 reporting aetiologies in adults with bronchiectasis. Of the 8216 citations identified, 56 studies including 8608 adults with bronchiectasis were relevant for this systematic review. The crude prevalence for the identified aetiologies ranged from 18% to 95%, which possibly resulted from the differences in the geographic regions and diagnostic workup. Post-infective (29.9%), immunodeficiency (5%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (3.9%), connective tissue disease (3.8%), ciliary dysfunction (2.5%), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (2.6%) were the most common aetiologies. In 1577 patients (18.3%), identifying the aetiologies led to changes in patient's management. Aetiologies varied considerably among different geographic regions (P < 0.001). Intensive investigations of these aetiologies might help change patient's management and therefore should be incorporated into routine clinical practice.

  1. Complications in adolescent pregnancy: systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo, Walter Fernandes; Diniz, Michele Baffi; da Fonseca, Eduardo Sérgio Valério Borges; de Azevedo, Lícia Maria Ricarte; Evangelista, Carla Braz

    2015-01-01

    Sexual activity during adolescence can lead to unwanted pregnancy, which in turn can result in serious maternal and fetal complications. The present study aimed to evaluate the complications related to adolescent pregnancy, through a systematic review using the Medical Subject Headings: “pregnancy complication” AND “adolescent” OR “pregnancy in adolescence”. Only full original articles in English or Portuguese with a clearly described methodology, were included. No qualitative studies, reviews or meta-analyses, editorials, case series, or case reports were included. The sample consisted of 15 articles; in that 10 were cross-sectional and 5 were cohort studies. The overall prevalence of adolescent pregnancy was 10%, and among the Brazilian studies, the adolescent pregnancy rate was 26%. The cesarean delivery rate was lower than that reported in the general population. The main maternal and neonatal complications were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, prematurity and low birth weight, respectively. Adolescent pregnancy is related to increased frequency of neonatal and maternal complications and lower prevalence of cesarean delivery. PMID:26061075

  2. Assessment and classification of cancer breakthrough pain: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Dagny Faksvåg; Hjermstad, Marianne Jensen; Hagen, Neil; Caraceni, Augusto; Kaasa, Stein

    2010-06-01

    Temporal variations in cancer pain intensity are highly prevalent, and are often difficult to manage. However, the phenomenon is not well understood: several definitions and approaches to classification and bedside assessment of cancer breakthrough pain (BTP) have been described. The present study is a systematic review of published literature on cancer BTP to answer the following questions: which terms and definitions have been used; are there validated assessment tools; which domains of BTP do the tools delineate, and which items do they contain; how have assessment tools been applied within clinical studies; and are there validated classification systems for BTP. A systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature was performed using five major databases. Of 375 titles and abstracts initially identified, 51 articles were examined in detail. Analysis of these publications indicates a range of overlapping but distinct definitions have been used to characterize BTP; 42 of the included papers presented one or more ways of classifying BTP; and while 10 tools to assess patients' experience of BTP were identified, only 2 have been partially validated. We conclude that there is no widely accepted definition, classification system or well-validated assessment tool for cancer-related breakthrough pain, but there is strong concurrence on most of its key attributes. With further work in this area, an internationally agreed upon definition and classification system for cancer-related breakthrough pain, and a standard approach on how to measure it, hold the promise to improve patient care and support research in this poor-prognosis cancer pain syndrome.

  3. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Yalda; Stringer, Helen; Klee, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Iran. Consequently, there is no information about the prevalence of child language disorders in Iranian population. This review summarizes Iranian studies on child language development and disorder in the preschool years and aims to systematically find the most studied topics in the field of normal development, the assessment and diagnosis of language impairments as well as exploring the current gaps within the body of literature. Three main Iranian academic websites of indexed articles along with four other nonIranian databases were scrutinized for all relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria: Iranian studies within the field of Persian language development and disorders in preschool children published up to December 2013. They are classified according to the hierarchy of evidence and weighed against the criteria of critical appraisal of study types. As this is a type of nonintervention systematic review, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses is modified to be more compatible to the designs of eligible studies, including descriptive studies, test-developing and/or diagnostic studies. Several limitations made the process of searching and retrieving problematic; e.g., lack of unified keywords and incompatibility of Persian typing structure embedded in Iranian search engines. Overall, eligible studies met the criteria up to the third level of the hierarchy of evidence that shows the necessity of conducting studies with higher levels of

  4. Novel keyword co-occurrence network-based methods to foster systematic reviews of scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Jacqueline A.

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of scientific literature are important for mapping the existing state of research and highlighting further growth channels in a field of study, but systematic reviews are inherently tedious, time consuming, and manual in nature. In recent years, keyword co-occurrence networks (KCNs) are exploited for knowledge mapping. In a KCN, each keyword is represented as a node and each co-occurrence of a pair of words is represented as a link. The number of times that a pair of words co-occurs in multiple articles constitutes the weight of the link connecting the pair. The network constructed in this manner represents cumulative knowledge of a domain and helps to uncover meaningful knowledge components and insights based on the patterns and strength of links between keywords that appear in the literature. In this work, we propose a KCN-based approach that can be implemented prior to undertaking a systematic review to guide and accelerate the review process. The novelty of this method lies in the new metrics used for statistical analysis of a KCN that differ from those typically used for KCN analysis. The approach is demonstrated through its application to nano-related Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) risk literature. The KCN approach identified the knowledge components, knowledge structure, and research trends that match with those discovered through a traditional systematic review of the nanoEHS field. Because KCN-based analyses can be conducted more quickly to explore a vast amount of literature, this method can provide a knowledge map and insights prior to undertaking a rigorous traditional systematic review. This two-step approach can significantly reduce the effort and time required for a traditional systematic literature review. The proposed KCN-based pre-systematic review method is universal. It can be applied to any scientific field of study to prepare a knowledge map. PMID:28328983

  5. Risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament injury in football players: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Volpi, Piero; Bisciotti, Gian Nicola; Chamari, Karim; Cena, Emanuela; Carimati, Giulia; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The ACL lesion represents one of the most dramatic injuries in a sportsman’s career. There are many injury risk factors related to intrinsic, or non-modifiable, and extrinsic, or modifiable, factors. In literature at today current evidence suggests that ACL injury risk is multifactorial and involves biomechanical, anatomical, hormonal and neuromuscular factors. Purpose To perform a systematic review of the literature concerning the ACL injury risk factors in soccer. Conclusion The injury risk factors show a low level of evidence, further studies in the field are needed. Study design Systematic review. PMID:28217570

  6. Transfemoral prosthesis suspension systems: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Hossein; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Eshraghi, Arezoo; Ali, Sadeeq

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the scientific evidence pertaining to various transfemoral suspension systems to provide selection criteria for clinicians. To this end, databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect were explored. The following key words, as well as their combinations and synonyms, were used for the search: transfemoral prosthesis, prosthetic suspension, lower limb prosthesis, above-knee prosthesis, prosthetic liner, transfemoral, and prosthetic socket. The study design, research instrument, sampling method, outcome measures, and protocols of articles were reviewed. On the basis of the selection criteria, 16 articles (11 prospective studies and 5 surveys) were reviewed. The main causes of reluctance to prosthesis, aside from energy expenditure, were socket-related problems such as discomfort, perspiration, and skin problems. Osseointegration was a suspension option, yet it is rarely applied because of several drawbacks, such as extended rehabilitation process, risk for fracture, and infection along with excessive cost. In conclusion, no clinical evidence was found as a "standard" system of suspension and socket design for all transfemoral amputees. However, among various suspension systems for transfemoral amputees, the soft insert or double socket was favored by most users in terms of function and comfort.

  7. Making literature reviews more reliable through application of lessons from systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Haddaway, N R; Woodcock, P; Macura, B; Collins, A

    2015-12-01

    Review articles can provide valuable summaries of the ever-increasing volume of primary research in conservation biology. Where findings may influence important resource-allocation decisions in policy or practice, there is a need for a high degree of reliability when reviewing evidence. However, traditional literature reviews are susceptible to a number of biases during the identification, selection, and synthesis of included studies (e.g., publication bias, selection bias, and vote counting). Systematic reviews, pioneered in medicine and translated into conservation in 2006, address these issues through a strict methodology that aims to maximize transparency, objectivity, and repeatability. Systematic reviews will always be the gold standard for reliable synthesis of evidence. However, traditional literature reviews remain popular and will continue to be valuable where systematic reviews are not feasible. Where traditional reviews are used, lessons can be taken from systematic reviews and applied to traditional reviews in order to increase their reliability. Certain key aspects of systematic review methods that can be used in a context-specific manner in traditional reviews include focusing on mitigating bias; increasing transparency, consistency, and objectivity, and critically appraising the evidence and avoiding vote counting. In situations where conducting a full systematic review is not feasible, the proposed approach to reviewing evidence in a more systematic way can substantially improve the reliability of review findings, providing a time- and resource-efficient means of maximizing the value of traditional reviews. These methods are aimed particularly at those conducting literature reviews where systematic review is not feasible, for example, for graduate students, single reviewers, or small organizations.

  8. The Impact of Creative Learning Environments on Learners: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jindal-Snape, Divya; Davies, Dan; Collier, Chris; Howe, Alan; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a systematic review of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools. Despite the search yielding 210 documents, comparatively few empirical studies were published between 2005 and 2011 that addressed the review objectives. Only 18 studies included in the…

  9. Nutrition and Adults with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: Systematic Literature Review Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Kathleen; Traci, Meg Ann; Seekins, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 4.5 million Americans have an intellectual or developmental disability. Concern is increasing about these individuals' nutrition-related behavior and its implications for their health. This article reports on a systematic search of the current literature listed in the "PsycINFO" and "PubMed" databases related to nutritional status of…

  10. Computer-Based Graphic Organizers for Students with LD: A Systematic Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciullo, Stephen; Reutebuch, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of the literature for studies that utilized computer-based graphic organizers for students with learning disabilities. A comprehensive search yielded 12 studies that were coded and analyzed. The authors investigated the effectiveness of the treatments on academic outcomes, and selected integral…

  11. Integrating Enterprise Resource Planning (SAP) in the Accounting Curriculum: A Systematic Literature Review and Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blount, Yvette; Abedin, Babak; Vatanasakdakul, Savanid; Erfani, Seyedezahra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how an enterprise resource planning (ERP) software package SAP was integrated into the curriculum of an accounting information systems (AIS) course in an Australian university. Furthermore, the paper provides a systematic literature review of articles published between 1990 and 2013 to understand how ERP systems were…

  12. School Leadership in West Africa: Findings from a Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The literature shows that leadership is the second most important factor influencing school and learner outcomes, including levels of literacy and numeracy, school leaving examination results, and progression to secondary and higher education. This article focuses on school leadership in West Africa, drawing on a systematic review of the academic…

  13. The Lived Experience of Heart Failure at the End of Life: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Faith Pratt; Thornton, Nancy; Martin, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    The growing number of older adults with heart failure (HF) suggests the need for more information about how people with this condition experience their illness and strategies for coping with this condition. To address this need, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature and an in-depth, thematic analysis of qualitative…

  14. Strategies for Implementing School-Located Influenza Vaccination of Children: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Hull, Harry F.; Rousculp, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends influenza vaccinations for all children 6 months to 18 years of age, which includes school-aged children. Influenza immunization programs may benefit schools by reducing absenteeism. Methods: A systematic literature review of PubMed, PsychLit, and Dissertation Abstracts…

  15. The Clinical Aspects of Mirror Therapy in Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothgangel, Andreas Stefan; Braun, Susy M.; Beurskens, Anna J.; Seitz, Rudiger J.; Wade, Derick T.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical aspects of mirror therapy (MT) interventions after stroke, phantom limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome. A systematic literature search of the Cochrane Database of controlled trials, PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PEDro, RehabTrials and Rehadat, was made by two…

  16. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  17. Educational Interventions for Children with ASD: A Systematic Literature Review 2008-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Caroline; Symes, Wendy; Hebron, Judith; Humphrey, Neil; Morewood, Gareth; Woods, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Systematic literature reviews can play a key role in underpinning evidence-based practice. To date, large-scale reviews of interventions for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have focused primarily on research quality. To assist practitioners, the current review adopted a broader framework which allowed for greater consideration of…

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  19. The Use of Motivation Theory in Engineering Education Research: A Systematic Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Philip R.; McCord, Rachel E.; Matusovich, Holly M.; Kajfez, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation is frequently studied in the context of engineering education. However, the use of the term motivation can be inconsistent, both in how clearly it is defined and in how it is implemented in research designs and practice. This systematic literature review investigates the use of motivation across recent engineering education…

  20. Assessing Grant Capacity and Readiness: A Systematic Review of the Periodical Literature of Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuss, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The author knew of no formalized system for appraising grant capacity and readiness so, in an effort to understand the current state of knowledge regarding assessment of these institutional factors, conducted a systematic review of the research administration literature. Every article published from 1982 through 2013 by five major journals in the…

  1. The Potentials of Using Cloud Computing in Schools: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Simon Birk; Braae, Lotte Qulleq Nygaard; Pedersen, Sine; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2017-01-01

    Cloud Computing (CC) refers to the physical structure of a communications network, where data is stored in large data centers and can be accessed anywhere, at any time, and from different devices. This systematic literature review identifies and categorizes the potential and barriers of cloud-based teaching in schools from an international…

  2. A systematic review of the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries as a consequence, in part, of increased obstetric intervention and increasingly complex medical needs of women who become pregnant. Access to emergency obstetric care means that for the majority of women in these countries, an experience of severe maternal morbidity is unlikely to result in loss of life. However, little is known about the subsequent impact on postnatal psychological health resulting in an evidence gap to support provision of appropriate care for these women. There has recently been increasing recognition that childbirth can be a cause of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The combination of experiencing a life-threatening complication and its management may culminate in psychological trauma. This systematic review examined the association between women’s experience of severe maternal morbidity during labour, at the time of giving birth or within the first week following birth, and PTSD and its symptoms. Methods Relevant literature was identified through multiple databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Cochrane library and the British Library, using predetermined search strategies. The search terms included "post-traumatic stress disorder", "PTSD", "stress disorders, post-traumatic", "maternal morbidity", “pregnancy complications” “puerperal disorders”, "obstetric labo(u)r complication", "postpartum h(a)emorrhage", "eclampsia”. Studies identified were categorised according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was assessed using the relevant CASP appraisal tools. Results Eleven primary studies met review criteria. Evidence of a relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD/PTSD symptoms was inconsistent and findings varied between studies. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that severe pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for PTSD and its

  3. Rape in Armed Conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature.

    PubMed

    Kabengele Mpinga, Emmanuel; Koya, Mapendo; Hasselgard-Rowe, Jennifer; Jeannot, Emilien; Rehani, Sylvie B; Chastonay, Philippe

    2016-05-19

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature between 1996 and 2013 on rape in war-ridden Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in order to better understand the interest of the scientific community in describing the magnitude and characteristics of the problem. The literature search was conducted in French and English using several databases (Pubmed, PsycInfo, Sapphire, BDSP, Embase, Rero, and Web of Science) with the key words "rape and DRC" combined with several Medical Subject Headings concepts. Our systematic review yielded 2,087 references, among which only 27 are original studies, that is 20 are based on population surveys and the remaining 7 are original data based on case studies and reviews. Ten studies provided prevalence rates of rape victims, 18 provided specific information on the profile of the victims, 10 reported that most of the perpetrators of rape were military personnel, 14 referred to the negligence of the government in protecting victims, and 10 reported a lack of competent health-care facilities. The awareness of rape in conflict-ridden DRC is still limited as reported in the scientific literature: Published scientific papers are scarce. Yet more research would probably help mobilize local authorities and the international community against this basic human rights violation.

  4. Biological invasions: a field synopsis, systematic review, and database of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Edward; Rollinson, Emily J; Laybourn, Adam J; Scott, Tracy E; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E; Gray, Sarah M; Mickley, James; Gurevitch, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Species introductions of anthropogenic origins are a major aspect of rapid ecological change globally. Research on biological invasions has generated a large literature on many different aspects of this phenomenon. Here, we describe and categorize some aspects of this literature, to better understand what has been studied and what we know, mapping well-studied areas and important gaps. To do so, we employ the techniques of systematic reviewing widely adopted in other scientific disciplines, to further the use of approaches in reviewing the literature that are as scientific, repeatable, and transparent as those employed in a primary study. We identified 2398 relevant studies in a field synopsis of the biological invasions literature. A majority of these studies (58%) were concerned with hypotheses for causes of biological invasions, while studies on impacts of invasions were the next most common (32% of the publications). We examined 1537 papers in greater detail in a systematic review. Superior competitive abilities of invaders, environmental disturbance, and invaded community species richness were the most common hypotheses examined. Most studies examined only a single hypothesis. Almost half of the papers were field observational studies. Studies of terrestrial invasions dominate the literature, with most of these concerning plant invasions. The focus of the literature overall is uneven, with important gaps in areas of theoretical and practical importance.

  5. Biological invasions: a field synopsis, systematic review, and database of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Edward; Rollinson, Emily J; Laybourn, Adam J; Scott, Tracy E; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E; Gray, Sarah M; Mickley, James; Gurevitch, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Species introductions of anthropogenic origins are a major aspect of rapid ecological change globally. Research on biological invasions has generated a large literature on many different aspects of this phenomenon. Here, we describe and categorize some aspects of this literature, to better understand what has been studied and what we know, mapping well-studied areas and important gaps. To do so, we employ the techniques of systematic reviewing widely adopted in other scientific disciplines, to further the use of approaches in reviewing the literature that are as scientific, repeatable, and transparent as those employed in a primary study. We identified 2398 relevant studies in a field synopsis of the biological invasions literature. A majority of these studies (58%) were concerned with hypotheses for causes of biological invasions, while studies on impacts of invasions were the next most common (32% of the publications). We examined 1537 papers in greater detail in a systematic review. Superior competitive abilities of invaders, environmental disturbance, and invaded community species richness were the most common hypotheses examined. Most studies examined only a single hypothesis. Almost half of the papers were field observational studies. Studies of terrestrial invasions dominate the literature, with most of these concerning plant invasions. The focus of the literature overall is uneven, with important gaps in areas of theoretical and practical importance. PMID:23404636

  6. Factors Influencing Food Choice for Independently Living Older People-A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Host, Alison; McMahon, Anne-Therese; Walton, Karen; Charlton, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Unyielding, disproportionate growth in the 65 years and older age group has precipitated serious concern about the propensity of health and aged-care services to cope in the very near future. Preservation of health and independence for as long as possible into later life will be necessary to attenuate demand for such services. Maintenance of nutritional status is acknowledged as fundamental for achievement of this aim. Determinants of food choice within this age group need to be identified and better understood to facilitate the development of pertinent strategies for encouraging nutritional intakes supportive of optimal health. A systematic review of the literature consistent with PRISMA guidelines was performed to identify articles investigating influences on food choice among older people. Articles were limited to those published between 1996 and 2014 and to studies conducted within countries where the dominant cultural, political and economic situations were comparable to those in Australia. Twenty-four articles were identified and subjected to qualitative analysis. Several themes were revealed and grouped into three broad domains: (i) changes associated with ageing; (ii) psychosocial aspects; and (iii) personal resources. Food choice among older people is determined by a complex interaction between multiple factors. Findings suggest the need for further investigations involving larger, more demographically diverse samples of participants, with the inclusion of a direct observational component in the study design.

  7. [Bruxism--confirmed and potential risk factors. A systematic review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Kulis, Andreja; Türp, Jens Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Considering a point prevalence of up to 20% among adults, bruxism is a clinically significant phenomenon. It was the aim of the present work to systematically review the literature published until June 2007 in order to identify contributions on risk factors for bruxism in adults. Prerequisite for consideration were reported measures of risk assessment, such as odds ratios (OR). Seven relevant articles were found. Depending on the value of the OR and the position of the lower limit of the reported confidence interval (CI(LL)), we distinguished four risk groups (A to D). Three variables--severe stress experience; age between 25 and 44 years; age between 45 and 64 years--were grouped into category A (very strong indication for clinically relevant risk factor: OR >2; CI(LL) >2). Five variables fell into category B (strong indication for clinically relevant risk factor: OR >2; 1 1) was composed of 16 variables, while category D (possible indication for risk factor: 1 < OR < or = 2; CI(LL) < or = 1) embraced 11 variables. On the other hand, the presence of occlusal interferences was not a risk factor.

  8. Impact of librarians on reporting of the literature searching component of pediatric systematic reviews*

    PubMed Central

    Meert, Deborah; Torabi, Nazi; Costella, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective A critical element in conducting a systematic review is the identification of studies. To date, very little empirical evidence has been reported on whether the presence of a librarian or information professional can contribute to the quality of the final product. The goal of this study was to compare the reporting rigor of the literature searching component of systematic reviews with and without the help of a librarian. Method Systematic reviews published from 2002 to 2011 in the twenty highest impact factor pediatrics journals were collected from MEDLINE. Corresponding authors were contacted via an email survey to determine if a librarian was involved, the role that the librarian played, and functions that the librarian performed. The reviews were scored independently by two reviewers using a fifteen-item checklist. Results There were 186 reviews that met the inclusion criteria, and 44% of the authors indicated the involvement of a librarian in conducting the systematic review. With the presence of a librarian as coauthor or team member, the mean checklist score was 8.40, compared to 6.61 (p<0.001) for reviews without a librarian. Conclusions Findings indicate that having a librarian as a coauthor or team member correlates with a higher score in the literature searching component of systematic reviews. PMID:27822147

  9. Iatrogenic surgical microscope skin burns: A systematic review of the literature and case report.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Joseph; Soni, Ashwin; Calva, Daniel; Susarla, Srinivas M; Jallo, George I; Redett, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous burns associated with microscope-use are perceived to be uncommon adverse events in microsurgery. Currently, it is unknown what factors are associated with these iatrogenic events. In this report, we describe the case of a 1-year-old patient who suffered a full thickness skin burn from a surgical microscope after a L4-S1 laminectomy. Additionally, we present a systematic review of the literature that assessed the preoperative risk, outcome, and management of iatrogenic microscope skin burns. Lastly, a summary of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database of voluntary adverse events was reviewed and analyzed for clinical cases of microscope thermal injuries. The systematic literature review identified only seven articles related to microsurgery-related cutaneous burns. From these seven studies, 15 clinical cases of iatrogenic skin burns were extracted for analysis. The systematic review of the FDA MAUDE database revealed only 60 cases of cutaneous burns associated with surgical microscopes since 2004. Few cases of microscope burns have been described in the literature; this report is, to our knowledge, one of the first comprehensive reports of this iatrogenic event in the literature.

  10. Severe Intellectual Disability: Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Nature of Presentation of Unipolar Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Catherine; Kerr, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of depression in severe and profound intellectual disability is challenging. Without adequate skills in verbal self-expression, standardized diagnostic criteria cannot be used with confidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the assessment and diagnosis of unipolar depression in severe and…

  11. Developing a Teacher Identity in the University Context: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lankveld, Thea; Schoonenboom, Judith; Volman, Monique; Croiset, Gerda; Beishuizen, Jos

    2017-01-01

    This literature review summarises the growing body of literature discussing teacher identities of university teachers. The aim was to understand what strengthens or constrains the development of a teacher identity. A qualitative synthesis of 59 studies was carried out. The review showed that several factors contribute to the development of teacher…

  12. Productivity Loss Related to Neglected Tropical Diseases Eligible for Preventive Chemotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rijnsburger, Adriana J.; Severens, Johan L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) not only cause health and life expectancy loss, but can also lead to economic consequences including reduced ability to work. This article describes a systematic literature review of the effect on the economic productivity of individuals affected by one of the five worldwide most prevalent NTDs: lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infection) and trachoma. These diseases are eligible to preventive chemotherapy (PCT). Methodology/Principal Findings Eleven bibliographic databases were searched using different names of all NTDs and various keywords relating to productivity. Additional references were identified through reference lists from relevant papers. Of the 5316 unique publications found in the database searches, thirteen papers were identified for lymphatic filariasis, ten for onchocerciasis, eleven for schistosomiasis, six for soil-transmitted helminths and three for trachoma. Besides the scarcity in publications reporting the degree of productivity loss, this review revealed large variation in the estimated productivity loss related to these NTDs. Conclusions It is clear that productivity is affected by NTDs, although the actual impact depends on the type and severity of the NTD as well as on the context where the disease occurs. The largest impact on productivity loss of individuals affected by one of these diseases seems to be due to blindness from onchocerciasis and severe schistosomiasis manifestations; productivity loss due to trachoma-related blindness has never been studied directly. However, productivity loss at an individual level might differ from productivity loss at a population level because of differences in the prevalence of NTDs. Variation in estimated productivity loss between and within diseases is caused by differences in research methods and setting. Publications should provide enough information to enable

  13. Integration of Chiropractic Services in Military and Veteran Health Care Facilities: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Green, Bart N; Johnson, Claire D; Daniels, Clinton J; Napuli, Jason G; Gliedt, Jordan A; Paris, David J

    2016-04-01

    This literature review examined studies that described practice, utilization, and policy of chiropractic services within military and veteran health care environments. A systematic search of Medline, CINAHL, and Index to Chiropractic Literature was performed from inception through April 2015. Thirty articles met inclusion criteria. Studies reporting utilization and policy show that chiropractic services are successfully implemented in various military and veteran health care settings and that integration varies by facility. Doctors of chiropractic that are integrated within military and veteran health care facilities manage common neurological, musculoskeletal, and other conditions; severe injuries obtained in combat; complex cases; and cases that include psychosocial factors. Chiropractors collaboratively manage patients with other providers and focus on reducing morbidity for veterans and rehabilitating military service members to full duty status. Patient satisfaction with chiropractic services is high. Preliminary findings show that chiropractic management of common conditions shows significant improvement.

  14. Infectious disease risks associated with occupational exposure: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Haagsma, Juanita A; Tariq, Luqman; Heederik, Dick J; Havelaar, Arie H

    2012-02-01

    Employees in different types of work may be intentionally or accidentally exposed to biological agents. Improved risk assessment is needed to identify opportunities to prevent work-related infectious disease. The objective of the current study was to perform a systematic literature review of work-related infectious disease to assist in the identification of occupational infectious disease risks. A literature search of papers on work-related infectious disease published between 1999 and 2008 yielded 1239 papers of which 242 met the selection criteria and were included in the review. The results of the systematic literature review were arranged in a matrix of occupational groups and exposure pathways. Increased risk from infectious diseases appeared to be concentrated in specific professions. Healthcare workers, workers in contact with animals, laboratory workers and refuse workers seem to have the highest risk of infection by a variety of pathogens. However, pathogens reported to be associated with closely related professions were different, indicating qualitative under-reporting. Arranging the results of this systematic review on work-related infectious diseases in a matrix of occupational groups and exposure pathways allowed the reliable identification of exposure hazards for specific occupational groups beyond currently reported diseases.

  15. Systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Milner, Kerry A

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews are a type of literature review in which authors systematically search for, critically appraise, and synthesize evidence from several studies on the same topic (Grant & Booth, 2009). The precise and systematic method differentiates systematic reviews from traditional reviews (Khan, Kunz, Kleijnen, & Antes, 2003). In all types of systematic reviews, a quality assessment is done of the individual studies that meet inclusion criteria. These individual assessments are synthesized, and aggregated results are reported. Systematic reviews are considered the highest level of evidence in evidence-based health care because the reviewers strive to use transparent, rigorous methods that minimize bias.

  16. A systematic scoping review of adherence to reporting guidelines in health care literature

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, Zainab; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Kosa, Daisy; Debono, Victoria Borg; Dillenburg, Rejane; Zhang, Shiyuan; Fruci, Vincent; Dennis, Brittany; Bawor, Monica; Thabane, Lehana

    2013-01-01

    Background Reporting guidelines have been available for the past 17 years since the inception of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement in 1996. These guidelines were developed to improve the quality of reporting of studies in medical literature. Despite the widespread availability of these guidelines, the quality of reporting of medical literature remained suboptimal. In this study, we assess the current adherence practice to reporting guidelines; determine key factors associated with better adherence to these guidelines; and provide recommendations to enhance adherence to reporting guidelines for future studies. Methods We undertook a systematic scoping review of systematic reviews of adherence to reporting guidelines across different clinical areas and study designs. We searched four electronic databases (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Embase, and Medline) from January 1996 to September 2012. Studies were included if they addressed adherence to one of the following guidelines: Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT), Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), Quality of Reporting of Meta-analysis (QUOROM), Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Nonrandomized Designs (TREND), Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). A protocol for this study was devised. A literature search, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two authors in duplicate. This study reporting follows the PRISMA guidelines. Results Our search retrieved 5159 titles, of which 50 were eligible. Overall, 86.0% of studies reported suboptimal levels of adherence to reporting guidelines. Factors associated with better adherence included journal impact factor and endorsement of guidelines, publication date, funding source, multisite studies, pharmacological

  17. Links of Adolescents Identity Development and Relationship with Peers: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ragelienė, Tija

    2016-01-01

    Objective: According to Erik Erikson, the main task of adolescents is to solve the crisis of identity versus role confusion. Research has shown that a stable and strong sense of identity is associated with better mental health of adolescents. Good relationships with peers are also linked with better emotional and psychological well-being of adolescents. However, there is a lack of reviews of studies in the scientific literature examining the relationship between the adolescents’ identity development and relationships with peers. The aims of this article were to analyze links between adolescent identity development and relationships with peers identified from a literature review, summarize the results, and discuss the theoretical factors that may predict these relationships. Method: A systematic literature review. Results: Analysis of findings from the systematic literature review revealed that a good relationship with peers is positively related to adolescent identity development, but empirical research in this area is extremely limited. Conclusions: The links between adolescents’ identity development and their relationship with peers are not completely clear. The possible intermediate factors that could determine the relationship between adolescent identity development and their relationships with peers are discussed. Further empirical researches is needed in this area. PMID:27274745

  18. Men who have sex with men in India: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Brassard, Paul; Jerajani, Hemangi R; Bharat, Shalini; Gogate, Alka; Kumta, Sameer; Row-Kavi, Ashok; Anand, Vivek; Boivin, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    This study systematically reviews the existing literature on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the men who have sex with men (MSM) in India. After a comprehensive literature search of Medline (1950-June 2008), Embase (1980-June 2008), and the Cochrane Library (1950-June 2008), 12 published studies met the inclusion criteria. The link between sexual identity and sexual behavior is a complex phenomenon strongly embedded in a very specific context in India. MSM in India are an important risk group for acquiring STIs/HIV and effective culturally sensitive prevention programs should be designed for them. The combined estimate of HIV prevalence in the MSM population in India calculated from 5 included studies was 16.5% (95% confidence intervals: 11% to 22%). The review also identifies the lacunae in existing literature and provides future directions for research in the MSM community in India.

  19. [Incontinence--a common issue for people with Parkinson's disease. A systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Siegl, Eva; Lassen, Britta; Saxer, Susi

    2013-09-01

    Parkinson's disease is among the most common neurological diseases. About 4.1 million people are attected worldwide. The course of Parkinson's disease is chronically progressive. With L-Dopa therapy the life expectancy of people being affected by Parkinon's disease is not shortened compared with people who are not affected. Therefore people with Parkinson's disease often suffer from the serious effects for decades which include motor symptoms as well as vegetative disturbance, which concerns bladder function and functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Urinary and fecal incontinence involve severe impairment of quality of life. In this review the occurence of urinary and fecal incontinence should be determined in order to be able to describe its extent. There are different measures for treatment or improvement. These are reviewed based on the following research question: Which effects do interventions have in improving urinary and fecal incontinence in persons with Parkinson's disease compared to usual care? In order to answer the questions a systematic review was conducted. The literature search occured in the electronic databases Cochrane database, PubMed and CINAHL. Three studies investigating the prevalence with a total sample size of n = 1077 and for the evaluation of interventions four studies with a total sample size of n = 48 have been included. 25 percent of the women with Parkinson's disease suffer from urgency incontinence compared to seven percent of the women without Parkinson's disease (p < 0.01). Among men with Parkison's disease 28 percent are affected and six percent among men without Parkinson's disease (p < 0.01). In respect to stress and fecal incontinence there were no significant differences between people affected and people not affected by Parkinson's disease. With pelvic floor muscle exercises and accompanying measures as well as with injections of botulinum toxin A a reduction of urinary incontinence seems to be possible. Due to

  20. Neuroimaging in social anxiety disorder: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Ferrari, Maria Cecilia; Hallak, Jaime E C; Trzesniak, Clarissa; Filho, Alaor Santos; Machado-de-Sousa, João Paulo; Chagas, Marcos Hortes N; Nardi, Antonio E; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2010-05-30

    Brain imaging techniques allow the in vivo evaluation of the human brain, leading to a better understanding of its anatomical, functional and metabolic substrate. The aim of this current report is to present a systematic and critical review of neuroimaging findings in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). A literature review was performed in the PubMed Medline, Scielo and Web of Science databases using the following keywords: 'MRI', 'functional', 'tomography', 'PET', 'SPECT', 'spectroscopy', 'relaxometry', 'tractography' and 'voxel' crossed one by one with the terms 'social anxiety' and 'social phobic', with no limit of time. We selected 196 articles and 48 of them were included in our review. Most of the included studies have explored the neural response to facial expressions of emotion, symptoms provocation paradigms, and disorder-related abnormalities in dopamine or serotonin neurotransmission. The most coherent finding among the brain imaging techniques reflects increased activity in limbic and paralimbic regions in SAD. The predominance of evidence implicating the amygdala strengthens the notion that it plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of SAD. The observation of alterations in pre-frontal regions and the reduced activity observed in striatal and parietal areas show that much remains to be investigated within the complexity of SAD. Interesting, follow-up designed studies observed a decrease in perfusion in these same areas after either by pharmacological or psychological treatment. The medial prefrontal cortex provided additional support for a corticolimbic model of SAD pathophysiology, being a promising area to investigation. Furthermore, the dopaminergic and GABAergic hypotheses seem directed related to its physiopathology. The present review indicates that neuroimaging has contributed to a better understanding of the neurobiology of SAD. Although there were several methodological differences among the studies, the global results have often been

  1. Clinical efficacy and safety in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Njue, Annete; Colosia, Ann; Trask, Peter C; Olivares, Robert; Khan, Shahnaz; Abbe, Adeline; Police, Rachel; Wang, Jianmin; Ruiz-Soto, Rodrigo; Kaye, James A; Awan, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review was performed to collect and review information on the clinical efficacy and safety of treatments for relapsed/refractory (R/R) mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), with a meta-analysis, if possible. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published in English from January 1, 1997, to August 2, 2012. Conference proceedings, bibliographic reference lists of included articles, recent reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for phase II to IV studies displaying results. Studies were included if they reported on patients with R/R MCL who were ineligible to receive high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant. Studies of patients with several non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes were only included if they reported MCL outcomes separately. We identified 59 studies in R/R MCL. Forty distinct treatment regimens were evaluated. Thirty studies included more than 15 patients with R/R MCL. Six studies were comparative (including 5 randomized controlled trials [RCTs]); 53 were single-arm. There were no common treatments among the RCTs; therefore, a meta-analysis was not feasible. Thirty-one of 59 studies reported baseline data for patients with R/R MCL. Of the 30 studies with > 15 patients with R/R MCL, 30 reported overall response rate data, 14 reported progression-free survival (PFS), and 12 reported overall survival (OS). The small number of RCTs in R/R MCL precludes identifying an optimal treatment. Small sample sizes, infrequent reporting of OS and PFS, and limited information on patient characteristics made a comparison of results difficult. High-quality comparative studies of novel therapies that have the potential to demonstrate OS advantages in R/R MCL are needed.

  2. Optimizing Outcomes following Total and Subtotal Tongue Reconstruction: A Systematic Review of the Contemporary Literature.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Oscar J; Leland, Hyuma A; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Wong, Alex; Carey, Joseph N; Ciudad, Pedro; Chen, Hung-Chi; Patel, Ketan M

    2017-02-01

    Background More than 45,000 Americans are diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancer annually and multimodal treatment often requires wide excision, lymphadenectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation. Total and subtotal lingual resection severely impairs speech, swallow, and quality of life (QoL). This study investigates functional outcomes and QoL following subtotal and total tongue resection with free tissue transfer reconstruction. Materials and Methods A systematic review of the English language literature was performed using PubMed, Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane databases based on predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Included studies were reviewed for surgical technique, adjuvant treatment, surgical and functional outcomes, and QoL. Results From an initial search yield of 1,467 articles, 22 studies were included for final analysis. Speech intelligibility was correlated with the volume and degree of protuberance of the neotongue. Adjuvant therapy (radiation) and large tumor size were associated with worse speech and swallow recovery. At 1 year follow-up, despite 14 to 20% rates of silent aspiration, 82 to 97% of patients resumed oral feeding. Neurotized flaps have been demonstrated to improve flap sensation but have not yet demonstrated any significant impact on speech or swallow recovery. Finally, many patients continue to experience pain after surgery, but patient motivation, family support with physician, and speech therapist follow-up are associated with improved QoL scores. Conclusion Tongue reconstruction is dictated by the amount of soft tissue resection. Taking into consideration the most common factors involved after tongue resection and reconstruction, further studies should focus on more objective measurements to offer solutions and maximize final outcomes.

  3. Pulmonary hypertension in childhood interstitial lung disease: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bromley, Susan; Vizcaya, David

    2016-10-23

    Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) comprises a wide heterogeneous group of rare parenchymal lung disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary hypertension is a common comorbidity in adults with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and associated with poor survival. We aimed to systematically review the literature regarding the occurrence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in chILD, its effect on prognosis and healthcare use, and its treatment in clinical practice. Searches of PubMed and EMBASE databases (up to February 2016), and American Thoracic Society conference abstracts (2009-2015) were conducted using relevant keywords. References from selected articles and review papers were scanned to identify further relevant articles. A total of 20 articles were included; estimates of PH in chILD ranged from 1% to 64% with estimates among specific chILD entities ranging from 0% to 43%. Comparisons between studies were limited by differences in the study populations, including the size, age range, and heterogeneous composition of the ILD case series in terms of the nature and severity of the clinical entities, and also the methods used to diagnose PH. Three studies found that among patients with chILD, those with PH had a significantly higher risk (up to sevenfold) of death compared with those without PH. Information on the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in chILD or the effect of PH on healthcare use was not available. Data on the use and effectiveness of treatments for pulmonary hypertension in chILD are required to address this area of unmet need. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016; 9999:XX-XX. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Trocar Injuries in Laparoscopy: Techniques, Tools, and Means for Prevention. A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Cornette, Bram; Berrevoet, Frederik

    2016-10-01

    Trocar injuries are a possible cause for severe morbidity and mortality when performing laparoscopic surgery. This systematic review investigates the differences in the incidence of complications depending on the method of entry. A meta-analysis of the medical literature was performed. Search results were limited to clinical trials and the following languages: English, French, German, or Dutch. All results that compared the Veress, Hasson, and direct entry technique or compared sharp, blunt, and radially expanding trocars (RET) were included (n = 19). Studies involving pediatric and pregnant patients were excluded. When comparing the Veress needle to direct trocar insertion (DTI), pooled analysis showed a borderline significant reduction for major complications (p = 0.04) based on five events in 2 RCT's (n = 978) and a reduction in minor complications (p < 0.001) in favor of DTI. RCT's comparing the Hasson and Veress techniques showed no significant reduction in major complications (p = 0.17), but the Hasson technique showed significantly less minor complications (p = 0.01) and failed entries (p = 0.002). CO2 leakage was far more common when using the Hasson technique (p < 0.001). Our search method did not reveal any studies comparing the Hasson technique to DTI. When comparing bladed to RET, three studies (n = 408) showed less minor complications when using a RET (p = 0.003) and a qualitative analysis showed a trend toward pain reduction when using RET. This meta-analysis concludes that there are less minor complications and failed attempts when using the Hasson or direct entry technique when compared to the Veress method, but there is limited evidence regarding major complications. RET reduce minor vascular complications when compared to bladed trocars.

  5. Contemporary applications of frontal sinus trephination: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alpen B; Cain, Rachel B; Lal, Devyani

    2015-09-01

    Our objective was to perform a systematic review of the literature on contemporary indications and outcomes for frontal sinus trephination and present an illustrative case of an endoscopically assisted repair of a subcutaneous frontal sinus fistula by trephination technique. PubMed and Ovid databases were used as data sources. A systematic review of the English literature was completed to review reports of frontal trephination from 1980 to 2014. Articles meeting inclusion criteria for inflammatory and noninflammatory indications were reviewed. Articles were systematically reviewed and graded by evidence-based medicine level. An illustrative case from our institution is then presented. The systematic review identified 2,621 published studies. Thirty-eight studies were identified for inclusion. The indications, techniques, outcomes, safety, and complications were reviewed for noninflammatory and inflammatory conditions. There were 32 retrospective case series, reports, or cohort studies (level 4), four systematic reviews (level 3), one prospective analysis (level 3), and one meta-analysis (level 2). Due to the heterogeneity of study cases and inclusion criteria, a meta-analysis was not feasible. We also present a novel closure of an anterior skull base defect resulting in a subcutaneous fistula with use of a frontal trephination approach. The frontal sinus trephination should not be regarded as a procedure of the past, as it useful in the armamentarium of the modern sinus and skull base surgeon. This approach provides access for instrumentation for hard-to-reach frontal sinus disease either purely through a trephination approach or as a supplementation to the transnasal endoscopic approach. Evidence supporting frontal sinus trephination is of levels 2, 3, and 4. Level of evidence: NA.

  6. Influence of mhealth interventions on gender relations in developing countries: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Research has shown that mHealth initiatives, or health programs enhanced by mobile phone technologies, can foster women’s empowerment. Yet, there is growing concern that mobile-based programs geared towards women may exacerbate gender inequalities. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the empirical evidence of changes in men and women’s interactions as a result of mHealth interventions. To be eligible, studies had to have been published in English from 2002 to 2012, conducted in a developing country, included an evaluation of a mobile health intervention, and presented findings on resultant dynamics between women and men. The search strategy comprised four electronic bibliographic databases in addition to a manual review of the reference lists of relevant articles and a review of organizational websites and journals with recent mHealth publications. The methodological rigor of selected studies was appraised by two independent reviewers who also abstracted data on the study’s characteristics. Iterative thematic analyses were used to synthesize findings relating to gender-transformative and non-transformative experiences. Results Out of the 173 articles retrieved for review, seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were retained in the final analysis. Most mHealth interventions were SMS-based and conducted in sub-Saharan Africa on topics relating to HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, health-based microenterprise, and non-communicable diseases. Several methodological limitations were identified among eligible quantitative and qualitative studies. The current literature suggests that mobile phone programs can influence gender relations in meaningfully positive ways by providing new modes for couple’s health communication and cooperation and by enabling greater male participation in health areas typically targeted towards women. MHealth initiatives also increased women’s decision-making, social status, and

  7. Paranoia and self-concepts in psychosis: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, Bridget; Tracey, Rebecca; Shannon, Ciaran

    2014-05-30

    The purpose of the present study was to review systematically, research exploring the relationship between self-concepts and paranoia in psychosis. A literature search was performed by two independent raters in relevant databases (MedLine, PsychInfo and Web of Science) and articles meeting the inclusion criteria were cross-referenced. Following scrutiny according to inclusion criteria, 18 studies were selected for review. A narrative synthesis of findings, in which methodological variability is discussed, is presented relative to three key areas: the nature of the relationship between paranoia and self-concepts; the association between paranoia and discrepancies in self-concepts; the nature of the relationship between paranoia and self-concepts when other, dimensional aspects of these constructs are taken into account. The systematic literature review indicated relatively consistent findings, that paranoia is associated with more negative self-concepts when measured cross-sectionally. Results are somewhat more mixed in regards to research on paranoia and self-concept discrepancies. Studies investigating dimensional aspects of self-concepts and paranoia yield findings of particular interest, especially in regards to the association indicated between instability of self-concepts and paranoia. Limitations in research and of the present systematic review are discussed. Clinical and theoretical implications of findings are outlined and possible directions for future research are suggested.

  8. Fatal river drowning: the identification of research gaps through a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Leggat, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Drowning is a leading cause of unintentional death. Rivers are a common location for drowning. Unlike other location-specific prevention efforts (home swimming pools and beaches), little is known about prevention targeting river drowning deaths. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken using English language papers published between 1980 and 2014, exploring gaps in the literature, with a focus on epidemiology, risk factors and prevention strategies for river drowning. Results Twenty-nine papers were deemed relevant to the study design including 21 (72.4%) on epidemiology, 18 (62.1%) on risk factors and 10 (34.5%) that proposed strategies for prevention. Risk factors identified included age, falls into water, swimming, using watercraft, sex and alcohol. Discussion Gaps were identified in the published literature. These included a lack of an agreed definition for rivers, rates for fatal river drowning (however, crude rates were calculated for 12 papers, ranging from 0.20 to 1.89 per 100 000 people per annum), and consensus around risk factors, especially age. There was only one paper that explored a prevention programme; the remaining nine outlined proposed prevention activities. There is a need for studies into exposure patterns for rivers and an agreed definition (with consistent coding). Conclusions This systematic review has identified that river drowning deaths are an issue in many regions and countries around the world. Further work to address gaps in the published research to date would benefit prevention efforts. PMID:26728005

  9. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kilic, O; Maas, M; Verhagen, E; Zwerver, J; Gouttebarge, V

    2017-04-09

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific evidence on the incidence, prevalence, aetiology and preventive measures of volleyball injuries. To this end, a highly sensitive search strategy was built based on two groups of keywords (and their synonyms). Two electronic databases were searched, namely Medline (biomedical literature) via Pubmed, and SPORTDiscus (sports and sports medicine literature) via EBSCOhost. The results showed that ankle, knee and shoulder injuries are the most common injuries sustained while playing volleyball. Results are presented separately for acute and overuse injuries, as well as for contact and non-contact injuries. Measures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries, anterior knee injuries and ankle injuries were identified in the scientific literature. These preventive measures were found to have a significant effect on decreasing the occurrence of volleyball injuries (for instance on ankle injuries with a reduction from 0.9 to 0.5 injuries per 1000 player hours). Our systematic review showed that musculoskeletal injuries are common among volleyball players, while effective preventive measures remain scarce. Further epidemiological studies should focus on other specific injuries besides knee and ankle injuries, and should also report their prevalence and not only the incidence. Additionally, high-quality studies on the aetiology and prevention of shoulder injuries are lacking and should be a focus of future studies.

  10. Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in trans people: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Haycraft, Emma; Murjan, Sarah; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction plays a prominent role in gender dysphoria. In some individuals body dissatisfaction appears to manifest disordered eating in order to suppress bodily features of natal gender and accentuate features of gender identity. To date, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in trans individuals. Such a review may highlight important implications for clinicians working with trans people. Therefore, the aim was to critically and systematically review the available literature examining body dissatisfaction or disordered eating in a trans population, and also the literature pertaining to how body dissatisfaction and disordered eating are related in trans people. This review found three studies that explored disordered eating in trans people, five studies that explored body image and disordered eating in trans people, and 18 studies that explored body image in trans people. The findings from this review suggest that body dissatisfaction is core to the distress trans people experience and that this dissatisfaction may also put some individuals at risk of developing disordered eating. Additionally, the findings appear to suggest that gender dysphoria treatment is successful at increasing body satisfaction and improving body image. The clinical implications are discussed.

  11. Religion, Spirituality, and HIV Clinical Outcomes: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, B R; Justice, A C; Fiellin, D A

    2016-12-21

    This systematic review evaluates the association between religion, spirituality and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected individuals. A systematic literature review was conducted for all English language articles published between 1980 and 2016 in relevant databases. Six hundred fourteen studies were evaluated. 15 met inclusion criteria. Ten (67%) studies reported a positive association between religion or spirituality and a clinical HIV outcome. Two (13%) studies failed to detect such an association; and two (13%) demonstrated a negative association. One study (7%) identified features of religiosity and spirituality that had both negative and positive associations with HIV clinical outcomes. Recognizing the religious or spiritual commitments of patients may serve as an important component of patient care. Further longitudinal studies and interventions might be required to further clarify the potential impact of religion and spirituality on HIV clinical outcomes.

  12. What is sensitive skin? A systematic literature review of objective measurements.

    PubMed

    Richters, Renée; Falcone, Denise; Uzunbajakava, Natallia; Verkruysse, Willem; van Erp, Piet; van de Kerkhof, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Despite sensitive skin being highly prevalent, no consensus on the definition and pathomechanism of sensitive skin exists. Here we report the results of a systematic literature review of diagnostic methods for sensitive skin at clinical, histological and biophysical levels. A systematic search revealed 27 out of 1,701 articles which we appraised in detail. Impaired skin barrier function and increased vascular reactivity are most often associated with sensitive skin. We identified key reasons causing an ambiguity around the sensitive skin phenomenon. We propose using standardized selection methods of subjects by a multifactorial questionnaire spanning a range of provocations, including those of chemical, mechanical and environmental origin, followed by clinical, histological and top-notch biophysical measurements. This could lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the sensitive skin phenomenon, fueling advances of biomedical and dermatological science.

  13. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy and Dental Plaque: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Santin, G. C.; Oliveira, D. S. B.; Galo, R.; Borsatto, M. C.; Corona, S. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDTa) on cariogenic dental biofilm. Types of Studies Reviewed. Studies in vivo, in vitro, and in situ were included. Articles that did not address PDTa, those that did not involve cariogenic biofilm, those that used microorganisms in the plankton phase, and reviews were excluded. Data extraction and quality assessments were performed independently by two raters using a scale. Results. Two hundred forty articles were retrieved; only seventeen of them met the eligibility criteria and were analyzed in the present review. Considerable variability was found regarding the methodologies and application protocols for antimicrobial PDTa. Two articles reported unfavorable results. Practical Implications. The present systematic review does not allow drawing any concrete conclusions regarding the efficacy of antimicrobial PDTa, although this method seems to be a promising option. PMID:25379545

  14. Victim Satisfaction With the Criminal Justice System and Emotional Recovery: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kunst, Maarten; Popelier, Lieke; Varekamp, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    The current study systematically and critically reviewed the empirical literature to evaluate the association between satisfaction with the criminal justice system and adult crime victims' emotional recovery. Despite the widely accepted notion that involvement in the criminal justice system may impact recovery from crime victimization--either beneficially or maliciously--a systematic review of empirical studies that addresses this topic has never been conducted. Electronic literature databases (ISI Web of Knowledge [including Web of Science and MEDLINE], EBSCO host [including PsychInfo, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, ERIC, PsychARTICLES, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection], and ProQuest [including PILOTS, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts]) were searched to identify relevant quantitative studies. The Cambridge Quality Checklists were used to evaluate the quality of selected studies. These checklists can be used to assess the quality of risk and protective factors in criminal justice research. In this study they were used to explore the impact of victim satisfaction on crime victims' emotional and cognitive states post-victimization. The review process revealed mixed results, with some studies suggesting a healing impact of victim satisfaction and others not. More consistent were findings regarding the existence of an association between victim satisfaction and (alterations in) positive cognitions. However, since the majority of studies suffered from severe methodological shortcomings, definite conclusions cannot be drawn yet.

  15. Minimally invasive therapy for epiphrenic diverticula: Systematic review of literature and report of six cases

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Calatayud, Mariel; Targarona, Eduardo M; Balague, Carmen; Rodriguez-Luppi, Carlos; Martin, Ana B; Trias, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epiphrenic diverticula (ED) are infrequent and conventional surgical treatment entails aggressive open or transthoracic surgery. Minimally invasive treatment has changed the surgical approach but some surgical controversies are not resolved. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe our experience in minimally invasive treatment of the ED and to perform a systematic review of the current literature in this subject. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed all data from the Hospital de Sant Pau, focusing on patients that underwent minimally invasive treatment for an ED since 1998 to date. Furthermore, we performed a systematic literature review focused on the minimally invasive approach for ED. RESULTS: A total of 6 patients have been treated (5 transhiatal and 1 with abdominal and thoracic approach). We found a predominance of males with a median age of 63. The diagnosis was made with an endoscopy, barium swallow and manometry. Half of the manometry results were pathologic. The surgical technique involved a diverticulectomy, myotomy and a Dor partial founduplication. Two patients that presented suture line leakage (SLL) were treated conservatively. No mortality was reported. The systematic review was carried out under the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses scheme, with a total of 20 studies where 189 patients were found. No comparative or prospective randomised trials were found. Overall morbidity was 24%, with a SLL rate of 12%, hospital stay of 5 days and mortality of 1.5%. After a median follow-up of 42 months, 81.5% of the patients were asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: The minimally invasive approach for ED is a safe and feasible procedure. PMID:25336815

  16. The management of greater trochanteric pain syndrome: A systematic literature review☆

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a common cause of lateral hip pain. Most cases respond to conservative treatments with a few refractory cases requiring surgical intervention. For many years, this condition was believed to be caused by trochanteric bursitis, with treatments targeting the bursitis. More recently gluteal tendinopathy/tears have been proposed as potential causes. Treatments are consequently developing to target these proposed pathologies. At present there is no defined treatment protocol for GTPS. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to evaluate the current evidence for the effectiveness of GTPS interventions, both conservative and surgical. PMID:26955229

  17. Patient disclosure of medical errors in paediatrics: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Donna; Rummens, Anneke; Le Pouesard, Morgane; Espin, Sherry; Friedman, Jeremy; Coffey, Maitreya; Kenneally, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Medical errors are common within paediatrics; however, little research has examined the process of disclosing medical errors in paediatric settings. The present systematic review of current research and policy initiatives examined evidence regarding the disclosure of medical errors involving paediatric patients. Peer-reviewed research from a range of scientific journals from the past 10 years is presented, and an overview of Canadian and international policies regarding disclosure in paediatric settings are provided. The purpose of the present review was to scope the existing literature and policy, and to synthesize findings into an integrated and accessible report. Future research priorities and policy implications are then identified. PMID:27429578

  18. Patient disclosure of medical errors in paediatrics: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Koller, Donna; Rummens, Anneke; Le Pouesard, Morgane; Espin, Sherry; Friedman, Jeremy; Coffey, Maitreya; Kenneally, Noah

    2016-05-01

    Medical errors are common within paediatrics; however, little research has examined the process of disclosing medical errors in paediatric settings. The present systematic review of current research and policy initiatives examined evidence regarding the disclosure of medical errors involving paediatric patients. Peer-reviewed research from a range of scientific journals from the past 10 years is presented, and an overview of Canadian and international policies regarding disclosure in paediatric settings are provided. The purpose of the present review was to scope the existing literature and policy, and to synthesize findings into an integrated and accessible report. Future research priorities and policy implications are then identified.

  19. Ethnic Density Effects on Physical Morbidity, Mortality, and Health Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Richard; Nazroo, James; Stafford, Mai; Albor, Christo; Atkin, Karl; Kiernan, Kathleen; Wilkinson, Richard; Pickett, Kate

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that people in racial/ethnic minority groups are healthier when they live in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. Ethnic density effects are still contested, and the pathways by which ethnic density operates are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature examining the ethnic density effect on physical health, mortality, and health behaviors. Most studies report a null association between ethnic density and health. Protective ethnic density effects are more common than adverse associations, particularly for health behaviors and among Hispanic people. Limitations of the literature include inadequate adjustment for area deprivation and limited statistical power across ethnic density measures and study samples. PMID:23078507

  20. Psychosocial Determinants of Health among Incarcerated Black Women: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Carlos; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'

    2016-01-01

    Black women are disproportionately incarcerated and experience greater health outcomes compared to White and Hispanic women. This systematic literature review aims to identify the major psychosocial determinants of health and service utilization among incarcerated Black women. The ecological model for health behavior was used to frame the literature presented and explain how individual, interpersonal, and societal level factors impact health. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria for this review. Psychosocial factors were identified at each level such as: mental health problems (individual); sexual behavior (interpersonal); and dysfunctional/negative relationships (community). The factors form a dynamic relationship that influences the health and service utilization of Black women and do not exist independently. Future research should examine within-group differences to highlight the unique needs and culture within the Black community in the context of psychosocial determinants. This synthesis of relevant studies can serve to inform change in correctional policies, practices, and reduce health disparities. PMID:27133512

  1. What are Asian-American youth consuming? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Diep, Cassandra S; Foster, Margaret J; McKyer, E Lisako J; Goodson, Patricia; Guidry, Jeffrey J; Liew, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Numerous studies have explored dietary practices among children, but there are limited studies on children of Asian background in the US. This review had three aims: (a) review literature regarding Asian-American youth's dietary behaviors, (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of such research, and (c) provide recommendations for future nutrition-related research on Asian-American youth. The authors conducted a systematic literature review through MEDLINE (EBSCO), CINAHL Plus with Full Text (EBSCO), and Embase (Ovid); extracted descriptive data; and evaluated methodological quality. Thirteen articles were included. Major findings included: (a) frequent consumption of milk, fruit, meat, unenriched white rice, vegetables, and high-fat and high-sugar items among Asian-American children and (b) acculturation's influences on diet, resulting in Asian-American youth consuming diets characterized by both Asian and American foods. Findings from this review may inform education and promotion programs and services for Asian Americans in the US.

  2. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Terrorist Attacks.

    PubMed

    Paz García-Vera, María; Sanz, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Sara

    2016-08-01

    This article was aimed at systematically reviewing the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of terrorist attacks. Electronic and hand searches of the literature identified 35 studies addressing PTSD prevalence based on validated diagnostic interviews. Overall, in the year after terrorist attacks, 33% to 39% of direct victims developed PTSD, whereas the percentage of indirect victims with PTSD was lower (4% in the affected community, 5%-6% among emergency, rescue, and recovery workers, and 17%-29% among relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims), but nonetheless above the prevalence in the general population. With the passing of time, a significant reduction of PTSD can be expected in the affected community and in the emergency and rescue personnel, but not in the injured victims, in the relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims, and in nontraditional, more vulnerable disaster workers. The implications of these results for the psychological treatment of terrorism victims are discussed.

  3. Co-victims of Homicide: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Jennifer; Gordon, Ronit

    2015-10-01

    This systematic literature review examines the effects of homicide on surviving family members, the "co-victims" or "survivors" of homicide. A content analysis was conducted on 40 articles identified through a search of the literature. The research samples were predominately located in the United States, but included two U.K. samples, one Jamaican sample, and one sample from Israel. All articles were written in English. Three themes were identified. Nineteen articles explored the psychological, academic, social, occupational, and familial effects of homicide. Thirteen articles considered survivors' grieving process and how it was altered by experiences with the criminal justice system as well as coping strategies used by survivors to deal with their grief. Eight articles explored treatment interventions available to help surviving family members deal with their grief. Key findings from the articles, limitations of the current research, and implications for future research, policy, and practice are included.

  4. A Systematic Review of the Literature on the Sustainability of Community Health Collaboratives.

    PubMed

    Hearld, Larry R; Bleser, William K; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Wolf, Laura J

    2016-04-01

    Recent interest in community health collaboratives has been driven by the potential of these types of organizations to solve complex health problems at the local level by bringing together stakeholders that have traditionally operated independently, and often at cross-purposes. Much of the work that is central to the mission of collaboratives can take years to reach fruition, however, and there are a number of challenges to sustaining their activities. In this article, we systematically reviewed the theoretical and empirical literature on health care collaborative sustainability, focusing on definitions and antecedents of sustainability. Given the diversity and fragmentation of this literature, we used this review as a foundation to develop a synthesized definition, conceptual groups of antecedents, and potential research propositions to help guide future research, planning, and practice of sustainable community health collaboratives.

  5. Impact of Peer Nutrition Education on Dietary Behaviors and Health Outcomes among Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Vega-Lopez, Sonia; Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Segura-Perez, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review assesses the impact of peer education/counseling on nutrition and health outcomes among Latinos and identifies future research needs. Design: A systematic literature search was conducted by: (1) searching Internet databases; (2) conducting backward searches from reference lists of articles of interest; (3)…

  6. Systematic Literature Review of Randomized Control Trials Assessing the Effectiveness of Nutrition Interventions in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wong, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition interventions may play an important role in maintaining the health and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. To the authors' knowledge, no systematic literature review has been conducted on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in the community-dwelling older adult population. Design: Systematic literature…

  7. Disaster-Driven Evacuation and Medication Loss: a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Sae; Hodgson, Susan; Landeg, Owen; Mayner, Lidia; Murray, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify the extent and implications of medication loss and the burden of prescription refill on medical relief teams following extreme weather events and other natural hazards. METHOD: The search strategy followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Key health journal databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC)) were searched via the OvidSP search engine. Search terms were identified by consulting MeSH terms. The inclusion criteria comprised articles published from January 2003 to August 2013, written in English and containing an abstract. The exclusion criteria included abstracts for conferences or dissertations, book chapters and articles written in a language other than English. A total of 70 articles which fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review. RESULTS: All relevant information was collated regarding medication loss, prescription loss and refills, and medical aids loss which indicated a significant burden on the medical relief teams. Data also showed the difficulty in filling prescriptions due to lack of information from the evacuees. People with chronic conditions are most at risk when their medication is not available. This systematic review also showed that medical aids such as eye glasses, hearing aids as well as dental treatment are a high necessity among evacuees. DISCUSSION: This systematic review revealed that a considerable number of patients lose their medication during evacuation, many lose essential medical aids such as insulin pens and many do not bring prescriptions with them when evacuated.. Since medication loss is partly a responsibility of evacuees, understanding the impact of medication loss may lead to raising awareness and better preparations among the patients and health care professionals. People who are not prepared could have

  8. Smell and taste in palliative care: a systematic analysis of literature.

    PubMed

    Heckel, Maria; Stiel, Stephanie; Ostgathe, Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Little is known on the role of the senses smell and taste in end-of-life care. The presented systematic literature analysis investigates the significance of smell and taste in palliative care. The online databases PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Deutsche Nationalbibliothek and British National Library were searched for English and German literature published between 1970 and April 2013 containing any kind of original data on the impact of smell and taste in patients in a palliative care situation. All retrieved publications were screened for relevance and full text was obtained for all articles identified as relevant. We integrated 13 papers for further analysis (explorative surveys 5, clinical trials 3, case studies 2, qualitative study 1, brief report 1, clinical report 1). Prevalence of smell and taste alterations in palliative care ranges between 60 and 86%. Existing literature reflects the significance of smells and tastes in palliative care setting in two main streams--smell and taste alterations as symptoms and malodorous wounds. Prevalence of smell and taste alterations in palliative care is high. However, in palliative care literature concepts for the assessment and fostering of subjective significance of smell and taste and the individual impact of significant smells and tastes are predominantly neglected. Available instruments should be characterized, validated and adapted for the use for palliative care patients.

  9. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. Methods A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Conclusion Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are

  10. A Systematic Literature Review of the Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of several reviews of the literature, Lynn [Lynn, R., (2006). Race differences in intelligence: An evolutionary analysis. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] and Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T., (2006). IQ and global inequality. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] concluded that the average IQ of the…

  11. Environmental flows can reduce the encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into river channels: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kimberly A; Webb, J Angus; de Little, Siobhan C; Stewardson, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Encroachment of riparian vegetation into regulated river channels exerts control over fluvial processes, channel morphology, and aquatic ecology. Reducing encroachment of terrestrial vegetation is an oft-cited objective of environmental flow recommendations, but there has been no systematic assessment of the evidence for and against the widely-accepted cause-and-effect mechanisms involved. We systematically reviewed the literature to test whether environmental flows can reduce the encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into river channels. We quantified the level of support for five explicit cause-effect hypotheses drawn from a conceptual model of the effects of flow on vegetation. We found that greater inundation, variously expressed as changes in the area, depth, duration, frequency, seasonality, and volume of surface water, generally reduces riparian vegetation abundance in channels, but most studies did not investigate the specific mechanisms causing these changes. Those that did show that increased inundation results in increased mortality, but also increased germination. The evidence was insufficient to determine whether increased inundation decreases reproduction. Our results contribute to hydro-ecological understanding by using the published literature to test for general cause-effect relationships between flow regime and terrestrial vegetation encroachment. Reviews of this nature provide robust support for flow management, and are more defensible than expert judgement-based approaches. Overall, we predict that restoration of more natural flow regimes will reduce encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into regulated river channels, partly through increased mortality. Conversely, infrequent deliveries of environmental flows may actually increase germination and subsequent encroachment.

  12. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in esophageal cancer: a case series and systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lukas, R V; Mata-Machado, N A; Nicholas, M K; Salgia, R; Antic, T; Villaflor, V M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to more clearly define the clinical course of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis due to esophageal cancer. A single institution retrospective case series was conducted. Additionally, a systematic review of the literature was performed. We present a large case series (n = 7) of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis due to esophageal cancer. Our case series and systematic review of the literature report similar findings. In our series, we report a predominance of male patients (86%) with adenocarcinoma histology (77%). Variable onset of leptomeningeal involvement of esophageal cancer in relation to the original diagnosis of the primary disease (5 months to 3 years and 11 weeks) was noted. Disease progresses quickly and overall survival is poor, measured in weeks (2.5-16 weeks) from the diagnosis of leptomeningeal involvement. Four of our patients initiated whole-brain radiation therapy with only two completing the course prior to clinical deterioration. Our patient with the longest survival (16 weeks) received intrathecal topotecan and oral temozolomide. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis secondary to esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis. A clearly beneficial treatment modality is lacking.

  13. The match between institutional elderly care management research and management challenges - a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elderly care practice and its management together with policy and research play a crucial role in responding to increasing challenges in institutional care for elderly people. Successful dialogue between these is necessary. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to compare how institutional elderly care management research meets the care challenges currently emphasized in international long-term care policy documents. Methods This paper was based on a systematic literature review. After screening 1971 abstracts using inclusion/exclusion criteria, 58 refereed articles published between 2000 and 2010 remained for analysis. The articles were analyzed using theory-based content analysis by comparing the results to the framework based on analysis of international long-term care management policy documents. Results The current challenges of long-term care management identified from policy documents were Integrated Care Management, Productivity Management, Quality Management, Workforce Management and ICT Management. The research on institutional elderly care management responded somewhat to the challenges mentioned in policy documents. However, some of the challenges were studied broadly and some were paid only minor attention. Further, only few studies focused on the core items of challenges addressed in policy documents. Conclusions Institutional care management research needs to focus more on challenges in integrated care, productivity, ICT and division of labor. Managers, researchers and policy-makers should assume more active collaborative roles in processes of research, policymaking and policy implementation. In addition managers’ and policymakers’ scientific literacy needs to be enhanced. PMID:23137416

  14. Environmental Flows Can Reduce the Encroachment of Terrestrial Vegetation into River Channels: A Systematic Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kimberly A.; Webb, J. Angus; de Little, Siobhan C.; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2013-11-01

    Encroachment of riparian vegetation into regulated river channels exerts control over fluvial processes, channel morphology, and aquatic ecology. Reducing encroachment of terrestrial vegetation is an oft-cited objective of environmental flow recommendations, but there has been no systematic assessment of the evidence for and against the widely-accepted cause-and-effect mechanisms involved. We systematically reviewed the literature to test whether environmental flows can reduce the encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into river channels. We quantified the level of support for five explicit cause-effect hypotheses drawn from a conceptual model of the effects of flow on vegetation. We found that greater inundation, variously expressed as changes in the area, depth, duration, frequency, seasonality, and volume of surface water, generally reduces riparian vegetation abundance in channels, but most studies did not investigate the specific mechanisms causing these changes. Those that did show that increased inundation results in increased mortality, but also increased germination. The evidence was insufficient to determine whether increased inundation decreases reproduction. Our results contribute to hydro-ecological understanding by using the published literature to test for general cause-effect relationships between flow regime and terrestrial vegetation encroachment. Reviews of this nature provide robust support for flow management, and are more defensible than expert judgement-based approaches. Overall, we predict that restoration of more natural flow regimes will reduce encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into regulated river channels, partly through increased mortality. Conversely, infrequent deliveries of environmental flows may actually increase germination and subsequent encroachment.

  15. Cardiovascular Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Literature Review in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan Camilo; Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Espinosa-Serna, Juan Sebastián; Herrera-Díaz, Catalina; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major predictor of poor prognosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. There is an increasing interest to identify “nontraditional” risk factors for this condition. Latin Americans (LA) are considered as a minority subpopulation and ethnically different due to admixture characteristics. To date, there are no systematic reviews of the literature published in LA and the Caribbean about CVD in RA patients. Methods. The systematic literature review was done by two blinded reviewers who independently assessed studies for eligibility. The search was completed through PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, and Virtual Health Library scientific databases. Results. The search retrieved 10,083 potential studies. A total of 16 articles concerning cardiovascular risk factors and measurement of any cardiovascular outcome in LA were included. The prevalence of CVD in LA patients with RA was 35.3%. Non-traditional risk factors associated to CVD in this population were HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles, rheumatoid factor, markers of chronic inflammation, long duration of RA, steroids, familial autoimmunity, and thrombogenic factors. Conclusions. There is limited data about CVD and RA in LA. We propose to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors comprehensively in the Latin RA patient and to generate specific public health policies in order to diminish morbi-mortality rates. PMID:23193471

  16. The Influence of Context on Quality Improvement Success in Health Care: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Heather C; Brady, Patrick W; Dritz, Michele C; Hooper, David K; Linam, W Matthew; Froehle, Craig M; Margolis, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Context: The mixed results of success among QI initiatives may be due to differences in the context of these initiatives. Methods: The business and health care literature was systematically reviewed to identify contextual factors that might influence QI success; to categorize, summarize, and synthesize these factors; and to understand the current stage of development of this research field. Findings: Forty-seven articles were included in the final review. Consistent with current theories of implementation and organization change, leadership from top management, organizational culture, data infrastructure and information systems, and years involved in QI were suggested as important to QI success. Other potentially important factors identified in this review included: physician involvement in QI, microsystem motivation to change, resources for QI, and QI team leadership. Key limitations in the existing literature were the lack of a practical conceptual model, the lack of clear definitions of contextual factors, and the lack of well-specified measures. Conclusions: Several contextual factors were shown to be important to QI success, although the current body of literature lacks adequate definitions and is characterized by considerable variability in how contextual factors are measured across studies. Future research should focus on identifying and developing measures of context tied to a conceptual model that examines context across all levels of the health care system and explores the relationships among various aspects of context. PMID:21166868

  17. Examining the Effects of Preschool Writing Instruction on Emergent Literacy Skills: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Anna H.; Simpson, Amber; Guo, Ying; Wang, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of the literature involving writing interventions in the preschool setting. The information presented is timely considering the current expectations for young children to write. Framing the empirical literature within different philosophical approaches, trends were analyzed to identify…

  18. The controversial role of electrochemotherapy in head and neck cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Riccardo; Muscatello, Luca; Saibene, Alberto Maria; Felisati, Giovanni; Pipolo, Carlotta

    2017-02-24

    Electroporation, also known as electrochemotherapy, combines an antineoplastic agent with electroporation, causing localized progressive necrosis in the treated area. Today it is primarily used in the palliative treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases and has been found to be safe and efficacious in head and neck cancer recurrences. Despite the steady increase in the number of published studies this treatment is not universally available and used systematically in head and neck carcinomas. To shed light on its limitations and analyze treatment outcome we have, therefore, reviewed all available literature regarding this topic. This systematic review includes 16 studies on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and reports the data of 200 treated patients. The combined results show a very heterogeneous overall response rate, ranging from 0 to 100%, while the complete response rate ranges between 0 and 83.3%. No major side effects have been described in those who used electrochemotherapy as a mono modality palliative treatment. This systematic review shows how standardization of treatment is still pivotal to achieve a more homogeneous response rate in the approach to head and neck tumors. In conclusion, due to the scarcity of alternatives of treatment in advanced stage cancer in this anatomical region and the good tolerability and mostly high success rates of electrochemotherapy, this palliative approach should be taken into consideration in these patients.

  19. Psychosocial interventions for patients with advanced cancer – a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Uitterhoeve, R J; Vernooy, M; Litjens, M; Potting, K; Bensing, J; De Mulder, P; van Achterberg, T

    2004-01-01

    Advanced cancer is associated with emotional distress, especially depression and feelings of sadness. To date, it is unclear which is the most effective way to address these problems. This review focuses on the effects of psychosocial interventions on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with advanced cancer. It was hypothesised that patients will benefit from psychosocial interventions by improving QoL, especially in the domain of emotional functioning. The review was conducted using systematic review methodology involving a systematic search of the literature published between 1990 and 2002, quality assessment of included studies, systematic data extraction and narrative data synthesis. In all, 10 randomised controlled studies involving 13 trials were included. Overall interventions and outcome measures across studies were heterogeneous. Outcome measures, pertaining to the QoL dimension of emotional functioning, were most frequently measured. A total of 12 trials evaluating behaviour therapy found positive effects on one or more indicators of QoL, for example, depression. The results of the review support recommendation of behaviour therapy in the care of patients with advanced cancer. PMID:15316564

  20. Worldwide Prevalence and Trends in Unintentional Drug Overdose: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Laura; Cerdá, Magdalena; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Background. Drug overdose is an important, yet an inadequately understood, public health problem. Global attention to unintentional drug overdose has been limited by comparison with the scope of the problem. There has been a substantial increase in drug overdose incidence and prevalence in several countries worldwide over the past decade, contributing to both increased costs and mortality. Objectives. The aim of this study was to systematically synthesize the peer-reviewed literature to document the global epidemiological profile of unintentional drug overdoses and the prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates of drug overdoses. We searched different combinations of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms in PubMed for articles published from 1980 until July 2013, and we organized these results in tabular spreadsheets and compared them. We restricted the search to English-language articles that deal with unintentional overdose, focusing on 1 or more of the following key constructs: prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates. The term “overdose” as a MeSH major topic yielded 1076 publications. In addition, we searched the following combinations of nonmajor MeSH terms: “street drugs” and “overdose” yielded 180, “death” and “overdose” yielded 114, and “poisoning” and “drug users” yielded 17. There was some overlap among the searches. Based on the search and inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected a total of 169 relevant articles for this article based on a close review of abstracts. Results. We found wide variability in lifetime prevalence of experiencing a nonfatal overdose or witnessing an overdose, and in mortality rates attributable to overdose. Lifetime prevalence of witnessed overdose among drug users (n = 17 samples) ranged from 50% to 96%, with a mean of 73.3%, a median of 70%, and a standard deviation of 14.1%. Lifetime prevalence of drug users personally experiencing a nonfatal overdose (n

  1. Can Screening Tools for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Predict Postoperative Complications? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Lilia; Macavei, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common, underdiagnosed condition that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the perioperative setting. Increasing evidence suggests that the utility of preoperative screening tools may go beyond identification of OSA, to the prediction of perioperative complications. The primary objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on all studies assessing whether high risk scores on the STOP-Bang questionnaire, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) checklist, and the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) are associated with higher rates of postoperative complications. Methods: A systematic review of English language records was performed using Medline, EMBASE, and PsychInfo with additional studies identified by manual search through reference lists. Only studies that evaluated the ability of the STOP-Bang, the BQ, and ASA checklist to predict postoperative complications in adults were included. Results: Twelve studies were included in the final review. Eight studies looked at STOP-Bang, 3 at the Berlin Questionnaire, and 2 at the ASA Checklist. Significant differences across study characteristics prevented a meta-analysis and the studies were evaluated qualitatively. Conclusions: The ASA checklist, Berlin Questionnaire, and STOP-Bang questionnaire may be able to risk stratify patients for perioperative and postoperative complications. Further research is required, with a particular focus on specific surgery types and adjustment of potentially confounding factors in the analysis. Citation: Dimitrov L, Macavei V. Can screening tools for obstructive sleep apnea predict postoperative complications? A systematic review of the literature. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(9):1293–1300. PMID:27448417

  2. Arteriovenous malformations of the corpus callosum: Pooled analysis and systematic review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Pabaney, Aqueel H.; Ali, Rushna; Kole, Maximillian; Malik, Ghaus M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the corpus callosum (CC) are rare entities. We performed a systematic review of the available literature to better define the natural history, patient characteristics, and treatment options for these lesions. Methods: A MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and The Cochrane Library search were performed for studies published through June 2015. Data from all eligible studies were used to examine epidemiology, natural history, clinical features, treatment strategies, and outcomes of patients with CC-AVMs. A systematic review and pooled analysis of the literature were performed. Results: Our search yielded 37 reports and 230 patients. Mean age at presentation was 26.8 years (±13.12 years). AVMs were most commonly located in the splenium (43%), followed by the body (31%), and then the genu (23%) of the CC. A Spetzler-Martin grade of III was the most common (37%). One hundred eighty-seven (81.3%) patients presented with hemorrhage, 91 (40%) underwent microsurgical excision, and 87 (38%) underwent endovascular embolization. Radiosurgery was performed on 57 (25%) patients. Complete obliteration of the AVM was achieved in 102 (48.1%) patients and approximately twice as often when microsurgery was performed alone or in combination with other treatment modalities (94% vs. 49%; P < 0.001). Mean modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at presentation was 1.54 and mean mRS at last follow-up was 1.31. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.35). Conclusion: We present an analysis of the pooled data in the form of a systematic review focusing on management of CC-AVMs. This review aims to provide a valuable tool to aid in decision making when dealing with this particular subtype of AVM. PMID:27127713

  3. A systematic review of the literature on disorders of sleep and wakefulness in Parkinson's disease from 2005 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Chahine, Lama M; Amara, Amy W; Videnovic, Aleksandar

    2016-08-31

    Sleep disorders are among the most common non-motor manifestations in Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a significant negative impact on quality of life. While sleep disorders in PD share most characteristics with those that occur in the general population, there are several considerations specific to this patient population regarding diagnosis, management, and implications. The available research on these disorders is expanding rapidly, but many questions remain unanswered. We thus conducted a systematic review of the literature published from 2005 to 2015 on the following disorders of sleep and wakefulness in PD: REM sleep behavior disorder, insomnia, nocturia, restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements, sleep disordered breathing, excessive daytime sleepiness, and circadian rhythm disorders. We discuss the epidemiology, etiology, clinical implications, associated features, evaluation measures, and management of these disorders. The influence on sleep of medications used in the treatment of motor and non-motor symptoms of PD is detailed. Additionally, we suggest areas in need of further research.

  4. Critical Components of Successful Inclusion of Students with Severe Disabilities: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquraini, Turki; Gut, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the critical components of successful inclusion for students with severe disabilities. This review sets out to provide an overview of literature regarding effective practices for inclusion with a focus on critical components of successful inclusion that assist in preparing the stakeholders worldwide to work and engage…

  5. Systematic approach to managing vernal keratoconjunctivitis in clinical practice: Severity grading system and a treatment algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Nikhil S

    2016-01-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is an ocular allergy that is common in the pediatric age group. It is often chronic, severe, and nonresponsive to the available treatment options. Management of these children is difficult and often a dilemma for the practitioner. There is a need to simplify and standardize its management. To achieve this goal, we require a grading system to judge the severity of inflammation and an algorithm to select the appropriate medications. This article provides a simple and practically useful grading system and a stepladder algorithm for systematic treatment of these patients. Use of appropriate treatment modalities can reduce treatment and disease-related complications. PMID:27050351

  6. Quality of life in adolescent and young adult cancer patients: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gonçalves, Vânia; Sehovic, Ivana; Bowman, Meghan L; Reed, Damon R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors experience many unique challenges and quality of life (QoL) effects that persist beyond cancer diagnosis and treatment. Due to continuous improvements in technology and cancer treatments resulting in improved survival rates, the identification of late effects, survivorship issues, and QoL is moving to the forefront of cancer research. The goal of this systematic review was to identify key psychosocial factors impacting QoL in AYA oncology populations. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted using combinations of these phrases or keywords: “adolescent and young adult or AYA” AND “health outcomes OR quality of life OR psychology” AND “neoplasm OR cancer OR oncology”. A total of 35 articles were included in this review. Studies were classified into two categories: AYA perceptions and stakeholder perceptions. Results AYA cancer survivors were more likely to have “worse” or impaired QoL compared with the general population, regardless of other demographic factors. AYAs described both positive and negatives experiences with their medical care, the educational information received, and the supportive care services. Although health care professionals were likely to underestimate or misjudge the health preferences and support needs of AYAs, these perceptions varied across disciplines and levels of experience. Conclusion The literature is lacking in sufficient evidence-based interventions to improve QoL in AYA cancer populations. Further, the tools to adequately measure QoL in this population are also unsatisfactory. The literature, however, consistently shows agreement regarding the unique needs of this population, indicating a trend toward health care standardization within age ranges or life stages. We suggest the need for AYA-specific programs in health care institutions that comprise a multidisciplinary team that addresses all the unique medical and QoL needs of AYAs. PMID

  7. Community-Effectiveness of Temephos for Dengue Vector Control: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    George, Leyanna; Lenhart, Audrey; Toledo, Joao; Lazaro, Adhara; Han, Wai Wai; Velayudhan, Raman; Runge Ranzinger, Silvia; Horstick, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    The application of the organophosphate larvicide temephos to water storage containers is one of the most commonly employed dengue vector control methods. This systematic literature review is to the knowledge of the authors the first that aims to assess the community-effectiveness of temephos in controlling both vectors and dengue transmission when delivered either as a single intervention or in combination with other interventions. A comprehensive literature search of 6 databases was performed (PubMed, WHOLIS, GIFT, CDSR, EMBASE, Wiley), grey literature and cross references were also screened for relevant studies. Data were extracted and methodological quality of the studies was assessed independently by two reviewers. 27 studies were included in this systematic review (11 single intervention studies and 16 combined intervention studies). All 11 single intervention studies showed consistently that using temephos led to a reduction in entomological indices. Although 11 of the 16 combined intervention studies showed that temephos application together with other chemical vector control methods also reduced entomological indices, this was either not sustained over time or–as in the five remaining studies—failed to reduce the immature stages. The community-effectiveness of temephos was found to be dependent on factors such as quality of delivery, water turnover rate, type of water, and environmental factors such as organic debris, temperature and exposure to sunlight. Timing of temephos deployment and its need for reapplication, along with behavioural factors such as the reluctance of its application to drinking water, and operational aspects such as cost, supplies, time and labour were further limitations identified in this review. In conclusion, when applied as a single intervention, temephos was found to be effective at suppressing entomological indices, however, the same effect has not been observed when temephos was applied in combination with other

  8. Current methods of sedation in dental patients - a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio; López-Jiménez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Objetive The main objective of this systematic literature review is to identify the safest and most effective sedative drugs so as to ensure successful sedation with as few complications as possible. Study Design A systematic literature review of the PubMed MEDLINE database was carried out using the key words “conscious sedation,” “drugs,” and “dentistry.” A total of 1,827 scientific articles were found, and these were narrowed down to 473 articles after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. These 473 studies were then individually assessed for their suitability for inclusion in this literature review. Results A total of 21 studies were selected due to their rigorous study design and conduciveness to further, more exhaustive analysis. The selected studies included a total of 1,0003 patients classified as ASA I or II. Midazolam was the drug most frequently used for successful sedation in dental surgical procedures. Ketamine also proved very useful when administered intranasally, although some side effects were observed when delivered via other routes of administration. Both propofol and nitrous oxide (N2O) are also effective sedative drugs. Conclusions Midazolam is the drug most commonly used to induce moderate sedation in dental surgical procedures, and it is also very safe. Other sedative drugs like ketamine, dexmedetomidine and propofol have also been proven safe and effective; however, further comparative clinical studies are needed to better demonstrate which of these are the safest and most effective. Key words:Conscious sedation, drugs, dentistry. PMID:27475684

  9. Prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent hemodialysis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Brkovic, Tonci; Burilovic, Eliana; Puljak, Livia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Understanding the epidemiology of pain in patients on hemodialysis (HD) is crucial for further improvement in managing pain. The aim of this study was to systematically review available evidence on the prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent HD. Materials and methods We carried out a systematic review of the literature and developed a comprehensive search strategy based on search terms on pain and HD. We searched the databases MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and CINAHL from the earliest date of each database to July 24, 2014. Manuscripts in all languages were taken into consideration. Two authors performed each step independently, and all disagreements were resolved after discussion with the third author. The quality of studies was estimated using the STROBE checklist and Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Results We included 52 studies with 6,917 participants. The prevalence of acute and chronic pain in HD patients was up to 82% and 92%, respectively. A considerable number of patients suffered from severe pain. Various locations and causes of pain were described, with most of the studies reporting pain in general, pain related to arteriovenous access, headache, and musculoskeletal pain. Conclusion The findings of this systematic review indicate high prevalence of pain in HD patients and considerable gaps and limitations in the available evidence. Pain in this population should be recognized as a considerable health concern, and the nephrology community should promote pain management in HD patients as a clinical and research priority to improve patients’ quality of life and pain-related disability. PMID:27382261

  10. Dengue in children: a systematic review of clinical and laboratory factors associated with severity.

    PubMed

    Wakimoto, Mayumi Duarte; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Guaraldo, Lusiele; Damasceno, Luana Santana; Brasil, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a potentially life-threatening illness, and children are at higher risk of severity. This review aimed to systematize the identified clinical and laboratory parameters associated with severe dengue in children, as monitoring these signs and fluid-replacement therapy are actually the cornerstones of dengue treatment. Of the 527 studies initially reviewed, 21 were selected as follows: three cohort studies, three case-control studies, 14 cross-sectional studies and one not defined. Eighteen studies were carried out in Asia and three in the Americas. Hepatomegaly, lethargy, abdominal pain, bleeding, hemoconcentration and thrombocytopenia, all referenced as warning signs in the WHO 2009 Guidelines, were the clinical and laboratory parameters independently associated with severity in more than one study. The recognition of these known warning signs associated to severe dengue disease underlines the usefulness of the WHO 2009 classification.

  11. Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Lu, Yubo; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-02-01

    Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian ("Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine"), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research.

  12. Older Women Survivors of Physical and Sexual Violence: A Systematic Review of the Quantitative Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dinnen, Stephanie; O'Donnell, Casey

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This systematic review synthesizes the quantitative empirical literature concerning older women survivors of physical and sexual assault. Methods A literature search was conducted using a range of scholarly databases. Information is presented here on the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of these types of interpersonal violence in older women. Additionally, age-related differences in prevalence, psychiatric distress, and characteristics of violence, including information on perpetrators, are reviewed. Results Overall, older women report lower lifetime and past year rates of physical and sexual assault and associated negative psychologic consequences compared to younger and middle-aged women. Additionally, older women who experienced interpersonal violence report greater psychiatric distress, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), than older women who have not experienced such events. Conclusions Some women who have been physically or sexually assaulted decades earlier in life continue to report significant levels of PTSD well into older adulthood. Gaps in the literature, including lack of information on ethnicity and culture, are presented, and future research directions are proposed. PMID:21668378

  13. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, Jose C.; Olivares, Pedro R.; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Parraca, Jose A.; del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Gusi, Narcis

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CBO guidelines, all selected trials had a B level of evidence. The main outcomes that were measured were balance, fatigue, disability index, health-related quality of life, and pain. Whole-body vibration appeared to improve the outcomes, especially balance and disability index. Conclusion. Whole-body vibration could be an adequate treatment for fibromyalgia as a main therapy or added to a physical exercise programme as it could improve balance, disability index, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and pain. However, this conclusion must be treated with caution because the paucity of trials and the marked differences between existing trials in terms of protocol, intervention, and measurement tools hampered the comparison of the trials. PMID:26351517

  14. Acupuncture-related adverse events: a systematic review of the Chinese literature

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hongcai; Gao, Xiumei; Ernst, Edzard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To systematically review the Chinese-language literature on acupuncture-related adverse events. Methods We searched three Chinese databases (the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, 1980–2009; the Chinese Journal Full-Text Database, 1980–2009; and the Weipu Journal Database, 1989–2009) to identify Chinese-language articles about the safety of traditional needle acupuncture. Case reports, case series, surveys and other observational studies were included if they reported factual data, but review articles, translations and clinical trials were excluded. Findings The inclusion criteria were met by 115 articles (98 case reports and 17 case series) that in total reported on 479 cases of adverse events after acupuncture. Fourteen patients died. Acupuncture-related adverse events were classified into three categories: traumatic, infectious and “other”. The most frequent adverse events were pneumothorax, fainting, subarachnoid haemorrhage and infection, while the most serious ones were cardiovascular injuries, subarachnoid haemorrhage, pneumothorax and recurrent cerebral haemorrhage. Conclusion Many acupuncture-related adverse events, most of them owing to improper technique, have been described in the published Chinese literature. Efforts should be made to find effective ways of monitoring and minimizing the risks related to acupuncture. PMID:21124716

  15. Scaling up depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA): a systematic literature review illustrating the AIDED model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), often known by the brand name Depo-Provera, has increased globally, particularly in multiple low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As a reproductive health technology that has scaled up in diverse contexts, DMPA is an exemplar product innovation with which to illustrate the utility of the AIDED model for scaling up family health innovations. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the enabling factors and barriers to scaling up DMPA use in LMICs. We searched 11 electronic databases for academic literature published through January 2013 (n = 284 articles), and grey literature from major health organizations. We applied exclusion criteria to identify relevant articles from peer-reviewed (n = 10) and grey literature (n = 9), extracting data on scale up of DMPA in 13 countries. We then mapped the resulting factors to the five AIDED model components: ASSESS, INNOVATE, DEVELOP, ENGAGE, and DEVOLVE. Results The final sample of sources included studies representing variation in geographies and methodologies. We identified 15 enabling factors and 10 barriers to dissemination, diffusion, scale up, and/or sustainability of DMPA use. The greatest number of factors were mapped to the ASSESS, DEVELOP, and ENGAGE components. Conclusions Findings offer early empirical support for the AIDED model, and provide insights into scale up of DMPA that may be relevant for other family planning product innovations. PMID:23915274

  16. Effect of Antihypertensive Medications on the Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Kiran; Yabes, Jonathan; Weiss, Patricia M.; Dharia, Sushma; Brown, Lee; Unruh, Mark; Jhamb, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for hypertension (HTN). Increasing evidence from animal and human studies suggests that HTN exacerbates OSA. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the effect of anti-hypertensive medications on the severity of OSA. Methods: A literature search of PubMed and Embase was done using search concepts of OSA, HTN, and drug classes used to treat HTN. Studies that reported changes in the severity of OSA objectively by using apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) or respiratory disturbance index (RDI) were included. Pooled mean difference estimates were calculated. Tests for heterogeneity, publication bias, and subgroup sensitivity analysis were conducted. Results: Of 27,376 studies screened, only 11 met inclusion criteria, including 5 randomized controlled trials and 6 single-arm prospective trials. The pooled mean difference estimate (95% confidence interval [CI]), based on a random-effects model, was −5.69 (95% CI −10.74 to −0.65), consistent with an overall decrease in AHI or RDI attributable to antihypertensive medications. The effect size was even more pronounced, −14.52 (95% CI −25.65 to −3.39), when only studies using diuretics were analyzed. There was no significant heterogeneity or publication bias among the studies. Meta-regression indicated neither age, baseline AHI, nor change in systolic/diastolic blood pressure influenced the results. Conclusions: Collectively, findings from these relatively small, short-term studies tend to support the contention that treatment with antihypertensive agents confers a statistically significant, albeit small, reduction in the severity of OSA, which may be more pronounced with the use of diuretics. Citation: Khurshid K, Yabes J, Weiss PM, Dharia S, Brown L, Unruh M, Jhamb M. Effect of antihypertensive medications on the severity of obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Sleep Med 2016

  17. PREDICTING WALKING ABILITY FOLLOWING LOWER LIMB AMPUTATION: AN UPDATED SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Jason T.; Highsmith, M. Jason; Schaepper, Hans; Johannesson, Anton; Orendurff, Michael S.; Kaufman, Kenton

    2016-01-01

    There is not a clear clinical recommendation for the determination of prosthetic candidacy. Guidelines do not delineate which member(s) of the multidisciplinary team are responsible for prosthetic candidacy decisions and which factors will best predict a positive outcome. Also not clearly addressed is a patient-centered decision-making role. In a previous systematic review (SR), Sansam et al. reported on the prediction of walking ability following lower limb amputation using literature up to 2007. The search strategy was designed from the previous Sansam SR as an update of previously valuable predictive factors of prosthetic candidacy. An electronic literature search was executed from August 8, 2007, to December 31, 2015, using MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (Ovid), and Cochrane. A total of 319 studies were identified through the electronic search. Of these, 298 were eliminated, leaving a total of 21 for full evaluation. Conclusions from this updated study are drawn from a total recruited sample (n) of 15,207 subjects. A total of 12,410 subjects completed the respective studies (18% attrition). This updated study increases the size of the original Sansam et al. report by including 137% more subjects for a total of 21,490 between the two articles Etiology, physical fitness, pre-amputation living status, amputation level, age, physical fitness, and comorbidities are included as moderate to strongly supported predictive factors of prosthetic candidacy. These factors are supported in an earlier literature review and should be strongly considered in a complete history and physical examination by a multidisciplinary team. Predictive factors should be part of the patient’s healthcare record. PMID:28066522

  18. A Systematic Review of Ethical Principles in the Plastic Surgery Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Pushman, Allison G.; Bellfi, Lillian T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To perform a systematic review to identify articles that discuss ethical issues relating to the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery and to evaluate whether ethical issues are underrepresented in the plastic surgery literature. Methods: Four medical databases were selected to search through the medical literature with specific inclusion criteria to disqualify irrelevant articles from the study. Appropriate articles were extracted, and their quality and validity were assessed by multiple investigators to maximize reproducibility. The data were then synthesized and analyzed for associations amongst the ethical principles. Results: Out of a total library search of >100,000 plastic surgery oriented articles, only 110 clearly focused on ethical principles. Autonomy (53%) was the most common major theme, whereas distributive justice (15%) represented the least frequently emphasized ethical principle. The proportions of each ethical principle were tested against each other for equality using Cochran's Q test; the Q test reached statistical significance (Q = 67.04, df =3, P < 0.0001), indicating that the ethical principles were not discussed equally in plastic surgery literature, which was expected because autonomy represented 53% of the manuscripts whereas distributive justice represented only 15% of manuscripts. When examining both major and minor themes, over half of the articles (61%) addressed 2 or more ethical principles. Beneficence and nonmaleficence were strongly associated (Pearson's x2 = 55.38, df =1, P<0.0001). Conclusions: Despite the extensive amount of ethical issues that plastic surgeons face, a relatively small proportion of plastic surgery literature was dedicated to discussing ethical principles. PMID:20009860

  19. PREDICTING WALKING ABILITY FOLLOWING LOWER LIMB AMPUTATION: AN UPDATED SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Jason T; Highsmith, M Jason; Schaepper, Hans; Johannesson, Anton; Orendurff, Michael S; Kaufman, Kenton

    2016-09-01

    There is not a clear clinical recommendation for the determination of prosthetic candidacy. Guidelines do not delineate which member(s) of the multidisciplinary team are responsible for prosthetic candidacy decisions and which factors will best predict a positive outcome. Also not clearly addressed is a patient-centered decision-making role. In a previous systematic review (SR), Sansam et al. reported on the prediction of walking ability following lower limb amputation using literature up to 2007. The search strategy was designed from the previous Sansam SR as an update of previously valuable predictive factors of prosthetic candidacy. An electronic literature search was executed from August 8, 2007, to December 31, 2015, using MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (Ovid), and Cochrane. A total of 319 studies were identified through the electronic search. Of these, 298 were eliminated, leaving a total of 21 for full evaluation. Conclusions from this updated study are drawn from a total recruited sample (n) of 15,207 subjects. A total of 12,410 subjects completed the respective studies (18% attrition). This updated study increases the size of the original Sansam et al. report by including 137% more subjects for a total of 21,490 between the two articles Etiology, physical fitness, pre-amputation living status, amputation level, age, physical fitness, and comorbidities are included as moderate to strongly supported predictive factors of prosthetic candidacy. These factors are supported in an earlier literature review and should be strongly considered in a complete history and physical examination by a multidisciplinary team. Predictive factors should be part of the patient's healthcare record.

  20. Conducting systematic reviews of intervention questions I: Writing the review protocol, formulating the question and searching the literature.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A M; Anderson, K M; Goodell, C K; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    This article is the fourth of six articles addressing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. Previous articles in the series have introduced systematic reviews, discussed study designs and hierarchies of evidence, and provided details on conducting randomized controlled trials, a common design for use in systematic reviews. This article describes development of a review protocol and the first two steps in a systematic review: formulating a review question, and searching the literature for relevant research. The emphasis is on systematic reviews of questions related to interventions. The review protocol is developed prior to conducting the review and specifies the plan for the conduct of the review, identifies the roles and responsibilities of the review team and provides structured definitions related to the review question. For intervention questions, the review question should be defined by the PICO components: population, intervention, comparison and outcome(s). The literature search is designed to identify all potentially relevant original research that may address the question. Search terms related to some or all of the PICO components are entered into literature databases, and searches for unpublished literature also are conducted. All steps of the literature search are documented to provide transparent reporting of the process.

  1. F8 gene mutation type and inhibitor development in patients with severe hemophilia A: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gouw, Samantha C; van den Berg, H Marijke; Oldenburg, Johannes; Astermark, Jan; de Groot, Philip G; Margaglione, Maurizio; Thompson, Arthur R; van Heerde, Waander; Boekhorst, Jorien; Miller, Connie H; le Cessie, Saskia; van der Bom, Johanna G

    2012-03-22

    This systematic review was designed to provide more precise effect estimates of inhibitor development for the various types of F8 gene mutations in patients with severe hemophilia A. The primary outcome was inhibitor development and the secondary outcome was high-titer-inhibitor development. A systematic literature search was performed to include cohort studies published in peer-reviewed journals with data on inhibitor incidences in the various F8 gene mutation types and a mutation detection rate of at least 80%. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) of inhibitor development for different types of F8 gene mutations were calculated with intron 22 inversion as the reference. Data were included from 30 studies on 5383 patients, including 1029 inhibitor patients. The inhibitor risk in large deletions and nonsense mutations was higher than in intron 22 inversions (pooled OR = 3.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.3-5.7 and OR = 1.4, 95% CI, 1.1-1.8, respectively), the risk in intron 1 inversions and splice-site mutations was equal (pooled OR = 0.9; 95% CI, 0.6-1.5 and OR = 1.0; 95% CI, 0.6-1.5), and the risk in small deletions/insertions and missense mutations was lower (pooled OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4-0.6 and OR = 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2-0.4, respectively). The relative risks for developing high titer inhibitors were similar.

  2. Is physical activity contraindicated for individuals with scoliosis? A systematic literature review☆

    PubMed Central

    Green, Bart N.; Johnson, Claire; Moreau, William

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature and other authoritative sources for recommendations regarding the appropriateness of physical and sporting activity for those with scoliosis. Methods The literature was systematically searched in PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Index to Chiropractic Literature, and the National Guidelines Clearinghouse from the earliest date of each database through July 2008. All languages and research designs were included. Web sites of respected organizations were searched for position/white papers on scoliosis and physical activity. Included articles were rated using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria, and recommendations for physical activity were made using the Oxford Centre's criteria for grades of recommendation. Results Of 42 articles retrieved, 11 met the inclusion criteria. The Internet review of 18 organizations yielded no previous guidelines or position papers for physical activity and scoliosis. Recommendations were made from 3 level 3b studies and 8 level 5 studies; they include the following: (1) brace-treated and surgically treated scoliosis patients have demonstrated that they can physically participate in physical activities at the same level as nonsurgical patients (grade C recommendation); (2) nonsurgically treated patients are encouraged to participate in sports and physical activity and (3) scoliosis is not a contraindication to participation in most sports (grade D recommendation); (4) brace-treated scoliosis patients are encouraged to exercise with their brace on; however, exercise may also be done outside of the brace (grade D recommendation); and (5) physical activity may be commenced after surgery for scoliosis; however, no high-quality evidence exists that guides the timing of return to physical activity (grade D recommendation). A potential association between elite-level competition in specific sports

  3. Epidemiology of Dengue Disease in Malaysia (2000–2012): A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Zaki, Abdul Hamid; Brett, Jeremy; Ismail, Ellyana; L'Azou, Maïna

    2014-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis was conducted to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease in Malaysia between 2000 and 2012. Published literature was searched for epidemiological studies of dengue disease, using specific search strategies for each electronic database; 237 relevant data sources were identified, 28 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The epidemiology of dengue disease in Malaysia was characterized by a non-linear increase in the number of reported cases from 7,103 in 2000 to 46,171 in 2010, and a shift in the age range predominance from children toward adults. The overall increase in dengue disease was accompanied by a rise in the number, but not the proportion, of severe cases. The dominant circulating dengue virus serotypes changed continually over the decade and differed between states. Several gaps in epidemiological knowledge were identified; in particular, studies of regional differences, age-stratified seroprevalence, and hospital admissions. Protocol registration PROSPERO #CRD42012002293 PMID:25375211

  4. Adverse Effects (AEs) of Topical NSAIDs in Older Adults with Osteoarthritis (OA): a Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Makris, UE.; Kohler, MJ.; Fraenkel, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the literature on reported adverse effects (AEs) associated with topical NSAID use in older adults with osteoarthritis (OA). Methods A systematic search of Medline (1950 to November 2009), Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane databases, Dissertation and American College of Rheumatology Meeting Abstracts was performed to identify original randomized controlled trials, case reports, observational studies, editorials or dissertations reporting AEs from topical NSAIDs in older adults with OA. Information was sought on study and participant characteristics, detailed recording of application site and systemic AEs as well as withdrawals due to AEs. Results The initial search yielded 953 articles of which 19 met eligibility criteria. Subjects receiving topical NSAIDs reported up to 39.3% application site AEs, and up to 17.5% systemic AEs. Five cases of warfarin potentiation with topical agents were reported; 1 resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding. In formal trials, the withdrawal rate from AEs ranged from 0-21% in the topical agents, 0-25% in the oral NSAIDs, and 0-16% in the placebo group. Conclusion In summary, although topical NSAIDs are safer than oral NSAIDs (fewer severe gastrointestinal AEs), a substantial proportion of older adults report systemic AEs with topical agents. Moreover, the withdrawal rate due to AEs with topical agents is comparable to that of oral NSAIDs. Given the safety profile and withdrawal rates described in this study, further data are needed to determine the incremental benefits of topical NSAIDs compared to other treatment modalities in older adults with OA. PMID:20360183

  5. Proposal of success criteria for strabismus surgery in patients with Graves' orbitopathy based on a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Jellema, Hinke Marijke; Braaksma-Besselink, Yvette; Limpens, Jacqueline; von Arx, Georg; Wiersinga, Wilmar M; Mourits, Maarten P

    2015-11-01

    Proposal of success criteria for strabismus surgery for patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO) based on a systematic review of the literature. We performed a systematic search of OVID MEDLINE, OVID Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the publisher subset of PubMed, to identify studies reporting on success criteria of strabismus surgery in GO. In addition, we handsearched several orthoptic journals and proceedings of strabismological congresses. Of the 789 articles retrieved, 42 articles described success criteria for strabismus surgery in GO. Most studies defined success in terms of a subjective diplopia-free field in primary and down gaze. Almost half of the studies used a graded scale (excellent, good, acceptable and failure) to describe the outcome of surgery. Three of the eligible studies described a tool to quantify the field of single vision in detail. Quality of life was not reported as an outcome measure in any of the published studies. In conclusion, success criteria for strabismus surgery in patients with GO are poorly defined and no consensus is available. The lack of standardization hampers comparative studies and thus the search for the best surgical treatment for diplopia in patients with GO. Therefore, we propose strict success criteria including a tool for quantification of remaining diplopia plus a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire (the GO-QoL).

  6. The balance of care approach to health and social care planning: lessons from a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Sue; Brand, Christian; Wilberforce, Mark; Challis, David

    2013-02-01

    The strategic allocation of resources is one the most difficult tasks facing health and social care decision makers, with multiple organisations delivering complex services to heterogeneous populations. The enduring appeal of the balance of care approach, a systematic framework for exploring the potential costs and consequences of changing the mix of community and institutional services in a defined geographical area, is thus unsurprising. However, no attempt has previously been made to synthesise or appraise the methodological approaches employed and lessons to inform future applications may go unheard. This paper seeks to address those concerns by reporting the findings of a systematic literature review that identified 33 examples of the model's use spanning 40 years. The majority of studies were undertaken in the UK and explored the services needed by frail older people. There is, however, nothing in the model to restrict it to this context. The paper also details the different ways key elements of the model (information about clients, resources, the appraisal of settings, costs and outcomes) have been operationalised, and considers their strengths and weaknesses. Whilst several studies identified a potential to reduce costs via the use of less institutional care, not all applications predicted cost savings.

  7. A systematic literature review of automated clinical coding and classification systems.

    PubMed

    Stanfill, Mary H; Williams, Margaret; Fenton, Susan H; Jenders, Robert A; Hersh, William R

    2010-01-01

    Clinical coding and classification processes transform natural language descriptions in clinical text into data that can subsequently be used for clinical care, research, and other purposes. This systematic literature review examined studies that evaluated all types of automated coding and classification systems to determine the performance of such systems. Studies indexed in Medline or other relevant databases prior to March 2009 were considered. The 113 studies included in this review show that automated tools exist for a variety of coding and classification purposes, focus on various healthcare specialties, and handle a wide variety of clinical document types. Automated coding and classification systems themselves are not generalizable, nor are the results of the studies evaluating them. Published research shows these systems hold promise, but these data must be considered in context, with performance relative to the complexity of the task and the desired outcome.

  8. Unpacking "Sexting": A Systematic Review of Nonconsensual Sexting in Legal, Educational, and Psychological Literatures.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Michelle A

    2016-07-19

    Concerns about sexting are increasingly prevalent in mainstream and academic media despite limited and inconsistent research findings about the practice. Much of this discourse centers around harm and sexting is commonly considered to be a risky behavior. A driving factor in these discussions is the apparent conflation of consensual and nonconsensual acts or sexting behaviors. A systematic review was conducted to determine the extent to which consensual and nonconsensual acts were conflated in the legal, educational, and psychological literatures on sexting, and how nonconsensual sexting was conceptualized within these disciplines. Definitions of sexting varied widely with regard to the inclusion or exclusion of nonconsensual acts. Nonconsensual acts were conceptualized in the following ways: as a risk of sexing, as being the fault of the victim, as bullying, or as a form of violence against women. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  9. The Importance of Magnesium in the Human Body: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Glasdam, Sidsel-Marie; Glasdam, Stinne; Peters, Günther H

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium, the second and fourth most abundant cation in the intracellular compartment and whole body, respectively, is of great physiologic importance. Magnesium exists as bound and free ionized forms depending on temperature, pH, ionic strength, and competing ions. Free magnesium participates in many biochemical processes and is most commonly measured by ion-selective electrode. This analytical approach is problematic because complete selectivity is not possible due to competition with other ions, i.e., calcium, and pH interference. Unfortunately, many studies have focused on measurement of total magnesium rather than its free bioactive form making it difficult to correlate to disease states. This systematic literature review presents current analytical challenges in obtaining accurate and reproducible test results for magnesium.

  10. Trust in health information websites: A systematic literature review on the antecedents of trust.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeolib

    2016-06-01

    Health websites are important sources of information for consumers. In choosing websites, trust in websites largely determines which website to access and how to best utilize the information. Thus, it is critical to understand why consumers trust certain websites and distrust others. A systematic literature review was conducted with the goal of identifying the antecedents of trust in health information websites. After four rounds of screening process, 20 articles between 2000 and 2013 were harvested. Factors that determine trust are classified into individual difference antecedents, website-related antecedents, and consumer-to-website interaction-related antecedents. The most frequently studied antecedents were socio-demographics, information quality, appearance, and perceived reputation of the website. Each antecedent of trust are discussed in detail and future research directions are proposed.

  11. A systematic review of literature on psychosocial aspects of gynecomastia in adolescents and young men.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Young, Cara; Harrison, Tracie; Caridi, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Gynecomastia represents a serious psychosocial challenge for many adolescent and young adult males, but short of surgery, little attention has been given to this concern. The purpose of this paper is to report findings from a systematic review of the literature about psychosocial correlates, psychosocial interventions, and quality of research evidence about young males with gynecomastia. From an initial 233 published papers, 10 studies were identified and reviewed. Five were descriptive case studies and included no statistical analyses. The other studies were all conducted with small samples. Despite the limited evidence, findings suggest that many young men suffer emotional distress concerning gynecomastia, but this distress has received few interventions beyond surgical removal of the breast tissue. Future studies are needed to address this problem more fully so that more aggressive measures such as frequent assessments of the physical and psychosocial aspects of the condition can be done by healthcare professionals.

  12. Public Stigma of Mental Illness in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2013-01-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public’s stigma of mental illness. PMID:22833051

  13. A systematic literature review of the relationship between stretching and athletic injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Athletic-related injuries are a major cause for healthcare visits and financial burden for an otherwise healthy population of adults. The purpose of this article was to investigate the effects of stretching on injury prevention and to determine whether current stretching guidelines are beneficial for athletes. A systematic review of the literature was conducted through searching MEDLINE and CINAHL on topics related to stretching and injury prevention. Current belief is that stretching reduces injury incidence and that it should be performed prior to athletic activities. An examination of 11 articles provided inconclusive outcomes regarding the positive effect of stretching on injury prevention. A sport or activity-specific tailored stretch and warm-up program yielded the best outcomes in relation to preventing injuries. Direct negative effects of stretching were not identified; therefore, the application of stretching should be performed on an individual basis.

  14. Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Mexico (2000–2011): A Systematic Literature Search and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dantés, Héctor Gómez; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Sarti, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    This systematic literature review describes the epidemiology of dengue disease in Mexico (2000–2011). The annual number of uncomplicated dengue cases reported increased from 1,714 in 2000 to 15,424 in 2011 (incidence rates of 1.72 and 14.12 per 100,000 population, respectively). Peaks were observed in 2002, 2007, and 2009. Coastal states were most affected by dengue disease. The age distribution pattern showed an increasing number of cases during childhood, a peak at 10–20 years, and a gradual decline during adulthood. All four dengue virus serotypes were detected. Although national surveillance is in place, there are knowledge gaps relating to asymptomatic cases, primary/secondary infections, and seroprevalence rates of infection in all age strata. Under-reporting of the clinical spectrum of the disease is also problematic. Dengue disease remains a serious public health problem in Mexico. PMID:25375162

  15. Clinical features of ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumors: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masanari G; Erkul, Evren; Brewer, Kendall S; Harruff, Emily E; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A

    2017-04-01

    Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumors are rare, benign neoplasms of the head and neck most commonly found within the oral cavity. While histopathological evaluation has been the primary focus of prior studies, clinical characterization of this rare entity currently remains sparse. Thus, this study was performed to provide insights into the clinical characteristics of ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumors to aid clinicians in distinguishing the lesion from other benign and malignant processes for a more accurate diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, this study includes a unique case of ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor arising in the base of tongue, now the fourth to arise at that anatomic site. Including this case, a systematic review of the literature identified only 60 individual cases reported thus far. This study provides a detailed analysis of all 60 cases including demographics, clinical presentation, radiographic imaging, follow-up, and recurrence rate.

  16. International governance structures for health-care waste management: a systematic review of scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Caniato, M; Tudor, T; Vaccari, M

    2015-04-15

    Significant differences exist in the management of health-care waste management, globally. This is particularly so between low, middle and high-income countries. A systematic review of scientific literature on global healthcare waste management spanning the period 2000 - current was undertaken, in order to identify key policies, practices, challenges and best practice. The findings were analysed considering the Gross National Income and the Human Development Index of each country. Effective regulation and operative definitions of waste categories are key-factors requiring improvement at the national level. The economic conditions in the country are an important factor, especially regarding treatment and disposal. Areas for improvement (e.g. the need for improved governance structures, the development of regional clusters, as well as sharps waste segregation) are suggested.

  17. Does malalignment affect revision rate in total knee replacements: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Mohammed; Barlow, Tim; Ahmed, Imran; Dunbar, Mark; McCulloch, Peter; Griffin, Damian

    2015-01-01

    To ensure implant durability following Modern total knee replacement (TKR) surgery, one long held principle in condylar total knee arthroplasty is positioning the components in alignment with the mechanical axis and restoring the overall limb alignment to 180° ± 3°. However, this view has been challenged recently. Given the high number of TKR performed, clarity on this integral aspect of the procedure is necessary. To investigate the association between malalignment following primary TKR and revision rates. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using a computerised literature search of Medline, CINHAL, and EMBASE to identify English-language studies published from 2000 through to 2014. Studies with adequate information on the correlation between malalignment and revision rate with a minimum follow-up of 6 months were considered for inclusion. A study protocol, including the detailed search strategy was published on the PROSPERO database for systematic reviews. From an initial 2107 citations, eight studies, with variable methodological qualities, were eligible for inclusion. Collectively, nine parameters of alignment were studied, and 20 assessments were made between an alignment parameter and revision rate. Four out of eight studies demonstrated an association between a malalignment parameter and increased revision rates. In the coronal plane, only three studies assessed the mechanical axis. None of these studies found an association with revision rates, whereas four of the five studies investigating the anatomical axis found an association between malalignment and increased revision rate. This study demonstrates the effect of malalignment on revision rates is likely to be modest. Interestingly, studies that used mechanical alignment in the coronal plane demonstrated no association with revision rates. This questions the premise of patient specific instrumentation devices based on the mechanically aligned knee when considering revision as the

  18. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity among Children and Adolescents: A Review of Systematic Literature Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Bucher Della Torre, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has increased worldwide and has reached alarming proportions. Currently, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the primary source of added sugar in the diet of children and adolescents. Contradictive findings from studies and reviews have fueled an endless debate on the role of SSBs in the development of childhood obesity. Methods: The primary aim of the present review of reviews was to assess how review- and study-level methodological factors explain conflicting results across reviews and meta-analyses by providing an up-to-date synthesis of recent evidence regarding the association between SSB consumption and weight gain, overweight, and obesity in a population of 6-month-old to 19-year-old children and adolescents. The secondary aim was to assess the quality of included reviews using the Assessment of Multiple SysTemAtic Reviews (AMSTAR) measurement tool. Systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses were included. The literature search was performed through the platforms Pubmed/Medline, Cinahl, and Web of Knowledge. Results: Thirteen reviews and meta-analyses were included. Nine reviews concluded that there was a direct association between SSBs and obesity in children and adolescents and four others did not. The quality of the included reviews was low to moderate, and the two reviews with the highest quality scores showed discrepant results. Conclusions: The majority of reviews concluded that there was a direct association between SSB consumption and weight gain, overweight, and obesity in children and adolescents. However, recent evidence from well-conducted meta-analyses shows discrepant results regarding the association between SSB and weight gain, overweight, and obesity among children and adolescents. Improving methodological quality of studies and reviews as well as ensuring responsible conduct of research and scientific integrity is essential for the provision

  19. Patient-centred care in general dental practice - a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Delivering improvements in quality is a key objective within most healthcare systems, and a view which has been widely embraced within the NHS in the United Kingdom. Within the NHS, quality is evaluated across three key dimensions: clinical effectiveness, safety and patient experience, with the latter modelled on the Picker Principles of Patient-Centred Care (PCC). Quality improvement is an important feature of the current dental contract reforms in England, with “patient experience” likely to have a central role in the evaluation of quality. An understanding and appreciation of the evidence underpinning PCC within dentistry is highly relevant if we are to use this as a measure of quality in general dental practice. Methods A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify the features of PCC relevant to dentistry and ascertain the current research evidence base underpinning its use as a measure of quality within general dental practice. Results Three papers were identified which met the inclusion criteria and demonstrated the use of primary research to provide an understanding of the key features of PCC within dentistry. None of the papers identified were based in general dental practice and none of the three studies sought the views of patients. Some distinct differences were noted between the key features of PCC reported within the dental literature and those developed within the NHS Patient Experience Framework. Conclusions This systematic review reveals a lack of understanding of PCC within dentistry, and in particular general dental practice. There is currently a poor evidence base to support the use of the current patient reported outcome measures as indicators of patient-centredness. Further research is necessary to understand the important features of PCC in dentistry and patients’ views should be central to this research. PMID:24902842

  20. Blood blister-like aneurysms: single center experience and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ana Marcos; Narata, Ana Paula; Yilmaz, Hasan; Bijlenga, Philippe; Radovanovic, Ivan; Schaller, Karl; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Pereira, Vitor Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs) are a controversial entity. They arise from non-branching sites on the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) and are suspected to originate from a dissection. Our aim is to describe the BBA cases seen in our center and to present a systematic review of the literature on BBAs. We analyzed the eleven cases of BBA admitted to our center from 2003 to 2012. We assessed the medical history, treatment modality (endovascular and/or surgery), complications and clinical outcome. The cohort included 8 women and 4 men with a mean age of 53.16 years. Treatment of the BBA consisted of stenting and coiling in 5 patients, stenting only in 4 patients, coiling and clipping in 1 patient, clipping only in 1 patient, and conservative treatment in 1 patient. A good outcome was found in 10 patients, as defined by a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) less than or equal to two at three months. A systematic review of the literature was performed, and 314 reported patients were found: 221 patients were treated with a primarily surgical approach, and 87 patients were treated with a primarily endovascular approach. A rescue or second treatment was required in 46 patients (21%). The overall estimated treatment morbidity rate was 17%, and the mortality rate was 15%. BBAs exhibit more aggressive behavior compared to saccular aneurysms, and more intra-operative complications occur with BBAs, independent of the treatment type offered. They are also significantly more likely to relapse and rebleed after treatment. Endovascular treatment offers a lower morbidity-mortality compared with surgical approaches. Multilayer flow-diverting stents appear to be a promising strategy.

  1. Lean interventions in healthcare: do they actually work? A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Moraros, John; Lemstra, Mark; Nwankwo, Chijioke

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lean is a widely used quality improvement methodology initially developed and used in the automotive and manufacturing industries but recently expanded to the healthcare sector. This systematic literature review seeks to independently assess the effect of Lean or Lean interventions on worker and patient satisfaction, health and process outcomes, and financial costs. Data sources We conducted a systematic literature review of Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, ABI/Inform, ERIC, EMBASE and SCOPUS. Study selection Peer reviewed articles were included if they examined a Lean intervention and included quantitative data. Methodological quality was assessed using validated critical appraisal checklists. Publically available data collected by the Saskatchewan Health Quality Council and the Saskatchewan Union of Nurses were also analysed and reported separately. Data extraction Data on design, methods, interventions and key outcomes were extracted and collated. Results of data synthesis Our electronic search identified 22 articles that passed methodological quality review. Among the accepted studies, 4 were exclusively concerned with health outcomes, 3 included both health and process outcomes and 15 included process outcomes. Our study found that Lean interventions have: (i) no statistically significant association with patient satisfaction and health outcomes; (ii) a negative association with financial costs and worker satisfaction and (iii) potential, yet inconsistent, benefits on process outcomes like patient flow and safety. Conclusion While some may strongly believe that Lean interventions lead to quality improvements in healthcare, the evidence to date simply does not support this claim. More rigorous, higher quality and better conducted scientific research is required to definitively ascertain the impact and effectiveness of Lean in healthcare settings. PMID:26811118

  2. A Systematic Review of Assessment and Treatment of Moderate to Severe Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Frederick A.; Wichems, Christine H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The systematic, large-scale study of therapies for moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a relatively recent advancement in the field. This review describes for the general practitioner the characterization of moderate to severe AD, discusses the development of metrics sensitive to the constellation of symptoms in these patients, and critically evaluates the use of those measures in moderate to severe AD clinical trials. Data Sources: Published clinical trials obtained by MEDLINE searches used the following key words: moderate AD, severe AD, donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, memantine, and anti-dementia agents. Clinical trials were limited by language (English), study type (clinical trial), and publication dates (1990–2005). Study Selection: Nine clinical trials comprise the studies conducted to date in moderate to severe AD and include 5 prospective randomized clinical trials (3 for memantine, 2 for donepezil) and 4 retrospective subanalyses (2 for galantamine, 2 for rivastigmine) of primary datasets. Data Extraction: Clinical trials are summarized and major findings are reviewed. Data Synthesis: The data reviewed support the decision to initiate and maintain treatment in moderate to severe AD patients. Conclusions: The development and implementation of improved metrics for moderate to severe AD patients has revealed that meaningful benefits are attainable in this patient population by treatment with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine. Evidence also indicates a benefit from cholinesterase inhibitor treatment, although further study of these agents in this patient population is warranted. PMID:16912819

  3. Multidisciplinary dermatology-rheumatology management for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cobo-Ibáñez, Tatiana; Villaverde, Virginia; Seoane-Mato, Daniel; Muñoz-Fernández, Santiago; Guerra, Mercedes; Del Campo, Petra Díaz; Cañete, Juan D

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the efficacy and satisfaction of multidisciplinary dermatology-rheumatology management for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). We conducted a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library up to September 2015. Selection criteria include (1) adult patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis and PsA, (2) assessed in a multidisciplinary consultation, (3) comparison with routine separate consultations, and (4) outcome measures to evaluate efficacy and/or satisfaction. Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, clinical trials, cohort studies, and case series were included. The quality of the studies included was graded according to the Oxford Level of Evidence scale. Of 195 articles, three studies complied with the inclusion criteria: two case series and one descriptive study in which 506 patients were evaluated. Patients were referred to the multidisciplinary consultation from dermatology and rheumatology consultations in all but one study, in which primary care was also involved. The reason for the referral was to confirm the diagnosis and/or treatment. Patients were evaluated on a weekly and monthly basis in two and one study, respectively. The evidence obtained is scarce but suggests the efficacy of multidisciplinary consultations in terms of improved skin and joint symptoms after changing treatment (82-56 %), showing higher scores for this type of consultation compared to the usual [4.91 vs. 2.85 (0-5)] and a high level of satisfaction among patients (94 % "very satisfied"). However, waiting times were higher. With the limited evidence found, multidisciplinary management seems to be more effective and more satisfactory for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis and PsA than conventional consultations, though this could not be conclusively demonstrated. The results of this review support the benefit of implementing this type of consultation.

  4. Life Goals in Patients with Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hullmann, Stephanie E.; Robb, Sheri L.; Rand, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Purposes of this systematic review of life goal research in cancer patients were to: 1) identify life goal characteristics and processes being examined, 2) describe instruments used to assess life goal constructs, 3) identify theoretical models being used to guide research, and 4) summarize what is known about the impact of the cancer experience on life goal characteristics, processes, and psychological outcomes. Methods We conducted this systematic review using MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases. Inclusion criteria were: 1) published between 1993 and 2014, 2) English language, 3) cancer patient population, and 4) original research articles that assessed life goal characteristics and/or goal processes. One-hundred ninety-seven articles were screened and 27 included in the final review. Results Seven life goal characteristics and seven life goal processes were identified, and less than half of studies investigated associations between goal characteristics and processes. Conceptual definitions were not provided for about half of the identified life goal constructs. Studies used both validated and author-developed instruments to assess goal constructs. Twenty-four different theoretical models were identified, with self-regulation theory most frequently cited. Overall, the literature suggests that cancer impacts patients’ life goal characteristics and processes, and life goal disturbance is related to poorer psychological outcomes. Conclusions The impact of the cancer experience on life goals is an important and emerging area of research that would benefit from conceptual and theoretical clarity and measurement consistency. PMID:25990641

  5. Wernicke encephalopathy in subjects undergoing restrictive weight loss surgery: a systematic review of literature data.

    PubMed

    Milone, Marco; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Lupoli, Roberta; Maietta, Paola; Bianco, Paolo; Pisapia, Anna; Gaudioso, Dario; Taffuri, Caterina; Milone, Francesco; Musella, Mario

    2014-07-01

    The use of weight loss surgery is progressively increasing, and in recent years, restrictive bariatric surgery procedures have been more often used. Although thought to be associated with a lower incidence of post-operative side effects than malabsorpitive surgery, some cases of micronutrients deficiency have been reported because of an acquired thiamine deficiency; in this clinical setting, some cases of Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) have been described. Major determinants and predictors of this major neurological complication are currently unknown. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse literature data in order to address this issue. The main result of our systematic review was that persistent vomiting is the major determinant of WE in patients undergoing restrictive weight loss surgery. In addition, early thiamine supplementation can rapidly improve the clinical conditions, avoiding permanent deficiencies. On the other hand, given the wide variability of clinical and demographic characteristics, definite prognostic factors of WE occurrence and of clinical outcome cannot be identified. In conclusion, although our results are suggestive, further ad hoc prospective studies evaluating changes in micronutrients levels according to different types of surgery are needed.

  6. Direct in vivo strain measurements in human bone-a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Al Nazer, R; Lanovaz, J; Kawalilak, C; Johnston, J D; Kontulainen, S

    2012-01-03

    Bone strain is the governing stimuli for the remodeling process necessary in the maintenance of bone's structure and mechanical strength. Strain gages are the gold standard and workhorses of human bone experimental strain analysis in vivo. The objective of this systematic literature review is to provide an overview for direct in vivo human bone strain measurement studies and place the strain results within context of current theories of bone remodeling (i.e. mechanostat theory). We employed a standardized search strategy without imposing any time restriction to find English language studies indexed in PubMed and Web of Science databases that measured human bone strain in vivo. Twenty-four studies met our final inclusion criteria. Seven human bones were subjected to strain measurements in vivo including medial tibia, second metatarsal, calcaneus, proximal femur, distal radius, lamina of vertebra and dental alveolar. Peak strain magnitude recorded was 9096 με on the medial tibia during basketball rebounding and the peak strain rate magnitude was -85,500 με/s recorded at the distal radius during forward fall from standing, landing on extended hands. The tibia was the most exposed site for in vivo strain measurements due to accessibility and being a common pathologic site of stress fracture in the lower extremity. This systematic review revealed that most of the strains measured in vivo in different bones were generally within the physiological loading zone defined by the mechanostat theory, which implies stimulation of functional adaptation necessary to maintain bone mechanical integrity.

  7. Prognostic Value of Epicardial Fat Volume Measurements by Computed Tomography: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Spearman, James V.; Renker, Matthias; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Herbert, Teri L.; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Nietert, Paul J.; Meinel, Felix G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To perform a systematic review of the growing body of literature evaluating the prognostic value of epicardial fat volume (EFV) quantified by cross-sectional imaging for adverse clinical outcomes. Methods Two independent reviewers performed systematic searches on both PubMed and Scopus using search terms developed with a medical librarian. Peer-reviewed articles were selected based on the inclusion of outcome data, utilization of epicardial fat volume and sufficient reporting for analysis. Results A total of 411 studies were evaluated with 9 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. In all, the studies evaluated 10,252 patients. All 9 studies were based on CT measurements. Seven studies evaluated the prognostic value of EFV unadjusted for calcium score, and 6 of these studies found a significant association between EFV and clinical outcomes. Seven studies evaluated the incremental value of EFV beyond calcium scoring, and 6 of these studies found a significant association. Conclusions The majority of studies suggest that EFV quantification is significantly associated with clinical outcomes and provides incremental prognostic value over coronary artery calcium scoring. Future research should use a binary cut-off of 125mL for evaluation of EFV to provide consistency with other research. PMID:25925354

  8. Migrants' Health in Iran from the Perspective of Social Justice: a Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Rezaei, Raheleh; Wild, Verina

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a systematic literature review of studies that shed light on the health of migrants in Iran from the perspective of social justice. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Iranian databases, including IranMedex, Magiran, and SID, in June 2012. All studies that were published until June 2012 describing the health status of migrants - including refugees - in Iran were included. The search results were categorisoyed according to an adapted version of the six dimensions of well-being in Madison Powers' and Ruth Faden's theory of social justice in health. They consisted of access to health care, health, respect, self-determination and attachment, personal security, and social determinants of health. The majority of papers mentioned issues related to infectious diseases (100 papers, 60.2%). Only a few papers mentioned socioeconomic status and access to health services, education, and work. Infectious diseases and high population growth among migrants and the problematic image of migrants as "threat" to the Iranian population's health appear to be the most prominent results in our search. It is imperative to combat the high numbers of infectious diseases among migrants in Iran while simultaneously making efforts to change the public image of migrants as a health and social service threat to Iran. Data concerning social and ethical issues of migrants' health in Iran is scarce, and thus, future research is necessary using other methods and sources.

  9. Knowledge Exchange Processes in Organizations and Policy Arenas: A Narrative Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Lemire, Marc; Denis, Jean-Louis; Tremblay, Émile

    2010-01-01

    Context: This article presents the main results from a large-scale analytical systematic review on knowledge exchange interventions at the organizational and policymaking levels. The review integrated two broad traditions, one roughly focused on the use of social science research results and the other focused on policymaking and lobbying processes. Methods: Data collection was done using systematic snowball sampling. First, we used prospective snowballing to identify all documents citing any of a set of thirty-three seminal papers. This process identified 4,102 documents, 102 of which were retained for in-depth analysis. The bibliographies of these 102 documents were merged and used to identify retrospectively all articles cited five times or more and all books cited seven times or more. All together, 205 documents were analyzed. To develop an integrated model, the data were synthesized using an analytical approach. Findings: This article developed integrated conceptualizations of the forms of collective knowledge exchange systems, the nature of the knowledge exchanged, and the definition of collective-level use. This literature synthesis is organized around three dimensions of context: level of polarization (politics), cost-sharing equilibrium (economics), and institutionalized structures of communication (social structuring). Conclusions: The model developed here suggests that research is unlikely to provide context-independent evidence for the intrinsic efficacy of knowledge exchange strategies. To design a knowledge exchange intervention to maximize knowledge use, a detailed analysis of the context could use the kind of framework developed here. PMID:21166865

  10. Accuracy of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction: systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ciro Martins; Mazin, Suleimy Cristina; dos Santos, Elisa Raphael; Cesetti, Mariana Vicente; Bächtold, Guilherme Albergaria Brízida; Cordeiro, João Henrique de Freitas; Theodoro, Fabrício Claudino Estrela Terra; Damasco, Fabiana dos Santos; Carranza, Sebastián Andrés Vernal; Santos, Adriana de Oliveira; Roselino, Ana Maria; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is hampered by the absence of a gold standard. An accurate diagnosis is essential because of the high toxicity of the medications for the disease. This study aimed to assess the ability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MCL and to compare these results with clinical research recently published by the authors. A systematic literature review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement was performed using comprehensive search criteria and communication with the authors. A meta-analysis considering the estimates of the univariate and bivariate models was performed. Specificity near 100% was common among the papers. The primary reason for accuracy differences was sensitivity. The meta-analysis, which was only possible for PCR samples of lesion fragments, revealed a sensitivity of 71% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59; 0.81] and a specificity of 93% (95% CI = 0.83; 0.98) in the bivariate model. The search for measures that could increase the sensitivity of PCR should be encouraged. The quality of the collected material and the optimisation of the amplification of genetic material should be prioritised. PMID:25946238

  11. Gait Training Interventions for Lower Extremity Amputees: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Highsmith, M Jason; Andrews, Casey R; Millman, Claire; Fuller, Ashley; Kahle, Jason T; Klenow, Tyler D; Lewis, Katherine L; Bradley, Rachel C; Orriola, John J

    2016-09-01

    Lower extremity (LE) amputation patients who use prostheses have gait asymmetries and altered limb loading and movement strategies when ambulating. Subsequent secondary conditions are believed to be associated with gait deviations and lead to long-term complications that impact function and quality of life as a result. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to determine the strength of evidence supporting gait training interventions and to formulate evidence statements to guide practice and research related to therapeutic gait training for lower extremity amputees. A systematic review of three databases was conducted followed by evaluation of evidence and synthesis of empirical evidence statements (EES). Eighteen manuscripts were included in the review, which covered two areas of gait training interventions: 1) overground and 2) treadmill-based. Eight EESs were synthesized. Four addressed overground gait training, one covered treadmill training, and three statements addressed both forms of therapy. Due to the gait asymmetries, altered biomechanics, and related secondary consequences associated with LE amputation, gait training interventions are needed along with study of their efficacy. Overground training with verbal or other auditory, manual, and psychological awareness interventions was found to be effective at improving gait. Similarly, treadmill-based training was found to be effective: 1) as a supplement to overground training; 2) independently when augmented with visual feedback and/or body weight support; or 3) as part of a home exercise plan. Gait training approaches studied improved multiple areas of gait, including sagittal and coronal biomechanics, spatiotemporal measures, and distance walked.

  12. Trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Strohmeier, Hannah; Scholte, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Working in humanitarian crisis situations is dangerous. National humanitarian staff in particular face the risk of primary and secondary trauma exposure which can lead to mental health problems. Despite this, research on the mental health of national staff is scarce, and a systematic analysis of up-to-date findings has not been undertaken yet. Objective This article reviews the available literature on trauma-related mental health problems among national humanitarian staff. It focuses on the prevalence of selected mental health problems in relation to reference groups; sex and/or gender as predictive factors of mental health problems; and the influence of organization types on mental health problems. Method Three databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published in the English language in peer-reviewed journals. Results Fourteen articles matched the inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that national staff experience mental health problems and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among this occupation group is mostly similar to or higher than among reference groups. Research on both substance use disorder and suicidal behavior among national staff is particularly scarce. The relation between sex and/or gender and mental health problems among national staff appears to be complex, and organizational staff support seems to be an important determinant for mental health. Conclusion All findings call for increased attention from the humanitarian community and further research on the topic. PMID:26589256

  13. The breadth of primary care: a systematic literature review of its core dimensions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Even though there is general agreement that primary care is the linchpin of effective health care delivery, to date no efforts have been made to systematically review the scientific evidence supporting this supposition. The aim of this study was to examine the breadth of primary care by identifying its core dimensions and to assess the evidence for their interrelations and their relevance to outcomes at (primary) health system level. Methods A systematic review of the primary care literature was carried out, restricted to English language journals reporting original research or systematic reviews. Studies published between 2003 and July 2008 were searched in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, King's Fund Database, IDEAS Database, and EconLit. Results Eighty-five studies were identified. This review was able to provide insight in the complexity of primary care as a multidimensional system, by identifying ten core dimensions that constitute a primary care system. The structure of a primary care system consists of three dimensions: 1. governance; 2. economic conditions; and 3. workforce development. The primary care process is determined by four dimensions: 4. access; 5. continuity of care; 6. coordination of care; and 7. comprehensiveness of care. The outcome of a primary care system includes three dimensions: 8. quality of care; 9. efficiency care; and 10. equity in health. There is a considerable evidence base showing that primary care contributes through its dimensions to overall health system performance and health. Conclusions A primary care system can be defined and approached as a multidimensional system contributing to overall health system performance and health. PMID:20226084

  14. Prevalence and correlates of depression among Australian women: a systematic literature review, January 1999- January 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of depression among Australian women. This systematic review of depression among women in Australia, the largest identified to date, highlights the prevalence and correlates of depression across the life span. Results The report adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement (PRISMA). Six health related databases were selected: Medline, PsychInfo, SCOPUS, Cinhal, Informit and Cochrane Systematic Reviews. 1,888 initial articles were found, and 111 articles were considered relevant for review. Prevalence rates of depression among women ranged from 2.6% to 43.9%. Higher rates were reported for younger women, or specific population groups. Most significant correlates included, age, adverse life events, tobacco use, sole motherhood, and previous mental health problems. Conclusions Limitations include the scope of the investigation’s aims and inclusion criteria, and the failure to identify gender specific data in most studies. Publication bias was likely, given that only papers reported (or translated) in English were included. Despite the breadth of information available, there were noticeable gaps in the literature. Some studies reported on affective disorders, but did not specifically report on depression; it is concluded that each mental illness warrants separate investigation. It was also common for studies to report a total prevalence rate without separating gender. This report recommends that it is vital to separate male and female data. The report concludes that more research is needed among mid-age women, Indigenous women, non-heterosexual women and Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) women. PMID:24138703

  15. A systematic literature review on first aid provided by laypeople to trauma victims.

    PubMed

    Tannvik, T D; Bakke, H K; Wisborg, T

    2012-11-01

    Death from trauma is a significant and international problem. Outcome for patients suffering out-of-hospital cardiac arrests is significantly improved by early cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The usefulness of first aid given by laypeople in trauma is less well established. The aim of this study was to review the existing literature on first aid provided by laypeople to trauma victims and to establish how often first aid is provided, if it is performed correctly, and its impact on outcome. A systematic review was carried out, according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, of all studies involving first aid provided by laypeople to trauma victims. Cochrane, Embase, Medline, Pubmed, and Google Scholar databases were systematically searched. Ten eligible articles were identified involving a total of 5836 victims. Eight studies were related to patient outcome, while two studies were simulation based. The proportion of patients who received first aid ranged from 10.7% to 65%. Incorrect first aid was given in up to 83.7% of cases. Airway handling and haemorrhage control were particular areas of concern. One study from Iraq investigated survival and reported a 5.8% reduction in mortality. Two retrospective autopsy-based studies estimated that correct first aid could have reduced mortality by 1.8-4.5%. There is limited evidence regarding first aid provided by laypeople to trauma victims. Due to great heterogeneity in the studies, firm conclusions can not be drawn. However, the results show a potential mortality reduction if first aid is administered to trauma victims. Further research is necessary to establish this.

  16. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: Experience from a tertiary care center and systematic review of Indian literature

    PubMed Central

    Hadda, Vijay; Tiwari, Pawan; Madan, Karan; Mohan, Anant; Gupta, Nishkarsh; Bharti, Sachidanand Jee; Kumar, Vinod; Garg, Rakesh; Trikha, Anjan; Jain, Deepali; Arava, Sudheer; Khilnani, Gopi C; Guleria, Randeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder characterized by deposition of lipoproteinaceous material within alveoli, with a variable clinical course. Here, we report an experience of management of PAP at our center. A systematic review of previously reported cases from India is also included in the article. Materials and Methods: This study included patients with primary PAP managed at our center from 2009 to 2015. Diagnosis of primary PAP was based on histopathologic diagnosis on bronchoalveolar lavage or transbronchial lung biopsy and absence of causes of secondary PAP. For systematic review of Indian publications, the literature search was performed using PubMed and EMBASE databases using the terms “pulmonary alveolar proteinosis'” or “alveolar proteinosis” and “India” or “Indian.” Results: During the above-specified period, five patients with diagnosis of PAP were admitted at our center. Median age of patients was 32 years (interquartile range [IQR] 30.5–59); 80% were female. Mean duration (± standard deviation) of symptoms was 6.2 (±1.79) months. Anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) antibodies were elevated in 4 out of 5 patients (80%). For management, whole lung lavage (WLL) was done for four patients with median volume of 32.5 (IQR 18–74) L per patient. All the patients showed significant symptomatic as well as improvement in physiological parameters. Subcutaneous GM-CSF and ambroxol were given to 3 patients and 1 patient, respectively. The median follow-up of all patients was 18 (IQR 5–44) months. A systematic review of all Indian studies of PAP revealed thirty publications. Conclusions: WLL is the most common, effective, and safe therapy in patients with PAP. GM-CSF administration is an efficacious treatment for patients with incomplete response after WLL. PMID:27890991

  17. Health, Climate Change and Sustainability: A systematic Review and Thematic Analysis of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, A.; Maynard, V.; Goodman, B.; Richardson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence of climate change and its impact continues to be accumulated, and it is argued that the consequences of climate change are likely to result in an increased demand on health services. It has been claimed that climate change presents new challenges for health services and that strategies should be adopted to address these challenges. Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to map published literature on health, climate change and sustainability by categorising papers according to their focus on effects, strategy and actions, and to provide a thematic analysis of their content. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted via a range of healthcare related databases i.e. Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, AMED, ASSIA, IBSS and ISI Web of Knowledge. Searches focussed upon papers published in English between 1998 and 2008. Retrieved papers were studied by the authors in order to inform the thematic analysis of their content. Results: A total of 114 publications were retrieved, of which 36 met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. These 36 publications were categorised and are discussed according to their focus on: effects/impacts, strategy/policy, action/examples. Conclusions: A number of papers report the potential health effects of climate change while others report policies and strategies to tackle these effects. However there is an urgent need to identify and report on the implementation of strategies to mitigate and adapt to these challenges and to publish real examples of actions. Actions that are taken need to be evidence/policy based, and implementations monitored, evaluated and published. PMID:20508757

  18. Comparing the usefulness of the 1997 and 2009 WHO dengue case classification: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Horstick, Olaf; Jaenisch, Thomas; Martinez, Eric; Kroeger, Axel; See, Lucy Lum Chai; Farrar, Jeremy; Ranzinger, Silvia Runge

    2014-09-01

    The 1997 and 2009 WHO dengue case classifications were compared in a systematic review with 12 eligible studies (4 prospective). Ten expert opinion articles were used for discussion. For the 2009 WHO classification studies show: when determining severe dengue sensitivity ranges between 59-98% (88%/98%: prospective studies), specificity between 41-99% (99%: prospective study) - comparing the 1997 WHO classification: sensitivity 24.8-89.9% (24.8%/74%: prospective studies), specificity: 25%/100% (100%: prospective study). The application of the 2009 WHO classification is easy, however for (non-severe) dengue there may be a risk of monitoring increased case numbers. Warning signs validation studies are needed. For epidemiological/pathogenesis research use of the 2009 WHO classification, opinion papers show that ease of application, increased sensitivity (severe dengue) and international comparability are advantageous; 3 severe dengue criteria (severe plasma leakage, severe bleeding, severe organ manifestation) are useful research endpoints. The 2009 WHO classification has clear advantages for clinical use, use in epidemiology is promising and research use may at least not be a disadvantage.

  19. Comparing the Usefulness of the 1997 and 2009 WHO Dengue Case Classification: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Horstick, Olaf; Jaenisch, Thomas; Martinez, Eric; Kroeger, Axel; See, Lucy Lum Chai; Farrar, Jeremy; Ranzinger, Silvia Runge

    2014-01-01

    The 1997 and 2009 WHO dengue case classifications were compared in a systematic review with 12 eligible studies (4 prospective). Ten expert opinion articles were used for discussion. For the 2009 WHO classification studies show: when determining severe dengue sensitivity ranges between 59–98% (88%/98%: prospective studies), specificity between 41–99% (99%: prospective study) - comparing the 1997 WHO classification: sensitivity 24.8–89.9% (24.8%/74%: prospective studies), specificity: 25%/100% (100%: prospective study). The application of the 2009 WHO classification is easy, however for (non-severe) dengue there may be a risk of monitoring increased case numbers. Warning signs validation studies are needed. For epidemiological/pathogenesis research use of the 2009 WHO classification, opinion papers show that ease of application, increased sensitivity (severe dengue) and international comparability are advantageous; 3 severe dengue criteria (severe plasma leakage, severe bleeding, severe organ manifestation) are useful research endpoints. The 2009 WHO classification has clear advantages for clinical use, use in epidemiology is promising and research use may at least not be a disadvantage. PMID:24957540

  20. Colectomy rates in patients with ulcerative colitis following treatment with infliximab or ciclosporin: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Kymberley; Alrubaiy, Laith; Akbari, Ashley; Samuel, David G; Morrison-Rees, Sian; Roberts, Stephen E

    2016-04-01

    This review aimed to compile all available published data on colectomy rates following treatment using infliximab or ciclosporin in adult ulcerative colitis patients and to analyse colectomy rates, timing to colectomy and postcolectomy mortality for each treatment. We systematically reviewed the literature after 1990 reporting colectomy rates in ulcerative colitis patients treated with infliximab or ciclosporin, excluding articles on paediatric patients, patients with indeterminate colitis or Crohn's disease and bowel surgery not related to ulcerative colitis. We presented weighted mean colectomy rates and mortality rates. Cox's regression was used to assess time to colectomy adjusting for colitis severity, patient age and sex. We tabulated 78 studies reporting on ciclosporin and/or infliximab and colectomy rates or postcolectomy mortality rates. Not all studies reported data in a standardized manner. Infliximab had a significantly lower colectomy rate than ciclosporin at 36 months when analysing all studies, studies directly comparing infliximab and ciclosporin and studies using severe colitis patients, but not at 3, 12 or 24 months. Severity and age were key indicators in the likelihood of undergoing colectomy after treatment. Postcolectomy mortality rates were less than 1.5% for both drugs. This review indicates that long-term colectomy rates following infliximab are significantly lower than ciclosporin in the longer term, and that postcolectomy mortality following infliximab and ciclosporin is very low. However, many key data items were missing from research articles, reducing our ability to establish with more confidence the actual impact of these two drugs on colectomy rates and postcolectomy mortality rates.

  1. Dietary pattern analysis and biomarkers of low-grade inflammation: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Barbaresko, Janett; Koch, Manja; Schulze, Matthias B; Nöthlings, Ute

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present literature review was to investigate and summarize the current evidence on associations between dietary patterns and biomarkers of inflammation, as derived from epidemiological studies. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE, and a total of 46 studies were included in the review. These studies predominantly applied principal component analysis, factor analysis, reduced rank regression analysis, the Healthy Eating Index, or the Mediterranean Diet Score. No prospective observational study was found. Patterns identified by reduced rank regression as being statistically significantly associated with biomarkers of inflammation were almost all meat-based or "Western" patterns. Studies using principal component analysis or a priori-defined diet scores found that meat-based or "Western-like" patterns tended to be positively associated with biomarkers of inflammation, predominantly C-reactive protein, while vegetable- and fruit-based or "healthy" patterns tended to be inversely associated. While results of the studies were inconsistent, interventions with presumed healthy diets resulted in reductions of almost all investigated inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, prospective studies are warranted to confirm the reported findings and further analyze associations, particularly by investigating dietary patterns as risk factors for changes in inflammatory markers over time.

  2. A systematic review of the literature on female sexual dysfunction prevalence and predictors.

    PubMed

    West, Suzanne L; Vinikoor, Lisa C; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2004-01-01

    Interest in human sexuality began in the 18th century, but formal and more rigorous studies focused on sexual satisfaction and sexual practices were published in the early 1900s. Alfred Kinsey's pioneering work on sexuality, in which he surveyed over 10,000 men and women age 16 and older, began in the late 1930s. In the mid-1960s, Masters and Johnson published their seminal work characterizing the sexual response cycle. Since then, numerous researchers have attempted to understand and to quantify "normal" sexual behaviors using survey techniques. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction overall and, more specifically, on sexual desire disorder, arousal difficulties, anorgasmia, and dyspareunia. The review also encompassed dysfunction related to the reproductive factors, such as pregnancy, hysterectomy, and menopause. We included sexual dysfunction comorbid with diabetes, depression, and antidepressant therapies. In total, 85 studies are summarized in this review, which spans literature from the early 1900s to the present. We performed a quality assessment of each study, defining quality based on the representativeness of the population studied and the rigor of the instruments used for assessing sexual dysfunction. Although none of the 85 studies included in the review met both standards of quality, some met one criterion and not the other. Definitions of female sexual dysfunction have been developed and refined recently, but there is an urgent need to determine measurable outcomes that can be used for future work.

  3. Weight Loss and Black Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Porter, Jerlym S.; Martin, Iman K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. However, the behavioral weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. Purpose The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioral weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for black women. Methods The criteria for inclusion included: 1) participants age ≥18 years; 2) a behavioral weight loss intervention; 3) weight as an outcome variable; 4) inclusion of black women; and 5) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. Results The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest more intensive randomized behavioral weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Conclusions Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for black women. Still, black women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioral weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social, and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviors for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity. PMID:22074195

  4. The lived experience of heart failure at the end of life: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Faith Pratt; Thornton, Nancy; Martin, Lindsey

    2010-05-01

    The growing number of older adults with heart failure (HF) suggests the need for more information about how people with this condition experience their illness and strategies for coping with this condition. To address this need, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature and an in-depth, thematic analysis of qualitative first-person accounts on the lived experience of HF. Results suggest that people with HF face many challenges, including those associated with the formal health care system, life disruption, social isolation, symptoms, and uncertainty about prognosis and symptoms. Coping strategies include HF management, dealing with the dying process, and social support. Social workers, who encounter people with HF in a variety of practice settings, can play a key role by focusing on the needs of people with HF, addressing and strengthening their ability to manage their condition, facilitating social support, and helping them to cope with the dying process. Greater attention to these issues in the social work literature is needed, with a particular focus on the role of racial and ethnic diversity as they pertain to people with HF facing end-of-life issues.

  5. Stress generation in depression: A systematic review of the empirical literature and recommendations for future study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Richard T.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2011-01-01

    Within the past 20 years, depression research has given increasing consideration to the possibility of complex and reciprocal relations between stress and depression. Not only does stress increase risk for depression (i.e., a stress exposure model of depression), but depression, or depressogenic vulnerabilities, in turn, also increases susceptibility to stressful events that are at least in part influenced by the individual (i.e., stress generation; Hammen, 1991). The present review provides a systematic examination of the stress generation literature to date, with specific focus given to depression and depressogenic risk factors (i.e., past stress, negative cognitive styles, and personality and interpersonal vulnerabilities) as predictors of the stress generation effect, as well as gender differences in stress generation, the sequelae of generated stress, and the relative specificity of this phenomenon to depression. The research thus far appears most consistent in supporting the role of depression in predicting generated stress, although more research is still required. In addition to highlighting these findings, methodological limitations and conceptual gaps in the literature are discussed with the view of informing future research in this area. PMID:20478648

  6. Pes Planus and Pediatric Obesity: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Stolzman, Stacy; Irby, Megan B.; Callahan, Allison B.; Skelton, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Children with obesity report musculoskeletal pain more than normal weight children; this may be linked with literature suggesting children with obesity have higher prevalence of pes planus (flatfoot). To further elucidate whether this relation occurs, we conducted a systematic literature review on the co-occurrence of pes planus and pediatric obesity. Empirical articles published through September 2013 were obtained through an electronic search of MEDLINE and SportDiscus; included articles examined the association between bodyweight and pes planus in children. Thirteen cross-sectional studies of varied designs were identified. Methods used to diagnose pes planus varied between studies: imaging modalities, anthropometric measurements, and clinical examination. Across all studies, pes planus prevalence among children with obesity ranged widely from 14 to 67%. Nearly all studies indicated increasing pes planus in children with increasing weight. No studies evaluated pain/complications related to pes planus. Our review suggests increased prevalence of pes planus among children with obesity or increasing weight status. Due to differing methodologies, lack of consensus regarding the pes planus definition, the dearth of investigation into pain/complications, and the few existing studies, more research is needed to determine a relation between children’s body weight, pes planus, and associated effects on pain and function. PMID:25808780

  7. Lifestyle Interventions for Adults With Serious Mental Illness: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Ezell, Jerel M.; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Objective The promotion of healthy lifestyles among persons with serious mental illness is an integral part of their recovery. The aims of this systematic literature review were to rate the methodological quality of lifestyle intervention outcome studies for persons with serious mental illness, summarize intervention strategies, examine physical health outcomes, and evaluate the inclusion of racial and ethnic minority groups in these studies. Methods Electronic bibliographic database searches were performed to locate studies conducted in the United States. Articles written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals between 1980 and 2009 were included. The authors used a standardized instrument to rate studies' methodological quality. Results Twenty-three articles were reviewed. Based on studies' methodological quality, three levels of evidence were found: single-group reports, quasi-experimental studies, and randomized controlled trials. Most interventions used behavioral techniques to improve dietary habits and increase physical activity. Twelve studies reported significant improvements in either weight loss or metabolic syndrome risk factors associated with receiving a lifestyle intervention. Persons from racial and ethnic minority groups were underrepresented, especially Hispanics and Asian Americans. Only one study included non–English-speaking participants. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions adapted to persons with serious mental illness show promise in reducing weight loss and some risk factors for metabolic syndrome. The under-representation of persons from racial or ethnic minority groups in this literature limits its generalizability. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:20675835

  8. Pediatric palliative care for youth with HIV/AIDS: systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Megan L; Dallas, Ronald H; Fanone, Kathleen E; Lyon, Maureen E

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in treatment has led to decreased death in youth with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developed countries. Despite this, youth with HIV are still at risk for increased mortality and morbidity compared with their uninfected counterparts. In developing countries, high numbers of youth die from acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses due to lack of access to consistent antiretroviral treatment. As a result, pediatric palliative care is a relevant topic for those providing care to youth with HIV. A systematic review was conducted to gather information regarding the status of the literature related to pediatric palliative care and medical decision-making for youth with HIV. The relevant literature published between January 2002 and June 2012 was identified through searches conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and PSYCInfo databases and a series of key words. Articles were reviewed by thematic analysis using the pillars of palliative care set out by the National Consensus Project. Twenty-one articles were retained after review and are summarized by theme. In general, few empirically based studies evaluating palliative care and medical decision-making in youth with HIV were identified. Articles identified focused primarily on physical aspects of care, with less attention paid to psychological, social, ethical, and cultural aspects of care. We recommend that future research focuses on broadening the evaluation of pediatric palliative care among youth with HIV by directly evaluating the psychological, social, ethical, and cultural aspects of care and investigating the needs of all involved stakeholders.

  9. Omalizumab for the Treatment of Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria: Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Tonacci, Alessandro; Billeci, Lucia; Pioggia, Giovanni; Navarra, Michele; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2017-02-22

    Omalizumab is recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody to immunoglobulin E. Guidelines for the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria (also known as chronic spontaneous urticaria) recommend the use of omalizumab as third-line therapy in addition to high doses of histamine receptor type 1 (H1 ) antihistamines when they are unsuccessful as first- and second-line therapy. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that evaluated the efficacy of omalizumab for the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria, in both controlled and real-world settings, to assess its potential role as a preferred therapy. The PubMed, ScienceDirect, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), and Google Scholar databases were searched between January 1, 2000, and November 21, 2016. The search was limited to articles published in peer-reviewed journals in the English language, and 29 studies were included in this review. Omalizumab 300 mg administered every 4 weeks appears to be the most effective and safe dosage, with a rapid response time, for the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria, with few minor adverse effects, and appears to be safe in the offspring of pregnant patients who received the drug. However, as published studies of omalizumab are sparse, future studies are warranted. When findings are confirmed in larger studies, due to its efficacy, safety, and increased benefit/cost ratio, omalizumab could become the preferred method of treatment for chronic idiopathic urticaria in patients unresponsive to H1 antihistamines.

  10. Ultrasound Vascular Elastography as a Tool for Assessing Atherosclerotic Plaques – A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, B.; Ewertsen, C.; Carlsen, J.; Nielsen, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a widespread disease that accounts for nearly 3-quarters of deaths due to cardiovascular disease. Ultrasound elastography might be able to reliably identify characteristics associated with vulnerable plaques. There is a need for the evaluation of elastography and its ability to distinguish between vulnerable and stable plaques. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature on vascular elastography. A systematic search of the available literature for studies using elastography for assessing atherosclerotic plaques was conducted using the MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. A standardized template was used to extract relevant data following the PRISMA 2009 checklist. 20 articles were included in this paper. The studies were heterogeneous. All studies reported that elastography was a feasible technique and provided additional information compared to B-mode ultrasound alone. Most studies reported higher strain values for vulnerable plaques. Ultrasound elastography has potential as a clinical tool in the assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. Elastography is able to distinguish between different plaque types, but there is considerable methodological variation between studies. There is a need for larger studies in a clinical setting to determine the full potential of elastography. PMID:27896334

  11. Multidisciplinary team, working with elderly persons living in the community: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Gudrun; Eklund, Kajsa; Gosman-Hedström, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    As the number of elderly persons with complex health needs is increasing, teams for their care have been recommended as a means of meeting these needs, particularly in the case of elderly persons with multi-diseases. Occupational therapists, in their role as team members, exert significant influence in guiding team recommendations. However, it has been emphasized that there is a lack of sound research to show the impact of teamwork from the perspective of elderly persons. The aim of this paper was to explore literature concerning multidisciplinary teams that work with elderly persons living in the community. The research method was a systematic literature review and a total of 37 articles was analysed. The result describes team organisation, team intervention and outcome, and factors that influence teamwork. Working in a team is multifaceted and complex. It is important to enhance awareness about factors that influence teamwork. The team process itself is also of great importance. Clinical implications for developing effective and efficient teamwork are also presented and discussed.

  12. Relationship between oral cancer and implants: clinical cases and systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    López-López, José; Roselló-Llabrés, Xavier; Rodríguez-Argueta, Oscar-Francisco; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The use of implants for oral rehabilitation of edentulous spaces has recently been on the increase, which has also led to an increase in complications such as peri-implant inflammation or periimplantitis. Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Objectives: To review the literature of cases that associate implant placement with the development of oral cancer. Study design: We present two clinical cases and a systematic review of literature published on the relationship between oral cancer and implants. Results: We found 13 articles published between the years 1996 and 2009, referencing 18 cases in which the osseointegrated implants are associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Of those, 6 articles were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 18 cases reported, only 7 cases did not present a previous history of oral cancer or cancer in other parts of the body. Conclusions: Based on the review of these cases, a clear cause-effect relationship cannot be established, although it can be deduced that there is a possibility that implant treatment may constitute an irritant and/or inflammatory cofactor which contributes to the formation and/or development of OSCC. Key words: Cancer, oral cancer, dental implants, oral squamous cell carcinoma, dental implants complications. PMID:21743414

  13. Exploring social dimensions of municipal solid waste management around the globe - A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Hipel, Keith W

    2016-10-01

    Currently, municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a massive increase in both the amount and composition throughout the world. Effective and efficient MSW management has been widely accepted as an emergent factor for future social development, which requires not only technical innovation, but also the involvement of all stakeholders as well as social, economic, and psychological components. On account of this reality, there is an urgent need for research related to the social dimensions of MSW management. In this paper, a systematic literature review was carried out to characterize and critically evaluate the published literature on the social dimensions of MSW management from 1980 to 2014 in terms of vulnerability, public participation, public attitude and behavior, and policy. A keyword search was first performed by using the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science, which retrieves 1843 documents. After removing the papers that were not closely related to the topic, 200 articles were retained for an in-depth review. In each category, major research issues and observations were summarized, and important insights were obtained. Besides compiling a related list of key references, the analysis results indicate that the global distribution of social dimensions reports on MSW management is inequitable and the research on the social dimensions of MSW management is insufficient, which may attract increased research interest and attention.

  14. The Emerging Informationist Specialty: A Systematic Review of the LiteratureEC

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Jocelyn A.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Canto, Candace C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: A systematic literature review was conducted to synthesize what is known about informationists, highlight program models, and suggest areas for future research. Methods: Articles retrieved through database searching were reviewed for relevance. Informationist case reports were identified and coded according to an attributes checklist. Data from other retained publications were synthesized under broad themes. The few research studies found were reviewed for level of evidence. Results: Of 113 papers reviewed, the study identified 7 classic and 8 emerging informationist programs. Two major models are apparent, clinical and research, with priorities differing according to program maturity. The literature synthesis also brought together current thinking about informationist qualifications; practice roles; setting characteristics; education and training; organizational, programmatic, and service provider success factors; and challenges and barriers. Program outcomes to date are reported, and future research topics suggested. Specific findings will assist informationist program planners. Conclusions: While the informationist concept remains in the early adopter stage, it appears that domain knowledge, continuous learning, and embedding (working in context) are essential to success. The need for librarians to transition to greater specialization and libraries to emphasize customized service was underscored. A research agenda focused on information management, dissemination, behaviors, and economics is proposed. PMID:18654656

  15. Successful Aging and Its Discontents: A Systematic Review of the Social Gerontology Literature

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Marty; Berridge, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study was to analyze the range of critiques of successful aging models and the suggestions for improvement as expressed in the social gerontology literature. Design and Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review using the following criteria: journal articles retrieved in the Abstracts in Social Gerontology, published 1987–2013, successful aging/ageing in the title or text (n = 453), a critique of successful aging models as a key component of the article. Sixty-seven articles met the criteria. Qualitative methods were used to identify key themes and inductively configure meanings across the range of critiques. Results: The critiques and remedies fell into 4 categories. The Add and Stir group suggested a multidimensional expansion of successful aging criteria and offered an array of additions. The Missing Voices group advocated for adding older adults’ subjective meanings of successful aging to established objective measures. The Hard Hitting Critiques group called for more just and inclusive frameworks that embrace diversity, avoid stigma and discrimination, and intervene at structural contexts of aging. The New Frames and Names group presented alternative ideal models often grounded in Eastern philosophies. Implications: The vast array of criteria that gerontologists collectively offered to expand Rowe and Kahn’s original successful model is symptomatic of the problem that a normative model is by definition exclusionary. Greater reflexivity about gerontology’s use of “successful aging” and other normative models is needed. PMID:24814830

  16. Laparoscopic management of intra-abdominal infections: Systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Coccolini, Federico; Tranà, Cristian; Sartelli, Massimo; Catena, Fausto; Saverio, Salomone Di; Manfredi, Roberto; Montori, Giulia; Ceresoli, Marco; Falcone, Chiara; Ansaloni, Luca

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of laparoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of intra abdominal infections. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed including studies where intra abdominal infections were treated laparoscopically. RESULTS: Early laparoscopic approaches have become the standard surgical technique for treating acute cholecystitis. The laparoscopic appendectomy has been demonstrated to be superior to open surgery in acute appendicitis. In the event of diverticulitis, laparoscopic resections have proven to be safe and effective procedures for experienced laparoscopic surgeons and may be performed without adversely affecting morbidity and mortality rates. However laparoscopic resection has not been accepted by the medical community as the primary treatment of choice. In high-risk patients, laparoscopic approach may be used for exploration or peritoneal lavage and drainage. The successful laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcers for experienced surgeons, is demonstrated to be safe and effective. Regarding small bowel perforations, comparative studies contrasting open and laparoscopic surgeries have not yet been conducted. Successful laparoscopic resections addressing iatrogenic colonic perforation have been reported despite a lack of literature-based evidence supporting such procedures. In post-operative infections, laparoscopic approaches may be useful in preventing diagnostic delay and controlling the source. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopy has a good diagnostic accuracy and enables to better identify the causative pathology; laparoscopy may be recommended for the treatment of many intra-abdominal infections. PMID:26328036

  17. The nature of human sperm head vacuoles: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Boitrelle, Florence; Guthauser, Bruno; Alter, Laura; Bailly, Marc; Wainer, Robert; Vialard, François; Albert, Martine; Selva, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) involves the use of differential interference contrast microscopy (also called Nomarski contrast) at high magnification (at least 6300x) to improve the observation of live human spermatozoa. In fact, this technique evidences sperm head vacuoles that are not necessarily seen at lower magnifications - particularly if the vacuoles are small (i.e. occupying <4% of the sperm head's area). However, a decade after MSOME's introduction, it is still not clear whether sperm head vacuoles are nuclear, acrosomal and/or membrane-related in nature. In an attempt to clarify this debate, we performed a systematic literature review in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The PubMed database was searched from 2001 onwards with the terms "MSOME", "human sperm vacuoles", "high-magnification, sperm". Out of 180 search results, 21 relevant English-language publications on the nature of human sperm head vacuoles were finally selected and reviewed. Our review of the literature prompted us to conclude that sperm-head vacuoles are nuclear in nature and are related to chromatin condensation failure and (in some cases) sperm DNA damage.

  18. Searching for Animal Sentience: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Helen S.; Carder, Gemma; Cornish, Amelia R.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The emotional lives of animals is often doubted and questioned. Due to the subjective nature of animal emotions, many think that they are out of the reach of scientific measurement. In this systematic review, of over two decades of scientific literature, we found that this was not actually the case. By using a list of keywords, formed of both positive and negative emotions, and terminology relating to animal sentience, we reviewed the scientific literature. We found that the subjective lives of animals are not only a vital part of human medical research but are regularly measured and studied with scientific rigor. Abstract Knowledge of animal sentience is fundamental to many disciplines and imperative to the animal welfare movement. In this review, we examined what is being explored and discussed, regarding animal sentience, within the scientific literature. Rather than attempting to extract meaning from the many complex and abstract definitions of animal sentience, we searched over two decades of scientific literature using a peer-reviewed list of 174 keywords. The list consisted of human emotions, terminology associated with animal sentience, and traits often thought to be indicative of subjective states. We discovered that very little was actually being explored, and instead there was already much agreement about what animals can feel. Why then is there so much scepticism surrounding the science of animal sentience? Sentience refers to the subjective states of animals, and so is often thought to be impossible to measure objectively. However, when we consider that much of the research found to accept and utilise animal sentience is performed for the development of human drugs and treatment, it appears that measuring sentience is, after all, not quite as impossible as was previously thought. In this paper, we explored what has been published on animal sentience in the scientific literature and where the gaps in research lie. We drew conclusions on

  19. Framework for Selecting Best Practices in Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    de Colombani, Pierpaolo

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based public health has commonly relied on findings from empirical studies, or research-based evidence. However, this paper advocates that practice-based evidence derived from programmes implemented in real-life settings is likely to be a more suitable source of evidence for inspiring and guiding public health programmes. Selection of best practices from the array of implemented programmes is one way of generating such practice-based evidence. Yet the lack of consensus on the definition and criteria for practice-based evidence and best practices has limited their application in public health so far. To address the gap in literature on practice-based evidence, this paper hence proposes measures of success for public health interventions by developing an evaluation framework for selection of best practices. The proposed framework was synthesised from a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on existing evaluation frameworks for public health programmes as well as processes employed by health-related organisations when selecting best practices. A best practice is firstly defined as an intervention that has shown evidence of effectiveness in a particular setting and is likely to be replicable to other situations. Regardless of the area of public health, interventions should be evaluated by their context, process and outcomes. A best practice should hence meet most, if not all, of eight identified evaluation criteria: relevance, community participation, stakeholder collaboration, ethical soundness, replicability, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Ultimately, a standardised framework for selection of best practices will improve the usefulness and credibility of practice-based evidence in informing evidence-based public health interventions. Significance for public health Best practices are a valuable source of practice-based evidence on effective public health interventions implemented in real-life settings. Yet, despite

  20. Framework for Selecting Best Practices in Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ng, Eileen; de Colombani, Pierpaolo

    2015-11-17

    Evidence-based public health has commonly relied on findings from empirical studies, or research-based evidence. However, this paper advocates that practice-based evidence derived from programmes implemented in real-life settings is likely to be a more suitable source of evidence for inspiring and guiding public health programmes. Selection of best practices from the array of implemented programmes is one way of generating such practice-based evidence. Yet the lack of consensus on the definition and criteria for practice-based evidence and best practices has limited their application in public health so far. To address the gap in literature on practice-based evidence, this paper hence proposes measures of success for public health interventions by developing an evaluation framework for selection of best practices. The proposed framework was synthesised from a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on existing evaluation frameworks for public health programmes as well as processes employed by health-related organisations when selecting best practices. A best practice is firstly defined as an intervention that has shown evidence of effectiveness in a particular setting and is likely to be replicable to other situations. Regardless of the area of public health, interventions should be evaluated by their context, process and outcomes. A best practice should hence meet most, if not all, of eight identified evaluation criteria: relevance, community participation, stakeholder collaboration, ethical soundness, replicability, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Ultimately, a standardised framework for selection of best practices will improve the usefulness and credibility of practice-based evidence in informing evidence-based public health interventions. Significance for public healthBest practices are a valuable source of practice-based evidence on effective public health interventions implemented in real-life settings. Yet, despite the

  1. Health Care Provider Adoption of eHealth: Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Talaei-Khoei, Amir; Seale, Holly; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2013-01-01

    Background eHealth is an application of information and communication technologies across the whole range of functions that affect health. The benefits of eHealth (eg, improvement of health care operational efficiency and quality of patient care) have previously been documented in the literature. Health care providers (eg, medical doctors) are the key driving force in pushing eHealth initiatives. Without their acceptance and actual use, those eHealth benefits would be unlikely to be reaped. Objective To identify and synthesize influential factors to health care providers’ acceptance of various eHealth systems. Methods This systematic literature review was conducted in four steps. The first two steps facilitated the location and identification of relevant articles. The third step extracted key information from those articles including the studies’ characteristics and results. In the last step, identified factors were analyzed and grouped in accordance with the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Results This study included 93 papers that have studied health care providers’ acceptance of eHealth. From these papers, 40 factors were identified and grouped into 7 clusters: (1) health care provider characteristics, (2) medical practice characteristics, (3) voluntariness of use, (4) performance expectancy, (5) effort expectancy, (6) social influence, and (7) facilitating or inhibiting conditions. Conclusions The grouping results demonstrated that the UTAUT model is useful for organizing the literature but has its limitations. Due to the complex contextual dynamics of health care settings, our work suggested that there would be potential to extend theories on information technology adoption, which is of great benefit to readers interested in learning more on the topic. Practically, these findings may help health care decision makers proactively introduce interventions to encourage acceptance of eHealth and may also assist health policy makers

  2. A Systematic Review of Glomerular Hyperfiltration Assessment and Definition in the Medical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Combescure, Christophe; Cauderay, Michel; Girardin, Eric; Chehade, Hassib

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Evaluation of glomerular hyperfiltration (GH) is difficult; the variable reported definitions impede comparisons between studies. A clear and universal definition of GH would help in comparing results of trials aimed at reducing GH. This study assessed how GH is measured and defined in the literature. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Three databases (Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL) were systematically searched using the terms “hyperfiltration” or “glomerular hyperfiltration”. All studies reporting a GH threshold or studying the effect of a high GFR in a continuous manner against another outcome of interest were included. Results The literature search was performed from November 2012 to February 2013 and updated in August 2014. From 2013 retrieved studies, 405 studies were included. Threshold use to define GH was reported in 55.6% of studies. Of these, 88.4% used a single threshold and 11.6% used numerous thresholds adapted to participant sex or age. In 29.8% of the studies, the choice of a GH threshold was not based on a control group or literature references. After 2004, the use of GH threshold use increased (P<0.001), but the use of a control group to precisely define that GH threshold decreased significantly (P<0.001); the threshold did not differ among pediatric, adult, or mixed-age studies. The GH threshold ranged from 90.7 to 175 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (median, 135 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Conclusion Thirty percent of studies did not justify the choice of threshold values. The decrease of GFR in the elderly was rarely considered in defining GH. From a methodologic point of view, an age- and sex-matched control group should be used to define a GH threshold. PMID:25568216

  3. Quality and Quantity of the Elbow Arthroscopy Literature: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Frank, Rachel M; Romeo, Anthony A; Harris, Joshua D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of elbow arthroscopy literature to answer the following questions: "Across the world, what demographic of patients are undergoing elbow arthroscopy, what are the most common indications for elbow arthroscopy, and how good is the evidence?" The authors hypothesized that patients who undergo elbow arthroscopy will be chiefly age <40 years, the most common indication for elbow arthroscopy will be a release/débridement, and the evidence regarding elbow arthroscopy will be poor. Also, no significant differences will exist in elbow arthroscopy publications, subjects, outcomes, and techniques based on continent/country of publication. A systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) and performed with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines using 3 publicly available databases. Therapeutic clinical outcome investigations reporting arthroscopic elbow outcomes with levels of evidence I-IV were eligible for inclusion. All study, subject, and surgical technique demographics were analyzed and compared between continents and countries. Statistics were calculated using 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare between continents and Pearson's correlation coefficients to evaluate changes over time. In total, 112 studies were included (3093 subjects; 3168 elbows; 64% male; mean 34.9 ± 14.68 years. Mean 33.4 ± 26.02 months follow-up. Most studies were level IV evidence (94.6%) and had a low Modified Coleman Methodology Score (MCMS) (mean 28.1 ± 8.06). From 1985 through 2013, the number of publications significantly increased with time (P = .004) in all continents. The 3 most common indications for elbow arthroscopy were osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), lateral epicondylitis, and release and débridement. The number of reported cases for the 3 most common indications significantly

  4. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. PMID:25336958

  5. Epidemiological Trends of Dengue Disease in Thailand (2000–2011): A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Brett, Jeremy; L'Azou, Maïna

    2014-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis was conducted to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease in Thailand reported between 2000 and 2011. The literature search identified 610 relevant sources, 40 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria defined in the review protocol. Peaks in the number of cases occurred during the review period in 2001, 2002, 2008 and 2010. A shift in age group predominance towards older ages continued through the review period. Disease incidence and deaths remained highest in children aged ≤15 years and case fatality rates were highest in young children. Heterogeneous geographical patterns were observed with higher incidence rates reported in the Southern region and serotype distribution varied in time and place. Gaps identified in epidemiological knowledge regarding dengue disease in Thailand provide several avenues for future research, in particular studies of seroprevalence. Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD42012002170 PMID:25375766

  6. Prevalence of strongyloidiasis in Latin America: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Buonfrate, D; Mena, M A; Angheben, A; Requena-Mendez, A; Muñoz, J; Gobbi, F; Albonico, M; Gotuzzo, E; Bisoffi, Z

    2015-02-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is rarely recognized as a major public health issue, probably because its burden is largely underestimated. We reviewed the literature (both PubMed and 'grey' literature) about the prevalence of strongyloidiasis in Latin America, an area of presumable high endemicity. There were finally 88 papers involved in the analysis, covering the period between 1981 and 2011. Studies were heterogeneous in several aspects, such as the populations screened and the diagnostic methods used. Most of the studies relied on direct coproparasitological examination, which has low sensitivity for the detection of S. stercoralis larvae. The following countries presented areas of high prevalence (>20%): Argentina, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru and Brazil. Globally, for most of the included countries it was not possible to define reliable data because of paucity and/or inadequacy of studies. S. stercoralis requires specific diagnostic methods for its detection; therefore, surveys should be specifically designed in order to avoid underestimation of the infection.

  7. Epidemiology of Dengue Disease in the Philippines (2000–2011): A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Lulu; Roque, Vito G.; Brett, Jeremy; Dizon, Ruby; L'Azou, Maïna

    2014-01-01

    This literature analysis describes the available dengue epidemiology data in the Philippines between 2000 and 2011. Of 253 relevant data sources identified, 34, including additional epidemiology data provided by the National Epidemiology Center, Department of Health, Philippines, were reviewed. There were 14 publications in peer reviewed journals, and 17 surveillance reports/sources, which provided variable information from the passive reporting system and show broad trends in dengue incidence, including age group predominance and disease severity. The peer reviewed studies focused on clinical severity of cases, some revealed data on circulating serotypes and genotypes and on the seroepidemiology of dengue including incidence rates for infection and apparent disease. Gaps in the data were identified, and include the absence incidence rates stratified by age, dengue serotype and genotype distribution, disease severity data, sex distribution data, and seroprevalence data. Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD42012002292 PMID:25375119

  8. Epidemiology of dengue disease in the Philippines (2000-2011): a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Lulu; Roque, Vito G; Brett, Jeremy; Dizon, Ruby; L'Azou, Maïna

    2014-01-01

    This literature analysis describes the available dengue epidemiology data in the Philippines between 2000 and 2011. Of 253 relevant data sources identified, 34, including additional epidemiology data provided by the National Epidemiology Center, Department of Health, Philippines, were reviewed. There were 14 publications in peer reviewed journals, and 17 surveillance reports/sources, which provided variable information from the passive reporting system and show broad trends in dengue incidence, including age group predominance and disease severity. The peer reviewed studies focused on clinical severity of cases, some revealed data on circulating serotypes and genotypes and on the seroepidemiology of dengue including incidence rates for infection and apparent disease. Gaps in the data were identified, and include the absence incidence rates stratified by age, dengue serotype and genotype distribution, disease severity data, sex distribution data, and seroprevalence data.

  9. Oral antihypertensive therapy for severe hypertension in pregnancy and postpartum: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Firoz, T; Magee, LA; MacDonell, K; Payne, BA; Gordon, R; Vidler, M; von Dadelszen, P

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnant and postpartum women with severe hypertension are at increased risk of stroke and require blood pressure (BP) reduction. Parenteral antihypertensives have been most commonly studied, but oral agents would be ideal for use in busy and resource-constrained settings. Objectives To review systematically, the effectiveness of oral antihypertensive agents for treatment of severe pregnancy/postpartum hypertension. Search strategy A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials in pregnancy and postpartum with at least one arm consisting of a single oral antihypertensive agent to treat systolic BP ≥ 160 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 110 mmHg. Data collection and analysis Cochrane RevMan 5.1 was used to calculate relative risk (RR) and weighted mean difference by random effects. Main results We identified 15 randomised controlled trials (915 women) in pregnancy and one postpartum trial. Most trials in pregnancy compared oral/sublingual nifedipine capsules (8–10 mg) with another agent, usually parenteral hydralazine or labetalol. Nifedipine achieved treatment success in most women, similar to hydralazine (84% with nifedipine; relative risk [RR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.98–1.17) or labetalol (100% with nifedipine; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.95–1.09). Less than 2% of women treated with nifedipine experienced hypotension. There were no differences in adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Target BP was achieved ∼ 50% of the time with oral labetalol (100 mg) or methyldopa (250 mg) (47% labetelol versus 56% methyldopa; RR 0.85 95% CI 0.54–1.33). Conclusions Oral nifedipine, and possibly labetalol and methyldopa, are suitable options for treatment of severe hypertension in pregnancy/postpartum. PMID:24832366

  10. Evaluating clinical ethics support in mental healthcare: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hem, Marit Helene; Pedersen, Reidar; Norvoll, Reidun; Molewijk, Bert

    2015-06-01

    A systematic literature review on evaluation of clinical ethics support services in mental healthcare is presented and discussed. The focus was on (a) forms of clinical ethics support services, (b) evaluation of clinical ethics support services, (c) contexts and participants and (d) results. Five studies were included. The ethics support activities described were moral case deliberations and ethics rounds. Different qualitative and quantitative research methods were utilized. The results show that (a) participants felt that they gained an increased insight into moral issues through systematic reflection; (b) there was improved cooperation among multidisciplinary team members; (c) it was uncertain whether clinical ethics support services led to better patient care; (d) the issue of patient and client participation is complex; and (e) the implementation process is challenging. Clinical ethics support services have mainly been studied through the experiences of the participating facilitators and healthcare professionals. Hence, there is limited knowledge of whether and how various types of clinical ethics support services influence the quality of care and how patients and relatives may evaluate clinical ethics support services. Based on the six excluded 'grey zone articles', in which there was an implicit focus on ethics reflection, other ways of working with ethical reflection in practice are discussed. Implementing and evaluating clinical ethics support services as approaches to clinical ethics support that are more integrated into the development of good practice are in focus. In order to meet some of the shortcomings of the field of clinical ethics support services, a research project that aims to strengthen ethics support in the mental health services, including patients' and caregivers' views on ethical challenges, is presented.

  11. Long-Term Outcomes of Proximal Row Carpectomy: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chim, Harvey; Moran, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Proximal row carpectomy is a well-established technique for the management of wrist arthritis; however, patient selection and long-term durability of proximal row carpectomy is still a matter of controversy. Hence, we conducted a systematic review of the English literature to determine the best evidence on long-term outcomes following proximal row carpectomy. Methods A MEDLINE search using the term “proximal row carpectomy” was performed. A total of 192 studies were identified. All studies with 10 or more years of follow-up were included in the review. Data extracted included patient demographics, indications for surgery, previous surgery, outcome assessment, and information on complications and failures. Results A total of 147 patients from six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. The majority of patients were male and involved in manual labor. There was no significant difference between the preoperative and long-term postoperative motion. The weighted mean for postoperative grip strength was 68.4% compared with the contralateral side. Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand; patient-rated wrist examination; and Mayo wrist scores were comparable to those reported for four-corner arthrodesis. There were 21 failures (14.3%) requiring re-operation. Failures were not associated with a specific preoperative diagnosis but distributed among patients with Kienböck disease, scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse, and scapholunate advanced collapse arthritis. Conclusions This systematic review confirms the long-term durability of proximal row carpectomy when used for the treatment of wrist arthritis. Although radiocapitate arthritis develops over time in most patients, the clinical significance of this finding is undetermined and does not necessarily correlate with failure of proximal row carpectomy. Poorer long-term outcomes are likely to result in patients engaged in heavy manual labor, whereas better outcomes may be

  12. How Effective Are Incident-Reporting Systems for Improving Patient Safety? A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Stavropoulou, Charitini; Doherty, Carole; Tosey, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Context Incident-reporting systems (IRSs) are used to gather information about patient safety incidents. Despite the financial burden they imply, however, little is known about their effectiveness. This article systematically reviews the effectiveness of IRSs as a method of improving patient safety through organizational learning. Methods Our systematic literature review identified 2 groups of studies: (1) those comparing the effectiveness of IRSs with other methods of error reporting and (2) those examining the effectiveness of IRSs on settings, structures, and outcomes in regard to improving patient safety. We used thematic analysis to compare the effectiveness of IRSs with other methods and to synthesize what was effective, where, and why. Then, to assess the evidence concerning the ability of IRSs to facilitate organizational learning, we analyzed studies using the concepts of single-loop and double-loop learning. Findings In total, we identified 43 studies, 8 that compared IRSs with other methods and 35 that explored the effectiveness of IRSs on settings, structures, and outcomes. We did not find strong evidence that IRSs performed better than other methods. We did find some evidence of single-loop learning, that is, changes to clinical settings or processes as a consequence of learning from IRSs, but little evidence of either improvements in outcomes or changes in the latent managerial factors involved in error production. In addition, there was insubstantial evidence of IRSs enabling double-loop learning, that is, a cultural change or a change in mind-set. Conclusions The results indicate that IRSs could be more effective if the criteria for what counts as an incident were explicit, they were owned and led by clinical teams rather than centralized hospital departments, and they were embedded within organizations as part of wider safety programs. PMID:26626987

  13. Health outcomes during the 2008 financial crisis in Europe: systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Divya; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically identify, critically appraise, and synthesise empirical studies about the impact of the 2008 financial crisis in Europe on health outcomes. Design Systematic literature review. Data sources Structural searches of key databases, healthcare journals, and organisation based websites. Review methods Empirical studies reporting on the impact of the financial crisis on health outcomes in Europe, published from January 2008 to December 2015, were included. All selected studies were assessed for risk of bias. Owing to the heterogeneity of studies in terms of study design and analysis and the use of overlapping datasets across studies, studies were analysed thematically per outcome, and the evidence was synthesised on different health outcomes without formal meta-analysis. Results 41 studies met the inclusion criteria, and focused on suicide, mental health, self rated health, mortality, and other health outcomes. Of those studies, 30 (73%) were deemed to be at high risk of bias, nine (22%) at moderate risk of bias, and only two (5%) at low risk of bias, limiting the conclusions that can be drawn. Although there were differences across countries and groups, there was some indication that suicides increased and mental health deteriorated during the crisis. The crisis did not seem to reverse the trend of decreasing overall mortality. Evidence on self rated health and other indicators was mixed. Conclusions Most published studies on the impact of financial crisis on health in Europe had a substantial risk of bias; therefore, results need to be cautiously interpreted. Overall, the financial crisis in Europe seemed to have had heterogeneous effects on health outcomes, with the evidence being most consistent for suicides and mental health. There is a need for better empirical studies, especially those focused on identifying mechanisms that can mitigate the adverse effects of the crisis. PMID:27601477

  14. Barriers to workplace HIV testing in South Africa: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Low workplace HIV testing uptake makes effective management of HIV and AIDS difficult for South African organisations. Identifying barriers to workplace HIV testing is therefore crucial to inform urgently needed interventions aimed at increasing workplace HIV testing. This study reviewed literature on workplace HIV testing barriers in South Africa. Pubmed, ScienceDirect, PsycInfo and SA Publications were systematically researched. Studies needed to include measures to assess perceived or real barriers to participate in HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) at the workplace or discuss perceived or real barriers of HIV testing at the workplace based on collected data, provide qualitative or quantitative evidence related to the research topic and needed to refer to workplaces in South Africa. Barriers were defined as any factor on economic, social, personal, environmental or organisational level preventing employees from participating in workplace HIV testing. Four peer-reviewed studies were included, two with quantitative and two with qualitative study designs. The overarching barriers across the studies were fear of compromised confidentiality, being stigmatised or discriminated in the event of testing HIV positive or being observed participating in HIV testing, and a low personal risk perception. Furthermore, it appeared that an awareness of an HIV-positive status hindered HIV testing at the workplace. Further research evidence of South African workplace barriers to HIV testing will enhance related interventions. This systematic review only found very little and contextualised evidence about workplace HCT barriers in South Africa, making it difficult to generalise, and not really sufficient to inform new interventions aimed at increasing workplace HCT uptake.

  15. Critical evaluation of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in Chinese patients: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, LiLi; Li, JiTao; Zhao, YanJie; Su, Yun’Ai; Si, Tianmei

    2016-01-01

    Background Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone), the major active metabolite of risperidone, has been introduced as a novel atypical antipsychotic agent in many countries. It is available both as an oral extended-release (ER) formulation and as a long-acting injection (paliperidone palmitate, PP), which have been approved for treating schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China since 2009 and 2012, respectively. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in the Chinese population. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted on the databases covering international and Chinese core journals, published from January 1, 2008, to May 22, 2015. Results A total of 122 publications were retrieved, of which 63 studies were identified for inclusion; most studies were related to paliperidone ER (n=53), nine were related to PP, and one study was related to both agents. Paliperidone ER demonstrated at least comparable efficacy with active comparators, including risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, or aripiprazole, and was found to be superior with respect to the onset of action and improvement in the Personal and Social Performance Scale score. Paliperidone ER appeared to be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndromes; the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, insomnia, and somnolence. Results from interventional and observational studies showed that PP was also an effective and well-tolerated treatment for Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The findings were generally consistent with those observed in non-Chinese populations. Conclusion Both paliperidone ER and PP were effective and well-tolerated agents for the treatment of schizophrenia in the Chinese population according to the data we reviewed. No new safety signals specific for the Chinese population were raised for paliperidone. Further studies may be needed to collect

  16. Gait Training Interventions for Lower Extremity Amputees: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Highsmith, M. Jason; Andrews, Casey R.; Millman, Claire; Fuller, Ashley; Kahle, Jason T.; Klenow, Tyler D.; Lewis, Katherine L.; Bradley, Rachel C.; Orriola, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Lower extremity (LE) amputation patients who use prostheses have gait asymmetries and altered limb loading and movement strategies when ambulating. Subsequent secondary conditions are believed to be associated with gait deviations and lead to long-term complications that impact function and quality of life as a result. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to determine the strength of evidence supporting gait training interventions and to formulate evidence statements to guide practice and research related to therapeutic gait training for lower extremity amputees. A systematic review of three databases was conducted followed by evaluation of evidence and synthesis of empirical evidence statements (EES). Eighteen manuscripts were included in the review, which covered two areas of gait training interventions: 1) overground and 2) treadmill-based. Eight EESs were synthesized. Four addressed overground gait training, one covered treadmill training, and three statements addressed both forms of therapy. Due to the gait asymmetries, altered biomechanics, and related secondary consequences associated with LE amputation, gait training interventions are needed along with study of their efficacy. Overground training with verbal or other auditory, manual, and psychological awareness interventions was found to be effective at improving gait. Similarly, treadmill-based training was found to be effective: 1) as a supplement to overground training; 2) independently when augmented with visual feedback and/or body weight support; or 3) as part of a home exercise plan. Gait training approaches studied improved multiple areas of gait, including sagittal and coronal biomechanics, spatiotemporal measures, and distance walked. PMID:28066520

  17. How Healthy is the Behavior of Young Athletes? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Katharina; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan; Mayer, Jochen; Litaker, David G; Schneider, Sven

    2012-06-01

    Participation in sports during adolescence is considered a healthy behavior. The extent to which adolescent athletes engage in other healthful (or risky) behaviors is less clear, however. We conducted a systematic literature review following the PRISMA Statement to assess the frequency of risky behaviors among athletes in this age group. We searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and SCA Sociological Abstracts databases for observational studies published in English over the last twenty years on the frequency of selected risk behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking behavior, use of illicit drugs, unhealthy nutrition, and doping) in adolescent athletes. Two independent reviewers selected articles following the PRISMA Statement. Behavior frequency was assessed as was comparability of study design and methods. When possible, meta- analyses were performed using data from subgroups of studies in which operational indicators were comparable. Seventy-eight articles met eligibility criteria. Although report of risky behaviors varied across studies, we observed overall, that studies tend to report higher alcohol use, less smoking, less recreational drug use, and more smokeless tobacco use in (high-involved) athletes. Considerable heterogeneity was noted in study design, definition of target groups and use of operational indicators (I(2) ranged from 93.2% to 100%). Especially the higher prevalence of using alcohol and smokeless tobacco needs more attention in interventions targeted to this group. Overall, greater consensus on methods used to assess risky behaviors in adolescent athletes. Key pointsThis is the first systematic review focusing on different health related risk behaviors of adolescent athletes aged ≤ 18 years from different countries.Health related risk behaviors such as alcohol consumption are common among recreational and elite adolescent athletes.Athletes were more likely to consume alcohol, smokeless tobacco, and steroids and less likely to smoke and to use

  18. Systematic Literature Review of Imaging Features of Spinal Degeneration in Asymptomatic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Brinjikji, W.; Luetmer, P.H.; Comstock, B.; Bresnahan, B.W.; Chen, L.E.; Deyo, R.A.; Halabi, S.; Turner, J.A.; Avins, A.L.; James, K.; Wald, J.T.; Kallmes, D.F.; Jarvik, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Degenerative changes are commonly found in spine imaging but often occur in pain-free individuals as well as those with back pain. We sought to estimate the prevalence, by age, of common degenerative spine conditions by performing a systematic review studying the prevalence of spine degeneration on imaging in asymptomatic individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a systematic review of articles reporting the prevalence of imaging findings (CT or MR imaging) in asymptomatic individuals from published English literature through April 2014. Two reviewers evaluated each manuscript. We selected age groupings by decade (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 years), determining age-specific prevalence estimates. For each imaging finding, we fit a generalized linear mixed-effects model for the age-specific prevalence estimate clustering in the study, adjusting for the midpoint of the reported age interval. RESULTS Thirty-three articles reporting imaging findings for 3110 asymptomatic individuals met our study inclusion criteria. The prevalence of disk degeneration in asymptomatic individuals increased from 37% of 20-year-old individuals to 96% of 80-year-old individuals. Disk bulge prevalence increased from 30% of those 20 years of age to 84% of those 80 years of age. Disk protrusion prevalence increased from 29% of those 20 years of age to 43% of those 80 years of age. The prevalence of annular fissure increased from 19% of those 20 years of age to 29% of those 80 years of age. CONCLUSIONS Imaging findings of spine degeneration are present in high proportions of asymptomatic individuals, increasing with age. Many imaging-based degenerative features are likely part of normal aging and unassociated with pain. These imaging findings must be interpreted in the context of the patient’s clinical condition. PMID:25430861

  19. Olanzapine in Chinese patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hai Bo Haber; Liu, Li; Zhang, Hena; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the burden of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the Chinese population, country-specific data to guide practitioners regarding antipsychotic therapy are lacking. The primary aim of this systematic review was to examine evidence of the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of olanzapine in Chinese populations. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese core journals using search terms related to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, specified countries (People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, Taiwan), and olanzapine treatment. Following initial screening, inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to the search results to identify relevant studies from which data were extracted. Results A total of 489 publications were retrieved and 61 studies were identified for inclusion. Most studies were related to schizophrenia (n=54), with six studies related to bipolar disorder and one study related to both conditions. The quality of study methods and reporting in international journals was noticeably better than in Chinese language journals. Most studies included relatively small patient populations and were of short duration. The efficacy of olanzapine in Chinese populations was confirmed by multiple comparative and noncomparative studies that found statistically significant reductions in symptom measures in studies conducted for ≥6 weeks (schizophrenia) or ≥3 weeks (bipolar disorder). Findings related to effectiveness (treatment discontinuation, quality of life, and neurocognitive improvements) were generally consistent with those observed in non-Chinese populations. No new safety signals specific for Chinese populations were raised for olanzapine. Conclusion Chinese and non-Chinese populations with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder treated with olanzapine display broadly similar responses. Differences between these populations, especially in relation to the relative efficacy of

  20. The association between vitamin D and COPD risk, severity, and exacerbation: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Wang, Ting; Wang, Chengdi; Ji, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, the pleiotropic roles of vitamin D have been highlighted in various diseases. However, the association between serum vitamin D and COPD is not well studied. This updated systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the relationship between vitamin D and the risk, severity, and exacerbation of COPD. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and Weipu databases. The pooled risk estimates were standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for vitamin D levels and odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI for vitamin D deficiency. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed on latitude, body mass index, and assay method. Results A total of 21 studies, including 4,818 COPD patients and 7,175 controls, were included. Meta-analysis showed that lower serum vitamin D levels were found in COPD patients than in controls (SMD: −0.69, 95% CI: −1.00, −0.38, P<0.001), especially in severe COPD (SMD: −0.87, 95% CI: −1.51, −0.22, P=0.001) and COPD exacerbation (SMD: −0.43, 95% CI: −0.70, −0.15, P=0.002). Vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of COPD (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.18, 2.64, P=0.006) and with COPD severity (OR: 2.83, 95% CI: 2.00, 4.00, P<0.001) but not with COPD exacerbation (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.59, P=0.326). Assay methods had significant influence on the heterogeneity of vitamin D deficiency and COPD risk. Conclusion Serum vitamin D levels were inversely associated with COPD risk, severity, and exacerbation. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of COPD and severe COPD but not with COPD exacerbation. It is worth considering assay methods in the heterogeneity sources analysis of association between vitamin D deficiency and COPD. PMID:27799758

  1. Understanding the clinical spectrum of complicated Plasmodium vivax malaria: a systematic review on the contributions of the Brazilian literature.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Marcus V G; Mourão, Maria P G; Alexandre, Márcia A A; Siqueira, André M; Magalhães, Belisa M L; Martinez-Espinosa, Flor E; Filho, Franklin S Santana; Brasil, Patrícia; Ventura, Ana M R S; Tada, Mauro S; Couto, Vanja S C D; Silva, Antônio R; Silva, Rita S U; Alecrim, Maria G C

    2012-01-09

    The resurgence of the malaria eradication agenda and the increasing number of severe manifestation reports has contributed to a renewed interested in the Plasmodium vivax infection. It is the most geographically widespread parasite causing human malaria, with around 2.85 billion people living under risk of infection. The Brazilian Amazon region reports more than 50% of the malaria cases in Latin America and since 1990 there is a marked predominance of this species, responsible for 85% of cases in 2009. However, only a few complicated cases of P. vivax have been reported from this region. A systematic review of the Brazilian indexed and non-indexed literature on complicated cases of vivax malaria was performed including published articles, masters' dissertations, doctoral theses and national congresses' abstracts. The following information was retrieved: patient characteristics (demographic, presence of co-morbidities and, whenever possible, associated genetic disorders); description of each major clinical manifestation. As a result, 27 articles, 28 abstracts from scientific events' annals and 13 theses/dissertations were found, only after 1987. Most of the reported information was described in small case series and case reports of patients from all the Amazonian states, and also in travellers from Brazilian non-endemic areas. The more relevant clinical complications were anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, jaundice and acute respiratory distress syndrome, present in all age groups, in addition to other more rare clinical pictures. Complications in pregnant women were also reported. Acute and chronic co-morbidities were frequent, however death was occasional. Clinical atypical cases of malaria are more frequent than published in the indexed literature, probably due to a publication bias. In the Brazilian Amazon (considered to be a low to moderate intensity area of transmission), clinical data are in accordance with the recent findings of severity described in diverse P

  2. Understanding the clinical spectrum of complicated Plasmodium vivax malaria: a systematic review on the contributions of the Brazilian literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The resurgence of the malaria eradication agenda and the increasing number of severe manifestation reports has contributed to a renewed interested in the Plasmodium vivax infection. It is the most geographically widespread parasite causing human malaria, with around 2.85 billion people living under risk of infection. The Brazilian Amazon region reports more than 50% of the malaria cases in Latin America and since 1990 there is a marked predominance of this species, responsible for 85% of cases in 2009. However, only a few complicated cases of P. vivax have been reported from this region. A systematic review of the Brazilian indexed and non-indexed literature on complicated cases of vivax malaria was performed including published articles, masters' dissertations, doctoral theses and national congresses' abstracts. The following information was retrieved: patient characteristics (demographic, presence of co-morbidities and, whenever possible, associated genetic disorders); description of each major clinical manifestation. As a result, 27 articles, 28 abstracts from scientific events' annals and 13 theses/dissertations were found, only after 1987. Most of the reported information was described in small case series and case reports of patients from all the Amazonian states, and also in travellers from Brazilian non-endemic areas. The more relevant clinical complications were anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, jaundice and acute respiratory distress syndrome, present in all age groups, in addition to other more rare clinical pictures. Complications in pregnant women were also reported. Acute and chronic co-morbidities were frequent, however death was occasional. Clinical atypical cases of malaria are more frequent than published in the indexed literature, probably due to a publication bias. In the Brazilian Amazon (considered to be a low to moderate intensity area of transmission), clinical data are in accordance with the recent findings of severity described in diverse P

  3. The costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of strategies to increase coverage of routine immunizations in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review of the grey literature.

    PubMed Central

    Batt, Katherine; Fox-Rushby, J. A.; Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela

    2004-01-01

    Evidence-based reviews of published literature can be subject to several biases. Grey literature, however, can be of poor quality and expensive to access. Effective search strategies also vary by topic and are rarely known in advance. This paper complements a systematic review of the published literature on the costs and effects of expanding immunization services in developing countries. The quality of data on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies to increase immunization coverage is shown to be similar across literatures, but the quality of information on costing is much lower in the grey literature. After excluding poorer quality studies from this review we found the quantity of available evidence almost doubled, particularly for more complex health-system interventions and cost or cost-effectiveness analyses. Interventions in the grey literature are more up to date and cover a different geographical spread. Consequently the conclusions of the published and grey literatures differ, although the number of papers is still too low to account for differences across types of interventions. We recommend that in future researchers consider using non-English keywords in their searches. PMID:15628207

  4. The costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of strategies to increase coverage of routine immunizations in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review of the grey literature.

    PubMed

    Batt, Katherine; Fox-Rushby, J A; Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela

    2004-09-01

    Evidence-based reviews of published literature can be subject to several biases. Grey literature, however, can be of poor quality and expensive to access. Effective search strategies also vary by topic and are rarely known in advance. This paper complements a systematic review of the published literature on the costs and effects of expanding immunization services in developing countries. The quality of data on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies to increase immunization coverage is shown to be similar across literatures, but the quality of information on costing is much lower in the grey literature. After excluding poorer quality studies from this review we found the quantity of available evidence almost doubled, particularly for more complex health-system interventions and cost or cost-effectiveness analyses. Interventions in the grey literature are more up to date and cover a different geographical spread. Consequently the conclusions of the published and grey literatures differ, although the number of papers is still too low to account for differences across types of interventions. We recommend that in future researchers consider using non-English keywords in their searches.

  5. Relapsing-Remitting Severe Bickerstaff’s Brainstem Encephalitis – Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tyrakowska, Zuzanna; Jakubowicz-Lachowska, Dominika; Kułakowska, Alina; Galińska-Skok, Beata; Drozdowski, Wiesław; Tarasów, Eugeniusz

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Bickerstaff’s brainstem encephalitis (BBE) is a very rare disease of the central nervous system. Aetiology of the disease is auto-immunological. However, it is not entirely understood. Clinically BBE manifests in progressive ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and consciousness disturbances. Clinical symptoms are usually preceded by an unidentified infection of the upper respiratory tract. Usually, the disease has one phase, but individual relapses have also been described. Despite quite severe clinical symptoms, the prognosis is usually good. Case Report The article presents a case of a patient with relapsing-remitting severe BBE. The case is presented due to the relapsing-remitting clinical course of the disease that resulted in patient’s death, rarely described in the literature. We also present the results of subsequent MR scans in the course of the disease, so far described only in individual reports. It is also the first report in the world’s literature presenting the results of series of MR spectroscopy (MRS) examinations in the course of BBE. Conclusions MR examination is an important component in BBE diagnostics, allowing to differentiate atypical cases and place them under special supervision due to the possibility of the severe clinical course. MR also facilitates differentiation between Miller-Fisher Syndrome (MFS) and BBE in cases of diagnostic doubts. Adding MRS and MRI to the protocol allows us to define the nature of morphological changes more accurately in patients with suspected or diagnosed BBE. PMID:28096906

  6. Using social media for actionable disease surveillance and outbreak management. A systematic literature review

    DOE PAGES

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; ...

    2015-10-05

    Here, research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: 1) Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improvemore » public health? 2) Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n=15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n=4), Medication and Vaccines (n=3), and Other (n=5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n=10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n=9), and Other (n=10). The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting from the review

  7. Using Social Media for Actionable Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improve public health? Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n = 15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n = 4), Medication and Vaccines (n = 3), and Other (n = 5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n = 10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n = 9), and Other (n = 10). Conclusions The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting

  8. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Hashmi, Iram Ejaz; Schellenberg, Joanna; Avan, Bilal Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Health management information systems (HMIS) produce large amounts of data about health service provision and population health, and provide opportunities for data-based decision-making in decentralized health systems. Yet the data are little-used locally. A well-defined approach to district-level decision-making using health data would help better meet the needs of the local population. In this second of four papers on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, our aim was to explore ways in which district administrators and health managers in low- and lower-middle-income countries use health data to make decisions, to describe the decision-making tools they used and identify challenges encountered when using these tools. A systematic literature review, following PRISMA guidelines, was undertaken. Experts were consulted about key sources of information. A search strategy was developed for 14 online databases of peer reviewed and grey literature. The resources were screened independently by two reviewers using pre-defined inclusion criteria. The 14 papers included were assessed for the quality of reported evidence and a descriptive evidence synthesis of the review findings was undertaken. We found 12 examples of tools to assist district-level decision-making, all of which included two key stages-identification of priorities, and development of an action plan to address them. Of those tools with more steps, four included steps to review or monitor the action plan agreed, suggesting the use of HMIS data. In eight papers HMIS data were used for prioritization. Challenges to decision-making processes fell into three main categories: the availability and quality of health and health facility data; human dynamics and financial constraints. Our findings suggest that evidence is available about a limited range of processes that include the use of data for decision-making at district level. Standardization and pre-testing in diverse settings would increase

  9. Alveolar ridge reconstruction with titanium meshes: A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rasia dal Polo, Marco; Rancitelli, Davide; Beretta, Mario; Maiorana, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar bone regeneration by means of titanium meshes is a widespread procedure, however to date, only few relevant studies were reported in literature concerning this technique. Consequently, the aim of the present systematic review was to analyze the reliability of the titanium mesh as a barrier, in conjunction with horizontal and vertical ridge reconstruction for implant placement purposes. A total of 17 articles complying with the inclusion and exclusion criteria were reviewed. Three outcome variables were defined: a) horizontal and vertical bone regeneration obtained, b) complication rate, defined as the percentage of membrane exposures and c) evaluation of implant survival, success and failure rate.In regards to the vertical regeneration the mean was 4.91 mm (range: 2.56 - 8.6), while a mean of 4.36 mm (range: 3.75 - 5.65) was calculated for horizontal reconstruction. Considering the exposure rate, a mean of 16.1% was found, nevertheless, implant placement were placed in almost all of the sites. A mean success rate of 89,9%, a mean survival rate of 100% and a failure rate of 0% emerged from the data evaluation. A meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity of the data, however the final results were comparable with those reported in case of bone regeneration obtained through other types of non-resorbable membranes. An advantage in favour of the titanium mesh was found in terms of bone loss after exposure, as implant placement was not jeopardized in almost all of the cases. It could be deduced that titanium meshes represented a reliable solution for alveolar ridge reconstruction. The clinical studies currently available in literature have shown the predictability of this technique in both lateral and vertical bone regeneration. Key words:Alveolar ridge reconstruction, bone atrophy, bone regeneration, dental implants, titanium mesh. PMID:25350597

  10. A Systematic Literature Review of the Information-Seeking Behavior of Dentists in Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Isham, Amy; Bettiol, Silvana; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the information-seeking behavior of dentists may inform ways to increase the dentist uptake of evidence-based research for clinical decision making and the practice of evidence-based dentistry, but no systematic review of dentist information-seeking behavior has been conducted. This review aimed to synthesize the best available evidence on where and how dentists seek information. A literature search of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists of English language studies from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries of dentists' information-seeking behavior published between 2002 and 2014 was conducted. Selected articles were assessed using mixed methods analysis, and the data extracted were thematically synthesized. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, and four main themes were identified: dentists' difficulty translating evidence-based resources into clinical practice; dentists' preference for face-to-face meetings, collegial discussion, and print materials over evidence-based resources; dentists' perceptions of the validity of evidence-based resources and the role of specialist and experienced dentists as information sources for general and less experienced dentists; and differences between early and late adopters of research evidence. Dentists in these studies tended to adopt new materials/techniques after discussion with a colleague, a dental specialist, or a respected dental expert. These dentists also reported lacking time, experience, skills, and confidence to find and use evidence-based resources. Many of the dentists studied were cautious about making decisions based on documentary sources like literature reviews and preferred to seek advice from an experienced or specialist colleague or to participate in face-to-face meetings.

  11. Using social media for actionable disease surveillance and outbreak management. A systematic literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; Corley, Courtney D.; Braunstein, Lidia Adriana

    2015-10-05

    Here, research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: 1) Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improve public health? 2) Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n=15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n=4), Medication and Vaccines (n=3), and Other (n=5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n=10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n=9), and Other (n=10). The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting from the review is to

  12. Psychosocial Impact of Lymphedema: A Systematic Review of Literature from 2004–2011

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Mei R.; Ridner, Sheila H.; Hu, Sophia H.; Stewart, Bob R.; Cormier, Janice N.; Armer, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This systematic review aimed to evaluate the level of evidence of contemporary peer-reviewed literature published from 2004–2011 on the psychosocial impact of lymphedema. Methods Eleven electronic databases were searched and 1,311 articles retrieved; 23 met inclusion criteria. Twelve articles utilized qualitative methodology and 11 employed quantitative methodology. An established quality assessment tool was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Results The overall quality of the 23 included studies was adequate. A critical limitation of current literature is the lack of conceptual or operational definitions for the concept of psychosocial impact. Quantitative studies showed statistically significant poorer social well-being in persons with lymphedema, including perceptions related to body image, appearance, sexuality, and social barriers. No statistically significant differences were found between persons with and without lymphedema in the domains of emotional well-being (happy or sad) and psychological distress (depression and anxiety). All 12 of the qualitative studies consistently described negative psychological impact (negative self-identity, emotional disturbance, psychological distress) and negative social impact (marginalization, financial burden, perceived diminished sexuality, social isolation, perceived social abandonment, public insensitivity, non-supportive work environment). Factors associated with psychosocial impact were also identified. Conclusions Lymphedema has a negative psychosocial impact on affected individuals. The current review sheds light on the conceptualization and operationalization of the definitions of psychosocial impact with respect to lymphedema. Development of a lymphedema-specific instrument is needed to better characterize the impact of lymphedema and to examine the factors contributing to these outcomes in cancer and non-cancer-related populations. PMID:23044512

  13. Social marketing of water and sanitation products: a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature.

    PubMed

    Evans, W D; Pattanayak, S K; Young, S; Buszin, J; Rai, S; Bihm, Jasmine Wallace

    2014-06-01

    Like commercial marketing, social marketing uses the 4 "Ps" and seeks exchange of value between the marketer and consumer. Behaviors such as handwashing, and products such as those for oral rehydration treatment (ORT), can be marketed like commercial products in developing countries. Although social marketing in these areas is growing, there has been no systematic review of the current state of practice, research and evaluation. We searched the literature for published peer-reviewed studies available through major online publication databases. We identified manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on social marketing that used at least one of the 4 Ps of marketing and had a behavioral objective targeting the behaviors or products related to improving water and sanitation. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 117 articles and reviewed a final set of 32 that met our criteria. Social marketing is a widespread strategy. Marketing efforts have created high levels of awareness of health threats and solutions, including behavior change and socially marketed products. There is widespread use of the 4 Ps of marketing, with price interventions being the least common. Evaluations show consistent improvements in behavioral mediators but mixed results in behavior change. Interventions have successfully used social marketing following widely recommended strategies. Future evaluations need to focus on mediators that explain successful behavior change in order to identify best practices and improve future programs. More rigorous evaluations including quasi-experimental designs and randomized trials are needed. More consistent reporting of evaluation results that permits meta-analysis of effects is needed.

  14. How Well Is Quality Improvement Described in the Perioperative Care Literature? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emma L.; Lees, Nicholas; Martin, Graham; Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Quality improvement (QI) approaches are widely used across health care, but how well they are reported in the academic literature is not clear. A systematic review was conducted to assess the completeness of reporting of QI interventions and techniques in the field of perioperative care. Methods Searches were conducted using Medline, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care database, and PubMed. Two independent reviewers used the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist, which identifies 12 features of interventions that studies should describe (for example, How: the interventions were delivered [e.g., face to face, internet]), When and how much: duration, dose, intensity), to assign scores for each included article. Articles were also scored against a small number of additional criteria relevant to QI. Results The search identified 16,103 abstracts from databases and 19 from other sources. Following review, full-text was obtained for 223 articles, 100 of which met the criteria for inclusion. Completeness of reporting of QI in the perioperative care literature was variable. Only one article was judged fully complete against the 11 TIDieR items used. The mean TIDieR score across the 100 included articles was 6.31 (of a maximum 11). More than a third (35%) of the articles scored 5 or lower. Particularly problematic was reporting of fidelity (absent in 74% of articles) and whether any modifications were made to the intervention (absent in 73% of articles). Conclusions The standard of reporting of quality interventions and QI techniques in surgery is often suboptimal, making it difficult to determine whether an intervention can be replicated and used to deliver a positive effect in another setting. This suggests a need to explore how reporting practices could be improved. PMID:27066922

  15. Economic Evaluations of Pharmacogenetic and Pharmacogenomic Screening Tests: A Systematic Review. Second Update of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wilffert, Bob; Boersma, Cornelis; Annemans, Lieven; Vegter, Stefan; van Boven, Job F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Due to extended application of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic screening (PGx) tests it is important to assess whether they provide good value for money. This review provides an update of the literature. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed and papers published between August 2010 and September 2014, investigating the cost-effectiveness of PGx screening tests, were included. Papers from 2000 until July 2010 were included via two previous systematic reviews. Studies’ overall quality was assessed with the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument. Results We found 38 studies, which combined with the previous 42 studies resulted in a total of 80 included studies. An average QHES score of 76 was found. Since 2010, more studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies. Most recent studies performed cost-utility analysis, univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, and discussed limitations of their economic evaluations. Most studies indicated favorable cost-effectiveness. Majority of evaluations did not provide information regarding the intrinsic value of the PGx test. There were considerable differences in the costs for PGx testing. Reporting of the direction and magnitude of bias on the cost-effectiveness estimates as well as motivation for the chosen economic model and perspective were frequently missing. Conclusions Application of PGx tests was mostly found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy. We found that only the minority of recent pharmacoeconomic evaluations assessed the intrinsic value of the PGx tests. There was an increase in the number of studies and in the reporting of quality associated characteristics. To improve future evaluations, scenario analysis including a broad range of PGx tests costs and equal costs of comparator drugs to assess the intrinsic value of the PGx tests, are recommended. In addition, robust clinical evidence regarding PGx tests’ efficacy remains of utmost importance. PMID

  16. Hearing difficulties, ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence or disability pension - a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hearing difficulties is a large public health problem, prognosticated to be the ninth leading burden of disease in 2030, and may also involve large consequences for work capacity. However, research regarding sickness absence and disability pension in relation to hearing difficulties is scarce. The aim was to gain knowledge about hearing difficulties or other ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence and disability pension through conducting a systematic literature review of published studies. Methods Studies presenting empirical data on hearing difficulties or ear-related diagnoses and sick leave or disability pension, published in scientific peer-reviewed journals, were included. Studies were sought for in three ways: in literature databases (Pub-Med, Embase, PsycInfo, SSCI, and Cochrane) through March 2011, through scrutinising lists of references, and through contacts. Identified publications were assessed for relevance and data was extracted from the studies deemed relevant. Results A total of 18 studies were assessed as relevant and included in this review, regardless of scientific quality. Fourteen studies presented empirical data on hearing difficulties/ear diagnoses and sick leave and six on these conditions and disability pension. Only two studies presented rate ratios or odds ratios regarding associations between hearing difficulties and sick leave, and only two on hearing difficulties and risk of disability pension. Both measures of hearing difficulties and of sick leave varied considerable between the studies. Conclusions Remarkably few studies on hearing difficulties in relation to sickness absence or disability pension were identified. The results presented in them cannot provide evidence for direction or magnitude of potential associations. PMID:22966953

  17. How long do patients with chronic disease expect to live? A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically identify and summarise the literature on perceived life expectancy among individuals with non-cancer chronic disease. Setting Published and grey literature up to and including September 2016 where adults with non-cancer chronic disease were asked to estimate their own life expectancy. Participants From 6837 screened titles, 9 articles were identified that met prespecified criteria for inclusion. Studies came from the UK, Netherlands and USA. A total of 729 participants were included (heart failure (HF) 573; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 89; end-stage renal failure 62; chronic kidney disease (CKD) 5). No papers reporting on other lung diseases, neurodegenerative disease or cirrhosis were found. Primary and secondary outcome measures All measures of self-estimated life expectancy were accepted. Self-estimated life expectancy was compared, where available, with observed survival, physician-estimated life expectancy and model-estimated life expectancy. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to the heterogeneity of the patient groups and study methodologies. Results Among patients with HF, median self-estimated life expectancy was 40% longer than predicted by a validated model. Outpatients receiving haemodialysis were more optimistic about prognosis than their nephrologists and overestimated their chances of surviving 5 years. Patients with HF and COPD were approximately three times more likely to die in the next year than they predicted. Data available for patients with CKD were of insufficient quality to draw conclusions. Conclusions Individuals with chronic disease may have unrealistically optimistic expectations of their prognosis. More research is needed to understand how perceived life expectancy affects behaviour. Meanwhile, clinicians should attempt to identify each patient's prognostic preferences and provide information in a way that they can understand and use to inform their decisions. Trial registration number CRD

  18. Educational interventions to empower nursing home residents: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Schoberer, Daniela; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Breimaier, Helga E; Halfens, Ruud JG; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the study Health education is essential to improve health care behavior and self-management. However, educating frail, older nursing home residents about their health is challenging. Focusing on empowerment may be the key to educating nursing home residents effectively. This paper examines educational interventions that can be used to empower nursing home residents. Methods A systematic literature search was performed of the databases PubMed, CINAHL, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, and Embase, screening for clinical trials that dealt with resident education and outcomes in terms of their ability to empower residents. An additional, manual search of the reference lists and searches with SIGLE and Google Scholar were conducted to identify gray literature. Two authors independently appraised the quality of the studies found and assigned levels to the evidence reported. The results of the studies were grouped according to their main empowering outcomes and described narratively. Results Out of 427 identified articles, ten intervention studies that addressed the research question were identified. The main educational interventions used were group education sessions, motivational and encouragement strategies, goal setting with residents, and the development of plans to meet defined goals. Significant effects on self-efficacy and self-care behavior were reported as a result of the interventions, which included group education and individual counseling based on resident needs and preferences. In addition, self-care behavior was observed to significantly increase in response to function-focused care and reasoning exercises. Perceptions and expectations were not improved by using educational interventions with older nursing home residents. Conclusion Individually tailored, interactive, continuously applied, and structured educational strategies, including motivational and encouraging techniques, are promising interventions that can help nursing home residents become more

  19. Atypical reactivity of heart rate variability to stress and depression across development: Systematic review of the literature and directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-12-01

    Heart rate variability has received growing attention in the depression literature, with several recent meta-analyses indicating that lower resting heart rate variability is associated with depression. However, the role of fluctuations in heart rate variability (or reactivity) in response to stress in depression remains less clear. The present review provides a systematic examination of the literature on heart rate variability reactivity to a laboratory-induced stressor task and depression, including 26 studies of reactivity in heart rate variability and clinical depression, remitted (or history of) depression, and subthreshold depression (or symptom-level depression) among adults, adolescents, and children. In addition to reviewing the findings of these studies, methodological considerations and conceptual gaps in the literature are addressed. We conclude by highlighting the importance of investigating the potential transactional relationship between heart rate variability reactivity and depression and possible mechanisms underlying this relationship.

  20. Theory-Based Interventions in Physical Activity: A Systematic Review of Literature in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity is ranked fourth among the causes of human death and chronic diseases. Using models and theories to design, implement, and evaluate the health education and health promotion interventions has many advantages. Using models and theories of physical activity, we decided to systematically study the educational and promotional interventions carried out in Iran from 2003 to 2013.Three information databases were used to systematically select papers using key words including Iranian Magazine Database (MAGIRAN), Iran Medical Library (MEDLIB), and Scientific Information Database (SID). Twenty papers were selected and studied. Having been applied in 9 studies, The Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) was the most widespread model in Iran (PENDER in 3 studies, BASNEF in 2, and the Theory of Planned Behavior in 2 studies). With regards to the educational methods, almost all studies used a combination of methods. The most widely used Integrative educational method was group discussion. Only one integrated study was done. Behavior maintenance was not addressed in 75% of the studies. Almost all studies used self-reporting instruments. The effectiveness of educational methods was assessed in none of the studies. Most of the included studies had several methodological weaknesses, which hinder the validity and applicability of their results. According to the findings, the necessity of need assessment in using models, epidemiology and methodology consultation, addressing maintenance of physical activity, using other theories and models such as social marketing and social-cognitive theory, and other educational methods like empirical and complementary are suggested. PMID:25948454

  1. Does the Empirical Literature Inform Prevention of Dropout among Students with Emotional Disturbance? A Systematic Review and Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Sadeh, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    For the past 30 years, the dropout rate for students with emotional disturbance has hovered around 50%, a rate substantially higher than the dropout rate for students with other disabilities and the general population. This systematic review evaluated the literature published between 1990 and 2013 on the effectiveness of dropout prevention and…

  2. Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Role of Family in Postsecondary Settings: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas, Bryan K.; Ramisch, Julie L.; McGowan, Beth

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a systematic review of the literature pertaining to students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the potential role of family members in higher education settings. The research questions guiding the review included: (a) What is the identified role(s) of family members of postsecondary students with ASD in postsecondary…

  3. Physical Activity Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: A Systematic Review of the Literature 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavy, Justine E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns,…

  4. Transcultural Nursing Clinical Education: A Systematic Review of the Literature since 2005 with Recommendations for International Immersion Clinical Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuilkin, Deb

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review sought evidence for the effectiveness of cultural competence pedagogy approaches in professional nursing education. The objective was to rank the findings from literature published since 2005, evaluating the effectiveness of educational strategies for cultural competence of undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students. The…

  5. Weight loss and African-American women: a systematic review of the behavioural weight loss intervention literature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. The weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender; therefore, the purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic review of all weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 ...

  6. [Severe obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome with dilated cardiomyopathy leading to pulmonary hypertension: case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Chen, R K; Hong, C; Zhou, Y M; Kuang, A L; Zhang, Y T; Qing, S M; Liu, C L; Zhang, N F

    2017-01-12

    Objective: To study the relationship between dilated cardiomyopathy and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and to evaluate the curative effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in OSAHS complicated with dilated cardiomyopathy. Methods: We reported one case with the symptom of exertional dyspnea for 1 year and aggravating for 1 month. The patient finally was diagnosed with severe OSAHS complicated with dilated cardiomyopathy leading to pulmonary hypertension. A systematic literature review was performed for similar published cases in Pubmed, Wanfang and CNKI database, using the keywords (obstructive sleep apnea) OR(OSA) OR(OSAHS) AND(dilated cardiomyopathy OR DCM)from January 1990 to May 2016. Results: Our patient had no significant improvement after receiving initial treatments, including reducing cardiac preload, improving myocardial metabolism, increasing myocardial contractility, and anticoagulants. After the patient was diagnosed as having severe OSAHS by polysomnography(PSG) and treated with CPAP, his symptoms improved remarkably. The enlarged heart became smaller and the patient had no repeated dyspnea at follow-up examination. By literature review, we found 4 English original articles and 6 Chinese articles (1 review article, 1 expert note, 1 original article and 3 case reports) on OSAHS complicated by DCM.Four Chinese and 1 English articles reported that the symptoms and parameters of OSAHS with DCM was improved remarkably after treatment with CPAP. Conclusion: For patients with dilated cardiomyopathy which fails to conventional therapy, especially those accompanied by obesity, snoring, daytime sleepiness, morning dry mouth and other related symptoms, PSG should be carried out. Early CPAP therapy could improve symptoms and prognosis of OSAHS associated with DCM.

  7. Frequency of the CCR5-delta32 allele in Brazilian populations: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva-Carvalho, Wlisses Henrique Veloso; de Moura, Ronald Rodrigues; Coelho, Antonio Victor Campos; Crovella, Sergio; Guimarães, Rafael Lima

    2016-09-01

    The CCR5 is a chemokine receptor widely expressed by several immune cells that are engaged in inflammatory responses. Some populations have individuals exhibiting a 32bp deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32) that produces a truncated non-functional protein not expressed on the cell surface. This polymorphism, known to be associated with susceptibility to infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as osteomyelitis, pre-eclampsia, systemic lupus erythematous, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and HIV/AIDS, is more commonly found in European populations with average frequency of 10%. However, it is also possible to observe a significant frequency in other world populations, such as the Brazilian one. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of CCR5-delta32 genetic association studies in Brazilian populations throughout the country to estimate the frequency of this polymorphism. We also compared CCR5-delta32 frequencies across Brazilian regions. The systematic literature reviewed studies involving delta32 allele in Brazilian populations published from 1995 to 2015. Among the reviewed literature, 25 studies including 30 Brazilian populations distributed between the North, Northeast, South and Southeast regions were included in our meta-analysis. We observed an overall allelic frequency of 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), that was considered moderate and, notably, higher than some European populations, such as Cyprus (2.8%), Italy (3%) and Greece (2.4%). Regarding the regional frequency comparisons between North-Northeast (N-NE) and South-Southeast (S-SE) regions, we observed an allelic frequency of 3% (95%-CI, 0.02-0.04) and 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), respectively. The populations from S-SE regions had a slightly higher CCR5-delta32 frequency than N-NE regions (OR=1.41, p=0.002). Although there are several studies about the CCR5-delta32 polymorphism and its effect on the immune response of some infectious diseases, this report is the first meta

  8. Attachment Style and Less Severe Forms of Sexual Coercion: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Karantzas, Gery C; McCabe, Marita P; Karantzas, Kellie M; Pizzirani, Bengianni; Campbell, Hilary; Mullins, Ellie R

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined how attachment insecurity (i.e., attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance) is associated with the more subtle and less severe forms of sexual coercion, such as verbal threats and partner manipulation. This is despite the fact that past research has indicated some of the relationship behaviors exhibited by insecurely attached individuals represent behaviors indicative of either the perpetration or victimization of less severe forms of sexual coercion. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the association between attachment style and less severe forms of sexual coercion. Our search, which included published journal papers, book chapters, and theses published between January 1970 and October 2014, yielded 1091 records. Examination of these records against exclusion criteria yielded 11 studies that focused on the associations between attachment orientation and perpetration of sexual coercion (n = 3), sexual coercion victimization (n = 3), or both perpetration and victimization (n = 5). Findings revealed that attachment anxiety appeared to be more consistently associated with being the victim of sexual coercion than attachment avoidance. In terms of perpetration, attachment avoidance was more consistently associated with sexual coercion. These findings were observed when examining the association between attachment dimensions and motives for sexual coercion. The findings also revealed gender to be a moderator for victimization. This review provides insights into how attachment style may influence the perpetration and victimization of sexual coercion.

  9. Cortisol levels and the severity and outcomes of acute stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barugh, Amanda Jayne; Gray, Paul; Shenkin, Susan Deborah; MacLullich, Alasdair Maurice Joseph; Mead, Gillian Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Studies in non-stroke patients have shown an association between dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and morbidity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate cortisol levels in acute stroke and their associations with outcome. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles up to April 2013 and PsychINFO for articles up to July 2013, using the keywords "cortisol" and "stroke" and associated terms or synonyms. We included studies published in peer-reviewed journals that recruited 10 or more participants and measured cortisol at least once in the first year following stroke. Data were extracted regarding cortisol levels, including changes over time and their relationship to stroke severity, and outcome. Of 11,240 abstracts, 101 full texts were obtained and 48 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Cortisol levels were high in the first week after stroke in the majority of studies (26 studies, n = 1,340). Higher cortisol was associated with dependency (8/11 studies, n = 822), delirium (5/6 studies, n = 269) depression (3/5 studies n = 117) and mortality (8/10 studies, n = 856). Five studies adjusted for stroke severity; one found an association between higher cortisol and dependency, and three found an association between higher cortisol and mortality. Cortisol levels are high for at least 7 days after stroke. Elevated cortisol after stroke is associated with dependency, morbidity, and mortality; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that these relationships are independent of stroke severity.

  10. Cortisol levels and the severity and outcomes of acute stroke: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Paul; Shenkin, Susan Deborah; MacLullich, Alasdair Maurice Joseph; Mead, Gillian Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Studies in non-stroke patients have shown an association between dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and morbidity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate cortisol levels in acute stroke and their associations with outcome. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles up to April 2013 and PsychINFO for articles up to July 2013, using the keywords “cortisol” and “stroke” and associated terms or synonyms. We included studies published in peer-reviewed journals that recruited 10 or more participants and measured cortisol at least once in the first year following stroke. Data were extracted regarding cortisol levels, including changes over time and their relationship to stroke severity, and outcome. Of 11,240 abstracts, 101 full texts were obtained and 48 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Cortisol levels were high in the first week after stroke in the majority of studies (26 studies, n = 1,340). Higher cortisol was associated with dependency (8/11 studies, n = 822), delirium (5/6 studies, n = 269) depression (3/5 studies n = 117) and mortality (8/10 studies, n = 856). Five studies adjusted for stroke severity; one found an association between higher cortisol and dependency, and three found an association between higher cortisol and mortality. Cortisol levels are high for at least 7 days after stroke. Elevated cortisol after stroke is associated with dependency, morbidity, and mortality; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that these relationships are independent of stroke severity. PMID:24477489

  11. Animal-assisted intervention for autism spectrum disorder: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    O'Haire, Marguerite E

    2013-07-01

    The inclusion of animals in therapeutic activities, known as animal-assisted intervention (AAI), has been suggested as a treatment practice for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper presents a systematic review of the empirical research on AAI for ASD. Fourteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. Reported outcomes included improvements for multiple areas of functioning known to be impaired in ASD, namely increased social interaction and communication as well as decreased problem behaviors, autistic severity, and stress. Yet despite unanimously positive outcomes, most studies were limited by many methodological weaknesses. This review demonstrates that there is preliminary "proof of concept" of AAI for ASD and highlights the need for further, more rigorous research.

  12. Staging Models in Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Ather

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is manifested as severe dysregulation of mood with recurrent manic and major depressive episodes. It is associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities, inadequate response to currently available pharmacological agents and a progressively deteriorating course in many patients. The index episode is often depressive in nature, while the first manic or hypomanic episode may occur several years later in the course of the disorder causing delay in diagnosis and use of inappropriate treatment strategies. Staging has been used to great advantage in other branches of medicine like cardiology and oncology. There is growing realization that major mental disorders are fundamentally progressive, with simpler treatment requirements and better prognosis during initial stages of the illness. Defining these conditions into clinically applicable stages not only helps in better understanding the trajectory of a particular disorder, but also assists in management. Patients with a chronic, recalcitrant condition like bipolar disorder are likely to greatly benefit from this approach. If the illness is correctly identified early in its course, proper treatment can be instigated arresting progression to latter phases which are associated with myriad complications in the biopsychosocial realm. With these considerations, a search of the MEDLINE data base was conducted to seek out literature pertaining to staging models in bipolar disorder. A thorough scrutiny of the existing research work revealed that a number of investigators have endeavored to stage define bipolar disorder. This paper outlines staging proposals for bipolar disorder which have the greatest supporting evidence in the literature. PMID:27121423

  13. Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-06-01

    We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1) causal association not confirmed; 2) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth.

  14. The Impacts of Educational Asthma Interventions in Schools: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Barretto Cardoso, Laís Souza; de Souza-Machado, Carolina; Souza-Machado, Adelmir

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on the impact of educational asthma interventions in schools regarding the knowledge and morbidity of the disease among children and adolescents. Methods. A systematic review was conducted for controlled clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of educational asthma interventions for students, asthmatic or nonasthmatic, families, and school staff. Databases were CENTRAL, PubMed, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SciELO. Articles published in any language were considered, in the period from 2005 to 2014, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results. Seventeen articles were selected (N = 5,879 subjects). 94% of the interventions (16 of 17 studies) were applied in developed countries that were led by health professionals and most of them targeted asthmatics. Asthma education promotes the improvement of knowledge about the disease in at least one of the evaluated areas. 29% of the interventions (5 of 17 studies) showed a reduction of the asthma symptoms, 35% (6 of 17 studies) reduction of the hospitalization instances and emergency visits, 29% (5 of 17 studies) reduction of school absenteeism, and 41% (7 of 17 studies) increase in the quality of life of the individuals. Conclusions. Educational interventions in schools raise the awareness of asthma and weaken the impact of morbidity indicators. PMID:27656097

  15. Social support and HIV-related risk behaviors: a systematic review of the global literature.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-02-01

    Existing empirical evidence has well documented the role of social support in both physical and psychological well-being among various populations. In the context of HIV prevention, the rapid increase of studies on social support merits a systematic review to synthesize the current global literature on association between social support and HIV-related risk behaviors. The current review reveals a complex picture of this relationship across diverse populations. Existing studies indicate that higher levels of social support are related to fewer HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers and people living with HIV/AIDS and heterosexual adults in general. However, influences of social support on HIV-related risk behaviors are inconsistent within drug users, men who have sex with men and adolescents. These variations in findings may be attributed to different measurement of social support in different studies, specific context of social support for diverse population, or various characteristics of the social networks the study population obtained support from. Future studies are needed to explore the mechanism of how social support affects HIV-related risk behaviors. HIV prevention intervention efforts need to focus on the positive effect of social support for various vulnerable and at-risk populations. Future efforts also need to incorporate necessary structure change and utilize technical innovation in order to maximize the protective role of social support in HIV risk prevention or reduction.

  16. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Perioperative Complications: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Tajender S.; Grewal, Ritu; Doghramji, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common sleep related breathing disorder. Its prevalence is estimated to be between 2% and 25% in the general population. However, the prevalence of sleep apnea is much higher in patients undergoing elective surgery. Sedation and anesthesia have been shown to increase the upper airway collapsibility and therefore increasing the risk of having postoperative complications in these patients. Furthermore, the majority of patients with sleep apnea are undiagnosed and therefore are at risk during the perioperative period. It is important to identify these patients so that appropriate actions can be taken in a timely fashion. In this review article, we will discuss the epidemiology of sleep apnea in the surgical population. We will also discuss why these patients are at a higher risk of having postoperative complications, with the special emphasis on the role of anesthesia, opioids, sedation, and the phenomenon of REM sleep rebound. We will also review how to identify these patients preoperatively and the steps that can be taken for their perioperative management. Citation: Vasu TS; Grewal R; Doghramji K. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and perioperative complications: a systematic review of the literature. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(2):199-207. PMID:22505868

  17. The common characteristics and outcomes of multidisciplinary collaboration in primary health care: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Schepman, Sanneke; Hansen, Johan; de Putter, Iris D.; Batenburg, Ronald S.; de Bakker, Dinny H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Research on collaboration in primary care focuses on specific diseases or types of collaboration. We investigate the effects of such collaboration by bringing together the results of scientific studies. Theory and methods We conducted a systematic literature review of PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane and EMBASE. The review was restricted to publications that test outcomes of multidisciplinary collaboration in primary care in high-income countries. A conceptual model is used to structure the analysis. Results Fifty-one studies comply with the selection criteria about collaboration in primary care. Approximately half of the 139 outcomes in these studies is non-significant. Studies among older patients, in particular, report non-significant outcomes (p < .05). By contrast, a higher proportion of significant results were found in studies that report on clinical outcomes. Conclusions and discussion This review shows a large diversity in the types of collaboration in primary care; and also thus a large proportion of outcomes do not seem to be positively affected by collaboration. Both the characteristics of the structure of the collaboration and the collaboration processes themselves affect the outcomes. More research is necessary to understand the mechanism behind the success of collaboration, especially on the exact nature of collaboration and the context in which collaboration takes place. PMID:26150765

  18. ScaleNet: a literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics.

    PubMed

    García Morales, Mayrolin; Denno, Barbara D; Miller, Douglass R; Miller, Gary L; Ben-Dov, Yair; Hardy, Nate B

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are small herbivorous insects found on all continents except Antarctica. They are extremely invasive, and many species are serious agricultural pests. They are also emerging models for studies of the evolution of genetic systems, endosymbiosis and plant-insect interactions. ScaleNet was launched in 1995 to provide insect identifiers, pest managers, insect systematists, evolutionary biologists and ecologists efficient access to information about scale insect biological diversity. It provides comprehensive information on scale insects taken directly from the primary literature. Currently, it draws from 23,477 articles and describes the systematics and biology of 8194 valid species. For 20 years, ScaleNet ran on the same software platform. That platform is no longer viable. Here, we present a new, open-source implementation of ScaleNet. We have normalized the data model, begun the process of correcting invalid data, upgraded the user interface, and added online administrative tools. These improvements make ScaleNet easier to use and maintain and make the ScaleNet data more accurate and extendable. Database URL: http://scalenet.info.

  19. "What is the work of Recovery Oriented Practice? A systematic literature review".

    PubMed

    Chester, Polly; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Warburton, Loretta; Baker, David; Kendall, Elizabeth; Crompton, David

    2016-08-01

    Concepts of personal and social recovery in mental illness are constantly evolving because the journey is fluid and subject to change over time. Dynamic interactions between the complexities of human nature and mental illness create ever-altering landscapes of perplexity. The acknowledged ebb and flow of recovery in the presence of chronic and serious mental illness requires health professionals to provide a flexible suite of care, delivered through skills and methods that are responsive and meaningful to the recipient. We conducted a systematic search for qualitative literature that articulated the work of personally-supportive recovery-oriented practice (ROP) to determine the specific components of recovery-supportive work. Twenty-one articles were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria and were synthesized using a coding framework derived from Normalization Process Theory. We identified three kinds of recovery-supportive work required from health professionals: alleviating stigma, delivering effective recovery-supportive responses in the presence of complex health and social situations and managing challenges associated with the work of ROP. We discuss the resources needed for ROP and the barriers that inhibit health professionals' engagement in this work. By elucidating the work of ROP, we highlighted a disparity between health professionals' aspirations and achievements. These revelations could inform service delivery in order to better support consumer recovery in serious mental illness.

  20. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Marx, Wolfgang M; Teleni, Laisa; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Vitetta, Luis; McKavanagh, Dan; Thomson, Damien; Isenring, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side-effect of cytotoxic treatment. It continues to affect a significant proportion of patients despite the widespread use of antiemetic medication. In traditional medicine, ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used to prevent and treat nausea in many cultures for thousands of years. However, its use has not been confirmed in the chemotherapy context. To determine the potential use of ginger as a prophylactic or treatment for CINV, a systematic literature review was conducted. Reviewed studies comprised randomized controlled trials or crossover trials that investigated the anti-CINV effect of ginger as the sole independent variable in chemotherapy patients. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies were assessed on methodological quality and their limitations were identified. Studies were mixed in their support of ginger as an anti-CINV treatment in patients receiving chemotherapy, with three demonstrating a positive effect, two in favor but with caveats, and two showing no effect on measures of CINV. Future studies are required to address the limitations identified before clinical use can be recommended.

  1. A systematic review of microfinance and women's health literature: Directions for future research.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, T L; Burke, J G

    2016-04-15

    While growing evidence suggests that microfinance is an effective approach for improved women's health, a significant gap remains in our understanding. The objective of this review is to synthesise the findings from published literature focused on microfinance and health issues particularly affecting women, including HIV/AIDS, reproductive health, mental health, and violence. Forty-one articles that examine the impact of microfinance participation on women's health were identified through a systematic search of electronic databases, coded using a structured abstraction form, and synthesised. Review results indicate that the impact of microfinance on women's health is an area in great need of research and publication attention. Varied quality and reporting in the identified articles restricted the ability to draw concrete conclusions regarding the relationship between microfinance participation and women's health, but led to the identification of current gaps in existing published research. Future research should work to address the recommendations provided in order to offer additional evidence to better understand the use of microfinance programming as a structural intervention to improve women's health.

  2. The psychological impact of predictive genetic testing for Huntington's disease: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Crozier, S; Robertson, N; Dale, M

    2015-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic condition for which a predictive genetic test by mutation analysis has been available since 1993. However, whilst revealing the future presence of the disease, testing may have an adverse psychological impact given that the disease is progressive, incurable and ultimately fatal. This review seeks to systematically explore the psychological impact of genetic testing for individuals undergoing pre-symptomatic mutation analysis. Three databases (Medline, PsycInfo and Scopus) were interrogated for studies utilising standardised measures to assess psychological impact following predictive genetic testing for HD. From 100 papers initially identified, eight articles were eligible for inclusion. Psychological impact of predictive genetic testing was not found to be associated with test result. No detrimental effect of predictive genetic testing on non-carriers was found, although the process was not found to be psychologically neutral. Fluctuation in levels of distress was found over time for carriers and non-carriers alike. Methodological weaknesses of published literature were identified, notably the needs of individuals not requesting genetic testing, as well as inadequate support for individuals registering elevated distress and declining post-test follow-up. Further assessment of these vulnerable individuals is warranted to establish the extent and type of future psychological support.

  3. eHealth Literacy Interventions for Older Adults: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background eHealth resources offer new opportunities for older adults to access health information online, connect with others with shared health interests, and manage their health. However, older adults often lack sufficient eHealth literacy to maximize their benefit from these resources. Objective This review evaluates the research design, methods, and findings of eHealth literacy interventions for older adults. Methods A systematic review of peer-reviewed research articles from 28 databases in 9 fields was carried out in January 2013. Four rounds of screening of articles in these databases resulted in a final sample of 23 articles. Results Findings indicated a significant gap in the literature for eHealth literacy interventions evaluating health outcomes as the outcome of interest, a lack of theory-based interventions, and few studies applied high-quality research design. Conclusions Our findings emphasize the need for researchers to develop and assess theory-based interventions applying high-quality research design in eHealth literacy interventions targeting the older population. PMID:25386719

  4. What is known on angiogenesis-related rare diseases? A systematic review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Caso, Luis; Reyes-Palomares, Armando; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Quesada, Ana R; Medina, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new vessels from pre-existing ones, is essential during ontogenetic development and is related to many important physio-pathological processes in the adult. In fact, a persistent and deregulated angiogenesis is a required event for many diseases and pathological situations, including cancer progression and metastasis. Some rare diseases are also angiogenesis-related pathologies. However, there is a lack of an exhaustive review on the topic. The main purpose of this work is to carry out a systematic review of literature to determine what (and how much) scientific information concerning angiogenesis-related rare diseases can be extracted from available sources. After exhaustive searches in bibliographic databases, preselected data were filtered by selecting only those articles on rare diseases with an Orpha number hosted in the Orphanet web. The selected bibliographic references were further curated manually. With the 187 selected references, a critical reading and analysis was carried out allowing for an identification and classification of angiogenesis-related rare diseases, the involved genes and the drugs available for their treatment, all on the basis of the information available in Orphanet database. PMID:22882737

  5. [Cost of lost productivity in pharmacoeconomics analysis. Part I. A systematic review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Wrona, Witold; Hermanowski, Tomasz; Golicki, Dominik; Jakubczyk, Michał; Macioch, Tomasz; Goszczyńska, Katarzyna; Wójcik, Radosław

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of indirect costs of illness in economic studies is still a subject of considerable debate. The aim of the systematic literature review was to present the Polish economic practice concerning indirect costs evaluation of healthcare interventions. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Polish Medical Bibliography (PBL) were searched. Cut-off dates were set to February and March 2009. The main specific keywords were 'indirect costs' or 'costs and cost analysis'. Nineteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review, of a total of 2300 references. Seventeen out of 19 studies were cost of illness studies, 2 were economic analyses. Methods of indirect costs evaluation were all based on human capital approach. The work absenteeism unit time measure used to value productivity loss were average salary (9/19), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (7/19), Gross National Product per capita (1/19), GDP per active worker (1/19), sold production of industry per active worker (1/19). Mean indirect costs were ca. 58% of total costs (range: 16%-98%). In 5 studies transfer payments were added to productivity loss category. Indirect cost is rarely included in the economic analyses in Poland. Various methods of indirect costs calculation limit comparison between studies and support the need for development of robust and widely accepted methodology.

  6. Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Lower Limb Spasticity.

    PubMed

    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Chen, Jack J; Walker, Heather W; Lee, Michael Y

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate clinical trial efficacy, safety, and dosing practices of AbobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) treatment in adult patients with lower limb spasticity.A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials of ABO in the treatment of adult lower limb spasticity.Of the 295 records identified, 6 primary publications evaluated ABO for the management of lower limb spasticity of various etiologies and were evaluated. Total ABO doses ranged between 500 and 2000 U for lower limb spasticity, depending on the muscles injected. All studies in lower limb spasticity showed statistically significant reduction in muscle tone based on Modified Ashworth Scale of ABO versus placebo. Significant effects on active movement and pain were demonstrated albeit less consistently. ABO was generally well tolerated across the individual studies; most adverse events reported were considered unrelated to treatment. Treatment-related adverse events included but not limited to fatigue, local pain at injection site, hypertonia, dry mouth, weakness of the noninjected muscle, abnormal gait, and urinary tract infection.These data from 6 randomized clinical studies provide the beginnings of an evidence base for the use of ABO to reduce lower limb spasticity. Ongoing studies in this area will add to this evidence base.

  7. ScaleNet: a literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics

    PubMed Central

    García Morales, Mayrolin; Denno, Barbara D.; Miller, Douglass R.; Miller, Gary L.; Ben-Dov, Yair; Hardy, Nate B.

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are small herbivorous insects found on all continents except Antarctica. They are extremely invasive, and many species are serious agricultural pests. They are also emerging models for studies of the evolution of genetic systems, endosymbiosis and plant-insect interactions. ScaleNet was launched in 1995 to provide insect identifiers, pest managers, insect systematists, evolutionary biologists and ecologists efficient access to information about scale insect biological diversity. It provides comprehensive information on scale insects taken directly from the primary literature. Currently, it draws from 23 477 articles and describes the systematics and biology of 8194 valid species. For 20 years, ScaleNet ran on the same software platform. That platform is no longer viable. Here, we present a new, open-source implementation of ScaleNet. We have normalized the data model, begun the process of correcting invalid data, upgraded the user interface, and added online administrative tools. These improvements make ScaleNet easier to use and maintain and make the ScaleNet data more accurate and extendable. Database URL: http://scalenet.info PMID:26861659

  8. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy and fetal risk: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Marchioni, Renée M; Lichtenstein, Gary R

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors (anti-TNFs) are effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) recalcitrant to conventional medical therapy. As the peak incidence of IBD overlaps with the prime reproductive years, it is crucial to establish pharmacologic regimens for women of childbearing age that achieve effective disease control without posing significant fetal harm. A systematic literature review was performed to identify all human studies with birth outcomes data after maternal exposure to infliximab, adalimumab, or certolizumab pegol within 3 mo of conception or during any trimester of pregnancy. Live births, spontaneous abortions or stillbirths, preterm or premature births, low birth weight or small for gestational age infants, and congenital abnormalities were recorded. Fifty selected references identified 472 pregnancy exposures. The subsequent review includes general information regarding anti-TNF therapy in pregnancy followed by a summary of our findings. The benefits of biologic modalities in optimizing disease control during pregnancy must be weighed against the potential toxicity of drug exposure on the developing fetus. Although promising overall, there is insufficient evidence to prove absolute safety for use of anti-TNFs during pregnancy given the limitations of available data and lack of controlled trials. PMID:23674866

  9. The Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Tulsi in Humans: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Tulsi, also known as holy basil, is indigenous to the Indian continent and highly revered for its medicinal uses within the Ayurvedic and Siddha medical systems. Many in vitro, animal and human studies attest to tulsi having multiple therapeutic actions including adaptogenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and immunomodulatory effects, yet to date there are no systematic reviews of human research on tulsi's clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of human studies that reported on a clinical outcome after ingestion of tulsi. We searched for studies published in books, theses, conference proceedings, and electronic databases including Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Embase, Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, and Indian Medical databases. A total of 24 studies were identified that reported therapeutic effects on metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, immunity, and neurocognition. All studies reported favourable clinical outcomes with no studies reporting any significant adverse events. The reviewed studies reinforce traditional uses and suggest tulsi is an effective treatment for lifestyle-related chronic diseases including diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and psychological stress. Further studies are required to explore mechanisms of action, clarify the dosage and dose form, and determine the populations most likely to benefit from tulsi's therapeutic effects.

  10. Access control and privilege management in electronic health record: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Manoj; O'Daniel, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a systematic literature review of access control for electronic health record systems to protect patient's privacy. Articles from 2006 to 2016 were extracted from the ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and MetaPress using broad eligibility criteria, and chosen for inclusion based on analysis of ISO22600. Cryptographic standards and methods were left outside the scope of this review. Three broad classes of models are being actively investigated and developed: access control for electronic health records, access control for interoperability, and access control for risk analysis. Traditional role-based access control models are extended with spatial, temporal, probabilistic, dynamic, and semantic aspects to capture contextual information and provide granular access control. Maintenance of audit trails and facilities for overriding normal roles to allow full access in emergency cases are common features. Access privilege frameworks utilizing ontology-based knowledge representation for defining the rules have attracted considerable interest, due to the higher level of abstraction that makes it possible to model domain knowledge and validate access requests efficiently.

  11. The Preclose Technique in Percutaneous Endovascular Aortic Repair: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffan, Abdel Aziz A.; Prince, Ethan A.; Hampson, Christopher O.; Murphy, Timothy P.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To establish the efficacy and safety of the preclose technique in total percutaneous endovascular aortic repair (PEVAR).MethodsA systematic literature search of Medline database was conducted for series on PEVAR published between January 1999 and January 2012.ResultsThirty-six articles comprising 2,257 patients and 3,606 arterial accesses were included. Anatomical criteria used to exclude patients from undergoing PEVAR were not uniform across all series. The technical success rate was 94 % per arterial access. Failure was unilateral in the majority (93 %) of the 133 failed PEVAR cases. The groin complication rate in PEVAR was 3.6 %; a minority (1.6 %) of these groin complications required open surgery. The groin complication rate in failed PEVAR cases converted to groin cutdown was 6.1 %. A significantly higher technical success rate was achieved when arterial access was performed via ultrasound guidance. Technical failure rate was significantly higher with larger sheath size ({>=}20F). Conclusion. The preclose technique in PEVAR has a high technical success rate and a low groin complication rate. Technical success tends to increase with ultrasound-guided arterial access and decrease with larger access. When failure occurs, it is unilateral in the majority of cases, and conversion to surgical cutdown does not appear to increase the operative risk.

  12. [Effectiveness of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) on thrombosis prophylaxis: a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Rohrer, Ottilia; Eicher, Manuela

    2006-06-01

    Despite changes in patient demographics and short-ened length of hospital stay deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains a major health care problem which may lead to a variety of other high risk complications. Current treatment guidelines focus on preventive measures. Beside drug therapy, physical measures executed by nursing professionals exist, the outcomes of which are discussed controversially. Based on 25 studies that were found in MEDLINE and the Cochrane library, this systematic literature review identifies the effectiveness of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) on thrombosis prophylaxis. In almost all medical settings IPC contributes to a significant reduction of the incidence of DVT. At the same time, IPC has minimal negative side effects and is also cost effective. Correct application of IPC and patient compliance are essential to achieve its effectiveness. An increased awareness within the healthcare team in identifying the risk for and implementing measures against DVT is needed. Guidelines need to be developed in order to improve the effectiveness of thrombosis prophylaxis with the implementation of IPC.

  13. What proportion of Salmonella Typhi cases are detected by blood culture? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Mogasale, Vittal; Ramani, Enusa; Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V; Park, JuYeon

    2016-05-17

    Blood culture is often used in definitive diagnosis of typhoid fever while, bone marrow culture has a greater sensitivity and considered reference standard. The sensitivity of blood culture measured against bone marrow culture results in measurement bias because both tests are not fully sensitive. Here we propose a combination of the two cultures as a reference to define true positive S. Typhi cases. Based on a systematic literature review, we identified ten papers that had performed blood and bone marrow culture for S. Typhi in same subjects. We estimated the weighted mean of proportion of cases detected by culture measured against true S. Typhi positive cases using a random effects model. Of 529 true positive S. Typhi cases, 61 % (95 % CI 52-70 %) and 96 % (95 % CI 93-99 %) were detected by blood and bone marrow cultures respectively. Blood culture sensitivity was 66 % (95 % CI 56-75 %) when compared with bone marrow culture results. The use of blood culture sensitivity as a proxy measure to estimate the proportion of typhoid fever cases detected by blood culture is likely to be an underestimate. As blood culture sensitivity is used as a correction factor in estimating typhoid disease burden, epidemiologists and policy makers should account for the underestimation.

  14. Screen Time and Sleep among School-Aged Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-01-01

    Summary We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1.) causal association not confirmed; 2.) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3.) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth. PMID:25193149

  15. Brain Parenchymal Fraction in Healthy Adults—A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Granåsen, Gabriel; Svenningsson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Brain atrophy is an important feature of many neurodegenerative disorders. It can be described in terms of change in the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF). In order to interpret the BPF in disease, knowledge on the BPF in healthy individuals is required. The aim of this study was to establish a normal range of values for the BPF of healthy individuals via a systematic review of the literature. The databases PubMed and Scopus were searched and 95 articles, including a total of 9269 individuals, were identified including the required data. We present values of BPF from healthy individuals stratified by age and post-processing method. The mean BPF correlated with mean age and there were significant differences in age-adjusted mean BPF between methods. This study contributes to increased knowledge about BPF in healthy individuals, which may assist in the interpretation of BPF in the setting of disease. We highlight the differences between post-processing methods and the need for a consensus gold standard. PMID:28095463

  16. Association between estrogen levels and temporomandibular disorders: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Marcin; Szalewski, Leszek; Bakalczuk, Magdalena; Bakalczuk, Szymon; Szkutnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate whether the hypothesis that estrogen levels are associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in humans can be confirmed or contradicted by available literature. Material and methods A systematic review based on the content of PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases was performed. Studies were identified using a combination of key words ‘temporomandibular disorder’ and ‘estrogen’. Nine studies were included into our review. Results The relationship between estrogen levels and TMD was found in seven out of nine reviewed papers. Results from two papers suggest that a high estrogen level is associated with an increased prevalence of TMD. Five additional papers found a relationship between a low estrogen level and an increase in TMD pain. In considering the value of evidence and inconsistencies of results in the reviewed publications, we state that there is weak evidence to support the hypothesis that estrogen levels are associated with TMD. Conclusions Results of reviewed studies were divergent and sometimes contradictory. One possible explanation is that estrogen influences TMD pain processing differently than temporomandibular joints (TMJ) structures, as shown in many animal studies. Estrogen may influence TMD pain processing differently than TMJ structures. We suggest consideration of the dual action of estrogen when planning future studies on its association with TMD. PMID:26848299

  17. Tooth wear against ceramic crowns in posterior region: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hmaidouch, Rim; Weigl, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to assess tooth wear against ceramic crowns in posterior region in vitro and in vivo. An electronic PubMed search was conducted to identify studies on tooth wear against ceramic crowns in posterior region. The selected studies were analyzed in regard to type of crowns, natural antagonist, measuring protocol and outcome. From a yield of 1 000 titles, 43 articles were selected for full-text analysis; finally, no in vitro and only five in vivo studies met the inclusion criteria. As there is heterogeneity in design, used measuring method, ceramics and analysis-form, a meta-analysis was not possible. Results of these studies are very controversial which makes a scientifically valid comparison impossible. This review indicated that some all-ceramic crowns are as wear friendly as metal-ceramic crowns. Up to now, it has been impossible to associate tooth wear with any specific causal agent. The role of ceramic surface treatment that might be responsible for the changing in rate of tooth wear seems undetermined as yet through clinical trials. The literature reveals that studies on this topic are subject to a substantial amount of bias. Therefore, additional clinical studies, properly designed to diminish bias, are warranted. PMID:24136675

  18. Shoulder pain in water polo: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Webster, Marilyn J; Morris, Meg E; Galna, Brook

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this systematic review is to synthesize and critically evaluate literature on the incidence and clinical presentation of shoulder pain in water polo. A secondary aim is to examine the contributing factors to shoulder pain in water polo. Medline, Cinahl, Embase, Ausport, Ovid, Sports Discus, Pubmed and Google Scholar data bases were electronically searched. Data were extracted regarding research design, injuries, pain, incidence, interventions and therapy outcomes. Of an initial yield of 23 papers, 11 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were categorized into studies on incidence, shoulder pain, shoulder mobility, strength and throwing injuries. Methodological limitations included sampling and measurement biases, inadequate internal validity of measurement tools, poor specification of testing protocols and limitations in statistical analysis. The review found a high incidence of shoulder pain in water polo. Although there was limited evidence regarding causation, the repeated action of throwing was identified as a contributing factor to shoulder pain. Future studies need to explore the relative contributions of hyper-mobility and muscle strength imbalance to shoulder pain in water polo.

  19. Therapeutic Management of Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Winer, Jenna N; Arzi, Boaz; Verstraete, Frank J M

    2016-01-01

    Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a disease characterized by protracted and potentially debilitating oral inflammation in cats, the etiology of which is currently unknown. The purpose of this review is to apply an evidence-based medicine approach to systematically review and critically evaluate the scientific literature reporting the outcome of medical and surgical management of FCGS. Those articles meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed and assigned an "Experimental Design Grade" (EDG) and an "Evidence Grade" (EG) in order to score relative strength of study design and produced data. Studies were evaluated and compared, especially highlighting the treatments, the outcomes, and the therapeutic success rates. This review found a lack of consistency between articles' data, rendering direct comparison of results unreliable. The field of FCGS research, and ultimately patient care, would benefit from standardizing studies by adopting use of a consistent semi-quantitative scoring system and extending follow-up duration. Future researchers should commit to large prospective studies that compare existing treatments and demonstrate the promise of new treatments.

  20. Therapeutic Management of Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Winer, Jenna N.; Arzi, Boaz; Verstraete, Frank J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a disease characterized by protracted and potentially debilitating oral inflammation in cats, the etiology of which is currently unknown. The purpose of this review is to apply an evidence-based medicine approach to systematically review and critically evaluate the scientific literature reporting the outcome of medical and surgical management of FCGS. Those articles meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed and assigned an “Experimental Design Grade” (EDG) and an “Evidence Grade” (EG) in order to score relative strength of study design and produced data. Studies were evaluated and compared, especially highlighting the treatments, the outcomes, and the therapeutic success rates. This review found a lack of consistency between articles’ data, rendering direct comparison of results unreliable. The field of FCGS research, and ultimately patient care, would benefit from standardizing studies by adopting use of a consistent semi-quantitative scoring system and extending follow-up duration. Future researchers should commit to large prospective studies that compare existing treatments and demonstrate the promise of new treatments. PMID:27486584

  1. Culturally Grounded Prevention for Minority Youth Populations: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lauricella, Michela; Valdez, Jessica K.; Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Zaremba, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary prevention science has focused on the application of cultural adaptations of evidence-based prevention programs for minority youth populations. Far less is known about culturally grounded methods that are intended to organically develop prevention programs within specific populations and communities. This article systematically reviews recent literature on culturally grounded interventions used to prevent health disparities in ethnic minority youth populations. In this review, we assessed 31 peer-reviewed articles published in 2003 or later that fit inclusionary criteria pertaining to the development and evaluation of culturally grounded prevention programs. The evaluated studies indicated different approaches toward cultural grounding, as well as specific populations, geographic regions, and health issues that have been targeted. Specifically, the findings indicated that most of the studies focused on the development and evaluation of culturally grounded HIV/STI and substance abuse prevention programs for Mexican American, African American, and American Indian/Alaska Native youth residing in the South or Southwestern U.S. These studies largely relied on community-based participatory or qualitative research methods to develop programs from the “ground up.” This review has implications for the development of future culturally grounded and culturally adapted prevention programs targeting underserved minority youth populations and geographic regions. Specifically, it identifies populations and regions where culturally grounded prevention efforts are underdeveloped or non-existent, providing some scientific direction for the future development of these types of programs. PMID:26733384

  2. Predonation psychosocial evaluation of living kidney and liver donor candidates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Duerinckx, Nathalie; Timmerman, Lotte; Van Gogh, Johan; van Busschbach, Jan; Ismail, Sohal Y; Massey, Emma K; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating a person's suitability for living organ donation is crucial, consisting not only of a medical but also of a thorough psychosocial screening. We performed a systematic literature review of guidelines, consensus statements, and protocols on the content and process of psychosocial screening of living kidney and liver donor candidates. We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until June 22, 2011, following the PRISMA guidelines, complemented by scrutinizing guidelines databases and references of identified publications. Thirty-four publications were identified, including seven guidelines, six consensus statements, and 21 protocols or programs. Guidelines and consensus statements were inconsistent and lacked concreteness for both their content and process, possibly explaining the observed variability in center-specific evaluation protocols and programs. Overall, recommended screening criteria are not evidence-based and an operational definition of the concept "psychosocial" is missing, causing heterogeneity in terminology. Variation also exists on methods used to psychosocially evaluate potential donors. The scientific basis of predonation psychosocial evaluation needs to be strengthened. There is a need for high-quality prospective psychosocial outcome studies in living donors, a uniform terminology to label psychosocial screening criteria, and validated instruments to identify risk factors.

  3. Labor Migration and HIV Risk: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan M.; Kashuba, Adrianna B.

    2013-01-01

    To inform the development of multilevel strategies for addressing HIV risk among labor migrants, 97 articles from the health and social science literatures were systematically reviewed. The study locations were Africa (23 %), the Americas (26 %), Europe (7 %), South East Asia (21 %), and Western Pacific (24 %). Among the studies meeting inclusion criteria, HIV risk was associated with multilevel determinants at the levels of policy, sociocultural context, health and mental health, and sexual practices. The policy determinants most often associated with HIV risk were: prolonged and/or frequent absence, financial status, and difficult working and housing conditions. The sociocultural context determinants most often associated with HIV risk were: cultural norms, family separation, and low social support. The health and mental health factors most often associated with HIV risk were: substance use, other STIs, mental health problems, no HIV testing, and needle use. The sexual practices most often associated with increased HIV risk were: limited condom use, multiple partnering, clients of sex workers, low HIV knowledge, and low perceived HIV risk. Magnitude of effects through multivariate statistics were demonstrated more for health and mental health and sexual practices, than for policy or sociocultural context. The consistency of these findings across multiple diverse global labor migration sites underlines the need for multilevel intervention strategies. However, to better inform the development, implementation, and evaluation of multilevel interventions, additional research is needed that overcomes prior methodological limitations and focuses on building new contextually tailored interventions and policies. PMID:22481273

  4. School-based internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Whittemore, Robin; Chao, Ariana; Popick, Rachel; Grey, Margaret

    2013-03-01

    In response to the childhood obesity epidemic, numerous studies on school-based Internet obesity prevention interventions have been conducted. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe, synthesize, and evaluate the research on school-based Internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents. Medline, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched from January 1995 to August 2012 to locate relevant studies. Ninety-one reports were initially identified, with 12 meeting the inclusion criteria. Studies had variable control groups, program content, and sample characteristics. Though few authors reported on implementation processes or body mass index (BMI) outcomes, the majority of studies were effective in improving health behaviors in the short term. Most studies were judged to have a high or unclear risk of bias in at least two domains, thus the quality of evidence for this body of literature is moderate. Further research is needed to examine programs of longer duration, optimal dose and timing of programs, cost-effectiveness, and mediators and moderators of intervention outcomes.

  5. Empirical studies on usability of mHealth apps: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Belén Cruz; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Idri, Ali; Toval, Ambrosio

    2015-02-01

    The release of smartphones and tablets, which offer more advanced communication and computing capabilities, has led to the strong emergence of mHealth on the market. mHealth systems are being used to improve patients' lives and their health, in addition to facilitating communication between doctors and patients. Researchers are now proposing mHealth applications for many health conditions such as dementia, autism, dysarthria, Parkinson's disease, and so on. Usability becomes a key factor in the adoption of these applications, which are often used by people who have problems when using mobile devices and who have a limited experience of technology. The aim of this paper is to investigate the empirical usability evaluation processes described in a total of 22 selected studies related to mHealth applications by means of a Systematic Literature Review. Our results show that the empirical evaluation methods employed as regards usability could be improved by the adoption of automated mechanisms. The evaluation processes should also be revised to combine more than one method. This paper will help researchers and developers to create more usable applications. Our study demonstrates the importance of adapting health applications to users' need.

  6. Unhealthy diets, obesity and time discounting: a systematic literature review and network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Summary There is an increasing policy commitment to address the avoidable burdens of unhealthy diet, overweight and obesity. However, to design effective policies, it is important to understand why people make unhealthy dietary choices. Research from behavioural economics suggests a critical role for time discounting, which describes how people's value of a reward, such as better health, decreases with delay to its receipt. We systematically reviewed the literature on the relationship of time discounting with unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity in Web of Science and PubMed. We identified 41 studies that met our inclusion criteria as they examined the association between time discount rates and (i) unhealthy food consumption; (ii) overweight and (iii) response to dietary and weight loss interventions. Nineteen out of 25 cross‐sectional studies found time discount rates positively associated with overweight, obesity and unhealthy diets. Experimental studies indicated that lower time discounting was associated with greater weight loss. Findings varied by how time discount rates were measured; stronger results were observed for food than monetary‐based measurements. Network co‐citation analysis revealed a concentration of research in nutrition journals. Overall, there is moderate evidence that high time discounting is a significant risk factor for unhealthy diets, overweight and obesity and may serve as an important target for intervention. © 2016 The Authors Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO) PMID:27256685

  7. [Nursing patients with learning and physical disabilities in hospitals - a systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Dörscheln, Iris; Lachetta, Raphael; Schulz, Michael; Tacke, Doris

    2013-02-01

    People with learning and physical disabilities require special attention and nursing care during hospitalisation. A systematic literature research in the databases PUBMED, CINAHL and Cochrane Library (1990-2011) was conducted, 17 relevant publications could be found. The following problems were identified. The situation of people with learning disabilities in hospital is characterised by communication barriers between patients and health care professionals. Furthermore, the emotional situation of patients has to be emphasised. In the foreign environment of a hospital, they suffer from fear and uncertainty. Both phenomena interact with each other and are influenced by conditions such as time, continuity of care, professional competence, and attitudes towards disabled people. Family members are able to calm the patients. They take on the task of translating. Clinical Nurse Specialists are familiar with these problems. They improve the situation of learning disabled patients in the hospital. The studies show small samples and the results need further verification. Results out of Germany, Austria and Switzerland are not available. Therefore, in these countries further empirical research on this topic is strongly recommended. The results indicate the importance of obtaining comprehensive information about needs of disabled patients before their hospital stay. Family members should be involved in nursing care during a hospital stay.

  8. Disutility of illness for caregivers and families: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, Eve; Prosser, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Caring for an ill or disabled family member imposes a well-documented burden on the caregiver. The benefits of a health intervention may be underestimated if “spillover” effects on family members are not captured, resulting in inaccurate conclusions of economic evaluations. Objective To provide an estimate of, and to summarize measurement approaches for, the spillover disutility of illness on family members, relatives, and caregivers, through a systematic review of the literature. Methods The medical (PubMED), psychology (PsycINFO) and economics (EconLit) literatures were searched from inception through February, 2012 for published studies measuring spillover disutility of illness on family members and caregivers. Inclusion criteria were (1) studies using preference-based measures of health-related quality of life, and (2) studies reporting spillover disutility, or (3) studies reporting data from which a spillover disutility could be inferred. Results Fifteen studies were included in this review: 7 reported estimates of spillover disutility and 8 reporting data from which disutility could be inferred. Three studies found no disutility associated with spillover while 12 found measurable effects as large as −0.718 (and two found evidence of positive spillover in subsets of their samples). Generic (indirect) utility instruments were primarily used to measure spillover, including the EQ-5D, QWB and HUI (n=13), though two studies used modified versions of the time trade-off technique. Illnesses studied included childhood disorders (e.g., spina bifida, congenital malformations), diseases of the elderly (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease and dementia), physically disabling conditions (e.g., arthritis, multiple sclerosis), and medical conditions such as cancer and stroke. The persons affected by spillover included parents, grandparents, spouses/partners, other family caregivers, and household members. Conclusions There is a limited literature on the spillover

  9. Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Eglseer, Doris; Eminovic, Sandra; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-07-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review" found on pages 33-41, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until June 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the geriatric syndrome of sarcopenia. 2. Identify the outcome of the

  10. Healthy Animals, Healthy People: Zoonosis Risk from Animal Contact in Pet Shops, a Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Halsby, Kate D.; Walsh, Amanda L.; Campbell, Colin; Hewitt, Kirsty; Morgan, Dilys

    2014-01-01

    Background Around 67 million pets are owned by households in the United Kingdom, and an increasing number of these are exotic animals. Approximately a third of pets are purchased through retail outlets or direct from breeders. A wide range of infections can be associated with companion animals. Objectives This study uses a systematic literature review to describe the transmission of zoonotic disease in humans associated with a pet shop or other location selling pets (incidents of rabies tracebacks and zoonoses from pet food were excluded). Data sources PubMed and EMBASE. Results Fifty seven separate case reports or incidents were described in the 82 papers that were identified by the systematic review. Summary information on each incident is included in this manuscript. The infections include bacterial, viral and fungal diseases and range in severity from mild to life threatening. Infections associated with birds and rodents were the most commonly reported. Over half of the reports describe incidents in the Americas, and three of these were outbreaks involving more than 50 cases. Many of the incidents identified relate to infections in pet shop employees. Limitations This review may have been subject to publication bias, where unusual and unexpected zoonotic infections may be over-represented in peer-reviewed publications. It was also restricted to English-language articles so that pathogens that are more common in non-Western countries, or in more exotic animals not common in Europe and the Americas, may have been under-represented. Conclusions/implications A wide spectrum of zoonotic infections are acquired from pet shops. Salmonellosis and psittacosis were the most commonly documented diseases, however more unusual infections such as tularemia also appeared in the review. Given their potential to spread zoonotic infection, it is important that pet shops act to minimise the risk as far as possible. PMID:24586679

  11. Severe case and literature review of primary erythromelalgia: novel SCN9A gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Skeik, Nedaa; Rooke, Thom W; Davis, Mark Denis P; Davis, Dawn Marie R; Kalsi, Henna; Kurth, Ingo; Richardson, Randal C

    2012-02-01

    Erythromelalgia is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by intermittent heat, redness, swelling and pain more commonly affecting the lower extremities. Symptoms are mostly aggravated by warmth and are eased by a cold temperature. In some cases, symptoms can be very severe and disabling. Erythromelalgia can be classified as either familial or sporadic, with the familial form inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Recently, there has been a lot of progress in studying Na(v)1.7 sodium channels (expressed mostly in the sympathetic and nociceptive small-diameter sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion) and different mutations affecting the encoding SCN9A gene that leads to channelopathies responsible for some disorders, including primary erythromelalgia. We present a severe case of progressive primary erythromelalgia caused by a new de novo heterozygous missense mutation (c.2623C>G) of the SCN9A gene which substitutes glutamine 875 by glutamic acid (p.Q875E). To our knowledge, this mutation has not been previously reported in the literature. We also provided a short literature review about erythromelalgia and Na(v) sodium channelopathies.

  12. An Exploration of the Role of MicroRNAs in Psoriasis: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Huang, Run-Yue; Li, Li; Wang, Mao-Jie; Chen, Xiu-Min; Huang, Qing-Chun; Lu, Chuan-Jian

    2015-11-01

    Psoriasis is recently characterized by a specific microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profile, which guides the researchers' efforts to explore the therapeutic targets and objective biomarkers that reflect the diagnosis and disease activity in clinical use for psoriasis.The paper presents a state-of-the-art review of expression and function of miRNAs in psoriasis along with its clinical implications.We analyzed all literature searched by keywords "microRNA" and "psoriasis" in PubMed (Medline) from inception up to July 2015, and the references in the literature searched were also considered.Relevant literature was chosen according to the objective of this review. Relevant literature was searched by 3 independent investigators, and experts in the field of miRNAs and psoriasis were involved in analyzing process.We included any study in which role of miRNAs in psoriasis was examined in relation to disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment.The specific miRNAs profile has been identified from human psoriatic skin, blood, and hair samples. It is found that genetic polymorphisms related to some of specific miRNAs, miR-146a for example, are associated with psoriasis susceptibility. Key roles of several unique miRNAs, such as miR-203 and miR-125b, in inflammatory responses and immune dysfunction, as well as hyperproliferative disorders of psoriatic lesions have been revealed. Moreover, circulating miRNAs detected from blood samples have a potential of clinic application to be the biomarkers of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment responses. Additionally, a new layer of regulatory mechanisms mediated by miRNAs is to some extent revealed in pathogenesis of psoriasis.The dramatically altered mRNA expression profiles are displayed in psoriasis, and some of these may become disease markers and therapeutic targets. Herein, this work underscores the potential importance of miRNAs to diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of psoriasis. However, further study in this field is worth doing

  13. Cost of management of severe pneumonia in young children: systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shanshan; Sammon, Peter M.; King, Isobel; Andrade, Ana Lucia; Toscano, Cristiana M.; Araujo, Sheila N; Sinha, Anushua; Madhi, Shabir A.; Khandaker, Gulam; Yin, Jiehui Kevin; Booy, Robert; Huda, Tanvir M; Rahman, Qazi S; El Arifeen, Shams; Gentile, Angela; Giglio, Norberto; Bhuiyan, Mejbah U.; Sturm–Ramirez, Katharine; Gessner, Bradford D.; Nadjib, Mardiati; Carosone–Link, Phyllis J.; Simões, Eric AF; Child, Jason A; Ahmed, Imran; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Soofi, Sajid B; Khan, Rumana J; Campbell, Harry; Nair, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood pneumonia is a major cause of childhood illness and the second leading cause of child death globally. Understanding the costs associated with the management of childhood pneumonia is essential for resource allocation and priority setting for child health. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify studies reporting data on the cost of management of pneumonia in children younger than 5 years old. We collected unpublished cost data on non–severe, severe and very severe pneumonia through collaboration with an international working group. We extracted data on cost per episode, duration of hospital stay and unit cost of interventions for the management of pneumonia. The mean (95% confidence interval, CI) and median (interquartile range, IQR) treatment costs were estimated and reported where appropriate. Results We identified 24 published studies eligible for inclusion and supplemented these with data from 10 unpublished studies. The 34 studies included in the cost analysis contained data on more than 95 000 children with pneumonia from both low– and–middle income countries (LMIC) and high–income countries (HIC) covering all 6 WHO regions. The total cost (per episode) for management of severe pneumonia was US$ 4.3 (95% CI 1.5–8.7), US$ 51.7 (95% CI 17.4–91.0) and US$ 242.7 (95% CI 153.6–341.4)–559.4 (95% CI 268.9–886.3) in community, out–patient facilities and different levels of hospital in–patient settings in LMIC. Direct medical cost for severe pneumonia in hospital inpatient settings was estimated to be 26.6%–115.8% of patients’ monthly household income in LMIC. The mean direct non–medical cost and indirect cost for severe pneumonia management accounted for 0.5–31% of weekly household income. The mean length of stay (LOS) in hospital for children with severe pneumonia was 5.8 (IQR 5.3–6.4) and 7.7 (IQR 5.5–9.9) days in LMIC and HIC respectively for these children. Conclusion This is the most

  14. Reorganization of brain function during force production after stroke: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kokotilo, Kristen J; Eng, Janice J; Boyd, Lara A

    2011-01-01

    Damage to motor areas of the brain, caused by stroke, can produce devastating motor deficits, including aberrant control of force. Reorganization of brain function has been identified as one of the fundamental mechanisms involved in recovery of motor control after stroke, and recent advances in neuroimaging have enabled study of this brain reorganization. This review focuses on neuroimaging studies that have examined reorganization of brain function during force production and force modulation after stroke. Type and extent of reorganization after stroke was characterized via three factors: severity of injury, time after stroke and the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain activation during force production. Twenty-six studies meeting the inclusion criteria could be identified in MEDLINE (1980 to 2007). Relevant characteristics of studies (lesion location, chronicity of stroke, motor task) and mapping techniques varied widely. During force production, increased activation in secondary motor areas occurred in persons with more severe strokes. Also, reduced recruitment of secondary motor areas during force production was found as a function of increased time since stroke. During force modulation, increased activation in motor areas occurred with greater force generation. In addition, persons with more severe stroke showed relatively greater activation with rising force as compared to persons with less severe stroke. Lastly, alteration of brain activation during and after rehabilitative interventions in persons with stroke occurred in some studies. This systematic review establishes that reorganization of brain function during force production and force modulation can occur after stroke. These findings imply that therapeutic strategies that may be able to target brain reorganization to improve force control and functional recovery after stroke. PMID:19265770

  15. Recent physical and sexual violence against adults with severe mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khalifeh, Hind; Oram, Siân; Osborn, David; Howard, Louise M.; Johnson, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract People with severe mental illness (SMI) have high prevalence of lifetime victimization, but little is known about the extent and risk of recent domestic/sexual violence. The objective was to synthesize evidence on prevalence, odds, and risk factors for recent violence against people with SMI, with a focus on domestic and sexual violence. Relevant studies were identified through literature searches in Medline, Psychinf, Embase (for studies published in 2010–2015), and through existing systematic reviews (for studies published in 2000–2014). The review included 30 studies (with 16 140 SMI participants), including six on domestic violence and 11 on sexual violence. Prevalence of recent domestic violence ranged from 15–22% among women and from 4–10% among men/mixed samples; with little evidence on risk compared with the general population. Median prevalence of sexual violence was 9.9% (IQR = 5.9–18.1%) in women and 3.1% (IQR = 2.5–6.7%) in men; with 6-fold higher odds of victimization compared with the general population. There was little evidence on risk factors for domestic or sexual violence. In conclusion, people with SMI have a high prevalence of recent domestic and sexual violence, but little is known about risk factors for these violence types, or extent of domestic violence victimization compared to the general population. PMID:27645197

  16. Recent physical and sexual violence against adults with severe mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Khalifeh, Hind; Oram, Siân; Osborn, David; Howard, Louise M; Johnson, Sonia

    2016-10-01

    People with severe mental illness (SMI) have high prevalence of lifetime victimization, but little is known about the extent and risk of recent domestic/sexual violence. The objective was to synthesize evidence on prevalence, odds, and risk factors for recent violence against people with SMI, with a focus on domestic and sexual violence. Relevant studies were identified through literature searches in Medline, Psychinf, Embase (for studies published in 2010-2015), and through existing systematic reviews (for studies published in 2000-2014). The review included 30 studies (with 16 140 SMI participants), including six on domestic violence and 11 on sexual violence. Prevalence of recent domestic violence ranged from 15-22% among women and from 4-10% among men/mixed samples; with little evidence on risk compared with the general population. Median prevalence of sexual violence was 9.9% (IQR = 5.9-18.1%) in women and 3.1% (IQR = 2.5-6.7%) in men; with 6-fold higher odds of victimization compared with the general population. There was little evidence on risk factors for domestic or sexual violence. In conclusion, people with SMI have a high prevalence of recent domestic and sexual violence, but little is known about risk factors for these violence types, or extent of domestic violence victimization compared to the general population.

  17. Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be

  18. [Identification of pain in the case of patients under sedation and artificial ventilation: A systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Jeitziner, Marie-Madlen; Schwendimann, René

    2006-12-01

    In intensive care units (ICU), patients in life-threatening situations are hospitalized. While the health status of these patients is often severely compromised, therapeutic interventions include endo-tracheal intubation with artificial ventilation, sedation, and analgesia which restrict their ability to communicate. These patients become additional vulnerable since their pains may not been adequately identified. Uncontrolled pain in sedated and artificial ventilated patients lead to increased number of respiration days and increased length of stay in hospital, which, may result in increased morbidity. This situation appears precarious since pain assessment of these patients in daily clinical practice seems often based on subjective criteria by the health care staff in charge. The purpose of this study was to describe pain-assessment instruments for sedated and artificial ventilated ICU-patients in view of validity, reliability and clinical application. With a systematic literature review, a total of 61 articles were identified in the databases of PUB-MED (National Library of Medicine) and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature ) and additional bibliographic sources. Indicators for pain in sedated and artificial ventilated ICU-patients were physiological and behavior-related, without biochemical parameters. In most of the instruments, the validity was tested only superficially and no detailed reports regarding the application in everyday practice were given. However, the studied instruments includes algorithm as a significant component which enable decision making of the health care providers in order to execute stepwise pain management interventions. In conclusion, a need for further research to disclose pain indicators in sedated and artificial ventilated ICU-patients, continuous development of instruments and their validation in clinical practice is obvious.

  19. Immunosuppressive agents in the treatment of inhibitors in congenital haemophilia A and B--a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Laros-van Gorkom, Britta Antonia Petra; Falaise, Céline; Astermark, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The development of inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) or factor IX (FIX) in patients with haemophilia is a serious complication of treatment with coagulation factor concentrates. Antibodies develop in 10-15% of haemophilia A and in up to 5% of haemophilia B patients. Several strategies have been developed over the years to facilitate the eradication of inhibitors and reduce the cost. These include plasmapheresis and/or extracorporeal protein A absorption to remove the inhibitor from the plasma, and immunosuppression and/or immune modulation to suppress the production of inhibitory antibodies. Different immunosuppressive (IS) agents have been described with varying success. To evaluate the outcome of these agents, we performed a systematic literature review using the PubMed database. The total number of articles identified was 345; 299 papers were excluded leaving 46 papers to be included in the study. No randomised studies were identified, only case reports and case series. The most frequently used agents in the 46 case reports and cohort studies identified were cyclophosphamide and rituximab. All cases exposed to cyclophosphamide, rituximab and other IS agents had a complete success rate of 40-44%, 40-63% and 33-56%, respectively. However, the definition of success was not consistent among the studies. In conclusion, our review of the literature indicates that IS agents in combination with FVIII or FIX could be an option and may be cost-effective in many patients. The risk of adverse events seems to be relatively low. To fully explore the effect of IS agents, randomised studies are warranted.

  20. Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be

  1. School-based diabetes interventions and their outcomes: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pansier, Bénédicte; Schulz, Peter J

    2015-02-20

    Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases, while type 2 diabetes in children is increasing at alarming rates globally. Against this backdrop, the school is a critical environment for children with diabetes. They continue to face barriers to education that may lead to depression, poor academic performance, and poor quality of life. To address these challenges, diabetes interventions have been implemented in school and the goal was to systematically review these interventions and their outcomes between 2000 and 2013. Fifteen studies were included in the narrative synthesis. Education of school personnel was the main focus before 2006. Studies reported gains in knowledge and perceived confidence of school staff. Since 2006, more comprehensive interventions have been developed to promote better care coordination and create a safe school environment. These studies reported improved diabetes management and quality of life of students. Assessment tools varied and study design included randomized controlled trials, quantitative and qualitative methods. Although many of the studies reported a significant difference in the parameters measured, it was not possible to determine optimal ways to improve the health, quality of life and academic performance of children with diabetes, given the disparity in scope, assessment tools and measured outcomes. Experimental designs, longer follow-up studies, larger sample sizes, and a higher number of participating schools are critical issues to consider in future studies. Most of the research was conducted in North America and further research is needed in other parts of the world. Significance for public healthDiabetes is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases; both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are increasing in children globally. Against this backdrop, the school is a critical environment for children with diabetes. This systematic literature review on school-based diabetes interventions and their

  2. A Systematic Literature Review: Workplace Violence Against Emergency Medical Services Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Pourshaikhian, Majid; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Aryankhesal, Aidin; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davood; Barati, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Context In spite of the high prevalence and consequences of much workplace violence against emergency medical services personnel, this phenomenon has been given insufficient attention. A systematic review can aid the development of guidelines to reduce violence. Objectives The research question addressed by this paper is, “What are the characteristics and findings of studies on workplace violence against emergency medical services personnel”? Data Sources A systematic literature review was conducted using online databases (PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Magiran) with the help of experienced librarians. Study Selection Inclusion criteria comprised studies in the English or Persian language and researcher’s access to the full text. There was no limit to the entry of the study design. Exclusion criteria included lack of access to the full text of the article, studies published in unreliable journals or conferences, and studies in which the results were shared with other medical or relief groups and there was no possibility of breaking down the results. Data Extraction A “Data extraction form” was designed by the researchers based on the goals of the study that included the title and author(s), study method (type, place of study, sample size, sampling method, and data collection/analysis tool), printing location, information related to the frequency of types of violence, characteristics of victims /perpetrators, and related factors. Results The papers reviewed utilized a variety of locations and environments, methods, and instrument samplings. The majority of the studies were performed using the quantitative method. No intervention study was found. Most studies focused on the prevalence of violence, and their results indicated that exposure to violence was high. The results are presented in six major themes. Conclusions Workplace violence and injuries incurred from it are extensive throughout the world. The important causes of violence include the

  3. School-Based Diabetes Interventions and Their Outcomes: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Pansier, Bénédicte; Schulz, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases, while type 2 diabetes in children is increasing at alarming rates globally. Against this backdrop, the school is a critical environment for children with diabetes. They continue to face barriers to education that may lead to depression, poor academic performance, and poor quality of life. To address these challenges, diabetes interventions have been implemented in school and the goal was to systematically review these interventions and their outcomes between 2000 and 2013. Fifteen studies were included in the narrative synthesis. Education of school personnel was the main focus before 2006. Studies reported gains in knowledge and perceived confidence of school staff. Since 2006, more comprehensive interventions have been developed to promote better care coordination and create a safe school environment. These studies reported improved diabetes management and quality of life of students. Assessment tools varied and study design included randomized controlled trials, quantitative and qualitative methods. Although many of the studies reported a significant difference in the parameters measured, it was not possible to determine optimal ways to improve the health, quality of life and academic performance of children with diabetes, given the disparity in scope, assessment tools and measured outcomes. Experimental designs, longer follow-up studies, larger sample sizes, and a higher number of participating schools are critical issues to consider in future studies. Most of the research was conducted in North America and further research is needed in other parts of the world. Significance for public health Diabetes is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases; both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are increasing in children globally. Against this backdrop, the school is a critical environment for children with diabetes. This systematic literature review on school-based diabetes interventions and their

  4. Describing the Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects Worldwide: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Zaganjor, Ibrahim; Sekkarie, Ahlia; Tsang, Becky L.; Williams, Jennifer; Razzaghi, Hilda; Mulinare, Joseph; Sniezek, Joseph E.; Cannon, Michael J.; Rosenthal, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background Folate-sensitive neural tube defects (NTDs) are an important, preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is a need to describe the current global burden of NTDs and identify gaps in available NTD data. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and searched multiple databases for NTD prevalence estimates and abstracted data from peer-reviewed literature, birth defects surveillance registries, and reports published between January 1990 and July 2014 that had greater than 5,000 births and were not solely based on mortality data. We classified countries according to World Health Organization (WHO) regions and World Bank income classifications. The initial search yielded 11,614 results; after systematic review we identified 160 full text manuscripts and reports that met the inclusion criteria. Data came from 75 countries. Coverage by WHO region varied in completeness (i.e., % of countries reporting) as follows: African (17%), Eastern Mediterranean (57%), European (49%), Americas (43%), South-East Asian (36%), and Western Pacific (33%). The reported NTD prevalence ranges and medians for each region were: African (5.2–75.4; 11.7 per 10,000 births), Eastern Mediterranean (2.1–124.1; 21.9 per 10,000 births), European (1.3–35.9; 9.0 per 10,000 births), Americas (3.3–27.9; 11.5 per 10,000 births), South-East Asian (1.9–66.2; 15.8 per 10,000 births), and Western Pacific (0.3–199.4; 6.9 per 10,000 births). The presence of a registry or surveillance system for NTDs increased with country income level: low income (0%), lower-middle income (25%), upper-middle income (70%), and high income (91%). Conclusions Many WHO member states (120/194) did not have any data on NTD prevalence. Where data are collected, prevalence estimates vary widely. These findings highlight the need for greater NTD surveillance efforts, especially in lower-income countries. NTDs are an important public health problem that can be prevented with folic acid

  5. Toxocariasis-associated cardiac diseases--A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kuenzli, Esther; Neumayr, Andreas; Chaney, Matthew; Blum, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara catis, is a worldwide occurring parasitic disease, reaching high prevalences especially in tropical and subtropical countries. The clinical presentation can range from asymptomatic seropositivity to life threatenting disease, depending on the organ system involved. Cardiac involvement, one of the possible manifestations of human Toxocara spp. infection, is rarely reported in case reports. As far as we know, no systematic reviews of clinical presentations have been published till now and no clear recommendations regarding the treatment of Toxocara spp. infection involving the heart exist. In a systematic review of the literature, 24 published cases of Toxocara spp. infection involving the heart were identified. The cardiac entities described included myocarditis, pericarditis, and Loeffler's endocarditis. The clinical presentation ranged from asymptomatic or mild disease to life threatening myocarditis/pericarditis with heart failure or cardiac tamponade, leading to death. In most cases, the diagnosis was based on a combination of clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. Only in three of the nine cases in which histological analysis was performed (either pre- or post-mortem), granulomas or remnants of the parasite were detected. In the other six cases, findings were non-specific; the damage of the heart was equally caused by direct invasion of the larvae and by immunological reactions, either caused by the systemic hypereosinophilia or by the presence of the larvae in the tissue. The treatment regimen described mostly consisted of anthelmintic drugs in combination with corticosteroids. Even though dosage and duration of treatment varied widely, ranging from days to months, most patients were treated successfully. Cardiac involvement in Toxocara spp. infection is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of a very common disease. The therapeutic regimens vary widely especially with regard to the

  6. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Severe Influenza Infection with Respiratory Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sukhal, Shashvat; Sethi, Jaskaran; Ganesh, Malini; Villablanca, Pedro A; Malhotra, Anita K; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been extensively used for potentially reversible acute respiratory failure associated with severe influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia; however, it remains an expensive, resource-intensive therapy, with a high associated mortality. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to summarize and pool outcomes data available in the published literature to guide clinical decision-making and further research. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE (1966 to April 15, 2015), EMBASE (1980 to April 15, 2015), CENTRAL, and Google Scholar for patients with severe H1N1 pneumonia and respiratory failure who received ECMO. The study validity was appraised by Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The secondary outcomes were duration of ECMO therapy, mechanical ventilation, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) length of stay. Results: Of 698 abstracts screened and 142 full-text articles reviewed, we included 13 studies with a total of 494 patients receiving ECMO in our final review and meta-analysis. The study validity was satisfactory. The overall mortality was 37.1% (95% confidence interval: 30–45%) limited by underlying heterogeneity (I2 = 65%, P value of Q statistic = 0.006). The median duration for ECMO was 10 days, mechanical ventilation was 19 days, and ICU length of stay was 33 days. Exploratory meta-regression did not identify any statistically significant moderator of mortality (P < 0.05), except for the duration of pre-ECMO mechanical ventilation in days (coefficient 0.19, standard error: 0.09, Z = 2.01, P < 0.04, R2 = 0.16). The visual inspection of funnel plots did not suggest the presence of publication bias. Conclusions: ECMO therapy may be used as an adjunct or salvage therapy for severe H1N1 pneumonia with respiratory failure. It is associated with a prolonged duration of ventilator support, ICU length of stay, and high mortality. Initiating ECMO early once the patient

  7. A Strategic Study about Quality Characteristics in e-Health Systems Based on a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Mayo, F. J.; Escalona, M. J.; Mejías, M.; Aragón, G.; García-García, J. A.; Torres, J.; Enríquez, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    e-Health Systems quality management is an expensive and hard process that entails performing several tasks such as analysis, evaluation, and quality control. Furthermore, the development of an e-Health System involves great responsibility since people's health and quality of life depend on the system and services offered. The focus of the following study is to identify the gap in Quality Characteristics for e-Health Systems, by detecting not only which are the most studied, but also which are the most used Quality Characteristics these Systems include. A strategic study is driven in this paper by a Systematic Literature Review so as to identify Quality Characteristics in e-Health. Such study makes information and communication technology organizations reflect and act strategically to manage quality in e-Health Systems efficiently and effectively. As a result, this paper proposes the bases of a Quality Model and focuses on a set of Quality Characteristics to enable e-Health Systems quality management. Thus, we can conclude that this paper contributes to implementing knowledge with regard to the mission and view of e-Health (Systems) quality management and helps understand how current researches evaluate quality in e-Health Systems. PMID:26146656

  8. Dorsal anterior cingulotomy and anterior capsulotomy for severe, refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lauren T; Mikell, Charles B; Youngerman, Brett E; Zhang, Yuan; McKhann, Guy M; Sheth, Sameer A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The object of this study was to perform a systematic review, according to Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines, of the clinical efficacy and adverse effect profile of dorsal anterior cingulotomy compared with anterior capsulotomy for the treatment of severe, refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS The authors included studies comparing objective clinical measures before and after cingulotomy or capsulotomy (surgical and radiosurgical) in patients with OCD. Only papers reporting the most current follow-up data for each group of investigators were included. Studies reporting results on patients undergoing one or more procedures other than cingulotomy or capsulotomy were excluded. Case reports and studies with a mean follow-up shorter than 12 months were excluded. Clinical response was defined in terms of a change in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge through October 2013. English and non-English articles and abstracts were reviewed. RESULTS Ten studies involving 193 participants evaluated the length of follow-up, change in the Y-BOCS score, and postoperative adverse events (AEs) after cingulotomy (n = 2 studies, n = 81 participants) or capsulotomy (n = 8 studies, n = 112 participants). The average time to the last follow-up was 47 months for cingulotomy and 60 months for capsulotomy. The mean reduction in the Y-BOCS score at 12 months' follow-up was 37% for cingulotomy and 55% for capsulotomy. At the last follow-up, the mean reduction in Y-BOCS score was 37% for cingulotomy and 57% for capsulotomy. The average full response rate to cingulotomy at the last follow-up was 41% (range 38%-47%, n = 2 studies, n = 51 participants), and to capsulotomy was 54% (range 37%-80%, n = 5 studies, n = 50 participants). The rate of transient AEs was 14.3% across

  9. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Health management information systems (HMIS) produce large amounts of data about health service provision and population health, and provide opportunities for data-based decision-making in decentralized health systems. Yet the data are little-used locally. A well-defined approach to district-level decision-making using health data would help better meet the needs of the local population. In this second of four papers on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, our aim was to explore ways in which district administrators and health managers in low- and lower-middle-income countries use health data to make decisions, to describe the decision-making tools they used and identify challenges encountered when using these tools. A systematic literature review, following PRISMA guidelines, was undertaken. Experts were consulted about key sources of information. A search strategy was developed for 14 online databases of peer reviewed and grey literature. The resources were screened independently by two reviewers using pre-defined inclusion criteria. The 14 papers included were assessed for the quality of reported evidence and a descriptive evidence synthesis of the review findings was undertaken. We found 12 examples of tools to assist district-level decision-making, all of which included two key stages—identification of priorities, and development of an action plan to address them. Of those tools with more steps, four included steps to review or monitor the action plan agreed, suggesting the use of HMIS data. In eight papers HMIS data were used for prioritization. Challenges to decision-making processes fell into three main categories: the availability and quality of health and health facility data; human dynamics and financial constraints. Our findings suggest that evidence is available about a limited range of processes that include the use of data for decision-making at district level. Standardization and pre-testing in diverse settings would

  10. Motor abilities of children and adolescents with a psychiatric condition: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Damme, Tine Van; Simons, Johan; Sabbe, Bernard; van West, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To summarize research regarding the motor abilities of children and adolescents who suffer from a common psychiatric condition. METHODS: In order to outline the current knowledge regarding the motor abilities of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and depression, a comprehensive systematic literature search was carried out using PubMed, Medline and ERIC databases. The databases were searched for relevant English language articles published between January 1990 and April 2014. Only studies that conducted a quantitative evaluation of motor ability and concerned individuals aged 0-18 years were included. A separate search was conducted for each disorder (ASD, ADHD, DBD, depression) in conjunction with each of the following keywords: (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement skill(s), (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement abilities, (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement impairment, (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement problem(s), motor function, motor coordination, motor performance, motor deficit(s). To detect supplementary relevant literature, the reference lists of the retrieved articles were examined. RESULTS: The search strategy yielded 51 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. In total, 28 studies were included that examined the motor abilities of children and adolescents with ASD. All studies indicated that they performed below average on various standardized motor assessment instruments. The overall prevalence rate for impairment in motor abilities ranged from 33% to 100%. Twenty-seven studies examined the motor abilities of children and adolescents with ADHD. Depending on the type of motor assessment tool and the cut-off points used by different researchers, prevalence rates of impairment in motor abilities are highly variable and ranged from 8% to 73%. Remarkably, there is a paucity of research addressing the motor abilities of individuals with DBD or depression

  11. What is personalized medicine: sharpening a vague term based on a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, individualized or personalized medicine (PM) has become a buzz word in the academic as well as public debate surrounding health care. However, PM lacks a clear definition and is open to interpretation. This conceptual vagueness complicates public discourse on chances, risks and limits of PM. Furthermore, stakeholders might use it to further their respective interests and preferences. For these reasons it is important to have a shared understanding of PM. In this paper, we present a sufficiently precise as well as adequate definition of PM with the potential of wide acceptance. Methods For this purpose, in a first step a systematic literature review was conducted to understand how PM is actually used in scientific practice. PubMed was searched using the keywords “individualized medicine”, “individualised medicine”, “personalized medicine” and “personalised medicine” connected by the Boolean operator OR. A data extraction tabloid was developed putting forward a means/ends-division. Full-texts of articles containing the search terms in title or abstract were screened for definitions. Definitions were extracted; according to the means/ends distinction their elements were assigned to the corresponding category. To reduce complexity of the resulting list, summary categories were developed inductively from the data using thematic analysis. In a second step, six well-known criteria for adequate definitions were applied to these categories to derive a so-called precising definition. Results We identified 2457 articles containing the terms PM in title or abstract. Of those 683 contained a definition of PM and were thus included in our review. 1459 ends and 1025 means were found in the definitions. From these we derived the precising definition: PM seeks to improve stratification and timing of health care by utilizing biological information and biomarkers on the level of molecular disease pathways, genetics, proteomics as well as

  12. Intraneural ganglion cysts: a systematic review and reinterpretation of the world's literature.

    PubMed

    Desy, Nicholas M; Wang, Huan; Elshiekh, Mohanad Ahmed Ibrahim; Tanaka, Shota; Choi, Tae Woong; Howe, B Matthew; Spinner, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The etiology of intraneural ganglion cysts has been controversial. In recent years, substantial evidence has been presented to support the articular (synovial) theory for their pathogenesis. The authors sought to 1) perform a systematic review of the world's literature on intraneural cysts, and 2) reinterpret available published MR images in articles by other authors to identify unrecognized joint connections. METHODS In Part 1, all cases were analyzed for demographic data, duration of symptoms, the presence of a history of trauma, whether electromyography or nerve conduction studies were performed, the type of imaging, surgical treatment, presence of a joint connection, intraneural cyst recurrence, and postoperative imaging. Two univariate analyses were completed: 1) to compare the proportion of intraneural ganglion cyst publications per decade and 2) to assess the number of recurrences from 1914 to 2003 compared with the years 2004-2015. Three multivariate regression models were used to identify risk factors for intraneural cyst recurrence. In Part 2, the authors analyzed all available published MR images and obtained MR images from selected cases in which joint connections were not identified by the original authors, specifically looking for unrecognized joint connections. Two univariate analyses were done: 1) to determine a possible association between the identification of a joint connection and obtaining an MRI and 2) to assess the number of joint connections reported from 1914 to 2003 compared with 2004 to 2015. RESULTS In Part 1, 417 articles (645 patients) were selected for analysis. Joint connections were identified in 313 intraneural cysts (48%). Both intraneural ganglion cyst cases and cyst recurrences were more frequently reported since 2004 (statistically significant difference for both). There was a statistically significant association between cyst recurrence and percutaneous aspiration as well as failure to disconnect the articular branch

  13. Etiology of Severe Febrile Illness in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Namrata; Murdoch, David R.; Reyburn, Hugh; Crump, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background With apparent declines in malaria worldwide during the last decade and more widespread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, healthcare workers in low-resource areas face a growing proportion of febrile patients without malaria. We sought to describe current knowledge and identify information gaps of the etiology severe febrile illness in low-and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review of studies conducted in low-and-middle income countries 1980–2013 that prospectively assessed consecutive febrile patients admitted to hospital using rigorous laboratory-based case definitions. We found 45 eligible studies describing 54,578 patients; 9,771 (17.9%) had a positive result for ≥1 pathogen meeting diagnostic criteria. There were no eligible studies identified from Southern and Middle Africa, Eastern Asia, Oceania, Latin American and Caribbean regions, and the European region. The median (range) number of diagnostic tests meeting our confirmed laboratory case definitions was 2 (1 to 11) per study. Of diagnostic tests, 5,052 (10.3%) of 49,143 had confirmed bacterial or fungal bloodstream infection; 709 (3.8%) of 18,142 had bacterial zoonosis; 3,488 (28.5%) of 12,245 had malaria; and 1,804 (17.4%) of 10,389 had a viral infection. Conclusions We demonstrate a wide range of pathogens associated with severe febrile illness and highlight the substantial information gaps regarding the geographic distribution and role of common pathogens. High quality severe febrile illness etiology research that is comprehensive with respect to pathogens and geographically representative is needed. PMID:26126200

  14. Gene and protein expression in pituitary corticotroph adenomas: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Justin; Ashton, Charles E; Scotton, Thomas C; Pangal, Dhiraj; Carmichael, John D; Zada, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    OBJECT Functional corticotroph pituitary adenomas (PAs) secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and are the cause of Cushing's disease, which accounts for 70% of all cases of Cushing's syndrome. Current classification systems for PAs rely primarily on laboratory hormone findings, tumor size and morphology, invasiveness, and immunohistochemical findings. Likewise, drug development for functional ACTH-secreting PAs (ACTH-PAs) is limited and has focused largely on blocking the production or downstream effects of excess cortisol. The authors aimed to summarize the findings from previous studies that explored gene and protein expression of ACTH-PAs to prioritize potential genetic and protein targets for improved molecular diagnosis and treatment of Cushing's disease. METHODS A systematic literature review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A PubMed search of select medical subject heading (MeSH) terms was performed to identify all studies that reported gene- and protein-expression findings in ACTH-PAs from January 1, 1990, to August 24, 2014, the day the search was performed. The inclusion criteria were studies on functional ACTH-PAs compared with normal pituitary glands, on human PA tissue only, with any method of analysis, and published in the English language. Studies using anything other than resected PA tissue, those that compared other adenoma types, those without baseline expression data, or those in which any pretreatment was delivered before analysis were excluded. RESULTS The primary search returned 1371 abstracts, of which 307 were found to be relevant. Of those, 178 were selected for secondary full-text analysis. Of these, 64 articles met the inclusion criteria and an additional 4 studies were identified from outside the search for a total of 68 included studies. Compared with the normal pituitary gland, significant gene overexpression in 43 genes and 22 proteins was reported

  15. Internet and gaming addiction: a systematic literature review of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

    2012-09-05

    In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches.

  16. Influenza-Associated Disease Burden in Kenya: A Systematic Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Emukule, Gideon O.; Paget, John; van der Velden, Koos; Mott, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Kenya data on the burden of influenza disease are needed to inform influenza control policies. Methods We conducted a systematic review of published data describing the influenza disease burden in Kenya using surveillance data collected until December 2013. We included studies with laboratory confirmation of influenza, well-defined catchment populations, case definitions used to sample patients for testing and a description of the laboratory methods used for influenza testing. Studies with or without any adjustments on the incidence rates were included. Results Ten studies reporting the incidence of medically-attended and non-medically attended influenza were reviewed. For all age groups, the influenza positive proportion ranged from 5–10% among hospitalized patients, and 5–27% among all medically-attended patients (a combination of in- and outpatients). The adjusted incidence rate of hospitalizations with influenza among children <5 years ranged from 2.7–4.7 per 1,000 [5.7 per 1,000 in children <6 months old], and were 7–10 times higher compared to persons aged ≥5 years. The adjusted incidence of all medically-attended influenza among children aged <5 years ranged from 13.0–58.0 per 1,000 compared to 4.3–26.0 per 1,000 among persons aged ≥5 years. Conclusions Our review shows an expanding set of literature on disease burden associated with influenza in Kenya, with a substantial burden in children under five years of age. Hospitalizations with influenza in these children were 2–3 times higher than reported in the United States. These findings highlight the possible value of an influenza vaccination program in Kenya, with children <5 years and pregnant women being potentially important targets. PMID:26398196

  17. A Systematic Literature Review of Self-Reported Smoking Cessation Counseling by Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Anna-Lena; Härter, Martin; Niedrich, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco consumption is a risk factor for chronic diseases and worldwide around six million people die from long-term exposure to first- or second-hand smoke annually. One effective approach to tobacco control is smoking cessation counseling by primary care physicians. However, research suggests that smoking cessation counseling is not sufficiently implemented in primary care. In order to understand and address the discrepancy between evidence and practice, an overview of counseling practices is needed. Therefore, the aim of this systematic literature review is to assess the frequency of smoking cessation counseling in primary care. Self-reported counseling behavior by physicians is categorized according to the 5A’s strategy (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange). An electronic database search was performed in Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library and overall, 3491 records were identified. After duplicates were removed, the title and abstracts of 2468 articles were screened for eligibility according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. The remaining 97 full-text articles reporting smoking cessation counseling by primary care physicians were assessed for eligibility. Eligible studies were those that measured physicians’ self-reported smoking cessation counseling activities via questionnaire. Thirty-five articles were included in the final review (1 intervention and 34 cross-sectional studies). On average, behavior corresponding to the 5A’s was reported by 65% of physicians for “Ask”, 63% for “Advise”, 36% for “Assess”, 44% for “Assist”, and 22% of physicians for “Arrange”, although the measurement and reporting of each of these counseling practices varied across studies. Overall, the results indicate that the first strategies (ask, advise) were more frequently reported than the subsequent strategies (assess, assist, arrange). Moreover, there was considerable variation in the items used to assess counseling behaviour and

  18. Global health training among U.S. residency specialties: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Duncan K.; Smart, Luke R.; DiPace, Jennifer I.; Peck, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Interest in global health training during residency is increasing. Global health knowledge is also becoming essential for health-care delivery today. Many U.S. residency programs have been incorporating global health training opportunities for their residents. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate global health training opportunities and challenges among U.S. residency specialties. Methods: We searched PubMed from its earliest dates until October 2015. Articles included were survey results of U.S. program directors on global health training opportunities, and web-based searches of U.S. residency program websites on global health training opportunities. Data extracted included percentage of residency programs offering global health training within a specialty and challenges encountered. Results: Studies were found for twelve U.S. residency specialties. Of the survey based studies, the specialties with the highest percentage of their residency programs offering global health training were preventive medicine (83%), emergency medicine (74%), and surgery (71%); and the lowest were orthopaedic surgery (26%), obstetrics and gynecology (28%), and plastic surgery (41%). Of the web-based studies, the specialties with the highest percentage of their residency programs offering global health training were emergency medicine (41%), pediatrics (33%), and family medicine (22%); and the lowest were psychiatry (9%), obstetrics and gynecology (17%), and surgery (18%). The most common challenges were lack of funding, lack of international partnerships, lack of supervision, and scheduling. Conclusion: Among U.S. residency specialties, there are wide disparities for global health training. In general, there are few opportunities in psychiatry and surgical residency specialties, and greater opportunities among medical residency specialties. Further emphasis should be made to scale-up opportunities for psychiatry and surgical residency specialties

  19. Knowledge gaps in scientific literature on maternal mortality: a systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Gil-González, Diana; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Issues related to maternal mortality have generated a lot of empirical and theoretical information. However, despite the amount of work published on the topic, maternal mortality continues to occur at high rates and solutions to the problem are still not clear. Scientific research on maternal mortality is focused mainly on clinical factors. However, this approach may not be the most useful if we are to understand the problem of maternal mortality as a whole and appreciate the importance of economical, political and social macrostructural factors. In this paper, we report the number of scientific studies published between 2000 and 2004 about the main causes of maternal death, as identified by WHO, and compare the proportion of papers on each cause with the corresponding burden of each cause. Secondly, we systematically review the characteristics and quality of the papers on the macrostructural determinants of maternal mortality. In view of their burden, obstructed labour, unsafe abortion and haemorrhage are proportionally underrepresented in the scientific literature. In our review, most studies analysed were cross-sectional, and were carried out by developed countries without the participation of researchers in the developing countries where maternal mortality was studied. The main macrostructural factors mentioned were socioeconomic variables. Overall, there is a lack of published information about the cultural and political determinants of maternal mortality. We believe that a high-quality scientific approach must be taken in studies of maternal mortality in order to obtain robust comparative data and that study design should be improved to allow causality between macrostructural determinants and maternal mortality to be shown. PMID:17143465

  20. Spinal Cord Injury in the Pediatric Population: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Sosa, Jose Felix; Labelle, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) in the pediatric population is relatively rare but carries significant psychological and physiological consequences. An interdisciplinary group of experts composed of medical and surgical specialists treating patients with SCI formulated the following questions: 1) What is the epidemiology of pediatric spinal cord injury and fractures?; 2) Are there unique features of pediatric SCI which distinguish the pediatric SCI population from adult SCI?; 3) Is there evidence to support the use of neuroprotective approaches, including hypothermia and steroids, in the treatment of pediatric SCI? A systematic review of the literature using multiple databases was undertaken to evaluate these three specific questions. A search strategy composed of specific search terms (Spinal Cord Injury, Paraplegia, Quadriplegia, tetraplegia, lapbelt injuries, seatbelt injuries, cervical spine injuries and Pediatrics) returned over 220 abstracts that were evaluated and by two observers. Relevant abstracts were then evaluated and papers were graded using the Downs and Black method. A table of evidence was then presented to a panel of experts using a modified Delphi approach and the following recommendation was then formulated using a consensus approach: Pediatric patients with traumatic SCI have different mechanisms of injury and have a better neurological recovery potential when compared to adults. Patients with SCI before their adolescent growth spurt have a high likelihood of developing scoliosis. Because of these differences, traumatic SCI should be highly suspected in the presence of abnormal neck or neurological exam, a high-risk mechanism of injury or a distracting injury even in the absence of radiological anomaly. PMID:21501096

  1. Tuberculosis in Migrant Populations. A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Literature

    PubMed Central

    Abarca Tomás, Bruno; Pell, Christopher; Bueno Cavanillas, Aurora; Guillén Solvas, José; Pool, Robert; Roura, María

    2013-01-01

    Background The re-emergence of tuberculosis (TB) in low-incidence countries and its disproportionate burden on immigrants is a public health concern posing specific social and ethical challenges. This review explores perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and treatment adherence behaviour relating to TB and their social implications as reported in the qualitative literature. Methods Systematic review in four electronic databases. Findings from thirty selected studies extracted, tabulated, compared and synthesized. Findings TB was attributed to many non-exclusive causes including air-born transmission of bacteria, genetics, malnutrition, excessive work, irresponsible lifestyles, casual contact with infected persons or objects; and exposure to low temperatures, dirt, stress and witchcraft. Perceived as curable but potentially lethal and highly contagious, there was confusion around a condition surrounded by fears. A range of economic, legislative, cultural, social and health system barriers could delay treatment seeking. Fears of deportation and having contacts traced could prevent individuals from seeking medical assistance. Once on treatment, family support and “the personal touch” of health providers emerged as key factors facilitating adherence. The concept of latent infection was difficult to comprehend and while TB screening was often seen as a socially responsible act, it could be perceived as discriminatory. Immigration and the infectiousness of TB mutually reinforced each another exacerbating stigma. This was further aggravated by indirect costs such as losing a job, being evicted by a landlord or not being able to attend school. Conclusions Understanding immigrants’ views of TB and the obstacles that they face when accessing the health system and adhering to a treatment programme-taking into consideration their previous experiences at countries of origin as well as the social, economic and legislative context in which they live at host countries- has an

  2. Community Health Workers and Mobile Technology: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Rebecca; Catalani, Caricia; Wimbush, Julian; Israelski, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In low-resource settings, community health workers are frontline providers who shoulder the health service delivery burden. Increasingly, mobile technologies are developed, tested, and deployed with community health workers to facilitate tasks and improve outcomes. We reviewed the evidence for the use of mobile technology by community health workers to identify opportunities and challenges for strengthening health systems in resource-constrained settings. Methods We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature from health, medical, social science, and engineering databases, using PRISMA guidelines. We identified a total of 25 unique full-text research articles on community health workers and their use of mobile technology for the delivery of health services. Results Community health workers have used mobile tools to advance a broad range of health aims throughout the globe, particularly maternal and child health, HIV/AIDS, and sexual and reproductive health. Most commonly, community health workers use mobile technology to collect field-based health data, receive alerts and reminders, facilitate health education sessions, and conduct person-to-person communication. Programmatic efforts to strengthen health service delivery focus on improving adherence to standards and guidelines, community education and training, and programmatic leadership and management practices. Those studies that evaluated program outcomes provided some evidence that mobile tools help community health workers to improve the quality of care provided, efficiency of services, and capacity for program monitoring. Discussion Evidence suggests mobile technology presents promising opportunities to improve the range and quality of services provided by community health workers. Small-scale efforts, pilot projects, and preliminary descriptive studies are increasing, and there is a trend toward using feasible and acceptable interventions that lead to positive program outcomes

  3. Correlates of Intentional Tanning Among Adolescents in the United States: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Dawn M.; Watson, Meg

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Exposure to ultraviolet radiation and a history of sunburn in childhood contribute to risk of skin cancer in adolescence and in adulthood, but many adolescents continue to seek a tan, either from the sun or from tanning beds (i.e., intentional tanning). To understand tanning behavior among adolescents, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify correlates of intentional tanning in the United States. Methods We included articles on original research published in English between January 1, 2001, and October 31, 2011, that used self-reported data on intentional tanning by U.S. adolescents aged 8 to 18 years and examined potential correlates of tanning behaviors. Thirteen articles met our criteria; all used cross-sectional survey data and quantitative methods to assess correlates of intentional tanning. Results Results indicate that multiple factors influence tanning among adolescents. Individual factors that correlated with intentional tanning include demographic factors (female sex, older age), attitudes (preferring tanned skin), and behaviors (participating in other risky or appearance-focused behaviors such as dieting). Social factors correlated with intentional tanning include parental influence (having a parent who tans or permits tanning) and peer influence (having friends who tan). Only four studies examined broad contextual factors such as indoor tanning laws and geographic characteristics; they found that proximity to tanning facilities and geographic characteristics (living in the Midwest or South, living in a low ultraviolet area, and attending a rural high school) are associated with intentional tanning. Conclusions These findings inform future public health research and intervention efforts to reduce intentional tanning. PMID:23601612

  4. Global trends on fears and concerns of genetic discrimination: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Wauters, Annet; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1990s, developments in the field of genetics have led to many questions on the use and possible misuse of genetic information. 'Genetic discrimination' has been defined as the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. Despite the public policy attention around genetic discrimination, there is currently still much confusion surrounding this phenomenon. On the one hand, there is little evidence of the occurrence of genetic discrimination. On the other hand, it appears that people remain concerned about this theme, and this fear influences their health and life choices. This article makes use of a systematic literature review to investigate what is already known about the nature, extent and background of these fears and concerns. The 42 included studies have found considerable levels of concerns about genetic discrimination. Concerns dominate in insurance contexts and within personal interactions. The extent of concerns appears to vary depending on the type of genetic illness. Furthermore, installed laws prohibiting genetic discrimination do not seem to alleviate existing fears. This raises important questions as to the origins of these fears. Based on the findings, recommendations for future research are made. First, research on the background of fears is needed. Second, future research needs to assess more fully all different forms (for example, direct and indirect) of genetic discrimination. Thirdly, it has to be studied whether genetic discrimination is a form of discrimination that is distinguishable from discrimination based on an illness or disability. Finally, a last element that should be addressed in future research is the most recent developments in research on genomics, such as next-generation sequencing or genome-wide association studies.

  5. Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Population ageing is a worldwide phenomenon that has recently challenged public healthcare systems. The knowledge of the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elders is still limited, particularly in the developing world. This systematic review aimed to investigate the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed in five electronic databases (from inception to January 2012) and completed by additional searches in reference lists. Two review authors independently selected the eligible studies and extracted data on participants’ characteristics and rates of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. One review author extracted methodological quality data. We performed a critical synthesis of the results, which were grouped into the diagnoses “chronic musculoskeletal pain” or “specific musculoskeletal diagnoses”. Results Twenty five studies reporting on a total of 116,091 elderly Brazilians were included. Eight studies (32%) were of high methodological quality. There was a large variation in the measure of prevalence used by individual studies and in their definition of chronic pain. Prevalence estimates reached 86% for chronic musculoskeletal pain in any location. Studies investigating multiple pain sites found the lower limb and the spine to be the most prevalent complaints (50% each). Arthritis and rheumatism (including osteoarthritis) were the most prevalent specific musculoskeletal diagnoses (9% to 40%), followed by herniated disc (6% to 27%). Conclusions Despite the growth of the elderly population worldwide, high-quality research on the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly is still scarce. Future healthcare research focusing on this age group should be a priority in developing countries since their public healthcare systems are not yet fully prepared to accommodate the needs of an aging population. PMID:22642899

  6. Breastfeeding effects on DNA methylation in the offspring: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Loret de Mola, Christian; Davies, Neil Martin; Victora, Cesar Gomes; Relton, Caroline L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding benefits both infants and mothers. Recent research shows long-term health and human capital benefits among individuals who were breastfed. Epigenetic mechanisms have been suggested as potential mediators of the effects of early-life exposures on later health outcomes. We reviewed the literature on the potential effects of breastfeeding on DNA methylation. Methods Studies reporting original results and evaluating DNA methylation differences according to breastfeeding/breast milk groups (e.g., ever vs. never comparisons, different categories of breastfeeding duration, etc) were eligible. Six databases were searched simultaneously using Ovid, and the resulting studies were evaluated independently by two reviewers. Results Seven eligible studies were identified. Five were conducted in humans. Studies were heterogeneous regarding sample selection, age, target methylation regions, methylation measurement and breastfeeding categorisation. Collectively, the studies suggest that breastfeeding might be negatively associated with promoter methylation of LEP (which encodes an anorexigenic hormone), CDKN2A (involved in tumour suppression) and Slc2a4 genes (which encodes an insulin-related glucose transporter) and positively with promoter methylation of the Nyp (which encodes an orexigenic neuropeptide) gene, as well as influence global methylation patterns and modulate epigenetic effects of some genetic variants. Conclusions The findings from our systematic review are far from conclusive due to the small number of studies and their inherent limitations. Further studies are required to understand the actual potential role of epigenetics in the associations of breastfeeding with later health outcomes. Suggestions for future investigations, focusing on epigenome-wide association studies, are provided. PMID:28257446

  7. Millennium Development Goal Four and Child Health Inequities in Indonesia: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schröders, Julia; Wall, Stig; Kusnanto, Hari; Ng, Nawi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 calls for reducing mortality of children under-five years by two-thirds by 2015. Indonesia is on track to officially meet the MDG 4 targets by 2015 but progress has been far from universal. It has been argued that national level statistics, on which MDG 4 relies, obscure persistent health inequities within the country. Particularly inequities in child health are a major global public health challenge both for achieving MDG 4 in 2015 and beyond. This review aims to map out the situation of MDG 4 with respect to disadvantaged populations in Indonesia applying the Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework. The specific objectives are to answer: Who are the disadvantaged populations? Where do they live? And why and how is the inequitable distribution of health explained in terms of the SDH framework? Methods and Findings We retrieved studies through a systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature published in 1995-2014. The PRISMA-Equity 2012 statement was adapted to guide the methods of this review. The dependent variables were MDG 4-related indicators; the independent variable “disadvantaged populations” was defined by different categories of social differentiation using PROGRESS. Included texts were analyzed following the guidelines for deductive content analysis operationalized on the basis of the SDH framework. We identified 83 studies establishing evidence on more than 40 different determinants hindering an equitable distribution of child health in Indonesia. The most prominent determinants arise from the shortcomings within the rural health care system, the repercussions of food poverty coupled with low health literacy among parents, the impact of low household decision-making power of mothers, and the consequences of high persistent use of traditional birth attendants among ethnic minorities. Conclusion This review calls for enhanced understanding of the determinants and pathways that create

  8. Association between diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis: systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Louati, Karine; Vidal, Céline; Berenbaum, Francis; Sellam, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and prevalence of DM in patients with OA and whether OA and DM are associated. Design A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. We included cohort, case–control and cross-sectional studies assessing the number of patients with DM and/or OA. The mean prevalence of OA among patients with DM and DM among patients with OA was calculated. Data from trials assessing an association of diabetes and OA were pooled and results are presented as unadjusted OR and 95% CI. Results From the 299 publications, we included 49 studies in the analysis, including 28 cross-sectional studies, 11 cohort studies and 10 case–control studies. In all, 21, 5 and 23 articles involved patients with OA exclusively, patients with DM and the general population, respectively. For 5788 patients with DM, the mean OA prevalence was 29.5±1.2%. For 645 089 patients with OA, the prevalence of DM was 14.4±0.1%. The risk of OA was greater in the DM than non-DM population (OR=1.46 (1.08 to 1.96), p=0.01), as was DM in the OA than non-OA population (OR=1.41 (1.21 to 1.65), p<0.00 001). Among the 12 studies reporting an OR adjusted on at least the body mass index, 5 showed no association of DM and OA and 7 identified DM as an independent risk factor. Conclusions This meta-analysis highlights a high frequency of OA in patients with DM and an association between both diseases, representing a further step towards the individualisation of DM-related OA within a metabolic OA phenotype. PMID:26535137

  9. International migration and gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Anita J; McDermott, Sarah; Rigol-Chachamovich, Juliana; Bandyopadhyay, Mridula; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Stewart, Donna

    2011-11-01

    Influxes of migrant women of childbearing age to receiving countries have made their perinatal health status a key priority for many governments. The international research collaboration Reproductive Outcomes And Migration (ROAM) reviewed published studies to assess whether migrants in countries of resettlement have a greater risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) than women in receiving countries. A systematic review of the literature from Medline, Embase, PsychInfo and CINAHL from 1990 to 2009 included studies of migrant women and GDM. Studies were excluded if there was no cross-border movement or comparison group or if the receiving country was not the country of resettlement. Studies were assessed for quality, analysed descriptively and meta-analysed. Twenty-four reports (representing >120,000 migrants) met our inclusion criteria. Migrants were described primarily by geographic origin; other relevant aspects (e.g. time in country, language fluency) were rarely studied. Migrants' results for GDM were worse than those for receiving-country women in 79% of all studies. Meta-analyses showed that, compared with receiving-country women, Caribbean, African, European and Northern European women were at greater risk of GDM, while North Africans and North Americans had risks similar to receiving-country women. Although results of the 31 comparisons of Asians, East Africans or non-Australian Oceanians were too heterogeneous to provide a single GDM risk estimate for migrant women, only one comparison was below the receiving-country comparison group, all others presented a higher risk estimate. The majority of women migrants to resettlement countries are at greater risk for GDM than women resident in receiving countries. Research using clear, specific migrant definitions, adjusting for relevant risk factors and including other aspects of migration experiences is needed to confirm and understand these findings.

  10. Endovascular Treatment of Active Splenic Bleeding After Colonoscopy: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Corcillo, Antonella; Aellen, Steve Zingg, Tobias; Bize, Pierre; Demartines, Nicolas; Denys, Alban

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Colonoscopy is reported to be a safe procedure that is routinely performed for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal diseases. Splenic rupture is considered to be a rare complication with high mortality and morbidity that requires immediate diagnosis and management. Nonoperative management (NOM), surgical treatment (ST), and, more recently, proximal splenic artery embolization (PSAE) have been proposed as treatment options. The goal of this study was to assess whether PSAE is safe even in high-grade ruptures. Methods: We report two rare cases of post colonoscopy splenic rupture. A systematic review of the literature from 2002 to 2010 (first reported case of PSAE) was performed and the three types of treatment compared. Results: All patients reviewed (77 of 77) presented with intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to isolated splenic trauma. Splenic rupture was high-grade in most patients when grading was possible. Six of 77 patients (7.8 %) were treated with PSAE, including the 2 cases reported herein. Fifty-seven patients (74 %) underwent ST. NOM was attempted first in 25 patients with a high failure rate (11 of 25 [44 %]) and requiring a salvage procedure, such as PSAE or ST. Previous surgery (31 of 59 patients), adhesions (10 of 13), diagnostic colonoscopies (49 of 71), previous biopsies or polypectomies (31 of 57) and female sex (56 of 77) were identified as risk factors. In contrast, splenomegaly (0 of 77 patients), medications that increase the risk of bleeding (13 of 30) and difficult colonoscopies (16 of 51) were not identified as risk factors. PSAE was safe and effective even in elderly patients with comorbidities and those taking medications that increase the risk of bleeding, and the length of the hospital stay was similar to that after ST. Conclusion: We propose a treatment algorithm based on clinical and radiological criteria. Because of the high failure rate after NOM, PSAE should be the treatment of choice to manage grade I through IV splenic

  11. A systematic literature review of psychological factors and the development of late whiplash syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Esther; Williams, Mark; Gates, Simon; Lamb, Sarah E

    2008-03-01

    This systematic literature review aims to assess the prognostic value of psychological factors in the development of late whiplash syndrome (LWS). We included prospective cohort studies that provided a baseline measure of at least one psychological variable and used outcome measures relating to LWS (i.e. pain or disability persisting 6 months post injury). A search of electronic databases (Pubmed, Medline, Cinahl, Embase and Psychinfo) up to August 2006 was done using a predetermined search strategy. Methodological quality was assessed independently by two assessors. Data extraction were carried out using a standardised data extraction form. Twenty-five articles representing data from 17 cohorts were included. Fourteen articles were rated as low quality with 11 rated as adequate quality. Meta-analysis was not undertaken due to the heterogeneity of prognostic factors, outcome measures and methods used. Results were tabulated and predefined criterion applied to rate the overall strength of evidence for associations between psychological factors and LWS. Data on 21 possible psychological risk factors were included. The majority of findings were inconclusive. Limited evidence was found to support an association between lower self-efficacy and greater post-traumatic stress with the development of LWS. No association was found between the development of LWS and personality traits, general psychological distress, wellbeing, social support, life control and psychosocial work factors. The lack of conclusive findings and poor methodological quality of the studies reviewed highlights the need for better quality research. Self-efficacy and post-traumatic distress may be associated with the development of LWS but this needs further investigation.

  12. Digoxin-associated mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Mate; Erath, Julia W; Hohnloser, Stefan H

    2015-07-21

    There are conflicting data regarding the effect of digoxin use on mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or with congestive heart failure (CHF). The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide detailed analysis of the currently available study reports. We performed a MEDLINE and a COCHRANE search (1993-2014) of the English literature dealing with the effects of digoxin on all-cause-mortality in subjects with AF or CHF. Only full-sized articles published in peer-reviewed journals were considered for this meta-analysis. A total of 19 reports were identified. Nine reports dealt with AF patients, seven with patients suffering from CHF, and three with both clinical conditions. Based on the analysis of adjusted mortality results of all 19 studies comprising 326 426 patients, digoxin use was associated with an increased relative risk of all-cause mortality [Hazard ratio (HR) 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07 to 1.38, P < 0.01]. Compared with subjects not receiving glycosides, digoxin was associated with a 29% increased mortality risk (HR 1.29; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.39) in the subgroup of publications comprising 235 047 AF patients. Among 91.379 heart failure patients, digoxin-associated mortality risk increased by 14% (HR 1.14, 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.22). The present systematic review and meta-analysis of all available data sources suggest that digoxin use is associated with an increased mortality risk, particularly among patients suffering from AF.

  13. Uterine cavity calcifications: a report of 7 cases and a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mariana C; Vaz, Miguel M; Miranda, Samuel P; Araújo, Samuel R; Menezes, Dalgimar B; das Chagas Medeiros, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We report 7 uterine cavity calcification cases and systematically review the literature on cases presenting this finding. In our series of cases, the mean age of patients was 31.6 ± 5.4 years, with an infertility period ranging from 2 to 8 years. None of our patients had a history of intrauterine contraceptive device use, and 3 had undergone operative termination of pregnancy. Diagnostic and therapeutic hysteroscopy with complete removal of the calcifications was performed in all patients with fertility restoration in 5 of them. Our review included 35 articles published from 1989 to 2013 reporting endometrial calcification cases, with a total of 85 cases. Analyzed variables included patient age, abortion antecedents, clinical presentation, diagnostic method, treatment, and outcome. The mean age of the analyzed cases was 34.3 years, ranging from 19 to 62 years. Abortion antecedents were present in most patients (76.5%). The most frequently used diagnostic methods were ultrasound (88.5% of articles) and hysteroscopy (85.7%). Regarding the clinical presentation, infertility was the most common feature (72.9% of cases) followed by menstrual abnormalities (30.3%). Hysteroscopic removal, whether alone or combined with other techniques, was the most used method for the removal of osseous tissue (70.6% of cases) followed by curettage (27.1%). After removal of the bony fragments, 55.6% of the infertile patients achieved a pregnancy. A total of 14 cases reported relief of symptoms other than infertility. All of the data concerning outcome were stratified according to the treatment modality used. We conclude that endometrial calcifications in the uterine cavity are a relevant cause of secondary infertility, which can generally be properly diagnosed and treated through hysteroscopy, with successful restoration of fertility in most cases.

  14. Sexual Health Behavior Interventions for U.S. Latino Adolescents: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cardoza, Vicky J.; Documét, Patricia I.; Fryer, Craig S.; Gold, Melanie A.; Butler, James

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective To identify sexual health behavior interventions targeting U.S. Latino adolescents. Design A systematic literature review. Setting Peer-reviewed articles published between 1993 and 2011, conducted in any type of setting. Participants Male and female Latino adolescents ages 11–21 years. Interventions Interventions promoting sexual abstinence, pregnancy prevention, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and/or HIV/AIDS prevention. Main Outcome Measures Changes in knowledge, attitudes, engagement in risky sexual behaviors, rates of STIs, and/or pregnancy. Results Sixty-eight articles were identified. Fifteen were included in this review that specifically addressed Latino adolescent sexual health behavior. Among the reviewed interventions, most aimed to prevent or reduce STI and HIV/AIDS incidence by focusing on behavior change at two levels of the social ecological model: individual and interpersonal. Major strengths of the articles included addressing the most critical issues of sexual health; using social ecological approaches; employing different strategies to deliver sexual health messages; and employing different intervention designs in diverse geographical locations with the largest population of Latino communities. Most of the interventions targeted female adolescents, stressing the need for additional interventions that target Latino adolescent males. Conclusions Latino adolescent sexual health is a new research field with gaps that need to be addressed in reducing negative sexual health outcomes among this population. More research is needed to produce new or validate existing, age-specific, and culturally-sensitive sexual health interventions for Latino male and female adolescents. Further, this research should also be conducted in areas of the U.S. with the newest Latino migration (e.g., North Carolina). PMID:22206687

  15. What is the clinical course of transient synovitis in children: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transient synovitis of the hip (TS) is considered to be a self-limiting disease in childhood. However, because the etiology is unclear and some cases precede Legg-Perthes’ disease, data on follow-up are important. Our aim was to summarize the knowledge on the clinical course of TS in children. Methods The study design was a systematic review and a literature search was conducted in Medline and Embase. Studies describing short and/or long-term follow-up of TS in children were included. Case reports, reviews and studies describing traumatic hip pain were excluded. Study quality was scored and data extraction was performed. The main outcome measures were short-term and long-term clinical course, and recurrence of symptoms. Results A total of 25 studies were included of which 14 were of high quality. At two-week follow-up, almost all children with TS were symptom free. Those with symptoms persisting for over one month were more prone to develop other hip pathology, such as Legg-Perthes’ disease. The recurrence rate of TS ranged from 0–26.3%. At long-term follow-up, 0-10% of the children diagnosed with TS developed Legg-Perthes’ disease. Hip pain after intensive physical effort and limited range of motion of the hip at long-term follow-up was reported in 12-28% and in 0-18% of the children, respectively. Conclusions The majority of the studies indicate that children with TS recover within two weeks; recurrence was seen in 0-26% of the cases. Children with TS should be followed at least six months to increase the likelihood of not missing Legg-Perthes’ disease. PMID:24229447

  16. Risk Factors for Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Osibanjo, Folasade B.; Slusher, Tina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Available evidence suggests that low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) bear the greatest burden of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia characterized by disproportionately high rates of morbidity, mortality and neurodevelopmental disorders compared to high-income countries. We set out to identify the risk factors that contribute to the burden of severe hyperbilirubinemia in the most developmentally disadvantaged LMICs to highlight areas for action and further research. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, Ovid EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS), African Index Medicus (AIM), African Journals Online (AJOL), LILACS, and IndMed for reports published between January 1990 and June 2014. We included only studies that controlled for the effects of confounding variables in determining maternal and infant risk factors for severe hyperbilirubinemia. We conducted meta-analysis of the eligible studies and computed the summary risk estimates with random effects models. Results A total of 13 studies with 1,951 subjects and 32,208 controls from India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Nepal and Egypt were identified and analyzed. The pooled data showed that primiparity (OR, 1.59; 95% CI:1.26-2.00), delivery outside public hospitals (OR, 6.42; 95% CI:1.76-23.36), ABO incompatibility (OR, 4.01; 95% CI:2.44-6.61), Rhesus hemolytic disease (OR, 20.63; 95% CI:3.95-107.65), G6PD deficiency (OR, 8.01; 95% CI:2.09-30.69), UGT1A1 polymorphisms (OR, 4.92; 95% CI:1.30-18.62), low gestational age (OR, 1.71; 95% CI:1.40-2.11), underweight/weight loss (OR, 6.26; 95% CI:1.23-31.86), sepsis (OR, 9.15; 95% CI:2.78-30.10) and high transcutaneous/total serum bilirubin levels (OR, 1.46; 95% CI:1.10-1.92) placed infants at increased risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia or bilirubin induced neurologic dysfunctions. Low social class was not associated with an increased risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia. Conclusions Infants at

  17. Balamuthia mandrillaris Encephalitis: Survival of a Child With Severe Meningoencephalitis and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Paul; Burke, Christopher; McCrossin, David; Campbell, Robert; Cherian, Sarah; Shahab, Mohammad Shekeeb; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Nourse, Clare

    2014-03-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris causes granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, which is frequently fatal. There are few reports of survival in children. A 4-year-old child developed severe meningoencephalitis with multiple intracranial ring-enhancing lesions. Empiric therapy was commenced after a biopsy was performed, and the patient had a good clinical response. Molecular testing and indirect immunofluorescence later confirmed the diagnosis of Balamuthia encephalitis. Diagnosis of Balamuthia encephalitis is often delayed. The literature is reviewed with particular reference to reported survival. Prompt tissue diagnosis and initiation of therapy are common features among survivors. In previous reports, miltefosine was not used to treat children, but it was well tolerated in this case and should be considered as a therapeutic option.

  18. Bilateral upper and lower eyelid severe psoriasiform blepharitis: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feilin; Tao, Jeremiah P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to describe a case of severe, psoriasiform blepharitis by means of a case report and literature review. A 44-year-old man developed chronic blepharitis and tearing months after bilateral cataract surgery. Exam showed diffuse quad-eyelid erythema, discharge, edema, madarosis, and scale. He also had insufficient tear drainage due to bilateral upper eyelid cicatricial punctal atresia with bilateral lower eyelid punctal stenosis. Biopsy of the lower eyelids exhibited psoriasiform hyperplasia. Topical 0.1% tacrolimus achieved improvement but caused some subjective eye irritation. Psoriasiform dermatitis manifesting on the eyelids is rare, may be associated with insufficient tear drainage, and may respond favorably to 0.1% tacrolimus.

  19. Non-invasive ventilation for severe TRALI and myocardial stunning: report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Piastra, M; Luca, E; Stival, E; Caliandro, F; De Rosa, G; Giona, F; De Luca, D; Conti, G; Pietrini, D

    2012-09-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a frequently under-diagnosed, although potentially fatal, condition that represents a leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality even in pediatric patients. Its main clinical features are characterized by rapidly evolving respiratory distress, hypoxia, pulmonary edema, and bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph during or within 6 h of transfusion. We present a case of severe TRALI associated with myocardial stunning that occurred in a 14-year-old girl, and review the existing literature of pediatric TRALI. Our report suggests a potential role for NIV in the management of TRALI as the best profile both in terms of safety and effectiveness for hematologic patients.

  20. PTEN expression is a prognostic marker for patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jian; Hu, Cheng-Ping; He, Bi-Xiu; Chen, Xi; Lu, Xiao-Xiao; Xie, Ming-Xuan; Li, Wei; He, Shu-Ya; You, Shao-Jin; Chen, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a known tumor suppressor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). By performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature, we determined the prognostic value of decreased PTEN expression in patients with NSCLC. We comprehensively and systematically searched through multiple online databases up to May 22, 2016 for NSCLC studies reporting on PTEN expression and patient survival outcome. Several criteria, including the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS), were used to discriminate between studies. In total, 23 eligible studies with a total of 2,505 NSCLC patients were included in our meta-analysis. Our results demonstrated that decreased expression of PTEN correlated with poor overall survival in NSCLC patients and was indicative of a poor prognosis for disease-free survival and progression-free survival in patients with NSCLC. PMID:27506936

  1. Antimicrobial Treatment for Systemic Anthrax: Analysis of Cases from 1945 to 2014 Identified Through a Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Satish K; Huang, Eileen; Guarnizo, Julie T; Hoyle, Jamechia D; Katharios-Lanwermeyer, Stefan; Turski, Theresa K; Bower, William A; Hendricks, Katherine A; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Systemic anthrax is associated with high mortality. Current national guidelines, developed for the individualized treatment of systemic anthrax, outline the use of combination intravenous antimicrobials for a minimum of 2 weeks, bactericidal and protein synthesis inhibitor antimicrobials for all cases of systemic anthrax, and at least 3 antimicrobials with good blood-brain barrier penetration for anthrax meningitis. However, in an anthrax mass casualty incident, large numbers of anthrax cases may create challenges in meeting antimicrobial needs. To further inform our understanding of the role of antimicrobials in treating systemic anthrax, a systematic review of the English-language literature was conducted to identify cases of systemic anthrax treated with antimicrobials for which a clinical outcome was recorded. A total of 149 cases of systemic anthrax were identified. Among the identified 59 cases of cutaneous anthrax, 33 were complicated by meningitis (76% mortality), while 26 simply had evidence of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (4% mortality); 21 of 26 (81%) of this latter group received monotherapy. Subsequent analysis regarding combination antimicrobial therapy was restricted to the remaining 123 cases of more severe anthrax (overall 67% mortality). Recipients of combination bactericidal and protein synthesis inhibitor therapy had a 45% survival versus 28% in the absence of combination therapy (p = 0.07). For meningitis cases (n = 77), survival was greater for those receiving 3 or more antimicrobials over the course of treatment (3 of 4; 75%), compared to receipt of 1 or 2 antimicrobials (12 of 73; 16%) (p = 0.02). Median parenteral antimicrobial duration was 14 days. Combination bactericidal and protein synthesis inhibitor therapy may be appropriate in severe anthrax disease, particularly anthrax meningitis, in a mass casualty incident.

  2. Antimicrobial Treatment for Systemic Anthrax: Analysis of Cases from 1945–2014 Identified through Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Satish K.; Huang, Eileen; Guarnizo, Julie; Hoyle, Jamechia; Katharios-Lanwermeyer, Stefan; Turski, Theresa; Bower, William; Hendricks, Katherine; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic anthrax is associated with high mortality. Current national guidelines, developed for the individualized treatment of systemic anthrax, outline the use of combination intravenous antimicrobials for a minimum of two weeks; bactericidal and protein synthesis inhibitor antimicrobials for all cases of systemic anthrax; and at least 3 antimicrobials with good blood-brain barrier penetration for anthrax meningitis. However, in an anthrax mass casualty incident, large numbers of anthrax cases may create challenges in meeting antimicrobial needs. Methods To further inform our understanding of the role of antimicrobials in treating systemic anthrax, a systematic review of the English language literature was conducted to identify cases of systemic anthrax treated with antimicrobials for which a clinical outcome was recorded. Results A total of 149 cases of systemic anthrax were identified (cutaneous [n=59], gastrointestinal [n=28], inhalation [n=26], primary anthrax meningitis [n=19], multiple routes [n=9], and injection [n=8]). Among the identified 59 cases of cutaneous anthrax, 33 were complicated by meningitis (76% mortality), while 26 simply had evidence of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (4% mortality); 21 of 26 (81%) of this latter group received monotherapy. Subsequent analysis regarding combination antimicrobial therapy was restricted to the remaining 123 cases of more severe anthrax (overall 67% mortality). Recipients of combination bactericidal and protein synthesis inhibitor therapy had a 45% survival versus 28% in the absence of combination therapy (p = 0.07). For meningitis cases (n=77), survival was greater for those receiving a total of ≥3 antimicrobials over the course of treatment (3 of 4; 75%), compared to receipt of 1 or 2 antimicrobials (12 of 73; 16%) (p = 0.02). Median parenteral antimicrobial duration was 14 days. Conclusion Combination bactericidal and protein synthesis inhibitor therapy may be appropriate in severe

  3. Disclosure, consent, and the exercise of patient autonomy in surgical innovation: a systematic content analysis of the conceptual literature.

    PubMed

    Bracken-Roche, Dearbhail; Bell, Emily; Karpowicz, Lila; Racine, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The classification of surgical innovation as clinical care, research, or as third distinct type of activity creates ambiguity which impacts standards for disclosure and informed consent. We conducted a systematic review of the conceptual literature to identify positions expressed about consent and disclosure, as well as major tension points associated with this issue. Literature overwhelmingly favors special consent and disclosure. Four major tension points were identified: the use of biasing/biased terminology to characterize innovation; patient vulnerability; the relationship between surgeon-innovator and patient; and practices and associated gaps related to consent and disclosure. Recommendations often focused on the informed consent process.

  4. Message Framing in Vaccine Communication: A Systematic Review of Published Literature.

    PubMed

    Penţa, Marcela A; Băban, Adriana

    2017-01-06

    Suboptimal vaccination rates are a significant problem in many countries today, in spite of improved access to vaccine services. As a result, there has been a recent expansion of research on how best to communicate about vaccines. The purpose of the present article is to provide an updated review of published, peer-reviewed empirical studies that examined the effectiveness of gain versus loss framing (i.e., goal framing) in the context of vaccine communication. To locate studies, we examined the reference list from the previous meta-analytic review (O'Keefe & Nan, 2012), and we conducted systematic searches across multiple databases. We included 34 studies in the qualitative synthesis. The relative effectiveness of goal-framed vaccine messages was often shown to depend on characteristics of the message recipient, perceived risk, or situational factors, yet most effects were inconsistent across studies, or simply limited by an insufficient number of studies. Methodological characteristics and variations are noted and discussed. The review points to several directions concerning moderators and mediators of framing effects where additional rigorous studies would be needed.

  5. Eye Movement in Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Nicolas; Laurent, Eric; Noiret, Nicolas; Chopard, Gilles; Haffen, Emmanuel; Bennabi, Djamila; Vandel, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background: The analysis of eye movements (EM) by eye-tracking has been carried out for several decades to investigate mood regulation, emotional information processing, and psychomotor disturbances in depressive disorders. Method: A systematic review of all English language PubMed articles using the terms “saccadic eye movements” OR “eye-tracking” AND “depression” OR “bipolar disorders” was conducted using PRISMA guidelines. The aim of this review was to characterize the specific alterations of EM in unipolar and bipolar depression. Results: Findings regarding psychomotor disturbance showed an increase in reaction time in prosaccade and antisaccade tasks in both unipolar and bipolar disorders. In both disorders, patients have been reported to have an attraction for negative emotions, especially for negative pictures in unipolar and threatening images in bipolar disorder. However, the pattern could change with aging, elderly unipolar patients disengaging key features of sad and neutral stimuli. Methodological limitations generally include small sample sizes with mixed unipolar and bipolar depressed patients. Conclusion: Eye movement analysis can be used to discriminate patients with depressive disorders from controls, as well as patients with bipolar disorder from patients with unipolar depression. General knowledge concerning psychomotor alterations and affective regulation strategies associated with each disorder can also be gained thanks to the analysis. Future directions for research on eye movement and depression are proposed in this review. PMID:26696915

  6. [End of life conflicts in palliative care: a systematic review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Chastonay, Philippe; Rapin, Charles-Henri

    2006-09-01

    To evaluate the extent and the quality of the research related to End of life conflicts in palliative care from 1995 to 2004. Accessible Literature of several electronic data bases (BDSP, Cinhal, Cochrane, Francis, Medline, Psychinfo, Saphir, Scopus and Web of science) as well as the grey literature. Studies published in French and English between 1995 and 2004 reporting end of life conflicts, tensions, disagreements, disputes in the context of palliative care. One hundred and two studies were included (87.2% published in English, 12.8% in French). Study designs include revues 27.4%), cross-sections 18.6% and case studies 18.6%. Reported conflicts are related to ethical issues 26.2%, to care 19.1%, to tensions between professionals and patients or families 11.1%, to team experiences 9%. Six studies 5.8% give prevalence figures of conflicts. Half of the studies 51.3% identify possible causes of conflicts: communication issues, euthanasia and suicide assistance demands, autonomy of patients, non respect of advance directives, cultural differences. Ten studies 9.8% identify specifically some effects of the conflicts: moral distress of patients; stress, burn out and guilt of health professionals; lack of trust between doctors and patients or families. Conflicts are mainly resolved through mediation and ethical discussions. Research data on end of life conflicts is scarce at all levels (quantity, quality, methods, social impact, and epistemology). A better understanding of end of life conflict might foster a more adequate management of difficult situations and ultimately a more peaceful death of patients, mourning of families and every day work of health professionals

  7. Epidemiology of snakebites in Europe: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Snakebites are rare medical emergency cases in Europe but may sometimes be severe and lead to complications. A better knowledge of snakebite epidemiology may help health authorities to better understand therapeutic requirements, especially concerning antivenoms, and thus improve treatment of snakebite. An extensive literature search for studies and articles published between 1970 and 2010 was performed. Both indexed and non-indexed articles were examined, the analysis of which took into account the heterogeneity between the studies and weighted the studies according to size of the study population covered. Most of the articles involved hospitalized patients who represented more than 90% of snakebites. Incidence, mortality and population at risk were estimated after stratification into three regions (northern, central and southern Europe) based both on viper species distribution and climatic characteristics. There was no significant variation in incidence from the north to the south of Europe. In the whole of Europe, including European Russia and Turkey, the annual number of snakebite cases was estimated at 7992 [CI 95% = 6860-9178] bites, out of which approximately 15% were considered severe (grade 3). These bites usually occurred between May and September, with a more dispersed distribution in southern Europe. The average number of deaths per annum was 4 [0.7-7.7]. Children and male victims are more affected, contrary to what one would expect given their respective proportion in the entire population. Both upper and lower limb bites were recorded at an equal frequency while the bites in other parts of the body were very rare. Immunotherapy was prescribed in one out of three snakebites in Europe, with a very high geographical variability, in spite of excellent tolerance, at least considering highly-purified immunoglobulin fragments. Snakebites are uncommon in Europe but can cause life-threatening envenomation. Fragments of highly-purified immunoglobulins are now

  8. Severe eosinophilic meningitis owing to Angiostrongylus cantonensis in young Jamaican children: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Evans-Gilbert, Tracy; Lindo, John F; Henry, Sonia; Brown, Paul; Christie, Celia D C

    2014-05-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an endemic and emerging disease that affects adults and children in Jamaica. Most cases resolve without sequelae, but young children are at high risk of neurological damage and death. Treatment with corticosteroids and albendazole is considered safe for adults and children, but protocols for its use in children have not been established. A 19-month-old infant with permanent neurological sequlae caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis is reported, and five other Jamaican cases are summarized. A review of the literature of children with permanent neurological sequlae and death is presented. Children <5 years (especially <2) were at increased risk of incomplete recovery and death if they presented with bulbar signs, flaccid paresis and coma. None of the severe or fatal cases received early intervention with anthelminthics, and disease progression was not altered with corticosteroids. In view of the pathophysiology, necropsy reports and animal studies, it seems that the early use of larvicidals may change the course of severe presentations.

  9. Cryotherapy effect on oral mucositis severity among recipients of bone marrow transplantation: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, Abdel-Qader Mahmoud

    2014-08-01

    Oral mucositis is a distressing toxic effect of cancer therapy and one of the major side effects of the myeloablative conditioning used to prepare patients for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Oral cryotherapy is one of the recent modalities used to prevent and manage oral mucositis. The purpose of this review is to clarify the cryotherapy effect on oral mucositis severity among patients receiving myeloablative conditioning followed by BMT. A literature search was performed using six different electronic databases: CINAHL®, MEDLINE®, Nursing Ovid, PubMed, Springer, and Science Direct. Six articles were deemed relevant and included in this review. Oral mucositis increases mortality rate, length of hospital stay, opioid use, and the need for parenteral nutrition usage. It also decreases patient's quality of life and his or her desire to complete treatment. However, oral cryotherapy significantly minimizes the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and decreases secondary oral mucositis complications. Using oral cryotherapy concurrently with a regular oral care protocol can improve its efficacy for preventing and managing oral mucositis. Additional studies should be conducted to create standard oral cryotherapy protocols.

  10. Dickens for All: Inclusive Approaches to Literature and Communication with People with Severe and Profound Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the potential uses of literature with people with severe and profound learning disabilities and describes a series of multisensory interactive drama games re-telling the story of "A Christmas Carol" by Charles Dickens. (Author/DB)

  11. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Agnes N; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were included. Out of a total of 5,718 abstracts, 412 full papers were identified as potentially relevant, and after careful scrutiny, 64 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance studies, suggestive for a relationship between increased all-cause mortality risk and long-term low-carbohydrate-high-protein (LCHP) diets; but inconclusive for a relationship between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship between cardiovascular diseases and total protein intake; suggestive for an inverse relationship between blood pressure (BP) and vegetable protein; probable to convincing for an inverse relationship between soya protein intake and LDL cholesterol; inconclusive for a relationship between protein intake and bone health, energy intake, BW control, body composition, renal function, and risk of kidney stones, respectively; suggestive for a relationship between increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and long-term LCHP-high-fat diets; inconclusive for impact of physical training on protein requirement; and suggestive for effect of physical training on whole-body protein retention. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the estimated requirement based on

  12. Similar herpes zoster incidence across Europe: results from a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥50 years. The forthcoming European launch of a vaccine against HZ (Zostavax®) prompts the need for a better understanding of the epidemiology of HZ in Europe. Therefore the aim of this systematic review was to summarize the available data on HZ incidence in Europe and to describe age-specific incidence. Methods The Medline database of the National Library of Medicine was used to conduct a comprehensive literature search of population-based studies of HZ incidence published between 1960 and 2010 carried out in the 27 member countries of the European Union, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. The identified articles were reviewed and scored according to a reading grid including various quality criteria, and HZ incidence data were extracted and presented by country. Results The search identified 21 studies, and revealed a similar annual HZ incidence throughout Europe, varying by country from 2.0 to 4.6/1 000 person-years with no clearly observed geographic trend. Despite the fact that age groups differed from one study to another, age-specific HZ incidence rates seemed to hold steady during the review period, at around 1/1 000 children <10 years, around 2/1 000 adults aged <40 years, and around 1–4/1 000 adults aged 40–50 years. They then increased rapidly after age 50 years to around 7–8/1 000, up to 10/1 000 after 80 years of age. Our review confirms that in Europe HZ incidence increases with age, and quite drastically after 50 years of age. In all of the 21 studies included in the present review, incidence rates were higher among women than men, and this difference increased with age. This review also highlights the need to identify standardized surveillance methods to improve the comparability of data within European Union Member States and to monitor the impact of VZV immunization on the epidemiology of HZ. Conclusions

  13. Sequelae due to bacterial meningitis among African children: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Meenakshi; Ulland, Aaron J; Steinhardt, Laura C; Moïsi, Jennifer C; Were, Fred; Levine, Orin S

    2009-01-01

    Background African children have some of the highest rates of bacterial meningitis in the world. Bacterial meningitis in Africa is associated with high case fatality and frequent neuropsychological sequelae. The objective of this study is to present a comprehensive review of data on bacterial meningitis sequelae in children from the African continent. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search to identify studies from Africa focusing on children aged between 1 month to 15 years with laboratory-confirmed bacterial meningitis. We extracted data on neuropsychological sequelae (hearing loss, vision loss, cognitive delay, speech/language disorder, behavioural problems, motor delay/impairment, and seizures) and mortality, by pathogen. Results A total of 37 articles were included in the final analysis representing 21 African countries and 6,029 children with confirmed meningitis. In these studies, nearly one fifth of bacterial meningitis survivors experienced in-hospital sequelae (median = 18%, interquartile range (IQR) = 13% to 27%). About a quarter of children surviving pneumococcal meningitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis had neuropsychological sequelae by the time of hospital discharge, a risk higher than in meningococcal meningitis cases (median = 7%). The highest in-hospital case fatality ratios observed were for pneumococcal meningitis (median = 35%) and Hib meningitis (median = 25%) compared to meningococcal meningitis (median = 4%). The 10 post-discharge studies of children surviving bacterial meningitis were of varying quality. In these studies, 10% of children followed-up post discharge died (range = 0% to 18%) and a quarter of survivors had neuropsychological sequelae (range = 3% to 47%) during an average follow-up period of 3 to 60 months. Conclusion Bacterial meningitis in Africa is associated with high mortality and risk of neuropsychological sequelae. Pneumococcal and Hib meningitis kill approximately one third of affected

  14. Vitamin D supplementation and health-related quality of life: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Michelle R; Senior, Peter A; Mager, Diana R

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are highly prevalent worldwide and thought to potentiate a variety of chronic disease states, including diabetes, cancer, and depression. Routine vitamin D supplementation is often needed to meet vitamin D requirements. Little is known regarding the effect of vitamin D supplementation on quality of life. The purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature regarding quality-of-life outcomes from vitamin D supplementation in healthy and clinical populations. Clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation, where quality-of-life outcomes were reported, were selected from Medline and Web of Science databases. Inclusion criteria were English language articles available online (published between 1950 and May 2014), primary research articles, studies conducted on human beings, and treatment/supplementation with vitamin D. Articles were excluded if they involved topical vitamin D application or implicit cotreatment with other vitamins (eg, multivitamins). Articles selected for review were examined for process and methodologic quality using validated methodologies. A total of 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for review. Interventions were highly variable in terms of study population (eg, healthy/diseased, children/elderly, and baseline vitamin D status) vitamin D dose, and duration of follow-up. Vitamin D supplementation ranged from 400 IU/day for an average of 7.1 years, to a single 300, 000 IU dose. The main tools used to capture quality of life were adaptations of validated, questionnaires (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-item questionnaire and EuroQOL five dimension questionnaire). Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with significant changes in quality of life. Studies that reported changes in quality of life as a result of vitamin D supplementation were in clinical populations on short-term vitamin D. Most articles reviewed displayed poor methodologic quality (eg, no randomization

  15. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case–control, and intervention studies of a general healthy population in settings similar to the Nordic countries with protein intake from food-based sources were included. Out of a total of 301 abstracts, 152 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After careful scrutiny, 23 papers were quality graded as A (highest, n=1), B (n=18), or C (n=4). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement (EAR) of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance (N-balance) studies and the subsequent recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 0.83 g good-quality protein/kg BW/day representing the minimum dietary protein needs of virtually all healthy elderly persons. Regarding the optimal level of protein related to functional outcomes like maintenance of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength, as well as for morbidity and mortality, the evidence is ranging from suggestive to inconclusive. Results from particularly prospective cohort studies suggest a safe intake of up to at least 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg BW/day or approximately 15–20 E%. Overall, many of the included prospective cohort studies were difficult to fully evaluate since results mainly were obtained by food frequency questionnaires that were flawed by underreported intakes, although some studies were ‘calibrated’ to correct for under- or over-reporting. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the EAR based on N-balance studies and suggestive to inconclusive regarding an optimal protein intake higher than the estimated

  16. Introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests in private medicine retail outlets: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Theodoor; Bruxvoort, Katia; Maloney, Kathleen; Leslie, Toby; Barat, Lawrence M.; Allan, Richard; Ansah, Evelyn K.; Anyanti, Jennifer; Boulton, Ian; Clarke, Siân E.; Cohen, Jessica L.; Cohen, Justin M.; Cutherell, Andrea; Dolkart, Caitlin; Eves, Katie; Fink, Günther; Goodman, Catherine; Hutchinson, Eleanor; Lal, Sham; Mbonye, Anthony; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Petty, Nora; Pontarollo, Julie; Poyer, Stephen; Schellenberg, David; Streat, Elizabeth; Ward, Abigail; Wiseman, Virginia; Whitty, Christopher J. M.; Yeung, Shunmay; Cunningham, Jane; Chandler, Clare I. R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Many patients with malaria-like symptoms seek treatment in private medicine retail outlets (PMR) that distribute malaria medicines but do not traditionally provide diagnostic services, potentially leading to overtreatment with antimalarial drugs. To achieve universal access to prompt parasite-based diagnosis, many malaria-endemic countries are considering scaling up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in these outlets, an intervention that may require legislative changes and major investments in supporting programs and infrastructures. This review identifies studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs and examines study outcomes and success factors to inform scale up decisions. Methods Published and unpublished studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs were systematically identified and reviewed. Literature published before November 2016 was searched in six electronic databases, and unpublished studies were identified through personal contacts and stakeholder meetings. Outcomes were extracted from publications or provided by principal investigators. Results Six published and six unpublished studies were found. Most studies took place in sub-Saharan Africa and were small-scale pilots of RDT introduction in drug shops or pharmacies. None of the studies assessed large-scale implementation in PMRs. RDT uptake varied widely from 8%-100%. Provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for patients testing positive ranged from 30%-99%, and was more than 85% in five studies. Of those testing negative, provision of antimalarials varied from 2%-83% and was less than 20% in eight studies. Longer provider training, lower RDT retail prices and frequent supervision appeared to have a positive effect on RDT uptake and provider adherence to test results. Performance of RDTs by PMR vendors was generally good, but disposal of medical waste and referral of patients to public facilities were common challenges. Conclusions Expanding services of PMRs to

  17. Hypernatremia in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypernatremia is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and occurs from a variety of mechanisms, including hyperosmotic fluids, limitation of free water, or diabetes insipidus. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the relationship between hypernatremia and mortality in patients with TBI. Methods We searched the following databases up to November 2012: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL. Using a combination of MeSH and text terms, we developed search filters for the concepts of hypernatremia and TBI and included studies that met the following criteria: (1) compared hypernatremia to normonatremia, (2) adult patients with TBI, (3) presented adjusted outcomes for mortality or complications. Results Bibliographic and conference search yielded 1,152 citations and 11 abstracts, respectively. Sixty-five articles were selected for full-text review with 5 being included in our study. All were retrospective cohort studies totaling 5,594 (range 100–4,296) patients. There was marked between-study heterogeneity. The incidence of hypernatremia ranged between 16% and 40%. Use of hyperosmolar therapy was presented in three studies (range 14-85% of patients). Hypernatremia was associated with increased mortality across all four studies that presented this outcome. Only one study considered diabetes insipidus (DI) in their analysis where hypernatremia was associated with increased mortality in patients who did not receive DDAVP. Conclusions Although hypernatremia was associated with increased mortality in the included studies, there was marked between-study heterogeneity. DI was a potential confounder in several studies. Considering these limitations, the clinical significance of hypernatremia in TBI is difficult to establish at this stage. PMID:24196399

  18. Restoration Survival: Revisiting Patients' Risk Factors Through a Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    van de Sande, F H; Collares, K; Correa, M B; Cenci, M S; Demarco, F F; Opdam, Njm

    2016-09-01

    A literature review was conducted to investigate the influence of patient-related factors on restoration survival in posterior permanent teeth as well as to report the methods used to collect these factors. The selection of articles on longitudinal clinical studies investigating the survival of posterior restorations (except full crowns and temporary fillings) and including patient-related factors was performed by applying predefined criteria. The review was organized into two parts, the first describing how patient factors were assessed in the studies (n=45) and the second presenting the statistical significance (n=27) and size of the effect (n=11) of these factors on restoration survival. Patient-related factors mentioned in the studies included age; gender; caries risk; caries activity/severity; decayed, missing, filled teeth; number of restorations; oral hygiene; and bruxism, among others. Sixteen studies included the patient age or age range in the analysis, which was found to be significant in 47% of the studies. Regarding gender, four of 17 reports found a significant effect on survival, showing more failures for men in three studies. The caries risk profile or related variables were included in the analysis of 15 studies, and a significant effect on survival was reported for high-caries-risk individuals (or related variables) in 67% of these studies. Bruxism was also found to influence restoration survival in three of six studies where this variable was investigated. Some issues were found regarding the reporting of methods used to classify patients according to risk and were thoroughly discussed. In view of the information gathered in this review, the assessment of patient factors along with other variables should become part of clinical studies investigating restoration survival, since several of these factors were shown to influence the failure of restorations, regardless of the material type.

  19. Pellagra may be a rare secondary complication of anorexia nervosa: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Prousky, Jonathan E

    2003-05-01

    Pellagra is a nutritional wasting disease attributable to a combined deficiency of tryptophan and niacin (nicotinic acid). It is characterized clinically by four classic symptoms often referred to as the four Ds: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death. Prior to the development of these symptoms, other nonspecific symptoms insidiously manifest and mostly affect the dermatological, neuropsychiatric, and gastrointestinal systems. A review of the literature reveals several case reports describing pellagra in patients with anorexia nervosa. The most common features of pellagra in patients with anorexia nervosa are cutaneous manifestations such as erythema on sun-exposed areas, glossitis, and stomatitis. Health care providers might consider a trial of 150-500 mg niacin if anorexic patients exhibit these cutaneous findings. Pellagra can be diagnosed if cutaneous symptoms resolve within 24-48 hours after oral niacin administration. To further corroborate a diagnosis of pellagra in anorexic patients, specific 24-hour urine tests for niacin metabolites and 5-hydroxy-indole-acetic acid could be run prior to treatment with niacin being instituted. Other factors, such as mycotoxins, excessive dietary leucine intake (although not in anorexia), estrogens and progestogens, carcinoid syndrome, and various medications, might also lead to the development of pellagra. Although pellagra appears to be a rare, yet possible secondary complication of anorexia nervosa, it should be considered in the work-up of patients who exhibit cutaneous manifestations subsequent to sunlight exposure.

  20. A systematic review of the literature on safety measures to prevent railway suicides and trespassing accidents.

    PubMed

    Havârneanu, Grigore M; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Paran, Françoise

    2015-08-01

    This review covers a central aspect in railway safety which is the prevention of suicides and trespassing accidents. The paper attempts to answer the following research question: 'What measures are available to reduce railway suicide and trespass, and what is the evidence for their effectiveness?' The review is based on 139 relevant publications, ranging from 1978 to 2014. The analysis aimed to identify the past and current trend in the prevention practice by looking both quantitatively and qualitatively at the recommended measures. According to the results, there has been a constant focus on suicide prevention, and only relatively recent interest in trespass countermeasures. The content analysis revealed 19 main preventative categories which include more than 100 specific measures. We identified 16 common categories against railway suicide and trespass, and 3 categories of specific measures to prevent suicide. There are only 22 studies which provide empirical support for the effectiveness of measures. Actual combinations of measures are barely evaluated, but several challenges emerge from the literature. The discussion focuses on the need for a unified approach to suicide and trespass prevention, and on the importance to consider the effect mechanism of the measures in order to design better interventions.

  1. Systematic literature review of uses and levels of occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Gold, Laura S; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Waters, Martha; Stewart, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Tetrachloroethylene has been one of the most widely used chlorinated solvents in the United States. This review provides a basis for tetrachloroethylene exposure assessment in population-based case-control studies. We performed literature searches in MEDLINE, TOXLINE, NIOSHTIC, and the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation databases using relevant search terms. We calculated weighted arithmetic means from the measurement data and compiled these into three summary tables by type of operation: (1) dry cleaning, (2) degreasing, and (3) other operations. We identified 258 relevant documents, of which 179 (69%) contained useful descriptive information. Within the dry cleaning industry, the overall arithmetic mean (AM) for personal tetrachloroethylene exposures was 59 ppm (range: 0-4636, n = 1395). Machine operators who transferred wet garments to a dryer had the highest levels (AM = 150 ppm [range: 0-1000, n = 441]) of the jobs in this industry. The AM for personal measurements associated with degreasing was 95 ppm (range: 0-1800, n = 206). In addition, we identified several other sources of substantial tetrachloroethylene exposure, including cleaning mining equipment, testing coal, cleaning animal coats in taxidermy, and cleaning and duplicating film. Exposure assessment in population-based, case-control studies is a complex process requiring substantial resources. Researchers conducting these types of studies will be able to use results of the measurements to quantify tetrachloroethylene exposure levels for various jobs.

  2. Positive and Negative Predictive Value of PET-CT in Skull Base Lesions: Case Series and Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hines, John Peyton; Howard, Brittany E; Hoxworth, Joseph M; Lal, Devyani

    2016-03-01

    Objectives To study positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET-CT) scans in determining malignancy in skull base lesions and perform a systematic literature review for optimal PET-CT interpretation. Design Retrospective case series and systematic literature review of the current English literature. Setting Tertiary referral academic medical center. Participants All patients with skull base lesions that underwent PET-CT and tissue biopsy from 2010 to 2013. Main Outcome Measures PPV and NPV of radiologist's report and standardized uptake value (SUV) cutoff of 2.5 and 3, biopsy with pathologic interpretation, clinical follow-up. Results A total of 31 PET-CT scans of 16 patients were studied; 10 PET-CT were performed upfront for diagnostic purposes and 21 were post-treatment surveillance scans. The PPV of radiologist's interpretation, SUV cutoff of 2.5, and SUV cutoff of 3.0 was 80%, 60%, and 68.4%, with a NPV of 100%, 83.3%, and 75%, respectively. Literature search yielded 500 abstracts; 7 studies met inclusion criteria for detailed review. No consensus or guidelines for optimal SUV cutoff value was found. Conclusions PET-CT based on SUV cutoff criteria alone has high NPV but low PPV in determining malignancy in skull base lesions. Interpretation by a radiologist experienced in nuclear medicine and neuroradiology, synthesizing clinical, SUV, and radiologic data are of superior value.

  3. Measurement of disordered eating in bariatric surgery candidates: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Parker, Katrina; Brennan, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of disordered eating are common among patients seeking bariatric surgery, and assessment of eating pathology is typical in pre-surgical evaluations. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the definitions, diagnostic criteria and measures used to assess disordered eating in adults seeking bariatric surgery. The review identified 147 articles featuring 34 questionnaires and 45 interviews used in pre-surgical assessments. The Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns Revised and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM were the most frequently used questionnaire and interview respectively. Variations to pre-surgical diagnostic criteria included changes to the frequency and duration criteria for binge eating, and inconsistent use of disordered eating definitions (e.g., grazing). Results demonstrate a paucity of measures designed specifically for an obese sample, and only 24% of questionnaires and 4% of interviews used had any reported psychometric evaluation in bariatric surgery candidates. The psychometric data available suggest that interview assessments are critical for accurately identifying binge episodes and other diagnostic information, while self-report questionnaires may be valuable for providing additional information of clinical utility (e.g., severity of eating, shape and weight-related concerns). Findings highlight the need for consensus on disordered eating diagnostic criteria and psychometric evaluation of measures to determine whether existing measures provide a valid assessment of disordered eating in this population. Consistent diagnosis and the use of validated measures will facilitate accurate identification of disordered eating in the pre-surgical population to enable assessment of suitability for surgery and appropriate targeting of treatment for disordered eating to optimise treatment success.

  4. Cytochrome P450 Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Roma Population Samples: Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Szalai, Renata; Hadzsiev, Kinga; Melegh, Bela

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes are highly polymorphic and show inter-individual differences in variability in drug response, which varies widely also with ethnicity. This study aims to summarize the available data on genetic polymorphisms associated with cytochrome enzymes conducted on Roma populations. Our goal was to compare the frequency of the variant alleles, genotypes and predicted phenotypes with corresponding rates from other populations. We carried out a systematic review including the papers published on the pharmacogenetically relevant variants of cytochrome P450 genes related to Roma population. The study was performed using several articles, websites and databases, including PubMed, Ensembl, dbSNP, HapMap and 1000 Genomes Project. This review attempts to summarize and discuss our current knowledge about the frequency distribution of the ever investigated 20 allelic variants of 9 cytochrome genes (CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2C8, CYP2D6, CYP3A5, CYP4F2) in Roma DNA samples and compare them with other populations. Differences between Roma and Hungarian samples are reported for 7 variant genotypes. CYP2C9 *2/*3 and CYP2C19 *2/*2 genotypes showed more than 3-fold differences. Additional differences are displayed for allele frequency of 7 variants (rs762551, rs3745274, rs1058930, rs1065852, rs3892097, rs1057910 and rs4244285) in Roma population samples. The interethnic variability in clinically relevant genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes, which may explain distinct drug response, highlights the need to allow for the ancestry of participants in pharmacogenetic studies.

  5. Botulinum toxin for the prevention and healing of wound scars: A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Prodromidou, Anastasia; Frountzas, Maximos; Vlachos, Dimitrios-Efthymios G; Vlachos, Georgios D; Bakoyiannis, Ioannis; Perrea, Despina; Pergialiotis, Vasilios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin injections have been investigated for the treatment or prevention of hypertrophic scars in several clinical studies. However, its clinical effectiveness has not yet been established. OBJECTIVE: To examine all available evidence that support the use of botulinum toxin injections for the treatment or prevention of hypertrophic scars in current clinical practice. METHODS: A systematic review searching the MEDLINE (1966 to 2014), Scopus (2004 to 2014), Popline (1974 to 2014), ClinicalTrials.gov (2008 to 2014) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (1999 to 2014) databases together with reference lists from included studies was conducted. RESULTS: Ten studies (255 patients) were included. Of these, 123 patients were injected with botulinum toxin type A, nine patients were offered botulinum toxin type B and the remaining 123 patients represented the control groups. Significantly improved cosmetic outcomes were observed among certain studies using the visual analogue scale (experimental group: median score 8.25 [range 6 to 10]) versus control group: median score 6.38 [range 2 to 9]; P<0.001) and the Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale (experimental group score: 6.7 versus control group score: 4.17; P<0.001) assessments. However, the methodological heterogeneity of the included studies, the lack of control group in the majority of them, the use of subjective scales of measurement and the frequent use of patient self-assessment precluded unbiased results. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence does not support the usage of botulinum toxin. Future randomized controlled trials are needed in the field to reach firm conclusions regarding its place in current clinical practice. PMID:26665143

  6. A Systematized Approach to Alleviating Severe Behavioral Problems in a Day Treatment Setting: Severely and Trainable Mentally Impaired and Autistic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Gerald; And Others

    A self contained behavior management classroom, an intensive program for children with multiple behavior impairments, is described. The classroom is designed to transfer the student back to the special education classroom for severely and trainable mentally impaired and autistic children. Typical behavior problems are considered, along with…

  7. Non-suicidal self-injury and suicidality in trans people: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Ellen; Claes, Laurence; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Witcomb, Gemma L; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Literature has described high levels of mental health problems among trans people, such as depression, resulting in increased levels of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behaviour and suicidality (suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts and suicide rates). With the aim of systematically reviewing the available literature in this field, this study identifies 31 papers that explore the rates of NSSI and suicidality in trans people. From reviewing the literature, it was revealed that trans people have a higher prevalence of NSSI and suicidality compared to the cisgender (non-trans) population. There appear to be some gender differences within these rates, with trans men at a greater risk for NSSI behaviour. Prevalence rates differ depending on the different stages of transition, but they are still overall greater than the cisgender population. The study concludes that trans individuals are at a greater risk of NSSI behaviour and suicidality than the cisgender population, and discusses risk factors and the need to develop effective preventative interventions.

  8. Health promotion interventions for increasing stroke awareness in ethnic minorities: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke places a significant burden to all affected individuals, but it is perhaps more significant amongst members of black, minority and ethnic communities, who may experience poorer awareness of stroke symptoms than the general population. Recently, several initiatives tried to improve public awareness that symptoms of stroke need to be treated as a medical emergency. However, ethnic communities present cultural barriers, requiring tailored health promotion interventions, whose effectiveness remains uncertain. Our systematic review aimed to identify relevant published evidence, synthesize the main study components and identify evidence of the effectiveness of the interventions. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched for journal articles on health promotion interventions for increasing stroke awareness in ethnic minorities, published in English between 1995 and 2012. Search results were collaboratively assessed by the authors; included studies were analysed to identify their main characteristics, and a thematic analysis of their content was conducted. No meta-analysis was performed, due to the heterogeneity of results. Results Eighteen studies were included, reporting 15 interventions conducted in the US, for African-Americans or Hispanics; populations sizes differed between interventions. Interventions were mostly carried out in community settings with different educational techniques, focussing on experiential methods. Health professionals usually organized the programs, delivered by nurses, other health professionals or volunteers. The few theory-based interventions focussed on individual-level behavioural change. Practical cultural adaptation strategies were not linked to specific theoretical frameworks. Interventions widely differed as for target populations, settings, delivery methods, contents and professional roles involved. All study designs were quantitative, and the emerging evidence of effectiveness was inconclusive

  9. Toxicity of concurrent radiochemotherapy for locally advanced non--small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Koning, Caro C; Wouterse, Sanne J; Daams, Joost G; Uitterhoeve, Lon L; van den Heuvel, Michel M; Belderbos, José S

    2013-09-01

    Concurrent radiochemotherapy (RCT) is the treatment of choice for patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Two meta-analyses were inconclusive in an attempt to define the optimal concurrent RCT scheme. Besides efficacy, treatment toxicity will influence the appointed treatment of choice. A systematic review of the literature was performed to record the early and late toxicities, as well as overall survival, of concurrent RCT regimens in patients with NSCLC. The databases of PubMed, Ovid, Medline, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles on concurrent RCT published between January 1992 and December 2009. Publications of phase II and phase III trials with ≥ 50 patients per treatment arm were selected. Patient characteristics, chemotherapy regimen (mono- or polychemotherapy, high or low dose) and radiotherapy scheme, acute and late toxicity, and overall survival data were compared. Seventeen articles were selected: 12 studies with cisplatin-containing regimens and 5 studies using carboplatin. A total of 13 series with mono- or polychemotherapy schedules--as single dose or double or triple high-dose or daily cisplatin-containing (≤ 30 mg/m(2)/wk) chemotherapy were found. Acute esophagitis ≥ grade 3 was observed in up to 18% of the patients. High-dose cisplatin regimens resulted in more frequent and severe hematologic toxicity, nausea, and vomiting than did other schemes. The toxicity profile was more favorable in low-dose chemotherapy schedules. From phase II and III trials published between 1992 and 2010, it can be concluded that concurrent RCT with monochemotherapy consisting of daily cisplatin results in favorable acute and late toxicity compared with concurrent RCT with single high-dose chemotherapy, doublets, or triplets.

  10. A Decade of Research on the Use of Three-Dimensional Virtual Worlds in Health Care: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghapanchi, Amir Hossein; Blumenstein, Michael; Talaei-Khoei, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background A three-dimensional virtual world (3DVW) is a computer-simulated electronic 3D virtual environment that users can explore, inhabit, communicate, and interact with via avatars, which are graphical representations of the users. Since the early 2000s, 3DVWs have emerged as a technology that has much to offer the health care sector. Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize different application areas of various 3DVWs in health and medical context and categorize them into meaningful categories. Methods This study employs a systematic literature review on the application areas of 3DVWs in health care. Our search resulted in 62 papers from five top-ranking scientific databases published from 1990 to 2013 that describe the use of 3DVWs for health care specific purposes. We noted a growth in the number of academic studies on the topic since 2006. Results We found a wide range of application areas for 3DVWs in health care and classified them into the following six categories: academic education, professional education, treatment, evaluation, lifestyle, and modeling. The education category, including professional and academic education, contains the largest number of papers (n=34), of which 23 are related to the academic education category and 11 to the professional education category. Nine papers are allocated to treatment category, and 8 papers have contents related to evaluation. In 4 of the papers, the authors used 3DVWs for modeling, and 3 papers targeted lifestyle purposes. The results indicate that most of the research to date has focused on education in health care. We also found that most studies were undertaken in just two countries, the United States and the United Kingdom. Conclusions 3D virtual worlds present several innovative ways to carry out a wide variety of health-related activities. The big picture of application areas of 3DVWs presented in this review could be of value and offer insights to both the health care community and

  11. Recent Epidemiological Trends of Dengue in the French Territories of the Americas (2000–2012): A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    L'Azou, Maïna; Taurel, Anne-Frieda; Flamand, Claude; Quénel, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a public health concern across the globe, and an escalating problem in the Americas. As part of a wider programme (covering Latin America and South East Asia) to characterize the epidemiology of dengue in dengue endemic areas, we undertook a systematic literature review to assess epidemiological trends (incidence, timing and duration of outbreaks/epidemics, age and sex distribution, serotype distribution, seroprevalence and disease severity) for dengue across the French Territories of the Americas (FTA), in French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy between 2000 and 2012 (CRD42012002341: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42012002341). Of 413 relevant data sources identified, 45 were eligible for inclusion. A large proportion of the available data were from national surveillance reports, and 12 publications were from peer-reviewed journals. During the review period, 3–5 epidemics were identified in each of the island territories and French Guiana, and epidemics were often associated with a shift in the predominant circulating dengue virus serotype. Substantial gaps in epidemiological knowledge were identified. In particular, information regarding dengue virus genotype distribution, seroprevalence and age distribution of dengue were lacking. Additionally, much of the available data were from epidemic years; data from inter-epidemic periods were sparse. Nevertheless, the available epidemiological data showed that dengue is endemic across the FTA and suggest an evolution towards hyperendemicity, highlighting the need to continue the efforts with the existing surveillance programmes to assist in planning an effective vaccination programme once a dengue vaccine is deployed. Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD42012002341 PMID:25375627

  12. Prophylaxis and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, N.; Barnes, E.; van Draanen, J.; Stacey, E.; Mitera, G.; Breen, D.; Giotis, A.; Czarnota, G.; Pang, J.; De Angelis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer patients. One of the most common side effects of radiation is acute skin reaction (radiation dermatitis) that ranges from a mild rash to severe ulceration. Approximately 85% of patients treated with radiation therapy will experience a moderate-to-severe skin reaction. Acute radiation-induced skin reactions often lead to itching and pain, delays in treatment, and diminished aesthetic appearance—and subsequently to a decrease in quality of life. Surveys have demonstrated that a wide variety of topical, oral, and intravenous agents are used to prevent or to treat radiation-induced skin reactions. We conducted a literature review to identify trials that investigated products for the prophylaxis and management of acute radiation dermatitis. Thirty-nine studies met the pre-defined criteria, with thirty-three being categorized as prophylactic trials and six as management trials. For objective evaluation of skin reactions, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria and the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria were the most commonly used tools (65% of the studies). Topical corticosteroid agents were found to significantly reduce the severity of skin reactions; however, the trials of corticosteroids evaluated various agents, and no clear indication about a preferred corticosteroid has emerged. Amifostine and oral enzymes were somewhat effective in preventing radiation-induced skin reactions in phase ii and phase iii trials respectively; further large randomized controlled trials should be undertaken to better investigate those products. Biafine cream (Ortho–McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ, U.S.A.) was found not to be superior to standard regimes in the prevention of radiation-induced skin reactions (n = 6). In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to support the use of a particular agent for the prevention and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions. Future trials should focus

  13. Utilisation of helicopter emergency medical services in the early medical response to major incidents: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Anne Siri; Fattah, Sabina; Sollid, Stephen J M; Rehn, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Objective This systematic review identifies, describes and appraises the literature describing the utilisation of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the early medical response to major incidents. Setting Early prehospital phase of a major incident. Design Systematic literature review performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cinahl, Bibsys Ask, Norart, Svemed and UpToDate were searched using phrases that combined HEMS and ‘major incidents’ to identify when and how HEMS was utilised. The identified studies were subjected to data extraction and appraisal. Results The database search identified 4948 articles. Based on the title and abstract, the full text of 96 articles was obtained; of these, 37 articles were included in the review, and an additional five were identified by searching the reference lists of the 37 articles. HEMS was used to transport medical and rescue personnel to the incident and to transport patients to the hospital, especially when the infrastructure was damaged. Insufficient air traffic control, weather conditions, inadequate landing sites and failing communication were described as challenging in some incidents. Conclusions HEMS was used mainly for patient treatment and to transport patients, personnel and equipment in the early medical management of major incidents, but the optimal utilisation of this specialised resource remains unclear. This review identified operational areas with improvement potential. A lack of systematic indexing, heterogeneous data reporting and weak methodological design, complicated the identification and comparison of incidents, and more systematic reporting is needed. Trial registration number CRD42013004473. PMID:26861938

  14. Perspectives on care and communication involving incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, relatives and professionals: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our aim was to obtain a clearer picture of the relevant care experiences and care perceptions of incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, their relatives and professional care providers, as well as of communication and decision-making patterns at the end of life. The ultimate objective is to improve palliative care for Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands, by taking account of socio-cultural factors in the guidelines for palliative care. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken. The data sources were seventeen national and international literature databases, four Dutch journals dedicated to palliative care and 37 websites of relevant national and international organizations. All the references found were checked to see whether they met the structured inclusion criteria. Inclusion was limited to publications dealing with primary empirical research on the relationship between socio-cultural factors and the health or care situation of Turkish or Moroccan patients with an oncological or incurable disease. The selection was made by first reading the titles and abstracts and subsequently the full texts. The process of deciding which studies to include was carried out by two reviewers independently. A generic appraisal instrument was applied to assess the methodological quality. Results Fifty-seven studies were found that reported findings for the countries of origin (mainly Turkey) and the immigrant host countries (mainly the Netherlands). The central themes were experiences and perceptions of family care, professional care, end-of-life care and communication. Family care is considered a duty, even when such care becomes a severe burden for the main female family caregiver in particular. Professional hospital care is preferred by many of the patients and relatives because they are looking for a cure and security. End-of-life care is strongly influenced by the continuing hope for recovery. Relatives are often quite influential in

  15. The Role of Physician Assistants in Rural Health Care: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Lisa R.; Hooker, Roderick S.; Yates, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A literature review was performed to assess the role of physician assistants (PAs) in rural health care. Four categories were examined: scope of practice, physician perceptions, community perceptions, and retention/recruitment. Methods: A search of the literature from 1974 to 2008 was undertaken by probing the electronic bibliographic…

  16. Publishing Not Perishing: How Research Students Transition from Novice to Knowledgeable Using Systematic Quantitative Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Catherine; Grignon, Julien; Steven, Rochelle; Guitart, Daniela; Byrne, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Current understandings suggest that three aspects of writing practice underpin the research student publication process: knowledge creation, text production and identity formation. Publishing a literature review is the first opportunity most students have to publish. This article compares the pedagogical benefits of different literature review…

  17. Community‐Academic Partnerships: A Systematic Review of the State of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    MEZA, ROSEMARY D.; BRIKHO, BRIGITTE; NAAF, MEGHAN; ESTABILLO, JASPER A.; GOMEZ, EMILY D.; VEJNOSKA, SARAH F.; DUFEK, SARAH; STAHMER, AUBYN C.; AARONS, GREGORY A.

    2016-01-01

    Policy Points: Communities, funding agencies, and institutions are increasingly involving community stakeholders as partners in research, to provide firsthand knowledge and insight.Based on our systematic review of major literature databases, we recommend using a single term, community‐academic partnership (CAP), and a conceptual definition to unite multiple research disciplines and strengthen the field.Interpersonal and operational factors that facilitate or hinder the collaborative process have been consistently identified, including “trust among partners” and “respect among partners” (facilitating interpersonal factors) and “excessive time commitment” (hindering operational factor).Once CAP processes and characteristics are better understood, the effectiveness of collaborative partner involvement can be tested. Context Communities, funding agencies, and institutions are increasingly involving community stakeholders as partners in research. Community stakeholders can provide firsthand knowledge and insight, thereby increasing research relevance and feasibility. Despite the greater emphasis and use of community‐academic partnerships (CAP) across multiple disciplines, definitions of partnerships and methodologies vary greatly, and no systematic reviews consolidating this literature have been published. The purpose of this article, then, is to facilitate the continued growth of this field by examining the characteristics of CAPs and the current state of the science, identifying the facilitating and hindering influences on the collaborative process, and developing a common term and conceptual definition for use across disciplines. Methods Our systematic search of 6 major literature databases generated 1,332 unique articles, 50 of which met our criteria for inclusion and provided data on 54 unique CAPs. We then analyzed studies to describe CAP characteristics and to identify the terms and methods used, as well as the common influences on the CAP

  18. Misdiagnosed amoebic colitis leading to severe dysentery and necrotizing colitis--report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Trine H; Christiansen, Jens J; Eivindson, Martin V; Larsen, Carsten S; Tøttrup, Anders

    2014-03-01

    We present a case of amoebic colitis, misdiagnosed as inflammatory bowel disease and treated with corticosteroids, leading to severe necrotizing enterocolitis. We review the literature on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of amoebic dysentery, with special emphasis on the association between immunosuppressive treatment and the development of severe invasive amoebiasis.

  19. Management of sleep bruxism in adults: a qualitative systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, Daniele; Ahlberg, Jari; Winocur, Ephraim; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2015-11-01

    This paper updates the bruxism management review published by Lobbezoo et al. in 2008 (J Oral Rehabil 2008; 35: 509-23). The review focuses on the most recent literature on management of sleep bruxism (SB) in adults, as diagnosed with polysomnography (PSG) with audio-video (AV) recordings, or with any other approach measuring the sleep-time masticatory muscles' activity, viz., PSG without AV recordings or electromyography (EMG) recorded with portable devices. Fourteen (N = 14) papers were included in the review, of which 12 were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 2 were uncontrolled before-after studies. Structured reading of the included articles showed a high variability of topics, designs and findings. On average, the risk of bias for RCTs was low-to-unclear, whilst the before-after studies had several methodological limitations. The studies' results suggest that (i) almost every type of oral appliance (OA) (seven papers) is somehow effective to reduce SB activity, with a potentially higher decrease for devices providing large extent of mandibular advancement; (ii) all tested pharmacological approaches [i.e. botulinum toxin (two papers), clonazepam (one paper) and clonidine (one paper)] may reduce SB with respect to placebo; (iii) the potential benefit of biofeedback (BF) and cognitive-behavioural (CB) approaches to SB management is not fully supported (two papers); and (iv) the only investigation providing an electrical stimulus to the masseter muscle supports its effectiveness to reduce SB. It can be concluded that there is not enough evidence to define a standard of reference approach for SB treatment, except for the use of OA. Future studies on the indications for SB treatment are recommended.

  20. Do Children with Uncomplicated Severe Acute Malnutrition Need Antibiotics? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alcoba, Gabriel; Kerac, Marko; Breysse, Serge; Salpeteur, Cécile; Galetto-Lacour, Annick; Briend, André; Gervaix, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Background Current (1999) World Health Organization guidelines recommend giving routine antibiotics (AB) for all children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), even if they have uncomplicated disease with no clinically obvious infections. We examined the evidence behind this recommendation. Methods and Findings OVID-MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, GLOBAL-HEALTH, CINAHL, POPLINE, AFRICA-WIDE-NiPAD, and LILACS were searched for AB efficacy, bacterial resistance, and infection rates in SAM. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Three randomised controlled trials (RCT), five Cochrane reviews, and 37 observational studies were identified. One cohort-study showed no increase in nutritional-cure and mortality in uncomplicated SAM where no AB were used. (p>0.05). However, an unpublished RCT in this setting did show mortality benefits. Another RCT did not show superiority of ceftriaxone over amoxicilllin for these same outcomes, but adressed SAM children with and without complications (p = 0.27). Another RCT showed no difference between amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole efficacies for pneumonia in underweight, but not SAM. Our meta-analysis of 12 pooled susceptibility-studies for all types of bacterial isolates, including 2767 stricly SAM children, favoured amoxicillin over cotrimoxazole for susceptibility medians: 42% (IQR 27–55%) vs 22% (IQR 17–23%) and population-weighted-means 52.9% (range 23–57%) vs 35.4% (range 6.7–42%). Susceptibilities to second-line AB were better, above 80%. Prevalence of serious infections in SAM, pooled from 24 studies, ranged from 17% to 35.2%. No study infered any association of infection prevalence with AB regimens in SAM. Conclusions The evidence underlying current antibiotic recommendations for uncomplicated SAM is weak. Susceptibility-studies favour amoxicillin over cotrimoxazole. However, given that these antibiotics have side-effects, costs, and risks as well as benefits, their routine use

  1. Parameters and Measures in Assessment of Motor Learning in Neurorehabilitation; A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shishov, Nataliya; Melzer, Itshak; Bar-Haim, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Upper limb function, essential for daily life, is often impaired in individuals after stroke and cerebral palsy (CP). For an improved upper limb function, learning should occur, and therefore training with motor learning principles is included in many rehabilitation interventions. Despite accurate measurement being an important aspect for examination and optimization of treatment outcomes, there are no standard algorithms for outcome measures selection. Moreover, the ability of the chosen measures to identify learning is not well established. We aimed to review and categorize the parameters and measures utilized for identification of motor learning in stroke and CP populations. PubMed, Pedro, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched between January 2000 and March 2016 for studies assessing a form of motor learning following upper extremity training using motor control measures. Thirty-two studies in persons after stroke and 10 studies in CP of any methodological quality were included. Identified outcome measures were sorted into two categories, “parameters,” defined as identifying a form of learning, and “measures,” as tools measuring the parameter. Review's results were organized as a narrative synthesis focusing on the outcome measures. The included studies were heterogeneous in their study designs, parameters and measures. Parameters included adaptation (n = 6), anticipatory control (n = 2), after-effects (n = 3), de-adaptation (n = 4), performance (n = 24), acquisition (n = 8), retention (n = 8), and transfer (n = 14). Despite motor learning theory's emphasis on long-lasting changes and generalization, the majority of studies did not assess the retention and transfer parameters. Underlying measures included kinematic analyses in terms of speed, geometry or both (n = 39), dynamic metrics, measures of accuracy, consistency, and coordination. There is no exclusivity of measures to a specific parameter. Many factors affect task performance

  2. Parameters and Measures in Assessment of Motor Learning in Neurorehabilitation; A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Shishov, Nataliya; Melzer, Itshak; Bar-Haim, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Upper limb function, essential for daily life, is often impaired in individuals after stroke and cerebral palsy (CP). For an improved upper limb function, learning should occur, and therefore training with motor learning principles is included in many rehabilitation interventions. Despite accurate measurement being an important aspect for examination and optimization of treatment outcomes, there are no standard algorithms for outcome measures selection. Moreover, the ability of the chosen measures to identify learning is not well established. We aimed to review and categorize the parameters and measures utilized for identification of motor learning in stroke and CP populations. PubMed, Pedro, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched between January 2000 and March 2016 for studies assessing a form of motor learning following upper extremity training using motor control measures. Thirty-two studies in persons after stroke and 10 studies in CP of any methodological quality were included. Identified outcome measures were sorted into two categories, "parameters," defined as identifying a form of learning, and "measures," as tools measuring the parameter. Review's results were organized as a narrative synthesis focusing on the outcome measures. The included studies were heterogeneous in their study designs, parameters and measures. Parameters included adaptation (n = 6), anticipatory control (n = 2), after-effects (n = 3), de-adaptation (n = 4), performance (n = 24), acquisition (n = 8), retention (n = 8), and transfer (n = 14). Despite motor learning theory's emphasis on long-lasting changes and generalization, the majority of studies did not assess the retention and transfer parameters. Underlying measures included kinematic analyses in terms of speed, geometry or both (n = 39), dynamic metrics, measures of accuracy, consistency, and coordination. There is no exclusivity of measures to a specific parameter. Many factors affect task performance and the

  3. Preparing students for the ethical challenges on international health electives: A systematic review of the literature on educational interventions.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Anika; Knights Née Jones, Felicity; Fyfe, Molly; Alagarajah, Janagan; Baraitser, Paula

    2016-09-01

    International health electives pose specific ethical challenges for students travelling from to low and middle income countries. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on interventions to prepare students to identify ethical issues addressed, educational approaches and to collate evidence on the effectiveness of different strategies. We searched nine electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature and identified grey literature through key word searches; supplemented through citation mapping and expert consultation. Articles that described ethical training conducted by universities or professional bodies were included for review. We reviewed forty-four full text articles. Ten sources of published literature and seven sources of grey literature met our inclusion criteria. We identified thirteen ethical situations that students should be prepared to manage and eight generic skills to support this process. Most interventions were delivered before the elective, used case studies or guidelines. Some suggested ethical principles or a framework for analysis of ethical issues. Only two papers evaluated the intervention described. Our paper collates a small but growing body of work on education to prepare students to manage ethical issues. Ethical training should have elements that are delivered before, during and after the elective. Interventions should include case studies covering thirteen ethical issues identified here, linked to ethical principles and a process for responding to ethical issues. We suggest that evaluations of interventions are an important area for future research.

  4. Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verner, Zenobia, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue provides a selection of articles about literature and the teaching of literature. Titles include "Sin, Salvation, and Grace in 'The Scarlet Letter,'""'The Road Not Taken': A Study in Ambiguity,""In Search of Shakespeare: The Essential Years,""Right Deeds for Wrong Reasons: Teaching the Bible as…

  5. [Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Katherine; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: K-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Literature. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide starts with an overview of literature topics for grades 4-12, followed by suggested activities, a list of supplementary books for elementary grades, and a table listing specific skills. The remainder of the guide deals with ten cardinal concerns and…

  6. Integra-based Reconstruction of Large Scalp Wounds: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Maxwell B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Large complex scalp wounds that have traditionally required free vascularized tissue transfer have been successfully reconstructed with skin substitutes such as Integra. Although there are multiple reports of Integra-based reconstructions of scalp wounds, there has not been a comprehensive assessment of this body of literature that critically examines this method. Our goal was to conduct a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of Integra-based reconstructions of scalp wounds, with emphasis on large defects. Methods: A comprehensive systematic review was completed using key search terms, including Integra, dermal regeneration template, bovine collagen, skin substitute, forehead, and scalp. Selected articles reported characteristics of patients and their reconstructions. The primary outcome measures were wound complications and percent graft take. Results: Thirty-four articles were included in this systematic review. Wound sizes ranged from 5.7 to 610 cm2, with 35.3% of articles reporting a mean defect size >100 cm2. Thirty-two articles reported mean percent take of skin graft ≥90%. Sixteen articles reported a minor complication. There were no major complications associated with the reconstructions. Conclusions: There is a substantial evidence base for the use of Integra to reconstruct scalp wounds. To date, the dermal regeneration template is generally reserved for salvage procedures or when the patient cannot tolerate free tissue transfer. Based on the findings of this systematic review and the authors’ clinical experience, Integra can be used to achieve predictable results in large complex scalp defects. PMID:27826471

  7. Curative Treatment of Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Patients With Severe COPD: Stereotactic Radiotherapy Outcomes and Systematic Review

    SciTech Connect

    Palma, David; Lagerwaard, Frank; Rodrigues, George; Haasbeek, Cornelis; Senan, Suresh

    2012-03-01

    Objectives: Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a high risk of lung cancer and of postsurgical complications. We studied outcomes after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients with severe COPD, as defined by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria, and performed a systematic review of the literature on outcomes after SBRT or surgery in these patients. Methods: A single-institution cohort of 176 patients with COPD GOLD III-IV and Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with SBRT was evaluated. A systematic review identified studies reporting outcomes after SBRT or surgery for Stage I NSCLC in patients with GOLD III-IV or a predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of {<=}40%. Results: In the single-institution cohort, median follow-up was 21 months and median overall survival (OS) was 32 months. Actuarial 3-year local control was 89%, and 1- and 3-year OS were 79% and 47%, respectively. COPD severity correlated with OS (p = 0.01). The systematic review identified four other studies (two surgical, two SBRT, n = 196 patients). SBRT studies were published more recently and included older patients than surgical studies. Mean 30-day mortality was 0% post-SBRT and 10% after surgery. Local or locoregional control was high ({>=}89%) after both treatments. Post-SBRT, actuarial OS was 79-95% at 1 year and 43-70% at 3 years. Postsurgical actuarial OS was 45-86% at 1 year and 31-66% at 3 years. Conclusions: SBRT and surgery differ in risk of 30-day mortality in patients with severe COPD. Despite the negative selection of SBRT patients, survival at 1 and 3 years is comparable between the two treatments.

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders across the lifespan: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Levin, Rivka L; Rawana, Jennine S

    2016-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders are common and concerning mental health disorders. There is both empirical and theoretical support for an association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. This systematic review aims to summarize the extant literature on the comorbidity of ADHD and eating disorders across the lifespan, including the influences of sex, age, eating disorder diagnosis, and potential mediators. A total of 37 peer-reviewed studies on diagnosed ADHD and eating disturbances were identified through key research databases. Twenty-six studies supported a strong empirical association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. The systematic review findings suggest that children with ADHD are at risk for disordered eating, while adolescents, emerging adults, and adults are at risk for both eating disorders and disordered eating. Methodological considerations, future research, and clinical implications are discussed.

  9. High-Dose Corticosteroid Use and Risk of Hip Osteonecrosis: Meta-Analysis and Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Mont, Michael A; Pivec, Robert; Banerjee, Samik; Issa, Kimona; Elmallah, Randa K; Jones, Lynne C

    2015-09-01

    The effect of varying corticosteroid regimens on hip osteonecrosis incidence remains unclear. We performed a meta-analysis and systematic literature review to determine osteonecrosis occurrences in patients taking corticosteroids at varying mean and cumulative doses and treatment durations, and whether medical diagnoses affected osteonecrosis incidence. Fifty-seven studies (23,561 patients) were reviewed. Regression analysis determined significance between corticosteroid usage and osteonecrosis incidence. Osteonecrosis incidence was 6.7% with corticosteroid treatment of >2 g (prednisone-equivalent). Systemic lupus erythematosus patients had positive correlations between dose and osteonecrosis incidence. Each 10 mg/d increase was associated with a 3.6% increase in osteonecrosis rate, and >20 mg/d resulted in a higher osteonecrosis incidence. Clinicians must be wary of osteonecrosis in patients on high corticosteroid regimens, particularly in systematic lupus erythematosus.

  10. The role of home-based information and communications technology interventions in chronic disease management: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Rekha; Warren, Jim

    2009-06-01

    This article presents a systematic literature review done to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of home-based information and communications technology enabled interventions for chronic disease management, with emphasis on their impact on health outcomes and costs. Relevant articles were retrieved from PubMed and evaluated using quality worksheets with pre-identified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the 256 articles retrieved, 27 were found to concord with the study criteria. Evaluation of the identified articles was conducted irrespective of study design, type of home-based intervention or chronic disease involved. The review demonstrates that HBIs applied to chronic disease management improve functional and cognitive patient outcomes and reduce healthcare spending. However, further research is needed to assess benefit in terms of evidence-based outcome indicators (that can provide a basis for meta-analysis), to confirm sustainable cost benefits, and to systematically collect data on physician satisfaction with patient management.

  11. Predictors of alcohol-related negative consequences in adolescents: A systematic review of the literature and implications for future research

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Myriam; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining risk and protective factors of alcohol related negative consequences (ARNCs) among adolescents. Methods We conducted a systematic search of original empirical articles published between January 1, 1990 and June 1, 2015. The qualitative synthesis was performed using the Theory of Triadic Influence as a framework. Results Fifty-two studies were reviewed. Intrapersonal (e.g., personality traits, drinking motives and expectancies, depression), interpersonal (e.g., parental and peer alcohol use, violence exposure) and attitudinal factors (e.g., media exposure to alcohol, religiosity) influence ARNCs. Emerging evidence of new trends contributing to ARNCs include ready mixed alcohol drinks and childhood trauma and abuse. Conclusions Risk factors from all domains of influence were observed. More research is needed on protective factors and how alcohol use interacts with preventive factors in predicting ARNCs. The conceptualization of negative consequences varies significantly between studies and may impact the external validity of previous research. PMID:26871952

  12. Pragmatic Language of African American Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Synthesis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyter, Yvette D.; Rivers, Kenyatta O.; DeJarnette, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A systematic review and synthesis was performed on published articles and dissertations produced between 1970 and 2013 that focused on selected pragmatic language behaviors of African American children and adolescents. Methods: Electronic databases and hand searches of articles located in the databases were used to identify the published…

  13. How Will DSM-5 Affect Autism Diagnosis? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulage, Kristine M.; Smaldone, Arlene M.; Cohn, Elizabeth G.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explore policy implications. We identified 418 studies; 14 met inclusion criteria. Studies consistently reported decreases in ASD diagnosis (range 7.3-68.4%) using DSM-5…

  14. Factors Associated with Social Interactions between Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Georgina; Oakes, Peter M.; Alexander, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that deaf children can have marked social difficulties compared with their hearing peers. Factors that influence these social interactions need to be reviewed to inform interventions. A systematic search of 5 key databases and 3 specialized journals identified 14 papers that met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of…

  15. Animal-Assisted Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of animals in therapeutic activities, known as animal-assisted intervention (AAI), has been suggested as a treatment practice for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper presents a systematic review of the empirical research on AAI for ASD. Fourteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion. The…

  16. A Systematic Review of Literature on Culturally Adapted Obesity Prevention Interventions for African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…

  17. Smoking and Membership in a Fraternity or Sorority: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Harris, LaNita W.; Gowin, Mary J.; Huber, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Fraternity and sorority members have higher rates of smoking than other college students. This systematic review examines studies that included fraternity/sorority membership in their investigation of smoking behaviors. Participants/Methods: Studies identified in MEDLINE, PsychInfo, JSTOR, CINAHL, ERIC, and Google Scholar published…

  18. Emotional and Behavioral Aspects of Diabetes in American Indians/Alaska Natives: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarton, Lisa J.; de Groot, Mary

    2017-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) bear a disproportionate burden of diabetes and associated long-term complications. Behavioral interventions play a vital role in promoting diabetes medical and psychological outcomes, yet the development of interventions for AI/AN communities has been limited. A systematic review was conducted of…

  19. Intellectual Giftedness and Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Rosanna; Hawes, David J.; Abbott, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Using a systematic search strategy in which intellectual giftedness was operationalized in terms of IQ score, the authors examined evidence from studies reporting on associations between this aspect of giftedness and psychopathology. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria: compared gifted (IQ = 125) and nongifted (IQ = 90-110) peers or…

  20. Spectrum of Art Therapy Practice: Systematic Literature Review of "Art Therapy," 1983-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potash, Jordan S.; Mann, Sarah M.; Martinez, Johanna C.; Roach, Ann B.; Wallace, Nina M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine art therapists' fit in the continuum of health delivery services defined by behavioral health. All publications in "Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art" Therapy Association from 1983 (Volume 1) to 2014 (Volume 31) were systematically reviewed to understand how art therapy has been…

  1. Motivational Correlates of Physical Activity in Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Y.; Korsensky, O.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to systematically retrieve, examine and discuss scientific studies focusing on motivational correlates that both contribute to, and can be assumed to be effects of, participation in sport, recreation, or health-related physical activities in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: A systematic…

  2. Prevalence of Chronic Health Conditions in Children with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, Barth; Dijkstra, Geke J.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review of the prevalence rates of chronic health conditions in populations of children with intellectual disability was provided. We identified 2,994 relevant studies by searching Medline, Cinahl, and PsycINFO databases from 1996 to 2008. We included the 31 studies that had sufficient methodological quality. The 6 most prevalent…

  3. Role of telerehabilitation in patients following total knee arthroplasty: Evidence from a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, H; Nair, S R; Thakker, D

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Increased physical activity and functional ability are the goals of total knee replacement surgery. Therefore, adequate rehabilitation is required for the recovery of patients after discharge from hospital following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This systematic literature review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of home telerehabilitation in patients who underwent TKA. Methods Studies published in the English language between 2000 and 2014 were retrieved from Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane databases using relevant search strategies. Two researchers independently reviewed the studies as per the Cochrane methodology for systematic literature review. We considered telerehabilitation sessions as those that were conducted by experienced physiotherapists, using videoconferencing to patients' homes via an internet connection. The outcomes assessed included: knee movement (knee extension and flexion); quadriceps muscle strength; functional assessment (the timed up-and-go test); and assessment of pain, stiffness, and functional capacity using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and visual analogue scale for pain. Results In total, 160 potentially relevant studies were screened. Following the screening of studies as abstracts and full-text publications, six primary publications (four randomized controlled trials, one non-randomized controlled trial, and one single-arm trial) were included in the review. Patients experienced high levels of satisfaction with the use of telerehabilitation alone. There was no significant difference in change in active knee extension and flexion in the home telerehabilitation group as compared to the control group (mean difference (MD) -0.52, 95% CI -1.39 to 0.35, p = 0.24 and MD 1.14, 95% CI -0.61 to 2.89, p = 0.20, respectively). The patients in the home telerehabilitation group showed improvement in physical activity and functional status similar to patients in the conventional therapy group

  4. Definitions and drivers of relapse in patients with schizophrenia: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Relapse in patients with schizophrenia has devastating repercussions, including worsening symptoms, impaired functioning, cognitive deterioration and reduced quality of life. This progressive decline exacerbates the burden of illness on patients and their families. Relapse prevention is identified as a key therapeutic aim; however, the absence of widely accepted relapse definition criteria considerably hampers achieving this goal. We conducted a literature review in order to investigate the reporting of relapses and the validity of hospitalization as a proxy for relapse in patients with schizophrenia. The primary aim was to assess the range and validity of methods used to define relapse in observational or naturalistic settings. The secondary aim was to capture information on factors that predicted or influenced the risk of relapse. A structured search of the PubMed database identified articles that discussed relapse, and hospitalization as a proxy of relapse, in patients with schizophrenia. National and international guidelines were also reviewed. Of the 150 publications and guidelines identified, 87 defined relapse and 62% of these discussed hospitalization. Where hospitalization was discussed, this was as a proxy for, or a component of, relapse in the majority of cases. However, hospitalization duration and type varied and were not always well defined. Scales were used to define relapse in 53 instances; 10 different scales were used and multiple scales often appeared within the same definition. There were 95 references to factors that may drive relapse, including non-adherence to antipsychotic medication (21/95), stress/depression (11/95) and substance abuse (9/95). Twenty-five publications discussed the potential of antipsychotic therapy to reduce relapse rates—continuous antipsychotic therapy was associated with reduced frequency and duration of hospitalization. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as psychoeducation and cognitive behavioural therapy

  5. Early insights into the neurobiology of pain in sickle cell disease: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brandow, Amanda M; Farley, Rebecca A; Panepinto, Julie A

    2015-09-01

    Novel insights into the neurobiology of sickle cell disease (SCD) pain have recently been discovered. We systematically reviewed the literature focusing on original research that examined the biology of pain in SCD and/or addressed assessment or treatment of neuropathic pain in SCD. This review of 15 articles that met inclusion criteria provides epidemiological, basic, and clinical data that support central and/or peripheral nervous system abnormalities likely contribute to sickle cell pain. Continued basic and clinical investigation into pain neurobiology is imperative to translate these discoveries into novel ways to assess and treat neuropathic pain and decrease patient suffering.

  6. Dealing With Major Life Events and Transitions: A Systematic Literature Review on and Occupational Analysis of Spirituality.

    PubMed

    Maley, Christine M; Pagana, Nicole K; Velenger, Christa A; Humbert, Tamera Keiter

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review analyzed the construct of spirituality as perceived by people who have experienced or are experiencing a major life event or transition. The researchers investigated studies that used narrative analysis or a phenomenological methodology related to the topic. Thematic analysis resulted in three major themes: (1) avenues to and through spirituality, (2) the experience of spirituality, and (3) the meaning of spirituality. The results provide insights into the intersection of spirituality, meaning, and occupational engagement as understood by people experiencing a major life event or transition and suggest further research that addresses spirituality in occupational therapy and interdisciplinary intervention.

  7. Third-degree burns caused by ignition of chlorhexidine: A case report and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Anthony; Bengezi, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Ignition of chlorhexidine by an electrocautery unit is rare but can have devastating consequences for the patient and the surgeon. A case involving a 77-year-old man who underwent removal of an indwelling artificial urethral sphincter is presented. The chlorhexidine was ignited when the urologist activated the electrocautery unit, causing third-degree burns to the patient. A plastic surgeon treated the burns with surgical debridement and split-thickness skin grafting. A systematic review of the literature was performed with best practice recommendations. To the authors’ knowledge, the present case is the ninth such case reported. PMID:25535466

  8. The impact of participation in performing arts on adolescent health and behaviour: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Daykin, Norma; Orme, Judy; Evans, David; Salmon, Debra; McEachran, Malcolm; Brain, Sarah

    2008-03-01

    This article reports a systematic rev