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Sample records for sevier county tn

  1. Seepage study of the Sevier Valley-Piute Canal, Sevier County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruff, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the gains or losses of the Sevier Valley-Piute Canal from near Joseph to near Aurora, Sevier County, Utah, was made to aid in water allocation for the canal system. Four sets of seepage measurements were made in 1976, with the three most representative being used in the analysis. Adjustments for fluctuations in flow in the canals were made from information obtained from water-stage recorders operated at selected locations along the canal during the time of each seepage run.

  2. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Deliverable 2.5.4, Ferron Sandstone lithologic strip logs, Emergy & Sevier Counties, Utah: Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L.

    1995-12-08

    Strip logs for 491 wells were produced from a digital subsurface database of lithologic descriptions of the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale. This subsurface database covers wells from the parts of Emery and Sevier Counties in central Utah that occur between Ferron Creek on the north and Last Chance Creek on the south. The lithologic descriptions were imported into a logging software application designed for the display of stratigraphic data. Strip logs were produced at a scale of one inch equals 20 feet. The strip logs were created as part of a study by the Utah Geological Survey to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and qualitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir using the Ferron Sandstone as a surface analogue. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Geoscience/Engineering Reservoir Characterization Program.

  3. Modeling Interventions in the Owned Cat Population to Decrease Numbers, Knox County, TN.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Evan P; Lenhart, Suzanne; Ojogbo, Ejebagom J; Rekant, Steven I; Scott, Janelle R; Weimer, Heidi; New, John C

    2016-01-01

    To find management strategies for controlling the owned cat population in Knox County, TN, the authors formulated a mathematical model using biological properties of such nonhuman animals and spay actions on certain age classes. They constructed this discrete-time model to predict the future owned cat population in this county and to evaluate intervention strategies to surgically sterilize some proportion of the population. Using the predicted population size and the number of surgeries for specific scenarios, they showed that focusing on specific age classes can be an effective feature in spay programs.

  4. Modeling Interventions in the Owned Cat Population to Decrease Numbers, Knox County, TN.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Evan P; Lenhart, Suzanne; Ojogbo, Ejebagom J; Rekant, Steven I; Scott, Janelle R; Weimer, Heidi; New, John C

    2016-01-01

    To find management strategies for controlling the owned cat population in Knox County, TN, the authors formulated a mathematical model using biological properties of such nonhuman animals and spay actions on certain age classes. They constructed this discrete-time model to predict the future owned cat population in this county and to evaluate intervention strategies to surgically sterilize some proportion of the population. Using the predicted population size and the number of surgeries for specific scenarios, they showed that focusing on specific age classes can be an effective feature in spay programs. PMID:27152694

  5. 77 FR 67057 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Anderson County, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Anderson... the track in Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tenn. The line traverses United States Postal Service...

  6. Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA Region 4): Wrigley Charcoal Superfund Site, Hickman County, Wrigley, TN, February 2, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected Interim Remedial Action (IRA) for the Wrigley Charcoal Site, in Wrigley, Hickman County, Tennessee. The U.S. EPA has modified a wide variety of items that require immediate response action for the first step of cleanup activities to be taken at the Wrigley Charcoal Site. The major goal of these cleanup activities is to address the most serious threats at the Wrigley Charcoal Site by removing contaminated media from the Primary Site flood plain, remediating wastes at the Storage Basin, and through limited access restrictions at the Primary Site and the Storage Basin. The cleanup activities as presented in this IRA Record of Decision (ROD) Amendment will achieve significant risk reduction and will prepare the Site for future remedial activities.

  7. 77 FR 60373 - Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and Piute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Forest Service Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and... alternatives, within the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project area. The purpose of the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project is to implement land management activities that...

  8. Axonometric of Structural Framing at Southwest & Southeast Corners ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Axonometric of Structural Framing at Southwest & Southeast Corners - Elkmont Historic District, Wonderland Club, Wonderland Hotel, Annex & Servants' Quarters, Wonderland Hotel Access Road, Elkmont, Sevier County, TN

  9. 2. Elkmont, deck view of corrugated arched bridge. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Elkmont, deck view of corrugated arched bridge. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 3. Elkmont, underside detail of corrugated arched bridge. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Elkmont, underside detail of corrugated arched bridge. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. A Case Study of the Cocke County (TN) School System and Its Role as a Partner in the NSF-Supported Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Jerry G.; Oliver, Steve; Stufflebeam, Daniel

    This case study examines the history and current circumstances of education in Cocke County (Tennessee) in the context of its participation in the Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative (ARSI), which aims to improve science and mathematics achievement through systemic reform. Sections of this report describe the county's history, demography, and…

  12. Anatexis and metamorphism in tectonically thickened continental crust exemplified by the Sevier hinterland, western North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patino Douce, Alberto E.; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Johnston, A. Dana

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal and petrologic model of anatexis and metamorphism in regions of crustal thickening exemplified by the Sevier hinterland in western North America, and uses the model to examine the geological and physical processes leading to crustally derived magmatism. The results of numerical experiments show that anatexis was an inevitable end-product of Barrovian metamorphism in the thickened crust of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt and that the advection of heat across the lithosphere, in the form of mantle-derived mafic magmas, was not required for melting of metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that, in the Sevier belt, as in other intracontinental orogenic belts, anatexis occurred in the midcrust and not at the base of the crust.

  13. Alternatives for physically modifying John Sevier detention dam to allow fish passage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    Studies conducted in the vicinity of John Sevier Steam-Electric Plant (JSF) indicated some modification of the fish assemblage from that expected. By blocking movements of fish between Cherokee Reservoir and the upper Holston River, John Sevier detention dam has affected the fisheries in both systems. Providing passage for river-spawning fish at John Sevier detention dam might improve fish communities and fisheries in Cherokee Reservoir as well as upstream habitats. This would include enhanced reproductive success of river-spawning species found in Cherokee Reservoir (e.g., white bass and possibly striped bass and paddlefish) and repopulation of John Sevier Reservoir and the upper Holston River by several species presently found only downstream of the detention dam. TVA has identified and studied several alternatives that alone or in combination might improve the fisheries. Cost estimates were developed for three alternatives. These three alternatives with cost estimates are discussed briefly along with two other alternatives for which cost estimates have not been made. Merits of the three alternatives which have at least some possibility to improve migratory fish stocks are discussed in detail. 5 references.

  14. Inventory of wetlands and agricultural land cover in the upper Sevier River Basin, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A.; Clark, L. D., Jr.; Landgraf, K. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of color infrared aerial photography in the mapping of agricultural land use and wetlands in the Sevier River Basin of south central utah is described. The efficiency and cost effectiveness of utilizing LANDSAT multispectral scanner digital data to augment photographic interpretations are discussed. Transparent overlays for 27 quadrangles showing delineations of wetlands and agricultural land cover were produced. A table summarizing the acreage represented by each class on each quadrangle overlay is provided.

  15. 12. Deck view of bridge near Alum Cave parking area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Deck view of bridge near Alum Cave parking area looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 36. View of southern terminus of the Blue Ridge Parkway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. View of southern terminus of the Blue Ridge Parkway looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  17. 28. Stream view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Stream view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. 23. Newfound Gap Road, Fancy Ridge, overlook with ugly railing. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Newfound Gap Road, Fancy Ridge, overlook with ugly railing. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential for TVA's John Sevier and Kingston Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ellen D; Saulsbury, Bo

    2008-03-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the potential for geologic carbon sequestration for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) John Sevier and Kingston power plants. The purpose of this assessment is to make a 'first cut' determination of whether there is sufficient potential for geologic carbon sequestration within 200 miles of the plants for TVA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to proceed with a joint proposal for a larger project with a strong carbon management element. This assessment does not consider alternative technologies for carbon capture, but assumes the existence of a segregated CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration.

  20. Ground-water hydrology and projected effects of ground-water withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mountain areas and from adjoining areas. Discharge is by wells, springs, seepage to the Sevier River, evapotranspiration, and subsurface outflow to adjoining areas.

  1. Late Cretaceous extension in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, northwestern Utah and southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.L.; Allmendinger, R.W. ); Dallmeyer, R.D. )

    1990-10-01

    Cover rocks of the Raft River metamorphic core complex, located in the Sevier belt hinterland, preserve a structural and metamorphic history that predates the middle Tertiary extension of the region. In the eastern Raft River Mountains, Cambrian( )-Permian rocks form two allochthons that occur in the hanging wall of the mid-Miocene Raft River detachment fault. Dramatically attenuated, metamorphosed Cambrian( )-Pennsylvanian strata of the lower allochthon yield Late Cretaceous muscovite {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar plateau ages (ca. 82-90 Ma) that are interpreted to date cooling during final stages of layer parallel extension. Devonian-Permian rocks exposed in the Black Pine Mountains underwent east-west extension ({approximately} 160%) associated with syntectonic growth of white mica along cleavage. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar whole-rock spectra of associated slates also indicate a Late Cretaceous metamorphism. Together, field and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results suggest that Late Cretaceous extension occurred in the Sevier belt hinterland at the same time as shortening in the eastern foreland and at depth in the hinterland. Sufficient topography must have been present to drive upper-crustal extension in the eastern hinterland.

  2. Cretaceous crustal structure and metamorphism in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, western US Cordillera

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.L.; Gans, P.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Combined structural and geochronologic studies to the west of the Sevier belt at lat 39{degree}-40{degree}N indicate that peak metamorphism of the upper 15 km of crust occurred during the Late Cretaceous (70-90 Ma), overlapping in time with the intrusion of muscovite-bearing granites and pegmatites. Metamorphism was accompanied by penetrative deformation (top-to-the-east layer-parallel shear); both were localized at the currently exposed structural levels, resulting in impressive vertical and lateral strain gradients and T{sub max} gradients of > 50 C/km. Inception of thrust faulting in the Sevier belt may have predated peak metamorphism and intrusion of granites in the hinterland by 10-15 m.y., but it continued during and ended simultaneously with the end of metamorphism at about 70 Ma. The rise of muscovite-bearing granites and hot fluids, generated by metamorphism and crustal anatexis at greater depth, provides and explanation for the observed localized metamorphism and deformation at relatively high structural levels.

  3. Stratigraphy and structure of the Sevier thrust belt and proximal foreland-basin system in central Utah: A transect from the Sevier Desert to the Wasatch Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawton, T.F.; Sprinkel, D.A.; Decelles, P.G.; Mitra, G.; Sussman, A.J.; Weiss, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Sevier orogenic belt in central Utah comprises four north-northwest trending thrust plates and two structural culminations that record crustal shortening and uplift in late Mesozoic and early Tertiary time. Synorogenic clastic rocks, mostly conglomerate and sandstone, exposed within the thrust belt were deposited in wedge-top and foredeep depozones within the proximal part of the foreland-basin system. The geologic relations preserved between thrust structures and synorogenic deposits demonstrate a foreland-breaking sequence of thrust deformation that was modified by minor out-of-sequence thrust displacement. Structural culminations in the interior part of the thrust belt deformed and uplifted some of the thrust sheets following their emplacement. Strata in the foreland basin indicate that the thrust sheets of central Utah were emplaced between latest Jurassic and Eocene time. The oldest strata of the foredeep depozone (Cedar Mountain Formation) are Neocomian and were derived from the hanging wall of the Canyon Range thrust. The foredeep depozone subsided most rapidly during Albian through Santonian or early Campanian time and accumulated about 2.5 km of conglomeratic strata (Indianola Group). The overlying North Horn Formation accumulated in a wedge-top basin from the Campanian to the Eocene and records propagation of the Gunnison thrust beneath the former foredeep. The Canyon Range Conglomerate of the Canyon Mountains, equivalent to the Indianola Group and the North Horn Formation, was deposited exclusively in a wedge-top setting on the Canyon Range and Pavant thrust sheets. This field trip, a three day, west-to-east traverse of the Sevier orogenic belt in central Utah, visits localities where timing of thrust structures is demonstrated by geometry of cross-cutting relations, growth strata associated with faults and folds, or deformation of foredeep deposits. Stops in the Canyon Mountains emphasize geometry of late structural culminations and relationships of

  4. The Cave Canyon Detachment: A Standard for Deformation Expected of the Sevier Desert Detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, M. H.

    2007-12-01

    The Cave Canyon detachment (CCd)is a Neogene normal fault in the Mineral Mountains of west-central Utah. The Mineral Mountains are located directly south of the Sevier Desert basin. Because of its location, orientation and age constraints the Cave Canyon detachment has been proposed to be a non-active splay of the Sevier Desert detachment. The Sevier Desert detachment (SDd) is thought to be one of the largest displaced active normal faults in North America accruing as much as 47 km of displacement. There are some fundamental differences between the CCd and the SDd, one of those being that the CCd places Paleozoic limestone directly on a granitic pluton whereas the SDd beneath the basin places Neogene terrestrial sediments directly on Paleozoic limestones. Nevertheless, the temperature and depth at the time of movement are similar, thus making the CCd an appropriate analog to what might be expected of material potentially recovered by scientific drilling of the SDd. A suite of samples from above and below the CCd yields a distinctive pattern of brittle deformation. In the lower plate granites deformation is mostly brittle, and in the upper plate there is only a minor zone a few cm thick of mylonitized carbonate. The lower plate granites are characterized by an aureole of healed microfractures that decrease in abundance from the contact to background at over 100 m. Cataclasis is observed well over 100 m from the detachment, and is so intense at the contact that no grain is unaffected. Significant growth of new minerals and cross-cutting quartz veins are observed within a few meters of the detachment. In upper plate carbonate rocks, a cm-thick zone of dynamic recrystallization is observed, above which there is a meter or so of extensive undulose extinction of grains. Outward from this is a zone of strongly preferred oriented twinning. At a distance of 15 m from the contact only minor carbonate veinlets distinguish fault zone rock from unaffected limestone. If the SDd

  5. 75 FR 20774 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mountain City, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... FR 63976), Docket No. FAA-2009-0061; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASO-10. The FAA uses the direct final... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mountain City, TN AGENCY... December 7, 2009 that establishes Class E airspace at Johnson County Airport, Mountain City, TN....

  6. Upper Oligocene evaporites in basin fill of Sevier Desert region, western Utah ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, D.A.; Glanzman, R.K.; Naeser, C.W.; Nicholas, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The basin fill beneath the Sevier Desert of western Utah contains evaporites that were deposited in a broad closed basin. All of the basin fill penetrated by the Gulf Oil 1 Gronning contains abundant volcanic detritus and its alteration products of Cenozoic age. Fission-track dating of tuffaceous sandstone yields ages of 26-28 m.y. Fossil pollen from mudstone in the evaporite-bearing strata includes forms no older than late Oligocene, in good agreement with the fission-track ages. Thus the age of evaporites is late Oligocene and younger. Anhydrite is present throughout approximately 900m of volcaniclastic rocks in the lower part of the section cut by the Gulf hole. Fossil pollen are indicative of an arid to semiarid flora.-from Authors

  7. Role of crustal thickening and extensional collapse in the tectonic evolution of the Sevier-Laramide orogeny, western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Livaccari, R.F. )

    1991-11-01

    The effects of crustal thickening and extensional collapse of continental crust, combined with variations in plate-convergence forces, provide a coherent explanation for evolution of the Cretaceous-early Tertiary Sevier-Laramide orogeny. Crustal thickening of the Sevier-Laramide hinterland region was triggered by the combination of compressive plate-convergence forces and subduction-induced conductive heating of the crust. Eastward progradation of the locus of Sevier-Laramide deformation through time reflects the progressive widening of the region of crustal thickening. The region of maximum crustal thickening migrated outward until about 80 to 75 Ma, when it encountered excessively strong lithosphere of the Colorado Plateau. The locus of deformation was then transmitted laterally across both a hinterland that had attained maximum crustal thickness and the rigid Colorado Plateau, into the Laramide Rocky Mountain foreland. An episode of vigorous extensional collapse of orogenically thickened crust affected the southern Cordillera between about 75 and 35 Ma. Early Tertiary waning of plate-convergence rates and continued subduction-induced conductive heating of thickened crust allowed extensional collapse along the southern Cordillera region to drive the Colorado Plateau block northward. The result was the late Laramide phase of Rocky Mountain foreland deformation in the central and southern Laramide Rocky Mountain region continued through Eocene time, rather than ceasing at 56 Ma, as it did in the northern Cordillera.

  8. 10. Area of landslide on eastern section of Foothills Parkway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Area of landslide on eastern section of Foothills Parkway looking NE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Abandoned mule trail tunnel. 1 mile from intersection with Newfound Gap Road looking SSE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Clingmans Dome Road, Between Newfound Gap Road & Clingmans Dome, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 19. Cantilevered barn in Cades Cove looking SSW. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Cantilevered barn in Cades Cove looking SSW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 17. Photographer unknown, March 1928 PARK ROAD BOOSTERS ATTEND A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographer unknown, March 1928 PARK ROAD BOOSTERS ATTEND A MEETING IN MARCH OF 1928, WHEN A $5 MILLION GIFT FOR THE LAURA SPELLMAN ROCKEFELLER MEMORIAL WAS ANNOUNCED. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 1. View of Cades Cove Valley from first overlook on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Cades Cove Valley from first overlook on Rich Mountain Road looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Rich Mountain Road, Between Cades Cove & park boundary at Rich Mountain Gap, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 3. STEELBACKED TIMBER GUARDRAIL AND CONCRETE CRIBBING WALL. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. STEEL-BACKED TIMBER GUARDRAIL AND CONCRETE CRIBBING WALL. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Little River Road, Between Sugarlands Visitor Center & Townsend Wye, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand drips, view from road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 16. Bridge at Old Road S looking ESE. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Bridge at Old Road S looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  17. 11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after stop 13. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. 10. Reagan's Tub Mill and Roadway looking NE. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Reagan's Tub Mill and Roadway looking NE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 17. Underside of bridge and abutment with large boulder looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Underside of bridge and abutment with large boulder looking ENE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet Great Smoky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. 15. Culvert and corrugated pipe with place of a thousand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Culvert and corrugated pipe with place of a thousand drips in background looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. 6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop four. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 4. Overgrown overlook number 1 looking W. Great Smoky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Overgrown overlook number 1 looking W. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and third stops - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, handbuilt rock pile. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, hand-built rock pile. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 13. Roadway and place of a thousand drips looking ESE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Roadway and place of a thousand drips looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 2. General Road view looking SW. Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General Road view looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 18. View of fields, mountains and mist in Cades Cove ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of fields, mountains and mist in Cades Cove looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 3. View of overlook and vista looking SW. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of overlook and vista looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 5. UNDERSIDE VIEW OF STEEL GIRDERS AND CONCRETE PIERS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. UNDERSIDE VIEW OF STEEL GIRDERS AND CONCRETE PIERS LOOKING SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Little River Road, Between Sugarlands Visitor Center & Townsend Wye, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 2. View of west tunnel portal and stream on Laurel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of west tunnel portal and stream on Laurel Creek Road looking ENE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  17. 15. Gatlinburg spur with little Pigeon River, looking toward Pigeon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Gatlinburg spur with little Pigeon River, looking toward Pigeon Forge. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. 2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first stop. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 1. Elkmont vehicle bridge at Elkmont Campground, galvanized corrugated arch. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Elkmont vehicle bridge at Elkmont Campground, galvanized corrugated arch. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. A 3-D Model of Stacked Thrusts in the Sevier Thrust Belt, Eastern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. W.; Clayton, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Using published and new geologic map data and two exploratory wells for control, we constructed a three-dimensional geological model of the Pine Creek area in the Big Hole Mountains of eastern Idaho, where stacked Sevier thrust sheets are exposed at the surface. In this area, Cretaceous crustal shortening displaced and folded strata from Cambrian to Cretaceous in age. Using geologic map data as a primary input to a 3-D model presents a number of challenges, especially representing fault geometries at depth and maintaining strata thicknesses. The highly variable attitudes measured at the surface are also difficult to represent in a subsurface model because they require extensive extrapolation to depth. To overcome these challenges we EarthVision software, which has tools for model construction with minimal data inputs and uses a minimum tension algorithm to create geologically realistic surfaces. We also constructed two primary cross-sections to constrain strata and fault geometries according to structural principles, and used these to guide construction of fault and horizon surfaces. We then designated horizons with the best control as reference horizons to constrain strata geometries, and built the remaining horizons using isochores to add or subtract from those surfaces. The model shows classic flat-ramp thrust geometries as seen farther southeast in the Wyoming section of the thrust belt. The model also shows uniform southwestward tilting of faults and strata in the north end above younger thrusts, but strong effects from a duplex on a younger thrust fault encountered in the southern well, which rotated the strata and older faults above it.

  2. Upper Oligocene evaporites in basin fill of Sevier Desert region, western Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, D.A.; Glanzman, R.K.; Naeser, C.W.; Nichols, D.J.

    1981-02-01

    The basin fill beneath the Sevier Desert of western Utah contains evaporites of late Oligocene age that were deposited in a broad closed basin. All of the basin fill penetrated by the Gulf Oil 1 Gronning (2458 m TD), one of only three deep holes in the basin, contains abundant volcanic detritus and its alteration products of Cenozoic age, when volcanism was intense in western Utah. Fission-track dating of tuffaceous sandstone, interbedded with evaporite minerals and representative of sandstone in the lower formations penetrated, yields ages of 26 to 28 m.y.; concordance of ages indicates no thermal resetting. Fossil pollen from mudstone in the evaporite-bearing strata includes forms no older than late Oligocene, in good agreement with the fission-track ages. Thus the age of the evaporites, and of all the basin fill penetrated by drilling, is late Oligocene and younger; previous work had assigned them ages ranging from Triassic to Eocene. Evaporite-bearing rocks were deposited during late Oligocene time in a broad closed basin under arid or semiarid conditions much like those of the Great Basin today. Anhydrite is present throughout approximately 900 m of volcaniclastic rocks in the lower part of the section cut by the Gulf hole, and more than 1500 m of anhydrite and halite is present in possibly equivalent strata in the nearby Argonaut dry hole. Fossil pollen from anhydrite-bearing rocks in the Gulf hole are indicative of an arid to semiarid flora, including plants similar to Mormon tea and possibly saltbush or buffalo berry. Evaporite minerals formed in the basin during dry periods; tuff was erupted from nearby volcanic centers, reworked by water, and deposited in the basin.

  3. Toluene transposons Tn4651 and Tn4653 are class II transposons

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuda, Masataka; Minegishi, Koh-ichi; Iino, Tetsuo )

    1989-03-01

    The toluene degradative transposon Tn4651 is included within another transposon, Tn4653, and both of these elements are members of the Tn3 family. The tnpA gene product of each element mediates formation of cointegrates as intermediate products of transposition, and the tnpS and tnpT gene products encoded by Tn4651 take part in resolution of both Tn4651- and Tn4653-mediated cointegrates. Sequence analysis demonstrated that Tn4651 and Tn4653 have 46- and 38-base-pair terminal inverted repeats, respectively, and that both elements generate 5-base-pair duplication of the target sequence upon transposition. Complementation test of the Tn4651 - and Tn4653-encoded transposition functions with those of Tn3, Tn21, and Tn1721 showed that (i) the trans-acting transposition functions encoded by Tn4651 were not interchangeable with those encoded by the four other transposons, (ii) the Tn4653 tnpA function was interchangeable with the Tn1721 function, and (iii) Tn4653 coded for a resolvase (tnpR gene product) that complemented the tnpr mutations of Tn21 and Tn1721. The Tn4653 tnpR gene was located just 5{prime} upstream of the tnpA gene sheared extensive sequence homology with the Tn1721 tnpR gene. The res region was located adjacent to the tnpR gene, and sequence analysis indicated that failure of the Tn4653 tnpR product to resolve the Tn4653-mediated cointegrates is ascribed to an incomplete structure of the res region.

  4. 3. BIG HOUSE (left) AND CORN CRIB (right) IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BIG HOUSE (left) AND CORN CRIB (right) IN THE BACKGROUND. See also individual HABS documentation: Walker Family Farm, Big House (HABS No. TN-121 A), and Walker Family Farm, Corn Crib (HABS No. TN-121 C). - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. Hydrologic evaluation and water-supply considerations for five Paiute Indian land parcels, Millard, Sevier, and Iron counties, southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don; Stephens, D.W.; Conroy, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrologic resources in and adjacent to five parcels of land held in trust for the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah were evaluated. The land, located in southwestern Utah, is generally arid and has had only limited use for grazing. The parcels are located near the towns of Cove Fort, Joseph, Koosharem, and Kanarraville. On the basis of available geohydrologic and hydrologic data, water of suitable quality is locally available in the areas of all parcels for domestic, stock, recreation, and limited irrigation use. Developing this water for use on the parcels would potentially involve obtaining water rights, drilling wells, and constructing diversion structures. Surface water apparently is the most favorable source of supply available for the Joseph parcel, and groundwater apparently is the most favorable source of supply available for the other parcels. (USGS)

  6. Cretaceous to early Tertiary paleogeography in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Vandervoort, D.S.; Schmitt, J.G. )

    1990-06-01

    The Cretaceous to early Tertiary hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt in east-central Nevada underwent two periods of sedimentary basin development. The older (Early Cretaceous) episode is characterized by basins that formed coeval with deformation within a belt of contractional structures. Basins were characterized by periods of through-flowing fluvial drainage. The younger (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) episode of basin development was characterized by internally drained alluvial basins that subsequently expanded into more regional lacustrine basins. Basal alluvial detritus indicates that basin inception occurred as a result of rapid development of topographic relief. Synsedimentary tectonism was characterized by horizontal extension due to attainment of equilibrium topography in response to crustal thickening.

  7. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of Tn10

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Ronald; Sewitz, Sven; Lipkow, Karen; Crellin, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Tn10 has been determined. The dinucleotide signature and percent G+C of the sequence had no discontinuities, indicating that Tn10 constitutes a homogeneous unit. The new sequence contained three new open reading frames corresponding to a glutamate permease, repressors of heavy metal resistance operons, and a hypothetical protein in Bacillus subtilis. The glutamate permease was fully functional when expressed, but Tn10 did not protect Escherichia coli from the toxic effects of various metals. PMID:10781570

  8. Specificity of Transposon Tn5 Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Douglas E.; Schmandt, Margaret A.; Lowe, John B.

    1983-01-01

    Genetic mapping studies had shown that the bacterial transposon Tn5 can insert into many sites in a gene, but that some sites are preferred. To begin understanding Tn5's insertion specificity at the molecular level, we selected transpositions of Tn5 from the Escherichia coli chromosome to the plasmid pBR322 and analyzed the resultant pBR322::Tn5 plasmids by restriction endonuclease digestion and DNA sequencing. Seventy-five insertions in the tet gene were found at 28 sites including one major hotspot (with 21 insertions) and four lesser hotspots (with four to ten insertions each). All five hotspots are within the first 300 of the 1250-base pair (bp) tet gene. In contrast, 31 independent insertions in the amp gene were found in at least 27 distinct sites.—Tn5 generates 9 bp target sequence duplications when it transposes. Such transposon-induced duplications are generally taken to indicate that cleavages of complementary target DNA strands are made 9 bp apart during transposition. DNA sequence analysis indicated that GC base pairs occupy positions 1 and 9 in the duplications at each of the five hotspots examined, suggesting a GC-cutting preference during Tn5 transposition. PMID:6315531

  9. Paleogeographic and paleotectonic setting of sedimentary basins in the Sevier thrust belt and hinterland, eastern Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Vandervoort, D.S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Suydam, J.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The eastern Great Basin contains a sparse record of broadly distributed Cretaceous sedimentary rocks which record: evolution of intermontane basins during development of the Sevier (Sv)contractional orogen and incipient extensional collapse of the elevated Sv hinterland (east-central NV), and complex tectono-sedimentary interactions between frontal thrust belt structures and the western margin of the adjacent foreland basin. Palinspastic restoration of these strata and associated structures to pre-Tertiary extension positions reveals a clearer pictures of Cretaceous basin paleogeography and allows comparison with the Puna/Altiplano plateau and precordillera thrust belt of the Neogene Andean orogen. Two syntectonic stratal assemblages are present in east-central NV. Lower Cretaceous alluvial strata (Newark Canyon Fm) record basin development coeval with emergence of contractional structures in the Sv hinterland. Localized early Cretaceous basins were possibly piggyback immature; periods of open drainage to the to the east and south suggest connection with the nascent Sv foreland basin to the east (Cedar Mountain/Sanpete Fms) prior to major thrust loading in central Utah. Development of hinterland structures is almost recorded by Aptian-Albian foreland basin alluvial deposits in SW Utah (Dakota Fm) and southern Nevada (Willow Tank Fm). Upper Cretaceous to Eocene strata (Sheep Pass Fm) record inception of regionally abundant alluvial-lacustrine basins which developed in response to onset of latest Cretaceous extension and associated collapse of the Sv hinterland. Evolution of the structurally complex western margin of the Sv foreland basin is recorded in Cretaceous through Eocene strata deposited in: piggyback basins which were at times hydrologically connected to the adjacent foreland basins, and thrust-proximal portions of the foreland basin. These proximal areas are characterized by folding and faulting of basin fill and development of intrabasinal unconformities.

  10. (U-Th)/He and U-Pb double dating constraints on the interplay between thrust deformation and basin development, Sevier foreland basin, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujols, E.; Stockli, D. F.; Horton, B. K.; Steel, R. J.; Constenius, K. N.

    2015-12-01

    The degree of connectivity between thrust-belt deformation and foreland basin evolution has been a matter of debate for decades. This is in part due to the lack of temporal constraints on the relationship between thrust-belt deformation and associated deposition. New high-resolution zircon (U-Th)-(Pb-He) double dating of pre- and syn-tectonic sedimentary strata along the Sevier thrust front and basin provide an unprecedented geochronological framework to temporally and spatially link the Sevier foreland basin stratigraphy to deforming hinterland sources. Results improve constraints on timing and magnitude of deformation, depositional ages, sediment dispersal and sources. In Late Cretaceous proximal deposits of the Indianola Group (IG) and Canyon Range Conglomerates (CRC), detrital zircon U-Pb (zUPb) and (U-Th)/He ages (ZHe) chronicle the sequential unroofing of the Charlestone-Nebo Salient (CNS) and Canyon Range (CR) duplexes. Furthermore, short ZHe depositional lag-times indicate rapid hinterland exhumation (>1km/my) associated with active thrusting during Cenomanian and Coniacian-Santonian times as supported by bedrock ZHe ages in the CNS and CR thrust sheets. Detrital zircon analyses on the Late Cretaceous marine Book Cliffs strata suggest a more complex source-to-sink evolution compared to the time-equivalent IG and CRC proximal strata due to mixing of multi-source detrital zircons, sediment recycling and more prominent volcanic input. Nonetheless, the overall cooling history recorded in the Book Cliffs clearly reflects three hinterland exhumational phases, an early phase derived from the frontal thrusts and two additional phases with more integrated hinterland ZHe signatures. These three short lag-time phases correlate with fast clastic progradational wedges in the Sevier foreland. These results strengthen the role played by hinterland deformation on clastic progradation and elucidate the temporal relationship between thrusting and foreland basin architecture.

  11. Genetic and molecular studies of a composite chromosomal element (Tn3705) containing a Tn916-modified structure (Tn3704) in Streptococcus anginosus F22.

    PubMed

    Clermont, D; Horaud, T

    1994-01-01

    The plasmid-free Streptococcus anginosus F22 contained a conjugative element, Tn3705, encoding resistance to erythromycin (Emr) and tetracycline-minocycline (Tcr-Mnr). We mapped a chromosomal region (> 52 kb) of F22, corresponding to the internal part of Tn3705. Molecular analysis of Tn3705 revealed it to be a composite structure: it included in its central part a transposon designated Tn3704 (20.3 kb +/- 0.5 kb), which had a modified structure in comparison with that of Tn916 and on which the Emr Tcr-Mn4 markers were localized. Tn3705 inserted from F22 into the chromosome of various streptococcal transconjugants as well as that of Enterococcus faecalis transconjugants without changing its structure. In contrast, from the chromosome of an E. faecalis::Tn3705 transconjugant only Tn3704 inserted, at various sites, into another E. faecalis chromosome. Sugar fermentations occurred after the insertion of Tn3704 into the chromosome of an asaccharolytic E. faecalis strain. Transposition of only Tn3704 from the chromosome of E. faecalis::Tn3705 onto pIP964, an E. faecalis hemolysin plasmid, yielded two different pIP964 derivatives. The size of the entire element Tn3705 was estimated to be about 70.0 kb by pulsed-field electrophoresis.

  12. 78 FR 48762 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00076

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00076 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Application Deadline Date: 05/02/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small...

  13. 77 FR 51100 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00068

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00068 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Application Deadline Date: 05/16/2013. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small...

  14. 76 FR 45309 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00058

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00058 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street,...

  15. [Construction of cTnC-linker-TnI (P) Genes, Expression of Fusion Protein and Preparation of Lyophilized Protein].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiaoyun; Cai, Lei; Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Jihua

    2015-12-01

    In order to construct and express human cardiac troponin C-linker-troponin I(P) [ cTnC-linker-TnI(P)] fusion protein, detect its activity and prepare lyophilized protein, we searched the CDs of human cTnC and cTnI from GenBank, synthesized cTnC and cTnI(30-110aa) into cloning vector by a short DNA sequence coding for 15 neutral amino acid residues. pCold I-cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3). Then, cTnC-linker-TnI(P) fusion protein was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Soluable expression of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) in prokaryotic system was successfully obtained. The fusion protein was purified by Ni²⁺ Sepharose 6 Fast Flow affinity chromatography with over 95% purity and prepared into lyophilized protein. The activity of purified cTnC-linker-TnI(P) and its lyophilized protein were detected by Wondfo Finecare™ cTnI Test. Lyophilized protein of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was stable for 10 or more days at 37 °C and 4 or more months at 25 °C and 4 °C. The expression system established in this research is feasible and efficient. Lyophilized protein is stable enough to be provided as biological raw materials for further research. PMID:27079099

  16. Characterization of the staphylococcal beta-lactamase transposon Tn552.

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, S J; Dyke, K G

    1989-01-01

    The staphylococcal beta-lactamase transposon Tn552 is a member of a novel group of transposable elements. The organization of genes in Tn552 resembles that of members of the Tn21 sub-group of Tn3 family transposons, which transpose replicatively by cointegrate formation and resolution. Thus, a possible resolution site ('resL') and a resolvase gene (tnpR or 'binL') have been identified. However, consistent with the fact that Tn552 generates 6 bp (rather than 5 bp) flanking direct repeats of target DNA, neither the putative transposase protein, nor the terminal inverted repeats of Tn552 are homologous to those of Tn3 elements. Tn552, like phage Mu and retroelements, is defined by the terminal dinucleotides 5' TG .. CA 3'. A naturally occurring staphylococcal plasmid, pI9789, contains a Tn552-derived resolution system ('resR-binR') that acts as a 'hotspot' for Tn552 transposition; insertion creates a segment of DNA flanked by inversely repeated resolution sites, one (resR) on pI9789 and the other (resL) on Tn552. The putative Tn552 resolvase, the most closely related of known resolvases to the homologous DNA invertases, initially was identified as a DNA invertase ('Bin') as a result of its ability to mediate efficient inversion of this segment in vivo. PMID:2555186

  17. Functional Divergence in Teleost Cardiac Troponin Paralogs Guides Variation in the Interaction of TnI Switch Region with TnC

    PubMed Central

    Genge, Christine E.; Stevens, Charles M.; Davidson, William S.; Singh, Gurpreet; Peter Tieleman, D.; Tibbits, Glen F.

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication results in extra copies of genes that must coevolve with their interacting partners in multimeric protein complexes. The cardiac troponin (Tn) complex, containing TnC, TnI, and TnT, forms a distinct functional unit critical for the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction. In teleost fish, the function of the Tn complex is modified by the consequences of differential expression of paralogs in response to environmental thermal challenges. In this article, we focus on the interaction between TnI and TnC, coded for by genes that have independent evolutionary origins, but the co-operation of their protein products has necessitated coevolution. In this study, we characterize functional divergence of TnC and TnI paralogs, specifically the interrelated roles of regulatory subfunctionalization and structural subfunctionalization. We determined that differential paralog transcript expression in response to temperature acclimation results in three combinations of TnC and TnI in the zebrafish heart: TnC1a/TnI1.1, TnC1b/TnI1.1, and TnC1a/TnI1.5. Phylogenetic analysis of these highly conserved proteins identified functionally divergent residues in TnI and TnC. The structural and functional effect of these Tn combinations was modeled with molecular dynamics simulation to link divergent sites to changes in interaction strength. Functional divergence in TnI and TnC were not limited to the residues involved with TnC/TnI switch interaction, which emphasizes the complex nature of Tn function. Patterns in domain-specific divergent selection and interaction energies suggest that substitutions in the TnI switch region are crucial to modifying TnI/TnC function to maintain cardiac contraction with temperature changes. This integrative approach introduces Tn as a model of functional divergence that guides the coevolution of interacting proteins. PMID:26979795

  18. Functional Divergence in Teleost Cardiac Troponin Paralogs Guides Variation in the Interaction of TnI Switch Region with TnC.

    PubMed

    Genge, Christine E; Stevens, Charles M; Davidson, William S; Singh, Gurpreet; Peter Tieleman, D; Tibbits, Glen F

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication results in extra copies of genes that must coevolve with their interacting partners in multimeric protein complexes. The cardiac troponin (Tn) complex, containing TnC, TnI, and TnT, forms a distinct functional unit critical for the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction. In teleost fish, the function of the Tn complex is modified by the consequences of differential expression of paralogs in response to environmental thermal challenges. In this article, we focus on the interaction between TnI and TnC, coded for by genes that have independent evolutionary origins, but the co-operation of their protein products has necessitated coevolution. In this study, we characterize functional divergence of TnC and TnI paralogs, specifically the interrelated roles of regulatory subfunctionalization and structural subfunctionalization. We determined that differential paralog transcript expression in response to temperature acclimation results in three combinations of TnC and TnI in the zebrafish heart: TnC1a/TnI1.1, TnC1b/TnI1.1, and TnC1a/TnI1.5. Phylogenetic analysis of these highly conserved proteins identified functionally divergent residues in TnI and TnC. The structural and functional effect of these Tn combinations was modeled with molecular dynamics simulation to link divergent sites to changes in interaction strength. Functional divergence in TnI and TnC were not limited to the residues involved with TnC/TnI switch interaction, which emphasizes the complex nature of Tn function. Patterns in domain-specific divergent selection and interaction energies suggest that substitutions in the TnI switch region are crucial to modifying TnI/TnC function to maintain cardiac contraction with temperature changes. This integrative approach introduces Tn as a model of functional divergence that guides the coevolution of interacting proteins. PMID:26979795

  19. ATP-dependent specific binding of Tn3 transposase to Tn3 inverted repeats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishart, W. L.; Broach, J. R.; Ohtsubo, E.

    1985-04-01

    Transposons are discrete segments of DNA which are capable of moving from one site in a genome to many different sites1,2. Tn3 is a prokaryotic transposon which is 4,957 base pairs (bp) long and encodes a transposase protein which is essential for transposition3-7. We report here a simple method for purifying Tn3 transposase and demonstrate that the transposase protein binds specifically to the ends of the Tn3 transposon in an ATP-dependent manner. The transposase protein binds to linear double-stranded DNA both nonspecifically and specifically; the nonspecific DNA binding activity is sensitive to challenge with heparin. Site-specific DNA binding to the ends (inverted repeats) of Tn3 is observed only when binding is performed in the presence of ATP; this ATP-dependent site-specific DNA binding activity is resistant to heparin challenge. Our results indicate that ATP qualitatively alters the DNA binding activity of the transposase protein so that the protein is able to bind specifically to the ends of the Tn3 transposon.

  20. Jurassic thrust burial in the Funeral Mountains of the Sevier retroarc: Linking P-T paths and Lu-Hf garnet geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, M. L.; Hoisch, T. D.; Beyene, M.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Late Jurassic to early Cenozoic eastward subduction of the Farallon plate beneath the western margin of the North American plate led to development of the classic elements of the noncollisional two-sided Cordilleran orogen of the western US. These include from west to east, the Franciscan accretionary complex, Great Valley forearc basin, Sierran magmatic arc, and the retroarc Sevier orogenic wedge, including its metamorphic hinterland. Crustal shortening and mountain building during this noncollisional orogeny are thought to have resulted from coupling at the interface between the eastward underflowing Farallon plate and the westward moving North America plate. While the timing of Sierran arc magmatism, Great Valley forearc basin sedimentation, and Franciscan trench sedimentation and subduction metamorphism are increasingly well understood, our understanding of the timing of episodic contractional deformation in the retroarc region remains incomplete, in particular for the metamorphic hinterland. This has limited our ability to link forearc, arc, and retroarc processes, and to differentiate retroarc deformation events related to noncollisional orogenesis from shortening due to older collisional events in the late Middle to early Late Jurassic. The influence of collisional events in the forearc region -- including collision of exotic and/or fringing arcs, ridge collision, or subduction termination and inception -- on deformation in the retroarc region may be under appreciated. Lu-Hf dating and P-T path determination of prograde garnet growth, from the hinterland of the Sevier orogen in the Funeral Mountains of southeastern California, document late Middle to early Late Jurassic thrust burial; importantly, this shortening predates development of the Franciscan accretionary wedge and sedimentation in the Great Valley forearc basin. Lu-Hf garnet geochronology of middle greenschist facies pelitic schist of the Johnnie Formation of the southeastern Funeral Mountains core

  1. Challenges in Antibody Development against Tn and Sialyl-Tn Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Liliana R.; Carrascal, Mylène A.; Barbas, Ana; Ramalho, José S.; Novo, Carlos; Delannoy, Philippe; Videira, Paula A.

    2015-01-01

    The carbohydrate antigens Tn and sialyl-Tn (STn) are expressed in most carcinomas and usually absent in healthy tissues. These antigens have been correlated with cancer progression and poor prognosis, and associated with immunosuppressive microenvironment. Presently they are used in clinical trials as therapeutic vaccination, but with limited success due to their low immunogenicity. Alternatively, anti-Tn and/or STn antibodies may be used to harness the immune system against tumor cells. Whilst the development of antibodies against these antigens had a boost two decades ago for diagnostic use, so far no such antibody entered into clinical trials. Possible limitations are the low specificity and efficiency of existing antibodies and that novel antibodies are still necessary. The vast array of methodologies available today will allow rapid antibody development and novel formats. Following the advent of hybridoma technology, the immortalization of human B cells became a methodology to obtain human monoclonal antibodies with better specificity. Advances in molecular biology including phage display technology for high throughput screening, transgenic mice and more recently molecularly engineered antibodies enhanced the field of antibody production. The development of novel antibodies against Tn and STn taking advantage of innovative technologies and engineering techniques may result in innovative therapeutic antibodies for cancer treatment. PMID:26270678

  2. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Milan Army Ammunition Plant, Milan, TN, March 11, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This decision document presents the selected action for the Salvage Yard, Former Ammunition Burnout Area (ABA), and Sanitary Landfill at MLAAP, located in Gibson and Carroll Counties, TN. This ROD addresses the final response action planned for the Salvage Yard, Former ABA, and Sanitary Landfill, including soil and groundwater. NFA is the selected remedy for soil and groundwater at the Salvage Yard, Former ABA, and Sanitary landfill. The selected remedy manages the risk to acceptable levels for both human health and the environment and is the final action planned.

  3. Fraction A of armadillo submandibular glycoprotein and its desialylated product as sialyl-Tn and Tn receptors for lectins.

    PubMed

    Wu, A M; Shen, F; Herp, A; Song, S C; Wu, J H

    1995-02-27

    Fraction A of the armadillo submandibular glycoprotein (ASG-A) is one of the simplest glycoproteins among mammalian salivary mucins. The carbohydrate side chains of this mucous glycoprotein have one-third of the NeuAc alpha 2-->6GalNAc (sialyl-Tn) sequence and two thirds of Tn (GalNAc alpha-->Ser/Thr) residues. Those of the desialylated product (ASG-Tn) are almost exclusively unsubstituted GalNAc residues (Tn determinant). When the binding properties of these glycoproteins were tested by a precipitin assay with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins, it was found that ASG-Tn reacted strongly with all of the Tn-active lectins and completely precipitated Vicia villosa (VVL both B4 and mixture of A and B), Maclura pomifera (MPA), and Artocarpus integrifolia (jacalin) lectins. However, it precipitated poorly or negligibly with Ricinus communis (RCA1); Dolichos biflorus (DBA); Viscum album, ML-I; Arachis hypogaea (PNA), and Triticum vulgaris (WGA). The reactivity of ASG-A (sialyl-Tn) was as active as that of ASG-Tn with MPA and less or slightly less active than that of ASG-Tn with VVL-A+B, VVL-B4, HPA, WFA, and jacalin, as one-third of its Tn was sialylated. These findings indicate that ASG-A and its desialylated product (ASG-Tn) are highly useful reagents for the differentiation of Tn, T (Gal beta 1-->3GalNAc), A (GalNAc alpha 1-->3Gal) or Gal specific lectins and monoclonal antibodies against such epitopes.

  4. Transductional instability of Tn5-induced mutations: generalized and specialized transduction of Tn5 by bacteriophage P1.

    PubMed

    Berg, C M; Grullón, C A; Wang, A; Whalen, W A; Berg, D E

    1983-10-01

    Generalized transduction is commonly used to move transposon-induced mutations among bacterial strains by selecting for inheritance of a transposon-encoded resistance determinant. Although complete cotransduction of the resistance determinant and the chromosomal mutation might be expected, it is often found that when Tn5(Kan) insertion mutations are transduced by bacteriophage P1 most of the nonmutant kanamycin-resistant transductants area due to specialized transduction of Tn5. Such P1::Tn5 specialized transducing phage are not found when a mutant Tn5 element lacking a functional transposase is employed.

  5. The Role of Sialyl-Tn in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Munkley, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Activation of an aberrant glycosylation pathway in cancer cells can lead to expression of the onco-foetal sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen. STn is a truncated O-glycan containing a sialic acid α-2,6 linked to GalNAc α-O-Ser/Thr and is associated with an adverse outcome and poor prognosis in cancer patients. The biosynthesis of the sTn antigen has been linked to the expression of the sialytransferase ST6GalNAc1, and also to mutations in and loss of heterozygosity of the COSMC gene. sTn neo- or over-expression occurs in many types of epithelial cancer including gastric, colon, breast, lung, oesophageal, prostate and endometrial cancer. sTn is believed to be carried by a variety of glycoproteins and may influence protein function and be involved in tumour development. This review discusses how the role of sTn in cancer development and tumour cell invasiveness might be organ specific and occur through different mechanisms depending on each cancer type or subtype. As the sTn-antigen is expressed early in carcinogenesis targeting sTn in cancer may enable the targeting of tumours from the earliest stage. PMID:26927062

  6. A review of the TN theory and its cousins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Yuji

    2015-11-01

    The T_N theory is a four-dimensional N = 2 superconformal field theory that has played a central role in the analysis of supersymmetric dualities in the last few years. The aim of this review is to collect known properties of the T_N theory and its cousins in one place as a quick reference.

  7. From Source to Sink: Exhumation of the North America Cordillera Revealed by Multi-dating of Detrital Minerals from Upper Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous Sevier Foreland Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, C. S.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Gehrels, G. E.; Thomson, S. N.

    2013-12-01

    We sampled twenty-two Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous syn-orogenic conglomerate clasts in proximal units in the Sevier fold-thrust belt and their distal sandstone equivalents up to 300 km east of the thrust front, in Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and South Dakota. To better constrain depositional ages, these samples were analyzed using detrital zircon U-Pb (DZ U-Pb) geochronology. To identify a thermochronometer that measures source exhumation in the North America Cordillera, both zircon (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology was utilized, on both the conglomerate cobbles and sandstone (detrital) samples. Eleven samples were analyzed with zircon (U-Th)/He; however, discordant ages in the conglomerate cobble samples suggest that this system was not fully reset and never experienced T> ~180 °C in the source stratigraphy during the Sevier orogeny. Eleven other samples are analyzed using apatite fission track thermochronology (AFT); AFT ages are generally similar or older than depositional ages indicating that the detrital ages record source exhumation signals, and that exhumation depth corresponds to T>~120 °C. In order to test whether or not the youngest cooling AFT age population represents a source exhumation signal or a co-magmatic signal we here performed double dating of the detrital AFT samples using apatite U-Pb thermochronology. Maximum depositional ages using DZ U-Pb match existing age controls on basin stratigraphy. Our study shows that AFT is an effective thermochronometer to detect source exhumation for Cretaceous foreland stratigraphy in the western U.S.A. Lag-times (i.e. the difference between the source exhumation age and depositional age) are ~0 to 5 Myr with relatively steady-state to slightly increasing exhumation rates suggesting orogenic growth at this time. The very short lag times also indicate limited to no storage time between source and sink. The AFT lag time of the Early Cretaceous Kelvin Formation is ~5 Myr and represents

  8. 14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand drips, view with three culvert pipes. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 19. Photographer unknown, circa 1950 'THE LOOP OVER' BRIDGE WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photographer unknown, circa 1950 'THE LOOP OVER' BRIDGE WAS CONSTRUCTED ON NEWFOUND GAP ROAD TO REPLACE A SERIES OF DANGEROUS SWITCHBACKS. THIS ENGINEERING FEATURE QUICKLY BECAME A POPULAR TOURIST ATTRACTION. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 16. Joe Murphy, Jr., Photographer, circa 190914 LOCOMOTIVE NO. 148 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Joe Murphy, Jr., Photographer, circa 1909-14 LOCOMOTIVE NO. 148 STEAMS UP LITTLE RIVER GORGE, CA. 1909-14. LITTLE RIVER ROAD WAS CONSTRUCTED OVER THIS RIGHT OF WAY IN 1932. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. Deformation along a salient-transverse zone junction: An example from the Leamington transverse zone, Utah, Sevier fold-thrust belt (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismat, Zeshan; Toeneboehn, Kevin

    2015-06-01

    Within fold-thrust belts, the junctions between salients and recesses may hold critical clues to the overall kinematic history of fold-thrust belts. The deformation history within these junctions is best preserved in areas where thrust sheets extend from a salient through an adjacent recess. We examine one such junction within the Sevier fold-thrust belt (western United States) along the Leamington transverse zone, northern Utah. The Canyon Range thrust sheet can be traced continuously from the Leamington transverse zone to its adjacent salient to the south, the Central Utah segment. Deformation within the Canyon Range thrust sheet took place by faulting and cataclastic flow. Analyses of these fault networks preserved throughout the Canyon Range thrust sheet are used to develop a kinematic history of the Leamington transverse zone. Field data is supplemented by analog sandbox experiments. This study suggests that, in detail, deformation within the overlying thrust sheet may not directly reflect the underlying basement structure. Moreover, these junctions may contain several types of accommodating structures that helped to maintain critical-taper and that serve as potential targets for natural resource exploration.

  12. Fis negatively affects binding of Tn4652 transposase by out-competing IHF from the left end of Tn4652.

    PubMed

    Teras, Riho; Jakovleva, Julia; Kivisaar, Maia

    2009-04-01

    Transposition activity in bacteria is generally maintained at a low level. The activity of mobile DNA elements can be controlled by bacterially encoded global regulators. Regulation of transposition of Tn4652 in Pseudomonas putida is one such example. Activation of transposition of Tn4652 in starving bacteria requires the stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS and integration host factor (IHF). IHF plays a dual role in Tn4652 translocation by activating transcription of the transposase gene tnpA of the transposon and facilitating TnpA binding to the inverted repeats of the transposon. Our previous results have indicated that besides IHF some other P. putida-encoded global regulator(s) might bind to the ends of Tn4652 and regulate transposition activity. In this study, employing a DNase I footprint assay we have identified a binding site of P. putida Fis (factor for inversion stimulation) centred 135 bp inside the left end of Tn4652. Our results of gel mobility shift and DNase I footprint studies revealed that Fis out-competes IHF from the left end of Tn4652, thereby abolishing the binding of TnpA. Thus, the results obtained in this study indicate that the transposition of Tn4652 is regulated by the cellular amount of P. putida global regulators Fis and IHF. PMID:19332822

  13. 76 FR 14855 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Kevin R....

  14. 76 FR 33656 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission grants a petition for rulemaking filed by...

  15. 75 FR 35103 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 7... declaration remains unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James...

  16. 75 FR 35103 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 8... Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for...

  17. 75 FR 27008 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... declaration remains unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James...

  18. 75 FR 27009 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance....

  19. Structural and Kinetic Effects of PAK3 phosphorylation mimic of cTnI(S151E) on the cTnC-cTnI Interaction in the Cardiac Thin Filament

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Yexin; Mamidi, Ranganath; Jayasundar, Jayant James; Chandra, Murali; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2010-01-01

    Residue Ser151 of cTnI is known to be phosphorylated by p21-activated kinase 3 (PAK3). It has been found that PAK3-mediated phosphorylation of cTnI induces an increase in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity, but the detailed mechanism is unknown. We investigated how the structural and kinetic effects mediated by pseudo-phosphorylation of cTnI (S151E) modulates Ca2+-induced activation of cardiac thin filaments. Using steady-state, time-resolved Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and stopped-flow kinetic measurements, we monitored Ca2+-induced changes in cTnI-cTnC interactions. Measurements were done using reconstituted thin filaments, which contained the pseudo-phosphorylated cTnI(S151E). We hypothesized that the thin filament regulation is modulated by altered cTnC-cTnI interactions due to charge modification caused by the phosphorylation of Ser151 in cTnI. Our results showed that the pseudo-phosphorylation of cTnI (S151E) sensitizes structural changes to Ca2+ by shortening the intersite distances between cTnC and cTnI. Furthermore, kinetic rates of Ca2+ dissociation-induced structural change in the regulatory region of cTnI were significantly reduced by cTnI (S151E). The aforementioned effects of pseudo-phosphorylation of cTnI were similar to the effects of strong crossbridges on structural changes in cTnI. Our results provide novel information on how cardiac thin filament regulation is modulated by PAK3 phosphorylation of cTnI. PMID:20540949

  20. Style and magnitude of Mesozoic thrust faulting in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt Pequop Mountains-Wood Hills-East Humboldt Range region, northeast Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, P.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The Pequop Mountains (PM), Wood Hills (WH) and East Humboldt Range (EHR), NE Nevada, provide evidence that the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt experienced large-magnitude Mesozoic shortening ([>=]55 km) and crustal thickening ([>=] 30 km). These ranges expose a structurally continuous crustal cross section of unmetamorphosed to high pressure upper amphibolite facies Triassic to Precambrian miogeoclinal strata. This sequence lies structurally beneath unmetamorphosed extensional klippen that omit metamorphic grade and crustal section, but also repeat stratigraphic units. Because they repeat stratigraphic units, the underlying miogeoclinal section, or footwall, must have once lain beneath a thrust fault (herein named the Windermere thrust). The footwall of the Windermere thrust was exhumed by two generations of top-to-the-W-NW low-angle normal faults that are distinguished by whether they are depositionally overlapped by Eocene volcanic rocks or if they cut the volcanic rocks in their hanging walls. The latter phase is associated with development of the mid-Tertiary extensional mylonitic shear zone in the EHR. An integration of geobarometric, metamorphic, and map data suggest (1) a NW dip of the footwall of the Windermere thrust with metamorphic facies belts trending perpendicular to dip direction and metamorphic grade increasing down dip, and (2) a top-to-the-SE sense-of-slip for the Windermere thrust. Assuming that the Windermere thrust comprised a flat on the youngest rocks exposed in the footwall (Triassic), the Mesozoic depth to the Windermere thrust in the northern PM is [>=] 7 km, in WH is [approximately]10--16 km, and in the EHR[>=]30 km. The Windermere thrust accommodated a minimum of 50 km of shortening associated with the Independence thrust is [>=] 5 km. These data indicate that the amount of hinterland shortening in NE Nevada greatly exceeds that to the south in the Eureka belt.

  1. 77 FR 61653 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Smyrna-Rutherford County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Smyrna-Rutherford County Airport, Smyrna, TN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... the release of land at the Smyrna-Rutherford County Airport, Smyrna, Tennessee. This property... review at the Smyrna--Rutherford County Airport, 278 Doug Warpoole Road, Smyrna, Tennessee 37167 and...

  2. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in southwestern Arkansas counties, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Offices in the following southwestern Arkansas counties: Bradley, Calhoun, Clark, Cleveland, Columbia, Dallas, Garland, Grant, Hempstead, Hot Spring, Howard, Little River, Montgomery, Nevada, Ouachita, Pike, Polk, Saline, Sevier, and Union. The number of withdrawal registrations for southwestern Arkansas counties was 132 (31 groundwater and 101 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.84 Mgal/d (none from groundwater and 0.84 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 14.22 Mgal/d (1.64 Mgal/d groundwater and 12.58 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 8,455 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, cash grains, vegetables, sod, berries, fruit trees, timber, shrubs, and nuts as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture.

  3. Transposon mutagenesis in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans: Development of a random mutagenesis tool from Tn7

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, J.D.; Murnan, T.; Argyle, J.

    1996-10-01

    The transposons Tn5, Tn7, Tn9, and Tn10 or their derivatives have been examined for transposition in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20. Tn7 inserted with a frequency of 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}3} into a unique attachment site that shows strong homology with those sites identified in other gram-negative bacteria. Inactivation of the tnsD gene in Tn7, encoding the function directing insertion into the unique site, yielded a derivative that transposed essentially randomly with a frequency of ca. 10{sup {minus}6} per donor. Derivatives of Tn5, but not wild-type Tn5, were also found to undergo random transposition at a similar frequency. No evidence was obtained for transposition of Tn9 or Tn10. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Geologic Map of the Pahranagat Range 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Pahranagat Range 30' x 60' quadrangle lies within an arid, sparsely populated part of Lincoln and Nye Counties, southeastern Nevada. Much of the area is public land that includes the Desert National Wildlife Range, the Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and the Nellis Air Force Base. The topography, typical of much of the Basin and Range Province, consists of north-south-trending ranges and intervening broad alluvial valleys. Elevations range from about 1,000 to 2,900 m. At the regional scale, the Pahranagat Range quadrangle lies within the Mesozoic and early Tertiary Sevier Fold-and-Thrust Belt and the Cenozoic Basin and Range Province. The quadrangle is underlain by a Proterozoic to Permian miogeoclinal section, a nonmarine clastic and volcanic section of middle Oligocene or older to late Miocene age, and alluvial deposits of late Cenozoic age. The structural features that are exposed reflect relatively shallow crustal deformation. Mesozoic deformation is dominated by thrust faults and asymmetric or open folds. Cenozoic deformation is dominated by faults that dip more than 45i and dominostyle tilted blocks. At least three major tectonic events have affected the area: Mesozoic (Sevier) folding and thrust faulting, pre-middle Oligocene extensional deformation, and late Cenozoic (mainly late Miocene to Holocene) extensional deformation. Continued tectonic activity is expressed in the Pahranagat Range area by seismicity and faults having scarps that cut alluvial deposits.

  5. Rhizobium phaseoli symbiotic mutants with transposon Tn5 insertions.

    PubMed Central

    Noel, K D; Sanchez, A; Fernandez, L; Leemans, J; Cevallos, M A

    1984-01-01

    Rhizobium phaseoli CFN42 DNA was mutated by random insertion of Tn5 from suicide plasmid pJB4JI to obtain independently arising strains that were defective in symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris but grew normally outside the plant. When these mutants were incubated with the plant, one did not initiate visible nodule tissue (Nod-), seven led to slow nodule development (Ndv), and two led to superficially normal early nodule development but lacked symbiotic nitrogenase activity (Sna-). The Nod- mutant lacked the large transmissible indigenous plasmid pCFN42d that has homology to Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase (nif) genes. The other mutants had normal plasmid content. In the two Sna- mutants and one Ndv mutant, Tn5 had inserted into plasmid pCFN42d outside the region of nif homology. The insertions of the other Ndv mutants were apparently in the chromosome. They were not in plasmids detected on agarose gels, and, in contrast to insertions on indigenous plasmids, they were transmitted in crosses to wild-type strain CFN42 at the same frequency as auxotrophic markers and with the same enhancement of transmission by conjugation plasmid R68.45. In these Ndv mutants the Tn5 insertions were the same as or very closely linked to mutations causing the Ndv phenotype. However, in two mutants with Tn5 insertions on plasmid pCFN42d, an additional mutation on the same plasmid, rather than Tn5, was responsible for the Sna- or Ndv phenotype. When plasmid pJB4JI was transferred to two other R. phaseoli strains, analysis of symbiotic mutants was complicated by Tn5-containing deleted forms of pJB4JI that were stably maintained. Images PMID:6325385

  6. The Lower Sevier River Basin Crop Monitor and Forecast Decision Support System: Exploiting Landsat Imagery to Provide Continuous Information to Farmers and Water Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Rua, A. F.; Walker, W. R.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    The last century has seen a large number of innovations in agriculture such as better policies for water control and management, upgraded water conveyance, irrigation, distribution, and monitoring systems, and better weather forecasting products. In spite of this, irrigation management and irrigation water deliveries by farmers/water managers is still based on factors like water share amounts, tradition, and past experience on irrigation. These factors are not necessarily related to the actual crop water use; they are followed because of the absence of related information provided in a timely manner at an affordable cost. Thus, it is necessary to develop means to deliver continuous and personalized information about crop water requirements to water users/managers at the field and irrigation system levels so managers at these levels can better quantify the required versus available water for irrigation during the irrigation season. This study presents a new decision support system (DSS) platform that addresses the absence of information on actual crop water requirements and crop performance by providing continuous updated farm-based crop water use along with other farm performance indicators such as crop yield and farm management to irrigators and water managers. This DSS exploits the periodicity of the Landsat Satellite Mission (8 to 16 days, depending on the period of interest) to provide remote monitoring at the individual field and irrigation system levels. The Landsat satellite images are converted into information about crop water use, yield performance and field management through application of state-of-the-art semi-physical and statistical algorithms that provide this information at a pixel basis that are ultimately aggregated to field and irrigation system levels. A version of the DSS has been implemented for the agricultural lands in the Lower Sevier River, Utah, and has been operational since the beginning of the 2013 irrigation season. The main goal of

  7. Low-temperature thermochronology of the Laramide Ranges and eastward translation of shortening in the Sevier Belt, Wyoming, Utah and Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyton, Sara Lynn

    This dissertation contains two studies that use very different techniques to investigate the Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics of the western USA. The first study investigates shortening in the Sevier thrust belt of northeast Utah and southwest Wyoming using cross sections and seismic reflection data. The second study investigates the low-temperature thermochronology of the Laramide Ranges using apatite (U-Th)/He dating. We used cross sections and seismic reflection data to investigate bed length discrepancies within the hanging wall of the Absaroka thrust in the Sevier thrust belt of northeast Utah and southwest Wyoming. Restoration of cross sections suggests that there was ˜8-14 km of pre-Absaroka-thrust shortening above the Jurassic Preuss salt detachment, but not below it, in the hanging wall of the Absaroka thrust. Reflection seismic data over the hanging wall of the Crawford thrust show that the Crawford thrust is not offset along the Preuss salt detachment, indicating that the additional shortening on the Absaroka plate was transferred east before main movement on the Crawford thrust. Although early displacement on the Crawford thrust cannot be ruled out as the cause of the extra shortening, surface and subsurface geology suggests slip from the western thrust system (Willard and Lost Creek thrusts) was transferred several tens of kilometers east along the Jurassic Preuss salt detachment between ˜102-90 Ma, to the future location of the Absaroka thrust hanging wall. The lack of deformation of the Crawford thrust on the seismic data, along with shortening and extension estimates from cross sections, also indicate that the magnitude of Paleocene and post-early Eocene shortening on the Medicine Butte thrust was essentially offset by subsequent extension on the middle Eocene to late Oligocene Almy-Acocks normal-fault system. For the second study in this dissertation, we dated 91 borehole and surface samples from Laramide-age, basement-cored uplifts of the Rocky

  8. Swift follow-up of SPIRITS16tn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, S. M.; Jencson, J. E.; Kasliwal, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    We report Swift UVOT observations of SPIRITS16tn, a possible supernova in M108 (Jencson et al. ATel #9434). No source is detected in V, B, and U images taken on 2016-08-29.08 UT (14.0 days since SST discovery images) with exposure times of 540, 580, and 540s respectively.

  9. 77 FR 40489 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... amend Class E airspace at Memphis, TN (77 FR 17360). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  10. 77 FR 13195 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springfield, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    .... Box 20636, Atlanta, Georgia 30320; telephone (404) 305-6364. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On... E airspace at Springfield, TN (76 FR 58726). Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  11. 77 FR 28246 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tullahoma, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... amend Class E airspace at Tullahoma, TN (77 FR 12759). Interested parties were invited to participate in... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila TN97-08

    PubMed Central

    Tekedar, Hasan C.; Kumru, Salih; Karsi, Attila; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.; Sonstegard, Tad; Schroeder, Steven G.; Liles, Mark R.; Griffin, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic pathogen residing in freshwater environments that causes infection in fish and mammals. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of A. hydrophila strain TN97-08 isolated from a diseased bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in 1997. PMID:27231367

  13. 76 FR 1512 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Savannah, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Savannah, TN (75 FR 65584) Docket No. FAA-2010-1047... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  14. 78 FR 38555 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Selmer, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ..., TN. (78 FR 16202). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  15. 76 FR 55232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Copperhill, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Class E airspace at Copperhill, TN (76 FR 35370) Docket No. FAA-2011-0402. Interested parties were... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  16. 76 FR 36166 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and...

  17. 78 FR 52424 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dayton, TN, Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cleveland, TN, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Hospital, Cleveland, TN, (78 FR 25403). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  18. Transposon-mediated mobilization of chromosomally located catabolic operons of the CAM plasmid by TOL plasmid transposon Tn4652 and CAM plasmid transposon Tn3614.

    PubMed

    Mäe, A A; Heinaru, A L

    1994-04-01

    The CAM (camphor degradation) plasmid is integrated into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida PaW-line strains and is not self-transferable as a plasmid via conjugation. Our results show that the mobilization of chromosomally located CAM and the integration of cam-operons into the chromosome of the new Cam+ transconjugants is a recA-independent process mediated by transposons Tn4652 (17 kbp) and Tn3614 (7.2 kbp). Transposon Tn3614 is apparently identical to the left-hand and the right-hand sequences of the TOL plasmid pWW0 transposon Tn4654. The insertion of Tn401 inside the left-hand terminal IR of Tn4652 completely inhibited the mobilization of CAM. According to our data transposons Tn4652 and Tn3614 together with CAM plasmid catabolic operons are integrated into the chromosome. We propose that in pseudomonads the transposons Tn4652 and Tn3614 play a key role in the evolution and spread of new catabolic plasmids in nature. PMID:8012608

  19. Interaction of hamster submaxillary sialyl-Tn and Tn glycoproteins with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins.

    PubMed

    Wu, A M; Shen, F; Herp, A; Wu, J H

    1994-04-01

    Hamster submaxillary glycoprotein (HSM), one of the simplest glycoproteins among mammalian salivary mucins, is composed of approximately equivalent amounts of protein, hexosamine and sialic acid. The Thr and Ser residues in the protein core account for more than half of all of the amino acid residues, while Lys, Glu, Pro and Ala are the major components of the remaining portion of amino acids. The carbohydrate side chains of this mucous glycoprotein have mainly the NeuAc-GalNAc-(sialyl-Tn) sequence (HSM), and those of the desialylated product (HSM-Tn) are almost exclusively unsubstituted GalNAc residues (Tn determinants). The binding properties of sialyl-Tn (HSM) and asialo-HSM (HSM-Tn) glycoproteins were tested by precipitin assay with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins. The HSM-Tn completely precipitated Vicia villosa (VVL both B4 and mixture of A and B), Maclura pomifera (MPL), and Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin) lectins; less than 2 micrograms of HSM-Tn were required for precipitating 50% of 5.0-6.3 micrograms lectin nitrogen added. HSM-Tn also reacted well with Helix pomatia lectin (HPL), Wistaria floribunda lectin (WFL) and Abrus precatorius agglutinin (APA) and precipitated in each case over 81% of the lectin nitrogen added. The reactivity of HSM-Tn with other lectins (Ricinus communis, RCA1; Dolichol biflorus, DBL; Viscum album, ML-I; Arachis hypogaea, PNA, and Triticum vulgaris, WGA) was weak or negligible. The activity of sialyl-Tn (HSM) was more restricted; HSM reacted well with Jacalin, moderately with MPL and VVL-B4, but was inactive or only weakly with the other lectins used. These findings indicate that HSM and its desialylated product (HSM-Tn) are highly useful reagents for the differentiation of Tn and T/Gal specific lectins and for anti-T, Tn and Af monoclonal antibodies.

  20. 75 FR 27846 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ..., Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lewis, Macon, Robertson, Smith, Stewart, Trousdale, Wayne, Wilson. Contiguous Counties... 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. BILLING CODE...

  1. Iceland's Grímsvötn volcano erupts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-05-01

    About 13 months after Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano began erupting on 14 April 2010, which led to extensive air traffic closures over Europe, Grímsvötn volcano in southeastern took its turn. Iceland's most active volcano, which last erupted in 2004 and lies largely beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap, began its eruption activity on 21 May, with the ash plume initially reaching about 20 kilometers in altitude, according to the Icelandic Meteorological Office. Volcanic ash from Grímsvötn has cancelled hundreds of airplane flights and prompted U.S. president Barack Obama to cut short his visit to Ireland. As Eos went to press, activity at the volcano was beginning to subside.

  2. Lightcurve Analysis of Near-Earth Asteroid 2010 TN54

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Benishek, Vladimir; Ferrero, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    CCD photometry observations of the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2010 TN 54 indicate a period of either 6.14 h or 12.12 h, depending on whether a monomodal or bimodal lightcurve is adopted. The amplitude was only 0.07 ± 0.01 mag, which - along with the period being nearly commensurate with an Earth day - made finding a definitive solution difficult, despite being observed from locations in North America and Europe.

  3. Characterization of Tn6238 with a New Allele of aac(6′)-Ib-cr

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, María P.; Orman, Betina; Errecalde, Laura; Kaufman, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report that the genetic structure of Tn1331 remained conserved in Argentina from 1989 to 2013 (72 of 73 isolates), with the exception being the plasmid-borne Tn1331-like transposon Tn6238 containing a new aac(6′)-Ib-cr allele recovered from a colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate. A bioinformatic analysis of aac(6′)-Ib-like gene cassettes suggests that this new aac(6′)-Ib-cr allele emerged through mutation or homologous recombination in the Tn1331 genetic platform. Tn6238 is a novel platform for the dissemination of aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone resistance determinants. PMID:25691640

  4. 76 FR 5194 - Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge, Henry, Benton, Decatur, and Humphreys Counties, TN; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... (73 FR 17994). On December 28, 1945, President Harry S. Truman signed Executive Order No. 9670... period via Federal Register notice on June 7, 2010 (75 FR 32201). We received 43 comments on the Draft... mammals, fish, reptiles, and amphibians. We announce our decision and the availability of the final...

  5. 75 FR 32201 - Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge, Henry, Benton, Decatur, and Humphreys Counties, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... started the process through a notice in the Federal Register on April 2, 2008 (73 FR 17994). On December... we would conduct population and habitat surveys to evaluate shorebird use and invertebrate densities... more baseline inventories for non-game mammals, reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates....

  6. 77 FR 24200 - American Drum & Pallet, Memphis, Shelby County, TN; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID No. CERCLA....epa.gov/region4/superfund/programs/enforcement/enforcement.htm1 . Email: Painter.Paula@epa.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula V. Painter at 404/562-8887. Dated: April 9, 2012. Anita L. Davis,...

  7. 75 FR 6257 - Watts Bar Reservoir Land Management Plan, Loudon, Meigs, Rhea, and Roane Counties, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... systematic method of evaluating and identifying the most suitable use of public land under TVA stewardship... would continue to conduct environmental reviews prior to the approval of any proposed development or... completion of an appropriate environmental review. TVA believes that implementation of Alternative B not...

  8. Tn6026 and Tn6029 are found in complex resistance regions mobilised by diverse plasmids and chromosomal islands in multiple antibiotic resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Reid, Cameron J; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2015-07-01

    Transposons flanked by direct copies of IS26 are important contributors to the evolution of multiple antibiotic resistance. Tn6029 and Tn6026 are examples of composite transposons that have become widely disseminated on small and large plasmids with different incompatibility markers in pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli and various serovars of Salmonella enterica. Some of the plasmids that harbour these transposons also carry combinations of virulence genes. Recently, Tn6029 and Tn6026 and derivatives thereof have been found on chromosomal islands in both established and recently emerged pathogens. While Tn6029 and Tn6026 carry genes encoding resistance to older generation antibiotics, they also provide a scaffold for the introduction of genes encoding resistance to a wide variety of clinically relevant antibiotics that are mobilised by IS26. As a consequence, Tn6029 and Tn6026 or variants are likely to increasingly feature in complex resistance regions in multiple antibiotic resistant Enterobacteriaceae that threaten the health of humans and food production animals.

  9. Tn292l, a transposon encoding fosfomycin resistance.

    PubMed Central

    García-Lobo, J M; Ortiz, J M

    1982-01-01

    The determinant of resistance to fosfomycin of the Serratia marcescens plasmid pOU900 was transposed into the plasmid ColE1 and into the plasmid RP4 in the absence of the RecA function of the host. In each case, the acquisition of fosfomycin resistance was correlated with the presence of a discrete piece of DNA, uniform in size and in restriction pattern, This new, 7.5-megadalton transposable element encoding resistance to fosfomycin has been called Tn2921. A preliminary map of the transposon is presented. Images PMID:6282810

  10. Structure and function of Tn5467, a Tn21-like transposon located on the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans broad-host-range plasmid pTF-FC2.

    PubMed Central

    Clennel, A M; Johnston, B; Rawlings, D E

    1995-01-01

    A 3.5-kb region of plasmid pTF-FC2, which contains a transposon-like element designated Tn5467, has been sequenced, and its biological activity has been investigated. The transposon is bordered by two 38-bp inverted repeat sequences which have sequence identity in 37 of 38 and in 38 of 39 bp to the tnpA distal and tnpA proximal inverted repeats of Tn21, respectively. Within these borders, open reading frames with amino acid similarity to a glutaredoxin-like protein, a MerR regulatory protein, and a multidrug-resistant-membrane transport-like protein were found. The gene for the glutaredoxin-like protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and enabled growth of a glutathione-requiring E. coli trxA gshA mutant on minimal medium and the reduction of methionine sulfoxide to methionine. In addition, there were two regions which, when translated, had homology to 85% of the N-terminal region of the Tn21 resolvase (tnpR) and to 15% of the C terminus of the Tn21 transposase (tnpA). A region containing res-like sites was located immediately upstream of the partial tnpR gene. Neither the partial transposase nor the resolvase genes of Tn5467 were biologically active, but Tn5467 was transposed and resolved when the Tn21 transposase and resolvase were provided in trans. Tn5467 appears to be a defective transposon which belongs to the Tn21 subgroup of the Tn3 family. PMID:8534089

  11. Tn5406, a New Staphylococcal Transposon Conferring Resistance to Streptogramin A and Related Compounds Including Dalfopristin

    PubMed Central

    Haroche, Julien; Allignet, Jeanine; El Solh, Névine

    2002-01-01

    We characterized a new transposon, Tn5406 (5,467 bp), in a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus (BM3327). It carries a variant of vgaA, which encodes a putative ABC protein conferring resistance to streptogramin A but not to mixtures of streptogramins A and B. It also carries three putative genes, the products of which exhibit significant similarities (61 to 73% amino acid identity) to the three transposases of the staphylococcal transposon Tn554. Like Tn554, Tn5406 failed to generate target repeats. In BM3327, the single copy of Tn5406 was inserted into the chromosomal att554 site, which is the preferential insertion site of Tn554. In three other independent S. aureus clinical isolates, Tn5406 was either present as a single plasmid copy (BM3318), as two chromosomal copies (BM3252), or both in the chromosome and on a plasmid (BM3385). The Tn5406-carrying plasmids also contain two other genes, vgaB and vatB. The insertion sites of Tn5406 in BM3252 were studied: one copy was in att554, and one copy was in the additional SCCmec element. Amplification experiments revealed circular forms of Tn5406, indicating that this transposon might be active. To our knowledge, a transposon conferring resistance to streptogramin A and related compounds has not been previously described. PMID:12121902

  12. 9. Photocopy of photograph showing myrtlecovered spring. The original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of photograph showing myrtle-covered spring. The original photograph was taken on May 21, 1936 by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is II-B-(7)-8096. - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 8. DETAIL SHOT OF POST AND RAIL AND CUT AWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL SHOT OF POST AND RAIL AND CUT AWAY VIEW OF ABUTMENT SUPPORT INTO THE GROUND - Lost Creek Road Bridge, Spanning Sevier River at County Road 243, 2 miles east of Aurora, Aurora, Sevier County, UT

  14. Synthesis of Double C-Glycoside Analogue of sTn

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Dino K.; Baytas, Sultan N.; Wang, Qun; Muñoz, Eva M.; Tokuzoki, Kazuo; Tomiyama, Hiroshi; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A sTn double C-glycoside, sTn analogue 2, was synthesized using samarium chemistry developed in our laboratory. Complications in the oxidation reaction affording aldehyde acceptor were overcome by double protection of amide and the use of a room-temperature ionic liquid as solvent. Studies are underway to conjugate the sTn double C-glycoside hapten 2 to KLH carrier protein for biological evaluation as a vaccine. PMID:16277348

  15. Tn5381, a conjugative transposon identifiable as a circular form in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, L B; Marshall, S H; Carias, L L

    1992-01-01

    We have identified two 19-kb conjugative transposons (Tn5381 and Tn5383) in separate strains of multiply resistant Enterococcus faecalis. These transposons confer resistance to tetracycline and minocycline via a tetM gene, are capable of both chromosomal and plasmid integration in a Rec- environment, and transfer between strains in the absence of detectable plasmid DNA at frequencies ranging from < 1 x 10(-9) to 2 x 10(-5) per donor CFU, depending on the donor strain and the growth conditions. Hybridization studies indicate that these transposons are closely related to Tn916. We have identified bands of ca. 19 kb on agarose gel separations of alkaline lysis preparations from E. faecalis strains containing chromosomal copies of Tn5381, which we have confirmed to be a circularized form of this transposon. This phenomenon has previously been observed only when Tn916 has been cloned in Escherichia coli. Overnight growth of donor strains in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of tetracycline results in an approximately 10-fold increase in transfer frequency of Tn5381 into enterococcal recipients and an increase in the amount of the circular form of Tn5381 as detectable by hybridization. These results suggest that Tn5381 is a Tn916-related conjugative transposon for which the appearance of a circular form and the conjugative-transfer frequency are regulated by a mechanism(s) affected by the presence of tetracycline in the growth medium. Images PMID:1331026

  16. Intramolecular transposition by a synthetic IS50 (Tn5) derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Tomcsanyi, T.; Phadnis, S.H.; Berg, D.E. ); Berg, C.M. )

    1990-11-01

    We report the formation of deletions and inversions by intramolecular transposition of Tn5-derived mobile elements. The synthetic transposons used contained the IS50 O and I end segments and the transposase gene, a contraselectable gene encoding sucrose sensitivity (sacB), antibiotic resistance genes, and a plasmid replication origin. Both deletions and inversions were associated with loss of a 300-bp segment that is designated the vector because it is outside of the transposon. Deletions were severalfold more frequent than inversions, perhaps reflecting constraints on DNA twisting or abortive transposition. Restriction and DNA sequence analyses showed that both types of rearrangements extended from one transposon end to many different sites in target DNA. In the case of inversions, transposition generated 9-bp direct repeats of target sequences.

  17. Differences in sialyl-Tn antigen expression between keratoacanthomas and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P; Clausen, O P; Bryne, M

    1999-04-01

    Keratoacanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma are common skin tumors, especially in immunosuppressed transplant recipients, but the distinction between these two types of epidermal neoplasia may be difficult. Sialyl-Tn (Sia-GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr) is a cell surface carbohydrate associated with hyperplasia in squamous epithelium, and correlated with poor prognosis in several human adenocarcinomas. Twenty-seven keratoacanthomas and 29 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas were examined for the expression of sialyl-Tn and of the Ki67 epitope, the latter a marker for cell proliferation. By immunohistochemistry, basaloid tumor cells at the periphery of tumor nests showed some degree of sialyl-Tn expression in 16 keratoacanthomas (59%), while only three squamous cell carcinomas (10%) showed sialyl-Tn-positive basaloid tumor cells (p<0.001). Keratinized, differentiated tumor cells were more often sialyl-Tn-positive in keratoacanthomas (89%) than in squamous cell carcinomas (31%) (p<0.001). A striking sialyl-Tn-positivity in the basal cell layer was found in a border zone directly adjacent to most tumors of both types (88 and 88%). By immunohistochemical examination of parallel sections and by double immunofluorescence, sialyl-Tn antigen expression was primarily seen in cells that did not express Ki67, although some overlap was present. Keratoacanthomas from transplant recipients did not differ in sialyl-Tn expression compared to those from non-immunosuppressed patients. The results indicate that sialyl-Tn expression is not directly related to cell proliferation, but rather to cellular features of post-mitotic cells, and that sialyl-Tn is not associated with a malignant phenotype. Sialyl-Tn may be linked to tumor regression, as seen in keratoacanthomas. PMID:10335895

  18. New Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic data from plutons in the northern Great Basin: Implications for crustal structure and granite petrogenesis in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.E. ); Wooden, J.L. )

    1991-05-01

    The influence of tectonic setting and age on the variation of isotopic signatures of granitic plutons in the northern Great Basin has, in general, not been apparent from previous investigations. None of these studies revealed the remarkable correlation shown by this expanded Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic data base. Jurassic-Early Cretaceous plutons in the northern Great Basin have a limited range of Sr and Nd isotopic values that cluster near bulk earth. Construction of Sr 0.706 and {epsilon}{sub Nd} = {minus}7 isotopic boundaries is virtually impossible for plutons of this age range. In contrast, Upper Cretaceous peraluminous granites east of the {epsilon}{sub Nd} = {minus}7 line have very negative {epsilon}{sub Nd} values and high initial Sr ratios, and they appear to represent essentially pure crustal melts. The data favor a model that equates generation of these plutons via crustal thickening associated with the Sevier thrust belt. Cenozoic plutons appear to be mixtures of mantle and crustal reservoirs, and their isotopic systematics, along with those of the Late Cretaceous age plutonic suite, define a previously unrecognized, approximately east-west-trending crustal boundary between predominantly Archean crust to the north and predominantly Proterozoic crust to the south. The isotopic data from the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous plutonic suite do not reflect the presence of this boundary, suggesting that the isotopic systematics of this plutonic suite may not have been controlled by the same variations in crustal and/or mantle lithospheric structure at depth.

  19. Tn7 transposition in vitro proceeds through an excised transposon intermediate generated by staggered breaks in DNA.

    PubMed

    Bainton, R; Gamas, P; Craig, N L

    1991-05-31

    We have developed a cell-free system in which the bacterial transposon Tn7 inserts at high frequency into its preferred target site in the Escherichia coli chromosome, attTn7; Tn7 transposition in vitro requires ATP and Tn7-encoded proteins. Tn7 transposes via a cut and paste mechanism in which the element is excised from the donor DNA by staggered double-strand breaks and then inserted into attTn7 by the joining of 3' transposon ends to 5' target ends. Neither recombination intermediates nor products are observed in the absence of any protein component or DNA substrate. Thus, we suggest that Tn7 transposition occurs in a nucleoprotein complex containing several proteins and the substrate DNAs and that recognition of attTn7 within this complex provokes strand cleavages at the Tn7 ends.

  20. Sarcomere length dependent effects on the interaction between cTnC and cTnI in skinned papillary muscle strips.

    PubMed

    Li, King-Lun; Ghashghaee, Nazanin Bohlooli; Solaro, R John; Dong, Wenji

    2016-07-01

    Sarcomere length dependent activation (LDA) of myocardial force development is the cellular basis underlying the Frank-Starling law of the heart, but it is still elusive how the sarcomeres detect the length changes and convert them into altered activation of thin filament. In this study we investigated how the C-domain of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) functionally and structurally responds to the comprehensive effects of the Ca(2+), crossbridge, and sarcomere length of chemically skinned myocardial preparations. Using our in situ technique which allows for simultaneous measurements of time-resolved FRET and mechanical force of the skinned myocardial preparations, we measured changes in the FRET distance between cTnI(167C) and cTnC(89C), labeled with FRET donor and acceptor, respectively, as a function of [Ca(2+)], crossbridge state and sarcomere length of the skinned muscle preparations. Our results show that [Ca(2+)], cross-bridge feedback and sarcomere length have different effects on the structural transition of the C-domain cTnI. In particular, the interplay between crossbridges and sarcomere length has significant impacts on the functional structural change of the C-domain of cTnI in the relaxed state. These novel observations suggest the importance of the C-domain of cTnI and the dynamic and complex interplay between various components of myofilament in the LDA mechanism. PMID:26944554

  1. Effective antitumor therapy based on a novel antibody-drug conjugate targeting the Tn carbohydrate antigen.

    PubMed

    Sedlik, Christine; Heitzmann, Adèle; Viel, Sophie; Ait Sarkouh, Rafik; Batisse, Cornélie; Schmidt, Frédéric; De La Rochere, Philippe; Amzallag, Nathalie; Osinaga, Eduardo; Oppezzo, Pablo; Pritsch, Otto; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Hubert, Pascale; Amigorena, Sebastian; Piaggio, Eliane

    2016-07-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC), combining the specificity of tumor recognition by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and the powerful cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs, are currently under growing interest and development. Here, we studied the potential of Chi-Tn, a mAb directed to a glyco-peptidic tumor-associated antigen, to be used as an ADC for cancer treatment. First, we demonstrated that Chi-Tn specifically targeted tumor cells in vivo. Also, using flow cytometry and deconvolution microscopy, we showed that the Chi-Tn mAb is rapidly internalized - condition necessary to ensure the delivery of conjugated cytotoxic drugs in an active form, and targeted to early and recycling endosomes. When conjugated to saporin (SAP) or to auristatin F, the Chi-Tn ADC exhibited effective cytotoxicity to Tn-positive tumor cells in vitro, which correlated with the level of tumoral Tn expression. Furthermore, the Chi-Tn mAb conjugated to auristatin F also exhibited efficient antitumor activity in vivo, validating for the first time the use of an anti-Tn antibody as an effective ADC. PMID:27622021

  2. Transcriptional activity of the transposable element Tn10 in the Salmonella typhimurium ilvGEDA operon.

    PubMed Central

    Blazey, D L; Burns, R O

    1982-01-01

    Polarity of Tn10 insertion mutations in the Salmonella typhimurium ilvGEDA operon depends on both the location and the orientation of the Tn10 element. One orientation of Tn10 insertions in ilvG and ilvE permits low-level expression of the downstream ilvEDA and ilvDA genes, respectively. Our analysis of Salmonella ilv recombinant plasmids shows that this residual ilv expression must result from Tn10-directed transcription and does not reflect the presence of internal promoters in the ilvGEDA operon, as was previously suggested. The opposite orientation of Tn10 insertion in ilvE prevents ilvDA expression, indicating that only one end of Tn10 is normally active in transcribing adjacent genes. Both orientations of Tn10 insertion in ilvD exert absolute polarity on ilvA expression. Expression of ilvA is known to be dependent on effective translation of ilvD, perhaps reflecting the lack of a ribosome binding site proximal to the ilvA sequence. Therefore, recognition of the ability of Tn10 to promote transcription of contiguous genes in the ilvGEDA operon apparently requires the presence of associated ribosome binding sites. PMID:6289328

  3. 77 FR 12759 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tullahoma, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Tullahoma, TN, as the Arnold Air Force Base has been... would update the geographic coordinates at Tullahoma Regional Airport/Wm Northern Field. This action... at Tullahoma Regional Airport/Wm Northern Field, Tullahoma, TN. Airspace reconfiguration is...

  4. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public... National Park Service Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY... contract for the conduct of certain visitor services within Big South Fork National Recreation...

  5. 75 FR 52367 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN. The human remains... sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the...

  6. Glycoprotein screening in colorectal cancer based on differentially expressed Tn antigen.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongyun; Cheng, Zongyong; Ouyang, Chunhui; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Yanyan; Chen, Shuijiao; Wang, Chunlian; Lu, Fanggen; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and the identification of new biomarkers for CRC is valuable for its diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to screen differentially expressed glycoproteins (especially O-glycoproteins) and to identify diagnostic or therapeutic candidates for colorectal cancer (CRC) based on different Tn antigen expression levels. Fresh cancer tissues and adjacent healthy tissues were obtained from CRC patients and classified into three groups based on their Tn antigen expression: CRC with negative Tn expression (CRC Tn‑), CRC with positive Tn expression (CRC Tn+) and normal control without Tn expression (NC). Protein extractions were separated and identified by iTRAQ technology. Glycoproteins and O-glycoproteins were selected using UniProt and DAVID. Deep bioinformatic analysis, including Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KO), was used to annotate this O-glycoprotein interaction network. Subsequently, two O‑glycoproteins were verified by western blotting and immunohistochemistry in either LS174T cells or CRC tissues. We found that 330 differentially expressed proteins were identified by iTRAQ between CRC Tn‑ and NC tissues, 317 between CRC Tn+ and NC tissues, and 316 between CRC Tn‑ and Tn+ tissues. Of the 316 proteins, 55 glycoproteins and 19 O‑glycoproteins were identified and analyzed via deep informatics. Namely, different Tn antigen expression levels in CRC led to differential protein expression patterns, especially for glycoproteins and O‑glycoproteins. Decorin and SORBS1, two representative functional O-glycoproteins, were significantly downregulated in the CRC Tn+ tissues compared with the level in the CRC Tn‑ or NC tissues. Based on this deep bioinformatic analysis, Decorin and SORBS1 are hypothesized to be involved in the TGF‑β and PPAR‑γ signaling pathways, respectively. PMID:27432485

  7. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Restores Estrogen Reduced-cTnI Expression in Neonatal Hearts of Mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chang; Luo, Xiaomei; Xing, Qianlu; Sun, Huichao; Huang, Xupei

    2016-10-01

    Diastolic cardiac dysfunction can be caused by abnormality in cTnI expression during cardiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen on the abnormal expression of cTnI in the hearts of neonatal mice and its potential epigenetic mechanisms. We then evaluated suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a HDAC inhibitor, as a new target treatment of diastolic cardiac dysfunction. Postnatal day 0.5 C57BL/6 mice were injected with estrogen for 1 week, then the hearts of 7-day-old neonatal mice were retrieved for examination. The activities of HDAC and HAT were assayed by colorimetry, and the interaction of cTnI with HDAC5 in mice hearts were examined using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. The expression of cTnI was tested by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Estrogen treated groups displayed a significantly increased HDAC activity in the hearts of neonatal mice while HAT activity remained unchanged. Additionally, HDAC5 was higher at the cTnI promoter, as compared to the saline treated control groups. The acetylation of histone H3K9ac on cTnI promoter significantly decreased in the hearts of neonatal mice treated with estrogen, and the expression of cTnI at transcriptional and protein levels also decreased. SAHA was shown to increase the acetylation of histone H3K9ac and upregulate the expression of cTnI. The data demonstrated that SAHA can correct cTnI expression abnormality caused by estrogen through inhibiting the binding of HDAC5 to the promoter of cTnI. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2377-2384, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27379430

  8. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Deliverable 1.4.4: Ferron Sandstone lithofacies and case-study areas, Emery and Sevier Counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-01-04

    The types of dominantly sandstone lithofacies that characterize the Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone reservoir types were tentatively identified before the project began. These reservoir types were defined and mapped at the regional scale and are the subject of the detailed, highly focused case studies. The purpose of conducting detailed case-study analysis is to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and quantitative characterization of fluvial-deltaic reservoirs which will allow realistic inter-well and reservoir-scale modeling to be used for improved oil-field development in actual reservoirs world-wide. The resulting benefits and value may: (1) increase recoverable reserves by identifying untapped compartments created by reservoir heterogeneity, (2) reduce development costs by more efficiently siting infill drilling locations, (3) increase deliverability by exploiting the reservoir along optimal fluid-flow paths, (4) enhance the application of new technologies, such as horizontal drilling, by identifying optimal drilling directions to maximize fluid-flow, and (5) identify reservoir trends for field extension drilling. Various geologic studies of the Ferron Sandstone were reviewed to compile a list of locations and types of lithofacies in the Ferron Sandstone to be examined in greater detail as part of the subsequent case studies. Preliminary regional interpretations were also used to help select the type and location of lithofacies for case studies. Potential case-study sites were delineated during several reconnaissance field trips by the geologic team. Two case-study sites were selected for the project: Ivie Creek and Willow Springs Wash, in the central and southern parts respectively of the project study area. Results are discussed.

  9. Alpha Heating and TN Burn in NIF Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas; Wang, Yi-Ming; Merrill, Frank; Cerjan, Charlie; Batha, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable TN burn requires alpha-particle energy deposition in the hot fuel. Recently, we developed an analytic model to estimate the neutron yield generated by the alpha-particle energy deposited in the hot spot, in terms of the measured total neutron yield, the adiabat of the cold fuel and the peak implosion kinetic energy of the pusher. Our alpha heating model has been applied to a number of inertial confinement fusion capsule experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our model predictions are consistent with the post-shot calibrated code simulations and experimental data. We have also studied the uncertainty and sensitivities of alpha heating on various physics parameters, such as the adiabat of cold fuel, total neutron yield and peak implosion velocity. Our analysis demonstrates that the alpha particle heating was appreciable in only high-foot experiments. Based on our work, we will discuss paths and parameters to reach ignition at NIF (LA-UR-15-25507). This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  10. International Spread and Persistence of TEM-24 Is Caused by the Confluence of Highly Penetrating Enterobacteriaceae Clones and an IncA/C2 Plasmid Containing Tn1696::Tn1 and IS5075-Tn21▿

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Ângela; Baquero, Fernando; Machado, Elisabete; Cantón, Rafael; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M.

    2010-01-01

    TEM-24 remains one of the most widespread TEM-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae. To analyze the reasons influencing its spread and persistence, a multilevel population genetics study was carried out on 28 representative TEM-24 producers from Belgium, France, Portugal, and Spain (13 Enterobacter aerogenes isolates, 6 Escherichia coli isolates, 6 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 2 Proteus mirabilis isolates, and 1 Klebsiella oxytoca isolate, from 1998 to 2004). Clonal relatedness (XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] and E. coli phylogroups) and antibiotic susceptibility were determined by standard procedures. Plasmid analysis included determination of the incompatibility group (by PCR, hybridization, and/or sequencing) and comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns. Characterization of genetic elements conferring antibiotic resistance included integrons (classes 1, 2, and 3) and transposons (Tn3, Tn21, and Tn402). Similar PFGE patterns were identified among E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates, while E. coli strains were diverse (phylogenetic groups A, B2, and D). Highly related 180-kb IncA/C2 plasmids conferring resistance to kanamycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides were identified. Each plasmid contained defective In0-Tn402 (dfrA1-aadA1, aacA4, or aacA4-aacC1-orfE-aadA2-cmlA1) and In4-Tn402 (aacA4 or dfrA1-aadA1) variants. These integrons were located within Tn21, Tn1696, or hybrids of these transposons, with IS5075 interrupting their IRtnp and IRmer. In all cases, blaTEM-24 was part of an IS5075-ΔTn1 transposon within tnp1696, mimicking other genetic elements containing blaTEM-2 and blaTEM-3 variants. The international dissemination of TEM-24 is fuelled by an IncA/C2 plasmid acquired by different enterobacterial clones which seem to evolve by gaining diverse genetic elements. This work highlights the risks of a confluence between highly

  11. Finite strain and strain variation analysis in the Sheeprock Thrust Sheet: an internal thrust sheet in the Provo salient of the Sevier Fold-and-Thrust belt, Central Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukul, Malay; Mitra, Gautam

    1998-04-01

    The Sheeprock thrust sheet in west-central Utah is an internal thrust sheet in the Provo salient of the Sevier fold-and-thrust belt. We have measured finite strain in quartzites (the dominant lithology), sampled along a square grid within the thrust sheet, using the modified normalized Fry method (McNaught M.A. (1994) Modifying the normalized Fry method for aggregates of non-elliptical grains. Journal of Structural Geology16 493-503). The {X}/{Y} and {X}/{Z} axial ratios from unsampled locations within the sample area were estimated using the spatial statistics approach. The strain ellipsoids exhibit a variable three-dimensional orientation pattern resulting from modification of the initial layer parallel shortening (LPS) strain ellipsoid by fault parallel shear in conjunction with vertical flattening and/or horizontal stretching indicating that the thrust sheet did not undergo plane strain deformation in the transport plane. This suggests that the plane strain assumption used in drawing restorable balanced cross-sections breaks down for internal thrust sheets with more than one penetrative-strain producing deformation event. The {X}/{Z} strain axial ratios decrease away from the thrust towards the middle of the sheet. The {X}/{Y} strain axial ratios from interpolated image diagrams indicate transport-parallel stretching at the front end of the sheet and strike-parallel stretching at the back end of the sheet. The footwall and hanging wall finite strain patterns are similar indicating that most of the strain in the Sheeprock thrust sheet developed early in the deformation history of the thrust sheet before and perhaps during the growth of a large fault propagation fold pair.

  12. Brownfield to Brightfield Initiative in Oak Ridge, TN - 12346

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, Gil; Fairless, Chad

    2012-07-01

    Experience characterizing, permitting, and restoring 'Brownfield' sites-government or industrial sites with restricted future use due to the presence or potential presence of hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants-is being leveraged to identify opportunities for redevelopment into solar power generating facilities which, in this context, are called 'Brightfields'. Brownfield sites offer the expansive land necessary for large photovoltaic (PV) solar farms, but require an in-depth working knowledge of complicated regulatory restrictions and environmental constraints to develop them. As a part of the effort to identify opportunities for redevelopment of Brownfield sites for solar applications, a technical guide, was composed specifically for the development of solar generation on restricted use sites. The basis of the technical guide gives specific consideration to environmental requirements and installation methods breaking that into three areas for assessing: 1) levels of contamination, 2) ground penetration requirements, and 3) the requirements for aesthetics and maintenance. Brightfield projects are underway to support the technical guide and expand re-industrialization efforts for the former DOE Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. There are exciting opportunities to turn Brownfields into Brightfield solar energy solutions for meeting the future renewable energy needs of our country. Brownfields that offer the large surface area required for solar PV farms coupled with the technical guide for the installation of solar farms on restricted use sites supports efforts to develop the solar capacities and expertise to tap this future market. The initial projects designed following the technical guide will provide verification of the installation requirements and beneficial reuse of restricted use sites. (authors)

  13. Geology of an Ordovician stratiform base-metal deposit in the Long Canyon Area, Blaine County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otto, B.R.; Zieg, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the Long Canyon area, Blaine County, Idaho, a strati-form base-metal-bearing gossan is exposed within a complexly folded and faulted sequence of Ordovician strata. The gossan horizon in graptolitic mudrock suggests preservation of bedded sulfides that were deposited by an Ordovician subaqueous hydrothermal system. Abrupt thickness changes and geochemi-cal zoning in the metal-bearing strata suggest that the gossan is near the source of the hydrothermal system. Ordovician sedimentary rocks at Long Canyon represent a coarsening-upward section that was deposited below wave base in a submarine depositional environment. The lowest exposed rocks represent deposition in a starved, euxinic basin and over-lying strata represent a prograding clastic wedge of terrigenous and calcareous detritus. The metalliferous strata are between these two types of strata. Strata at Long Canyon have been deformed by two periods of thrust faulting, at least three periods of normal faulting, and two periods of folding. Tertiary extensional faulting formed five subhorizontal structural plates. These low-angle fault-bounded plates truncate Sevier-age and possibly Antler-age thrust faults. The presence of gossan-bearing strata in the four upper plates suggests that there was only minor, although locally complex, stratigraphic displacement and rotation. The lack of correlative strata in the lowest plate suggests the displacement was greater than 2000 ft. The metalliferous strata were exposed to surface weathering, oxidation, and erosion prior to and during deposition of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group. The orientations of erosional canyons formed during this early period of exposure were related to the orientations of Sevier-age thrust faults, and stream-channel gravel was deposited in the canyons. During this and subsequent intervals of exposure, sulfidic strata were oxi-dized to a minimum depth of 700 ft.

  14. Multicopy integration of mini-Tn7 transposons into selected chromosomal sites of a Salmonella vaccine strain

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Karen; Werner, Esther; Loessner, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal integration of expression modules for transgenes is an important aspect for the development of novel Salmonella vectors. Mini-Tn7 transposons have been used for the insertion of one such module into the chromosomal site attTn7, present only once in most Gram-negative bacteria. However, integration of multiple mini-Tn7 copies might be suitable for expression of appropriate amounts of antigen or combination of different modules. Here we demonstrate that integration of a 9.6 kb mini-Tn7 harbouring the luciferase luxCDABE (lux) occurs at the natural attTn7 site and simultaneously other locations of the Salmonella chromosome, which were engineered using λ-Red recombinase to contain one or two additional artificial attTn7 sites (a-attTn7). Multicopy integration even at closely spaced attTn7 sites was unexpected in light of the previously reported distance-dependent Tn7 target immunity. Integration of multiple copies of a mini-Tn7 containing a gfp cassette resulted in increasing green fluorescence of bacteria. Stable consecutive integration of two mini-Tn7 encoding lacZ and lux was achieved by initial transposition of lacZ-mini-Tn7, subsequent chromosomal insertion of a-attTn7 and a second round of transposition with lux-mini-Tn7. Mini-Tn7 thus constitutes a versatile method for multicopy integration of expression cassettes into the chromosome of Salmonella and possibly other bacteria. PMID:25488129

  15. Transposition of Tn5096 from a temperature-sensitive transducible plasmid in Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed

    McHenney, M A; Baltz, R H

    1991-09-01

    Transposon Tn5096 was inserted into a derivative of the temperature-sensitive plasmid pMT660 containing the bacteriophage FP43 pac site. The resulting plasmid, pRHB126, was transduced by FP43 into several Streptomyces species. Tn5096 transposed from pRHB126 into different sites in the genomes of Streptomyces ambofaciens, Streptomyces cinnamonensis, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), Streptomyces fradiae, Streptomyces griseofuscus, and Streptomyces thermotolerans.

  16. A new Lactobacillus plantarum strain, TN8, from the gastro intestinal tract of poultry induces high cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Riadh; Trabelsi, Imen; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Lassoued, Saloua; Chouayekh, Hichem; Bejar, Samir

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the probiotic potential of 100 strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from different intestinal segments of indigenous poultry in Tunisia. The strains were submitted to a battery of standard tests and criteria commonly used for determining their probiotic properties and attributes. The findings revealed that 19 of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against 4 pathogenic bacteria, and that 4 (TN1, TN8, TN7, and TN13) showed good resistance to pH 3 and 5% bovine bile. Three isolates, namely TN1, TN8, and TN13, showed sensitivity to several antibiotics and were, therefore, selected for further enzymatic activity assays. Two isolates, namely TN1 and TN8, showed high efficacy of adhesion to chicken enterocytes. The cytokines released after stimulation by the two isolates showed high anti-inflammatory profiles, with an increased rate of Interleukin-10 (IL-10) production for the TN8 strain. Showing the highest performance, TN8 was submitted to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which revealed that the strain was of the species Lactobacillus plantarum. Overall, the findings indicate that the Lactobacilli from poultry intestine has a number of promising properties that make it candidate for application as a probiotic additive in poultry industry.

  17. Insertion of transposon Tn7 into the Escherichia coli glmS transcriptional terminator.

    PubMed Central

    Gay, N J; Tybulewicz, V L; Walker, J E

    1986-01-01

    The transposon Tn7 is unusual as it transposes at high frequencies from episomal elements to a unique site in the Escherichia coli chromosome. This unique site is within a region of dyad symmetry that we have demonstrated to be the transcriptional terminator of the glmS gene which encodes the glutamine amidotransferase, glucosamine synthetase. Transposition of Tn7 abolishes termination of glmS transcription at this site; the transcripts now extend into the left end of Tn7 and terminate at a new site, tm, 127 base pairs from the left end of Tn7. This region of the transposon contains a long open reading frame which encodes a protein sequence that is significantly related to the transposase proteins of the transposable elements IS1 and Tn3. A weak transcript has been identified that emanates from a promoter on the 5' side of this reading frame. This promoter is over-run by glmS transcripts and so it appears that expression of the Tn7 transposase may be regulated by promoter occlusion. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 6. PMID:3010949

  18. Variation on a theme; an overview of the Tn916/Tn1545 family of mobile genetic elements in the oral and nasopharyngeal streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Francesco; Vianna, Morgana E.; Roberts, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    The oral and nasopharyngeal streptococci are a major part of the normal microbiota in humans. Most human associated streptococci are considered commensals, however, a small number of them are pathogenic, causing a wide range of diseases including oral infections such as dental caries and periodontitis and diseases at other body sites including sinusitis and endocarditis, and in the case of Streptococcus pneumoniae, meningitis. Both phenotypic and sequence based studies have shown that the human associated streptococci from the mouth and nasopharynx harbor a large number of antibiotic resistance genes and these are often located on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) known as conjugative transposons or integrative and conjugative elements of the Tn916/Tn1545 family. These MGEs are responsible for the spread of the resistance genes between streptococci and also between streptococci and other bacteria. In this review we describe the resistances conferred by, and the genetic variations between the many different Tn916-like elements found in recent studies of oral and nasopharyngeal streptococci and show that Tn916-like elements are important mediators of antibiotic resistance genes within this genus. We will also discuss the role of the oral environment and how this is conducive to the transfer of these elements and discuss the contribution of both transformation and conjugation on the transfer and evolution of these elements in different streptococci. PMID:25368607

  19. Tn5045, a novel integron-containing antibiotic and chromate resistance transposon isolated from a permafrost bacterium.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Mayya; Gorlenko, Zhosephine; Mindlin, Sofia

    2011-04-01

    A novel antibiotic and chromate resistance transposon, Tn5045, was isolated from a permafrost strain of Pseudomonas sp. Tn5045 is a compound transposon composed of three distinct genetic elements. The backbone element is a Tn1013-like Tn3 family transposon, termed Tn1013∗, that contains the tnpA and the tnpR genes, encoding the transposase and resolvase, respectively, the res-site and four genes (orfA, B, C, D) related to different house-keeping genes. The second element is class 1 integron, termed InC∗, which is inserted into the Tn1013∗ res-region and contains 5'-CS-located integrase, 3'-CS-located qacE∆1 and sulfonamide resistance sulI genes, and a single cassette encoding the streptomycin resistance aadA2-gene. The third element is a TnOtChr-like Tn3 family transposon termed TnOtChr∗, which is inserted into the transposition module of the integron and contains genes of chromate resistance (chrB, A, C, F). Tn5045 is the first example of an ancient integron-containing mobile element and also the first characterized compound transposon coding for both antibiotic and chromate, resistance. Our data demonstrate that antibiotic and chromate resistance genes were distributed in environmental bacteria independently of human activities and provide important insights into the origin and evolution of antibiotic resistance integrons. PMID:21262357

  20. The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene of Tn2424: a new breed of cat.

    PubMed

    Parent, R; Roy, P H

    1992-05-01

    We have sequenced the gene coding for the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase of Tn2424 of plasmid NR79. This gene codes for a protein of 23,500 Da, and the derived protein sequence is similar to those of the chromosomal chloramphenicol acetyltransferases of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and of unidentified open reading frames, which may encode chloramphenicol acetyltransferases, adjacent to the ermG macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin resistance gene of Bacillus sphaericus and the vgb virginiamycin resistance gene of Staphylococcus aureus. Weaker similarity to the LacA (thiogalactoside acetyltransferase) and CysE (serine acetyltransferase) proteins of Escherichia coli and the NodL protein of Rhizobium leguminosarum is also observed. There is no significant similarity to any other chloramphenicol acetyltransferase genes, such as that of Tn9. The Tn2424 cat gene is part of a 4.5-kb region which also contains the aacA1a aminoglycoside-6'-N-acetyltransferase gene; Tn2424 is similar to Tn21 except for the presence of this region. Sequences flanking the cat gene are typical of those flanking other genes inserted into pVS1-derived "integrons" by a site-specific recombinational mechanism.

  1. Nodulating Competitiveness of a Nonmotile Tn7 Mutant of Bradyrhizobium japonicum in Nonsterile Soil †

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruilong; Tran, Van Mai; Schmidt, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    A nonmotile mutant of Bradyrhizobium japonicum serogroup 127 was generated by Tn7 mutagenesis and matched with the wild type against a common competitor in studies of soybean nodulation in nonsterile soil. The Tn7 mutant was very similar to the wild type in growth rate in culture, soybean lectin-binding ability, flagellar morphology, and nodulating capability, but it had a longer lag phase. Competing strains were distributed uniformly in soil in various ratios and at different population densities prior to planting. Mutant and wild type were equally prevalent in the seedling rhizosphere at about the time of nodule initiation, suggesting that motility conferred no advantage in rhizosphere colonization. Nodulation success of the Tn7 mutant was lower than that of the wild type under all test conditions. Differences were greatest at low soil populations of competitors and much less pronounced at initial populations of 107 g−1. The longer lag phase of the Tn7 mutant may have contributed to its decreased competitiveness, especially at the higher inoculation levels. The antibiotic and motility markers were stable, and the rifampin resistance derived from the parent did not affect adversely the competitiveness of the Tn7 mutant. We found motility to be of limited importance to the competitiveness of a strain in normal nonsterile soil, where the significance, if any, of this ability may be in migration at the immediate root surface in soils sparsely populated with rhizobial symbionts. PMID:16347986

  2. Distribution of the catabolic transposon Tn5271 in a groundwater bioremediation system.

    PubMed

    Wyndham, R C; Nakatsu, C; Peel, M; Cashore, A; Ng, J; Szilagyi, F

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of Tn5271-related DNA sequences in samples of groundwater and a groundwater bioremediation system at the Hyde Park (Niagara Falls, N.Y.) chemical landfill site was investigated. PCR amplification of target sequences within the cha genes of Tn5271 revealed similar sequences in the groundwater community and in samples from the sequencing batch reactors treating that groundwater. Cell dilution combined with PCR amplification indicated that cha sequences were carried in about 1 of 10 culturable bacteria from the treatment system. Characterization of isolates involved in chlorobenzoate and toluene biodegradation in the treatment system indicated that two phenotypic clusters, Alcaligenes faecalis type 2 and CDC group IVC-2, contained all of the Tn5271 probe-positive isolates from the community. These two groups differed phenotypically from recipient groups isolated following horizontal transfer of pBRC60 (Tn5271) in pristine freshwater microcosms. A genetic rearrangement in Tn5271 attributable to the intramolecular transposition of the flanking element IS1071R was detected in an isolate from the treatment system. Comparison of the structure of the intramolecular transposition derivative from groundwater isolate OCC13(pBRC13) with a laboratory-derived intramolecular transposition derivative of pBRC60 revealed similarities. The rearrangement was shown to increase the stability of the plasmid under starvation conditions. PMID:8117095

  3. TRANSIT--A Software Tool for Himar1 TnSeq Analysis.

    PubMed

    DeJesus, Michael A; Ambadipudi, Chaitra; Baker, Richard; Sassetti, Christopher; Ioerger, Thomas R

    2015-10-01

    TnSeq has become a popular technique for determining the essentiality of genomic regions in bacterial organisms. Several methods have been developed to analyze the wealth of data that has been obtained through TnSeq experiments. We developed a tool for analyzing Himar1 TnSeq data called TRANSIT. TRANSIT provides a graphical interface to three different statistical methods for analyzing TnSeq data. These methods cover a variety of approaches capable of identifying essential genes in individual datasets as well as comparative analysis between conditions. We demonstrate the utility of this software by analyzing TnSeq datasets of M. tuberculosis grown on glycerol and cholesterol. We show that TRANSIT can be used to discover genes which have been previously implicated for growth on these carbon sources. TRANSIT is written in Python, and thus can be run on Windows, OSX and Linux platforms. The source code is distributed under the GNU GPL v3 license and can be obtained from the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/mad-lab/transit. PMID:26447887

  4. Genetic analysis of Tn916-like elements conferring tetracycline resistance in clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Dong, Danfeng; Chen, Xu; Jiang, Cen; Zhang, Lihua; Cai, Gang; Han, Lizhong; Wang, Xuefeng; Mao, Enqiang; Peng, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    As an important clinically relevant pathogen, Clostridium difficile has a high multidrug resistance rate. Conjugative transposons play a vital role in its resistance phenotype. In the present study, 34 tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates of C. difficile were studied to detect tetracycline resistance genes and the presence of transposons. Thirty-two isolates were found to harbour Tn916-like elements carrying the tet(M) resistance gene, of which only one copy existed in the genome by Southern blot analysis. To characterise the genetic organisation of the Tn916-like elements, overlap PCR assays were performed with nine primer pairs, revealing three types of elements designated T1 to T3. The prevalent element T1 lacking PCRA (ORF23 to ORF21) and PCRB (ORF21 to ORF20) products, present in the epidemic ST37 clone, was further analysed by genome walking PCR in the left and right end sequences of the novel Tn916-like element. A gene coding for an FtsK/SpoIIIE family protein was found to replace the ORF24 to ORF21 region in Tn916. Moreover, the element could hardly conjugate between cells by filter mating experiments. These findings suggest that the dissemination of Tn916-like elements in epidemic ST37 strains in China was likely to have been conferred by clonal spread, signifying the importance of future surveillance and characterisation of conjugative transposons.

  5. TRANSIT - A Software Tool for Himar1 TnSeq Analysis

    PubMed Central

    DeJesus, Michael A.; Ambadipudi, Chaitra; Baker, Richard; Sassetti, Christopher; Ioerger, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    TnSeq has become a popular technique for determining the essentiality of genomic regions in bacterial organisms. Several methods have been developed to analyze the wealth of data that has been obtained through TnSeq experiments. We developed a tool for analyzing Himar1 TnSeq data called TRANSIT. TRANSIT provides a graphical interface to three different statistical methods for analyzing TnSeq data. These methods cover a variety of approaches capable of identifying essential genes in individual datasets as well as comparative analysis between conditions. We demonstrate the utility of this software by analyzing TnSeq datasets of M. tuberculosis grown on glycerol and cholesterol. We show that TRANSIT can be used to discover genes which have been previously implicated for growth on these carbon sources. TRANSIT is written in Python, and thus can be run on Windows, OSX and Linux platforms. The source code is distributed under the GNU GPL v3 license and can be obtained from the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/mad-lab/transit PMID:26447887

  6. Genetic analysis of Tn916-like elements conferring tetracycline resistance in clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Dong, Danfeng; Chen, Xu; Jiang, Cen; Zhang, Lihua; Cai, Gang; Han, Lizhong; Wang, Xuefeng; Mao, Enqiang; Peng, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    As an important clinically relevant pathogen, Clostridium difficile has a high multidrug resistance rate. Conjugative transposons play a vital role in its resistance phenotype. In the present study, 34 tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates of C. difficile were studied to detect tetracycline resistance genes and the presence of transposons. Thirty-two isolates were found to harbour Tn916-like elements carrying the tet(M) resistance gene, of which only one copy existed in the genome by Southern blot analysis. To characterise the genetic organisation of the Tn916-like elements, overlap PCR assays were performed with nine primer pairs, revealing three types of elements designated T1 to T3. The prevalent element T1 lacking PCRA (ORF23 to ORF21) and PCRB (ORF21 to ORF20) products, present in the epidemic ST37 clone, was further analysed by genome walking PCR in the left and right end sequences of the novel Tn916-like element. A gene coding for an FtsK/SpoIIIE family protein was found to replace the ORF24 to ORF21 region in Tn916. Moreover, the element could hardly conjugate between cells by filter mating experiments. These findings suggest that the dissemination of Tn916-like elements in epidemic ST37 strains in China was likely to have been conferred by clonal spread, signifying the importance of future surveillance and characterisation of conjugative transposons. PMID:24176599

  7. TRANSIT--A Software Tool for Himar1 TnSeq Analysis.

    PubMed

    DeJesus, Michael A; Ambadipudi, Chaitra; Baker, Richard; Sassetti, Christopher; Ioerger, Thomas R

    2015-10-01

    TnSeq has become a popular technique for determining the essentiality of genomic regions in bacterial organisms. Several methods have been developed to analyze the wealth of data that has been obtained through TnSeq experiments. We developed a tool for analyzing Himar1 TnSeq data called TRANSIT. TRANSIT provides a graphical interface to three different statistical methods for analyzing TnSeq data. These methods cover a variety of approaches capable of identifying essential genes in individual datasets as well as comparative analysis between conditions. We demonstrate the utility of this software by analyzing TnSeq datasets of M. tuberculosis grown on glycerol and cholesterol. We show that TRANSIT can be used to discover genes which have been previously implicated for growth on these carbon sources. TRANSIT is written in Python, and thus can be run on Windows, OSX and Linux platforms. The source code is distributed under the GNU GPL v3 license and can be obtained from the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/mad-lab/transit.

  8. DRAFT LANDSAT DATA MOSAIC: MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TEXAS; HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS; FORT BEND COUNTY, TEXAS; BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS; GALVESTON COUNTY, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...

  9. Expression of the transposase gene tnpA of Tn4652 is positively affected by integration host factor.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, R; Kivisaar, M

    1998-06-01

    Tn4652 is a derivative of the toluene degradation transposon Tn4651 that belongs to the Tn3 family of transposons (M. Tsuda and T. Iino, Mol. Gen. Genet. 210:270-276, 1987). We have sequenced the transposase gene tnpA of transposon Tn4652 and mapped its promoter to the right end of the element. The deduced amino acid sequence of tnpA revealed 96.2% identity with the putative transposase of Tn5041. Homology with other Tn3 family transposases was only moderate (about 20 to 24% identity), suggesting that Tn4652 and Tn5041 are distantly related members of the Tn3 family. Functional analysis of the tnpA promoter revealed that it is active in Pseudomonas putida but silent in Escherichia coli, indicating that some P. putida-specific factor is required for the transcription from this promoter. Additionally, tnpA promoter activity was shown to be modulated by integration host factor (IHF). The presence of an IHF-binding site upstream of the tnpA promoter enhanced the promoter activity. The positive role of IHF was also confirmed by the finding that the enhancing effect of IHF was not detected in the P. putida ihfA-deficient strain A8759. Moreover, the Tn4652 terminal sequences had a negative effect on transcription from the tnpA promoter in the ihfA-defective strain. This finding suggests that IHF not only enhances transcription from the tnpA promoter but also alleviates the negative effect of terminal sequences of Tn4652 on the promoter activity. Also, an in vitro binding assay demonstrated that both ends of Tn4652 bind IHF from a cell lysate of E. coli. PMID:9603867

  10. Synergistic template-free synthesis of dsDNA by Thermococcus nautili primase PolpTN2, DNA polymerase PolB, and pTN2 helicase.

    PubMed

    Béguin, Pierre; Gill, Sukhvinder; Charpin, Nicole; Forterre, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A combination of three enzymes from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus nautili, DNA primase PolpTN2, DNA polymerase PolB, and pTN2 DNA helicase, was found to synthesize up to 300-400 ng/µl dsDNA from deoxynucleotide triphosphates in less than 30 min in the absence of added template DNA and oligonucleotide primer. The reaction did not occur below 64 °C. No synthesis was observed if PolpTN2 or PolB were left out; helicase was not essential but accelerated the reaction. The DNA synthesized consisted of highly reiterated palindromic sequences reaching up to more that 10 kb. Sequence analysis of three independent reaction products synthesized at different temperatures showed that the palindromes shared a common pentanucleotide core, suggesting that random nucleic acid fragments were not responsible for priming the reaction. When enzymes were added sequentially, preincubation with primase plus helicase followed by PolB led to a shorter delay before the onset of the reaction as compared to preincubation with PolB plus helicase followed by primase. This suggests that the primase generates seeds that are subsequently amplified and elongated in synergy with PolB by a mechanism involving hairpin formation and slippage synthesis. PMID:25420601

  11. Synergistic template-free synthesis of dsDNA by Thermococcus nautili primase PolpTN2, DNA polymerase PolB, and pTN2 helicase.

    PubMed

    Béguin, Pierre; Gill, Sukhvinder; Charpin, Nicole; Forterre, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A combination of three enzymes from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus nautili, DNA primase PolpTN2, DNA polymerase PolB, and pTN2 DNA helicase, was found to synthesize up to 300-400 ng/µl dsDNA from deoxynucleotide triphosphates in less than 30 min in the absence of added template DNA and oligonucleotide primer. The reaction did not occur below 64 °C. No synthesis was observed if PolpTN2 or PolB were left out; helicase was not essential but accelerated the reaction. The DNA synthesized consisted of highly reiterated palindromic sequences reaching up to more that 10 kb. Sequence analysis of three independent reaction products synthesized at different temperatures showed that the palindromes shared a common pentanucleotide core, suggesting that random nucleic acid fragments were not responsible for priming the reaction. When enzymes were added sequentially, preincubation with primase plus helicase followed by PolB led to a shorter delay before the onset of the reaction as compared to preincubation with PolB plus helicase followed by primase. This suggests that the primase generates seeds that are subsequently amplified and elongated in synergy with PolB by a mechanism involving hairpin formation and slippage synthesis.

  12. Quantitative assessment of Tn antigen in breast tissue micro-arrays using CdSe aqueous quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Au, Giang H T; Mejias, Linette; Swami, Vanlila K; Brooks, Ari D; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we examined the use of CdSe aqueous quantum dots (AQDs) each conjugated to three streptavidin as a fluorescent label to image Tn antigen expression in various breast tissues via a sandwich staining procedure where the primary monoclonal anti-Tn antibody was bound to the Tn antigen on the tissue, a biotin-labeled secondary antibody was bound to the primary anti-Tn antibody, and finally the streptavidin-conjugated AQDs were bound to the biotin on the secondary antibody. We evaluated the AQD staining of Tn antigen on tissue microarrays consisting of 395 cores from 115 cases including three tumor cores and one normal-tissue core from each breast cancer case and three tumor cores from each benign case. The results indicated AQD-Tn staining was positive in more than 90% of the cells in the cancer cores but not the cells in the normal-tissue cores and the benign tumor cores. As a result, AQD-Tn staining exhibited 95% sensitivity and 90% specificity in differentiating breast cancer against normal breast tissues and benign breast conditions. These results were better than the 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity exhibited by the corresponding horse radish peroxidase (HRP) staining using the same antibodies on the same tissues and those of previous studies that used different fluorescent labels to image Tn antigen. In addition to sensitivity and specificity, the current AQD-Tn staining with a definitive threshold was quantitative. PMID:24411673

  13. Billion year thermal histories constrained by zircon (U-Th)/He age-eU correlations: Examples from the Laramide and Sevier Provinces of the western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenthner, William; Orme, Devon; Reiners, Peter; Laskowski, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    exhumation in this particular basin, we present an "inheritance envelope" approach for interpreting partially reset detrital zircon (U-Th)/He datasets. This approach uses forward modeling of thermal histories, combined with a damage-diffusivity model and a series of pre-depositional He ages to construct "inheritance envelopes". A forward modeled time-temperature path is a permissible thermal history if an inheritance envelope encompasses the observed age variation in a given dataset. For the Oquirrh dataset, a time-temperature path with a maximum burial temperature of ~170 °C and an initial Sevier-belt related exhumation event at 110 Ma successfully captures the large observed age variation. These results demonstrate that our inheritance envelope approach can be used to describe maximum burial temperatures and the timing of initial exhumation in detrital zircons from sedimentary basins.

  14. 78 FR 60375 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Claiborne County, TN, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in... Surface Transportation Board (Board) or with any U.S. District Court or has been decided in favor of... the Surface ] Transportation Board, 395 E Street SW., Washington, DC 20423-0001. \\1\\ Each OFA must...

  15. Tn4351 transposes in Bacteroides spp. and mediates the integration of plasmid R751 into the Bacteroides chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, N.B.; Getty, C.; Gardner, J.F.; Salyers, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    The gene for resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin, which is carried on the conjugative Bacteroides plasmid, pBF4, has been shown previously to be part of an element (Tn4351) that transposes in Escherichia coli. The authors have now introduced Tn4351 into Bacteroides uniformis 0061 on the following two suicide vectors: (i) the broad-host-range IncP plasmid R751 (R751::Tn4351) and (ii) pSS-2, a chimeric plasmid which contains 33 kilobases of pBF4 (including Tn4351) cloned into the IncQ plasmid RSF1010 and which is mobilized by R751. When E. coli HB101, carrying either R751::Tn4351 or R751 and pSS-2, was mated with B. uniformis under aerobic conditions, Em/sup r/ transconjugants were detected at a frequency of 10 /sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ (R751::Tn4351) or 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -6/ (R751 and pSS-2). In matings involving pSS-2, all Em/sup r/ transconjugants contained simple insertions of Tn4351 in the chromosome, whereas in matings involving R751::Tn4351, about half of the Em/sup r/ transconjugants had R751 cointegrated with Tn4351 in the chromosome. Of the Em/sup r/ transconjugants, 13% were auxotrophs. Bacteroides spp. which had R751 cointegrated with Tn4351 in the chromosome did not transfer R751 or Tn4351 to E. coli HB101 or to isogenic B. uniformis, nor did the integrated R751 mobilize pE5-2, an E. coli-Bacteroides shuttle vector that contains a transfer origin that is recognized by R751.

  16. Effect of High-Z Doping on ICF TN Performance and Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Ming

    2013-10-01

    One of the challenges of ICF ignition is to achieve desired areal density ρR of the hot-spot region so that a self-sustained TN burn could be initiated and maintained. The recent study of the NIC data indicated that the areal density ρR of the hot-spot inferred by the DSR was lower than the ignition requirement set by ITF. In this work, we will study the effect of Hi-Z doping in the DT gas on the ICF TN performance. The mechanism of the high-Z doping is to utilize additional radiative cooling of high-Z doping during the implosion phase of the evolution so that the gas cavity will follow a lower adiabatic path. This allows a more isothermal compression of the gas to a high density and ρR at the center of the target. The radiative cooling caused by mixing of high Z material into the gas region was considered to degrade to the performance of ICF capsule. However, a trace of high-Z doping enhances both the TN performance as well as the hot-spot ρR. Overall, for a transparent pusher design, over 38% of improvement of gas (hot-spot) ρR and over 200% increase of the yield rate compared to the baseline design have been achieved using this. For an opaque pusher design, no TN performance improvement had been observed in calculation. Work supported by the Department of Energy.

  17. 75 FR 28302 - American Food and Vending Spring Hill, TN; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration American Food and Vending Spring Hill, TN; Notice of Negative...) requested administrative reconsideration of the Department's negative determination regarding eligibility to... published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21358). Pursuant to 29 CFR...

  18. 75 FR 65584 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Savannah, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Savannah, TN, as the Pinhook Non-Directional Beacon...

  19. 75 FR 28303 - Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (FR 75 21358). The... Employment and Training Administration Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on... reconsideration, I determine that workers of Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, Tennessee meet the worker...

  20. Regulation of the transposase of Tn4652 by the transposon-encoded protein TnpC.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, R; Kivisaar, M

    1999-10-01

    Transposition is a DNA reorganization reaction potentially deleterious for the host. The frequency of transposition is limited by the amount of transposase. Therefore, strict regulation of a transposase is required to keep control over the destructive multiplication of the mobile element. We have shown previously that the expression of the transposase (tnpA) of the Pseudomonas putida PaW85 transposon Tn4652 is positively affected by integration host factor. Here, we present evidence that the amount of the transposase of Tn4652 in P. putida cells is controlled by the transposon-encoded protein (TnpC). Sequence analysis of the 120-amino-acid-long TnpC, coded just downstream of the tnpA gene, showed that it has remarkable similarity to the putative polypeptide encoded by the mercury resistance transposon Tn5041. As determined by quantitative Western blot analysis, the abundance of TnpA was reduced up to 10-fold in the intact tnpC background. In vivo experiments using transcriptional and translational fusions of the tnpA gene and the reporter gene gusA indicated that TnpC operates in the regulation of the transposase of Tn4652 at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:10515920

  1. 78 FR 27029 - Modification of Class C Airspace; Nashville International Airport; TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... International Airport, TN, Class C airspace area (78 FR 6257). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory evaluation... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  2. Activation of the lac genes of Tn951 by insertion sequences from Pseudomonas cepacia.

    PubMed

    Wood, M S; Lory, C; Lessie, T G

    1990-04-01

    We have identified three transposable gene-activating elements from Pseudomonas cepacia on the basis of their abilities to increase expression of the lac genes of the broad-host-range plasmid pGC91.14 (pRP1::Tn951). When introduced into auxotrophic derivatives of P. cepacia 249 (ATCC 17616), this plasmid failed to confer the ability to utilize lactose. The lac genes of Tn951 were poorly expressed in P. cepacia and were not induced by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. Lac+ variants of the pGC91.14-containing strains which formed beta-galactosidase at high constitutive levels as a consequence of transposition of insertion sequences from the P. cepacia genome to sites upstream of the lacZ gene of Tn951 were isolated. Certain of the elements also increased gene expression in other bacteria. For example, IS407 strongly activated the lacZ gene of Tn951 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, and IS406 (but not IS407) did so in Zymomonas mobilis. The results indicate that IS elements from P. cepacia have potential for turning on the expression of foreign genes in a variety of gram-negative bacteria. PMID:2156800

  3. Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 exhibits protective effects on lipid, hepatic and renal profiles in obese rat.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Riadh; Trabelsi, Imen; Hamden, Khaled; Chouayekh, Hichem; Bejar, Samir

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to first investigate the immuno-modulatory effects of six newly isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of Wistar rats. Except for Lactobacillus plantarum TN8, all the other strains were noted to induce high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12 and low levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The strains also generated low ratios of IL-10/IL-12 cytokine. Strain TN8 was, on the other hand, noted to induce an increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine secretion rates and a decrease in pro-inflammatory IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokine production. The oral administration of TN8 improved the hepatic and urinary functions of obese rats by inducing decreases (P < 0.05) in alanine amino transferase (ALAT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), plasmatic triglycerides, total cholesterol concentrations, creatinine, urea, and body weight when compared to the control group of animals that underwent an increase in aspartate amino transferase (ASAT) and high density lipoprotein (HDL). Overall, the findings indicate that strain TN8 exhibited a number of attractive properties that might open new promising opportunities for the improvement of various parameters related to animal health performance and the avoidance of antibiotics and drugs as promoting factors.

  4. 77 FR 17360 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... International Airport, TN (Lat. 35 02'33'' N., long. 89 58'36'' W.) ] Olive Branch, MS, Olive Branch...

  5. 76 FR 39379 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 78; Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (75 FR 69398, 11/12/10) and the application... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 78; Nashville, TN Pursuant to its...

  6. 75 FR 8414 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00036 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00036 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration...'s EIDL declaration, applications for economic injury disaster loans may be filed at the...

  7. 78 FR 43971 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tri-Cities, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Class D and E airspace in the Tri-Cities, TN, area (78 FR 7993). The line defining the exclusion of...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  8. Transposon mutagenesis by Tn4560 and applications with avermectin-producing Streptomyces avermitilis.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, H; Takada, Y; Pang, C H; Tanaka, H; Omura, S

    1993-01-01

    The Tn3-like Streptomyces transposon Tn4560 was used to mutagenize Streptomyces avermitilis, the producer of anthelmintic avermectins and the cell growth inhibitor oligomycin. Tn4560 transposed in this strain from a temperature-sensitive plasmid to the chromosome and from the chromosome to a plasmid with an apparent frequency of about 10(-4) to 10(-3) at both 30 and 39 degrees C. Auxotrophic and antibiotic nonproducing mutations were, however, obtained only with cultures that were kept at 37 or 39 degrees C. About 0.1% of the transposon inserts obtained at 39 degrees C caused auxotrophy or abolished antibiotic production. The sites of insertion into the S. avermitilis chromosome were mapped. Chromosomal DNA fragments containing Tn4560 insertions in antibiotic production genes were cloned onto a Streptomyces plasmid with temperature-sensitive replication and used to transport transposon mutations to other strains, using homologous recombination. This technique was used to construct an avermectin production strain that no longer makes the toxic oligomycin. PMID:8384619

  9. 78 FR 9988 - Noise Exposure Map Notice Nashville Interntional Airport, Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice Nashville Interntional Airport, Nashville, TN... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by Metropolitan Nashville.... (Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR part 150 are in compliance with applicable...

  10. 75 FR 15741 - Jastev Casework Company, Columbia, TN; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Jastev Casework Company, Columbia, TN; Notice of Termination of... response to a petition filed on September 24, 2009, by a company official on behalf of workers of Jastev Casework Company, Columbia, Tennessee. The petitioner has requested that the petition be...

  11. 77 FR 13073 - Designation for the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... hours (7 CFR 1.27(c)). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the September 20, 2011 Federal Register (76 FR...; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... October 20, 2011. In the Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA areas, Lincoln, Midsouth, and...

  12. A single-fibre study of the relationship between MHC and TnC isoform composition in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Brett; Nguyen, Long T; Stephenson, Gabriela M M

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the possibility that MHC (myosin heavy chain) and TnC (troponin C) isoforms exist in specific combinations in rat-skeletal-muscle fibres. Single fibres (numbering 245) from soleus (predominantly slow-twitch) and sternomastoid (predominantly fast-twitch) muscles of adult rats were analysed for MHC and TnC isoform composition, using alanine-SDS/PAGE for separating MHC isoforms, and a novel method (based on the previously reported influence of Ca2+ on the mobility of Ca2+-binding proteins in SDS gels) for unequivocal identification of TnC isoforms in single-fibre segments. In this study, all fibres that contained only one MHC isoform (slow or fast) contained only the matching TnC isoform and all fibres that contained multiple fast MHC isoforms contained only the fast TnC isoform. Fibres expressing both slow and fast MHC isoforms displayed either both TnC isoforms or only one TnC isoform of a type depending on the relative proportion of fast/slow MHC present. Our results suggest a close relationship between MHC and TnC isoform composition in non-transforming skeletal muscles of adult rat. PMID:14572306

  13. Dynamic and Static Water Molecules Complement the TN16 Conformational Heterogeneity inside the Tubulin Cavity.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sarmistha; Maiti, Satyabrata; Ghosh Dastidar, Shubhra

    2016-01-19

    TN16 is one of the most promising inhibitors of α, β dimer of tubulin that occupies the cavity in the β-subunit located at the dimeric interface, known as the colchicine binding site. The experimentally determined structure of the complex (Protein Data Bank entry 3HKD) presents the conformation and position of the ligand based on the "best fit", keeping the controversy of other significant binding modes open for further investigation. Computation has already revealed that TN16 experiences fluctuations within the binding pocket, but the insight from that previous report was limited by the shorter windows of sampling and by the approximations on the surrounding environment by implicit solvation. This article reports that in most of the cases straightforward MMGBSA calculations of binding energy revealed a gradual loss of stabilization that was inconsistent with the structural observations, and thus, it indicated the lack of consideration of stabilizing factors with appropriate weightage. Consideration of the structurally packed water molecules in the space between the ligand and receptor successfully eliminated such discrepancies between the structure and stability, serving as the "litmus test" of the importance of explicit consideration of such structurally packed water in the calculations. Such consideration has further evidenced a quasi-degenerate character of the different binding modes of TN16 that has rationalized the observed intrinsic fluctuations of TN16 within the pocket, which is likely to be the most critical insight into its entropy-dominated binding. Quantum mechanical calculations have revealed a relay of electron density from TN16 to the protein via a water molecule in a concerted manner. PMID:26666704

  14. [Spatial variability of soil nitrogen and related affecting factors at a county scale in hilly area of Mid-Sichuan Basin].

    PubMed

    Luo, You-Lin; Li, Qi-Quan; Wang, Chang-Quan; Li, Bin; Zhang, Xin; Feng, Wen-Ying; Weng, Qian; Wu, Mian

    2015-02-01

    Spatial distribution characteristics of soil total nitrogen ( TN ) and available nitrogen ( AN ) were analyzed by using geostatistical methods and the effects of the influencing factors were quantified by regression analysis based on 555 soil samples collected in RenShou county. The results showed that the contents of soil TN ranged from 0.34-2.57 g x kg(-1) with a mean value of 1.12 g x kg(-1), which indicated the TN of the study area was at a medium level, and AN ranged from 25.86-184.17 mg x kg(-1) with a mean value of 74.35 mg x kg(-1), which indicated the AN of the study area was low. The values of the nugget to sill ratio were 0.608 and 0.790 respectively, which suggestd TN had moderate spatial dependence, which was determined by the co-effects of structural and random factors, while AN was mainly affected by random factors. The contents of TN and AN in north area were much higher than those of south area and distribution of Patchy. The soil parent materials were able to explain 6.3% and 1.0% of TN and AN spatial variability. Soil types explained 26.5% - 36.1% of TN variability and 27.7% - 28.7% of AN variability. Topographical factors explained 5.5% of TN variability and 6.1% of AN variability, the structural factors of soil types reflected spatial variability of nitrogen in the study area. The randomness factors of land use types explained 37.7% of TN variability and 40.0% of AN variability that were much larger than the other factors, which suggested land use had the higherst independent explaining capacity for nitrogen spatial variability among those influence factors and land use type was the main factor to accurately predict the spatial distribution of soil nitrogen in the hilly area of Middle Sichuan Basin.

  15. Tn-seq explorer: a tool for analysis of high-throughput sequencing data of transposon mutant libraries.

    PubMed

    Solaimanpour, Sina; Sarmiento, Felipe; Mrázek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Tn-seq is a high throughput technique for analysis of transposon mutant libraries. Tn-seq Explorer was developed as a convenient and easy-to-use package of tools for exploration of the Tn-seq data. In a typical application, the user will have obtained a collection of sequence reads adjacent to transposon insertions in a reference genome. The reads are first aligned to the reference genome using one of the tools available for this task. Tn-seq Explorer reads the alignment and the gene annotation, and provides the user with a set of tools to investigate the data and identify possibly essential or advantageous genes as those that contain significantly low counts of transposon insertions. Emphasis is placed on providing flexibility in selecting parameters and methodology most appropriate for each particular dataset. Tn-seq Explorer is written in Java as a menu-driven, stand-alone application. It was tested on Windows, Mac OS, and Linux operating systems. The source code is distributed under the terms of GNU General Public License. The program and the source code are available for download at http://www.cmbl.uga.edu/downloads/programs/Tn_seq_Explorer/ and https://github.com/sina-cb/Tn-seqExplorer.

  16. Tn-seq explorer: a tool for analysis of high-throughput sequencing data of transposon mutant libraries.

    PubMed

    Solaimanpour, Sina; Sarmiento, Felipe; Mrázek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Tn-seq is a high throughput technique for analysis of transposon mutant libraries. Tn-seq Explorer was developed as a convenient and easy-to-use package of tools for exploration of the Tn-seq data. In a typical application, the user will have obtained a collection of sequence reads adjacent to transposon insertions in a reference genome. The reads are first aligned to the reference genome using one of the tools available for this task. Tn-seq Explorer reads the alignment and the gene annotation, and provides the user with a set of tools to investigate the data and identify possibly essential or advantageous genes as those that contain significantly low counts of transposon insertions. Emphasis is placed on providing flexibility in selecting parameters and methodology most appropriate for each particular dataset. Tn-seq Explorer is written in Java as a menu-driven, stand-alone application. It was tested on Windows, Mac OS, and Linux operating systems. The source code is distributed under the terms of GNU General Public License. The program and the source code are available for download at http://www.cmbl.uga.edu/downloads/programs/Tn_seq_Explorer/ and https://github.com/sina-cb/Tn-seqExplorer. PMID:25938432

  17. Idiotypes of pre-existing human anti-carcinoma anti-T and anti-Tn antibodies.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, M; Lenert, G; Springer, G F

    1993-02-01

    All humans normally possess antibodies, predominantly IgM, that react specifically with the Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) and the Tn antigens which are present in immunoreactive form on > 85% of all human carcinomas, but not in healthy and otherwise diseased tissues. We report here a serological study of idiotype expression and antigen reactivity of the anti-T and anti-Tn antibodies. Idiotypy was analyzed with rabbit antibodies raised against, and made specific for, affinity-purified polyclonal anti-T and anti-Tn antibodies from blood group A1B healthy adult donors. Anti-T and anti-Tn antibodies cross-reacted idiotypically in spite of their distinct epitope specificities. By adsorbing anti-T antibodies on insolubilized synthetic T carbohydrate we could firmly link idiotype expression with antigen reactivity. The relation of idiotype expression to the antigen-binding site of plant seed lectins was also studied; one originated from Arachis hypogaea [peanut agglutinin (PNA)], the other from Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin). PNA inhibited only anti-T antibodies. Jacalin inhibited both anti-T and anti-Tn antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. Neither idiotypic nor anti-idiotypic antibodies diminished the binding of lectins to T and Tn epitopes. The shared idiotypes on natural anti-T and anti-Tn antibodies permit consideration of application of their anti-idiotypes in treatment and/or prevention of human carcinoma.

  18. Diversity and Evolution of the Tn5801-tet(M)-Like Integrative and Conjugative Elements among Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus

    PubMed Central

    León-Sampedro, Ricardo; Novais, Carla; Peixe, Luísa; Baquero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the diversity and evolution of Tn5801 among enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci based on analysis of the 5,073 genomes of these bacterial groups available in gene databases. We also examined 610 isolates of Enterococcus (from 10 countries, 1987 to 2010) for the presence of this and other known CTn-tet(M) elements due to the scarcity of data about Tn5801 among enterococci. Genome location (by ICeu-I–pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] hybridization/integration site identification), conjugation and fitness (by standard methods), Tn5801 characterization (by long-PCR mapping/sequencing), and clonality (by PFGE/multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) were studied. Twenty-three Tn5801 variants (17 unpublished) clustered in two groups, designated “A” (25 kb; n = 14; predominant in Staphylococcus aureus) and “B” (20 kb; n = 9; predominant in Streptococcus agalactiae). The percent GC content of the common backbone suggests a streptococcal origin of Tn5801 group B, with further acquisition of a 5-kb fragment that resulted in group A. Deep sequence analysis allowed identification of variants associated with clonal lineages of S. aureus (clonal complex 8 [CC8], sequence type 239 [ST239]), S. agalactiae (CC17), Enterococcus faecium (ST17/ST18), or Enterococcus faecalis (ST8), local variants, or variants located in different species and geographical areas. All Tn5801 elements were chromosomally located upstream of the guaA gene, which serves as an integration hot spot. Transferability was demonstrated only for Tn5801 type B among E. faecalis clonal backgrounds, which eventually harbored another Tn5801 copy. The study documents early acquisition of Tn5801 by Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. Clonal waves of these pathogens seem to have contributed to the geographical spread and local evolution of the transposon. Horizontal transfer, also demonstrated, could explain the variability observed, with the isolates often containing

  19. Diversity and Evolution of the Tn5801-tet(M)-Like Integrative and Conjugative Elements among Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus.

    PubMed

    León-Sampedro, Ricardo; Novais, Carla; Peixe, Luísa; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2016-01-04

    This work describes the diversity and evolution of Tn5801 among enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci based on analysis of the 5,073 genomes of these bacterial groups available in gene databases. We also examined 610 isolates of Enterococcus (from 10 countries, 1987 to 2010) for the presence of this and other known CTn-tet(M) elements due to the scarcity of data about Tn5801 among enterococci. Genome location (by ICeu-I-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] hybridization/integration site identification), conjugation and fitness (by standard methods), Tn5801 characterization (by long-PCR mapping/sequencing), and clonality (by PFGE/multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) were studied. Twenty-three Tn5801 variants (17 unpublished) clustered in two groups, designated "A" (25 kb; n = 14; predominant in Staphylococcus aureus) and "B" (20 kb; n = 9; predominant in Streptococcus agalactiae). The percent GC content of the common backbone suggests a streptococcal origin of Tn5801 group B, with further acquisition of a 5-kb fragment that resulted in group A. Deep sequence analysis allowed identification of variants associated with clonal lineages of S. aureus (clonal complex 8 [CC8], sequence type 239 [ST239]), S. agalactiae (CC17), Enterococcus faecium (ST17/ST18), or Enterococcus faecalis (ST8), local variants, or variants located in different species and geographical areas. All Tn5801 elements were chromosomally located upstream of the guaA gene, which serves as an integration hot spot. Transferability was demonstrated only for Tn5801 type B among E. faecalis clonal backgrounds, which eventually harbored another Tn5801 copy. The study documents early acquisition of Tn5801 by Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. Clonal waves of these pathogens seem to have contributed to the geographical spread and local evolution of the transposon. Horizontal transfer, also demonstrated, could explain the variability observed, with the isolates often containing sequences of

  20. An efficient (t,n) threshold quantum secret sharing without entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2016-04-01

    An efficient (t,n) threshold quantum secret sharing (QSS) scheme is proposed. In our scheme, the Hash function is used to check the eavesdropping, and no particles need to be published. So the utilization efficiency of the particles is real 100%. No entanglement is used in our scheme. The dealer uses the single particles to encode the secret information, and the participants get the secret through measuring the single particles. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is simpler and more efficient.

  1. Design analysis report for the TN-WHC cask and transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Brisbin, S.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    This document presents the evaluation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Cask and Transportation System. The system design was developed by Transnuclear, Inc. and its team members NAC International, Nelson Manufacturing, Precision Components Corporation, and Numatec, Inc. The cask is designated the TN-WHC cask. This report describes the design features and presents preliminary analyses performed to size critical dimensions of the system while meeting the requirements of the performance specification.

  2. Tn5 insertion mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa deficient in surface expression of ferripyochelin-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sokol, P.A.

    1987-07-01

    Transposon (Tn5) insertion mutants were isolated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO. These mutants were screened for expression of the ferripyochelin-binding protein with monoclonal antibody in a whole-cell immunoblot assay. Fourteen mutants were identified which did not express ferripyochelin-binding protein on the cell surface. These mutants did not take up /sup 59/Fe-labeled pyochelin and grew slowly in the presence of iron chelators.

  3. [Effects of Total Nitrogen and BOD5/TN on Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation-Denitrification Synergistic Interaction of Mature Landfill Leachate in Aged Refuse Bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-ying; Chen, Yi; Lj, Ming-jie; Xie, Bing

    2015-04-01

    Mature landfill leachate, featured with high ammonium (NH4+) content and low biodegrade ability (low BOD5/COD ratio), is hard to be treated. This study mainly focused on the effects of influent TN (total nitrogen) loading and BOD5/TN ratios on the nitrogen removal efficiency of landfill leachate by landfill bioreactors. The results showed that when the influent total nitrogen loading was in the range of 15 g x (m3 x d)(-1) to 25 g x (m3 x d)(-1), the TN removal loading could remain stable between 10 g x (m3 x d)(-1) and 12 g x (m3 x d)(-1), while the TN removal efficiency decreased from 67.7% to 60.2% with the increasing loading. Therefore, TN loading shocks would lower the bioreactor's TN removal rate, but would not affect its TN removal loading. When the influent BOD5/TN ratio was increased from 0.3 to 0.4 and the TN loading was controlled at 9 g x (m3 x d)(-1), the TN removal rates were increased from 79.9% to 89.9% and 86.2% in anaerobic and aerobic, respectively. This implied that properly enhancing BOD5/TN ratio could significantly increase the TN removal efficiency of the bioreactor, and the effect was more significant under anaerobic condition. Analysis of nitrogen removal pathways showed that denitrification and anammox could take place synergistically in landfill bioreactor.

  4. Effects of supplementation with L. plantarum TN8 encapsulated in alginate-chitosan in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Imen; Ktari, Naourez; Ben Slima, Sirine; Bouchaala, Kamel; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2016-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 encapsulated in sodium alginate-chitosan or a commercial blend of essential oils on total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and growth performance of broiler chickens. The results showed that the broiler chickens supplemented with encapsulated L. plantarum TN8 or essential oil has a higher growth than the control group. After 35days, the weight means were 1860 and 1880g respectively in dietary supplementation with probiotic or essential oil, while they are 1800g in the control group. The evolution of the feed consumption and feed conversion per week showed that the supplementation of encapsulated TN8 strain or essential oil in broiler chickens food has a positive influence on their appetite. Similarly, supplementation of the feed with this encapsulated strain significantly reduced the rate of cholesterol (HDL and LDL) as well as the contents of triglycerides in broiler chickens. Through our study, it appears that the use of the probiotic supplementation or essential oil to broilers were found to be better than the control group of chickens, resulting in a significant economic impact and promoting effect on health.

  5. 4. Photocopy of photograph showing the corn crib as it ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph showing the corn crib as it looked on May 21, 1936. This structure was also used as a gear shed. Immediately to the right of the shed is Hettie Walker and an unidentified family member or friend. The original photograph was taken by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is II-B-(7)-8091. - Walker Family Farm, Corn Crib, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 5. Photocopy of May 21, 1936 photograph showing the interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of May 21, 1936 photograph showing the interior of the Big House (main portion, living-bedroom). The woman is Hettie Walker. The fireplace is on the house's front side. The original photograph was taken by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is II-B-(7)-8086. - Walker Family Farm, Big House, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 10. Photocopy of photograph showing the three Walker sisters ginning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph showing the three Walker sisters ginning cotton. Misses Hettie, Martha and Louisa are from left to right. The original photograph was taken on May 21, 1936 by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is III-A-HSE-9642. - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. Comprehensive identification of virulence factors required for respiratory melioidosis using Tn-seq mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Maria G.; Yoder-Himes, Deborah R.; Warawa, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory melioidosis is a disease presentation of the biodefense pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is frequently associated with a lethal septicemic spread of the bacteria. We have recently developed an improved respiratory melioidosis model to study the pathogenesis of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the lung (intubation-mediated intratracheal [IMIT] inoculation), which more closely models descriptions of human melioidosis, including prominent septicemic spread from the lung and reduced involvement of the upper respiratory tract. We previously demonstrated that the Type 3 Secretion System cluster 3 (T3SS3) is a critical virulence determinant for B. pseudomallei when delivered directly into the lung. We decided to comprehensively identify all virulence determinants required for respiratory melioidosis using the Tn-seq phenotypic screen, as well as to investigate which virulence determinants are required for dissemination to the liver and spleen. While previous studies have used Tn-seq to identify essential genes for in vitro cultured B. pseudomallei, this represents the first study to use Tn-seq to identify genes required for in vivo fitness. Consistent with our previous findings, we identified T3SS3 as the largest genetic cluster required for fitness in the lung. Furthermore, we identified capsular polysaccharide and Type 6 Secretion System cluster 5 (T6SS5) as the two additional major genetic clusters facilitating respiratory melioidosis. Importantly, Tn-seq did not identify additional, novel large genetic systems supporting respiratory melioidosis, although these studies identified additional small gene clusters that may also play crucial roles in lung fitness. Interestingly, other previously identified virulence determinants do not appear to be required for lung fitness, such as lipopolysaccharide. The role of T3SS3, capsule, and T6SS5 in lung fitness was validated by competition studies, but only T3SS3 was found to be important for respiratory

  9. Comprehensive identification of virulence factors required for respiratory melioidosis using Tn-seq mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Maria G; Yoder-Himes, Deborah R; Warawa, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory melioidosis is a disease presentation of the biodefense pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is frequently associated with a lethal septicemic spread of the bacteria. We have recently developed an improved respiratory melioidosis model to study the pathogenesis of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the lung (intubation-mediated intratracheal [IMIT] inoculation), which more closely models descriptions of human melioidosis, including prominent septicemic spread from the lung and reduced involvement of the upper respiratory tract. We previously demonstrated that the Type 3 Secretion System cluster 3 (T3SS3) is a critical virulence determinant for B. pseudomallei when delivered directly into the lung. We decided to comprehensively identify all virulence determinants required for respiratory melioidosis using the Tn-seq phenotypic screen, as well as to investigate which virulence determinants are required for dissemination to the liver and spleen. While previous studies have used Tn-seq to identify essential genes for in vitro cultured B. pseudomallei, this represents the first study to use Tn-seq to identify genes required for in vivo fitness. Consistent with our previous findings, we identified T3SS3 as the largest genetic cluster required for fitness in the lung. Furthermore, we identified capsular polysaccharide and Type 6 Secretion System cluster 5 (T6SS5) as the two additional major genetic clusters facilitating respiratory melioidosis. Importantly, Tn-seq did not identify additional, novel large genetic systems supporting respiratory melioidosis, although these studies identified additional small gene clusters that may also play crucial roles in lung fitness. Interestingly, other previously identified virulence determinants do not appear to be required for lung fitness, such as lipopolysaccharide. The role of T3SS3, capsule, and T6SS5 in lung fitness was validated by competition studies, but only T3SS3 was found to be important for respiratory

  10. The entirely carbohydrate immunogen Tn-PS A1 induces a cancer cell selective immune response and cytokine IL-17.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Ravindra A; Appulage, Dananjaya K; Pietraszkiewicz, Halina; Bobbitt, Kevin R; Media, Joe; Shaw, JiaJiu; Valeriote, Fred A; Andreana, Peter R

    2012-04-01

    The tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen/hapten Thomsen-nouveau (Tn; a-D-GalpNAc-ONH2) was conjugated to a zwitterionic capsular polysaccharide, PS A1, from commensal anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285/NCTC 9343 for the development of an entirely carbohydrate cancer vaccine construct and probed for immunogenicity. This communication discloses that murine anti-Tn IgG3 antibodies both bind to and recognize human tumor cells that display the Tn hapten. Furthermore, the sera from immunization of mice with Tn-PS A1 contain cytokine interleukin 17 (IL-17A), which is known to possess anti-tumor function and represents a striking difference to an IL-2, and IL-6 profile obtained with anti-PS A1 sera.

  11. The entirely carbohydrate immunogen Tn-PS A1 induces a cancer cell selective immune response and cytokine IL-17

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Ravindra A.; Appulage, Dananjaya K.; Pietraszkiewicz, Halina; Bobbitt, Kevin R.; Media, Joe; Shaw, JiaJiu; Valeriote, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    The tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen/hapten Thomsen-nouveau (Tn; α-D-GalpNAc-ONH2) was conjugated to a zwitterionic capsular polysaccharide, PS A1, from commensal anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285/NCTC 9343 for the development of an entirely carbohydrate cancer vaccine construct and probed for immunogenicity. This communication discloses that murine anti-Tn IgG3 antibodies both bind to and recognize human tumor cells that display the Tn hapten. Furthermore, the sera from immunization of mice with Tn-PS A1 contain cytokine interleukin 17 (IL-17A), which is known to possess anti-tumor function and represents a striking difference to an IL-2, and IL-6 profile obtained with anti-PS A1 sera. PMID:22297566

  12. Transfer of the conjugal tetracycline resistance transposon Tn916 from Streptococcus faecalis to Staphylococcus aureus and identification of some insertion sites in the staphylococcal chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J M; Yost, S C; Pattee, P A

    1987-01-01

    The Streptococcus faecalis pheromone-dependent conjugative plasmid pAD1::Tn916 and the membrane filter-dependent conjugative plasmid pPD5::Tn916 were used to introduce Tn916 into Staphylococcus aureus by intergeneric protoplast fusions and intergeneric membrane-filter matings. In recombinants obtained by protoplast fusion where no plasmid DNA could be detected, tetracycline resistance resulted from transposition of Tn916 from pAD1 to the S. aureus chromosome. Transformation analyses showed that S. aureus Tn916 chromosomal insertions occurred near pig, ilv, uraA, tyrB, fus, ala, and the trp operon. DNA hybridization analyses of EcoRI- and HindIII-digested chromosomal DNAs confirmed the diversity of chromosomal sites involved and demonstrated that the inserts were Tn916 insertions rather than integrations of all or part of pAD1::Tn916. Both pAD1::Tn916 and pPD5::Tn916 were transferred to S. aureus by membrane-filter matings. These plasmids remained intact and expressed tetracycline resistance in S. aureus. S. aureus strains carrying pAD1::Tn916, but not a chromosomal insert of Tn916, and any one of several conjugal gentamicin-resistance plasmids lost their ability to serve as conjugal donors of the gentamicin-resistance plasmids. Images PMID:3032908

  13. Purification and characterization of TnsC, a Tn7 transposition protein that binds ATP and DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Gamas, P; Craig, N L

    1992-01-01

    The bacterial transposon Tn7 encodes five transposition genes tnsABCDE. We report a simple and rapid procedure for the purification of TnsC protein. We show that purified TnsC is active in and required for Tn7 transposition in a cell-free recombination system. This finding demonstrates that TnsC participates directly in Tn7 transposition and explains the requirement for tnsC function in Tn7 transposition. We have found that TnsC binds adenine nucleotides and is thus a likely site of action of the essential ATP cofactor in Tn7 transposition. We also report that TnsC binds non-specifically to DNA in the presence of ATP or the generally non-hydrolyzable analogues AMP-PNP and ATP-gamma-S, and that TnsC displays little affinity for DNA in the presence of ADP. We speculate that TnsC plays a central role in the selection of target DNA during Tn7 transposition. Images PMID:1317955

  14. Analysis of sequences transposed by complementation of two classes of transposition-deficient mutants of Tn3.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, R; Heffron, F; Dougan, G; Falkow, S

    1978-01-01

    The Tn1 and Tn3 elements are closely related transposons which carry the structural gene for ampicillin resistance. Two classes of deletion mutants of the plasmid pMB8::Tn3 (RSF1050) are unable to transpose ampicillin resistance but can be complemented in trans by a coresident Tn1 or Tn3 element. The analysis of the sequences transposed upon complementation of one class of mutants (type I) showed that the mutant element had undergone bona fide transposition. Complementation of the type II mutants led to the transposition of a sequence analogous to bacteriophage mu-promoted integration of non-mu DNA. The transposed sequence consisted of two Tn3 elements which flanked a single copy of the pMB8 portion of the RSF1050 genome. Complementation data indicated that the type II mutants are defective in at least one trans-acting function which must be supplied for transposition to occur. The nature of sequence transposed from the type II mutant is the consequence of a defective cis-acting function (or site). In addition, the type II mutants were defective in a trans-acting function which regulated the frequency of transposition. Images PMID:361721

  15. The 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Rebecca; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2015-04-01

    The 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, was much more explosive than previous eruptions, specifically its 2004 eruption. This research examines the degassing processes of the 2011 eruption, through density and vesicule analyses, to help uncover the reasons for the more vigorous eruption. Over 1200 collected tephra samples from the 2011 sequences are measured for density and vesicularity. Several samples are chosen to be representative of eruptive phases; samples from the beginning of the eruption, the mid-eruption and the end phases are chosen. These pumice samples are impregnated with epoxy and made into plugs for use in a Scanning Electron Microscope with which, a nested image approach is taken to image the vesicules of the samples at different magnifications. Each backscatter image is converted to binary and corrected using GIMP. Using ImageJ software, quantitative vesicularity analysis of the images is performed and results are converted to volume. The density, quantitative vesicularity, and volume results are assessed for patterns and the processes of the magma during the ascent in the conduit and eruptive phases are inferred. The objective of this research is to use the microscopic vesicularity analyses of the eruptive products to theorize the larger scale magmatic and degassing processes and to understand why the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption was uncharacteristically explosive. Currently, the results are being examined and have not been included in this abstract, however the research will be finalized in time for presentation at the EGU 2015 conference. Keywords: Grímsvötn volcano, quantitative vesicularity analysis, bubble size distribution, volcanic degassing, conduit processes

  16. Mutagenesis of dimeric plasmids by the transposon. gamma. delta. (Tn1000)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Berg, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The Escherichia coli F factor mediates conjugal transfer of a plasmid such as pBR322 primarily by replicative transposition of transposon {gamma}{delta} (Tn1000) from F to that plasmid to form a cointegrate intermediate. Although resolution of this cointegrate always yields a plasmid containing a single {gamma}{delta} insertion, the occasional recovery of transposon-free plasmids after connuugal transfer has led to alternative hypotheses for F mobilization. The authors show here that {gamma}{delta}-free plasmids are found after F-mediated conjugal transfer only when the donor plasmid is a dimer and the recipient is Rec{sup +}.

  17. County Staff or Area Staff?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, William J.

    1970-01-01

    McIntryre explores the questions of county-based extention and increased specialization in Indiana. He compares the multi-county with individual county systems using variables including clientele's reactions to the two systems. (NL)

  18. Gain-of-Function Mutations in Tnsc, an Atp-Dependent Transposition Protein That Activates the Bacterial Transposon Tn7

    PubMed Central

    Stellwagen, A. E.; Craig, N. L.

    1997-01-01

    The bacterial transposon Tn7 encodes five genes whose protein products are used in different combinations to direct transposition to different types of target sites. TnsABC+D directs transposition to a specific site in the Escherichia coli chromosome called attTn7, whereas TnsABC+E directs transposition to non-attTn7 sites. These transposition reactions can also recognize and avoid ``immune'' targets that already contain a copy of Tn7. TnsD and TnsE are required to activate TnsABC as well as to select a target site; no transposition occurs with wild-type TnsABC alone. Here, we describe the isolation of TnsC gain-of-function mutants that activate the TnsA+B transposase in the absence of TnsD or TnsE. Some of these TnsC mutants enable the TnsABC machinery to execute transposition without sacrificing its ability to discriminate between different types of targets. Other TnsC mutants appear to constitutively activate the TnsABC machinery so that it bypasses target signals. We also present experiments that suggest that target selection occurs early in the Tn7 transposition pathway in vivo: favorable attTn7 targets appear to promote the excision of Tn7 from the chromosome, whereas immune targets do not allow transposon excision to occur. This work supports the view that TnsC plays a central role in the evaluation and utilization of target DNAs. PMID:9055068

  19. Identification of genes differentially expressed in a newly isolated human metastasizing esophageal cancer cell line, T.Tn-AT1, by cDNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Hitoshi; Furihata, Tadashi; Omotehara, Fumie; Sakai, Taro; Horiuchi, Hideki; Shinagawa, Yasuhiro; Imura, Johji; Ohkura, Yasuo; Tachibana, Masatsugu; Kubota, Keiichi; Terano, Akira; Fujimori, Takahiro

    2003-08-01

    We isolated a metastasizing human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line, T.Tn-AT1, from a parental non-metastasizing cell line, T.Tn, by in vitro selection and by use of a nude mouse orthotopic inoculation model. Then, we compared the expression profiles of 9206 genes in T.Tn-AT1 and T.Tn by cDNA microarray analysis. The gene expression profiles of T.Tn and T.Tn-AT1 were very similar, and only 34 genes showed more than 3-fold differential expression. Among the 34 genes, 29 genes were down-regulated and only 5 genes were up-regulated in T.Tn-AT1 cells. Subsequently, we confirmed the expression levels of 14 of the 34 genes in T.Tn and T.Tn-AT1 cells by means of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expression of 8 genes (KAL1, HPGD, NDN, REG1A, CXCR4, SPOCK, DIAPH2 and AIF1) was down-regulated and that of one gene (VNN2) was up-regulated in T.Tn-AT1 cells. These 9 genes encoded proteins associated with metastatic processes, such as adhesion, migration, inflammation, proliferation, and differentiation. Thus, these genes might regulate the metastasis of esophageal SCC, and could be predictive markers for lymph node metastasis of esophageal SCC. PMID:12901795

  20. Tn5-induced mutations affecting sulfur-oxidizing ability (Sox) of Thiosphaera pantotropha

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, T.S.; Friedrich, C.G.

    1986-05-01

    Mutants of Thiosphaera pantotropha defective in chemolithoautotrophic growth were obtained by transpositional mutagenesis with Tn5 coding for kanamycin resistance. The suicide vehicle for introducing Tn5 to T. pantotropha was pSUP5011 harbored by Escherichia coli. Kanamycin-resistant isolates were screened for the inability to grow with reduced sulfur compounds (Sox/sup -/). Four classes of Sox/sup -/ mutants were obtained. Three were of different pleiotropic phenotypes: (i) unable to grow with formate, nitrate, and xanthine; (this class strongly suggested the involvement of a molybdenum cofactor in inorganic sulfur-oxidizing ability); (ii) no growth with hydrogen; (iii) slight growth with hydrogen and formate. Two plasmids, pHG41 (about 450 kilobase pairs) and pHG42 (110 kilobases), were identified in lysates of T. pantotropha. In one Sox/sup -/ mutant pHG41 could not be detected. Revertant analysis suggested that pHG41 and pHG42 were not involved in the Sox character.

  1. The Sugar Creek zinc deposit, Jackson Co. TN -- Exploration history, geology and mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbold, G.; Moran, A.V.; Stevens, D.L. )

    1993-03-01

    During the 60's and 70's zinc exploration of central TN and KY was active. The Sugar Creek Project was one of several investigated by Exxon. The discovery hole, Cu 15, was drilled in early 1973. The Sugar Creek Zinc Deposit was acquired by Independence Mining Co. in 1986 and I.M.C. has subsequently completed additional drilling, both stepout and confirmation holes. A total of 137 holes for 300,833 ft have been drilled. The Sugar Creek deposit is a typical Tennessee zinc deposit (Mississippi Valley Type) which occurs in solution collapse breccias in the Lower Ordovician, Knox Dolomite. The Knox consists of fine grained dolomite with interlayered limestones and crystalline dolomite. Only scattered residual limestone is found in the Sugar Creek area. Collapse breccias have formed which control zinc deposition and are similar to other TN Zn. deposits. At Sugar Creek the types of breccias include: a vertically exaggerated glory hole breakthrough breccia which extends to within 137 ft. of the Knox unconformity, has 500 ft. of zinc mineralization with 8 significant zinc intervals; holes with stacked zinc intervals interpreted to be sides of breakthrough breccia; and single zinc intervals in laterally positioned bedded mineral zones. A total of 99 holes were drilled in the more intense mineralized areas. The ratio of ore to non ore holes is nearly 1 to 1. The mineralization is typical M.V.T. with predominantly sphalerite and only minor occurrences of galena, fluorite, pyrite, etc.

  2. MiniTn7-transposon delivery vectors for inducible or constitutive fluorescent protein expression in Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N. P.; Gisler, Pascal; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the generation and function of two sets of bacterial plasmids that harbor fluorescent genes encoding either blue, cyan, yellow or red fluorescent proteins. In the first set, protein expression is controlled by the strong and constitutive nptII promoter whereas in the second set, the strong tac promoter was chosen that underlies LacIq regulation. Furthermore, the plasmids are mobilizable, contain Tn7 transposons and a temperature-sensitive origin of replication. Using Escherichia coli S17-1 as donor strain, the plasmids allow fast and convenient Tn7-transposon delivery into many enterobacterial hosts, such as the here-used E. coli O157:H7. This procedure omits the need of preparing competent recipient cells and antibiotic resistances are only transiently conferred to the recipients. As the fluorescence proteins show little to no overlap in fluorescence emission, the constructs are well suited for the study of multicolored synthetic bacterial communities during biofilm production or in host colonization studies, e.g. of plant surfaces. Furthermore, tac promoter-reporter constructs allow the generation of so-called reproductive success reporters, which allow to estimate past doublings of bacterial individuals after introduction into environments, emphasizing the role of individual cells during colonization. PMID:27445318

  3. [Improvement of butanol production by Escherichia coli via Tn5 transposon mediated mutagenesis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhao; Dong, Hongjun; Li, Yin

    2015-12-01

    For engineering an efficient butanol-producing Escherichia coli strain, many efforts have been paid on the known genes or pathways based on current knowledge. However, many genes in the genome could also contribute to butanol production in an unexpected way. In this work, we used Tn5 transposon to construct a mutant library including 1 196 strains in a previously engineered butanol-producing E. coli strain. To screen the strains with improved titer of butanol production, we developed a high-throughput method for pyruvate detection based on dinitrophenylhydrazine reaction using 96-well microplate reader, because pyruvate is the precursor of butanol and its concentration is inversely correlated with butanol in the fermentation broth. Using this method, we successfully screened three mutants with increased butanol titer. The insertion sites of Tn5 transposon was in the ORFs of pykA, tdk, and cadC by inverse PCR and sequencing. These found genes would be efficient targets for further strain improvement. And the genome scanning strategy described here will be helpful for other microbial cell factory construction. PMID:27093834

  4. A novel dihydrofolate reductase cassette inserted in an integron borne on a Tn21-like element.

    PubMed Central

    Heikkilä, E; Skurnik, M; Sundström, L; Huovinen, P

    1993-01-01

    In this study, a 498-bp dhfrXII gene coding for trimethoprim resistance was found inserted in a cassette-like manner in the recombinationally active locus, the integron, borne on a transposon Tn21-like element. The dhfrXII cassette is distinct from those cassettes earlier observed in integrons and was found here upstream of two similarly inserted cassettes. The second one carried the new unidentified orfF, which is 85% identical to the orfD cassette in R46. The third cassette contained the aadA2 gene mediating spectinomycin resistance. The plasmid carrying this Tn21-like element was originally isolated from a trimethoprim-resistant urinary tract pathogen, Escherichia coli, from Turku City Hospital, Turku, Finland. By colony hybridization and polymerase chain reaction, this group of three cassettes, including dhfrXII, was detected in four additional E. coli strains of similar origin and in four Shigella strains isolated in Finland but originating from Asia. The dihydrofolate reductase produced from dhfrXII showed an unusual drug resistance in that 50% of the enzymatic activity remained at a trimethoprim concentration of 1 mM. PMID:8392309

  5. In-house preparation of lectin panel and detection of Tn polyagglutination.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudipta Sekhar

    2015-01-01

    Polyagglutination is a condition in which red cells are agglutinated by ABO-compatible adult human sera, but not by cord blood sera and may be acquired or inherited. Lectins are invaluable reagents in the investigation of red cells polyagglutination. We prepared in-house lectin panel and confirmed Tn polyagglutination in a pregnant lady. The lady was anemic and refused blood transfusion elsewhere due to serological discrepancy. We found ABO discrepancy and an incompatible minor cross-match in the initial investigation and suspected polyagglutination. Confirmation of polyagglutination was done using adult and cord sera. We then used the in-house lectin panels to detect the type of polyagglutination. The agglutination pattern with the various lectins was suggestive of Tn polyagglutination, which was further supported by the enzyme study. Most blood banks in India lack commercial lectin panels because of cost and procurement difficulty. Lectins play an important role in the diagnosis and differentiation of polyagglutination and immunohematological management of patient. The important and basic lectins can be prepared in-house using specific raw seeds following standardized protocol. PMID:25722587

  6. Tn5-induced mutations affecting sulfur-oxidizing ability (Sox) of Thiosphaera pantotropha.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, T S; Friedrich, C G

    1986-01-01

    Mutants of Thiosphaera pantotropha defective in chemolithoautotrophic growth were obtained by transpositional mutagenesis with Tn5 coding for kanamycin resistance. The suicide vehicle for introducing Tn5 to T. pantotropha was pSUP5011 harbored by Escherichia coli. Kanamycin-resistant isolates were screened for the inability to grow with reduced sulfur compounds (Sox-). Four classes of Sox- mutants were obtained. Three were of different pleiotropic phenotypes: (i) unable to grow with formate, nitrate, and xanthine; (this class strongly suggested the involvement of a molybdenum cofactor in inorganic sulfur-oxidizing ability); (ii) no growth with hydrogen; (iii) slight growth with hydrogen and formate. Two plasmids, pHG41 (about 450 kilobase pairs) and pHG42 (110 kilobases), were identified in lysates of T. pantotropha. In one Sox- mutant pHG41 could not be detected. Revertant analysis suggested that pHG41 and pHG42 were not involved in the Sox character. Images PMID:3009400

  7. Regulatory roles of spnT, a novel gene located within transposon TnTIR.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jun-Rong; Soo, Po-Chi; Horng, Yu-Tze; Hsieh, Shang-Chen; Tsai, Yu-Huan; Swift, Simon; Withers, Helen; Williams, Paul; Lai, Hsin-Chih

    2006-09-29

    The transposon TnTIR contains spnIR quorum-sensing system regulating sliding motility and the production of nuclease, biosurfactant, and prodigiosin in Serratia marcescens. Within TnTIR, a gene named spnT is upstream of and co-transcribed with spnI. SpnT is a cytoplasmic protein and its level peaks during early stationary phase. spnT over-expression resulted in inhibition of sliding motility and synthesis of prodigiosin, and biosurfactant similar to spnR. spnT but not spnR over-expression induced cell elongation and aberrant DNA replication in S. marcescens and Escherichia coli strains. In comparison with wild-type E. coli strain, over-expression of spnT in an E. coli priA and dnaC double-mutant strain did not lead to the aberrant cell morphology phenotypes, suggesting SpnT may act through the recombination-dependent DNA replication system. As spnT over-expression inhibited swarming but not swimming motility, SpnT may indirectly function as a negative regulator of surface-dependent migration and secondary metabolite production.

  8. Triboelectric charging of volcanic ash from Grímsvötn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Isobel; Aplin, Karen; Nicoll, Keri

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic ash is known to charge electrically, producing some of the most spectacular displays of lightning in nature. Triboelectric charging is one mechanism associated with volcanic plume electrification. Previous theoretical work on triboelectric charging of single-material particle systems has shown that the charging is likely to be determined by the number size distribution (Lacks and Levandovsky, 2007). Here we investigate triboelectric charging of a sample of ash from the Grímsvötn eruption in 2011 using a specially designed apparatus. Ash is released to fall under gravity through a screened metal cylinder and into an isolated Faraday cup. A sensitive electrometer is used to measure the voltage change associated with the charge on the ash. The release mechanism has been designed to facilitate only self-charging of the ash, as is expected in the atmospheric plume. Using geological sieves to separate the sample into different size fractions, we were able to create artificial size distributions to investigate the effects of changing the number size distribution. We find that for a sample with a narrow range of particle sizes, the Faraday cup voltage change is much smaller than for a sample with a wide range of particle sizes, in agreement with theory. These results demonstrate that self-charging of ash through triboelectrification is likely, supporting both a frictional origin for the sustained lightning observed during the Grímsvötn eruption, and other observations of self-charging in a plume distant from the source.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a Tn551-autolysis mutant of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, T; Tomasz, A

    1992-01-01

    A Lyt- mutant with reduced autolytic activity was isolated after Tn551 mutagenesis of the methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus laboratory strain RN450. The Lyt- phenotype could be transferred back into the parent and into a variety of other S. aureus strains by transduction of the transposon marker. Southern analysis has located the Tn551 insert to a 3.2-kb HindIII DNA fragment on the SmaI B fragment of the staphylococcal chromosome. The Lyt- phenotype included reduced rates of cell wall turnover and autolysis induced by detergent or methicillin treatment; however, the rate of methicillin-induced killing was not affected. Peptidoglycans prepared from the parental and mutant cells showed identical muropeptide compositions, as resolved by a high-resolution high-pressure liquid chromatography technique. On the other hand, LiCl extracts of the mutant cells contained reduced amounts of total protein and lower specific cell wall-degrading activity compared with those of extracts of parental cells. The profile of bacteriolytic enzymes as detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed multiple band differences between mutant and parental cells; a major lytic band with properties characteristic of the staphylococcal endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase was completely absent from the Lyt- cells. The Lyt- phenotype transduced into a series of methicillin-resistant strains of both homogeneous and heterogeneous phenotypes caused only a modest decrease in the level of methicillin resistance, as determined by population analysis. Images PMID:1321119

  10. Cardiac troponin I but not cardiac troponin T adheres to polysulfone dialyser membranes in an in vitro haemodialysis model: explanation for lower serum cTnI concentrations following dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Gaze, David C; Collinson, Paul O

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and I (cTnI) can occur in patients with chronic kidney disease. Differences in cTn concentrations between cTnT and cTnI have been reported but the mechanism of such discrepancy has not been investigated. This study investigates the clearance of cTn with the aid of an in vitro model of haemodialysis (HD). Methods Serum was obtained before and after a single session of dialysis from 53 patients receiving HD and assayed for cTnT and cTnI. An in vitro model of the dialysis process was used to investigate the mechanism of clearance of cTn during HD. Results Serum cTnI was significantly lower (p=0.043) following a session of HD whereas cTnT concentrations were similar to those obtained before HD. Using an in vitro model of dialysis, it was demonstrated that cTnI is not dialysed from the vascular compartment but adheres to the dialyser membrane. Conclusions The adherence of cTnI to the dialyser membrane is responsible for the observed decrease in serum cTnI following a session of dialysis. The adherence of cTnT or T-I-C complex to the dialyser membrane could not be demonstrated and supports the observation that pre-HD and post-HD serum concentrations of cTnT are similar. PMID:25332816

  11. Diversity of Tn1546 and Its Role in the Dissemination of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Portugal▿

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Carla; Freitas, Ana R.; Sousa, João C.; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.; Peixe, Luísa V.

    2008-01-01

    We characterized the molecular diversity of vanA vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE; 176 isolates/87 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types) from different sources and cities in Portugal (1996 to 2004): (i) food animals (FA; n = 38 isolates out of 31 samples), hospitalized humans (HH; n = 101/101), healthy human volunteers (HV; n = 7/4), and environmental sources (n = 30/10). Some strains were isolated from different hosts and persistently recovered for years. Twenty-four Tn1546 variants were identified, all located on plasmids (30 to 250 kb). Some Tn1546 variants were associated with specific sources such as FA (3 types), HH (11 types), or HV (1 type), while others were recovered from isolates of different origins (8 types). Polymorphisms in the central vanRSHA region of Tn1546 were scarcely detected, while alterations upstream of vanR and downstream of vanA were frequently identified involving mutations (vanS and vanX), deletions (vanY), insertions (IS1216V, ISEf1, and IS19; sequences with or without homology with others available in GenBank databases), and different genetic rearrangements. Most Tn1546 variants contained IS1216V (14 types) or ISEf1 (6 types). IS1216V was found alone or associated with an IS3-like element at different orientations and positions in Tn1546 from human, animal, and environmental samples. ISEf1 was located within vanX-vanY region at nucleotide 9044 of Tn1546 variants mostly associated with clinical isolates, suggesting a common genetic platform. IS19 was observed within the vanX-vanY region in one Tn1546 variant from poultry. Recent spread of VRE in Portugal reflects a complex epidemiology involving both clonal spread and plasmid dissemination containing a variety of Tn1546 types. Apparent Tn1546 heterogeneity among enterococci from human, animal, and environmental sources might reflect frequent genetic exchange events and evolution of particular widely disseminated genetic elements. PMID:18180362

  12. Structural Analysis of the Hg(II)-Regulatory Protein Tn501 MerR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Huang, Shanqing; Liu, Pingying; Liu, Xichun; He, Yafeng; Chen, Weizhong; Hu, Qingyuan; Wei, Tianbiao; Gan, Jianhua; Ma, Jing; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The metalloprotein MerR is a mercury(II)-dependent transcriptional repressor-activator that responds to mercury(II) with extraordinary sensitivity and selectivity. It's widely distributed in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria but with barely detectable sequence identities between the two sources. To provide structural basis for the considerable biochemical and biophysical experiments previously performed on Tn501 and Tn21 MerR from Gram-negative bacteria, we analyzed the crystal structure of mercury(II)-bound Tn501 MerR. The structure in the metal-binding domain provides Tn501 MerR with a high affinity for mercury(II) and the ability to distinguish mercury(II) from other metals with its unique planar trigonal coordination geometry, which is adopted by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The mercury(II) coordination state in the C-terminal metal-binding domain is transmitted through the allosteric network across the dimer interface to the N-terminal DNA-binding domain. Together with the previous mutagenesis analyses, the present data indicate that the residues in the allosteric pathway have a central role in maintaining the functions of Tn501 MerR. In addition, the complex structure exhibits significant differences in tertiary and quaternary structural arrangements compared to those of Bacillus MerR from Gram-positive bacteria, which probably enable them to function with specific promoter DNA with different spacers between -35 and -10 elements. PMID:27641146

  13. IHF is the limiting host factor in transposition of Pseudomonas putida transposon Tn4652 in stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Ilves, Heili; Hõrak, Rita; Teras, Riho; Kivisaar, Maia

    2004-03-01

    Transpositional activity of mobile elements is not constant. Conditional regulation of host factors involved in transposition may severely change the activity of mobile elements. We have demonstrated previously that transposition of Tn4652 in Pseudomonas putida is a stationary phase-specific event, which requires functional sigma S (Ilves et al., 2001, J Bacteriol 183: 5445-5448). We hypothesized that integration host factor (IHF), the concentration of which is increased in starving P. putida, might contribute to the transposition of Tn4652 as well. Here, we demonstrate that transposition of Tn4652 in stationary phase P. putida is essentially limited by the amount of IHF. No transposition of Tn4652 occurs in a P. putida ihfA-defective strain. Moreover, overexpression of IHF results in significant enhancement of transposition compared with the wild-type strain. This indicates that the amount of IHF is a bottleneck in Tn4652 transposition. Gel mobility shift and DNase I footprinting studies revealed that IHF is necessary for the binding of transposase to both transposon ends. In vitro, transposase can bind to inverted repeats of transposon only after the binding of IHF. The results obtained in this study indicate that, besides sigma S, IHF is another host factor that is implicated in the elevation of transposition in stationary phase. PMID:15009901

  14. Carbohydrate antigen expression in primary tumors, metastatic lesions, and serous effusions from patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinoma: evidence of up-regulated Tn and Sialyl Tn antigen expression in effusions.

    PubMed

    Davidson, B; Berner, A; Nesland, J M; Risberg, B; Kristensen, G B; Tropé, C G; Bryne, M

    2000-09-01

    The object of this study was the investigation of carbohydrate antigen expression in malignant epithelial cells and benign mesothelial cells in serous effusions from patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinomas. In addition, to compare antigen expression in carcinoma cells in effusions with those of corresponding primary tumors and metastatic lesions. Sections from 63 malignant effusions from ovarian carcinoma patients and 15 reactive effusions were immunohistochemically stained, using 5 monoclonal antibodies for Lewis(y), Sialyl Lewis(x), Tn, and Sialyl Tn antigens. Tissue sections (n = 97) from corresponding primary ovarian carcinomas and metastatic lesions, as well as from 12 malignant mesotheliomas, were additionally stained using the above panel. Staining for the 4 antigens was seen in carcinoma cells in serous effusions in the majority of cases (range = 71% to 85%). In contrast, immunoreactivity was detected in mesothelial cells in only 6% to 23% of the specimens studied (P < .001 for all 5 markers). With the exception of B3 antibody against Lewis(y) antigen, malignant mesotheliomas stained negative, infrequently showing focal immunoreactivity. An up-regulation of Tn and Sialyl Tn expression was detected in carcinoma cells in effusions when compared with both primary tumors (P < .003 and P < .007, respectively) and metastatic lesions (P < .034 and .041, respectively). Cancer-associated carbohydrate antigens can thus be used as an adjunct in the differentiation between malignant epithelial and reactive mesothelial cells. Ovarian carcinoma cells in effusions show up-regulation of Tn and Sialyl Tn, possibly representing a transient phenotypic alteration facilitating metastasis. PMID:11014575

  15. One step in-situ synthesis of amine functionalized graphene for immunosensing of cardiac marker cTnI.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Satish K; Kukkar, Manil; Suri, C R; Paul, A K; Deep, Akash

    2015-04-15

    2-Aminobenzyl amine (2-ABA) functionalized graphene is proposed for the ultrasensitive immunosensing of Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI). 2-ABA was electrochemically polymerized on the graphene decorated interdigitated electrode to obtain the amine functionalized graphene (f-GN). The f-GN electrode was then modified with monoclonal anti-cTnI antibodies via Schiff reaction based chemistry. Detailed characteristics of the processes involved and the finally developed antibody conjugated f-GN interdigitated electrode have been studied. The above micro-device was used in a drain source configuration for the sensing of cTnI. A wide dynamic linear range of antigen detection (0.01-1ng/mL) is achieved with the limit of detection of 0.01ng/mL. The utility of the proposed sensing technique is demonstrated by successfully testing the antigen concentration in spiked serum samples.

  16. Differential analysis of transient increases of serum cTnI in response to handling in rats.

    PubMed

    Mikaelian, Igor; Dunn, Michael E; Mould, Diane R; Hirkaler, Gerard; Geng, Wanping; Coluccio, Denise; Nicklaus, Rosemary; Singer, Thomas; Reddy, Micaela

    2013-12-01

    Serum cardiac troponins are the key biomarkers of myocardial necrosis in humans and in preclinical species. The use of ultrasensitive assays for serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) as a biomarker in safety studies is hampered by interindividual differences. In this study, we investigated the effect of handling procedures on serum cTnI and explored modeling and simulation approaches to mitigate the impact of these interindividual differences. Femoral-catheterized male Crl:WI(Han) rats (n = 16/group) were left undisturbed in their cages with no handling; subjected to 5 min of isoflurane/O2 anesthesia (A); or placed into a rodent restrainer followed by simulated tail vein injection (RR). Serum cTnI concentrations were assessed over a 24-h period using an ultrasensitive assay, and the study was repeated for confirmation. The mean serum cTnI concentration pre-procedure was 4.2 pg/mL, and remained stable throughout the duration of the study in the rats submitted to the A procedure. Serum cTnI concentrations increased transiently after the RR procedure with a median time to maximum concentration (T max), of 1 and 2 h and a mean maximum value concentration (C max), of 53.0 and 7.2 pg/mL in the initial and repeat studies, respectively. A population pharmacodynamic model identified interindividual, procedure- and study-specific effects on serum cTnI concentrations in rats. It is concluded that a modeling and simulation approach more appropriately describes and statistically analyzes the data obtained with this ultrasensitive assays.

  17. Experimental manipulation of TN:TP ratiossuppress cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystinconcentration in large-scale in situ mesocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Theodore D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    A global dataset was compiled to examine relations between the total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratio (TN:TP) and microcystin concentration in lakes and reservoirs. Microcystin concentration decreased as TN:TP ratios increased, suggesting that manipulation of the TN:TP ratio may reduce microcystin concentrations. This relationship was experimentally tested by adding ammonium nitrate to increase the TN:TP ratio in large-scale (70 m3), in situ mesocosms located in a eutrophic reservoir that routinely experiences toxic blooms of cyanobacteria. At a TN:TP ratio >75:1, chlorophytes dominated the phytoplankton community in the mesocosms, while cyanobacterial biovolume was significantly reduced and microcystin was not detected. In contrast, the unmanipulated reservoir was dominated by cyanobacteria, and microcystin was detected. Secchi depths were 1.1 to 1.8 times greater in the mesocosms relative to the reservoir. Cladoceran zooplankton had a larger body size (0.14 mm on average) in the mesocosms compared to conspecifics in the reservoir, which was likely related to the higher quality food. Combined, these empirical and experimental data indicate that although nutrient addition is counterintuitive to current cyanobacteria management practices, increasing the TN:TP ratio by adding nitrogen may be a potential short-term management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins when other alternatives (e.g., phosphorus reduction) are not possible. Additional experimental studies with careful controls are needed to define best management practices and identify any potential unintended consequences before nitrogen addition is implemented as a lake and reservoir management practice.

  18. Structure of the Grímsvötn central volcano under the Vatnajökull icecap, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Raimon; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís; Rowlands, Daniel P.; White, Robert S.; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.

    2007-02-01

    The subglacial Grímsvötn central volcano, lying within a volcanic zone directly above the core of the Iceland mantle plume, is one of the most active in Iceland. Local, regional and teleseismic earthquake data recorded on a temporary seismometer array across western Vatnajökull icecap during the summer of 1998 have provided a three-dimensional image of the shallow crustal structure of the volcano. Microearthquake activity at depths of 1-4 km along the Grímsvötn caldera rim coincided with inflation of a shallow magma chamber beneath the caldera, which culminated in a 0.1 km3 eruption in December 1998. Tomographic inversion of these earthquakes define the extent of a low-velocity body beneath Grímsvötn with a volume of ~20 km3 extending to ~3 km below the surface. This low-velocity body is flanked by high velocities under the caldera rim. Delays in the P-wave arrival times through the Grímsvötn caldera from regional and teleseismic earthquakes and from two detonations ~150 km east of Grímsvötn are 0.10-0.15 s greater than the delays through the uppermost 3-4 km of crust shown by local earthquake arrivals. This suggests the presence of a further low-velocity body at depths greater than 3-4 km beneath Grímsvötn, presumed to be due to the presence of melt. Using the distribution of local seismicity and shear wave attenuation we estimate the maximum lateral extent of the region containing partial melt to be 7-8 km E-W and 4-5 km N-S. P-wave delays require a thickness of less than 1 km of pure/high percentage partial melt, assuming a sill-like magma chamber.

  19. Tn Glycosylation of the MUC6 Protein Modulates Its Immunogenicity and Promotes the Induction of Th17-biased T Cell Responses*

    PubMed Central

    Freire, Teresa; Lo-Man, Richard; Bay, Sylvie; Leclerc, Claude

    2011-01-01

    The Tn antigen (α-GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr) is one of the most specific human cancer-associated structures. This antigen, together with mucins, the major carriers of O-glycosylated tumor antigens in adenocarcinomas, are being evaluated as anti-cancer immunotherapeutic targets. In particular, the MUC6 protein, which is normally expressed only in gastric tissues, has been detected in intestinal, pulmonary, colorectal, and breast carcinomas. To develop anti-cancer vaccines based on the Tn antigen, we produced MUC6 proteins with different Tn density by using mixtures of recombinant ppGalNAc-T1, -T2, and -T7. The obtained glycoproteins were characterized and analyzed for their immunological properties, as compared with the non-glycosylated MUC6. We show that these various MUC6:Tn glycoproteins were well recognized by both MUC6 and Tn-specific antibodies. However, Tn glycosylation of the MUC6 protein strongly affected their immunogenicity by partially abrogating Th1 cell responses, and promoting IL-17 responses. Moreover, the non-glycosylated MUC6 was more efficiently presented than MUC6:Tn glycoproteins to specific T CD4+ hybridomas, suggesting that Tn glycosylation may affect MUC6 processing or MHC binding of the processed peptides. In conclusion, our results indicate that Tn glycosylation of the MUC6 protein strongly affects its B and T cell immunogenicity, and might favor immune escape of tumor cells. PMID:21193402

  20. Green digital signage using nanoparticle embedded narrow-gap field sequential TN-LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Sawai, Hiroya; Toshima, Naoki; Okita, Masaya; Takeuchi, Kiyofumi; Takatsu, Haruyoshi

    2012-03-01

    We have fabricated field sequential color (FSC)-LCDs using cells and modules of narrow-gap TN-LCDs with and without doping the nanoparticles of PCyD-ZrO2 and AF-SiO2. It is shown that the FSC-LCD exhibits a high optical efficiency of OE=4.5 that is defined as OE=[Luminance]/[W/m2]=(cd/W). This figure may provide us a good reference or to clear the Energy Star Program Version 5-3 that issues a guideline: LCD with 50 inch on the diagonal consumes the energy of 108W. Through this research it is claimed that our FSC=LCD may be a novel green digital signage.

  1. The May 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, M. T.; Höskuldsson, Á.; Larsen, G.; Thordarson, T.; Oladottir, B. A.; Oddsson, B.; Gudnason, J.; Högnadottir, T.; Stevenson, J. A.; Houghton, B. F.; McGarvie, D.; Sigurdardottir, G. M.

    2012-04-01

    Grímsvötn is the most active volcano in Iceland with >60 known eruptions in the last 800 years. Grímsvötn is located in the centre of the 8100 km2 Vatnajökull glacier and typically produces basalts in phreatomagmatic eruptions. Magma-water interaction occurs as the eruptions quickly melt their way through 50-200 m thick ice covering a subglacial caldera lake. Most of these eruptions have been relatively modest in size (0.01-0.1 km3 DRE) causing relatively minor fallout of tephra outside Vatnajökull. After a relative quiet second half of the 20th century, a period of increased volcanic activity in Grímsvötn started in the 1990s, with basaltic phreatomagmatic eruptions occurring within the caldera in 1998 and 2004. The 2011 eruption was therefore expected. It began at 19 UTC on 21 May. The plume quickly rose to 15-20 km, forming a 50-100 km wide umbrella cloud that was maintained until late on 22 May. Heavy fallout occurred in the districts 70-100 km south of the volcano, where periods of total darkness with drifting ash closed roads and caused distress to the local population. Wind directions and plume transport varied somewhat during the eruption. After 23 May, the eruption was relatively minor, with fallout mostly confined to the Vatnajökull glacier. The eruption ended on May 28. Most of the magma was erupted in the first two days. During this period strong northerly winds were dominant at low altitude, carrying the tephra towards south as a 2-4 km high cloud, while the top part of the plume first drifted eastwards and later northwards. Most of the fallout after the first few hours came from the low southwards drifting cloud while the high plume was white in colour and with apparently low concentration of ash leading to only minor fallout. This eruption falls into a class of events that seem to happen once every 100-200 years, with previous large historical eruptions including 1619 and 1873. Preliminary estimates indicate that the eruption produced 0

  2. Tn5-Induced and Spontaneous Switching of Sinorhizobium meliloti to Faster-Swarming Behavior†

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xueming; Bauer, Wolfgang D.

    1999-01-01

    Tn5 mutants of Sinorhizobium meliloti RMB7201 which swarmed 1.5 to 2.5 times faster than the parental strain in semisolid agar, moist sand, and viscous liquid were identified. These faster-swarming (FS) mutants outgrew the wild type 30- to 40-fold within 2 days in mixed swarm colonies. The FS mutants survived and grew as well as or better than the wild type under all of the circumstances tested, except in a soil matrix subjected to air drying. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis was reduced in each of the FS mutants when they were grown on defined succinate-nitrate medium, but the extent of reduction was different for each. It appears that FS behavior likely results from a modest, general derepression of motility involving an increased proportion of motile and flagellated cells and an increased average number of flagella per cell and increased average flagellar length. Spontaneous FS variants of RMB7201 were obtained at a frequency of about 1 per 10,000 to 20,000 cells by either enrichment from the periphery of swarm colonies or screening of colonies for reduced EPS synthesis on succinate-nitrate plates. The spontaneous FS variants and Tn5 FS mutants were symbiotically effective and competitive in alfalfa nodulation. Reversion of FS variants to wild-type behavior was sporadic, indicating that reversion is affected by unidentified environmental factors. Based on phenotypic and molecular differences between individual FS variants and mutants, it appears that there may be multiple genetic configurations that result in FS behavior in RMB7201. The facile isolation of spontaneous FS variants of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicates that switching to FS behavior may be fairly common among bacterial species. The substantial growth advantage of FS mutants and variants wherever nutrient gradients exist suggests that switching to FS forms may be an important behavioral adaptation in natural environments. PMID:10049888

  3. TN-68 Spent Fuel Transport Cask Analytical Evaluation for Drop Events

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M. J.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Koeppel, Brian J.

    2007-03-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for licensing commercial spent nuclear fuel transported in casks certified by NRC under the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR), Title 10, Part 71 [1]. Both the International Atomic Energy Agency regulations for transporting radioactive materials [2, paragraph 727], and 10 CFR 71.73 require casks to be evaluated for hypothetical accident conditions, which includes a 9-meter (m) (30-ft) drop-impact event onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, in the most damaging orientation. This paper examines the behavior of one of the NRC certified transportation casks, the TN-68 [3], for drop-impact events. The specific area examined is the behavior of the bolted connections in the cask body and the closure lid, which are significantly loaded during the hypothetical drop-impact event. Analytical work to evaluate the NRC-certified TN-68 spent fuel transport cask [3] for a 9-m (30-ft) drop-impact event on a flat, unyielding, horizontal surface, was performed using the ANSYS® [4] and LS DYNA™ [5] finite-element analysis codes. The models were sufficiently detailed, in the areas of bolt closure interfaces and containment boundaries, to evaluate the structural integrity of the bolted connections under 9-m (30-ft) free-drop hypothetical accident conditions, as specified in 10 CFR 71.73. Evaluation of the cask for puncture, caused by a free drop through a distance of 1-m (40-in.) onto a mild steel bar mounted on a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, required by 10 CFR 71.73, was not included in the current work, and will have to be addressed in the future. Based on the analyses performed to date, it is concluded that, even though brief separation of the flange and the lid surfaces may occur under some conditions, the seals would close at the end of the drop events, because the materials remain elastic during the duration of the event.

  4. Cooperativity in A-tract structure and bending properties of composite TnAn blocks.

    PubMed

    Haran, T E; Crothers, D M

    1989-04-01

    The existence of intrinsically curved DNA molecules incorporating short runs of adenines is undisputed, but none of the current models can explain the entire experimental data set. Recently, Burkhoff and Tullius [Burkhoff, A. M., & Tullius, T. D. (1988) Nature 331, 455-457] offered an explanation for Hagerman's observations on A4T4N2 vs T4A4N2 polymers [Hagerman, P. J. (1986) Nature 321, 449-450], which showed that A4T4N2 multimers migrate anomalously slowly on polyacrylamide gels and T4A4N2 multimers migrate normally. In A4T4N2 multimers Burkhoff and Tullius observe a hydroxy-radical cutting pattern associated with bent DNA and a B-like cutting pattern in T4A4N2. They attribute this difference in cutting pattern to a clash in the TA step of T4A4N2 and suggest that TA4N5 might already adopt an unbent B-DNA conformation [Tullius T. D., & Burkhoff, A. M. (1988) in Structure and Expression. Vol. 3: DNA Bending and Curvature (Olson, W. K., Sarma, M. H., Sarma, R. H., & Sundaralingam, M., Eds.) pp 77-85, Adenine Press, Guilderland, NY]. We show that the conformation adopted by TnAn blocks is similar to that of AnTn blocks. Two A-tract structures of opposite polarity coexist in both blocks. Moreover, we demonstrate a cooperative buildup of a T-tract structure adjacent to an A-tract structure that cannot be predicted by any of the current models. We conclude that AA steps do not assume the same conformation in long tracts of A's as in isolated AA steps. Therefore, the assumption of nearest-neighbor models, that global curvature is an additive phenomenon of local effects, is invalid. PMID:2742812

  5. Synthesis and degradation of the mRNA of the Tn21 mer operon.

    PubMed

    Gambill, B D; Summers, A O

    1992-05-20

    The mercury resistance locus encoded by Tn21 on the monocopy IncFII plasmid R100 (merTn21) consists of a metal-responsive activator/repressor, merR, which controls initiation of a polycistronic message that includes genes for the uptake (merTPC) and reduction (merA) of Hg2+ and merD, which may also play a minor regulatory role. Comparison of the relative abundance of the 5' and 3' ends of the merTPCAD transcript revealed a strong transcriptional gradient in the operon, consistent with previous observations of lower relative abundance of the more promoter-distal gene products. In vivo mRNA degradation rates varied only slightly for the different genes: however, the rates of mRNA synthesis varied considerably from the beginning to the end of the operon. Specifically, mRNA corresponding to the promoter-proximal genes, merTPC, achieved a maximum in vivo synthesis rate between 60 and 120 seconds after induction; this rate was maintained for approximately ten minutes. In contrast, the synthesis rates of mRNA corresponding to the promoter-distal genes merA and merD, were initially fivefold lower than the rates of the promoter-proximal genes for the first five minutes after induction, and then rose gradually to approximately 50% of the merTPC synthesis rates. These data suggested that early after induction only 20% of the transcripts initiating at merT proceed beyond merC. At later times after induction approximately 50% of the transcripts proceed beyond merC. Nuclease end mapping did not reveal any discrete termination events in the merPCA region, thus, premature termination may occur at many sites.

  6. Variations in geothermal heat flux at Grímsvötn, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iona Reynolds, Hannah; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús

    2014-05-01

    Thermal signals from sub-surface magmatic sources are difficult to quantify, as the measurement of fluxes from the ground to the atmosphere is subject to large uncertainties. Ice cauldrons are depressions which form on the surface of glaciers due to basal melting as a result of geothermal flux from the bedrock beneath, often generated by volcanic sources. The monitoring of ice cauldrons provides a unique opportunity to quantify heat flux to a much improved accuracy, as the melting ice acts as a calorimeter. Time series data of ice surface elevation at cauldrons above Grímsvötn volcano are presented over a 14 year period, with estimates of the melt volume and surface heat flux required for this melting to have occurred. Three volcanic eruptions took place at Grímsvötn during the study period, the effects of which are visible in ice surface elevation data. However, separate thermal anomalies are observed in areas unaffected by erupted products. A peak in surface heat flux is observed following the 1998 eruption, several kilometres east of the vent, with a maximum rise of ~200 W·m-2. The anomalous signal lasts for approximately three years. Possible explanations include the intrusion of a dyke beneath this area during the eruption, or increased permeability from greater dilatational strain due to regional stress, both of which would significantly increase heat flux. We investigate possible scenarios which could produce such a thermal anomaly, using finite element modelling. The effects of cooling magmatic intrusions and changes to the parameter space for country rock conductivity and permeability are considered, in relation to heat flux and the timescales and spatial extent of associated surface anomalies. Our results advance the understanding and interpretation of thermal signals observed at ice-covered volcanoes.

  7. 76 FR 58241 - Opportunity for Designation in the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... & Grain, McPaul, Fremont County, Iowa; and Haveman Grain, Murray, Cass County, Nebraska. Midsouth Pursuant..., Pipestone, Murray, Cottonwood, Rock, Nobles, Jackson, and Martin Counties. In Nebraska: Cedar, Dakota, Dixon... areas, in the States of Minnesota and North Dakota, are assigned to this official agency. In...

  8. 76 FR 31885 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Northern Mississippi and Memphis, TN, Appropriated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... the Northern Mississippi survey area (Columbus, Greenwood, and Tupelo) is mainly by secondary and... would be effective on the first day of the first applicable pay period for FWS employees in Panola County beginning on or after 30 days following publication of final regulations. FPRAC did not...

  9. 78 FR 58489 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; McMinnville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Warren County Memorial Airport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management...

  10. Sequence-Based Characterization of Tn5801-Like Genomic Islands in Tetracycline-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Other Gram-positive Bacteria from Humans and Animals

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Lisbeth E.; Hasman, Henrik; Jurado Rabadán, Sonia; Agersø, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogens is often associated with mobile genetic elements, such as genomic islands (GI) including integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). These can transfer resistance genes within and between bacteria from humans and/or animals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Tn5801-like GIs carrying the tetracycline resistance gene, tet(M), are common in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from pets, and to do an overall sequences-based characterization of Tn5801-like GIs detected in Gram-positive bacteria from humans and animals. A total of 27 tetracycline-resistant S. pseudintermedius isolates from Danish pets (1998–2005) were screened for tet(M) by PCR. Selected isolates (13) were screened for GI- or ICE-specific genes (intTn5801 or xisTn916) and their tet(M) gene was sequenced (Sanger-method). Long-range PCR mappings and whole-genome-sequencing (Illumina) were performed for selected S. pseudintermedius-isolates (seven and three isolates, respectively) as well as for human S. aureus isolates (seven and one isolates, respectively) and one porcine Enterococcus faecium isolate known to carry Tn5801-like GIs. All 27 S. pseudintermedius were positive for tet(M). Out of 13 selected isolates, seven contained Tn5801-like GIs and six contained Tn916-like ICEs. Two different Tn5801-like GI types were detected among S. pseudintermedius (Tn5801 and GI6287) - both showed high similarity compared to GenBank sequences from human pathogens. Two distinct Tn5801-like GI types were detected among the porcine E. faecium and human S. aureus isolates (Tn6014 and GI6288). Tn5801-like GIs were detected in GenBank-sequences from Gram-positive bacteria of human, animal or food origin worldwide. Known Tn5801-like GIs were divided into seven types. The results showed that Tn5801-like GIs appear to be relatively common in tetracycline-resistant S. pseudintermedius in Denmark. Almost identical Tn5801-like GIs were identified in different Gram-positive species

  11. Impaired relaxation is the main manifestation in transgenic mice expressing a restrictive cardiomyopathy mutation, R193H, in cardiac TnI.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianfeng; Liu, Jing; Feng, Han-Zhong; Hossain, M M; Gobara, Nariman; Zhang, Chi; Li, Yuejin; Jean-Charles, Pierre-Yves; Jin, Jian-Ping; Huang, Xu-Pei

    2008-06-01

    Transgenic mice were generated to express a restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) human cardiac troponin I (cTnI) R192H mutation in the heart (cTnI(193His) mice). The objective of this study was to assess cardiac function during the development of diastolic dysfunction and to gain insight into the pathophysiological impact of the RCM cTnI mutation. Cardiac function and pathophysiological changes were monitored in cTnI193His mice and wild-type littermates for a period of 12 mo. It progressed gradually from abnormal relaxation to diastolic dysfunction characterized with high-resolution echocardiography by a reversed E-to-A ratio, increased deceleration time, and prolonged isovolumetric relaxation time. At the age of 12 mo, cardiac output in cTnI(193His) mice was significantly declined, and some transgenic mice showed congestive heart failure. The negative impact of cTnI193His on ventricular contraction and relaxation was further demonstrated in isolated mouse working heart preparations. The main morphological change in cTnI193His myocytes was shortened cell length. Dobutamine stimulation increased heart rate in cTnI193His mice but did not improve CO. The cTnI193His mice had a phenotype similar to that in human RCM patients carrying the cTnI mutation characterized morphologically by enlarged atria and restricted ventricles and functionally by diastolic dysfunction and diastolic heart failure. The results demonstrate a critical role of the COOH-terminal domain of cTnI in the diastolic function of cardiac muscle.

  12. RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENT OF THE BIOGENIC CONTRIBUTION TO SUMMERTIME PM 2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL IN NASHVILLE, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements performed on PM-2.5 samples collected near Nashville, TN from June 21 to July 13, 1999, showed high levels of modern carbon, ranging from 56 to 80% of the total carbon in the samples. Radiocarbon measurements performed on dichloromethane extracts of...

  13. 78 FR 25403 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dayton, TN, Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cleveland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959..., Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cleveland, TN, and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Bradley Memorial...

  14. 76 FR 53115 - Foreign-Trade Zone 77-Memphis, TN; Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Manufacturing Authority; Flextronics Logistics USA, Inc. (Cell Phone/Mobile Handset Kitting); Memphis, TN An..., Memphis (Site 4). Under T/IM procedures, Flextronics has requested authority to produce cell phones/mobile... duty rates during customs entry procedures that apply to cell phone/mobile handset kits (duty free)...

  15. 76 FR 34799 - Permanent Dam Safety Modification at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Alternatives: permanent modifications to dam structures and removal of the temporary HESCO baskets before the... Permanent Dam Safety Modification at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams, TN AGENCY... various alternatives for permanent modifications to the existing dam facilities at Cherokee, Fort...

  16. RecBC and RecF recombination pathways and the induced precise excision of Tn10 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nagel, R; Chan, A

    1999-03-10

    Mitomycin C (MMC) treatment or mutations in uvrD enhance the frequency of Tn10 precise excision. We have shown previously that several repair-recombination genes, such as recA, ruv and recF are involved in the induced excision process. In this study, we find that other genes belonging to the RecBC and RecF sexual recombination pathways also participate in this process since mutations in recB, sbcB or recO diminish, though to different degrees, the frequency of Tn10 precise excision induced by MMC treatment or by uvrD mutants. Pairwise combinations of some of these mutations were also tested for Tn10 induced precise excision; most of these double mutants showed additive effects in reducing the frequency of the excision process. The results of these studies suggest that recombinational-repair genes, particularly recF, sbcB and recO have different roles in the induced excision of Tn10 than in recombinational mating. PMID:10102036

  17. Arbitrary PCR for Rapid Mapping of Tn5 Insertions in Pyoverdine Genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 13 transposon mutants deficient in pyoverdine production was analyzed using an arbitrary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach to map the sites of Tn5 insertions in the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. The arbitrary PCR method involved two rounds of reactions, with the fi...

  18. SPIRITS16tn: Spitzer Discovery of a Possible Supernova in Messier 108 at 8.8 Mpc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jencson, J. E.; Adams, S.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Tinyanont, S.; Cao, Y.; Prince, T.; Lau, R. M.; Perley, D.; Masci, F.; Helou, G.; Armus, L.; Surace, J.; Dyk, S. D. Van; Cody, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Khan, R.; Bond, H. E.; Monson, A.; Bally, J.; Levesque, E.; Williams, R.; Whitelock, P. A.; Mohamed, S.; Gehrz, R. D.; Amodeo, S.; Shenoy, D.; Carlon, R.; Cass, A.; Corgan, D.; Dykhoff, D.; Faella, J.; Gburek, T.; Smith, N.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.; Ofek, E.; Johansson, J.; Parthasarathy, M.; Fox, O.; Hsiao, E.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Gonzalez, C.; Contreras, C.

    2016-08-01

    We report the discovery of a possible, nearby supernova in Messier 108 (NGC 3556) designated as SPIRITS16tn. This luminous infrared transient was discovered during ongoing monitoring of nearby galaxies with the Spitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS; ATEL#6644, Kasliwal et al. 2016, ApJ submitted), using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  19. Skeletal Muscle Troponin I (TnI) in Animal Fat Tissues to Be Used as Biomarker for the Identification of Fat Adulteration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bong-Sup; Oh, Young-Kyoung; Kim, Min-Jin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the existence of skeletal muscle troponin I (smTnI), well-known as a muscle protein in fat tissues, and the utilization of smTnI as a biomarker for the identification of fat adulteration were investigated. A commercial antibody (ab97427) specific to all of animals smTnI was used in this study. Fat and meat samples (cooked and non-cooked) of pork and beef, and chicken considered as representative meats were well minced and extracted by heating and non-heating methods, and the extracts from fat and meat tissues were probed by the antibody used in both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot. The antibody exhibited a strong reaction to all meat and fat extracts in ELISA test. On the other hand, the results of immunoblot analsis revealed a 23 kDa high intensity band corresponding to the molecular weight of smTnI (23786 Da). These results demonstrate that the existence of smTnI in all animal fat tissues. Since there are monoclonal antibodies specific to each species smTnI, smTnI in fat tissues could be used as a biomarker to identify or determine animal species adulterated in meat products. Therefore, an analytical method to identify fraudulent fat adulteration can be developed with an antibody specific to each species smTnI. PMID:26761680

  20. The effect and biological mechanism of COD/TN ratio on nitrogen removal in a novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor treating manure-free piggery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzheng; Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Wang, Cheng; Deng, Kaiwen; Sun, Kai; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    A novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR) was constructed to treat manure-free piggery wastewater with high NH4(+)-N concentration and low COD/TN ratio, and the effect and biological mechanism of COD/TN ratio on nitrogen removal were investigated at a constant hydraulic retention time of 8h and 35°C. The results showed that the UMSR could treat the wastewater with a better synchronous removal of COD, NH4(+)-N and TN. The microaerobic UMSR allowed nitrifiers, and heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers to thrive in the flocs, revealing a multiple nitrogen removal mechanism in the reactor. Both the nitrifiers and denitrifiers would be restricted by an influent COD/TN ratio more than 0.82, resulting in a decrease of TN removal in the UMSR. To get a TN removal over 80% with a TN load removal above 0.86kg/(m(3)·d) in the UMSR, the influent COD/TN ratio should be less than 0.70.

  1. Solid-phase synthesis of a pentavalent GalNAc-containing glycopeptide (Tn antigen) representing the nephropathy-associated IgA hinge region

    PubMed Central

    Bolscher, Jan G.M.; Brevoord, Judith; Nazmi, Kamran; Ju, Tongzhong; Veerman, Enno C.I.; van Wijk, Joanna A. E.; Cummings, Richard D.; van Die, Irma

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete or aberrant glycosylation leading to Tn antigen (GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr) expression on human glycoproteins is strongly associated with human pathological conditions, including tumors, certain autoimmune diseases, such as the idiopathic IgA nephropathy, and may modulate immune homeostasis. In addition, the Tn antigen is highly expressed by certain pathogens and plays a role in host–pathogen interactions. To enable experimental approaches to study interactions of the Tn antigen with the immune system and analyse anti-Tn antibody responses in infection or disorders, we generated a Tn-expressing resource that can be used for high-throughput screening. In consideration of IgA nephropathy in which the hinge region is incompletely glycosylated, we used this hinge sequence that encodes five potential glycosylation sites as the ideal template for the synthesis of a Tn antigen expressing glycopeptide. Inclusion of an N-terminal biotin in the peptide enabled binding to streptavidin-coated ELISA plates as monitored using Helix pomatia agglutinin or anti-Tn monoclonal antibody. We also found that the biotinylated IgA-Tn peptide is a functional acceptor for β1-3-galactosylation using recombinant T-synthase (β1-3-galactosyltransferase). Besides its immunochemical functionality as a possible diagnostic tool for IgA nephropathy, the peptide is an excellent substrate for glycan elongation and represents a novel template applicable for glycan–antigen-associated diseases. PMID:20719305

  2. Use of the promoter fusion transposon Tn5 lac to identify mutations in Bordetella pertussis vir-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Weiss, A A; Melton, A R; Walker, K E; Andraos-Selim, C; Meidl, J J

    1989-09-01

    Mutants of Bordetella pertussis deficient in virulence-associated factors were identified by using the transposon Tn5 lac. Tn5 lac is a derivative of Tn5 which generates promoter fusions for beta-galactosidase. Tn5 lac insertions in the vir-regulated genes of B. pertussis were identified by selecting for kanamycin-resistant mutants that expressed beta-galactosidase when the vir-regulated genes were expressed but not when the vir-regulated genes were turned off. Fourteen different mutations in vir-regulated genes were identified. Two mutants were deficient in the production of the filamentous hemagglutinin, two mutants were deficient in the production of adenylate cyclase toxin and hemolysin, and one mutant was deficient in the production of dermonecrotic toxin. One insertion mapped adjacent to the pertussis toxin gene, but the mutant produced pertussis toxin. The phenotypes of the remaining eight mutants were not determined, but the mutants did not appear to be deficient in the production of the 69,000-dalton outer membrane protein (agglutinogen 3) or the capsule. Screening for mutations in either of the fimbrial genes proved to be problematic since the parental strain was found to switch from a fimbriated to a nonfimbriated state at a high frequency, which was suggestive of the metastable expression of pili in other bacteria. We used Southern blot analysis with a 30-mer specific for the fimbrial sequences. No bands with the predicted increase in size due to the 12 kilobases from Tn5 lac were observed, which suggests that none of these genes were mutated. Southern blot analysis also revealed that seven of the eight unidentified mutations mapped to different restriction fragments, which suggests that they could be deficient in as many as seven different genes. PMID:2569447

  3. Structural Analysis of the Hg(II)-Regulatory Protein Tn501 MerR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Huang, Shanqing; Liu, Pingying; Liu, Xichun; He, Yafeng; Chen, Weizhong; Hu, Qingyuan; Wei, Tianbiao; Gan, Jianhua; Ma, Jing; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The metalloprotein MerR is a mercury(II)-dependent transcriptional repressor-activator that responds to mercury(II) with extraordinary sensitivity and selectivity. It’s widely distributed in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria but with barely detectable sequence identities between the two sources. To provide structural basis for the considerable biochemical and biophysical experiments previously performed on Tn501 and Tn21 MerR from Gram-negative bacteria, we analyzed the crystal structure of mercury(II)-bound Tn501 MerR. The structure in the metal-binding domain provides Tn501 MerR with a high affinity for mercury(II) and the ability to distinguish mercury(II) from other metals with its unique planar trigonal coordination geometry, which is adopted by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The mercury(II) coordination state in the C-terminal metal-binding domain is transmitted through the allosteric network across the dimer interface to the N-terminal DNA-binding domain. Together with the previous mutagenesis analyses, the present data indicate that the residues in the allosteric pathway have a central role in maintaining the functions of Tn501 MerR. In addition, the complex structure exhibits significant differences in tertiary and quaternary structural arrangements compared to those of Bacillus MerR from Gram-positive bacteria, which probably enable them to function with specific promoter DNA with different spacers between −35 and −10 elements. PMID:27641146

  4. Structural Analysis of the Hg(II)-Regulatory Protein Tn501 MerR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Huang, Shanqing; Liu, Pingying; Liu, Xichun; He, Yafeng; Chen, Weizhong; Hu, Qingyuan; Wei, Tianbiao; Gan, Jianhua; Ma, Jing; Chen, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The metalloprotein MerR is a mercury(II)-dependent transcriptional repressor-activator that responds to mercury(II) with extraordinary sensitivity and selectivity. It’s widely distributed in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria but with barely detectable sequence identities between the two sources. To provide structural basis for the considerable biochemical and biophysical experiments previously performed on Tn501 and Tn21 MerR from Gram-negative bacteria, we analyzed the crystal structure of mercury(II)-bound Tn501 MerR. The structure in the metal-binding domain provides Tn501 MerR with a high affinity for mercury(II) and the ability to distinguish mercury(II) from other metals with its unique planar trigonal coordination geometry, which is adopted by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The mercury(II) coordination state in the C-terminal metal-binding domain is transmitted through the allosteric network across the dimer interface to the N-terminal DNA-binding domain. Together with the previous mutagenesis analyses, the present data indicate that the residues in the allosteric pathway have a central role in maintaining the functions of Tn501 MerR. In addition, the complex structure exhibits significant differences in tertiary and quaternary structural arrangements compared to those of Bacillus MerR from Gram-positive bacteria, which probably enable them to function with specific promoter DNA with different spacers between ‑35 and ‑10 elements.

  5. Use of the promoter fusion transposon Tn5 lac to identify mutations in Bordetella pertussis vir-regulated genes.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, A A; Melton, A R; Walker, K E; Andraos-Selim, C; Meidl, J J

    1989-01-01

    Mutants of Bordetella pertussis deficient in virulence-associated factors were identified by using the transposon Tn5 lac. Tn5 lac is a derivative of Tn5 which generates promoter fusions for beta-galactosidase. Tn5 lac insertions in the vir-regulated genes of B. pertussis were identified by selecting for kanamycin-resistant mutants that expressed beta-galactosidase when the vir-regulated genes were expressed but not when the vir-regulated genes were turned off. Fourteen different mutations in vir-regulated genes were identified. Two mutants were deficient in the production of the filamentous hemagglutinin, two mutants were deficient in the production of adenylate cyclase toxin and hemolysin, and one mutant was deficient in the production of dermonecrotic toxin. One insertion mapped adjacent to the pertussis toxin gene, but the mutant produced pertussis toxin. The phenotypes of the remaining eight mutants were not determined, but the mutants did not appear to be deficient in the production of the 69,000-dalton outer membrane protein (agglutinogen 3) or the capsule. Screening for mutations in either of the fimbrial genes proved to be problematic since the parental strain was found to switch from a fimbriated to a nonfimbriated state at a high frequency, which was suggestive of the metastable expression of pili in other bacteria. We used Southern blot analysis with a 30-mer specific for the fimbrial sequences. No bands with the predicted increase in size due to the 12 kilobases from Tn5 lac were observed, which suggests that none of these genes were mutated. Southern blot analysis also revealed that seven of the eight unidentified mutations mapped to different restriction fragments, which suggests that they could be deficient in as many as seven different genes. Images PMID:2569447

  6. 77 FR 72968 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, for Imperial County, Placer County and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... County and Ventura County Air Pollution Control Districts AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portions of the California...

  7. Geodetic constraints on volcanic plume height at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Roberts, Matthew; Björnsson, Halldór; Grapenthin, Ronni; Arason, Pórdur; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Hólmjárn, Jósef; Geirsson, Halldór; Bennett, Richard; Gudmundsson, Magnús; Oddsson, Björn; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Villemin, Thierry; Jónsson, Torsteinn; Sturkell, Erik; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Gudrún; Thordarson, Thor; Óladóttir, Bergrún

    2014-05-01

    In 2011 a VEI 4 explosive eruption took place at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland. Grímsvötn is a subglacial basaltic volcano beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap. It is Iceland's most frequently erupting volcano, with recent eruptions in 1983, 1998, 2004, and 2011. The volcano has a low seismic velocity anomaly down to about 3 km depth, interpreted as a magma chamber. A continuous GPS station and a tiltmeter are located on a nunatak, Mount Grímsfjall, which protrudes from the ice at the southern rim of the caldera. The 21-28 May 2011 eruption was Grímsvötn's largest since 1873, resulting in airspace closure in northern Europe and the cancellation of about 900 passenger flights. The eruption was preceded by gradual inflation following the 2004 eruption and progressive increase in seismicity. Kinematic 1 Hz solutions were derived for the position of the GPS station in the hours immediately before and during the 2011 eruption. The onset of deformation preceded the eruption by one hour and reached maximum of 0.57 m within 48 hours. Throughout the eruption the GPS station moved consistently in direction N38.4+/-0.5W, opposite to the direction of movements during the 2004-2011 inter eruptive phase. The deformation characteristics suggest that the signal was mostly due to pressure change in a source at 1.7 +/- 0.2 km depth. We use the geodetic measurements to infer co-eruptive pressure change in the magma chamber using the Mogi model. The rate of pressure drop is then used to estimate the magma flow rate from the chamber. Numerous studies have shown that plume height in explosive eruptions can be related to magma discharge. Using an empirical relationship between the volcanic plume height and magma flow rate (Mastin et al., 2009) we estimate the evolution of the plume height from the geodetic data. Two weather radars monitored the height of the volcanic plume during the eruption. A strong initial plume with peaks at 20-25 km was followed by a declining, pulsating activity

  8. Plinian vs. phreatomagmatic eruptions at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Baptiste; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Larsen, Guðrún

    2016-04-01

    Grímsvötn is a subglacial central volcano located under the Vatnajökull ice cap, above the assumed centre of the Iceland mantle plume. Historical explosive eruptions are mostly of phreatomagmatic character whereas pure magmatic behaviour may characterize the largest eruptions. What causes this different eruption behaviour is uncertain. Here, we report petrological estimates of crystallization depth and volatile degassing as recorded by sulfur concentrations in melt inclusions (MI) hosted by ferromagnesian minerals and the groundmass glass. Tephra from four eruptions, AD 1823, 1873, 2004 and 2011, were selected. The 2011 and 1873 are the largest known historical eruptions, whereas the 2004 eruption is probably amongst the smallest. The repose time preceding those eruptions is surprisingly similar, or 6 to 7 years, and the major-element compositions are uniform. Plagioclase, clinopyroxene (cpx) and olivine are the three coexisting phases at the liquidus in the quartz-tholeiites of Grímsvötn. The cpx-melt geothermobarometer (Putirka 2008) applied to the 2011 tephra reveals that cpx crystallized over a large range of P from 60 to 640 MPa (depth range: 1.7-18km) and T between 1060 and 1175°C before the Plinian eruption, therefore mobilizing the entire crustal magma system. In contrast, the phreatomagmatic tephra do not record the shallowest crystallization but interestingly all four tephra have identical median entrapment pressure of approximately 400 MPa. Therefore, the depth from which the magma bodies are derived, does not explain the difference in explosivity between those eruptions nor the variable magma volume (V) produced. Sulfur concentrations in MI are only slightly higher in the Plinian products, the difference (10%) being insufficient to explain the different eruption regimes. The ΔS, the difference between the maximum S concentrations in MI and the mean of the groundmass glass for a given eruption, is higher in the Plinian tephra. Based on literature

  9. Electrical Properties Of Volcanic Ash Samples From Grímsvötn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, I. M.; Aplin, K. L.; Nicoll, K. A.; Green, O.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent Icelandic eruptions in 2012 and 2011 were associated with sustained charging of the ash plume (Harrison et al., 2010) and significant volcanic lightning (Bennett et al., 2010; Arason et al., 2012). The sustained charging suggests that some charging of the plume is independent of the eruption process, in addition to other electrification mechanisms such as triboelectric or fractoemission processes at the vent, the 'dirty thunderstorm' mechanism if ice forms in the plume, and the internal radioactivity of the plume (Mather and Harrison, 2006; James et al., 2008). We investigate the triboelectric charging of volcanic material using a charged particle apparatus, which allows the charged particles to fall under gravity in a screened metallic cylinder. This apparatus comprises two induction rings connected to sensitive electrometers, which detect charge induced by the falling ash, and a Faraday cup to measure the total ash charge. The release mechanism has been designed to facilitate only self charging of the ash, as is expected in the atmospheric plume. Previous work on triboelectric charging of single-material particle systems has shown that the charging is likely to be determined by the number size distribution (Lacks and Levandovsky, 2007). We present a mass distribution measurement for a sample of volcanic ash provided by the Icelandic Meteorological Office collected 70 km from the crater of the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption. This shows a high proportion of fine particles compared with the volumetric size distribution reported in Piper et al. (2012). Optical microscopy of the different size fractions of the Grímsvötn sample indicates that the composition varies with size. In addition to charge transfer as a function of size, the different substances will triboelectrically interact with each other, which complicates the nature of the charge interactions. To separate the dependence of particle charging on size from composition, particle charging experiments were

  10. A rapid and simple method for the isolation of mutant variants regulating tissue-specific expression of the TnI gene through drug selection

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Youngwon; Kim, Myoung Hee; Emerson, C.P. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    TnINEO fusion gene was constructed by fusing 3.4-kbp of quail TnI genomic DNA sequences spanning the promoter to exon 5 and a neo gene in frame. A myoblast cell line was established after transfection of pTnINEO. Since this cell line was passaged several times, a high frequency of neomycin (G418) sensitivity conversion was detected. Two drug-resistant variants were analyzed through genomic Southern blot and S1 nuclease protection assay. One variant has a mutation(s) in the regulatory element that activated the dormant TnI promoter-enhancer in myoblast, and the other has shown the geonomic rearrangement. This result presented the possibility of isolating factor(s) that activate the muscle-specific TnI promoter simply by screening drug-resistant cells having appropriate mutations. 12 refs., 4 fig.

  11. TnBP⁄Triton X-45 treatment of plasma for transfusion efficiently inactivates hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ming-Li; Burnouf, Thierry; Chang, Shun-Pang; Hung, Ting-Chun; Lin, Chun-Ching; Richardson, Christopher D; Lin, Liang-Tzung

    2015-01-01

    Risk of transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) by clinical plasma remains high in countries with a high prevalence of hepatitis C, justifying the implementation of viral inactivation treatments. In this study, we assessed the extent of inactivation of HCV during minipool solvent/detergent (SD; 1% TnBP / 1% Triton X-45) treatment of human plasma. Luciferase-tagged infectious cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) particles were used to spike human plasma prior to treatment by SD at 31 ± 0.5°C for 30 min. Samples were taken before and after SD treatment and filtered on a Sep-Pak Plus C18 cartridge to remove the SD agents. Risk of cytotoxicity was assessed by XTT cell viability assay. Viral infectivity was analyzed based on the luciferase signals, 50% tissue culture infectious dose viral titer, and immunofluorescence staining for HCV NS5A protein. Total protein, cholesterol, and triglyceride contents were determined before and after SD treatment and C18 cartridge filtration. Binding analysis, using patient-derived HCV clinical isolates, was also examined to validate the efficacy of the inactivation by SD. SD treatment effectively inactivated HCVcc within 30 min, as demonstrated by the baseline level of reporter signals, total loss of viral infectivity, and absence of viral protein NS5A. SD specifically targeted HCV particles to render them inactive, with essentially no effect on plasma protein content and hemostatic function. More importantly, the efficacy of the SD inactivation method was confirmed against various genotypes of patient-derived HCV clinical isolates and against HCVcc infection of primary human hepatocytes. Therefore, treatment by 1% TnBP / 1% Triton X-45 at 31°C is highly efficient to inactivate HCV in plasma for transfusion, showing its capacity to enhance the safety of therapeutic plasma products. We propose that the methodology used here to study HCV infectivity can be valuable in the validation of viral inactivation and removal processes of human

  12. Monoclonal antibodies toward different Tn-amino acid backbones display distinct recognition patterns on human cancer cells. Implications for effective immuno-targeting of cancer.

    PubMed

    Mazal, Daniel; Lo-Man, Richard; Bay, Sylvie; Pritsch, Otto; Dériaud, Edith; Ganneau, Christelle; Medeiros, Andrea; Ubillos, Luis; Obal, Gonzalo; Berois, Nora; Bollati-Fogolin, Mariela; Leclerc, Claude; Osinaga, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    The Tn antigen (GalNAcα-O-Ser/Thr) is a well-established tumor-associated marker which represents a good target for the design of anti-tumor vaccines. Several studies have established that the binding of some anti-Tn antibodies could be affected by the density of Tn determinant or/and by the amino acid residues neighboring O-glycosylation sites. In the present study, using synthetic Tn-based vaccines, we have generated a panel of anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies. Analysis of their binding to various synthetic glycopeptides, modifying the amino acid carrier of the GalNAc(*) (Ser* vs Thr*), showed subtle differences in their fine specificities. We found that the recognition of these glycopeptides by some of these MAbs was strongly affected by the Tn backbone, such as a S*S*S* specific MAb (15G9) which failed to recognize a S*T*T* or a T*T*T* structure. Different binding patterns of these antibodies were also observed in FACS and Western blot analysis using three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, LS174T and Jurkat). Importantly, an immunohistochemical analysis of human tumors (72 breast cancer and 44 colon cancer) showed the existence of different recognition profiles among the five antibodies evaluated, demonstrating that the aglyconic part of the Tn structure (Ser vs Thr) plays a key role in the anti-Tn specificity for breast and colon cancer detection. This new structural feature of the Tn antigen could be of important clinical value, notably due to the increasing interest of this antigen in anticancer vaccine design as well as for the development of anti-Tn antibodies for in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  13. The fully synthetic MAG-Tn3 therapeutic vaccine containing the tetanus toxoid-derived TT830-844 universal epitope provides anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Laubreton, Daphné; Bay, Sylvie; Sedlik, Christine; Artaud, Cécile; Ganneau, Christelle; Dériaud, Edith; Viel, Sophie; Puaux, Anne-Laure; Amigorena, Sebastian; Gérard, Catherine; Lo-Man, Richard; Leclerc, Claude

    2016-03-01

    Malignant transformations are often associated with aberrant glycosylation processes that lead to the expression of new carbohydrate antigens at the surface of tumor cells. Of these carbohydrate antigens, the Tn antigen is particularly highly expressed in many carcinomas, especially in breast carcinoma. We designed MAG-Tn3, a fully synthetic vaccine based on three consecutive Tn moieties that are O-linked to a CD4+ T cell epitope, to induce anti-Tn antibody responses that could be helpful for therapeutic vaccination against cancer. To ensure broad coverage within the human population, the tetanus toxoid-derived peptide TT830-844 was selected as a T-helper epitope because it can bind to various HLA-DRB molecules. We showed that the MAG-Tn3 vaccine, which was formulated with the GSK proprietary immunostimulant AS15 and designed for human cancer therapy, is able to induce an anti-Tn antibody response in mice of various H-2 haplotypes, and this response correlates with the ability to induce a specific T cell response against the TT830-844 peptide. The universality of the TT830-844 peptide was extended to new H-2 and HLA-DRB molecules that were capable of binding this T cell epitope. Finally, the MAG-Tn3 vaccine was able to induce anti-Tn antibody responses in cynomolgus monkeys, which targeted Tn-expressing tumor cells and mediated tumor cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MAG-Tn3 is a highly promising anticancer vaccine that is currently under evaluation in a phase I clinical trial.

  14. Conformational toggling controls target site choice for the heteromeric transposase element Tn7.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiaojuan; Straus, Marco R; Caron, Jeremy J; Wang, Huasheng; Chung, Yu Seon; Guarné, Alba; Peters, Joseph E

    2015-12-15

    The bacterial transposon Tn7 facilitates horizontal transfer by directing transposition into actively replicating DNA with the element-encoded protein TnsE. Structural analysis of the C-terminal domain of wild-type TnsE identified a novel protein fold including a central V-shaped loop that toggles between two distinct conformations. The structure of a robust TnsE gain-of-activity variant has this loop locked in a single conformation, suggesting that conformational flexibility regulates TnsE activity. Structure-based analysis of a series of TnsE mutants relates transposition activity to DNA binding stability. Wild-type TnsE appears to naturally form an unstable complex with a target DNA, whereas mutant combinations required for large changes in transposition frequency and targeting stabilized this interaction. Collectively, our work unveils a unique structural proofreading mechanism where toggling between two conformations regulates target commitment by limiting the stability of target DNA engagement until an appropriate insertion site is identified. PMID:26384427

  15. Conformational toggling controls target site choice for the heteromeric transposase element Tn7

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qiaojuan; Straus, Marco R.; Caron, Jeremy J.; Wang, Huasheng; Chung, Yu Seon; Guarné, Alba; Peters, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial transposon Tn7 facilitates horizontal transfer by directing transposition into actively replicating DNA with the element-encoded protein TnsE. Structural analysis of the C-terminal domain of wild-type TnsE identified a novel protein fold including a central V-shaped loop that toggles between two distinct conformations. The structure of a robust TnsE gain-of-activity variant has this loop locked in a single conformation, suggesting that conformational flexibility regulates TnsE activity. Structure-based analysis of a series of TnsE mutants relates transposition activity to DNA binding stability. Wild-type TnsE appears to naturally form an unstable complex with a target DNA, whereas mutant combinations required for large changes in transposition frequency and targeting stabilized this interaction. Collectively, our work unveils a unique structural proofreading mechanism where toggling between two conformations regulates target commitment by limiting the stability of target DNA engagement until an appropriate insertion site is identified. PMID:26384427

  16. Triboelectric Charging of Volcanic Ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Isobel M. P.; Aplin, Karen L.; Nicoll, Keri A.

    2013-09-01

    The plume from the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn was highly electrically charged, as shown by the considerable lightning activity measured by the United Kingdom Met Office’s low-frequency lightning detection network. Previous measurements of volcanic plumes have shown that ash particles are electrically charged up to hundreds of kilometers away from the vent, which indicates that the ash continues to charge in the plume [R. G. Harrison, K. A. Nicoll, Z. Ulanowski, and T. A. Mather, Environ. Res. Lett. 5, 024004 (2010)1748-932610.1088/1748-9326/5/2/024004; H. Hatakeyama J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 27, 372 (1949)JMSJAU0026-1165]. In this Letter, we study triboelectric charging of different size fractions of a sample of volcanic ash experimentally. Consistently with previous work, we find that the particle size distribution is a determining factor in the charging. Specifically, our laboratory experiments demonstrate that the normalized span of the particle size distribution plays an important role in the magnitude of charging generated. The influence of the normalized span on plume charging suggests that all ash plumes are likely to be charged, with implications for remote sensing and plume lifetime through scavenging effects.

  17. Triboelectric charging of volcanic ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Isobel M P; Aplin, Karen L; Nicoll, Keri A

    2013-09-13

    The plume from the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn was highly electrically charged, as shown by the considerable lightning activity measured by the United Kingdom Met Office's low-frequency lightning detection network. Previous measurements of volcanic plumes have shown that ash particles are electrically charged up to hundreds of kilometers away from the vent, which indicates that the ash continues to charge in the plume [R. G. Harrison, K. A. Nicoll, Z. Ulanowski, and T. A. Mather, Environ. Res. Lett. 5, 024004 (2010); H. Hatakeyama J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 27, 372 (1949)]. In this Letter, we study triboelectric charging of different size fractions of a sample of volcanic ash experimentally. Consistently with previous work, we find that the particle size distribution is a determining factor in the charging. Specifically, our laboratory experiments demonstrate that the normalized span of the particle size distribution plays an important role in the magnitude of charging generated. The influence of the normalized span on plume charging suggests that all ash plumes are likely to be charged, with implications for remote sensing and plume lifetime through scavenging effects. PMID:24074123

  18. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Terrill; Carveth, Deanna

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to grow this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  19. Mutagenesis of Bordetella pertussis with transposon Tn5tac1: conditional expression of virulence-associated genes.

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, B T; Berg, D E; Goldman, W E

    1990-01-01

    The Tn5tac1 transposon contains a strong outward-facing promoter, Ptac, a lacI repressor gene, and a selectable Kanr gene. Transcription from Ptac is repressed by the lacI protein unless an inducer (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside [IPTG]) is present. Thus, Tn5tac1 generates insertion mutations in Escherichia coli with conditional phenotypes because it is polar on distal gene expression when IPTG is absent and directs transcription of these genes when the inducer is present. To test the usefulness of Tn5tac1 in Bordetella pertussis, a nonenteric gram-negative bacterial pathogen, we chose the bifunctional adenylate cyclase-hemolysin determinant as an easily scored marker to monitor insertional mutagenesis. Tn5tac1 delivered to B. pertussis on conjugal suicide plasmids resulted in Kanr exconjugants at a frequency of 10(-3) per donor cell, and nonhemolytic (Hly-) mutants were found among the Kanr colonies at a frequency of about 1%. Of eight independent Kanr Hly- mutants, two were conditional and exhibited an Hly+ phenotype only in the presence of IPTG. Using a new quantitative assay for adenylate cyclase based on high-pressure liquid chromatography, we found that enzymatic activity in these two strains was specifically induced at least 500-fold in a dose-dependent fashion over the range of 0 to 125 microM IPTG. These data show that Ptac serves as a promoter, lacI is expressed and is functional, and IPTG can induce Ptac transcription in B. pertussis. Adenylate cyclase expression in whole cells, culture supernatants, and cell extracts from these strains depended upon IPTG, suggesting that the insertions do not merely alter secretion of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin. Other virulence determinants under control of the vir locus are expressed normally, implying that these Tn5tac1 insertions specifically regulate adenylate cyclase-hemolysin expression. We conclude that Tn5tac1 insertion mutations permit sensitive, exogenous control over the expression of genes of

  20. pp-GalNAc-T13 induces high metastatic potential of murine Lewis lung cancer by generating trimeric Tn antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Yasuyuki; Zhang, Qing; Akita, Kaoru; Nakada, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Kazunori; Tokuda, Noriyo; Tsuchida, Akiko; Matsubara, Takeshi; Hori, Tomoko; Okajima, Tetsuya; Furukawa, Keiko; Urano, Takeshi; Furukawa, Koichi

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ppGalNAc-T13 was up-regulated in high metastatic sublines of Lewis lung cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ppGalNAc-T13 expression enhanced cell invasion activity in low metastatic sublines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trimeric Tn antigen was induced in the transfectant cells of ppGalNAc-T13 cDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A major protein carrying trimeric Tn structure was identified as Syndecan-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of ppGalNAc-T13 resulted in the reduction of invasion and of metastasis.. -- Abstract: In order to analyze the mechanisms for cancer metastasis, high metastatic sublines (H7-A, H7-Lu, H7-O, C4-sc, and C4-ly) were obtained by repeated injection of mouse Lewis lung cancer sublines H7 and C4 into C57BL/6 mice. These sublines exhibited increased proliferation and invasion activity in vitro. Ganglioside profiles exhibited lower expression of GM1 in high metastatic sublines than the parent lines. Then, we established GM1-Si-1 and GM1-Si-2 by stable silencing of GM1 synthase in H7 cells. These GM1-knockdown clones exhibited increased proliferation and invasion. Then, we explored genes that markedly altered in the expression levels by DNA microarray in the combination of C4 vs. C4-ly or H7 vs. H7 (GM1-Si). Consequently, pp-GalNAc-T13 gene was identified as up-regulated genes in the high metastatic sublines. Stable transfection of pp-GalNAc-T13 cDNA into C4 (T13-TF) resulted in increased invasion and motility. Then, immunoblotting and flow cytometry using various antibodies and lectins were performed. Only anti-trimeric Tn antibody (mAb MLS128), showed increased expression levels of trimeric Tn antigen in T13-TF clones. Moreover, immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting was performed by mAb MLS128, leading to the identification of an 80 kDa band carrying trimeric Tn antigen, i.e. Syndecan-1. Stable silencing of endogenous pp-GalNAc-T13 in C4-sc (T13-KD) revealed that primary tumors generated by

  1. Effects of MnTnHex-2-PyP on lung antioxidant defence system in asthma mice model.

    PubMed

    Dancheva, Violeta; Terziev, Lyudmil; Shopova, Veneta; Stavreva, Galya

    2012-12-01

    We aimed to study the MnTnHex-2-PyP effect on some markers of lung antioxidant defence system in mice asthma model.The study was carried out on 28 C57B1/6 mice divided into four treatment groups: group 1 - controls; group 2 - injected and inhaled with ovalbumin; group 3 - treated with MnTnHex-2-PyP and inhaled with phosphate buffered saline; group 4 - injected with ovalbumin and MnTnHex-2-PyP but also inhaled with ovalbumin. On days 24, 25 and 26, mice from groups 1 and 2 were inhaled with PBS for 30 min, and those from groups 2 and 4 were given a 1% ovalbumin solution. One hour before inhalation, and 12 hours later the animals from groups 1 and 2 were injected i.p. with 100 μl PBS, and those from groups 3 and 4 received a 100 μl MnTnHex-2-PyP solution in PBS, сontaining 0,05mg/kg. The animals were killed by exsanguination 48 hours after the last inhalation for obtaining a lung homogenate. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and the non-protein sulphhydryl group content in the lung homogenate were investigated. Ovalbumin decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (p=0.01), catalase (p=0.002), glutathione peroxidase and non-protein sulphhydryl groups content (p<0.001) in comparison to controls. In group 4 (ovalbumin and MnTnHex-2-PyP) the activities of superoxide dismutase (p=0.044), catalase (p=0.045), glutathione peroxidase (p=0.002), and the non-protein sulphhydryl groups content (p<0.001) were significantly increased compared to ovalbumin (group 2).MnTnHex-2-PyP restored the activities of basic enzymes in the lung antioxidant defence system in ovalbumin-induced asthma mice model, 48 hours after the last nebulization.

  2. Enterococcus durans TN-3 Induces Regulatory T Cells and Suppresses the Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Toshihiro; Ohno, Masashi; Imaeda, Hirotsugu; Shimada, Takashi; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Andoh, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Probiotic properties of Enterococcus strains have been reported previously. In this study, we investigated the effects of Enterococcus (E.) durans TN-3 on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis. Methods BALB/c mice were fed with 4.0% DSS in normal chow. Administration of TN-3 (10mg/day) was initiated 7days before the start of DSS feeding. Mucosal cytokine expression was analyzed by real time-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The lymphocyte subpopulation were analyzed by flow cytometry. The gut microbiota profile was analyzed by a terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (T-RFLP). Results The disease activity index and histological colitis score were significantly lower in the DSS plus TN-3 group than in the DSS group. The mucosal mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A and IFN-γ) decreased significantly in the DSS plus TN-3 group as compared to the DSS group. The proportion of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the mucosa increased significantly in the DSS plus TN-3 group as compared to the DSS group. Both fecal butyrate levels and the diversity of fecal microbial community were significantly higher in the TN-3 plus DSS group than in the DSS group. Conclusions E. durans TN-3 exerted an inhibitory effect on the development of DSS colitis. This action might be mediated by the induction of Treg cells and the restoration of the diversity of the gut microbiota. PMID:27438072

  3. Identification of seven novel virulence genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri by Tn5-based random mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xue; Guo, Jing; Ma, Wen-xiu; Ji, Zhi-yuan; Zou, Li-fang; Chen, Gong-you; Zou, Hua-song

    2015-05-01

    To identify novel virulence genes, a mutant library of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri 29-1 was produced using EZ-Tn5 transposon and the mutants were inoculated into susceptible grapefruit. Forty mutants with altered virulence phenotypes were identified. Nine of the mutants showed a complete loss of citrus canker induction, and the other 31 mutants resulted in attenuated canker symptoms. Southern blot analysis revealed that each of the mutants carried a single copy of Tn5. The flanking sequence was identified by plasmid rescue and 18 different ORFs were identified in the genome sequence. Of these 18 ORFs, seven had not been previously associated with the virulence of X. citri subsp. citri and were therefore confirmed by complementation analysis. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the seven genes were upregulated when the bacteria were grown in citrus plants, suggesting that the expression of these genes was essential for canker development. PMID:25935304

  4. Scalable synthesis of Fmoc-protected GalNAc-threonine amino acid and T(N) antigen via nickel catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; McConnell, Matthew S; Nguyen, Hien M

    2015-04-17

    The highly α-selective and scalable synthesis of the Fmoc-protected GalNAc-threonine amino acid and TN antigen in gram scale (0.5-1 g) is described. The challenging 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic bond is addressed through a coupling of threonine residues with C(2)-N-ortho-(trifluoromethyl)benzylidenamino trihaloacetimidate donors mediated by Ni(4-F-PhCN)4(OTf)2. The desired 1,2-cis-2-amino glycoside was obtained in 66% yield (3.77 g) with α-only selectivity and subsequently transformed into the Fmoc-protected GalNAc-threonine and TN antigen. This operationally simple procedure no longer requires utilization of the commonly used C(2)-azido donors and overcomes many of the limitations associated with the synthesis of 1,2-cis linkage.

  5. Primary breast cancer tumours contain high amounts of IgA1 immunoglobulin: an immunohistochemical analysis of a possible carrier of the tumour-associated Tn antigen.

    PubMed

    Welinder, Charlotte; Baldetorp, Bo; Blixt, Ola; Grabau, Dorthe; Jansson, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The Tn antigen (GalNAc alpha-O-Ser/Thr) as defined by the binding of the lectin, helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) or anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies, is known to be exposed in a majority of cancers, and it has also been shown to correlate positively with the metastatic capacity in breast carcinoma. The short O-glycan that forms the antigen is carried by a number of different proteins. One potential carrier of the Tn antigen is immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), which we surprisingly found in tumour cells of the invasive parts of primary breast carcinoma. Conventional immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded sections from primary breast cancers showed IgA1 to be present in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane of 35 out of 36 individual primary tumours. The immunohistochemical staining of HPA and anti-Tn antibody (GOD3-2C4) did to some extent overlap with the presence of IgA1 in the tumours, but differences were seen in the percentage of stained cells and in the staining pattern in the different breast cancers analysed. Anti-Tn antibody and HPA were also shown to specifically bind to a number of possible constellations of the Tn antigen in the hinge region of IgA1. Both reagents could also detect the presence of Tn positive IgA in serum. On average 51% of the tumour cells in the individual breast cancer tumour sections showed staining for IgA1. The overall amount of staining in the invasive part of the tumour with the anti Tn antibody was 67%, and 93% with HPA. The intra-expression or uptake of IgA1 in breast cancer makes it a new potential carrier of the tumour associated and immunogenic Tn antigen.

  6. Implications for future activity of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, from compositional time series of historical tephra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentier, Marion; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Larsen, Gudrun

    2014-05-01

    The nature of future eruptions of active volcanoes is hard to predict. Improved understanding of the past volcanic activity is probably the best way to infer future eruptive scenarios. The most active volcano in Iceland, Grímsvötn, last erupted in 2011 with consequences for habitants living close to the volcano and aviation in the North-Atlantic. In an effort to better understand the magmatic system of the volcano, we have investigated the compositions of 23 selected tephra layers representing the last 8 centuries of volcanic activity at Grímsvötn. The tephra was collected in the ablation area of outlet glaciers from Vatnajökull ice cap. The ice-conserved tephra are less prone to alteration than those exposed in soil sections. Major element analyses are indistinguishable and of quartz-normative tholeiite composition, and Sr and Nd isotope ratios are constant. In contrast, both trace element concentrations (Th range from 0.875 ppm to 1.37 ppm and Ni from 28.5 ppm to 56.6 ppm) in the basalts and Pb isotopes show small but significant variations. The high-precision analyses of Pb isotope ratios allow the identification of tephra samples (3 in total) with more radiogenic ratios than the bulk of the samples. The tephra of constant isotope ratios show linear increase in incompatible element concentrations with time. The rate of increasing concentrations permits exploring possible future scenarios assuming that the magmatic system beneath the volcano follows the established historical evolution. Assuming similar future behaviour of the magma system beneath Grímsvötn volcano, the linear increase in e.g. Th concentration suggests that the volcano is likely to principally produce basalts for the next 500-1000 years. Evolution of water concentration will most likely follow those of incompatible elements with consequent increases in explosiveness of future Grímsvötn eruptions.

  7. First report of an OXA-23 carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolate related to Tn2006 in Spain.

    PubMed

    Espinal, P; Macià, M D; Roca, I; Gato, E; Ruíz, E; Fernández-Cuenca, F; Oliver, A; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Bou, G; Tomás, M; Vila, J

    2013-01-01

    A carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolate belonging to European clone II and sequence type 2 was recovered from a patient in the Son Espases hospital in Mallorca, Spain. Genetic analysis showed the presence of the bla(OXA-23) gene in association with the widely disseminated transposon Tn2006. This is the first reported identification of A. baumannii carrying bla(OXA-23) in Spain. PMID:23070166

  8. pp-GalNAc-T13 induces high metastatic potential of murine Lewis lung cancer by generating trimeric Tn antigen.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasuyuki; Zhang, Qing; Akita, Kaoru; Nakada, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Kazunori; Tokuda, Noriyo; Tsuchida, Akiko; Matsubara, Takeshi; Hori, Tomoko; Okajima, Tetsuya; Furukawa, Keiko; Urano, Takeshi; Furukawa, Koichi

    2012-03-01

    In order to analyze the mechanisms for cancer metastasis, high metastatic sublines (H7-A, H7-Lu, H7-O, C4-sc, and C4-ly) were obtained by repeated injection of mouse Lewis lung cancer sublines H7 and C4 into C57BL/6 mice. These sublines exhibited increased proliferation and invasion activity in vitro. Ganglioside profiles exhibited lower expression of GM1 in high metastatic sublines than the parent lines. Then, we established GM1-Si-1 and GM1-Si-2 by stable silencing of GM1 synthase in H7 cells. These GM1-knockdown clones exhibited increased proliferation and invasion. Then, we explored genes that markedly altered in the expression levels by DNA microarray in the combination of C4 vs. C4-ly or H7 vs. H7 (GM1-Si). Consequently, pp-GalNAc-T13 gene was identified as up-regulated genes in the high metastatic sublines. Stable transfection of pp-GalNAc-T13 cDNA into C4 (T13-TF) resulted in increased invasion and motility. Then, immunoblotting and flow cytometry using various antibodies and lectins were performed. Only anti-trimeric Tn antibody (mAb MLS128), showed increased expression levels of trimeric Tn antigen in T13-TF clones. Moreover, immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting was performed by mAb MLS128, leading to the identification of an 80 kDa band carrying trimeric Tn antigen, i.e. Syndecan-1. Stable silencing of endogenous pp-GalNAc-T13 in C4-sc (T13-KD) revealed that primary tumors generated by subcutaneous injection of T13-KD clones showed lower coalescence to fascia and peritoneum, and significantly reduced lung metastasis than control clones. These data suggested that high expression of pp-GalNAc-T13 gene generated trimeric Tn antigen on Syndecan-1, leading to the enhanced metastasis.

  9. Targeting of T/Tn Antigens with a Plant Lectin to Kill Human Leukemia Cells by Photochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Poiroux, Guillaume; Lafont, Elodie; Ségui, Bruno; Van Damme, Els J. M.; Peumans, Willy J.; Bernadou, Jean; Levade, Thierry; Rougé, Pierre; Barre, Annick; Benoist, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Photochemotherapy is used both for solid tumors and in extracorporeal treatment of various hematologic disorders. Nevertheless, its development in oncology remains limited, because of the low selectivity of photosensitizers (PS) towards human tumor cells. To enhance PS efficiency, we recently covalently linked a porphyrin (TrMPyP) to a plant lectin (Morniga G), known to recognize with high affinity tumor-associated T and Tn antigens. The conjugation allowed a quick uptake of PS by Tn-positive Jurkat leukemia cells and efficient PS-induced phototoxicity. The present study was performed: (i) to evaluate the targeting potential of the conjugate towards tumor and normal cells and its phototoxicity on various leukemia cells, (ii) to investigate the mechanism of conjugate-mediated cell death. The conjugate: (i) strongly increased (×1000) the PS phototoxicity towards leukemic Jurkat T cells through an O-glycan-dependent process; (ii) specifically purged tumor cells from a 1∶1 mixture of Jurkat leukemia (Tn-positive) and healthy (Tn-negative) lymphocytes, preserving the activation potential of healthy lymphocytes; (iii) was effective against various leukemic cell lines with distinct phenotypes, as well as fresh human primary acute and chronic lymphoid leukemia cells; (iv) induced mostly a caspase-independent cell death, which might be an advantage as tumor cells often resist caspase-dependent cell death. Altogether, the present observations suggest that conjugation with plant lectins can allow targeting of photosensitizers towards aberrant glycosylation of tumor cells, e.g. to purge leukemia cells from blood and to preserve the normal leukocytes in extracorporeal photochemotherapy. PMID:21858067

  10. Identification of multiple mercury sources to stream sediments near Oak Ridge, TN, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Demers, Jason D.; Gu, Baohua; Brooks, Scott C.; Peryam, John

    2014-03-03

    In this paper, sediments were analyzed for total Hg concentration (THg) and isotopic composition from streams and rivers in the vicinity of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y12) in Oak Ridge, TN (USA). In the stream directly draining Y12, where industrial releases of mercury (Hg) have been documented, high THg (3.26 to 60.1 μg/g) sediments had a distinct Hg isotopic composition (δ202Hg of 0.02 ± 0.15‰ and Δ199Hg of -0.07 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=12) compared to sediments from relatively uncontaminated streams in the region (δ202Hg = -1.40 ± 0.06‰ and Δ199Hg of –0.26 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=6). Additionally, several streams that are nearby but do not drain Y12 had sediments with intermediate THg (0.06 to 0.21 μg/g) and anomalous δ202Hg (as low as -5.07‰). We suggest that the low δ202Hg values in these sediments provide evidence for the contribution of an additional Hg source to sediments, possibly derived from atmospheric deposition. In sediments directly downstream of Y12 this third Hg source is not discernible and the Hg isotopic composition can be largely explained by the mixing of low THg sediments with high THg sediments contaminated by Y12 discharges.

  11. Identification of multiple mercury sources to stream sediments near Oak Ridge, TN, USA

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Demers, Jason D.; Gu, Baohua; Brooks, Scott C.; Peryam, John

    2014-03-03

    In this paper, sediments were analyzed for total Hg concentration (THg) and isotopic composition from streams and rivers in the vicinity of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y12) in Oak Ridge, TN (USA). In the stream directly draining Y12, where industrial releases of mercury (Hg) have been documented, high THg (3.26 to 60.1 μg/g) sediments had a distinct Hg isotopic composition (δ202Hg of 0.02 ± 0.15‰ and Δ199Hg of -0.07 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=12) compared to sediments from relatively uncontaminated streams in the region (δ202Hg = -1.40 ± 0.06‰ and Δ199Hg of –0.26 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD,more » n=6). Additionally, several streams that are nearby but do not drain Y12 had sediments with intermediate THg (0.06 to 0.21 μg/g) and anomalous δ202Hg (as low as -5.07‰). We suggest that the low δ202Hg values in these sediments provide evidence for the contribution of an additional Hg source to sediments, possibly derived from atmospheric deposition. In sediments directly downstream of Y12 this third Hg source is not discernible and the Hg isotopic composition can be largely explained by the mixing of low THg sediments with high THg sediments contaminated by Y12 discharges.« less

  12. Mn-oxidizing Bacteria in Oak Ridge, TN and the Potential for Mercury Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Han, F. X.

    2012-12-01

    East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, TN was highly contaminated with elemental mercury in the 1950 and 1960. The area is still experiencing the effects of mercury contamination, and researchers are searching for ways to remediate the EFPC. One possible mechanism for bioremediation is the use of biogenic Mn oxides to remove heavy metals from water systems. Six native Pseudomonas bacteria species were isolated from the EFPC in order to examine biogenic Mn oxides production and bioremediation of Oak Ridge slurries. To investigate the biochemical interactions of Pseudomonas and the native microbial communities with Hg, Mn, Fe, S, six different slurry treatment groups were compared using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Oak Ridge slurries were autoclaved to inhibit microbial growth (group 1), autoclaved and amended with HgS (group 2), autoclaved and amended with Pseudomonas isolates and additional HgS (group 3), untreated slurry (group 4), normal slurry amended with HgS (group 5), and normal slurry amended with Pseudomonas isolates and additional HgS (group 6). The comparison of the autoclaved groups with the counterpart untreated and normal Oak Ridge slurries highlighted important microbial interactions. Also, the Pseudomonas isolates were grown separately in a MnSO4 media, and the individual bacteria were monitored for Mn-oxidization using ICP-AES and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the slurry sediments, the Pseudomonas isolates did produce Mn oxides which bound to mercury, and mercury bound to organic matter significantly decreased. However, after a significant decrease of dissolved mercury in the water, dissolved mercury was cycled back into the water system on day 10 of the study. Additionally, two individual native Oak Ridge Pseudomonas isolates demonstrated Mn-oxidization. Biogenic Mn oxides have the potential to decrease mercury cycling, however there is

  13. High-resolution surface connectivity measurements and runoff dynamics in five urban watersheds in Knoxville, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, T.

    2015-12-01

    Impervious surfaces and stormwater drainage networks transmit rainfall quickly to urban stream systems with greater frequency, volume, energy, and pollutant loadings than in predevelopment conditions. This has a well-established negative impact on stream ecology, channel morphology, and water quality. Green infrastructure retrofits for urban drainage systems promote more natural hydrologic pathways by disconnecting concentrated flows. However, they are expensive due to high land costs and physical constraints. If a systematic strategy for siting green infrastructure is sought to restore natural flows throughout an urban catchment, greater knowledge of the drainage patterns and areas contributing frequent surface runoff is necessary. Five diverse urban watersheds in Knoxville, TN, were assessed using high-resolution topography, land cover, and artificial drainage network data to identify how surface connectivity differs among watersheds and contributes to altered flow regimes. Rainfall-runoff patterns were determined from continuous rainfall and streamflow monitoring over the previous ten years. Fine-scale flowpath connectivity of impervious surfaces was measured by both a binary approach and by a method incorporating runoff potential by saturation excess. The effect of the spatial distribution of connected surfaces was investigated by incorporating several distance-weighting schema along established urban drainage flowpaths. Statistical relationships between runoff generation and connectivity were measured to determine the ability of these different measures of connectivity to predict runoff thresholds, frequency, volumes, and peak flows. Initial results suggest that rapid assessment of connected surficial flowpaths can be used to identify known green infrastructure assets and highly connected impervious areas and that the differences in connectivity measured between watersheds reflects differing runoff patterns observed in monitored data.

  14. Analysis for prevalence and physical linkages amongst integrons, ISEcp1, ISCR1, Tn21 and Tn7 encountered in Escherichia coli strains from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Kenya during a 19-year period (1992–2011)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We determined the prevalence and evidence for physical linkage amongst integrons, insertion sequences, Tn21 and Tn7 transposons in a collection of 1327 E. coli obtained over a 19-year period from patients in Kenya. Results The prevalence of class 1 integrons was 35%, class 2 integrons were detected in 3 isolates but no isolate contained a class 3 integron. Integron lacking the 3’-CS or those linked to sul3 gene or IS26 or those containing the ISCR1 were only detected in multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. The dfrAs were the most common cassettes and their prevalence was: - dfrA1(28%), dfrA12(20%), dfA17(9%), dfrA7(9%), and dfrA16(5%). The aadA were the second most abundant cassettes and their prevalence was: - aadA1(25%), aadA2(21%), and aadA5(14%). Other cassettes occurred in lower prevalence of below 5%. Prevalence of Tn21, ISEcp1, ISCR1 and IS26 was 22%, 10%, 15%, and 7% respectively. Majority of Tn21 containing integrons carried a complete set of transposition genes while class 2 integrons were borne on Tn7 transposon. The qnrA genes were detected in 34(3%) isolates while 19(1%) carried qnrB. All qnr genes were in MDR strains carrying integrons containing the ISCR1. Close to 88% of blaTEM-52 were linked to IS26 while ≥ 80% of blaCTX-Ms and blaCMYs were linked to ISEcp1. Only a few studies have identified a blaCTX-M-9 containing an ISEcp1 element as reported in this study. Multiple genetic elements, especially those borne on incIl, incFII, and incL/M plasmids, and their associated resistance genes were transferrable en bloc to E. coli strain J53 in mating experiments. Conclusions This is the first detailed study on the prevalence of selected elements implicated in evolution of resistance determinants in a large collection of clinical E. coli in Africa. Proliferation of such strains carrying multiple resistance elements is likely to compromise the use of affordable and available treatment options for majority of poor patients in Africa. There is

  15. Testing and analyses of the TN-24P PWR spent-fuel dry storage cask loaded with consolidated fuel

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, M A; Michener, T E; Jensen, M F; Rodman, G R

    1989-02-01

    A performance test of a Transnuclear, Inc. TN-24P storage cask configured for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel was performed. The work was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and the Electric Power Research Institute. The performance test consisted of loading the TN-24P cask with 24 canisters of consolidated PWR spent fuel from Virginia Power's Surry and Florida Power and Light's Turkey Point reactors. Cask surface and fuel canister guide tube temperatures were measured, as were cask surface gamma and neutron dose rates. Testing was performed with vacuum, nitrogen, and helium backfill environments in both vertical and horizontal cask orientations. Transnuclear, Inc., arranged to have a partially insulated run added to the end of the test to simulate impact limiters. Limited spent fuel integrity data were also obtained. From both heat transfer and shielding perspectives, the TN-24P cask with minor refinements can be effectively implemented at reactor sites and central storage facilities for safe storage of unconsolidated and consolidated spent fuel. 35 refs., 93 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Random transposition by Tn916 in Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans allows for isolation and characterization of halorespiration-deficient mutants.

    PubMed

    Smidt, H; Song, D; van Der Oost, J; de Vos, W M

    1999-11-01

    To allow for the molecular analysis of halorespiration by the strictly anaerobic gram-positive bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans, halorespiration-deficient mutants were selected and characterized following insertional mutagenesis by the conjugative transposon Tn916. To facilitate rapid screening of transconjugants, a highly efficient method for the growth of single colonies on solidified medium has been developed. A streptomycin-resistant mutant of D. dehalogenans was isolated and mated with Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 carrying Tn916. Insertion of one or two copies of Tn916 into the chromosome of D. dehalogenans was observed. From a total of 2,500 transconjugants, 24 halorespiration-deficient mutants were selected based upon their inability to use 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid as an electron acceptor. Physiological characterization led to the definition of three phenotypic classes of mutants that differed in their ability to use the additional terminal electron acceptors nitrate and fumarate. The activities of hydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase were determined, and the transposon insertion sites in selected mutants representing the different classes were analyzed on the sequence level following amplification by inverse PCR. The results of the molecular characterization as well as the pleiotropic phenotypes of most mutants indicate that genes coding for common elements shared by the different respiratory chains present in the versatile D. dehalogenans have been disrupted.

  17. DNA sequence analysis of five genes; tnsA, B, C, D and E, required for Tn7 transposition.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, C; Qadri, M I; Lichtenstein, C

    1990-01-01

    A region of DNA sequence of the bacterial transposon Tn7, which is required for transposition, has been determined. This DNA sequence completes an 8351 base pair (bp) region containing five long open reading frames (ORF's) that correspond to the genetically defined genes, tnsA, B, C, D and E, required for Tn7 transposition. All of the ORF's are oriented in the same direction, ie. inward from the element's right end. The genes are in a very compact arrangement with the presumed initiation codons never more than two bases beyond the preceding termination codon. Domains with similarity to the helix-turn-helix genre of Cro-like, sequence specific DNA binding sites occur within the deduced amino acid (a.a.) sequence of the TnsA, TnsB, TnsD and TnsE proteins. Translation of the tnsC ORF reveals strong homology to a consensus sequence for nucleotide binding sites as well as a region of similarity to a transcriptional activator (MalT). No striking a.a. sequence similarity to other DNA recombinases is observed. The possible roles of these proteins in Tn7 transposition is discussed in light of the analysis presented. PMID:2156235

  18. Tn9 and IS1 inserts in a ribosomal ribonucleic acid operon of Escherichia coli are incompletely polar.

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, J M; Morgan, E A

    1981-01-01

    Transcription is known to be coupled to translation in many or all bacterial operons which code for proteins. In these operons, nonsense codons which prevent normal translation often result in premature termination of transcription (polarity). However, efficient transcription of ribosomal ribonucleic acid operons (rrn operons) occurs, although rrn transcripts are not translated. It therefore seemed possible that insertion sequences and transposable elements which are polar in protein-coding operons might not be polar in rrn operons. Previously, it has been shown (E. A. Morgan, Cell 21:257-265, 1980) that Tn10 is incompletely polar in the rrnX operon. Here we show that the transposon Tn9 and the insertion sequence IS1 also incompletely polar in rrnX. In normal cells expression of sequences distal to the insertions can be detected by genetic methods. In ultraviolet-irradiated cells expression of distal sequences is about 80% of that observed in uninterrupted rrnX operons. These observations provide evidence that ribonucleic acid polymerase molecules beginning at rrnX promoters can read through Tn9 and IS1 and that, at least in ultraviolet-irradiated cells, read-through is very efficient. Images PMID:6171559

  19. Engineered CAR T Cells Targeting the Cancer-Associated Tn-Glycoform of the Membrane Mucin MUC1 Control Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Posey, Avery D; Schwab, Robert D; Boesteanu, Alina C; Steentoft, Catharina; Mandel, Ulla; Engels, Boris; Stone, Jennifer D; Madsen, Thomas D; Schreiber, Karin; Haines, Kathleen M; Cogdill, Alexandria P; Chen, Taylor J; Song, Decheng; Scholler, John; Kranz, David M; Feldman, Michael D; Young, Regina; Keith, Brian; Schreiber, Hans; Clausen, Henrik; Johnson, Laura A; June, Carl H

    2016-06-21

    Genetically modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) demonstrate robust responses against lineage restricted, non-essential targets in hematologic cancers. However, in solid tumors, the full potential of CAR T cell therapy is limited by the availability of cell surface antigens with sufficient cancer-specific expression. The majority of CAR targets have been normal self-antigens on dispensable hematopoietic tissues or overexpressed shared antigens. Here, we established that abnormal self-antigens can serve as targets for tumor rejection. We developed a CAR that recognized cancer-associated Tn glycoform of MUC1, a neoantigen expressed in a variety of cancers. Anti-Tn-MUC1 CAR T cells demonstrated target-specific cytotoxicity and successfully controlled tumor growth in xenograft models of T cell leukemia and pancreatic cancer. These findings demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of CAR T cells directed against Tn-MUC1 and present aberrantly glycosylated antigens as a novel class of targets for tumor therapy with engineered T cells. PMID:27332733

  20. Random Transposition by Tn916 in Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans Allows for Isolation and Characterization of Halorespiration-Deficient Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Smidt, Hauke; Song, Donglin; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M.

    1999-01-01

    To allow for the molecular analysis of halorespiration by the strictly anaerobic gram-positive bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans, halorespiration-deficient mutants were selected and characterized following insertional mutagenesis by the conjugative transposon Tn916. To facilitate rapid screening of transconjugants, a highly efficient method for the growth of single colonies on solidified medium has been developed. A streptomycin-resistant mutant of D. dehalogenans was isolated and mated with Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 carrying Tn916. Insertion of one or two copies of Tn916 into the chromosome of D. dehalogenans was observed. From a total of 2,500 transconjugants, 24 halorespiration-deficient mutants were selected based upon their inability to use 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid as an electron acceptor. Physiological characterization led to the definition of three phenotypic classes of mutants that differed in their ability to use the additional terminal electron acceptors nitrate and fumarate. The activities of hydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase were determined, and the transposon insertion sites in selected mutants representing the different classes were analyzed on the sequence level following amplification by inverse PCR. The results of the molecular characterization as well as the pleiotropic phenotypes of most mutants indicate that genes coding for common elements shared by the different respiratory chains present in the versatile D. dehalogenans have been disrupted. PMID:10559152

  1. Iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with a conformationally blocked α-Tn antigen mimetic for macrophage activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuelli, Massimo; Fallarini, Silvia; Lombardi, Grazia; Sangregorio, Claudio; Nativi, Cristina; Richichi, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Among new therapies to fight tumors, immunotherapy is still one of the most promising and intriguing. Thanks to the ongoing structural elucidation of several tumor antigens and the development of innovative antigen carriers, immunotherapy is in constant evolution and it is largely used either alone or in synergy with chemotherapy/radiotherapy. With the aim to develop fully synthetic immunostimulants we have recently developed a mimetic of the α-Tn mucin antigen, a relevant tumor antigen. The 4C1 blocked mimetic 1, unique example of an α-Tn mimetic antigen, was functionalized with an ω-phosphonate linker and used to decorate iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), employed as multivalent carriers. MNPs, largely exploited for supporting and carrying biomolecules, like antibodies, drugs or antigens, consent to combine in the same nanometric system the main features of an inorganic magnetic core with a bioactive organic coating. The superparamagnetic glyconanoparticles obtained, named GMNPs, are indeed biocompatible and immunoactive, and they preserve suitable characteristics for use as heat mediators in the magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatment of tumors. All together these properties make GMNPs attracting devices for innovative tumor treatment.Among new therapies to fight tumors, immunotherapy is still one of the most promising and intriguing. Thanks to the ongoing structural elucidation of several tumor antigens and the development of innovative antigen carriers, immunotherapy is in constant evolution and it is largely used either alone or in synergy with chemotherapy/radiotherapy. With the aim to develop fully synthetic immunostimulants we have recently developed a mimetic of the α-Tn mucin antigen, a relevant tumor antigen. The 4C1 blocked mimetic 1, unique example of an α-Tn mimetic antigen, was functionalized with an ω-phosphonate linker and used to decorate iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), employed as multivalent

  2. Interaction of a novel Tn (GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser/Thr) glycoprotein with Gal, GalNAc and GlcNAc specific lectins.

    PubMed

    Wu, A M; Wu, J H; Shen, F

    1994-01-14

    A naturally occurring Tn glycoprotein (Native ASG-Tn) with GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser/Thr as the only carbohydrate side chains, has been prepared from armadillo submandibular glands. In a quantitative precipitin assay, this glycoprotein completely precipitated Maclura pomifera (MPA), Vicia villosa B4 (VVL-B4) and Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin, AIL). It also reacted well with Helix pomatia (HPL) and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) and precipitated over 75% of the lectin nitrogen added, but poorly with Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1), ricin, peanut (Arachis hypogaea, PNA), Abrus precatorius agglutinin (APA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA). This finding suggests that this novel Tn-glycoprotein may serve as a useful reagent for differentiating Tn and T specific monoclonal antibodies and lectins.

  3. Groundwater Transport of Organic Compounds in Old Salvage Yard, Oak Ridge, TN - 12089

    SciTech Connect

    Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak; Tachiev, Georgio; Roelant, David; Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary

    2012-07-01

    In 1950's and early 1960's during production of nuclear weapons at the US Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge TN, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as heavy metals, nitrates, and radionuclides were released to the environment. Field investigations revealed that much of this contamination is still present in soil, bedrock, and groundwater. Operational buildings and old disposal facilities at the site have been identified as major sources of contamination. The Old Salvage Yard (OSY) on the western side of the site has long been characterized as the major source of VOC contamination in soil and groundwater. In order to analyze the fate and transport of VOC contamination- including tetrachloroethene (PCE), 1,2- dichloroethene (1,2-DCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) - in groundwater and soil at the vicinity of OSY, an integrated surface and subsurface flow and transport model has been developed for the Y-12 NSC using the hydrodynamic and transport numerical package, MIKE-SHE. Hydrogeological characteristics of the site such as hydraulic conductivity, and transport parameters such as partitioning coefficients were varied in an effort to delineate subsurface flow and transport pathways, potential downstream impacts on Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, and the potential risk to industrial workers involved in related Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities. The simulation results were compared with the analytical modeling results previously performed by McLane Environmental Inc. using SESOIL-AT123D. Specific simulations have been performed to investigate the effect of possible remedial action (removing the contaminated surface soil layers) on the fate and transport of VOCs. The results of the MIKE-SHE reported here can be considered as an upper limit for the predicted concentrations. Based on MIKE-SHE results, PCE, 1,2 DCE, cis-1,2-DCE, and VC are sources in soil with potential to equal or

  4. First results from TN273 studies of the SE Mariana Forearc rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Stern, R. J.; Kelley, K. A.; Shaw, A. M.; Shimizu, N.; Martinez, F.; Ishii, T.; Ishizuka, O.; Manton, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    TN 273 aboard R/V Thomas Thompson (Dec. 22 2011- Jan. 22 2012) studied an unusual region of rifting affecting the southern Mariana forearc S.W. of Guam. The S.E. Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR) formed by diffuse tectonic and volcanic deformation (Martinez and Sleeper, this meeting) ~2.7-3.7 Ma ago to accommodate opening of the southernmost Mariana Trough backarc basin. A total of 730 km linear-track of SEMFR seafloor was surveyed with deep-towed side-scan sonar IMI-30. 14 dredges provided samples of SEMFR igneous rocks, analyzed for whole rock (WR) and glass compositions. These new results coupled with results of earlier investigations confirm that SEMFR is dominated by Miocene lavas along with minor gabbro and diabase. SEMFR lavas range in major element composition from primitive basalt to fractionated andesite (Mg# = 0.36-0.73; SiO2 = 50-57 wt%), mainly controlled by crystal fractionation. Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns range from LREE-depleted, N-MORB-like to flat patterns, reflecting different mantle processes (i.e. different sources, degree of melting …). Glassy rinds and olivine-hosted melt inclusions in these lavas contain variable volatile compositions (F = 75-358 ppm, S = 35-1126 ppm, Cl= 74-1400 ppm, CO2 = 15-520 ppm, 0.36-2.36 wt% H2O). SEMFR lavas show spider diagrams with positive anomalies in LILE and negative anomalies in HSFE. SEMFR lavas have backarc basin-like (BAB-like) chemical composition (H2O < 2.5wt%, Ba/Yb~20, Nb/Yb~1 and ɛNd~9) along with stronger enrichment in Rb and Cs than arc and BAB lavas, as demonstrated by their higher Rb/Th and Cs/Ba ratios in WR and glasses, which may reflect the role of the ultra-shallow fluids. Ultra-shallow fluids are derived from the top of the subducting slab, beneath the forearc, where most of the water and the fluid-mobile elements (Rb, Cs, Ba,) are thought to be released (Schmidt and Poli, 1998, EPSL, Savov et al., 2005, G-3). Our results suggest that i) SEMFR lavas formed by metasomatism of a BAB mantle

  5. A hisT::Tn5 mutation affects production of microcins B17, C7, and H47 and colicin V.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sáinz, M C; Hernández-Chico, C; Moreno, F

    1991-11-01

    A Tn5 insertion decreasing the production of microcin B17 was mapped to 50.2 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome map. Sequence analysis showed that the insertion disrupted hisT, the gene encoding pseudouridine synthase I, a tRNA-modifying enzyme. hisT::Tn5 mutant cells were also shown to be defective for the production of other antibiotic peptides, such as microcin C7, microcin H47, and colicin V.

  6. MnTnBuOE-2-PyP protects normal colorectal fibroblasts from radiation damage and simultaneously enhances radio/chemotherapeutic killing of colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kosmacek, Elizabeth A.; Chatterjee, Arpita; Tong, Qiang; Lin, Chi; Oberley, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Manganese porphyrins have been shown to be potent radioprotectors in a variety of cancer models. However, the mechanism as to how these porphyrins protect normal tissues from radiation damage still remains largely unknown. In the current study, we determine the effects of the manganese porphyrin, MnTnBuOE-2-PyP, on primary colorectal fibroblasts exposed to irradiation. We found that 2 Gy of radiation enhances the fibroblasts' ability to contract a collagen matrix, increases cell size and promotes cellular senesence. Treating fibroblasts with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP significantly inhibited radiation-induced collagen contraction, preserved cell morphology and also inhibited cellular senescence. We further showed that MnTnBuOE-2-PyP enhanced the overall viability of the fibroblasts following exposure to radiation but did not protect colorectal cancer cell viability. Specifically, MnTnBuOE-2-PyP in combination with irradiation, caused a significant decrease in tumor clonogenicity. Since locally advanced rectal cancers are treated with chemoradiation therapy followed by surgery and non-metastatic anal cancers are treated with chemoradiation therapy, we also investigated the effects of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP in combination with radiation, 5-fluorouracil with and without Mitomycin C. We found that MnTnBuOE-2-PyP in combination with Mitomycin C or 5-fluorouracil further enhances those compounds' ability to suppress tumor cell growth. When MnTnBuOE-2-PyP was combined with the two chemotherapeutics and radiation, we observed the greatest reduction in tumor cell growth. Therefore, these studies indicate that MnTnBuOE-2-PyP could be used as a potent radioprotector for normal tissue, while at the same time enhancing radiation and chemotherapy treatment for rectal and anal cancers. PMID:27119354

  7. Mono County update

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    On February 9, 1988, the Mono County Board of Supervisors voted to approve Bonneville Pacific Corporation's Mammoth Chance Geothermal Project. The project is an air-cooled, binary, geothermal power plant, 10 megawatts, net. The Mono County Board of Supervisors issued a project use-permit with vigorous and stringent conditions. Specific emphasis was placed on the establishment of a monitoring program designed to detect the effects of geothermal development on the springs at the Hot Creek Fish Hatchery and Hot Creek Gorge. On October 5, 1987, the Mono County Planning Commission granted a use-permit to Mammoth Pacific for its Mammoth Pacific II Project, a binary, air-cooled, geothermal power plant, 10 megawatts, net. The issuance of the use-permit instigated an appeal by the Sierra Club. That appeal was heard on February 22, 1988, At the end of the testimony, the Board of Supervisors voted to uphold the appeal of the Sierra Club, thereby denying the project by a vote of 3 to 2. The main areas of concern voiced by the majority of the Board included potential hydrologic impacts to Hot Creek Gorge and Hot Creek Fish Hatchery, visual impacts, and impacts to mule deer migration and survival. One of the options now available to Mammoth Pacific is to request that the project be denied without prejudice. This would allow Mammoth Pacific to return to the Board immediately with additional material regarding its concerns.

  8. 77 FR 73005 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County, Placer County, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... County, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control Districts AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan...

  9. Rapid and efficient introduction of a foreign gene into bacterial artificial chromosome-cloned varicella vaccine by Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition

    SciTech Connect

    Somboonthum, Pranee; Koshizuka, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Shigefumi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Michiaki; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2010-06-20

    Using a rapid and reliable system based on Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition, we have successfully constructed a recombinant Oka varicella vaccine (vOka) expressing the mumps virus (MuV) fusion protein (F). The backbone of the vector was our previously reported vOka-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) genome. We inserted the transposon Tn7 attachment sequence, LacZ{alpha}-mini-attTn7, into the region between ORF12 and ORF13 to generate a vOka-BAC-Tn genome. The MuV-F expressing cassette was transposed into the vOka-BAC genome at the mini-attTn7 transposition site. MuV-F protein was expressed in recombinant virus, rvOka-F infected cells. In addition, the MuV-F protein was cleaved in the rvOka-F infected cells as in MuV-infected cells. The growth of rvOka-F was similar to that of the original recombinant vOka without the F gene. Thus, we show that Tn7-mediated transposition is an efficient method for introducing a foreign gene expression cassette into the vOka-BAC genome as a live virus vector.

  10. Optimization of high-rate TN removal in a novel constructed wetland integrated with microelectrolysis system treating high-strength digestate supernatant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Luchen; He, Keli; Wu, Shubiao; Sun, Hao; Wang, Yanfei; Huang, Xu; Dong, Renjie

    2016-08-01

    The potential of high-rate TN removal in three aerated horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands to treat high-strength anaerobic digestate supernatant was evaluated. Different strategies of intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation were applied to compare their effect on nitrogen depuration performance. Additional glucose supply and iron-activated carbon based post-treatment systems were established and examined, respectively, to further remove nitrate that accumulated in the effluents from aerated wetlands. The results showed that intermittent aeration (1 h on:1 h off) significantly improved nitrification with ammonium removal efficiency of 90% (18.1 g/(m(2)·d)), but limited TN removal efficiency (53%). Even though effluent recirculation (a ratio of 1:1) increased TN removal from 53% to 71%, the effluent nitrate concentration was still high. Additional glucose was used as a post-treatment option and further increased the TN removal to 82%; however, this implementation caused additional organic pollution. Furthermore, the iron-activated carbon system stimulated with a microelectrolysis process achieved greater than 85% effluent nitrate removal and resulted in 86% TN removal. Considering the high TN removal rate, aerated constructed wetlands integrated with a microelectrolysis-driven system show great potential for treating high-strength digestate supernatant. PMID:27136616

  11. Novel anti-Tn single-chain Fv-Fc fusion proteins derived from immunized phage library and antibody Fc domain.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Tsuguo; Matsushita, Takefumi; Niwa, Rinpei; Kumagai, Izumi; Nakamura, Kazuyasu

    2010-09-01

    Tn[GalNAc(α1-3)-Ser/Thr] antigen, a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen, is highly expressed in various tumors and an attractive candidate for cancer immunotherapy. The generation of an anti-Tn antibody is a first step toward the construction of new anticancer molecules. However, because of the simple and small conformation of the Tn molecule, it is difficult to generate an anti-Tn antibody for therapeutic use by conventional hybridoma technology. The purpose of this study was to isolate anti-Tn single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) by phage display technology from a novel immunised library, to attach an antibody constant region (Fc) and to convert them to scFv-Fc fusion proteins. The scFv-Fcs obtained here showed strict specificity against the Tn antigen and also showed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. These results suggest a potential use of this antibody generating method by phage display and indicate the potential of Fc-fusion proteins as therapeutic candidates.

  12. Insertion proQ220::Tn5 alters regulation of proline porter II, a transporter of proline and glycine betaine in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Milner, J L; Wood, J M

    1989-01-01

    Mutation pro-220::Tn5, which increases the resistance of Escherichia coli to 3,4-dehydroproline (M. E. Stalmach, S. Grothe, and J. M. Wood, J. Bacteriol. 156:481-486, 1983), is not linked to putP, proP, or proU. It was located at 40.4 min on the E. coli chromosomal linkage map, by conjugational and transductional mapping, and is now denoted proQ220::Tn5. Proline porter II was not detectable when proQ220::Tn5 proP+ bacteria were cultivated under optimal conditions or with nutritional stress (amino acid limitation). Toxic proline analog sensitivity and proline porter II activity were partially restored to proQ220::Tn5 proP+ bacteria, but not to a proQ220::Tn5 proP219 strain, by a hyperosmotic shift and by growth under osmotic stress. Elevated expression of a proP::lacZ gene fusion, for bacteria grown under osmotic stress, was not influenced by the proQ220::Tn5 insertion. We propose that the proQ locus encodes a positive regulatory element which elevates proline porter II activity. PMID:2536686

  13. Involvement of a chlorobenzoate-catabolic transposon, Tn5271, in community adaptation to chlorobiphenyl, chloroaniline, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in a freshwater ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Fulthorpe, R.R.; Wyndham, R.C. )

    1992-01-01

    A chlorobenzoate-catabolic transposon (Tn5271) was introduced on a conjugative plasmid (pBRC60) in the natural host, Alcaligenes sp. strain BR60, into lake water and sediment flowthrough microcosms. Experimental microcosms were exposed to micromolar levels of 3-chlorobenzoate, 4-chloroaniline, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate, or 3-chlorobiphenyl. The populations of the host, BR60, and organisms carrying Tn5271 were monitored over a 100-day period by use of selective plate counts and the most-probable-number-DNA hybridization method. Populations of Tn5271-carrying bacteria were significantly higher in microcosms dosed with 3-chlorobenzoate, 4-chloroaniline, and 3-chlorobiphenyl than in the control microcosms, indicating that each of these chemicals exerts a selective force on this particular genotype in natural systems. The rates of 3-chlorobenzoate uptake and respiration correlated with Tn5271-carrying populations, as did the rates of 4-chloroaniline uptake and respiration. Plasmid transfer in the 3-chlorobenzoate- and 3-chlorobiphenyl-dosed microcosms resulted in the selection of three phenotypic clusters of chlorobenzoate degraders, only one of which was closely related to the original pBRC60 (Tn5271) donor, Alcaligenes sp. strain BR60. Bacteria dominating 3-chloroaniline-dosed microcosms carried IS1071, the class II insertion sequence that brackets Tn5271, on a plasmid unrelated to pBRC60. The importance of plasmid transfer and transposition during chemical adaptation is discussed.

  14. Involvement of a chlorobenzoate-catabolic transposon, Tn5271, in community adaptation to chlorobiphenyl, chloroaniline, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in a freshwater ecosystem.

    PubMed Central

    Fulthorpe, R R; Wyndham, R C

    1992-01-01

    A chlorobenzoate-catabolic transposon (Tn5271) was introduced on a conjugative plasmid (pBRC60) in the natural host, Alcaligenes sp. strain BR60, into lake water and sediment flowthrough microcosms. Experimental microcosms were exposed to micromolar levels of 3-chlorobenzoate, 4-chloroaniline, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate, or 3-chlorobiphenyl. The populations of the host, BR60, and organisms carrying Tn5271 were monitored over a 100-day period by use of selective plate counts and the most-probable-number-DNA hybridization method. Populations of Tn5271-carrying bacteria were significantly higher in microcosms dosed with 3-chlorobenzoate, 4-chloroaniline, and 3-chlorobiphenyl than in the control microcosms, indicating that each of these chemicals exerts a selective force on this particular genotype in natural systems. The rates of 3-chlorobenzoate uptake and respiration correlated with Tn5271-carrying populations, as did the rates of 4-chloroaniline uptake and respiration. Plasmid transfer in the 3-chlorobenzoate- and 3-chlorobiphenyl-dosed microcosms resulted in the selection of three phenotypic clusters of chlorobenzoate degraders, only one of which was closely related to the original pBRC60 (Tn5271) donor, Alcaligenes sp. strain BR60. Bacteria dominating 4-chloroaniline-dosed microcosms carried IS1071, the class II insertion sequence that brackets Tn5271, on a plasmid unrelated to pBRC60. The importance of plasmid transfer and transposition during chemical adaptation is discussed. Images PMID:1311543

  15. Hydrology of Lake County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Darwin D.; Hughes, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Lake County includes a 1,150 square-mile area consisting of ridges, uplands, and valleys in central-peninsular Florida. About 32 percent of the county is covered by lakes, swamps, and marshes. Water requirements in 1970 averaged about 54 million gallons per day. About 85 percent of the water was obtained from wells; about 15 percent from lakes. The Floridan aquifer supplies almost all the ground water used in Lake County. Annual recharge to the Floridan aquifer averages about 7 inches over the county; runoff average 8.5 inches. The quality of ground and surface water in Lake County is in general good enough for most uses; however, the poor quality of Floridan-aquifer water in the St. John River Valley probably results from the upward movement of saline water along a fault zone. Surface water in Lake County is usually less mineralized than ground water but is more turbid and colored. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. KPC-3-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Portugal Linked to Previously Circulating Non-CG258 Lineages and Uncommon Genetic Platforms (Tn4401d-IncFIA and Tn4401d-IncN).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carla; Bavlovič, Jan; Machado, Elisabete; Amorim, José; Peixe, Luísa; Novais, Ângela

    2016-01-01

    KPC-3-producing bacteria are endemic in many countries but only recently became apparent their wide distribution in different Portuguese hospitals. The aim of this study is to characterize genetic backgrounds associated with bla KPC-3 among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates recently identified on non-hospitalized patients in Portugal. Twenty KPC-producing K. pneumoniae identified between October 2014 and November 2015 in three different community laboratories were characterized. Isolates were mainly from patients from long-term care facilities (n = 11) or nursing homes (n = 6), most of them (75%) previously hospitalized in different Portuguese hospitals. Standard methods were used for bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Carbapenemase production was assessed by the Blue-Carba test, and identification of bla genes was performed by PCR and sequencing. Epidemiological features of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae included population structure (XbaI-PFGE, MLST and wzi sequencing), genetic context (mapping of Tn4401), and plasmid (replicon typing, S1-PFGE, and hybridization) analysis. All K. pneumoniae isolates produced KPC-3, with two MDR K. pneumoniae epidemic clones representing 75% of the isolates, namely ST147 (wzi64/K14.64, February-November 2015) and ST15 (two lineages exhibiting capsular types wzi19/K19 or wzi93/K60, July-November 2015). Other sporadic clones were detected: ST231 (n = 3; wzi104), ST348 (n = 1; wzi94) and ST109 (n = 1, wzi22/K22.37). bla KPC-3 was identified within Tn4401d in all isolates, located in most cases (80%) on cointegrated plasmids (repA FIA+repA FII+ori ColE1;105-250 kb) or in 50 kb IncN plasmids. In conclusion, this study highlights a polyclonal structure of KPC-3-producing K. pneumoniae and the predominance of the ST147 clone among non-hospitalized patients in Portugal, linked to platforms still unnoticed in Europe (bla KPC-3-Tn4401d-IncFIA) or firstly reported (bla KPC-3-Tn4401d-IncN). This scenario underlines the

  17. KPC-3-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Portugal Linked to Previously Circulating Non-CG258 Lineages and Uncommon Genetic Platforms (Tn4401d-IncFIA and Tn4401d-IncN)

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Carla; Bavlovič, Jan; Machado, Elisabete; Amorim, José; Peixe, Luísa; Novais, Ângela

    2016-01-01

    KPC-3-producing bacteria are endemic in many countries but only recently became apparent their wide distribution in different Portuguese hospitals. The aim of this study is to characterize genetic backgrounds associated with blaKPC−3 among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates recently identified on non-hospitalized patients in Portugal. Twenty KPC-producing K. pneumoniae identified between October 2014 and November 2015 in three different community laboratories were characterized. Isolates were mainly from patients from long-term care facilities (n = 11) or nursing homes (n = 6), most of them (75%) previously hospitalized in different Portuguese hospitals. Standard methods were used for bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Carbapenemase production was assessed by the Blue-Carba test, and identification of bla genes was performed by PCR and sequencing. Epidemiological features of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae included population structure (XbaI-PFGE, MLST and wzi sequencing), genetic context (mapping of Tn4401), and plasmid (replicon typing, S1-PFGE, and hybridization) analysis. All K. pneumoniae isolates produced KPC-3, with two MDR K. pneumoniae epidemic clones representing 75% of the isolates, namely ST147 (wzi64/K14.64, February–November 2015) and ST15 (two lineages exhibiting capsular types wzi19/K19 or wzi93/K60, July-November 2015). Other sporadic clones were detected: ST231 (n = 3; wzi104), ST348 (n = 1; wzi94) and ST109 (n = 1, wzi22/K22.37). blaKPC−3 was identified within Tn4401d in all isolates, located in most cases (80%) on cointegrated plasmids (repAFIA+repAFII+oriColE1;105-250 kb) or in 50 kb IncN plasmids. In conclusion, this study highlights a polyclonal structure of KPC-3-producing K. pneumoniae and the predominance of the ST147 clone among non-hospitalized patients in Portugal, linked to platforms still unnoticed in Europe (blaKPC−3-Tn4401d-IncFIA) or firstly reported (blaKPC−3-Tn4401d-IncN). This scenario underlines

  18. Magma fluxes and storage beneath Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, estimated from ice-kept historical tephra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Carpentier, Marion; Larsen, Guðrún; Guðmundsson, Magnús

    2016-04-01

    Compositional time-series can unravel the dynamics of magma systems beneath active volcanoes. In ideal cases, parameters such as magma flux, reservoir geometry, its lifetime and the transfer time of magma can be inferred from the compositional variations. Quantification of these parameters will improve the understanding of volcano behaviour and, thus, the predictions of their future activity. From the Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, ice-kept historical tephra has been precisely analysed for trace element concentrations and Sr-, Nd- and Pb isotope ratios. Most of the tephra have uniform isotope ratios suggesting co-genetic magma evolution. Temporal variations of the tephra compositions over the last eight centuries reveal linear decrease and increase in compatible and incompatible trace element concentrations, respectively, caused by eruptions of increasingly differentiated basaltic magma with time. The trace element systematic is readily explained by polybaric fractional crystallization suggesting a magma system composed of multiple storage zones beneath Grímsvötn volcano. The simple mechanism of magma differentiation and the temporal variations allow estimation of diminishing melt fraction (F) in the magma system as a function of time. Increasing concentrations of incompatible elements in the basalts suggest that F decreased by 35% over the last 800 years. This corresponds to a slow magma differentiation rate, or ˜4 x10-4 yr-1. Magma production rate for the 20th century suggests that approximately 8 km3 of basalts have erupted since AD 1200, whereas the volume of the magma system has decreased from approximately 100 km3 to 70±20 km3. Assuming a similar future behaviour, Grímsvötn volcano will produce for the next 500-1000 yrs basalts of increasingly evolved composition with higher volatile contents. Consequently, Plinian basaltic eruptions such as that of 2011 are likely to become more frequent.

  19. Irreversible deformation and the superplasticity of a TN-1 alloy during thermal cycling through the martensitic transformations ranges under loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. N.; Ryabkov, Yu. I.; Bogdanov, N. P.; Severova, N. A.; Danilov, A. N.; Churilina, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    The influence of the thermal cycling conditions on the thermal-cycling creep of a TN-1 alloy and the related irreversible deformations is studied. The conditions under which an anomalous increase in the irreversible deformations begins are determined. The structural mechanism of the irreversible deformations of an equiatomic alloy is shown to be analogous to the structural mechanism of metal creep at high temperatures: it predominantly has a dislocation character. It is proposed to use the effect of anomalous increase in the deformation of materials with reversible martensitic transformations for forming parts made of these materials at low temperatures.

  20. Isolation of Rhizobium phaseoli Tn5-induced mutants with altered expression of cytochrome terminal oxidases o and aa3.

    PubMed Central

    Soberón, M; Membrillo-Hernández, J; Aguilar, G R; Sánchez, F

    1990-01-01

    Two Rhizobium phaseoli mutants affected in cytochrome expression were obtained by Tn5-mob mutagenesis of the wild-type strain (CE3). Mutant strain CFN031 expressed sevenfold less cytochrome o in culture, expressed cytochrome aa3 under microaerophilic culture conditions, in contrast to strain CE3, and was affected in its vegetative growth properties and proliferation inside plant host cells. Mutant CFN037 expressed cytochrome aa3 under microaerophilic culture conditions, while bacteroid development and nitrogen fixation occurred earlier than in strain CE3. Images FIG. 2 PMID:2155209

  1. [Identification of a high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterial strain TN-14 and its nitrogen removal capabilities].

    PubMed

    Xin, Xin; Yao, Li; Lu, Lei; Leng, Lu; Zhou, Ying-Qin; Guo, Jun-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    A new strain of high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium TN-14 was isolated from the environment. Its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification, performences of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic, the abilities of resistance to ammonia nitrogen as well as the decontamination abilities were studied, respectively. It was preliminary identified as Acinetobacter sp. according to its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification results. In heterotrophic nitrification system, the ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen removal rate of the bacterial strain TN-14 could reach 97.13% and 93.53% within 24 h. In nitrates denitrification system, the nitrate concentration could decline from 94.24 mg · L(-1) to 39.32 mg · L(-1) within 24 h, where the removal rate was 58.28% and the denitrification rate was 2.28 mg · (L · h)(-1); In nitrite denitrification systems, the initial concentration of nitrite could be declined from 97.78 mg · L(-1) to 21.30 mg x L(-1), with a nitrite nitrogen removal rate of 78.22%, and a denitrification rate of 2.55 mg · (L· h)(-1). Meanwhile, strain TN-14 had the capability of flocculant production, and the flocculating rate could reach 94.74% when its fermentation liquid was used to treat 0.4% kaolin suspension. Strain TN-14 could grow at an ammonia nitrogen concentration as high as 1200 mg · L(-1). In the aspect of actual piggery wastewater treatment by strain TN-14, the removal rate of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN and TP cloud reached 85.30%, 65.72%, 64.86% and 79.41%, respectively. Strain TN-14 has a good application prospect in biological treatment of real high- ammonia wastewater. PMID:25693403

  2. [Identification of a high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterial strain TN-14 and its nitrogen removal capabilities].

    PubMed

    Xin, Xin; Yao, Li; Lu, Lei; Leng, Lu; Zhou, Ying-Qin; Guo, Jun-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    A new strain of high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium TN-14 was isolated from the environment. Its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification, performences of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic, the abilities of resistance to ammonia nitrogen as well as the decontamination abilities were studied, respectively. It was preliminary identified as Acinetobacter sp. according to its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification results. In heterotrophic nitrification system, the ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen removal rate of the bacterial strain TN-14 could reach 97.13% and 93.53% within 24 h. In nitrates denitrification system, the nitrate concentration could decline from 94.24 mg · L(-1) to 39.32 mg · L(-1) within 24 h, where the removal rate was 58.28% and the denitrification rate was 2.28 mg · (L · h)(-1); In nitrite denitrification systems, the initial concentration of nitrite could be declined from 97.78 mg · L(-1) to 21.30 mg x L(-1), with a nitrite nitrogen removal rate of 78.22%, and a denitrification rate of 2.55 mg · (L· h)(-1). Meanwhile, strain TN-14 had the capability of flocculant production, and the flocculating rate could reach 94.74% when its fermentation liquid was used to treat 0.4% kaolin suspension. Strain TN-14 could grow at an ammonia nitrogen concentration as high as 1200 mg · L(-1). In the aspect of actual piggery wastewater treatment by strain TN-14, the removal rate of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN and TP cloud reached 85.30%, 65.72%, 64.86% and 79.41%, respectively. Strain TN-14 has a good application prospect in biological treatment of real high- ammonia wastewater.

  3. Transcription from fusion promoters generated during transposition of transposon Tn4652 is positively affected by integration host factor in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Teras, R; Hõrak, R; Kivisaar, M

    2000-02-01

    We have previously shown that both ends of the Tn3 family transposon Tn4652 contain integration host factor (IHF) binding sites and that IHF positively regulates expression of the Tn4652 transposase gene tnpA in Pseudomonas putida (R. Hõrak, and M. Kivisaar, J. Bacteriol. 180:2822-2829, 1998). Tn4652 can activate silent genes by creating fusion promoters during the transposition. The promoters are created as fusions between the -35 hexamer provided by the terminal inverted repeats of Tn4652 and the -10 hexamers in the target DNA. Two fusion promoters, PRA1 and PLA1, that contain sequences of the right and left termini of Tn4652, respectively, were chosen for the study of mechanisms of transcription activation. Gel mobility shift analysis using crude extracts from P. putida cells allowed us to detect specific binding of P. putida IHF to the ends of the transposon Tn4652. We found that the rate of transcription from the fusion promoter PRA1 is enhanced by IHF. Notably, the positive effect of IHF on transcription from the promoter PRA1 appeared only when cells of P. putida reached the stationary growth phase. We speculate that the intracellular concentration of IHF might be critical for the in vivo effect of IHF on transcription from the fusion promoters in P. putida. In the case of PLA1, the mechanism of transcription modulation by IHF is different than that observed for PRA1. Our results demonstrate that transcription of neighboring genes from outwardly directed promoters at the ends of a mobile DNA element could be influenced by the same factors that control transposition of the element. PMID:10633090

  4. Molecular structure and transferability of Tn1546-like elements in Enterococcus faecium isolates from clinical, sewage, and surface water samples in Iran.

    PubMed

    Talebi, M; Pourshafie, M R; Katouli, M; Möllby, R

    2008-03-01

    The molecular structure and transferability of Tn1546 in 143 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) isolates obtained from patients (n = 49), surface water (n = 28), and urban and hospital sewage (n = 66) in Tehran, Iran, were investigated. Molecular characterization of Tn1546 elements in vanA VREF was performed using a combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing of the internal PCR fragments of vanA transposons. Long-PCR amplification showed that the molecular size of Tn1546 elements varied from 10.8 to 12.8 kb. The molecular analysis of Tn1546 showed that 45 isolates (31.5%) harbored a deletion/mutation upstream from nucleotide 170. No horizontal transfer of Tn1546 was observed following filter-mating conjugation with these isolates. Nevertheless, the rates of transferability for other isolates were 10(-5) to 10(-6) per donor. Insertion sequences IS1216V and IS1542 were present in 103 (72%) and 138 (96.5%) of the isolates, respectively. The molecular analysis of Tn1546 elements resulted in three genomic organizations. The genomic organization lineage 1 was dominated by the isolates from clinical samples (3.4%), lineage 2 was dominated mostly by sewage isolates (24.5%), and lineage 3 contained isolates obtained from all sources (72.1%). The genetic diversity determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed a single E. faecium clone, designated 44, which was common to the samples obtained from clinical specimens and hospital and municipal sewage. Furthermore, the results suggest that lineage 3 Tn1546 was highly disseminated among our enterococcal isolates in different PFGE patterns. PMID:18192406

  5. The resolvase/invertase domain of the site-specific recombinase TnpX is functional and recognizes a target sequence that resembles the junction of the circular form of the Clostridium perfringens transposon Tn4451.

    PubMed Central

    Crellin, P K; Rood, J I

    1997-01-01

    Tn4451 is a 6.3-kb chloramphenicol resistance transposon from Clostridium perfringens and is found on the conjugative plasmid pIP401. The element undergoes spontaneous excision from multicopy plasmids in Escherichia coli and C. perfringens and conjugative excision from pIP401 in C. perfringens. Tn4451 is excised as a circular molecule which is probably the transposition intermediate. Excision of Tn4451 is dependent upon the site-specific recombinase TnpX, which contains potential motifs associated with both the resolvase/invertase and integrase families of recombinases. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved amino acid residues within these domains was used to show that the resolvase/invertase domain was essential for TnpX-mediated excision of Tn4451 from multicopy plasmids in E. coli. An analysis of Tn4451 target sites revealed that the transposition process showed target site specificity. The Tn4451 target sequence resembled the junction of the circular form, and insertion occurred at a GA dinucleotide. Tn4451 insertions were flanked by directly repeated GA dinucleotides, and there was also a GA at the junction of the circular form, where the left and right termini of Tn4451 were fused. We propose a model for Tn4451 excision and insertion in which the resolvase/invertase domain of TnpX introduces 2-bp staggered cuts at these GA dinucleotides. Analysis of Tn4451 derivatives with altered GA dinucleotides provided experimental evidence to support the model. PMID:9260958

  6. Equity and County College Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Commission on Financing Postsecondary Education, Trenton.

    An analysis by the Commission on Financial Postsecondary Education of the system by which New Jersey supports county colleges revealed disparities and inequities among the New Jersey counties in wealth and effort per full-time equivalent student, and current state financing practices that aggravate this problem. In response, alternative state…

  7. Frederick County Community Perception Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick Community Coll., MD.

    In 1997, Frederick Community College (FCC) in Maryland conducted a telephone survey of a random sample of 466 Frederick County residents to identify their perceptions of the college. In particular, the survey examined Frederick County residents' image of FCC, level of awareness of services and programs offered by FCC, and the types of services…

  8. Topics for Lehigh County Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Community Coll., Schnecksville, PA.

    Lehigh County Community College (Pennsylvania) and the Lehigh County Senior Citizens' Center collaborated on a project to assess the learning needs of the senior center's 1,600 members. A needs assessment completed by 68 center members and interviews of an additional 38 center members established that senior citizens preferred short-term workshops…

  9. A novel detergent-stable solvent-tolerant serine thiol alkaline protease from Streptomyces koyangensis TN650.

    PubMed

    Ben Elhoul, Mouna; Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Rekik, Hatem; Bejar, Wacim; Boulkour Touioui, Souraya; Hmidi, Maher; Badis, Abdelmalek; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2015-08-01

    An alkaline proteinase (STAP) was produced from strain TN650 isolated from a Tunisian off-shore oil field and assigned as Streptomyces koyangensis strain TN650 based on physiological and biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 45125.17-Da. The enzyme had an NH2-terminal sequence of TQSNPPSWGLDRIDQTTAFTKACSIKY, thus sharing high homology with those of Streptomyces proteases. The results showed that this protease was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), and partially inhibited by 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitro benzoic acid) (DTNB), which strongly suggested its belonging to the serine thiol protease family. Using casein as a substrate, the optimum pH and temperature values for protease activity were pH 10 and 70 °C, respectively. The protease was stable at pH 7-10 and 30-60 °C for 24 h. STAP exhibited high catalytic efficiency, significant detergent stability, and elevated organic solvent resistance compared to the SG-XIV proteases from S. griseus and KERAB from Streptomyces sp. AB1. The stap gene encoding STAP was isolated, and its DNA sequence was determined. These properties make STAP a potential candidate for future application in detergent formulations and non-aqueous peptide biocatalysis.

  10. Interaction of the Tn7-encoded transposition protein TnsB with the ends of the transposon.

    PubMed Central

    Arciszewska, L K; Craig, N L

    1991-01-01

    We have used several high resolution methods to examine the interaction of TnsB, a transposition protein encoded by the bacterial transposon Tn7, with its binding sites at the ends of the transposon. These binding sites lie within the DNA segments that are directly involved in transposition. We show that the binding of TnsB to DNA can promote DNA bending, suggesting that the interaction of TnsB with the ends may result in formation of a highly organized protein-DNA complex. We also identify likely positions of close contact between of TnsB and its binding sites. Analysis of the interaction of TnsB with intact Tn7 ends reveals TnsB occupies its binding sites in a particular order, the sites immediately adjacent to the transposon termini being occupied only after other inner sites are bound. Such ordered occupancy suggests that the various binding sites have differing apparent affinities for TnsB. Images PMID:1656385

  11. Iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with a conformationally blocked α-Tn antigen mimetic for macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Manuelli, Massimo; Fallarini, Silvia; Lombardi, Grazia; Sangregorio, Claudio; Nativi, Cristina; Richichi, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Among new therapies to fight tumors, immunotherapy is still one of the most promising and intriguing. Thanks to the ongoing structural elucidation of several tumor antigens and the development of innovative antigen carriers, immunotherapy is in constant evolution and it is largely used either alone or in synergy with chemotherapy/radiotherapy. With the aim to develop fully synthetic immunostimulants we have recently developed a mimetic of the α-Tn mucin antigen, a relevant tumor antigen. The (4)C1 blocked mimetic 1, unique example of an α-Tn mimetic antigen, was functionalized with an ω-phosphonate linker and used to decorate iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), employed as multivalent carriers. MNPs, largely exploited for supporting and carrying biomolecules, like antibodies, drugs or antigens, consent to combine in the same nanometric system the main features of an inorganic magnetic core with a bioactive organic coating. The superparamagnetic glyconanoparticles obtained, named GMNPs, are indeed biocompatible and immunoactive, and they preserve suitable characteristics for use as heat mediators in the magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatment of tumors. All together these properties make GMNPs attracting devices for innovative tumor treatment. PMID:24898009

  12. Utilization of a thermosensitive episome bearing transposon TN10 to isolate Hfr donor strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi.

    PubMed

    Kotoujansky, A; Lemattre, M; Boistard, P

    1982-04-01

    A thermosensitive episome bearing the transposon Tn10, F(Ts)::Tn10 Lac+, has been successfully transferred from Escherichia coli to several wild strains of the enterobacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi, which are pathogenic on Saintpaulia ionantha. In one of these strains, all of the characters controlled by this episome (Lac+, Tetr, Tra+) were expressed, and its replication was stopped at 40 degrees C and above. At 30 degrees C, the episome was easily transferred between strains derived from E. carotovora subsp. chrysanthemi 3937j and to E coli. Hfr donor strains were obtained from a F' strain of 3937j by selecting clones which grew at 40 degrees C on plates containing tetracycline. One of these strains, Hfrq, was examined in more detail: the characters Lac+ and Tetr were stabilized and did not segregate higher than its parental F' strain. The mating was most efficient at 37 degrees C on a membrane. Hfrq transferred its chromosome to recipient strains at high frequency and in a polarized fashion, as evidenced by the gradient of transfer frequencies, the kinetics of marker entry (in interrupted mating experiments), and the analysis of linkage between different markers. The chromosome of Hfrq was most probably transferred in the following sequence: origin...met...xyl...arg...ile...leu...thr...cys...pan...ura...gal...trp...his. ..pur... Moreover, this genetic transfer system proved to be efficient in strain construction. PMID:6277860

  13. Binding studies of alpha-GalNAc-specific lectins to the alpha-GalNAc (Tn-antigen) form of porcine submaxillary mucin and its smaller fragments.

    PubMed

    Dam, Tarun K; Gerken, Thomas A; Cavada, Benildo S; Nascimento, Kyria S; Moura, Tales R; Brewer, C Fred

    2007-09-21

    Isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) and hemagglutination inhibition measurements demonstrate that a chemically and enzymatically prepared form of porcine submaxillary mucin that possesses a molecular mass of approximately 10(6) daltons and approximately 2300 alpha-GalNAc residues (Tn-PSM) binds to the soybean agglutinin (SBA) with a K(d) of 0.2 nm, which is approximately 10(6)-fold enhanced affinity relative to GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser (Tn), the pancarcinoma carbohydrate antigen. The enzymatically derived 81 amino acid tandem repeat domain of Tn-PSM containing approximately 23 alpha-GalNAc residues binds with approximately 10(3)-fold enhanced affinity, while the enzymatically derived 38/40 amino acid cleavage product(s) of Tn-PSM containing approximately 11-12 alpha-GalNAc residues shows approximately 10(2)-fold enhanced affinity. A natural carbohydrate decorated form of PSM (Fd-PSM) containing 40% of the core 1 blood group type A tetrasaccharide, and 58% peptide-linked GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser/Thr residues, with 45% of the peptide-linked alpha-GalNAc residues linked alpha-(2,6) to N-glycolylneuraminic acid, shows approximately 10(4) enhanced affinity for SBA. Vatairea macrocarpa lectin (VML), which is also a GalNAc binding lectin, displays a similar pattern of binding to the four forms of PSM, although there are quantitative differences in its affinities as compared with SBA. The higher affinities of SBA and VML for Tn-PSM relative to Fd-PSM indicate the importance of carbohydrate composition and epitope density of mucins on their affinities for lectins. The higher affinities of SBA and VML for Tn-PSM relative to its two shorter chain analogs demonstrate that the length of a mucin polypeptide and hence total carbohydrate valence determines the affinities of the three Tn-PSM analogs. The results suggest a binding model in which lectin molecules "bind and jump" from alpha-GalNAc residue to alpha-GalNAc residue along the polypeptide chain of Tn-PSM before dissociating

  14. Radioprotection of the Brain White Matter by Mn(III) N-Butoxyethylpyridylporphyrin-Based Superoxide Dismutase Mimic MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, Douglas H.; Tovmasyan, Artak; Ashcraft, Kathleen A.; Rajic, Zrinka; Weitner, Tin; Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Buckley, Anne F.; Prasad, Mark R.; Young, Kenneth H.; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Wetsel, William C.; Peters, Katherine B.; Spasojevic, Ivan; Herndon, James E.; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Cranial irradiation is a standard therapy for primary and metastatic brain tumors. A major drawback of radiotherapy (RT), however, is long-term cognitive loss that affects quality of life. Radiation-induced oxidative stress in normal brain tissue is thought to contribute to cognitive decline. We evaluated the effectiveness of a novel mimic of superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD), MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-n-butoxyethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin), to provide long-term neuroprotection following 8 Gy of whole brain irradiation. Long-term RT damage can only be assessed by brain imaging and neurocognitive studies. C57BL/6J mice were treated with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ before and after RT and evaluated three months later. At this time point, drug concentration in the brain was 25 nmol/L. Mice treated with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+/RT exhibited MRI evidence for myelin preservation in the corpus callosum compared with saline/RT treatment. Corpus callosum histology demonstrated a significant loss of axons in the saline/RT group that was rescued in the MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+/RT group. In addition, the saline/RT groups exhibited deficits in motor proficiency as assessed by the rotorod test and running wheel tests. These deficits were ameliorated in groups treated with MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+/RT. Our data demonstrate that MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ is neuroprotective for oxidative stress damage caused by radiation exposure. In addition, glioblastoma cells were not protected by MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ combination with radiation in vitro. Likewise, the combination of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ with radiation inhibited tumor growth more than RT alone in flank tumors. In summary, MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ has dual activity as a neuroprotector and a tumor radiosensitizer. Thus, it is an attractive candidate for adjuvant therapy with RT in future studies with patients with brain cancer. PMID:25319393

  15. Hydrology of Polk County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, Rick M.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2007-01-01

    Local water managers usually rely on information produced at the State and regional scale to make water-resource management decisions. Current assessments of hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Polk County, Florida, commonly end at the boundaries of two water management districts (South Florida Water Management District and the Southwest Florida Water Management District), which makes it difficult for managers to determine conditions throughout the county. The last comprehensive water-resources assessment of Polk County was published almost 40 years ago. To address the need for current countywide information, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 3?-year study in 2002 to update information about hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Polk County and identify changes that have occurred. Ground-water use in Polk County has decreased substantially since 1965. In 1965, total ground-water withdrawals in the county were about 350 million gallons per day. In 2002, withdrawals totaled about 285 million gallons per day, of which nearly 95 percent was from the Floridan aquifer system. Water-conservation practices mainly related to the phosphate-mining industry as well as the decrease in the number of mines in operation in Polk County have reduced total water use by about 65 million gallons per day since 1965. Polk County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer system, which is unconfined and composed primarily of clastic deposits. The surficial aquifer system is underlain by the intermediate confining unit, which grades into the intermediate aquifer system and consists of up to two water-bearing zones composed of interbedded clastic and carbonate rocks. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system, a thick sequence of permeable limestone and dolostone, consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semiconfining unit, a middle confining unit, and

  16. A Phase I Study of Unimolecular Pentavalent (Globo-H-GM2-sTn-TF-Tn) Immunization of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer in First Remission.

    PubMed

    O'Cearbhaill, Roisin E; Ragupathi, Govind; Zhu, Jianglong; Wan, Qian; Mironov, Svetlana; Yang, Guangbin; Spassova, Maria K; Iasonos, Alexia; Kravetz, Sara; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Spriggs, David R; Danishefsky, Samuel J; Sabbatini, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a phase I study in ovarian cancer patients to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a synthetic unimolecular pentavalent carbohydrate vaccine (Globo-H, GM2, sTn, TF, and Tn) supported on a peptide backbone, conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), and mixed with immunological adjuvant QS-21. Twenty-four advanced-stage, poor-risk, first-remission ovarian cancer patients were enrolled from January 2011-Septermber 2013. Three dose levels were planned (25, 50, 100 mcg) with three cohorts of six patients each, with an additional 6-patient expansion cohort at the MTD. ELISA serologic IgM and IgG responses for each antigen was defined as positive response if antibody titers were ≥1:80 over the respective patient's pre-vaccination serum. The study would be considered positive if at least four of 12 patients treated at the MTD showed immune responses for at least three of the five antigens. Twenty-four patients (median age, 54 years [range, 36-68]) were included in the safety analysis. Histology was high-grade serous in 22 patients (92%); 18 had stage III and six stage IV disease. The vaccine was well-tolerated at all doses, with no DLTs. At the highest treated dose, IgG and/or IgM responses were recorded against ≥3 antigens in 9/12 patients (75%), ≥4 in 7/12 (58%), and 5 in 3/12 (25%). With a median follow-up of 19 months (range, 2-39), 20 patients (83%) recurred and six (25%) died. The unimolecular pentavalent vaccine construct was shown to be safe and immunogenic. Such a construct greatly simplifies regulatory requirements and manufacturing, facilitates scalability, and provides adaptability. PMID:27110823

  17. A Phase I Study of Unimolecular Pentavalent (Globo-H-GM2-sTn-TF-Tn) Immunization of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer in First Remission.

    PubMed

    O'Cearbhaill, Roisin E; Ragupathi, Govind; Zhu, Jianglong; Wan, Qian; Mironov, Svetlana; Yang, Guangbin; Spassova, Maria K; Iasonos, Alexia; Kravetz, Sara; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Spriggs, David R; Danishefsky, Samuel J; Sabbatini, Paul J

    2016-04-22

    We conducted a phase I study in ovarian cancer patients to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a synthetic unimolecular pentavalent carbohydrate vaccine (Globo-H, GM2, sTn, TF, and Tn) supported on a peptide backbone, conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), and mixed with immunological adjuvant QS-21. Twenty-four advanced-stage, poor-risk, first-remission ovarian cancer patients were enrolled from January 2011-Septermber 2013. Three dose levels were planned (25, 50, 100 mcg) with three cohorts of six patients each, with an additional 6-patient expansion cohort at the MTD. ELISA serologic IgM and IgG responses for each antigen was defined as positive response if antibody titers were ≥1:80 over the respective patient's pre-vaccination serum. The study would be considered positive if at least four of 12 patients treated at the MTD showed immune responses for at least three of the five antigens. Twenty-four patients (median age, 54 years [range, 36-68]) were included in the safety analysis. Histology was high-grade serous in 22 patients (92%); 18 had stage III and six stage IV disease. The vaccine was well-tolerated at all doses, with no DLTs. At the highest treated dose, IgG and/or IgM responses were recorded against ≥3 antigens in 9/12 patients (75%), ≥4 in 7/12 (58%), and 5 in 3/12 (25%). With a median follow-up of 19 months (range, 2-39), 20 patients (83%) recurred and six (25%) died. The unimolecular pentavalent vaccine construct was shown to be safe and immunogenic. Such a construct greatly simplifies regulatory requirements and manufacturing, facilitates scalability, and provides adaptability.

  18. A Phase I Study of Unimolecular Pentavalent (Globo-H-GM2-sTn-TF-Tn) Immunization of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer in First Remission

    PubMed Central

    O’Cearbhaill, Roisin E.; Ragupathi, Govind; Zhu, Jianglong; Wan, Qian; Mironov, Svetlana; Yang, Guangbin; Spassova, Maria K.; Iasonos, Alexia; Kravetz, Sara; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Spriggs, David R.; Danishefsky, Samuel J.; Sabbatini, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a phase I study in ovarian cancer patients to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a synthetic unimolecular pentavalent carbohydrate vaccine (Globo-H, GM2, sTn, TF, and Tn) supported on a peptide backbone, conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), and mixed with immunological adjuvant QS-21. Twenty-four advanced-stage, poor-risk, first-remission ovarian cancer patients were enrolled from January 2011–Septermber 2013. Three dose levels were planned (25, 50, 100 mcg) with three cohorts of six patients each, with an additional 6-patient expansion cohort at the MTD. ELISA serologic IgM and IgG responses for each antigen was defined as positive response if antibody titers were ≥1:80 over the respective patient’s pre-vaccination serum. The study would be considered positive if at least four of 12 patients treated at the MTD showed immune responses for at least three of the five antigens. Twenty-four patients (median age, 54 years [range, 36–68]) were included in the safety analysis. Histology was high-grade serous in 22 patients (92%); 18 had stage III and six stage IV disease. The vaccine was well-tolerated at all doses, with no DLTs. At the highest treated dose, IgG and/or IgM responses were recorded against ≥3 antigens in 9/12 patients (75%), ≥4 in 7/12 (58%), and 5 in 3/12 (25%). With a median follow-up of 19 months (range, 2–39), 20 patients (83%) recurred and six (25%) died. The unimolecular pentavalent vaccine construct was shown to be safe and immunogenic. Such a construct greatly simplifies regulatory requirements and manufacturing, facilitates scalability, and provides adaptability. PMID:27110823

  19. 32 CFR 1602.10 - County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false County. 1602.10 Section 1602.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.10 County. The word county includes, where applicable, counties, independent cities, and similar...

  20. 32 CFR 1602.10 - County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false County. 1602.10 Section 1602.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.10 County. The word county includes, where applicable, counties, independent cities, and similar...

  1. 32 CFR 1602.10 - County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false County. 1602.10 Section 1602.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.10 County. The word county includes, where applicable, counties, independent cities, and similar...

  2. 32 CFR 1602.10 - County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false County. 1602.10 Section 1602.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.10 County. The word county includes, where applicable, counties, independent cities, and similar...

  3. 32 CFR 1602.10 - County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false County. 1602.10 Section 1602.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.10 County. The word county includes, where applicable, counties, independent cities, and similar...

  4. A TALE of Transposition: Tn3-Like Transposons Play a Major Role in the Spread of Pathogenicity Determinants of Xanthomonas citri and Other Xanthomonads

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rafael Marini; de Oliveira, Amanda Carolina P.; Moreira, Leandro M.; Belasque, José; Gourbeyre, Edith; Siguier, Patricia; Ferro, Maria Inês T.; Ferro, Jesus A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the genus Xanthomonas are among the most important phytopathogens. A key feature of Xanthomonas pathogenesis is the translocation of type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins (T3SEs) into the plant target cells via a T3SS. Several T3SEs and a murein lytic transglycosylase gene (mlt, required for citrus canker symptoms) are found associated with three transposition-related genes in Xanthomonas citri plasmid pXAC64. These are flanked by short inverted repeats (IRs). The region was identified as a transposon, TnXax1, with typical Tn3 family features, including a transposase and two recombination genes. Two 14-bp palindromic sequences within a 193-bp potential resolution site occur between the recombination genes. Additional derivatives carrying different T3SEs and other passenger genes occur in different Xanthomonas species. The T3SEs include transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs). Certain TALEs are flanked by the same IRs as found in TnXax1 to form mobile insertion cassettes (MICs), suggesting that they may be transmitted horizontally. A significant number of MICs carrying other passenger genes (including a number of TALE genes) were also identified, flanked by the same TnXax1 IRs and delimited by 5-bp target site duplications. We conclude that a large fraction of T3SEs, including individual TALEs and potential pathogenicity determinants, have spread by transposition and that TnXax1, which exhibits all of the essential characteristics of a functional transposon, may be involved in driving MIC transposition. We also propose that TALE genes may diversify by fork slippage during the replicative Tn3 family transposition. These mechanisms may play a crucial role in the emergence of Xanthomonas pathogenicity. PMID:25691597

  5. Expression and characterization of recombinant human alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase III from Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and Trichoplusia ni (Tn) cells using the baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed Central

    Morais, V A; Serpa, J; Palma, A S; Costa, T; Maranga, L; Costa, J

    2001-01-01

    The human alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase III (Fuc-TIII) participates in the synthesis of Lewis determinants. The enzyme from human sources is scarce and heterogeneous. In this paper we describe the expression of a secreted form of Fuc-TIII (SFT3) in two insect cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and Trichoplusia ni (Tn), using the baculovirus expression system. The Sf9 cells secreted approx. 0.4 unit/l (1 mg/l) of the enzyme. The Tn cells secreted approx. 3-fold this amount. A large proportion of active protein was accumulated in the two cell lines (50 and 75% respectively for Sf9 and Tn cells, on the fourth day after infection) indicating a possible limitation not only of the folding machinery, but also a saturation of the secretory pathway. SFT3 was purified by cation-exchange chromatography followed by affinity chromatography. The enzyme from the Tn cell line had a lower global charge, possibly due to post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation or sulphation. The two glycosylation sites from SFT3 were occupied. SFT3 secreted by Sf9 cells was completely deglycosylated by peptide-N-glycanase F, whereas 50% of SFT3 secreted by Tn cells was resistant to deglycosylation by this enzyme. The apparent kinetic parameters determined with the type I acceptor were k(cat)=0.4 s(-1) and K(m)=0.87 mM for the SFT3 secreted by Tn cells, and k(cat)=0.09 s(-1) and K(m)=0.76 mM for the SFT3 secreted by Sf9 cells, indicating that the enzymes had substrate affinities within the same order of magnitude as their mammalian counterpart. Furthermore, SFT3 secreted by either cell type showed a clear preference for type 1 carbohydrate acceptors, similarly to human Fuc-TIII. PMID:11171070

  6. Analysis of the mobilization functions of the vancomycin resistance transposon Tn1549, a member of a new family of conjugative elements.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkova, Krassimira; Marvaud, Jean-Christophe; Lambert, Thierry

    2010-02-01

    Conjugative transfer from Clostridium symbiosum to enterococci of Tn1549, which confers VanB-type vancomycin resistance, has been reported. This indicates the presence of a transfer origin (oriT) in the element. Transcription analysis of Tn1549 indicated that orf29, orf28, orfz, and orf27 were cotranscribed. A pACYC184 derivative containing 250 bp intergenic to orf29-orf30 of Tn1549 was mobilized in Escherichia coli recA::RP4::Delta nic provided that orf28 and orf29 were delivered simultaneously. These open reading frame (ORF) genes were able to promote mobilization in trans, but a cis-acting preference was observed. On the basis of a mobilization assay, a minimal 28-bp oriT was delimited, although the frequency of transfer was significantly reduced compared to that of a 130-bp oriT fragment. The minimal oriT contained an inverted repeat and a core, which was homologous to the cleavage sequence found in certain Gram-positive rolling-circle replicating (RCR) plasmids. While Orf29 was a mobilization accessory component similar to MobC proteins, Orf28 was identified as a relaxase belonging to a new phyletic cluster of the MOB(p) superfamily. The nick site was identified within oriT by an oligonucleotide cleavage assay. Closely related oriTs linked to mobilization genes were detected in data banks; they were found in various integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) originating mainly from anaerobes. These results support the notion that Tn1549 is a member of a MOB(p) clade. Interestingly, the Tn1549-derived constructs were mobilized by RP4 in E. coli, suggesting that a relaxosome resulting from DNA cleavage by Orf28 interacted with the coupling protein TraG. This demonstrates the capacity of Tn1549 to be mobilized by a heterologous transfer system.

  7. The Chromate-Inducible chrBACF Operon from the Transposable Element TnOtChr Confers Resistance to Chromium(VI) and Superoxide▿

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Rita; Chung, Ana Paula; Johnston, Tatiana; Gurel, Volkan; Morais, Paula; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale industrial use of chromium(VI) has resulted in widespread contamination with carcinogenic chromium(VI). The abilities of microorganisms to survive in these environments and to detoxify chromate require the presence of specific resistance systems. Here we report identification of the transposon-located (TnOtChr) chromate resistance genes from the highly tolerant strain Ochrobactrum tritici 5bvl1 surviving chromate concentrations of >50 mM. The 7,189-bp-long TnOtChr of the mixed Tn21/Tn3 transposon subfamily contains a group of chrB, chrA, chrC, and chrF genes situated between divergently transcribed resolvase and transposase genes. The chrB and chrA genes, but not chrF or chrC, were essential for establishment of high resistance in chromium-sensitive O. tritici. The chr promoter was strongly induced by chromate or dichromate, but it was completely unresponsive to Cr(III), oxidants, sulfate, or other oxyanions. Plasmid reporter experiments identified ChrB as a chromate-sensing regulator of chr expression. Induction of the chr operon suppressed accumulation of cellular Cr through the activity of a chromate efflux pump encoded by chrA. Expression of chrB, chrC, or chrF in an Escherichia coli sodA sodB double mutant restored its aerobic growth in minimal medium and conferred resistance to superoxide-generating agents menadione and paraquat. Nitroblue tetrazolium staining on native gels showed that ChrC protein had superoxide dismutase activity. TnOtChr appears to represent a mobile genetic system for the distribution of the chromate-regulated resistance operon. The presence of three genes protecting against superoxide toxicity should provide an additional survival advantage to TnOtChr-containing cells in the environments with multiple redox-active contaminants. PMID:18776016

  8. Capability Description for NASA's F/A-18 TN 853 as a Testbed for the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2009-01-01

    The NASA F/A-18 tail number (TN) 853 full-scale Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) testbed has been designed with a full array of capabilities in support of the Aviation Safety Program. Highlights of the system's capabilities include: 1) a quad-redundant research flight control system for safely interfacing controls experiments to the aircraft's control surfaces; 2) a dual-redundant airborne research test system for hosting multi-disciplinary state-of-the-art adaptive control experiments; 3) a robust reversionary configuration for recovery from unusual attitudes and configurations; 4) significant research instrumentation, particularly in the area of static loads; 5) extensive facilities for experiment simulation, data logging, real-time monitoring and post-flight analysis capabilities; and 6) significant growth capability in terms of interfaces and processing power.

  9. Rapid release of metal salts and nutrients from the 2011 Grímsvötn, Iceland volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, J.; Stipp, S. L. S.; Dalby, K. N.; Gislason, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    On May 21st, 2011, one of Iceland’s most active volcano, Grímsvötn, started its strongest eruption in a century. Grímsvötn produced hundreds of megatonnes of fine basaltic ash, which spread over Iceland, the North Atlantic and Europe. Such fine grained ash can impact human activity and health both with fertilization and with toxicity potential for aquatic environments. The purpose of this study was: (1) to investigate the basic physical and chemical properties of the ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption, (2) to identify surface salts deposited on the ash during the eruption, (3) to identify which elements are released during ash-water interactions and their release rates, (4) to characterize the secondary phases formed during water exposure, and (5) to assess impact of the ash on humans and the environment. During the eruption, we collected a unique set of pristine ash samples over a range of 50-115 km from the source and examined them with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), surface area analysis (BET), laser absorption, electron microprobe (EMPA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ash could be classified as glassy tholeiitic basalt with <10 mass% crystalline plagioclase (Al1.6Ca0.6Na0.4Si2.4O8) and pyroxene. The particles were small (<125 μm) and elongated with sharp edges. About 50% of the particle mass was fine ash (<63 μm), which could travel long distances, and ∼8% was very fine ash (<10 μm), which is harmful if inhaled. The specific surface area of the pristine ash ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 m2/g. Material taken up on particle surfaces contributed the equivalent of <0.5 nm thick layer, consisting of salts such as CaSO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, CaF2, CaCl2, MgSO4 and MgCl2. We exposed the pristine ash to ultrapure deionised (MilliQ) water in a single pass, plug, flow through reactor and the effluent was analyzed for 73 elements using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass

  10. Annual Performance Evaluation of a Pair of Energy Efficient Houses (WC3 and WC4) in Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C; Jackson, Roderick K; Boudreaux, Philip R

    2012-04-01

    Beginning in 2008, two pairs of energy-saver houses were built at Wolf Creek in Oak Ridge, TN. These houses were designed to maximize energy efficiency using new ultra-high-efficiency components emerging from ORNL s Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partners and others. The first two houses contained 3713 square feet of conditioned area and were designated as WC1 and WC2; the second pair consisted of 2721 square feet conditioned area with crawlspace foundation and they re called WC3 and WC4. This report is focused on the annual energy performance of WC3 and WC4, and how they compare against a previously benchmarked maximum energy efficient house of a similar footprint. WC3 and WC4 are both about 55-60% more efficient than traditional new construction. Each house showcases a different envelope system: WC3 is built with advanced framing featured cellulose insulation partially mixed with phase change materials (PCM); and WC4 house has cladding composed of an exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS). The previously benchmarked house was one of three built at the Campbell Creek subdivision in Knoxville, TN. This house (CC3) was designed as a transformation of a builder house (CC1) with the most advanced energy-efficiency features, including solar electricity and hot water, which market conditions are likely to permit within the 2012 2015 period. The builder house itself was representative of a standard, IECC 2006 code-certified, all-electric house built by the builder to sell around 2005 2008.

  11. Tn-seq of Caulobacter crescentus under uranium stress reveals genes essential for detoxification and stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Mimi C.; Park, Dan M.; Overton, K. Wesley; Blow, Matthew J.; Hoover, Cindi A.; Smit, John R.; Murray, Sean R.; Ricci, Dante P.; Christen, Beat; Bowman, Grant R.; Jiao, Yongqin

    2015-07-20

    Ubiquitous aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is highly resistant to uranium (U) and facilitates U biomineralization and thus holds promise as an agent of U bioremediation. In order to gain an understanding of how C. crescentus tolerates U, we employed transposon (Tn) mutagenesis paired with deep sequencing (Tn-seq) in a global screen for genomic elements required for U resistance. Of the 3,879 annotated genes in the C. crescentus genome, 37 were found to be specifically associated with fitness under U stress, 15 of which were subsequently tested through mutational analysis. Systematic deletion analysis revealed that mutants lacking outer membrane transporters (rsaFa and rsaFb), a stress-responsive transcription factor (cztR), or a ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase (spoT) exhibited a significantly lower survival rate under U stress. RsaFa and RsaFb, which are homologues of TolC in Escherichia coli, have previously been shown to mediate S-layer export. Transcriptional analysis revealed upregulation of rsaFa and rsaFb by 4- and 10-fold, respectively, in the presence of U. We additionally show that rsaFa mutants accumulated higher levels of U than the wild type, with no significant increase in oxidative stress levels. These results suggest a function for RsaFa and RsaFb in U efflux and/or maintenance of membrane integrity during U stress. In addition, we present data implicating CztR and SpoT in resistance to U stress. Together, our findings reveal novel gene targets that are key to understanding the molecular mechanisms of U resistance in C. crescentus.

  12. Tn-seq of Caulobacter crescentus under uranium stress reveals genes essential for detoxification and stress tolerance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yung, Mimi C.; Park, Dan M.; Overton, K. Wesley; Blow, Matthew J.; Hoover, Cindi A.; Smit, John R.; Murray, Sean R.; Ricci, Dante P.; Christen, Beat; Bowman, Grant R.; et al

    2015-07-20

    Ubiquitous aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is highly resistant to uranium (U) and facilitates U biomineralization and thus holds promise as an agent of U bioremediation. In order to gain an understanding of how C. crescentus tolerates U, we employed transposon (Tn) mutagenesis paired with deep sequencing (Tn-seq) in a global screen for genomic elements required for U resistance. Of the 3,879 annotated genes in the C. crescentus genome, 37 were found to be specifically associated with fitness under U stress, 15 of which were subsequently tested through mutational analysis. Systematic deletion analysis revealed that mutants lacking outer membrane transporters (rsaFamore » and rsaFb), a stress-responsive transcription factor (cztR), or a ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase (spoT) exhibited a significantly lower survival rate under U stress. RsaFa and RsaFb, which are homologues of TolC in Escherichia coli, have previously been shown to mediate S-layer export. Transcriptional analysis revealed upregulation of rsaFa and rsaFb by 4- and 10-fold, respectively, in the presence of U. We additionally show that rsaFa mutants accumulated higher levels of U than the wild type, with no significant increase in oxidative stress levels. These results suggest a function for RsaFa and RsaFb in U efflux and/or maintenance of membrane integrity during U stress. In addition, we present data implicating CztR and SpoT in resistance to U stress. Together, our findings reveal novel gene targets that are key to understanding the molecular mechanisms of U resistance in C. crescentus.« less

  13. Energy Improvements in Barnstable County

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    A fact sheet that describes Barnstable County, Massachusetts, effort to improve energy efficiency through a public appliance trade-in program, installation of compact fluorescent light bulbs in public buildings, and public energy education.

  14. Geothermal development plan: Yuma county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    One hot spring and 33 wells drilled in the county discharge water at temperatures sufficient for direct-use geothermal applications such as process heat and space heating and cooling. Currently, one industry within the county has been identified which may be able to use geothermal energy for its process heat requirements. Also, a computer simulation model was used to predict geothermal energy on line as a function of time under both private and city-owned utility development of the resource.

  15. Geothermal Development Plan: Pima County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Pima County is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic province in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Continued growth as indicated by such factors as population growth, employment and income will require large amounts of energy. It is believed that geothermal energy could provide some of the energy that will be needed. Potential users of geothermal energy within the county are identified.

  16. New derivatives of transposon Tn5 suitable for mobilization of replicons, generation of operon fusions and induction of genes in gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Simon, R; Quandt, J; Klipp, W

    1989-08-01

    Three types of new variants of the broad-host-range transposon Tn5 are described. (i) Tn5-mob derivatives with the new selective resistance (R) markers GmR, SpR and TcR facilitate the efficient mobilization of replicons within a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria. (ii) Promoter probe transposons carry the promoterless reporter genes lacZ, nptII, or luc, and NmR, GmR or TcR as selective markers. These transposons can be used to generate transcriptional fusions upon insertion, thus facilitating accurate determinations of gene expression. (iii) Tn5-P-out derivatives carry the npt- or tac-promoter reading out from the transposon, and TcR, NmR or GmR genes. These variants allow the constitutive expression of downstream genes. The new Tn5 variants are available on mobilizable Escherichia coli vectors suitable as suicidal carriers for transposon mutagenesis of non-E. coli recipients and some on a phage lambda mutant to be used for transposon mutagenesis in E. coli. PMID:2551782

  17. Antiproliferative effect of T/Tn specific Artocarpus lakoocha agglutinin (ALA) on human leukemic cells (Jurkat, U937, K562) and their imaging by QD-ALA nanoconjugate.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Urmimala; Bose, Partha Pratim; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Tej P; Chatterjee, Bishnu P

    2008-11-01

    T/Tn specificity of Artocarpus lakoocha agglutinin (ALA), isolated from the seeds of A. lakoocha (Moraceae) fruit and a heterodimer (16 kD and 12 kD) of molecular mass 28 kD, was further confirmed by SPR analysis using T/Tn glycan containing mammalian glycoproteins. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of ALA showed homology at 15, 19-21, 24-27, and 29 residues with other lectin members of Moraceae family viz., Artocarpus integrifolia (jacalin) lectin, Artocarpus hirsuta lectin, and Maclura pomifera agglutinin. It is mitogenic to human PBMC and the maximum proliferation was observed at 1 ng/ml. It showed an antiproliferative effect on leukemic cells, with the highest effect toward Jurkat cells (IC(50) 13.15 ng/ml). Synthesized CdS quantum dot-ALA nanoconjugate was employed to detect the expression of T/Tn glycans on Jurkat, U937, and K562 leukemic cells surfaces as well as normal lymphocytes by fluorescence microscopy. No green fluorescence was observed with normal lymphocytes indicating that T/Tn determinants, which are recognized as human tumor associated structures were cryptic on normal lymphocyte surfaces, whereas intense green fluorescent dots appeared during imaging of leukemic cells, where such determinants were present in unmasked form. The above results indicated that QD-ALA nanoconjugate is an efficient fluorescent marker for identification of leukemic cell lines that gives rise to high quality images.

  18. Directing enhancer-traps and iTol2 end-sequences to deleted BAC ends with loxP- and lox511-Tn10 transposons.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pradeep K

    2015-01-01

    A step-by-step detailed procedure is presented to progressively truncate genomic DNA inserts from either end in BACs. The bacterial transposon Tn10 carrying a loxP or a lox511 site is inserted at random into BAC DNA inside the bacterial cell. The cells are then infected with bacteriophage P1. The Cre protein expressed by phage P1 generates end-deletions by specifically recombining the inserted loxP (or lox511) with the loxP (or lox511) endogenous to and flanking insert DNA in BACs from the respective end. The Cre protein also helps phage P1 transduce the BAC DNA by packaging it in P1 heads. This packaging by P1 not only recovers the rare BAC clones containing Tn10 insertions efficiently but also selects end-truncated BACs from those containing inversions of portions of their DNA caused by transposition of Tn10 in the opposite orientation. The libraries of end-deleted BACs generated by this procedure are suitable for numerous mapping studies. Because DNA in front of the loxP (or lox511) arrowheads in the Tn10 transposon is retained at the newly created BAC end, exogenous DNA cassettes such as enhancer-traps and iTol2 ends can be efficiently introduced into BAC ends for germline expression in zebrafish or mice. The methodology should facilitate functional mapping studies of long-range cis-acting gene regulatory sequences in these organisms. PMID:25239743

  19. Geologic map of the Fish Creek Reservoir 7.5' quadrangle, Blaine County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skipp, Betty; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2012-01-01

    The Fish Creek Reservoir quadrangle in south-central Idaho lies on the north-central margin of the Cenozoic Snake River Plain at the southern end of the Pioneer Mountains. Rocks exposed in the quadrangle range in age from Paleozoic through Cenozoic. Mesozoic rocks are absent. Though Triassic and Jurassic sedimentary rocks may have been deposited in this area, they have been removed by erosion following uplift and thrusting of the Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary Sevier orogeny. The Late Devonian to Early Mississippian Antler orogeny preceded the Sevier. Ordovician through Devonian rocks of western-derived shale and sandstone facies and eastern carbonate shelf facies are unconformably overlain respectively by Pennsylvanian-Permian Wood River and Mississippian Copper Basin Formations. These two sequences are exposed in structural windows juxtaposed by the Sevier-age Pioneer thrust fault. Interpretive cross-sections accompany the map. Volcanic rocks of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group, Miocene Idavada Volcanics, and Pleistocene Snake River Group cover parts of the area that remains tectonically active.

  20. Origin and structural implications of upper Miocene rhyolites in Kingston Canyon, Piute County, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowley, P.D.; Steven, T.A.; Mehnert, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Kingston Canyon is one of the deepest antecedent canyons in the High Plateaus subprovince of the Colorado Plateaus. Here the E Fork of the Sevier River flows westward transversely across the gently E tilted Sevier Plateau, which is developed on a basin-range fault block uplifted more than 1500m along the Sevier fault zone on the W. Upper Tertiary rhyolites, uncommon in SW Utah, occur both on the northern rim and in the bottom of Kingston Canyon. Those on the northern rim consist of lava flows and volcanic domes of the rhyolite of Forshea Mountain, dated by K/Ar methods at 7.6Ma old. Those in the bottom of Kingston Canyon, the rhyolite of Phonolite Hill, are especially well exposed and provide spectacular examples of a pyroclastic cone whose base is about at river level and a steep-sided volcanic dome emplaced into and through these deposits. The pyroclastic deposits, formerly 500 or more metres thick, consist of airfall, mudflow, and ash-flow(?) material of rhyolite and foreign lithic fragments especially olivine basalt. The dome consists of flow-banded, mostly devitrified rhyolite as much as 500m thick; it has been dated by K/Ar methods at 5.4Ma. In addition to the rhyolites, a dome and lava-flow complex, the rhyodacite of Dry Lake, occurs near the northern rim and is considered to postdate the rhyolite of Forshea Mountain and predate the rhyolite of Phonolite Hill. -from Authors

  1. Different IncI1 plasmids from Escherichia coli carry ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-15 associated with different Tn2-derived elements.

    PubMed

    Zong, Zhiyong; Ginn, Andrew N; Dobiasova, Hana; Iredell, Jonathan R; Partridge, Sally R

    2015-07-01

    The bla(CTX-M-15) gene, encoding the globally dominant CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase, has generally been found in a 2.971-kb ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M-15)-orf477Δ transposition unit, with ISEcp1 providing a promoter. In available IncF plasmid sequences from Escherichia coli, this transposition unit interrupts a truncated copy of transposon Tn2 that lies within larger multiresistance regions. In E. coli, bla(CTX-M-15) is also commonly associated with IncI1 plasmids and here three such plasmids from E. coli clinical isolates from western Sydney 2006-2007 have been sequenced. The plasmid backbones are organised similarly to those of other IncI1 plasmids, but have insertions and/or deletions and sequence differences. Each plasmid also has a different insertion carrying bla(CTX-M-15). pJIE113 (IncI1 sequence type ST31) is almost identical to plasmids isolated from the 2011 E. coli O104:H4 outbreak in Europe, where the typical bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit interrupts a complete Tn2 inserted directly in the plasmid backbone. In the novel plasmid pJIE139 (ST88), ISEcp1-blaC(TX-M-15)-orf477Δ lies within a Tn2/3 hybrid transposon. Homologous recombination could explain movement of ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M-15)-orf477Δ between copies of Tn2 on IncF and IncI1 plasmids and generation of the Tn2/3 hybrid. pJIE174 (ST37) is almost identical to pESBL-12 from the Netherlands and in these plasmids bla(CTX-M-15) is flanked by two copies of IS26 that truncate the transposition unit within a larger region bounded by the ends of Tn2. bla(CTX-M-15) and the associated ISEcp1-derived promoter may be able to move from this structure by the actions of IS26, independently of both ISEcp1 and Tn2.

  2. Tn5253 family integrative and conjugative elements carrying mef(I) and catQ determinants in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Mingoia, Marina; Morici, Eleonora; Morroni, Gianluca; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Del Grosso, Maria; Pantosti, Annalisa; Varaldo, Pietro E

    2014-10-01

    The linkage between the macrolide efflux gene mef(I) and the chloramphenicol inactivation gene catQ was first described in Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain Spn529), where the two genes are located in a module designated IQ element. Subsequently, two different defective IQ elements were detected in Streptococcus pyogenes (strains Spy029 and Spy005). The genetic elements carrying the three IQ elements were characterized, and all were found to be Tn5253 family integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). The ICE from S. pneumoniae (ICESpn529IQ) was sequenced, whereas the ICEs from S. pyogenes (ICESpy029IQ and ICESpy005IQ, the first Tn5253-like ICEs reported in this species) were characterized by PCR mapping, partial sequencing, and restriction analysis. ICESpn529IQ and ICESpy029IQ were found to share the intSp 23FST81 integrase gene and an identical Tn916 fragment, whereas ICESpy005IQ has int5252 and lacks Tn916. All three ICEs were found to lack the linearized pC194 plasmid that is usually associated with Tn5253-like ICEs, and all displayed a single copy of a toxin-antitoxin operon that is typically contained in the direct repeats flanking the excisable pC194 region when this region is present. Two different insertion sites of the IQ elements were detected, one in ICESpn529IQ and ICESpy029IQ, and another in ICESpy005IQ. The chromosomal integration of the three ICEs was site specific, depending on the integrase (intSp 23FST81 or int5252). Only ICESpy005IQ was excised in circular form and transferred by conjugation. By transformation, mef(I) and catQ were cotransferred at a high frequency from S. pyogenes Spy005 and at very low frequencies from S. pneumoniae Spn529 and S. pyogenes Spy029.

  3. Somerset County Flood Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoppe, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    The timely warning of a flood is crucial to the protection of lives and property. One has only to recall the floods of August 2, 1973, September 16 and 17, 1999, and April 16, 2007, in Somerset County, New Jersey, in which lives were lost and major property damage occurred, to realize how costly, especially in terms of human life, an unexpected flood can be. Accurate forecasts and warnings cannot be made, however, without detailed information about precipitation and streamflow in the drainage basin. Since the mid 1960's, the National Weather Service (NWS) has been able to forecast flooding on larger streams in Somerset County, such as the Raritan and Millstone Rivers. Flooding on smaller streams in urban areas was more difficult to predict. In response to this problem the NWS, in cooperation with the Green Brook Flood Control Commission, installed a precipitation gage in North Plainfield, and two flash-flood alarms, one on Green Brook at Seeley Mills and one on Stony Brook at Watchung, in the early 1970's. In 1978, New Jersey's first countywide flood-warning system was installed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Somerset County. This system consisted of a network of eight stage and discharge gages equipped with precipitation gages linked by telephone telemetry and eight auxiliary precipitation gages. The gages were installed throughout the county to collect precipitation and runoff data that could be used to improve flood-monitoring capabilities and flood-frequency estimates. Recognizing the need for more detailed hydrologic information for Somerset County, the USGS, in cooperation with Somerset County, designed and installed the Somerset County Flood Information System (SCFIS) in 1990. This system is part of a statewide network of stream gages, precipitation gages, weather stations, and tide gages that collect data in real time. The data provided by the SCFIS improve the flood forecasting ability of the NWS and aid Somerset County and municipal agencies in

  4. Geothermal development plan: Yuma County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Yuma County Area Development Plan evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 90/sup 0/C (194/sup 0/F), and in addition, two areas are inferred to contain geothermal resources with intermediate (90/sup 0/C to 150/sup 0/C, 194/sup 0/F to 300/sup 0/F) temperature potential. The resource areas are isolated, although one resource area is located near Yuma, Arizona. One resource site is inferred to contain a hot dry rock resource. Anticipated population growth in the county is expected to be 2 percent per year over the next 40 years. The primary employment sector is agriculture, though some light industry is located in the county. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support future growth without advese affect on agriculture. Six firms were found in Yuma County which may be able to utilize geothermal energy for process heat needs. In addition, several agricultural processors were found, concentrated in citrus processing and livestock raising. Geothermal energy utilization projections suggest that by the year 2000, geothermal energy may economically provide the energy equivalent of 53,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector if developed privately. Geothermal utilization projections increase to 132,000 barrels of oil per year by 2000 if a municipal utility developed the resource.

  5. Volcano Deformation and Eruption Forecasting using Data Assimilation: Case of Grimsvötn volcano in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bato, Mary Grace; Pinel, Virginie; Yan, Yajing

    2016-04-01

    The recent advances in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) imaging and the increasing number of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) networks recorded on volcanoes provide continuous and spatially extensive evolution of surface displacements during inter-eruptive periods. For basaltic volcanoes, these measurements combined with simple dynamical models (Lengliné et al. 2008 [1], Pinel et al, 2010 [2], Reverso et al, 2014 [3]) can be exploited to characterise and constrain parameters of one or several magmatic reservoirs using inversion methods. On the other hand, data assimilation-a time-stepping process that best combines models and observations, sometimes a priori information based on error statistics to predict the state of a dynamical system-has gained popularity in various fields of geoscience (e.g. ocean-weather forecasting, geomagnetism and natural resources exploration). In this work, we aim to first test the applicability and benefit of data assimilation, in particular the Ensemble Kalman Filter [4], in the field of volcanology. We predict the temporal behaviors of the overpressures and deformations by applying the two-magma chamber model of Reverso et. al., 2014 [3] and by using synthetic deformation data in order to establish our forecasting strategy. GPS time-series data of the recent eruptions at Grimsvötn volcano is used for the real case applicability of the method. [1] Lengliné, O., D Marsan, J Got, V. Pinel, V. Ferrazzini, P. Obuko, Seismicity and deformation induced by magma accumulation at three basaltic volcanoes, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B12305, 2008. [2] V. Pinel, C. Jaupart and F. Albino, On the relationship between cycles of eruptive activity and volcanic edifice growth, J. Volc. Geotherm. Res, 194, 150-164, 2010 [3] T. Reverso, J. Vandemeulebrouck, F. Jouanne, V. Pinel, T. Villemin, E. Sturkell, A two-magma chamber as a source of deformation at Grimsvötn volcano, Iceland, JGR, 2014 [4] Evensen, G., The Ensemble Kalman

  6. Sulphide globules and their impact on sulphur degassing budget: the case of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Baptiste; Carn, Simon; Sigmarsson, Olgeir

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions are known to contribute sulphur to the atmosphere. Two different methods allow estimation of sulphur mass loading: remote satellite measurements and the petrologic method. Sulphur emission at subduction-related volcanoes is often underestimated by the latter method relative to the former whereas a fair agreement is found for hot spot-related volcanoes. The Grímsvötn 2011 eruption allows further comparison between these two methods. Grímsvötn is a basaltic subglacial volcano located under the Vatnajökull ice cap, above the Iceland mantle plume and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The May 2011 eruption lasted one week and took place inside the composite caldera of the volcano. During the first 24 hours, the column reached a height of more than 20 km and bulk of the magma was emitted. The basaltic tephra has quartz-normative tholeiite composition with 1-5% plagioclase, clinopyroxene, olivine, FeTi-oxide crystals and, noteworthy, sulphide globules present in the groundmass glass. Sulphur concentrations of twenty eight melt inclusions (MIs) were measured in plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine crystals extracted from the tephra produced during the most explosive phase. The difference between the mean sulphur content of both MIs and groundmass glass multiplied by the magma mass erupted, yields 0.73 ± 0.18 Tg of liberated sulphur. This is four times the estimated sulphur degassing by satellite measurements (0.19 ± 0.06 Tg). The contributions of different sulphur sinks were quantified. The geothermal system harvests approximately 0.037 Tg (5%), which are liberated during jökulhlaups. Sulphur adhering to the volcanic ash is approximately 0.12 Tg (15%). Added to the satellite measurements of sulphur entering the stratosphere, half of the S estimated by the petrologic method is still missing. Sulphur immiscibility forming sulphur globules in the magma chambers appears the most probable explanation for the missing 50% of sulphur. Due to elevated density of

  7. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  8. Archuleta County CO Lineaments

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Publication Date: 2012 Title: Archuleta Lineaments Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: This layer traces apparent topographic and air-photo lineaments in the area around Pagosa springs in Archuleta County, Colorado. It was made in order to identify possible fault and fracture systems that might be conduits for geothermal fluids. Geothermal fluids commonly utilize fault and fractures in competent rocks as conduits for fluid flow. Geothermal exploration involves finding areas of high near-surface temperature gradients, along with a suitable “plumbing system” that can provide the necessary permeability. Geothermal power plants can sometimes be built where temperature and flow rates are high. To do this, georeferenced topographic maps and aerial photographs were utilized in an existing GIS, using ESRI ArcMap 10.0 software. The USA_Topo_Maps and World_Imagery map layers were chosen from the GIS Server at server.arcgisonline.com, using a UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection. This line shapefile was then constructed over that which appeared to be through-going structural lineaments in both the aerial photographs and topographic layers, taking care to avoid manmade features such as roads, fence lines, and right-of-ways. These lineaments may be displaced somewhat from their actual location, due to such factors as shadow effects with low sun angles in the aerial photographs. Note: This shape file was constructed as an aid to geothermal exploration in preparation for a site visit for field checking. We make no claims as to the existence of the lineaments, their location, orientation, and nature. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4132831.990103 m Left: 311979.997741 m Right: 331678.289280 m Bottom: 4116067

  9. 76 FR 53926 - Utah; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ..., under Executive Order 12148, as amended, Mark H. Landry, of FEMA is appointed to act as the Federal..., Morgan, Piute, Salt Lake, Sanpete, Sevier, Summit, Tooele, Uintah, Utah, Wasatch, and Weber Counties...

  10. Do untranslated introns control Ca2+-ATPase isoform dependence on CaM, found in TN and PM?

    PubMed

    Navarro-Aviñó, Juan Pedro; Bennett, Alan B

    2003-12-26

    Transcript splicing characterization of tomato Ca(2+)-ATPase (LCA1 gene) mRNA indicates that two main transcripts are differentiated in the 3(') terminal region. One of them contains a sequence of about 90bp that could correspond to an untranslated intron that displays sequence homology to calmodulin-binding regions. Calmodulin-binding experiments demonstrate that only one of the two isoforms encoded by LCA1 binds to calmodulin. Since the M(w) calculated for this peptide is 3.7kDa, it is suggested that the presence of this intron is accounted for by the difference in the sizes of the two 116- and 120-kDa isoforms, and it determines calmodulin regulation. This represents a new strategy for a single gene to produce two isoforms that are localized differently (TN and PM), and which are either dependent on or independent of the calmodulin, which in turn is either regulated by the presence or by the absence of a 90bp untranslated intron.

  11. Exploring the molecular basis for selective binding of homoserine dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium leprae TN toward inhibitors: a virtual screening study.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Dongling; Wang, Dongmei; Min, Weihong; Han, Weiwei

    2014-01-24

    Homoserine dehydrogenase (HSD) from Mycobacterium leprae TN is an antifungal target for antifungal properties including efficacy against the human pathogen. The 3D structure of HSD has been firmly established by homology modeling methods. Using the template, homoserine dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus denitrificans (PDB Id 3MTJ), a sequence identity of 40% was found and molecular dynamics simulation was used to optimize a reliable structure. The substrate and co-factor-binding regions in HSD were identified. In order to determine the important residues of the substrate (L-aspartate semialdehyde (L-ASA)) binding, the ASA was docked to the protein; Thr163, Asp198, and Glu192 may be important because they form a hydrogen bond with HSD through AutoDock 4.2 software. neuraminidaseAfter use of a virtual screening technique of HSD, the four top-scoring docking hits all seemed to cation-π ion pair with the key recognition residue Lys107, and Lys207. These ligands therefore seemed to be new chemotypes for HSD. Our results may be helpful for further experimental investigations.

  12. Transposon Mutagenesis in Bifidobacterium breve: Construction and Characterization of a Tn5 Transposon Mutant Library for Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Lorena; Motherway, Mary O’Connell; Lanigan, Noreen; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are claimed to contribute positively to human health through a range of beneficial or probiotic activities, including amelioration of gastrointestinal and metabolic disorders, and therefore this particular group of gastrointestinal commensals has enjoyed increasing industrial and scientific attention in recent years. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these probiotic mechanisms are still largely unknown, mainly due to the fact that molecular tools for bifidobacteria are rather poorly developed, with many strains lacking genetic accessibility. In this work, we describe the generation of transposon insertion mutants in two bifidobacterial strains, B. breve UCC2003 and B. breve NCFB2258. We also report the creation of the first transposon mutant library in a bifidobacterial strain, employing B. breve UCC2003 and a Tn5-based transposome strategy. The library was found to be composed of clones containing single transposon insertions which appear to be randomly distributed along the genome. The usefulness of the library to perform phenotypic screenings was confirmed through identification and analysis of mutants defective in D-galactose, D-lactose or pullulan utilization abilities. PMID:23737995

  13. Evaluation with an iuc::Tn10 mutant of the role of aerobactin production in the virulence of Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed Central

    Nassif, X; Mazert, M C; Mounier, J; Sansonetti, P J

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the role of aerobactin production in the virulence of Shigella flexneri, a iuc::Tn10 insertion mutant was obtained from strain M90T, a serotype 5 isolate. This mutant was tested for its ability to invade and kill HeLa cells in monolayers, to elicit keratoconjunctivitis in guinea pigs and to infect ligated segments of rabbit ileal loops. Although this mutant did not grow in iron-depleted media, its ability to grow intracellulalry and eventually kill HeLa cells was unchanged from that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, an inoculum-dependent effect was observed in the Sereny test, as well as in the rabbit ligated ileal loop model, which was monitored for fluid production and for both gross and microscopical alterations of the mucosa. Transduction of the mutation within a noninvasive plasmidless derivative of the parental strain did not alter growth within the intestinal lumen. We conclude that aerobactin production most probably provides invasive strains with a selective advantage for growth within tissues when located in extracellular compartments. Images PMID:3040587

  14. Identification of new genes contributing to the extreme radioresistance of Deinococcus radiodurans using a Tn5-based transposon mutant library.

    PubMed

    Dulermo, Rémi; Onodera, Takefumi; Coste, Geneviève; Passot, Fanny; Dutertre, Murielle; Porteron, Martine; Confalonieri, Fabrice; Sommer, Suzanne; Pasternak, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Here, we have developed an extremely efficient in vivo Tn5-based mutagenesis procedure to construct a Deinococcus radiodurans insertion mutant library subsequently screened for sensitivity to genotoxic agents such as γ and UV radiations or mitomycin C. The genes inactivated in radiosensitive mutants belong to various functional categories, including DNA repair functions, stress responses, signal transduction, membrane transport, several metabolic pathways, and genes of unknown function. Interestingly, preliminary characterization of previously undescribed radiosensitive mutants suggests the contribution of cyclic di-AMP signaling in the recovery of D. radiodurans cells from genotoxic stresses, probably by modulating several pathways involved in the overall cell response. Our analyses also point out a new transcriptional regulator belonging to the GntR family, encoded by DR0265, and a predicted RNase belonging to the newly described Y family, both contributing to the extreme radioresistance of D. radiodurans. Altogether, this work has revealed new cell responses involved either directly or indirectly in repair of various cell damage and confirmed that D. radiodurans extreme radiation resistance is determined by a multiplicity of pathways acting as a complex network.

  15. Identification of New Genes Contributing to the Extreme Radioresistance of Deinococcus radiodurans Using a Tn5-Based Transposon Mutant Library

    PubMed Central

    Passot, Fanny; Dutertre, Murielle; Porteron, Martine; Confalonieri, Fabrice; Sommer, Suzanne; Pasternak, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Here, we have developed an extremely efficient in vivo Tn5-based mutagenesis procedure to construct a Deinococcus radiodurans insertion mutant library subsequently screened for sensitivity to genotoxic agents such as γ and UV radiations or mitomycin C. The genes inactivated in radiosensitive mutants belong to various functional categories, including DNA repair functions, stress responses, signal transduction, membrane transport, several metabolic pathways, and genes of unknown function. Interestingly, preliminary characterization of previously undescribed radiosensitive mutants suggests the contribution of cyclic di-AMP signaling in the recovery of D. radiodurans cells from genotoxic stresses, probably by modulating several pathways involved in the overall cell response. Our analyses also point out a new transcriptional regulator belonging to the GntR family, encoded by DR0265, and a predicted RNase belonging to the newly described Y family, both contributing to the extreme radioresistance of D. radiodurans. Altogether, this work has revealed new cell responses involved either directly or indirectly in repair of various cell damage and confirmed that D. radiodurans extreme radiation resistance is determined by a multiplicity of pathways acting as a complex network. PMID:25884619

  16. Simulating atmospheric transport of the 2011 Grímsvötn ash cloud using a data insertion update scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, K. L.; Western, L. M.; Watson, I. M.

    2016-09-01

    Effective modelling of atmospheric volcanic ash dispersion is important to ensure aircraft safety, and has been the subject of much study since the Eyjafjallajökull ash crisis in Europe in 2010. In this paper, a novel modelling method is presented, where the atmospheric transport of the 2011 Grímsvötn ash cloud is simulated using a data insertion update scheme. Output from the volcanic ash transport and dispersion model, NAME, is updated using satellite retrievals and the results of a probabilistic ash, cloud and clear sky classification algorithm. A range of configurations of the scheme are compared with each other, in addition to a simple data insertion method presented in a previous study. Results show that simulations in which ash layer heights and depths are updated using the model output generally perform worse in relation to satellite derived ash coverage and ash column loading than simulations that use satellite-retrieved heights and an assumed layer depth of 1.0 km. Simulated ash column loading and concentration tends to be under-predicted using this update scheme, but the timing of the arrival of the ash cloud at Stockholm is well captured, as shown by comparison with lidar-derived mass concentration profiles. Most of the updated simulations in this comparison make small gains in skill on the simple data insertion scheme.

  17. 76 FR 13172 - Placer County Water Agency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Placer County Water Agency Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with... Filed: February 23, 2011 d. Applicant: Placer County Water Agency e. Name of Project: Middle Fork... Manager, Placer County Water Agency, 144 Ferguson Road, Auburn, CA 95603; Telephone: (530) 823-4490....

  18. Community Analysis for the Pitkin County Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirwin, Florence M.

    This document analyzes the social and demographic characteristics of Pitkin County, Colorado (population 12,000) and the Pitkin County Library located in Aspen (24,000 volumes). The report contains statistics gathered from the 1978 Mid-Term U.S. Bureau Census of Pitkin County, as well as other statistics from local, state, and federal sources; the…

  19. Community Types and Mortality in Georgia Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Using an "ecological regional analysis" methodology for defining types of communities and their associated mortality rates, this study of Georgia's 159 counties finds that the suburban and town centered counties have low mortality while the city-centered type predicts low mortality for the whites. The military-centered counties do not predict. The…

  20. The surficial aquifer in Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causseaux, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The surficial aquifer in Pinellas County, Florida, contains potable water throughout most of the county and is a potential source of water to augment the public supply that is presently imported from adjacent counties. The county accounts for 38 percent of the public supply consumption of ground water in the 11-county area of west-central Florida and 68 percent of this water is imported from two adjacent counties. The surficial aquifer has a saturated thickness of more than 30 feet throughout most of the county. Specific capacity per foot of screen for wells is less than 0.1 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown in some parts of the county, but yield is sufficient in most of the county for many small uses with shallow-well pumps. Minimum potential yield varies from 5 gallons per minute in the northern part of the county to more than 30 gallons per minute in the south. Concentrations of iron are high enough in parts of the county to cause staining. Chloride concentrations are less than 100 milligrams per liter in most of the county and do not pose a problem for many uses. (USGS)

  1. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  2. Anal Carcinoma: Impact of TN Category of Disease on Survival, Disease Relapse, and Colostomy Failure in US Gastrointestinal Intergroup RTOG 98-11 Phase 3 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, Leonard L.; Moughan, Jennifer; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Pedersen, John E.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Benson, Al B.; Thomas, Charles R.; Haddock, Michael G.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The long-term update of US GI Intergroup RTOG 98-11 anal cancer trial found that concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) with fluorouracil (5-FU) plus mitomycin had a significant impact on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with induction plus concurrent 5-FU plus cisplatin. The intent of the current analysis was to determine the impact of tumor node (TN) category of disease on survival (DFS and OS), colostomy failure (CF), and relapse (local-regional failure [LRF] and distant metastases [DM]) in this patient group. Methods and Materials: DFS and OS were estimated univariately by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and 6 TN categories were compared by the log–rank test (T2N0, T3N0, T4N0, T2N1-3, T3N1-3, and T4N1-3). Time to relapse and colostomy were estimated by the cumulative incidence method, and TN categories were compared using Gray's test. Results: Of 682 patients, 620 were analyzable for outcomes by TN category. All endpoints showed statistically significant differences among the TN categories of disease (OS, P<.0001; DFS, P<.0001; LRF, P<.0001; DM, P=.0011; CF, P=.01). Patients with the poorest OS, DFS, and LRF outcomes were those with T3-4N-positive (+) disease. CF was lowest for T2N0 and T2N+ (11%, 11%, respectively) and worst for the T4N0, T3N+, and T4N+ categories (26%, 27%, 24%, respectively). Conclusions: TN category of disease has a statistically significant impact on OS, DFS, LRF, DM, and CF in patients treated with CCRT and provides excellent prognostic information for outcomes in patients with anal carcinoma. Significant challenges remain for patients with T4N0 and T3-4N+ categories of disease with regard to survival, relapse, and CF and lesser challenges for T2-3N0/T2N+ categories.

  3. Fresno County Mock Trial Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno City Unified School District, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: The Fresno County Office of Education and the Fresno Unified School District hosted the Mock Trial Competition. The state competition is sponsored by the Constitutional Rights Foundation, with cosponsorship from the California State Bar Association and the California Young Lawyer's Association. This…

  4. Composting in Prince William County

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, K.

    1995-10-01

    Hidden in a small industrial corner of Prince Williams County, in Northern Virginia, a composting facility, after its first flourishing year in business, has found itself part of a symbiotic triangle. Along with a landfill and a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant, the composting facility is one of three programs that make up a joint public-private venture and form a interjurisdictional solid waste/refuse exchange agreement. Faced with the prospects of having to close a landfill at the end of the year, a mandate on yard waste collection that was increasing collection tonnage, and no room for further landfill development, Fairfax County, with approximately 900,000 residents, needed help. In a turn-around situation, Prince William County--with approximately 240,000 residents, a low budget, and much space available for development--responded. Together the counties created a solid waste exchange. The basis for the program is a unity between the local governments on some solid waste issues and a composting facility. Composting, specifically yard waste composting, has been among the fastest-growing aspects of waste management. In 1990, the nation was composting 2% of its solid waste. By the end of 1995, according to the US EPA, between 4% and 7% of solid waste will be recovered through composting. The number of yard waste composting facilities operating has increased from 651 in 1988 to more than 3,000 in 1994.

  5. Somerset County Employer Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rephann, Terance J.

    Allegany Community College in Cumberland, Maryland, conducted an employer assessment survey of Somerset County businesses during the winter of 1995 in order to provide evaluation data for planning and curriculum development for the secondary and postsecondary educational institutions. The survey was mailed to 760 establishments, with a 29 percent…

  6. Kinship Care in Walton County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon, Sara L.; Nackerud, Larry

    1996-01-01

    The quality of life of maltreated children placed with relatives was examined through interviews with nine families in Walton County (Georgia) who had taken in related children. Over half of the children had experienced some improvement in home life, school performance, and their physical and mental status. Kinship care families indicated needs…

  7. Southern Nevada Library Services; Serving Lincoln County, Nye County, Esmeralda County through the Clark County Library District: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Phyllis I.

    An anecdotal review covers the first year of increased library service in Nye, Lincoln, and Esmeralda Counties, Nevada, under the Southern Nevada Library Services project funded by the Library Services and Construction Act. Using information from questionnaires and site visits, the extent of library services in each community in the area is…

  8. Truancy in Yolo County, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Barbara; Tyburczy, Jason

    The problem of truancy in the elementary and junior high schools of California's Yolo County was investigated during the 1980-81 academic year by means of questionnaires completed by 16 school principals and interviews with 30 people representing schools, school district offices, law enforcement agencies, the Department of Social Services, and the…

  9. Geothermal development plan: Pima County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The Pima County Area Development evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. Four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 1000 C (2120 F) were identified. In addition, one area is identified as having a temperature of 1470 F (2970 F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in Tecson where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing sector and the existence of major copper mines provide opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. However, available water supplies are identified as a major constraing to projected growth. A regional energy analysis, future predictions for energy consumption, and energy prices are given. Potential geothermal users in Pima County are identified and projections of maximum economic geothermal utilization are given. One hundred fifteen firms in 32 industrial classes have some potential for geothermal use are identified. In addition, 26 agribusiness firms were found in the county.

  10. Hydrogeology of Wood County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batten, W.G.

    1989-01-01

    The average rate of ground·water pumpage in Wood County in 1985 was 9.7 million gallons per day. Of this rate, about 6 million gallons per day is pumped from municipal-supply wells in seven communities.An additional 1.08 million gallons per day is pumped for agricultural irrigation.

  11. Measles in rural Ohio county.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, W A; Irvin, J; Jennings, M R; Giandelia, J; Halpin, T J; Marks, J S; Conrad, J L

    1980-06-01

    Between December 23, 1975, and March 31, 1976, 169 cases of measles were reported from Defiance County, Ohio, a small rural county in the northwest corner of the State. The outbreak spread from a single junior high school basketball player to eventually involve 19 of the 28 county schools. Among the affected schools, measles attack rates varied from 0.3-7.2% with a mean of 2.0%. A likely source of illness was determined for 160 of the 169 cases (95%). Intraschool transmission was most common, accounting for 97 of the 169 cases (57%) followed by sibling contact for 23 cases (14%). The pattern of measles spread was complex and would have been difficult to predict in advance even if surveillance systems reported each case the day it occurred. A control program held between February 2 and February 20, 1976, vaccinated 5145 of the 11,114 (46.3%) county schoolchildren. Forty-four cases of measles occurred 4 or more days following school clinics, 22 (50%) in children who requested measles vaccine at school clinics, 17 of whom were actually vaccinated. Most of the other cases occurred in students whose parents thought their children to be protected. Measles is a disease which spreads rapidly in a complex pattern over wide geographic areas. A control program vaccinating a large proportion of the children without definitive history of adequate vaccination or disease was apprently effective in curtailing the outbreak.

  12. Hydrogeology of Webb County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Webb County, in semiarid South Texas on the U.S.-Mexico border, is a region confronted by increasing stresses on natural resources. Laredo (fig. 1), the largest city in Webb County (population 193,000 in 2000), was one of the 10 fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the country during 1990-2000 (Perry and Mackun, 2001). Commercial and industrial activities have expanded throughout the region to support the maquiladora industry (manufacturing plants in Mexico) along the border and other growth as a result of the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement. The Rio Grande currently (2002) is the primary source of public water supply for Laredo and other cities along the border in Webb County (fig. 1). Other cities, such as Bruni and Mirando City in the southeastern part of the county, rely on ground-water supplies to meet municipal demands. Increased water demand associated with development and population growth in the region has increased the need for the City of Laredo and Webb County to evaluate alternative water sources to meet future demand. Possible options include (1) supplementing the surface-water supply with ground water, and (2) applying artificial storage and recovery (ASR) technology to recharge local aquifers. These options raise issues regarding the hydraulic capability of the aquifers to store economically substantial quantities of water, current or potential uses of the resource, and possible effects on the quality of water resulting from mixing ground water with alternative source waters. To address some of these issues, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Laredo, began a study in 1996 to assess the ground-water resources of Webb County. A hydrogeologic study was conducted to review and analyze available information on the hydrogeologic units (aquifers and confining units) in Webb County, to locate available wells in the region with water-level and water-quality information from the aquifers, and

  13. Neutron Scattering Measurements of Anisotropic Magnetic Exchange Interactions in Semiconducting K0.85Fe1.54Se2 (TN=280K)

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, Douglas L; Birgeneau, R. J.; Gao, Miao; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We use neutron scattering to study the spin excitations associated with the stripe antiferromagnetic (AFM) order in semiconducting K0.85Fe1.54Se2 (TN=280 K). We show that the spin wave spectra can be accurately described by an effective Heisenberg Hamiltonian with highly anisotropic in-plane couplings at T= 5 K. At high temperature (T= 300 K) above TN, short range magnetic correlation with anisotropic correlation lengths are observed. Our results suggest that, despite the dramatic difference in the Fermi surface topology, the in-plane anisotropic magnetic coupings are a fundamental property of the iron based compounds; this implies that their antiferromagnetism may originate from local strong correlation effects rather than weak coupling Fermi surface nesting.

  14. Profiling of fine and coarse particle mass: case studies of Saharan dust and Eyjafjallajökull/Grimsvötn volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansmann, A.; Seifert, P.; Tesche, M.; Wandinger, U.

    2012-10-01

    The polarization lidar photometer networking (POLIPHON) method introduced to separate coarse-mode and fine-mode particle properties of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic aerosols in 2010 is extended to cover Saharan dust events as well. Furthermore, new volcanic dust observations performed after the Grimsvötn volcanic eruptions in 2011 are presented. The retrieval of particle mass concentrations requires mass-specific extinction coefficients. Therefore, a review of recently published mass-specific extinction coefficients for Saharan dust and volcanic dust is given. Case studies of four different scenarios corroborate the applicability of the profiling technique: (a) Saharan dust outbreak to central Europe, (b) Saharan dust plume mixed with biomass-burning smoke over Cape Verde, and volcanic aerosol layers originating from (c) the Eyjafjallajökull eruptions in 2010 and (d) the Grimsvötn eruptions in 2011. Strong differences in the vertical aerosol layering, aerosol mixing, and optical properties are observed for the different volcanic events.

  15. Defining essential genes and identifying virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis by massively-parallel sequencing of transposon libraries (Tn-seq)

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Brian A.; Duncan, Margaret J.; Hu, Linden T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in the development and progression of periodontal disease. Obstacles to the development of saturated transposon libraries have previously limited transposon mutant-based screens as well as essential gene studies. We have developed a system for efficient transposon mutagenesis of P. gingivalis using a modified mariner transposon. Tn-seq is a technique that allows for quantitative assessment of individual mutants within a transposon mutant library by sequencing the transposon-genome junctions and then compiling mutant presence by mapping to a base genome. Using Tn-seq, it is possible to quickly define all the insertional mutants in a library and thus identify non-essential genes under the conditions in which the library was produced. Identification of fitness of individual mutants under specific conditions can be performed by exposing the library to selective pressures. PMID:25636611

  16. Characterization of Tn3000, a Transposon Responsible for blaNDM-1 Dissemination among Enterobacteriaceae in Brazil, Nepal, Morocco, and India.

    PubMed

    Campos, Juliana Coutinho; da Silva, Maria José Félix; dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Nascimento; Barros, Elaine Menezes; Pereira, Mayne de Oliveira; Seco, Bruna Mara Silva; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Leiroz, Leonardo Kalab; de Oliveira, Théo Gremen Mimary; de Faria-Júnior, Célio; Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Barth, Afonso Luís; Sampaio, Suely Carlos Ferreira; Zavascki, Alexandre Prehn; Poirel, Laurent; Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello

    2015-12-01

    In Enterobacteriaceae, the blaNDM genes have been found in many different genetic contexts, and a wide diversity of plasmid scaffolds bearing those genes has been found. In August 2013, we identified NDM-1-producing Escherichia coli and Enterobacter hormaechei strains from a single rectal swab sample from a patient hospitalized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who had no history of travel abroad. Complete DNA sequencing using the Illumina platform and annotation of the two plasmids harboring the blaNDM-1 gene, one from each strain, showed that they belonged to incompatibility groups IncFIIK and IncX3 and harbored a novel transposon named Tn3000. Similar genetic structures have been identified among other isolates in Brazil but also on plasmids from other continents. Our findings suggest that the blaNDM-1 gene may be transmitted by Tn3000 in different parts of the world.

  17. Characterization of Tn3000, a Transposon Responsible for blaNDM-1 Dissemination among Enterobacteriaceae in Brazil, Nepal, Morocco, and India

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Juliana Coutinho; da Silva, Maria José Félix; dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Nascimento; Barros, Elaine Menezes; Pereira, Mayne de Oliveira; Seco, Bruna Mara Silva; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Leiroz, Leonardo Kalab; de Oliveira, Théo Gremen Mimary; de Faria-Júnior, Célio; Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Barth, Afonso Luís; Sampaio, Suely Carlos Ferreira; Zavascki, Alexandre Prehn; Poirel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    In Enterobacteriaceae, the blaNDM genes have been found in many different genetic contexts, and a wide diversity of plasmid scaffolds bearing those genes has been found. In August 2013, we identified NDM-1-producing Escherichia coli and Enterobacter hormaechei strains from a single rectal swab sample from a patient hospitalized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who had no history of travel abroad. Complete DNA sequencing using the Illumina platform and annotation of the two plasmids harboring the blaNDM-1 gene, one from each strain, showed that they belonged to incompatibility groups IncFIIK and IncX3 and harbored a novel transposon named Tn3000. Similar genetic structures have been identified among other isolates in Brazil but also on plasmids from other continents. Our findings suggest that the blaNDM-1 gene may be transmitted by Tn3000 in different parts of the world. PMID:26392506

  18. Collective phase-like mode and the role of lattice distortions at TN ˜ TC in RMn2O5 (R= Pr, Sm, Gd, Tb, Bi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Néstor E.; García-Flores, Ali F.; De Sousa Meneses, Domingos; del Campo, Leire; Echegut, Patrick; Fabbris, Gilberto F. L.; Jesús Martínez-Lope, María; Alonso, José Antonio

    2012-05-01

    We report on electronic collective excitations in RMn2O5 (R =Pr, Sm, Gd, Tb) showing condensation starting at and below ˜ TN ˜ TC ˜ 40-50 K. Their origin is understood as partial delocalized eg electron orbitals in the Jahn-Teller distortion of the pyramid dimer with strong hybridized Mn3+-O bonds. Our local probes, Raman, infrared, and x-ray absorption, back the conclusion that there is no structural phase transition at TN ˜ TC. Ferroelectricity is magnetically assisted by electron localization triggering lattice polarizability by unscreening. We have also found phonon hardening as the rare earth is sequentially replaced. This is understood as a consequence of lanthanide contraction. It is suggested that partially f-electron screened rare earth nuclei might be introducing a perturbation to eg electrons prone to delocalize as the superexchange interaction takes place.

  19. A large inversion in the linear chromosome of Streptomyces griseus caused by replicative transposition of a new Tn3 family transposon.

    PubMed

    Murata, M; Uchida, T; Yang, Y; Lezhava, A; Kinashi, H

    2011-04-01

    We have comprehensively analyzed the linear chromosomes of Streptomyces griseus mutants constructed and kept in our laboratory. During this study, macrorestriction analysis of AseI and DraI fragments of mutant 402-2 suggested a large chromosomal inversion. The junctions of chromosomal inversion were cloned and sequenced and compared with the corresponding target sequences in the parent strain 2247. Consequently, a transposon-involved mechanism was revealed. Namely, a transposon originally located at the left target site was replicatively transposed to the right target site in an inverted direction, which generated a second copy and at the same time caused a 2.5-Mb chromosomal inversion. The involved transposon named TnSGR was grouped into a new subfamily of the resolvase-encoding Tn3 family transposons based on its gene organization. At the end, terminal diversity of S. griseus chromosomes is discussed by comparing the sequences of strains 2247 and IFO13350.

  20. Genetic linkage and cotransfer of a novel, vanB-containing transposon (Tn5382) and a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein 5 gene in a clinical vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolate.

    PubMed

    Carias, L L; Rudin, S D; Donskey, C J; Rice, L B

    1998-09-01

    Mechanisms for the intercellular transfer of VanB-type vancomycin resistance determinants and for the almost universal association of these determinants with those for high-level ampicillin resistance remain poorly defined. We report the discovery of Tn5382, a ca. 27-kb putative transposon encoding VanB-type glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecium. Open reading frames internal to the right end of Tn5382 and downstream of the vanXB dipeptidase gene exhibit significant homology to genes encoding the excisase and integrase of conjugative transposon Tn916. The ends of Tn5382 are also homologous to the ends of Tn916, especially in regions bound by the integrase enzyme. PCR amplification experiments indicate that Tn5382 excises to form a circular intermediate in E. faecium. Integration of Tn5382 in the chromosome of E. faecium C68 has occurred 113 bp downstream of the stop codon for the pbp5 gene, which encodes high-level ampicillin resistance in this clinical isolate. Transfer of vancomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline resistance from C68 to an E. faecium recipient strain occurs at low frequency in vitro and is associated with acquisition of a 130- to 160-kb segment of DNA that contains Tn5382, the pbp5 gene, and its putative repressor gene, psr. The interenterococcal transfer of this large chromosomal element appears to be the primary mechanism for vanB operon spread in northeast Ohio. These results expand the known family of Tn916-related transposons, suggest a mechanism for vanB operon entry into and dissemination among enterococci, and provide an explanation for the nearly universal association of vancomycin and high-level ampicillin resistance in clinical E. faecium strains.

  1. Discrimination between native and Tn6010-associated oqxAB in Klebsiella spp., Raoultella spp., and other Enterobacteriaceae by using a two-step strategy.

    PubMed

    Guillard, Thomas; Lebreil, Anne-Laure; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Kisserli, Aymric; Berger, Sibel; Lozniewski, Alain; Alauzet, Corentine; de Champs, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    We developed a two-step PCR-based strategy to detect genes encoding OqxAB, allowing a specific assignment of Tn6010-associated oqxAB in Enterobacteriaceae. Chromosomal location in this setup was confirmed by hybridization with I-CeuI-restricted genomes. This approach led us to find that Klebsiella sp. and Raoultella sp. reference strains chromosomally carried oqxAB.

  2. Deformation of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, 1992-2014: Constraints on magma flow in relation to eruptions in 1998, 2004 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hreinsdottir, Sigrun; Sturkell, Erik; Ofeigsson, Benedikt; Einarsson, Pall; Roberts, Matthew; Grapenthin, Ronni; Villemin, Thierry; Arnadottir, Thora; Geirsson, Halldor

    2014-05-01

    A time series of ground deformation at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland from 1992 to 2014 reveals deformation due to plate movements, glacial-isostatic uplift in response to the melting of the Vatnajökull ice cap, annual changes due to snow loading and magma movements. GPS measurements have been made at one nunatak, conducted intermittently since 1992 and continuously since 2004. During this period eruptions have occurred at Grímsvötn in 1998, 2004 and 2011. The component of displacement related to magma movements is obtained after the time series are corrected for signals due to other processes. Uplift and displacement away from the caldera occurs between eruptions at a rate of few cm/yr, interrupted by sudden co-eruptive subsidence and displacement towards the caldera (up to half a meter). This inflation/deflation pattern suggests deformation driven by pressure change in an upper crustal magma chamber, similar to other highly active calderas in Iceland such as Askja and Krafla. A simple model of pressure change variation in a magma chamber at shallow depth, with variable inflow between eruptions and outflow during eruptions can explain the observed deformation pattern. The erupted volume of magma in the 2011 eruption is about 10 times larger than the inferred co-eruptive volume change, attributed to compressibility of magma in the chamber. The magma compressibility is inferred to have remained constant during the 2011 eruption, as about constant scale factor is found during that eruption between eruption rate and displacement rate. This scale factor is, however, about five times lower for the 2004 eruption. This difference implies higher compressibility of magma in the shallow Grímsvötn magma chamber during the 2011 eruption compared to 2004, assuming the active part of the Grimsvötn magma plumbing system remained the same in both eruptions.

  3. Genetic characterization of a Tn5-disrupted glycosyltransferase gene homolog in Brucella abortus and its effect on lipopolysaccharide composition and virulence.

    PubMed

    McQuiston, J R; Vemulapalli, R; Inzana, T J; Schurig, G G; Sriranganathan, N; Fritzinger, D; Hadfield, T L; Warren, R A; Lindler, L E; Snellings, N; Hoover, D; Halling, S M; Boyle, S M

    1999-08-01

    We constructed a rough mutant of Brucella abortus 2308 by transposon (Tn5) mutagenesis. Neither whole cells nor extracted lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from this mutant, designated RA1, reacted with a Brucella O-side-chain-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb), Bru-38, indicating the absence of O-side-chain synthesis. Compositional analyses of LPS from strain RA1 showed reduced levels of quinovosamine and mannose relative to the levels in the parental, wild-type strain, 2308. We isolated DNA flanking the Tn5 insertion in strain RA1 by cloning a 25-kb XbaI genomic fragment into pGEM-3Z to create plasmid pJM6. Allelic exchange of genomic DNA in B. abortus 2308 mediated by electroporation of pJM6 produced kanamycin-resistant clones that were not reactive with MAb Bru-38. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from these rough clones revealed Tn5 in a 25-kb XbaI genomic fragment. A homology search with the deduced amino acid sequence of the open reading frame disrupted by Tn5 revealed limited homology with various glycosyltransferases. This B. abortus gene has been named wboA. Transformation of strain RA1 with a broad-host-range plasmid bearing the wild-type B. abortus wboA gene resulted in the restoration of O-side-chain synthesis and the smooth phenotype. B. abortus RA1 was attenuated for survival in mice. However, strain RA1 persisted in mice spleens for a longer time than the B. abortus vaccine strain RB51, but as expected, neither strain induced antibodies specific for the O side chain.

  4. A Phenotypically Silent vanB2 Operon Carried on a Tn1549-Like Element in Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Daniel R.; Androga, Grace O.; Ballard, Susan A.; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has reached an epidemic state with increasing incidence and severity in both health care and community settings. Vancomycin is an important first-line therapy for CDI, and the emergence of resistance would have significant clinical consequences. In this study, we describe for the first time a vanB2 vancomycin resistance operon in C. difficile, isolated from an Australian veal calf at slaughter. The operon was carried on an ~42-kb element showing significant homology and synteny to Tn1549, a conjugative transposon linked with the emergence and global dissemination of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Notably, the C. difficile strain did not show any reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in vitro (MIC, 1 mg/liter), possibly as a result of an aberrant vanRB gene. As observed for other anaerobic species of the animal gut microbiota, C. difficile may be a reservoir of clinically important vancomycin resistance genes. IMPORTANCE In an era when the development of new antimicrobial drugs is slow, vancomycin remains the preferred antimicrobial therapy for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most important health care-related infection in the world today. The emergence of resistance to vancomycin would have significant consequences in relation to treating patients with CDI. In this paper, we describe for the first time a complete set of vancomycin resistance genes in C. difficile. The genes were very similar to genes found in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) that were associated with the emergence and global dissemination of this organism. Fortunately, the C. difficile strain did not show any reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in vitro (MIC, 1 mg/liter), possibly because of a small difference in one gene. However, this observation signals that we may be very close to seeing a fully vancomycin-resistant strain of C. difficile. PMID:27536735

  5. A Phenotypically Silent vanB2 Operon Carried on a Tn1549-Like Element in Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Knight, Daniel R; Androga, Grace O; Ballard, Susan A; Howden, Benjamin P; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has reached an epidemic state with increasing incidence and severity in both health care and community settings. Vancomycin is an important first-line therapy for CDI, and the emergence of resistance would have significant clinical consequences. In this study, we describe for the first time a vanB2 vancomycin resistance operon in C. difficile, isolated from an Australian veal calf at slaughter. The operon was carried on an ~42-kb element showing significant homology and synteny to Tn1549, a conjugative transposon linked with the emergence and global dissemination of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Notably, the C. difficile strain did not show any reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in vitro (MIC, 1 mg/liter), possibly as a result of an aberrant vanRB gene. As observed for other anaerobic species of the animal gut microbiota, C. difficile may be a reservoir of clinically important vancomycin resistance genes. IMPORTANCE In an era when the development of new antimicrobial drugs is slow, vancomycin remains the preferred antimicrobial therapy for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most important health care-related infection in the world today. The emergence of resistance to vancomycin would have significant consequences in relation to treating patients with CDI. In this paper, we describe for the first time a complete set of vancomycin resistance genes in C. difficile. The genes were very similar to genes found in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) that were associated with the emergence and global dissemination of this organism. Fortunately, the C. difficile strain did not show any reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in vitro (MIC, 1 mg/liter), possibly because of a small difference in one gene. However, this observation signals that we may be very close to seeing a fully vancomycin-resistant strain of C. difficile. PMID:27536735

  6. Impacts of cool cities on air quality: A preliminary modeling assessment for Nashville TN, Dallas TX and Atlanta GA

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Haider

    1998-06-15

    Previous atmospheric modeling efforts that concentrated on the Los Angeles Basin suggested beneficial and significant air quality impacts from cool cities strategies. This paper discusses an extension of similar modeling efforts to three regions, Atlanta GA, Dallas - Ft. Worth TX, and Nashville TN, that experience smog and air quality problems. According to the older ozone air quality standard (120 ppb), these regions were classified as serious, moderate, and marginal, respectively, but may be out of compliance with respect to the newer, 80-ppb/8-hours standard. Results from this exploratory modeling work suggest a range of possible impacts on meteorological and air quality conditions. For example, peak ozone concentrations during each region's respective episode could be decreased by 1-6 ppb (conservative and optimistic scenarios, respectively) in Nashville, 5-15 ppb in Dallas - Fort Worth, and 5-12 ppb in Atlanta following implementation of cool cities. The reductions are generally smaller than those obtained from simulating the Los Angeles Basin but are still significant. In all regions, the simulations suggest, the net, domain-wide effects of cool cities are reductions in ozone mass and improvements in air quality. In Atlanta, Nashville, and Dallas, urban areas benefiting from reduced smog reach up to 8460, 7350, and 12870 km{sup 2} in area, respectively. Results presented in this paper should be taken as exploratory and preliminary. These will most likely change during a more comprehensive modeling study to be started soon with the support of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The main purpose of the present project was to obtain the initial data (emission inventories) for these regions, simulate meteorological conditions, and perform preliminary sensitivity analysis. In the future, additional regions will be simulated to assess the potential of cool cities in improving urban air quality.

  7. Hfq restructures RNA-IN and RNA-OUT and facilitates antisense pairing in the Tn10/IS10 system.

    PubMed

    Ross, Joseph A; Ellis, Michael J; Hossain, Shahan; Haniford, David B

    2013-05-01

    Hfq functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in a wide range of bacteria, usually by promoting base-pairing of mRNAs and trans-encoded sRNAs that share partial sequence complementarity. It is less clear if Hfq is required for pairing of cis-encoded RNAs (i.e., antisense RNAs) with their target mRNAs. In the current work, we have characterized the interactions between Escherichia coli Hfq and the components of the Tn10/IS10 antisense system, RNA-IN and RNA-OUT. We show that Hfq interacts with RNA-OUT through its proximal RNA-binding surface, as is typical for Hfq and trans-encoded sRNAs. In contrast, RNA-IN binds both proximal and distal RNA-binding surfaces in Hfq with a higher affinity for the latter, as is typical for mRNA interactions in canonical sRNA-mRNA pairs. Importantly, an amino acid substitution in Hfq that interferes with RNA binding to the proximal site negatively impacts RNA-IN:OUT pairing in vitro and suppresses the ability of Hfq to negatively regulate IS10 transposition in vivo. We also show that Hfq binding to RNA-IN and RNA-OUT alters secondary structure elements in both of these RNAs and speculate that this could be important in how Hfq facilitates RNA-IN:OUT pairing. Based on the results presented here, we suggest that Hfq could be involved in regulating RNA pairing in other antisense systems, including systems encoded by other transposable elements.

  8. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grimsvötn ash plumes as seen by GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, R.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The injection of a volcanic plume introduces a dynamic, localized, short-term heterogeneity in the atmosphere. Satellite-imagery based remote sensing techniques provide good spatial coverage for the detection of such plumes, but slow satellite repeat times (>30 minutes) and cloud cover can delay, if not entirely prevent, the detection. GPS, in turn, provides excellent temporal coverage, but requires favorable satellite-station-geometry such that the signal propagates through the plume if it is to be used for plume detection and analysis. Two methods exist to detect / analyze ash plumes with GPS: (a) Ash-heavy plumes result in signal dispersion and hence a lowered signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A lowered SNR, recorded by some receivers, can provide useful information about the plume, such as location and velocity of ascent. These data can be evaluated directly as they are recorded by the receiver; without the need of solving for a receiver's position. (b) Wet plumes refract the GPS signals piercing the plume and hence induce a propagation delay. When solving for a receiver position GPS analysis tools do not model this localized phase delay effect and solutions for plume-piercing satellites do not fit the data well. This can be exploited for plume analysis such as the estimation of changes to the atmospheric refractivity index. We analyze GPS data of the ~2 month 2010 Eyafjallajökull erption and the week-long 2011 Grímsvötn eruption to infer a first order estimate of plume geometry and its progression. Using SNR and phase delay information, we evaluate the evolution of the partitioning of wet versus dry parts of the plume. During the GPS processing we iteratively solve for phase-delay and position and fix other parameters, hence reducing the mapping of least-squares misfit into position estimates and other parameters. Nearly continuous webcam imagery provides independent observations of first-order plume characteristics for the Eyafjallajökull event.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Non-Cellulose-Producing Mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii Generated by Tn5 Transposon Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Xiao, Chaowen; Tien, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The acs operon of Gluconacetobacter is thought to encode AcsA, AcsB, AcsC, and AcsD proteins that constitute the cellulose synthase complex, required for the synthesis and secretion of crystalline cellulose microfibrils. A few other genes have been shown to be involved in this process, but their precise role is unclear. We report here the use of Tn5 transposon insertion mutagenesis to identify and characterize six non-cellulose-producing (Cel−) mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 23769. The genes disrupted were acsA, acsC, ccpAx (encoding cellulose-complementing protein [the subscript “Ax” indicates genes from organisms formerly classified as Acetobacter xylinum]), dgc1 (encoding guanylate dicyclase), and crp-fnr (encoding a cyclic AMP receptor protein/fumarate nitrate reductase transcriptional regulator). Protein blot analysis revealed that (i) AcsB and AcsC were absent in the acsA mutant, (ii) the levels of AcsB and AcsC were significantly reduced in the ccpAx mutant, and (iii) the level of AcsD was not affected in any of the Cel− mutants. Promoter analysis showed that the acs operon does not include acsD, unlike the organization of the acs operon of several strains of closely related Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Complementation experiments confirmed that the gene disrupted in each Cel− mutant was responsible for the phenotype. Quantitative real-time PCR and protein blotting results suggest that the transcription of bglAx (encoding β-glucosidase and located immediately downstream from acsD) was strongly dependent on Crp/Fnr. A bglAx knockout mutant, generated via homologous recombination, produced only ∼16% of the wild-type cellulose level. Since the crp-fnr mutant did not produce any cellulose, Crp/Fnr may regulate the expression of other gene(s) involved in cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:24013627

  10. Bio-preservative effect of the essential oil of the endemic Mentha piperita used alone and in combination with BacTN635 in stored minced beef meat.

    PubMed

    Smaoui, Slim; Hsouna, Anis Ben; Lahmar, Aida; Ennouri, Karim; Mtibaa-Chakchouk, Ahlem; Sellem, Imen; Najah, Soumaya; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Mellouli, Lotfi

    2016-07-01

    The major compounds in Mentha piperita essential oil (EOMP) were menthol (33.59%) and iso-menthone (33%). The biopreservative effect of EOMP used alone at 0.25 or 0.5% and in combination with the semi-purified bacteriocin BacTN635 at 500 or 1000AU/g, on minced beef meat was evaluated by microbiological, physicochemical and sensory analyses during storage at 4°C for 21days. EOMP used alone limited the microbial deterioration of minced meat (P<0.05). Furthermore, the combination between EOMP and BacTN635 led to a decrease in TBARS values and slowed down the accumulation of MetMb. This combination was more efficient (P<0.05) against microflora proliferation and enhanced the sensory acceptability extending thus the shelf life of meat beef by approximately 7days. On the basis of these results, physicochemical and sensorial parameters could be used for constructing regression models to predict overall acceptability. Overall, the strongest preservative effect was achieved by using the combination of EOMP at 0.5% with BacTN535 at 1000AU/g.

  11. Bio-preservative effect of the essential oil of the endemic Mentha piperita used alone and in combination with BacTN635 in stored minced beef meat.

    PubMed

    Smaoui, Slim; Hsouna, Anis Ben; Lahmar, Aida; Ennouri, Karim; Mtibaa-Chakchouk, Ahlem; Sellem, Imen; Najah, Soumaya; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Mellouli, Lotfi

    2016-07-01

    The major compounds in Mentha piperita essential oil (EOMP) were menthol (33.59%) and iso-menthone (33%). The biopreservative effect of EOMP used alone at 0.25 or 0.5% and in combination with the semi-purified bacteriocin BacTN635 at 500 or 1000AU/g, on minced beef meat was evaluated by microbiological, physicochemical and sensory analyses during storage at 4°C for 21days. EOMP used alone limited the microbial deterioration of minced meat (P<0.05). Furthermore, the combination between EOMP and BacTN635 led to a decrease in TBARS values and slowed down the accumulation of MetMb. This combination was more efficient (P<0.05) against microflora proliferation and enhanced the sensory acceptability extending thus the shelf life of meat beef by approximately 7days. On the basis of these results, physicochemical and sensorial parameters could be used for constructing regression models to predict overall acceptability. Overall, the strongest preservative effect was achieved by using the combination of EOMP at 0.5% with BacTN535 at 1000AU/g. PMID:26995774

  12. Identification of a streptomycin resistance gene and a partial Tn3 transposon coding for a beta-lactamase in a periodontal strain of Eikenella corrodens.

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, J M; Walker, C B

    1992-01-01

    The beta-lactamase gene from a periodontal strain of Eikenella corrodens, resistant to penicillins and streptomycin, was inserted into pBGS9 and transformed into Escherichia coli DH5 alpha. A 4.7-kb insert of pJML1, one of the transformants, was partially sequenced and found to contain the right section of transposon Tn3 from the middle of the TnpR resolvase gene to the right inverted repeat RI(R), including the TEM-1 gene. Sequences identical to RSF1010 were found on either side of the Tn3 sequence. pJML1 also contained a streptomycin resistance gene, probably identical to that of RSF1010. A portion of the pJML1 insert was not homologous to either Tn3 or RSF1010 but was homologous to the chromosomal DNA of E. corrodens ATCC 23834. It is assumed that the insert of pJML1 was derived from the chromosomal DNA of E. corrodens EC-38. PMID:1323951

  13. Efficiency and bacterial populations related to pollutant removal in an upflow microaerobic sludge reactor treating manure-free piggery wastewater with low COD/TN ratio.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Li, Jianzheng; Sun, Kai; Antwi, Philip; Deng, Kaiwen; Wang, Cheng; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-02-01

    A novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR) had proved excellent in nitrogen removal from manure-free piggery wastewater characterized by high concentration of ammonium (NH4(+)-N) and low chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN) ratio, but the biological mechanism in the UMSR was still indeterminate. With a constant nitrogen loading rate of 1.10kg/(m(3)d) at hydraulic retention time 8h, the UMSR was kept performing for 67days in the present research and the average load removal of COD, NH4(+)-N and TN was as high as 0.72, 0.76 and 0.94kg/(m(3)d), respectively. Compared with the inoculated sludge, the acclimated sludge was richer in genera responsible for the biological removal of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Ammonium oxidation bacteria, heterotrophic denitrifiers, autotrophic denitrifiers and phosphate accumulating organisms coexisted perfectly in the microaerobic system, and their synergistic action made the UMSR perform well in COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and phosphate removal. PMID:26649897

  14. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater- quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective. In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Waterquality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinkingwater standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county. Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  15. TN International and ITS operational feedback regarding the decommissioning of obsolete casks dedicated to the transport and/or storage of nuclear raw materials, fuel and used fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Blachet, L.; Bimet, F.; Rennesson, N.

    2008-07-01

    Within the AREVA group, TN International is a major actor regarding the design of casks and transportation for the nuclear cycle. In the early 2005, TN International has started the project of decommissioning some of its own equipment and was hence the first company ever in the AREVA Group to implement this new approach. In order to do so, TN International has based this project by taking into account the AREVA Sustainable Development Charter, the French regulatory framework, the ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs - National Agency for the radioactive waste management) requirements and has deployed a step by step methodology such as radiological characterization following a logical route. The aim was to define a standardized process with optimized solutions regarding the diversity of the cask's fleet. As a general matter, decommissioning of nuclear casks is a brand new field as the nuclear field is more familiar with the dismantling of nuclear facilities and/or nuclear power plant. Nevertheless existing workshops, maintenance facilities, measurements equipments and techniques have been exploited and adapted by TN International in order to turn an ambitious project into a permanent and cost-effective activity. The decommissioning of the nuclear casks implemented by TN International regarding its own needs and the French regulatory framework is formalized by several processes and is materialized for instance by the final disposal of casks as they are or in ISO container packed with cut-off casks and big bags filled with crushed internal cask equipments, etc. The first part of this paper aims to describe the history of the project that started with a specific environmental analysis which took into account the values of AREVA as regards the Sustainable Development principles that were at the time and are still a topic of current concern in the world. The second part will deal with the definition, the design and the implementation of the

  16. Determining the mass fraction of external water in the plume of the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Pálsson, Finnur; Thordarson, Thor; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Gudrún; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Oddsson, Björn; Óladóttir, Bergrún; Gudnason, Jónas

    2013-04-01

    The VEI4 eruption of Grímsvötn in May 2011 produced an up to 20-km high eruption plume with on over 100 km wide umbrella cloud. The plume was sustained at or above 15 km height for the first 24 hours of this 7-day long eruption. It alternated between wet, phreatomagmatic phases and dry magmatic phases, with over half of the erupted material formed during dry conditions. The eruption fissure was about 1.5 km long, located in the southwest part Grímsvötn, outside the boundaries of the subglacial Grímsvötn lake but within the topographic boundaries of the Grímsvötn caldera. Before the eruption this locality was mostly covered by 50-150 m thick ice. During the eruption the ice was melted, and a 700 m wide and up to 150 m deep ice cauldron with meltwater was formed. This meltwater lake within the cauldron surrounded and saturated the craters during the later and less energetic part of the eruption. The melting of this ice did at first not affect the surrounding glacier and the water level in the cauldron near the end of and shortly after the eruption was lower than in the subglacial Grímsvötn lake, about 1 km further to the northeast in the central part of the caldera. Apparently, no hydrological connection existed between the main subglacial lake and the eruption site during the eruption and it seems that no meltwater from the eruption was lost subglacially from the eruption site to the subglacial lake. The ice cauldron was therefore a system with only one open pathway for loss of meltwater - as steam added to the volcanic plume. Thus, the mass of ice melted, heated and evaporated could be determined. The eruption therefore provided a unique opportunity to quantify the mass of external water added to a volcanic plume. The results indicate that external water was 5-10% of the total mass of tephra erupted. Of the order of one fifth of the total thermal energy was used to generate the steam. This large external mass of steam modified the behaviour of the plume

  17. Analysis of the Shallow Groundwater Flow System at Fire Island National Seashore, Suffolk County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schubert, Christopher E.

    2010-01-01

    . A variable-density model of the shallow aquifer system and adjacent marine surface waters was developed to simulate groundwater flow patterns and rates. Nitrogen loads from the shallow aquifer system were calculated from representative total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and simulated groundwater discharges to back-barrier estuaries and the ocean. The model simulates groundwater directions, velocities, and discharge rates under 2005 mean annual conditions. Groundwater budgets were developed for recharge areas of similar land use that contribute freshwater to back-barrier estuaries, the ocean, and subsea-discharge zones. Total freshwater discharge from the shallow aquifer system is about 43,500 cubic meters per day (m3/d) (79.8 percent) to back-barrier estuaries and about 10,200 m3/d (18.7 percent) to the ocean; about 836 m3/d (1.5 percent) may exit the system as subsea underflow. The total contribution of fresh groundwater to shoreline discharge zones amounts to about 53,700 m3/d (98.5 percent). The median age of freshwater discharged to back-barrier estuaries and the ocean was 3.4 years, and the 95th-percentile age was 20 years. The TN concentrations and loads under 2005 mean annual conditions for areas that contribute fresh groundwater to back-barrier estuaries and the ocean were calculated for the principal land uses on Fire Island. The overall TN load from the shallow aquifer system to shoreline discharge zones is about 16,200 kilograms per year (kg/yr) (82.2 percent) to back-barrier estuaries and about 3,500 kg/yr (17.8 percent) to the ocean. The overall TN load to marine surface waters amounts to about 19,700 kg/yr-roughly 6 percent of the annual TN load from shallow groundwater entering the South Shore Estuary Reserve (SSER) from the Suffolk County mainland, which is about 345,000 kg/yr. In contrast to the TN load from shallow groundwater for the SSER watershed, which annually yields about 353 kilograms per square kilometer (kg/km2), the overall TN loa

  18. First report of a clinical, multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolate coharboring fosfomycin resistance gene fosA3 and carbapenemase gene blaKPC-2 on the same transposon, Tn1721.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Ying; Bi, Dexi; Shen, Pinghua; Ai, Fuqi; Liu, Hong; Tian, Yueru; Ma, Yiming; Wang, Bei; Rajakumar, Kumar; Ou, Hong-Yu; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic background and dissemination mechanism of carbapenem resistance and fosfomycin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolates, we studied a clinical Escherichia coli strain HS102707 isolate and an Enterobacter aerogenes strain HS112625 isolate, both of which were resistant to carbapenem and fosfomycin and positive for the bla(KPC-2) and fosA3 genes. In addition, a clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strain HS092839 isolate which was resistant to carbapenem was also studied. A 70-kb plasmid was successfully transferred to recipient E. coli J53 by a conjugation test. PCR and Southern blot analysis showed that bla(KPC-2) was located on this plasmid. The complete sequence of pHS102707 showed that this plasmid belongs to the P11 subfamily (IncP1) and has a replication gene, several plasmid-stable genes, an intact type IV secretion system gene cluster, and a composite transposon Tn1721-Tn3 that harbored bla(KPC-2). Interestingly, a composite IS26 transposon carrying fosA3 was inserted in the Tn1721-tnpA gene in pHS102707 and pHS112625, leading to the disruption of Tn1721-tnpA and the deletion of Tn1721-tnpR. However, only IS26 with a truncated Tn21-tnpR was inserted in pHS092839 at the same position. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fosA3 and bla(KPC-2) colocated in the same Tn1721-Tn3-like composite transposon on a novel IncP group plasmid. PMID:25367902

  19. Carbohydrate recognition factors of a Talpha (Galbeta1-->3GalNAcalpha1-->Ser/Thr) and Tn (GalNAcalpha1-->Ser/Thr) specific lectin isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus lakoocha.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tanuja; Chatterjee, Urmimala; Wu, June H; Chatterjee, Bishnu P; Wu, Albert M

    2005-01-01

    Artocarpus lakoocha agglutinin (ALA), isolated from the seeds of A. lakoocha fruit, is a galactose-binding lectin and a potent mitogen of T and B cells. Knowledge obtained from previous studies on the affinity of ALA was limited to molecular and submolecular levels of Galbeta1-->3GalNAc (T) and its derivatives. In the present study, the carbohydrate specificity of ALA was characterized at the macromolecular level according to the mammalian Gal/GalNAc structural units and corresponding glycoconjugates by an enzyme-linked lectinosorbent (ELLSA) and inhibition assays. The results indicate that ALA binds specifically to tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens GalNAcalpha1-->Ser/Thr (Tn) and Galbeta1-->3 GalNAcalpha1-->Ser/Thr (Talpha). It barely cross-reacts with other common glycotopes on glycoproteins, including ABH blood group antigens, Galbeta1-->3/4GlcNAc (I/II) determinants, T/Tn covered by sialic acids, and N-linked plasma glycoproteins. Dense clustering structure of Tn/Talpha-containing glycoproteins tested resulted in 2.4 x 10(5)-6.7 x 10(5)-fold higher affinities to ALA than the respective GalNAc and Gal monomer. According to our results, the overall affinity of ALA for glycans can be ranked respectively: polyvalent Tn/Talpha glycotopes > monomeric Talpha and simple clustered Tn > monomeric Tn > GalNAc > Gal; while other glycotopes: Galalpha1-->3/4Gal (B/E), Galbeta1-->3/4GlcNAc (I/II), GalNAcalpha1-->3Gal/GalNAc (A/F), and GalNAcbeta1-->3/4Gal (P/S) were inactive. The strong specificity of ALA for Tn/Talpha cluster suggests the importance of glycotope polyvalency during carbohydrate-receptor interactions and emphasizes its value as an anti-Tn/T lectin for analysis of glycoconjugate mixtures or transformed carbohydrates.

  20. 7 CFR 7.11 - County committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the county executive director, other employee of the county committee, or the county agricultural extension agent for the county. If the county agricultural extension agent is not selected as secretary to... Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION...

  1. 7 CFR 7.11 - County committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the county executive director, other employee of the county committee, or the county agricultural extension agent for the county. If the county agricultural extension agent is not selected as secretary to... Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION...

  2. 7 CFR 7.11 - County committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the county executive director, other employee of the county committee, or the county agricultural extension agent for the county. If the county agricultural extension agent is not selected as secretary to... Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION...

  3. 7 CFR 7.25 - County executive director duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false County executive director duties. 7.25 Section 7.25... CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.25 County executive director duties. (a) The county executive director shall execute the policies established by the county committee and be responsible for...

  4. 7 CFR 7.25 - County executive director duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false County executive director duties. 7.25 Section 7.25... CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.25 County executive director duties. (a) The county executive director shall execute the policies established by the county committee and be responsible for...

  5. 78 FR 10249 - Environmental Impact Statement: Will and Kankakee Counties, IL and Lake County, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Will and Kankakee Counties, IL and Lake County, IN AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Number 20.205, Highway Research, Planning and Construction....

  6. Water resources of Lehigh County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Charles R.; Flippo, Herbert N.; Lescinsky, Joseph B.; Barker, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Lehigh County occupies an area of 347 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. The northern part of Lehigh County is underlain by the Martinsburg Formation, which consists chiefly of shale and slate. The central part of the county, where most of the population centers are located and much of the urbanization is occurring, is underlain by alternating beds of limestone and dolomite. From oldest to youngest, these carbonate rocks are the Leithsville Formation, the Allentown Formation, the Beekmantown Group, and the Jacksonburg Formation. The southern part of the county is underlain chiefly by the shales, sandstones, and conglomerates of the Brunswick Formation and by metamorphic and igneous rocks.

  7. Waste source reduction county government case study

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    Itasca County is located in north-central Minnesota, has a population of 42,000 and is known for its forests and scenic waterways. With Beltrami County, it contains the upper watershed of the Mississippi River. Its major industries are timber and tourism. Itasca County government made a commitment to source reduce its waste as much as possible. Secondarily, what they could not reduce they committed themselves to recycle. The project demonstrates functional reduction in practice. It shows that reduction is a realistic goal for county governments and that reduction can be measured on a waste stream by waste stream basis.

  8. Digital computer processing of LANDSAT data for North Alabama. [Linestone County, Madison County, Jackson County, Marshall County, and DeKalb County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. D.; Atkinson, R. J.; Lybanon, M.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1977-01-01

    Computer processing procedures and programs applied to Multispectral Scanner data from LANDSAT are described. The output product produced is a level 1 land use map in conformance with a Universal Transverse Mercator projection. The region studied was a five-county area in north Alabama.

  9. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY... Water Supply Project, Clarke County, Iowa. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Sims, State... comments by NRCS information related to water supply demand requirements for permitting by the State...

  10. 78 FR 29202 - Environmental Impact Statement: Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk... prepared for a proposed highway project in Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota. FOR... Sorlie Bridge over the Red River between Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks,...

  11. 75 FR 42815 - Fulton County, LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Fulton County, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Fulton County, LLC--Abandonment Exemption--in Fulton County, IN Fulton County, LLC (FC), filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 subpart F--Exempt Abandonments to... exemption, any employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short...

  12. The Economic Impact of Schenectady County Community College on Schenectady County, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chestnut, Erma Ruth

    This report on the economic impact of Schenectady County Community College (SCCC) uses a modification of the Caffrey and Isaacs model to assess SCCC-related local business volume, SCCC costs and benefits to the Schenectady County government, and the likely impact on the county if SCCC did not exist. Part I provides background to the study,…

  13. 75 FR 45557 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Tulsa County, OK, and Angelina County, TX, to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Counties, TX. Santa Clara, CA On March 9, 2009, we published a final rule (74 FR 9951) that abolished the... County, OK, and Angelina County, TX, to Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage System Wage Areas AGENCY... area of application to the Oklahoma, OK, nonappropriated fund (NAF) Federal Wage System (FWS) wage...

  14. 75 FR 25308 - Environmental Impact Statement: Winnebago County, IL and Rock County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Winnebago County, IL and Rock County, WI... Beloit, Rock County, Wisconsin to the interchange of Rockton Road and I-90 southeast of South...

  15. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  16. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  17. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  18. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  19. Determining intensive parameters through clinopyroxene-liquid equilibrium in Grímsvötn 2011 and Bárðarbunga 2014 basalts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Baptiste; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Devidal, Jean-Luc

    2015-04-01

    Pressure (P) and temperature (T) at which magma is stored before eruption are parameters needed for better understanding of pre-eruptive signals. Putirka (2008) reviewed various igneous geothermobarometers based on crystal-liquid equilibrium. These allow evaluating early melt inclusion (MI) entrapment conditions and final crystal-matrix glass P-T equilibrium conditions. In this study, the former is based on clinopyroxene (cpx)-hosted MI and cpx-host measurements, whereas the latter is estimated from analyses of crystal rims and adjacent matrix glass. Olivine (ol)-liquid equilibrium is rapidly attained and records the last thermal equilibrium before basalt eruptions. In contrast, more sluggish reaction between cpx and liquid makes MI in cpx cores the choice for estimating the deepest (and hottest) crystal-liquid equilibrium. Equilibrium criteria were evaluated from the apparent Fe-Mg exchange and textural relationships. Tephra erupted at Grímsvötn central volcano 2011 is of quartz tholeiite composition whereas the 2014 tephra from Bárðarbunga volcanic system is a more primitive olivine tholeiite. These two basalt types are the most common in Iceland and form a crust with estimated density of 2800 kg/m3. Both basalts contain approximately 1-5% phenocrysts of plagioclases, cpx and ol with sparse sulphides and, in the Grímsvötn case, ubiquitous FeTi-oxides. The geothermobarometers suggest that cpx crystallized at P from 60 to 620 MPa (depth range: 1.7-17 km) and T between 1030 and 1135 °C before the Grímsvötn 2011 eruption. In marked contrast, the Bárðarbunga ol-tholeiite crystallized at higher P from 410 to 660 MPa (depth range: 11-18 km) at restricted T of 1176 to 1182 °C. The shallowest recorded crystallization depth at Grímsvötn coincides with geophysical depth estimates of its high-level magma chamber (1.8 km; Hreinsdóttir et al., 2014), whereas the deepest crystallization is within error of the estimated mantle-crust boundary, as also observed for

  20. 75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT AGENCY: Federal... highway project in Yellowstone County, Montana. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brian Hasselbach, Right... (I-90) and Old Highway 312 in or near the city of Billings, Yellowstone County, Montana....

  1. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST ALONG JEFFERSON COUNTY 71 WITH RAILROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST ALONG JEFFERSON COUNTY 71 WITH RAILROAD BRIDGE (RIGHT), SADDLEBAG COTTAGE (LEFT) AND COAL TRUCK. - Linn Crossing Trestle Bridge, Spanning County Road 71, Linn Crossing, Jefferson County, AL

  2. 111. 'PROPOSED CIRCULATION SYSTEM.' FROM FAIRFIELD COUNTY PLANNING ASSOCIATION, FAIRFIELD: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. 'PROPOSED CIRCULATION SYSTEM.' FROM FAIRFIELD COUNTY PLANNING ASSOCIATION, FAIRFIELD: THE FIRST PLANNED COUNTY IN NEW ENGLAND, JUNE 1933. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  3. 113. "EXISTING MAJOR HIGHWAYS". FROM FAIRFIELD COUNTY PLANNING ASSOCIATION, FAIRFIELD: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. "EXISTING MAJOR HIGHWAYS". FROM FAIRFIELD COUNTY PLANNING ASSOCIATION, FAIRFIELD: THE FIRST PLANNED COUNTY IN NEW ENGLAND. JUNE 1933 - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  4. 112. 'PROPOSED CIRCULATION SYSTEM.' FROM FAIRFIELD COUNTY PLANNING ASSOCIATION, FAIRFIELD: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. 'PROPOSED CIRCULATION SYSTEM.' FROM FAIRFIELD COUNTY PLANNING ASSOCIATION, FAIRFIELD: THE FIRST PLANNED COUNTY IN NEW ENGLAND. JUNE 1933. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  5. Human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells improve cardiac function in cTnT(R141W) transgenic mouse of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xuhe; Wang, Pengbo; Wu, Qingqing; Wang, Sijia; Yu, Litian; Wang, Guogan

    2016-01-01

    Cell transplantation is a promising strategy in regenerative medicine. Beneficial effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on heart disease have been widely reported. However, the MSCs in these studies have been mainly derived from autologous animals, and data on MSCs from human umbilical cord blood (UCB-MSCs) are still scarce. We investigated whether intramyocardial xenogeneic administration of UCB-MSCs is beneficial for preserving heart function in a cTnT(R141W) transgenic mouse of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Cultured UCB-MSCs, which were identified by there morphology, differentiation and cell surface markers, were transplanted into cTnT(R141W) transgenic mice to examine apoptosis, fibrosis, vasculogenesis and the associated Akt pathway. Moreover, we measured the expression levels of VEGF and IGF-1, which are growth factors required for differentiation into cardiomyocytes, and are also involved in cardiac regeneration and improving heart function. One month after transplantation, MSCs significantly decreased chamber dilation and contractile dysfunction in the cTnT(R141W) mice. MSCs transplanted hearts showed a significant decrease in cardiac apoptosis and its regulation by the Akt pathway. Cardiac fibrosis and cytoplasmic vacuolisation were significantly attenuated in the MSCs group. Importantly, the levels of VEGF and IGF-1 were increased in the MSCs transplanted hearts. In vitro, the MSC-conditioned medium displayed anti-apoptotic activity in h9c2 cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia. These results further confirm the paracrine effects of MSCs. In conclusion, UCB-MSCs preserve cardiac function after intramyocardial transplantation in a DCM mouse, and this effect may be associated with reductions in cellular apoptosis, inflammation, hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis; in addition to; up-regulation of Akt, VEGF and IGF-1; and enhanced angiogenesis. PMID:26655348

  6. Which Biomarker is the Best for Predicting Mortality in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: NT-ProBNP, Cardiac TnT, or hsCRP?

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyung Jung; Lee, Mi Jung; Kwon, Young Eun; Park, Kyoung Sook; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although numerous previous studies have explored various biomarkers for their ability to predict mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, these studies have been limited by retrospective analyses, mostly prevalent dialysis patients, and the measurement of only 1 or 2 biomarkers. This prospective study was aimed to evaluate the association between 3 biomarkers and mortality in incident 335 ESRD patients starting continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in Korea. According to the baseline NT-proBNP, cTnT, and hsCRP levels, the patients were stratified into tertiles, and cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortalities were compared. Additionally, time-dependent ROC curves were constructed, and the net reclassification index (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of the models with various biomarkers were calculated. We found the upper tertile of NT-proBNP was significantly associated with increased risk of both CV and all-cause mortalities. However, the upper tertile of hsCRP was significantly related only to the high risk of all-cause mortality even after adjustment for age, sex, and white blood cell counts. Moreover, NT-proBNP had the highest predictive power for CV mortality, whereas hsCRP was the best prognostic marker for all-cause mortality among these biomarkers. In conclusions, NT-proBNP is a more significant prognostic factor for CV mortality than cTnT and hsCRP, whereas hsCRP is a more significant predictor than NT-proBNP and cTnT for all-cause mortality in incident peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:26554763

  7. Volcanic ash leaching as a means of tracing the environmental impact of the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption, Iceland.

    PubMed

    Cabré, J; Aulinas, M; Rejas, M; Fernandez-Turiel, J L

    2016-07-01

    The Grímsvötn volcanic eruption, from 21 to 28 May, 2011, was the largest eruption of the Grímsvötn Volcanic System since 1873, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of magnitude 4. The main geochemical features of the potential environmental impact of the volcanic ash-water interaction were determined using two different leaching methods as proxies (batch and vertical flow-through column experiments). Ash consists of glass with minor amounts of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, diopside, olivine and iron sulphide; this latter mineral phase is very rare in juvenile ash. Ash grain morphology and size reflect the intense interaction of magma and water during eruption. Batch and column leaching tests in deionised water indicate that Na, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Cl, S and F had the highest potential geochemical fluxes to the environment. Release of various elements from volcanic ash took place immediately through dissolution of soluble salts from the ash surface. Element solubilities of Grímsvötn ash regarding bulk ash composition were <1 %. Combining the element solubilities and the total estimated mass of tephra (7.29 × 10(14) g), the total inputs of environmentally important elements were estimated to be 8.91 × 10(9) g Ca, 7.02 × 10(9) g S, 1.10 × 10(9) g Cl, 9.91 × 10(8) g Mg, 9.91 × 10(8) g Fe and 1.45 × 10(8) g P The potential environmental problems were mainly associated with the release of F (5.19 × 10(9) g).

  8. Landsliding in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Reginald Peter; Pomeroy, John S.; Davies, William E.

    1975-01-01

    Man should proceed with caution if modifications such as loading, excavation, or changes of the water regime are contemplated for slopes in Allegheny County, especially those slopes described on the map as highly sensitive to disturbance by man. Features indicative of unstable slope conditions include: cracks in buildings, yard walls, and pools; doors and windows that jam; fences and other linear features bowed out of line; tilted trees and utility poles; cracks and steplike ground features; hummocky ground; and water seeps. Geologic factors related to the landsliding process include rock types, layering, fracturing, and attitude; nature of soil cover; permeability of rocks and soils; and steepness of slope.

  9. Geothermal development plan: Pinal county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Wells drilled in the county provide evidence of geothermal energy sufficient for process heat and space heating and cooling applications. Annual energy consumption was estimated for industries whose process heat requirements are less than 105/sup 0/C (221/sup 0/F). This information was then used to model the introduction of geothermal energy into the process heat market. Also, agriculture and agribusiness industries were identified. Many of these are located on or near a geothermal resource and might be able to utilize geothermal energy in their operations.

  10. Double Copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a on an IncX3 Plasmid in Klebsiella pneumoniae Successful Clone ST512 from Italy.

    PubMed

    Fortini, Daniela; Villa, Laura; Feudi, Claudia; Pires, João; Bonura, Celestino; Mammina, Caterina; Endimiani, Andrea; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    A carbapenem-resistant sequence type 512 (ST512) Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 3 (KPC-3)-producing K. pneumoniae strain showing a novel variant plasmid content was isolated in Palermo, Italy, in 2014. ST512 is a worldwide successful clone associated with the spread of bla(KPC) genes located on the IncFIIk pKpQIL plasmid. In our ST512 strain, the bla(KPC-3) gene was unusually located on an IncX3 plasmid, whose complete sequence was determined. Two copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a caused by intramolecular transposition events were detected in the plasmid. PMID:26525794

  11. Double Copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a on an IncX3 Plasmid in Klebsiella pneumoniae Successful Clone ST512 from Italy.

    PubMed

    Fortini, Daniela; Villa, Laura; Feudi, Claudia; Pires, João; Bonura, Celestino; Mammina, Caterina; Endimiani, Andrea; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2015-11-02

    A carbapenem-resistant sequence type 512 (ST512) Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 3 (KPC-3)-producing K. pneumoniae strain showing a novel variant plasmid content was isolated in Palermo, Italy, in 2014. ST512 is a worldwide successful clone associated with the spread of bla(KPC) genes located on the IncFIIk pKpQIL plasmid. In our ST512 strain, the bla(KPC-3) gene was unusually located on an IncX3 plasmid, whose complete sequence was determined. Two copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a caused by intramolecular transposition events were detected in the plasmid.

  12. The Relation of the Level of Serum Anti-TF, -Tn and -Alpha-Gal IgG to Survival in Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Smorodin, Eugeniy; Sergeyev, Boris; Klaamas, Kersti; Chuzmarov, Valentin; Kurtenkov, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relation of the level of serum anti-TF, -Tn and -αGal carbohydrate antibodies to survival in gastrointestinal cancer patients. Methods: The level of anti-TF (Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen), -Tn and -αGal IgG was analysed in the serum of patients with gastric (n = 83) and colorectal (n = 51) cancers in the long-term follow-up, using ELISA with polyacrylamide glycoconjugates. To evaluate overall survival and the risk of death, the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used in the univariate analysis of patients groups. Results: A significantly better survival was observed: (1) in patients with an increased level of anti-TF antibodies (all, stage III, T2-4, N1-2 and G3; P = 0.004-0.038, HR = 0.16-0.46); and (2) in patients with an increased level of anti-Tn antibodies (G1-2 tumors; P = 0.034-0.042, HR = 0.34-0.47). A significantly worse survival was observed in gastrointestinal, gastric and colorectal groups with an increased level of serum anti-αGal antibodies. This association depended on the patho-morphology of tumors (all, stages I-II, III, T2-4, N0, N1-2 and G1-2; P = 0.006-0.048, HR = 1.99-2.33). In the combined assessment of the anti-TF and -αGal antibodies level of the whole gastrointestinal group (n = 53), P = 0.002, HR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.094-0.655. In the follow-up, the survival time was shorter in patients whose level of anti-αGal antibodies rose (P = 0.009-0.040, HR = 2.18-4.27). The level of anti-TF antibodies inversely correlated with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR, r = - 0.401, P = 0.004, n = 49). Patients with a higher level of anti-αGal antibodies and NLR values demonstrated a significantly worse survival (P = 0.009, HR = 2.98, n = 48). Conclusions: The preoperative levels of anti-TF, -Tn and -αGal antibodies and their dynamics are of prognostic significance. The method for the determination of circulating anti-carbohydrate antibodies may be a useful supplement in clinical outcome assessment

  13. Water resources of Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Jon P.; Miller, Kirk A.

    2004-01-01

    Sweetwater County is located in the southwestern part of Wyoming and is the largest county in the State. A study to quantify the availability and describe the chemical quality of surface-water and ground-water resources in Sweetwater County was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineers Office. Most of the county has an arid climate. For this reason a large amount of the flow in perennial streams within the county is derived from outside the county. Likewise, much of the ground-water recharge to aquifers within the county is from flows into the county, and occurs slowly. Surface-water data were not collected as part of the study. Evaluations of streamflow and stream-water quality were limited to analyses of historical data and descriptions of previous investigations. Forty-six new ground-water-quality samples were collected as part of the study and the results from an additional 782 historical ground-water-quality samples were reviewed. Available hydrogeologic characteristics for various aquifers throughout the county also are described. Flow characteristics of streams in Sweetwater County vary substantially depending on regional and local basin characteristics and anthropogenic factors. Because precipitation amounts in the county are small, most streams in the county are ephemeral, flowing only as a result of regional or local rainfall or snowmelt runoff. Flows in perennial streams in the county generally are a result of snowmelt runoff in the mountainous headwater areas to the north, west, and south of the county. Flow characteristics of most perennial streams are altered substantially by diversions and regulation. Water-quality characteristics of selected streams in and near Sweetwater County during water years 1974 through 1983 were variable. Concentrations of dissolved constituents, suspended sediment, and bacteria generally were smallest at sites on the Green River because of resistant geologic units, increased

  14. 76 FR 28415 - Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee Coordinator, c/ o Sierra National Forest, High... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource ] Advisory Committee Coordinator,...

  15. 76 FR 44302 - Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee Coordinator, c/ o Sierra National Forest, High... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee Coordinator,...

  16. Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

  17. Educational and Demographic Profile: Mendocino County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Mendocino County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  18. Geothermal development issues: Recommendations to Deschutes County

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, C.

    1982-07-01

    This report discusses processes and issues related to geothermal development. It is intended to inform planners and interested individuals in Deschutes County about geothermal energy, and advise County officials as to steps that can be taken in anticipation of resource development. (ACR)

  19. Latinos and Education in Ventura County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segura, Denise A.

    This paper provides an overview of demographic and educational attainment data on Latinos in Ventura County, California, and describes an ongoing initiative to increase Latino college attendance through improved K-12 preparation and family involvement. In both its urban and rural areas, Ventura County harbors large Latino populations who are…

  20. Educational and Demographic Profile: Lake County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Lake County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced communication…

  1. Commodity Flow Study - Clark County, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, S.Ph.D.; Navis, I.

    2008-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy has designated Clark County, Nevada as an 'Affected Unit of Local Government' due to the potential for impacts by activities associated with the Yucca Mountain High Level Nuclear Waste Repository project. Urban Transit, LLC has led a project team of transportation including experts from the University of Nevada Las Vegas Transportation Research Center to conduct a hazardous materials community flow study along Clark County's rail and truck corridors. In addition, a critical infrastructure analysis has also been carried out in order to assess the potential impacts of transportation within Clark County of high level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel to a proposed repository 90 miles away in an adjacent county on the critical infrastructure in Clark County. These studies were designed to obtain information relating to the transportation, identification and routing of hazardous materials through Clark County. Coordinating with the United States Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the U. S. Federal Highway Administration, the Nevada Department of Transportation, and various other stakeholders, these studies and future research will examine the risk factors along the entire transportation corridor within Clark County and provide a context for understanding the additional vulnerability associated with shipping spent fuel through Clark County. (authors)

  2. Educational and Demographic Profile: San Benito County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for San Benito County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  3. Public Library Service for San Benito County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Gail

    A sparsely populated, agricultural area, San Benito County (California) provides library services in conjunction with the Hollister city library and in cooperation with the San Juan Bautista city library. Financing comes from the county general fund. There are no written goals or policy statements and no professionally trained librarians. As…

  4. Groundwater management and protection Madison County, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    French, J.H.; Strunk, J.W.

    1990-07-01

    Groundwater is extremely important to Madison County as it provides nearly three quarters of the county's drinking water. In recent years, Madison County has increasingly recognized the need to protect its groundwater resource. A supply of usable groundwater is one element of a high quality environment, which can help spur economic development and provide for the needs of a growing population. Without planning protection and understanding of possible consequences, however, economic development and population pressures can cause a gradual degradation of groundwater. In April 1987, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) convened a local groundwater steering group in Madison County. At the first meeting the ground agreed upon these goals: (1) to seek incorporate groundwater protection into the planning and development process for Madison County, (2) to support efforts by Madison County to obtain authority to adopt zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, and (3) to develop a groundwater management plan for the county. This report provides essential information needed in developing a plan and is based on the following assumptions: the citizens of Madison County value the environment in which they live and wish to protect it from pollution; continued economic development is necessary for a healthy local economy; and a healthy economy can be sustained and nurtured, without degradation of the groundwater resource, through countywide planning, education, and participation.

  5. 24 CFR 570.307 - Urban counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... activities, specifically urban renewal and publicly assisted housing. In determining whether a county has the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Urban counties. 570.307 Section 570.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  6. 24 CFR 570.307 - Urban counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... activities, specifically urban renewal and publicly assisted housing. In determining whether a county has the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban counties. 570.307 Section 570.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  7. 24 CFR 570.307 - Urban counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... activities, specifically urban renewal and publicly assisted housing. In determining whether a county has the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Urban counties. 570.307 Section 570.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  8. 24 CFR 570.307 - Urban counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... activities, specifically urban renewal and publicly assisted housing. In determining whether a county has the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urban counties. 570.307 Section 570.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  9. 24 CFR 570.307 - Urban counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... activities, specifically urban renewal and publicly assisted housing. In determining whether a county has the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urban counties. 570.307 Section 570.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  10. A Rural County's Response to Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughran, Elizabeth Lee; White, Priscilla

    This paper describes the response of one locality, a rural county in Western Massachusetts, to the reality of rural homelessness. Jessie's House, in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, is a short-term emergency shelter providing meals, housing, and advocacy to homeless families and individuals. The shelter has a staff of three full-time residents and…

  11. Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

    The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

  12. Socioeconomic Heterogeneity of Mining-Dependent Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark; Luloff, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Although the socioeconomic well-being of all U.S. mining-dependent counties was slightly above the national average in 1990, disaggregation reveals substantial effects of region and mining subsector. In particular, southern and Great Lakes coal-mining counties had significantly lower high school graduation rates and higher poverty and unemployment…

  13. A Profile of Anson County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, M. Gaston; And Others

    Since 1950 Anson County, North Carolina, has had major contributions to economic development, a source of great concern to residents of the almost entirely rural area. The increased capacity of the Blewitt Falls Dam power output and the county-wide water filtration system (one of only a few in the United States today) are attractive to industry.…

  14. [A Profile of Kershaw County, South Carolina].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Stephen C.; McLean, Edward L.

    Careful long-range planning and slow, deliberate growth have benefitted Kershaw County's 500,000 pleasantly varied acres near the state capitol. The county, famous for its equestrian activity, boasts prestige stables, riding clubs, and trails. In addition there are lakes and numerous parks. Leaders want to maintain this aesthetic appeal while…

  15. A Profile of Hardee County, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Anderson, Deborah S.

    In 1977 leaders of Hardee County, Florida, listed relationships and attitudes of residents, rural atmosphere, environmental conditions, and economic potential among the county's strong points, and public service and facility improvements, developing economic potential, recreational and entertainment development, and planning and zoning as its most…

  16. Educational and Demographic Profile: Yolo County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Yolo County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced communication…

  17. The Farm Crisis and Decatur County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Jan L.; And Others

    This case study assesses the impact of the farm sector on the economy and social organization of Decatur County (Kansas), a county which has historically depended on agriculture for its livelihood. Data were obtained from analysis of time series statistical indicators for the period between 1966 and 1984, questionnaire responses of local…

  18. Educational and Demographic Profile: San Joaquin County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for San Joaquin County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  19. Geothermal development plan: Yuma County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The potential for utilizing geothermal energy was evaluated. Four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 900C (1940F) were identified, and in addition, two areas are inferred to contain geothermal resources with intermediate temperature potential. The resource areas are isolated. One resource site contains a hot dry rock resource. Anticipated population growth in the county is expected to be 2% per year over the next 40 years. The primary employment sector is agriculture, though some light industry is located in the county. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support future growth without adverse affect on agriculture. In addition, several agricultural processors were found, concentrated in citrus processing and livestock raising. It is suggested that by the year 2000, geothermal energy may economically provide the energy equivalent of 53,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector if developed privately. Geothermal utilization projections increase to 132,000 barrels of oil per year by 2000 if a municipal utility developed the resource.

  20. Family planning in Nangong County.

    PubMed

    Sun, X

    1980-04-01

    Family planning has been practiced in Nangong county, China, since 1971; as a result the population growth rate has dropped from 16.7/1000 to 3.6/1000 in 1979; 98% of women of childbearing age use contraception, and most couples have only 1 child. Before 1971 most couples had 4-5 children; per capita grain rations had to be reduced because of the increase in population, and more grain had to be supplied by the state. 1 child families are now rewarded with an annual monetary bonus, extra grain allocations for the child, free tuition in schools, and preference in job placement and medical treatment. Parents who have more than 2 children are penalized by the withdrawal of 10% of their monthly earnings. The idea of "1 couple 1 child" is a radical change from China's traditional culture, which viewed children especially sons, as an insurance against old age insecurity. Marriage at a later age is also encouraged; in Nangong county none of the men of marriageable age married before 25, and none of the women before 23. As a result of promoting family planning Nangong country has ceased to need grain subsidies from the state, and in recent years has had a 10,000 ton surplus to sell.

  1. Family planning in Nangong County.

    PubMed

    Sun, X

    1980-04-01

    Family planning has been practiced in Nangong county, China, since 1971; as a result the population growth rate has dropped from 16.7/1000 to 3.6/1000 in 1979; 98% of women of childbearing age use contraception, and most couples have only 1 child. Before 1971 most couples had 4-5 children; per capita grain rations had to be reduced because of the increase in population, and more grain had to be supplied by the state. 1 child families are now rewarded with an annual monetary bonus, extra grain allocations for the child, free tuition in schools, and preference in job placement and medical treatment. Parents who have more than 2 children are penalized by the withdrawal of 10% of their monthly earnings. The idea of "1 couple 1 child" is a radical change from China's traditional culture, which viewed children especially sons, as an insurance against old age insecurity. Marriage at a later age is also encouraged; in Nangong county none of the men of marriageable age married before 25, and none of the women before 23. As a result of promoting family planning Nangong country has ceased to need grain subsidies from the state, and in recent years has had a 10,000 ton surplus to sell. PMID:12264032

  2. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  3. Water resources of Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The report describes the hydrology and water resources of Duval County, the development of its water supplies, and water use within the county. Also included are descriptions of various natural features of the county (such as topography and geology), an explanation of the hydrologic cycle, and an interpretation of the relationship between them. Ground-water and surface-water resources and principal water-quality features within the county are also discussed. The report is intended to provide the general public with an overview of the water resources Of Duval County, and to increase public awareness of water issues. Information is presented in nontechnical language to enable the general reader to understand facts about water as a part of nature, and the problems associated with its development and use.

  4. Environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and the eight other potentially sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Deaf Smith County site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization. 591 refs., 147 figs., 173 tabs.

  5. Different VanA Elements in E. faecalis and in E. faecium Suggest at Least Two Origins of Tn1546 Among VRE in a Brazilian Hospital.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Thaís Panhan; Dabul, Andrei Nicoli Gebieluca; Camargo, Ilana Lopes Baratella Cunha

    2015-06-01

    In 2009 during surveillance in a Brazilian hospital, many patients were confirmed to be colonized by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and a few infection cases occurred. Among 14 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis, most had the same pulsotype, virulence profile (agg(+)elrA(+)gelE(+)), and were sequence type (ST)103, indicating dissemination of a clone. The 47 Enterococcus faecium were separated into four pulsotypes, the predominant virulence profile being esp(+)acm(+). All of them harbored the hospital marker IS16, and three randomly chosen isolates were ST412, belonging to the Clonal Complex 17. E. faecalis were all susceptible to penicillin and ampicillin, while all E. faecium were resistant to them. All isolates were susceptible to daptomycin and tigecycline. There were no rep-family genes common to all VRE. The VanA element of all E. faecium lost its left-side inverted repeat (IRL) region and had a specific IS insertion. On the other hand, all E. faecalis presented intact Tn1546. The size of plasmids containing the vanA gene as well as its rep-families varied between and within species. The lack of a vanA plasmid common to all VRE, together with the differences among VanA elements, despite the fact that some patients were colonized by both species during their hospitalization, leads us to suggest at least two different Tn1546 origins.

  6. Temperature-Dependent Postmortem Changes in Human Cardiac Troponin-T (cTnT): An Approach in Estimation of Time Since Death.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachil; Ali, Wahid; Singh, Uma S; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bhattacharya, Sandeep; Verma, Anoop K; Rupani, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of time of death is an indispensible requirement of every medico-legal autopsy, but unfortunately, there is not a single method by which it could be determined accurately. This study focused on the temperature-dependent postmortem degradation of cardiac troponin-T and its association with postmortem interval (PMI) in human. The analysis involved extraction of the protein, separation by denaturing gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and visualization by Western blot using cTnT-specific monoclonal antibodies. The area of the bands within a lane was quantified by scanning and digitizing the image using Gel Doc (Universal Hood). The results indicate a characteristic banding pattern among human cadavers (n = 6) and a pseudo-linear relationship between percentage of cTnT degradation and the log of the time since death (r > 0.95), which can be used to estimate the postmortem interval. The data presented demonstrate that this technique can provide an extended time range during which PMI can be more accurately estimated. PMID:26352514

  7. Genome-Wide Fitness and Genetic Interactions Determined by Tn-seq, a High-Throughput Massively Parallel Sequencing Method for Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    van Opijnen, Tim; Lazinski, David W.; Camilli, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The lagging annotation of bacterial genomes and the inherent genetic complexity of many phenotypes is hindering the discovery of new drug targets and the development of new antimicrobial agents and vaccines. This unit presents Tn-seq, a method that has made it possible to quantitatively determine fitness for most genes in a microorganism and to screen for quantitative genetic interactions on a genome-wide scale and in a high-throughput fashion. Tn-seq can thus direct studies on the annotation of genes and untangle complex phenotypes. The method is based on the construction of a saturated transposon insertion library. After library selection, changes in the frequency of each insertion mutant are determined by sequencing flanking regions en masse. These changes are used to calculate each mutant’s fitness. The method was originally developed for the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a causative agent of pneumonia and meningitis, but has now been applied to several different microbial species. PMID:25641100

  8. Mini-Tn5 transposon derivatives for insertion mutagenesis, promoter probing, and chromosomal insertion of cloned DNA in gram-negative eubacteria.

    PubMed Central

    de Lorenzo, V; Herrero, M; Jakubzik, U; Timmis, K N

    1990-01-01

    A collection of Tn5-derived minitransposons has been constructed that simplifies substantially the generation of insertion mutants, in vivo fusions with reporter genes, and the introduction of foreign DNA fragments into the chromosome of a variety of gram-negative bacteria, including the enteric bacteria and typical soil bacteria like Pseudomonas species. The minitransposons consist of genes specifying resistance to kanamycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin-spectinomycin, and tetracycline as selection markers and a unique NotI cloning site flanked by 19-base-pair terminal repeat sequences of Tn5. Further derivatives also contain lacZ, phoA, luxAB, or xylE genes devoid of their native promoters located next to the terminal repeats in an orientation that affords the generation of gene-operon fusions. The transposons are located on a R6K-based suicide delivery plasmid that provides the IS50R transposase tnp gene in cis but external to the mobile element and whose conjugal transfer to recipients is mediated by RP4 mobilization functions in the donor. PMID:2172217

  9. Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, Arthur

    2015-03-04

    The Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative represented a comprehensive and collaborative approach to promoting and implementing energy efficiency improvements. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. The ultimate goal of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative was to implement a total of 1,067 residential energy efficiency retrofits with a minimum 15% estimated energy efficiency savings per unit. Program partners included: United States Department of Energy, Allegheny Power, and Private Industry Council of Westmoreland-Fayette, Fayette County Redevelopment Authority, and various local partners. The program was open to any Fayette County residents who own their home and meet the prequalifying conditions. The level of assistance offered depended upon household income and commitment to undergo a BPI – Certified Audit and implement energy efficiency measures, which aimed to result in at least a 15% reduction in energy usage. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. Additionally, the program had components that involved recruitment and training for employment of persons in the energy sector (green jobs), as well as marketing and implementation of a commercial or community facilities component. The residential component of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative involved a comprehensive approach, providing assistance to low- moderate- and market-rate homeowners. The initiative will also coordinate activities with local utility providers to further incentivize energy efficiency improvements among qualifying homeowners. The commercial component of Fayette County’s Better Building Initiative involved grants

  10. Nolley v. County of Erie.

    PubMed

    1991-10-31

    The U.S. District Court, Western District of New York, held that the Erie County Holding Center (ECHC) had violated an HIV-positive inmate's privacy rights under the U.S. Constitution and the New York Public Health Law by placing red stickers on the inmate's paperwork and belongings, and by segregating her from the general inmate population. The court reasoned that, pursuant to the federal Centers for Disease Control's recommendation that corrections staff take HIV precautions with all inmates, the ECHC's treatment constituted an unjustifiable isolation based solely on her HIV status. The court also held that the ECHC further violated the inmate's constitutional rights by denying her access to the law library and to religious services. Although the court found the inmate's incarceration conditions "deplorable," the conditions did not constitute "cruel and unusual punishment." The court also found no federal Rehabilitation Act violation because the ECHC did not receive federal financial assistance.

  11. Hydrologic conditions: Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohout, Francis Anthony; Klein, Howard; Sherwood, C.B.; Leach, Stanley D.

    1964-01-01

    Thin layers of dense limestone of low permeability that occur near the top of the Biscayne aquifer in the vicinity of the north end of Levee 30 in Dade County, Florida are of hydrologic importance because they retard the downward infiltration of ponded water in Conservation Area No. 3. This retarding effect frequently results in high head differentials across the levee. Tests made in a small area adjacent to Levee 30 indicate that the coefficient of transmissibility of the aquifer is 3,600,000 gpd (gallons per day) per foot, and the coefficient of vertical permeability of the dense limestones is 13 gpd per square foot. If ground-water flow beneath the levee is laminar, the total inflow to the Levee 30 Canal from Conservation Area No. 3 will be about 350 mgd (million gallons per day), or 540 cfs (cubic feet per second), per mile length of levee when the head difference across the levee is 10 feet.

  12. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan

    2011-08-25

    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  13. Computer Technology in Rural Schools: The Case of Mendocino County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoachlander, E. Gareth

    The county education office of Mendocino County, California, serving nine school districts and 11,800 elementary and secondary students, began planning for computers in 1979-1980, purchased two central computers, and by 1983 had one computer or terminal for every 40 students in the county. The county was characterized by its very enthusiastic…

  14. Evaluation of the Union County Alternative to Suspension Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Joyce Ann

    2010-01-01

    The schools in Union County have undergone a tremendous amount of growth in the past decade. The growth in the county has led to an increase in discipline problems. In order to provide suspended students a second chance, Union County Public Schools implemented an alternative to suspension program, the Union County Alternative to Suspension Program…

  15. 7 CFR 760.902 - Eligible counties and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible counties and disaster periods. 760.902... § 760.902 Eligible counties and disaster periods. Counties are eligible for agricultural assistance..., 2005, and before February 28, 2007. Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods are...

  16. 7 CFR 760.902 - Eligible counties and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible counties and disaster periods. 760.902... § 760.902 Eligible counties and disaster periods. Counties are eligible for agricultural assistance..., 2005, and before February 28, 2007. Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods are...

  17. 7 CFR 760.902 - Eligible counties and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible counties and disaster periods. 760.902... § 760.902 Eligible counties and disaster periods. Counties are eligible for agricultural assistance..., 2005, and before February 28, 2007. Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods are...

  18. 7 CFR 760.902 - Eligible counties and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible counties and disaster periods. 760.902... § 760.902 Eligible counties and disaster periods. Counties are eligible for agricultural assistance..., 2005, and before February 28, 2007. Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods are...

  19. 7 CFR 760.902 - Eligible counties and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible counties and disaster periods. 760.902... § 760.902 Eligible counties and disaster periods. Counties are eligible for agricultural assistance..., 2005, and before February 28, 2007. Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods are...

  20. 7 CFR 1230.634 - FSA county office report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Referendum § 1230.634 FSA county office report. The FSA county office will notify the FSA State office of the results of the referendum. Each FSA county office will transmit the results of the referendum in its county to the FSA State office....