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Sample records for sevier county tn

  1. Seepage study of the Sevier Valley-Piute Canal, Sevier County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruff, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the gains or losses of the Sevier Valley-Piute Canal from near Joseph to near Aurora, Sevier County, Utah, was made to aid in water allocation for the canal system. Four sets of seepage measurements were made in 1976, with the three most representative being used in the analysis. Adjustments for fluctuations in flow in the canals were made from information obtained from water-stage recorders operated at selected locations along the canal during the time of each seepage run.

  2. Brookside Mills, Knox County, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Brookside Mills, located in Knox County, TN, was a textile mill that was founded in 1885 and at its peak employed over 1,000 people. Its former uses included fabric weaving, dying, and sewing operations. It was at some point a department store, and during a portion of its history, coal was used as an energy source. Weaving operations continued in some form at the Brookside factory until 1969. In 1996 the buildings were demolished.

  3. Test drilling in the upper Sevier River drainage basin, Garfield and Piute Counties, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feltis, R.D.; Robinson, G.B. Jr.

    1963-01-01

    A test-drilling program was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the upper Sevier River drainage basin (fig. 1) in the summer of 1962. The program was part of a ground-water investigation made in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer. The drilling was financed cooperatively through the State Engineer by the U.S. Geological Survey, Garfield, Piute, Sevier, Sanpete, and Millard Counties, and various water users within those counties. Drilling began in May and continued through September 1962, and 21 test holes were drilled.

  4. Seepage study of the South Bend, Richfield, and Vermillion Canals, Sevier County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbert, L.R.; Smith, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    A seepage investigation was made in 1987 on selected reaches of the South Bend, Richfield, and Vermillion Canals in Sevier County, Utah, to determine gains or losses in discharge.  Fluctuations in discharge were adjusted using information from stage recorders operated at selected locations during each set of discharge measurements. The investigation showed a net gain of 0.2 cubic foot per second in the South Bend canal: the upper reach gained 1.5 cubic feet per second, the two middle reaches together lost 2.5 cubic feet per second, and the lower reach gained 1.2 cubic feet per second.  The Richfield Canal showed a net loss of 2.4 cubic feet per second: the two upper reaches together lost 4.4 cubic feet per second and the two lower reaches together gained 2.0 cubic feet per second.  The Vermillion canal showed a net loss of 0.2 cubic foot per second: the upper reach gained 2.3 cubic feet per second and the lower reach lost 2.5 cubic feet per second.

  5. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Deliverable 2.5.4, Ferron Sandstone lithologic strip logs, Emergy & Sevier Counties, Utah: Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L.

    1995-12-08

    Strip logs for 491 wells were produced from a digital subsurface database of lithologic descriptions of the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale. This subsurface database covers wells from the parts of Emery and Sevier Counties in central Utah that occur between Ferron Creek on the north and Last Chance Creek on the south. The lithologic descriptions were imported into a logging software application designed for the display of stratigraphic data. Strip logs were produced at a scale of one inch equals 20 feet. The strip logs were created as part of a study by the Utah Geological Survey to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and qualitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir using the Ferron Sandstone as a surface analogue. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Geoscience/Engineering Reservoir Characterization Program.

  6. Underground water in Sanpete and central Sevier valleys, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, George Burr

    1907-01-01

    Sanpete and central Sevier valleys are situated at the border of the Basin Range and Plateau provinces in south-central Utah. They are bounded on the east by the Wasatch and Sevier plateaus and on the west by the Gunnison Plateau and the Valley and Pavant ranges, and are drained by Sevier River, which empties into Sevier Lake in the Great Basin. (See fig. 1, p. 6.)These valleys rank with the richest parts of the State. They were occupied a few years after the Mormon pioneers founded Salt Lake City, in 1847, when settlements, which soon became thriving farming communities, were established where water for irrigation was most available. A variety of crops, especially wheat, are successfully grown, and the valleys are popularly known as the "granary of Utah." Sheep raising is also an important industry, the adjacent highlands being used for summer pastures. The climate is arid, and there is a striking contrast between those areas which in their natural state are covered with sagebrush and grease wood and the fruitful cultivated tracts. (See PI. I, A and B.) Trees are normally absent in the valleys, but they flourish to a limited extent on the adjacent highlands, where there are thin growths of quaking aspen, scrub oak, and stunted conifers. Irrigation is necessary for the production of crops. Canal systems are maintained by San Pitch Creek and Sevier River, and the mountain streams are tapped by ditches near the mouths of the canyons, but this supply is insufficient and attention is being turned to the subterranean store.This report is a preliminary statement of the general conditions of occurrence of underground water in Sanpete and central Sevier valleys. The field work was carried on in cooperation with Sanpete and Sevier counties through the State engineer, Mr. Caleb Tanner, who detailed Mr. C. S. Jarvis to collect the data embodied in the list of springs and wells on pages 51-60.

  7. 77 FR 60373 - Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and Piute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Forest Service Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and Piute Counties; UT AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Intent to prepare environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Forest Service will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) to document...

  8. Ground-water areas and well logs, central Sevier Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Richard A.

    1960-01-01

    Between September 1959 and June 1960 the United States Geological Survey and the Utah State Engineer, with financial assistance from Garfield, Millard, Piute, Sanpete, and Sevier Counties and from local water-users’ associations, cooperated in an investigation to determine the structural framework of the central Sevier Valley and to evaluate the valley’s ground-water potential. An important aspect of the study was the drilling of 22 test holes under private contract. These data and other data collected during the course of the larger ground-water investigation of which the test drilling was a part will be evaluated in a report on the geology and ground-water resources of the central Sevier Valley. The present report has been prepared to make available the logs of test holes and to describe in general terms the availability of ground water in the different areas of the valley.

  9. Extensional collapse along the Sevier Desert reflection, northern Sevier Desert basin, western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, James C.; Decelles, Peter G.

    1996-10-01

    Newly released and previously published seismic reflection data from the northern Sevier Desert basin provide a complete seismic transect between the tilted western margin of the basin and the eastern breakaway zone. When tied to well and surface age data, the transect delineates a continuum of extensional fault and basin fill geometries that developed between late Oligocene and Pleistocene time across the basin. A minimum of 18 km of top-to-the-west normal displacement is estimated across the Sevier Desert from only the most conspicuous growth geometries and offsets across listric normal faults that sole downward into the Sevier Desert reflection (SDR). The SDR clearly marks a normal fault zone beneath the entire basin, where stratal truncations are imaged for 50% of the 39 km length of the reflection east of the Cricket Mountains block. Restoration of extensional displacement along this entire 39 km fault length is necessary to reconstruct the pre-Oligocene configuration and erosion level of Sevier thrust sheets across the Sevier Desert area. The SDR normal fault zone underlies the former topographic crest of the Sevier orogenic belt, where it accommodated extensional collapse after cessation of regional contractile tectonism.

  10. 76 FR 58726 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springfield, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    .... * * * * * ASO TN E5 Springfield, TN Springfield Robertson County Airport, TN (Lat. 36 32'24'' N., long. 86 55'24... Springfield Robertson County Airport. Issued in College Park, Georgia on September 9, 2011. Mark D....

  11. Late Quaternary faulting in the Sevier Desert driven by magmatism.

    PubMed

    Stahl, T; Niemi, N A

    2017-03-14

    Seismic hazard in continental rifts varies as a function of strain accommodation by tectonic or magmatic processes. The nature of faulting in the Sevier Desert, located in eastern Basin and Range of central Utah, and how this faulting relates to the Sevier Desert Detachment low-angle normal fault, have been debated for nearly four decades. Here, we show that the geodetic signal of extension across the eastern Sevier Desert is best explained by magma-assisted rifting associated with Plio-Pleistocene volcanism. GPS velocities from 14 continuous sites across the region are best-fit by interseismic strain accumulation on the southern Wasatch Fault at c. 3.4 mm yr(-1) with a c. 0.5 mm yr(-1) tensile dislocation opening in the eastern Sevier Desert. The characteristics of surface deformation from field surveys are consistent with dike-induced faulting and not with faults soling into an active detachment. Geologic extension rates of c. 0.6 mm yr(-1) over the last c. 50 kyr in the eastern Sevier Desert are consistent with the rates estimated from the geodetic model. Together, these findings suggest that Plio-Pleistocene extension is not likely to have been accommodated by low-angle normal faulting on the Sevier Desert Detachment and is instead accomplished by strain localization in a zone of narrow, magma-assisted rifting.

  12. Late Quaternary faulting in the Sevier Desert driven by magmatism

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, T.; Niemi, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    Seismic hazard in continental rifts varies as a function of strain accommodation by tectonic or magmatic processes. The nature of faulting in the Sevier Desert, located in eastern Basin and Range of central Utah, and how this faulting relates to the Sevier Desert Detachment low-angle normal fault, have been debated for nearly four decades. Here, we show that the geodetic signal of extension across the eastern Sevier Desert is best explained by magma-assisted rifting associated with Plio-Pleistocene volcanism. GPS velocities from 14 continuous sites across the region are best-fit by interseismic strain accumulation on the southern Wasatch Fault at c. 3.4 mm yr−1 with a c. 0.5 mm yr−1 tensile dislocation opening in the eastern Sevier Desert. The characteristics of surface deformation from field surveys are consistent with dike-induced faulting and not with faults soling into an active detachment. Geologic extension rates of c. 0.6 mm yr−1 over the last c. 50 kyr in the eastern Sevier Desert are consistent with the rates estimated from the geodetic model. Together, these findings suggest that Plio-Pleistocene extension is not likely to have been accommodated by low-angle normal faulting on the Sevier Desert Detachment and is instead accomplished by strain localization in a zone of narrow, magma-assisted rifting. PMID:28290529

  13. Late Quaternary faulting in the Sevier Desert driven by magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, T.; Niemi, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    Seismic hazard in continental rifts varies as a function of strain accommodation by tectonic or magmatic processes. The nature of faulting in the Sevier Desert, located in eastern Basin and Range of central Utah, and how this faulting relates to the Sevier Desert Detachment low-angle normal fault, have been debated for nearly four decades. Here, we show that the geodetic signal of extension across the eastern Sevier Desert is best explained by magma-assisted rifting associated with Plio-Pleistocene volcanism. GPS velocities from 14 continuous sites across the region are best-fit by interseismic strain accumulation on the southern Wasatch Fault at c. 3.4 mm yr‑1 with a c. 0.5 mm yr‑1 tensile dislocation opening in the eastern Sevier Desert. The characteristics of surface deformation from field surveys are consistent with dike-induced faulting and not with faults soling into an active detachment. Geologic extension rates of c. 0.6 mm yr‑1 over the last c. 50 kyr in the eastern Sevier Desert are consistent with the rates estimated from the geodetic model. Together, these findings suggest that Plio-Pleistocene extension is not likely to have been accommodated by low-angle normal faulting on the Sevier Desert Detachment and is instead accomplished by strain localization in a zone of narrow, magma-assisted rifting.

  14. Hydrology of the Sevier-Sigurd ground-water basin and other ground-water basins, central Sevier Valley, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, P.M.; Mason, J.L.; Puchta, R.W

    1995-01-01

    The hydrologic system in the central Sevier Valley, and more specifically the Sevier-Sigurd basin, is a complex system in which surface- and ground-water systems are interrelated. Seepage from an extensive irrigation system is the primary source of recharge to the basin-fill aquifer in the Sevier-Sigurd basin.Water-quality data indicate that inflow from streams and subsurface inflow that intersect evaporite deposits in the Arapien Shale does not adversely affect ground-water quality in the Sevier-Sigurd basin. Stable-isotope data indicate that large sulfate concentrations in water from wells are from the dissolution of gypsum within the basin fill rather than inflow from the Arapien Shale.A ground-water-flow model of the basin-fill aquifer in the Sevier-Sigurd basin was calibrated to steady-state conditions and transient conditions using yearly water-level changes from 1957-88 and monthly water-level changes from 1958-59. Predictive simulations were made to test the effects of reduced recharge from irrigation and increased well discharge. To simulate the effects of conversion from flood to sprinkler irrigation, recharge from irrigated fields was reduced by 50 percent. After twenty years, this reduction resulted in water-level declines of 1 to 8 feet in most of the basin, and a reduction in ground-water discharge to the Sevier River of 4,800 acre-ft/yr. Water-level declines of as much as 12 feet and a reduction in recharge to the Sevier River of 4,800 acre-ft/yr were the result of increasing well discharge near Richfield and Monroe by 25,000 acre-ft/yr. 

  15. Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA Region 4): Wrigley Charcoal Superfund Site, Hickman County, Wrigley, TN, February 2, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected Interim Remedial Action (IRA) for the Wrigley Charcoal Site, in Wrigley, Hickman County, Tennessee. The U.S. EPA has modified a wide variety of items that require immediate response action for the first step of cleanup activities to be taken at the Wrigley Charcoal Site. The major goal of these cleanup activities is to address the most serious threats at the Wrigley Charcoal Site by removing contaminated media from the Primary Site flood plain, remediating wastes at the Storage Basin, and through limited access restrictions at the Primary Site and the Storage Basin. The cleanup activities as presented in this IRA Record of Decision (ROD) Amendment will achieve significant risk reduction and will prepare the Site for future remedial activities.

  16. 77 FR 13195 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Springfield, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    .... Box 20636, Atlanta, Georgia 30320; telephone (404) 305-6364. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On... above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ASO TN E5 Springfield, TN Springfield Robertson County...

  17. Proposed Operational Base Site, Sevier Desert, Delta Area, Utah.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-15

    A11A3 345 FUJSAD NATION4AL INC LONG BEACH CA F/6 13/2 PROPOSED OETRATIONAL BASE SITE, SEVIER DESERT. DELTA AREA. UTAH-ETCIU)M4AY 80 FO04TOŔ..C-O006...PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET AND RETURN TO DTIC-DDA-2 FORM DOCUMENT PROCESSING SHEET DTIC oct 79 70A dft FN-TR-35-4 !" j PROPOSED OPERATIONAL BASE SITE SEVIER...DESERT DELTA AREA, UTAH Prepared for: U.S. Department of the Air Force Ballistic Missile Office (BMO) Norton Air Force Base , California 92409 Prepared by

  18. National Program of Inspection of Non-Federal Dams, Tennessee. (Inventory Number TN 11101), Cumberland River Basin, Jennings Creek Watershed Dam Number 16 near North Springs, Macon County, Tennessee. Phase I Investigation Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    List Visual Inspection of Earth Dams Department of Conservation Division of Water Resources Name of Dan Jennings Creek Watershed Dam # 16 County Macon...Date of Inspection January 8, 1981 ID # - State 56-7001 Federal TN11101 Type of Dam Earth Hazard Category-Federal High State Weather -Partly cloudy...Storage Volume 359 acre-feet (Normal Pool to Dam Crest) G. Surface Area at Dam Crest 23.4 acres Emergency Spillway: A. Type Saddle, trapezoidal, earth , rock

  19. Transposons Tn10 and Tn5.

    PubMed

    Haniford, David B; Ellis, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    The study of the bacterial transposons Tn10 and Tn5 has provided a wealth of information regarding steps in nonreplicative DNA transposition, transpososome dynamics and structure, as well as mechanisms employed to regulate transposition. The focus of ongoing research on these transposons is mainly on host regulation and the use of the Tn10 antisense system as a platform to develop riboregulators for applications in synthetic biology. Over the past decade two new regulators of both Tn10 and Tn5 transposition have been identified, namely H-NS and Hfq proteins. These are both global regulators of gene expression in enteric bacteria with functions linked to stress-response pathways and virulence and potentially could link the Tn10 and Tn5 systems (and thus the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes) to environmental cues. Work summarized here is consistent with the H-NS protein working directly on transposition complexes to upregulate both Tn10 and Tn5 transposition. In contrast, evidence is discussed that is consistent with Hfq working at the level of transposase expression to downregulate both systems. With regard to Tn10 and synthetic biology, some recent work that incorporates the Tn10 antisense RNA into both transcriptional and translational riboswitches is summarized.

  20. OBVERSE VIEW OF TN24911, LOOKING BACK FROM THE NORTHEAST ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBVERSE VIEW OF TN-249-11, LOOKING BACK FROM THE NORTHEAST ROOM TO THE STAIR HALL. THE DOOR TO THE NORTH (DINING) ROOM LIES AS LEFT - Hilderbrand House, 4571 Airways Boulevard, Memphis, Shelby County, TN

  1. 2. Elkmont, deck view of corrugated arched bridge. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Elkmont, deck view of corrugated arched bridge. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. 3. Elkmont, underside detail of corrugated arched bridge. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Elkmont, underside detail of corrugated arched bridge. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Construction PeelAway Great Smoky Mountains National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Construction Peel-Away - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. Assessment of fish passage technology applicable to John Sevier detention dam

    SciTech Connect

    Pasch, R.W.

    1986-12-01

    This report provides an assessment of existing technologies and developments in fish passage technology applicable to moving sauger and paddlefish upstream and downstream of the John Sevier detention dam. (ACR)

  5. 78 FR 58489 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; McMinnville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; McMinnville, TN...: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at McMinnville, TN, as the Warri Non-Directional Beacon... Warren County Memorial Airport, McMinnville, TN. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to...

  6. Anatexis and metamorphism in tectonically thickened continental crust exemplified by the Sevier hinterland, western North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patino Douce, Alberto E.; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Johnston, A. Dana

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal and petrologic model of anatexis and metamorphism in regions of crustal thickening exemplified by the Sevier hinterland in western North America, and uses the model to examine the geological and physical processes leading to crustally derived magmatism. The results of numerical experiments show that anatexis was an inevitable end-product of Barrovian metamorphism in the thickened crust of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt and that the advection of heat across the lithosphere, in the form of mantle-derived mafic magmas, was not required for melting of metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that, in the Sevier belt, as in other intracontinental orogenic belts, anatexis occurred in the midcrust and not at the base of the crust.

  7. 28. Stream view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Stream view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. Host-seeking heights, host-seeking activity patterns, and West Nile virus infection rates for members of the Culex pipiens complex at different habitat types within the hybrid zone, Shelby County, TN, 2002 (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Savage, Harry M; Anderson, Michael; Gordon, Emily; McMillen, Larry; Colton, Leah; Delorey, Mark; Sutherland, Genevieve; Aspen, Stephen; Charnetzky, Dawn; Burkhalter, Kristen; Godsey, Marvin

    2008-03-01

    Host-seeking heights, host-seeking activity patterns, and West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) infection rates were assessed for members of the Culex pipiens complex from July to December 2002, by using chicken-baited can traps (CT) at four ecologically different sites in Shelby County, TN. Host-seeking height was assessed by CT placed at elevations of 3.1, 4.6, and 7.6 m during one 24-h period per month. Host-seeking activity was assessed by paired CT placed at an elevation of 4.6 m. Can traps were sampled at one 10-h daytime interval and at seven 2-h intervals during the evening, night, and morning. Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes accounted for 87.1% of collected mosquitoes. Culex (Melanoconion) erraticus (Dyar & Knab) accounted for 11.9% of specimens. The average number of Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes collected per 24-h CT period from July to September was lowest at a rural middle income site (1.7), intermediate at an urban middle income site (11.3), and highest at an urban low income site (47.4). Can traps at the forested site failed to collect Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. From July to September at urban sites, Culex pipiens pipiens L. was the rarest of the three complex members accounting for 11.1-25.6% of specimens. At the rural site, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say was the rarest member of the complex. Cx. p. pipiens was not collected after September. Mean abundance of Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes was higher in traps at 7.6 m than in traps at 4.6 m. Abundances at 3.1 m were intermediate and not significantly different from abundances at the other heights. Initiation of host-seeking activity was associated with the end of civil twilight and activity occurred over an extended nighttime period lasting 8-10 h. All 11 WNV-positive mosquitoes were Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes collected from urban sites in traps placed at elevations of 4.6 and 7.6 m. Infection rates were marginally nonsignificant by height. Infection rates, host

  9. Inventory of wetlands and agricultural land cover in the upper Sevier River Basin, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A.; Clark, L. D., Jr.; Landgraf, K. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of color infrared aerial photography in the mapping of agricultural land use and wetlands in the Sevier River Basin of south central utah is described. The efficiency and cost effectiveness of utilizing LANDSAT multispectral scanner digital data to augment photographic interpretations are discussed. Transparent overlays for 27 quadrangles showing delineations of wetlands and agricultural land cover were produced. A table summarizing the acreage represented by each class on each quadrangle overlay is provided.

  10. Paired, facing monoclines in the Sanpete-Sevier Valley area, central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witkind, I.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several major monoclines that trend northward through the Sanpete-Sevier Valley area of central Utah are paired and face one another. This pairing of monoclines may have occurred when near-horizontal sedimentary and volcanic strata subsided into voids created as salt was removed from a salt diapir concealed beneath valley fill. Removal was mostly by dissolution or extrusion during Neogene time. The paired monoclines, thus, are viewed as collapse features rather than as normal synclinal folds. -from Author

  11. Influence of preexisting tectonic trends on geometries of Sevier orogenic belt and its foreland in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Picha, F.; Gibson, R.I.

    1985-05-01

    The tectonic style of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt in Utah was greatly affected by preexisting structural trends that date from the late Precambrian rifting and fragmentation of the North American continent. The late Precambrian cratonic margin (Cordilleran hinge line) was marked by a system of prominent faults including the north-south-trending ancestral Wasatch and ancient Ephraim faults and the southwest-northeast-trending Leamington, Scipio, Cove Fort, and Paragonah faults. During the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, renewed activity on these faults affected the geometries of the late Paleozoic Paradox and Oquirrh basins, the boundaries of the Jurassic Arapien Formation, and the sedimentary pattern of the Cretaceous foreland basin. Many of these fault zones were reactivated as tectonic ramps (e.g., the ancient Ephraim fault) and tear faults (e.g., the Leamington fault) during the compressional Sevier tectonism. The Fillmore arch and some other structural highs situated along the edge of the late Precambrian craton caused ramping of the inner Keystone-Pavant-Canyon thrust sheets and telescoping of the frontal thrust sheets. Post-thrust uplift of basement highs led to tectonic denudation and to the development of low-angle, extensional faults, such as the Sevier detachment. Northeast-trending lineaments, such as the Cove Fort and Paragonah lineaments, were reactivated as right-lateral strike-slip faults. They also affected the extent of the Marysvale volcanic field.

  12. 75 FR 20774 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mountain City, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mountain City, TN AGENCY... December 7, 2009 that establishes Class E airspace at Johnson County Airport, Mountain City, TN....

  13. Characterization of Tn2411 and Tn2410, two transposons derived from R-plasmid R1767 and related to Tn2603 and Tn21.

    PubMed

    Kratz, J; Schmidt, F; Wiedemann, B

    1983-09-01

    Two transposable elements, Tn2410 and Tn2411, were isolated from Salmonella typhimurium R-factor R1767. They have sizes of 18.5 and 18.0 kilobases, respectively. Tn2411 mediates resistance to streptomycin, sulfonamides, and mercury. In Tn2410, the streptomycin resistance gene was replaced by a gene coding for the production of the beta-lactamase OXA-2, which is responsible for ampicillin resistance. Physical and functional maps of both transposons were compared with those of Tn21, Tn4, and Tn2603. From these data it appeared that Tn21 could be an ancestral transposon from which Tn2411, Tn2410, Tn2603, and Tn4 were evolved by the addition or deletion of small DNA segments.

  14. Summary appraisal of water resources in the Redmond Quadrangle, Sanpete and Sevier counties, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Don

    1981-01-01

    This map was compiled in conjunction with an energy-related geologic-mapping project on the Redmond Quadrangle (Witkind, 1980) in order to show the general availability and chemical quality of water in the area. The map is based chiefly on data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey under a continuing cooperative program with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and on cursory field observations by the writer. Most of the existing fata are in reports of Carpenter and Young (1963), Hahl and Cabell (1965), Young and Carpenter (1965) and Hahl and Mundorff (1968). Additional information about water and related land resources in the map area may be found in a report of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (1969).The map is intended for general planning purposes only and needs to be used with discretion. Detailed site-specific information about the availability and quality of water or about water-related problems can be gained only by special on-site investigations.

  15. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential for TVA's John Sevier and Kingston Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ellen D; Saulsbury, Bo

    2008-03-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the potential for geologic carbon sequestration for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) John Sevier and Kingston power plants. The purpose of this assessment is to make a 'first cut' determination of whether there is sufficient potential for geologic carbon sequestration within 200 miles of the plants for TVA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to proceed with a joint proposal for a larger project with a strong carbon management element. This assessment does not consider alternative technologies for carbon capture, but assumes the existence of a segregated CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration.

  16. Ground-water hydrology and projected effects of ground-water withdrawals in the Sevier Desert, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in the Sevier Desert is the unconsolidated basin fill. The fill has been divided generally into aquifers and confining beds, although there are no clearcut boundaries between these units--the primary aquifers are the shallow and deep artesian aquifers. Recharge to the ground-water reservoir is by infiltration of precipitation; seepage from streams, canals, reservoirs, and unconsumed irrigation water; and subsurface inflow from consolidated rocks in mountain areas and from adjoining areas. Discharge is by wells, springs, seepage to the Sevier River, evapotranspiration, and subsurface outflow to adjoining areas.

  17. National Program of Inspection of Non-Federal Dams, Tennessee. Chancellor & Son Dam (Inventory Number TN 06939), Hatchie River Basin, near Saulsbury, Hardeman County, Tennessee. Phase I Investigation Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Nashville, TN 37220 li. CONTROLLING OFFICIE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE VU.S. Army Engineer District, Nashville -September, 1981 -. P.O. Box 1070U Is...emergency spillway control section is formed by embankment fill material. The fill has a narrow crest (15’) and would probably erode rapidly under high...iftehes 41eee1 unless Ot*twi*Q noted. Mork. SOIL DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE Dsim No4Le TEST____ET___0_ A Md Clayey SAND 119.6 12.3 ASTM D-698 Copies t

  18. Cretaceous crustal structure and metamorphism in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, western US Cordillera

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.L.; Gans, P.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Combined structural and geochronologic studies to the west of the Sevier belt at lat 39{degree}-40{degree}N indicate that peak metamorphism of the upper 15 km of crust occurred during the Late Cretaceous (70-90 Ma), overlapping in time with the intrusion of muscovite-bearing granites and pegmatites. Metamorphism was accompanied by penetrative deformation (top-to-the-east layer-parallel shear); both were localized at the currently exposed structural levels, resulting in impressive vertical and lateral strain gradients and T{sub max} gradients of > 50 C/km. Inception of thrust faulting in the Sevier belt may have predated peak metamorphism and intrusion of granites in the hinterland by 10-15 m.y., but it continued during and ended simultaneously with the end of metamorphism at about 70 Ma. The rise of muscovite-bearing granites and hot fluids, generated by metamorphism and crustal anatexis at greater depth, provides and explanation for the observed localized metamorphism and deformation at relatively high structural levels.

  19. Late Cretaceous extension in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, northwestern Utah and southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.L.; Allmendinger, R.W. ); Dallmeyer, R.D. )

    1990-10-01

    Cover rocks of the Raft River metamorphic core complex, located in the Sevier belt hinterland, preserve a structural and metamorphic history that predates the middle Tertiary extension of the region. In the eastern Raft River Mountains, Cambrian( )-Permian rocks form two allochthons that occur in the hanging wall of the mid-Miocene Raft River detachment fault. Dramatically attenuated, metamorphosed Cambrian( )-Pennsylvanian strata of the lower allochthon yield Late Cretaceous muscovite {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar plateau ages (ca. 82-90 Ma) that are interpreted to date cooling during final stages of layer parallel extension. Devonian-Permian rocks exposed in the Black Pine Mountains underwent east-west extension ({approximately} 160%) associated with syntectonic growth of white mica along cleavage. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar whole-rock spectra of associated slates also indicate a Late Cretaceous metamorphism. Together, field and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results suggest that Late Cretaceous extension occurred in the Sevier belt hinterland at the same time as shortening in the eastern foreland and at depth in the hinterland. Sufficient topography must have been present to drive upper-crustal extension in the eastern hinterland.

  20. Stratigraphy and structure of the Sevier thrust belt and proximal foreland-basin system in central Utah: A transect from the Sevier Desert to the Wasatch Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawton, T.F.; Sprinkel, D.A.; Decelles, P.G.; Mitra, G.; Sussman, A.J.; Weiss, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Sevier orogenic belt in central Utah comprises four north-northwest trending thrust plates and two structural culminations that record crustal shortening and uplift in late Mesozoic and early Tertiary time. Synorogenic clastic rocks, mostly conglomerate and sandstone, exposed within the thrust belt were deposited in wedge-top and foredeep depozones within the proximal part of the foreland-basin system. The geologic relations preserved between thrust structures and synorogenic deposits demonstrate a foreland-breaking sequence of thrust deformation that was modified by minor out-of-sequence thrust displacement. Structural culminations in the interior part of the thrust belt deformed and uplifted some of the thrust sheets following their emplacement. Strata in the foreland basin indicate that the thrust sheets of central Utah were emplaced between latest Jurassic and Eocene time. The oldest strata of the foredeep depozone (Cedar Mountain Formation) are Neocomian and were derived from the hanging wall of the Canyon Range thrust. The foredeep depozone subsided most rapidly during Albian through Santonian or early Campanian time and accumulated about 2.5 km of conglomeratic strata (Indianola Group). The overlying North Horn Formation accumulated in a wedge-top basin from the Campanian to the Eocene and records propagation of the Gunnison thrust beneath the former foredeep. The Canyon Range Conglomerate of the Canyon Mountains, equivalent to the Indianola Group and the North Horn Formation, was deposited exclusively in a wedge-top setting on the Canyon Range and Pavant thrust sheets. This field trip, a three day, west-to-east traverse of the Sevier orogenic belt in central Utah, visits localities where timing of thrust structures is demonstrated by geometry of cross-cutting relations, growth strata associated with faults and folds, or deformation of foredeep deposits. Stops in the Canyon Mountains emphasize geometry of late structural culminations and relationships of

  1. Ground-water conditions and geologic reconnaissance of the Upper Sevier River basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Carl H.; Robinson, Gerald B.; Bjorklund, Louis Jay

    1967-01-01

    The upper Sevier River basin is in south-central Utah and includes an area of about 2,400 .square miles of high plateaus and valleys. It comprises the entire Sevier River drainage basin above Kingston, including the East Fork Sevier River and its tributaries. The basin was investigated to determine general ground-water conditions, the interrelation of ground water and surface water, the effects of increasing the pumping of ground water, and the amount of ground water in storage. The basin includes four main valleys--Panguitch Valley, Circle Valley, East Fork Valley, and Grass Valley--which are drained by the Sevier River, the East Fork Sevier River, and Otter Creek. The plateaus surrounding the valleys consist of sedimentary and igneous rocks that range in age from Triassic to Quaternary. The valley fill, which is predominantly alluvial gravel, sand, silt, and clay, has a maximum thickness of more than 800 feet. The four main valleys constitute separate ground-water basins. East Fork Valley basin is divided into Emery Valley, Johns Valley, and Antimony subbasins, and Grass Valley basin is divided into Koosharem and Angle subbasins. Ground water occurs under both artesian and water-table conditions in all the basins and subbasins except Johns Valley, Emery Valley, and Angle subbasins, where water is only under water-table conditions. The. water is under artesian pressure in beds of gravel and sand confined by overlying beds of silt and clay in the downstream parts of Panguitch Valley basin, Circle Valley basin, and Antimony subbasin, and in most of Koosharem subbasin. Along the sides and upstream ends of these basins, water is usually under water-table conditions. About 1 million acre-feet of ground water that is readily available to wells is stored in the gravel and sand of the upper 200 feet of saturated valley fill. About 570,000 acre-feet is stored in Panguitch Valley basin, about 210,000 in Circle Valley basin, about 6,000 in Emery Valley subbasin, about 90

  2. Ages of Sevier thrusting from dating of metamorphic garnet using the Lu-Hf method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Uribe, A. M.; Hoisch, T. D.; Wells, M. L.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Combined thermodynamic modeling of garnet growth zoning and Lu-Hf dating of garnet yield well-constrained pressure-temperature-time (PTt) paths. Here we present PTt paths from amphibolite-facies pelitic garnet from the Raft River-Albion-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex that constrain the timing of thrusting in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt. Three general times of thrust burial are indicated: 150, 138, and 85 Ma. Lu-Hf garnet dating of burial-related garnet growth in the Raft River Mountains yielded a Late Jurassic age of 149.9 ± 1.2 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 1.1) based on three garnet fractions and a whole rock. A PT path from the schist of Mahogany Peaks in the Albion Range, Idaho, records an isothermal pressure increase indicating growth during thrusting. Lu-Hf dating of garnet from the same rock yielded an Early Cretaceous age of 138.7 ± 0.7 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 1.6) based on seven garnet fractions. An additional PT path from a nearby outcrop also records an isothermal pressure increase and a similar Lu-Hf garnet age of 132.1 ± 5.1 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 9.5) based on three garnet fractions and a whole rock. PT paths of multiple garnet grains from the schist of Stevens Spring in the Grouse Creek Mountains, Utah, exhibit isothermal pressure increases and yielded a Lu-Hf garnet age of 85.5 ± 1.9 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 3.9) based on five garnet fractions and a whole rock. The Late Jurassic burial event recorded in the Raft River Mountains is older than the ages of inception of thrusting of the western thrusts of the Sevier fold-thrust belt including the Canyon Range and Paris - Willard thrusts, but consistent with an eastward progression in initial shortening in the orogenic wedge and development of an inferred thrust load responsible for the retroarc Morrison Formation basin. Early Cretaceous hinterland burial recorded in the Albion Range is permissively coeval with activity on the Willard and Canyon Range thrusts. Finally, renewed hinterland thrust burial during the Late

  3. 59 FR- Proposed Foreign-Trade ZoneTri-City Area, TN/VA Application for Subzone Status Siemens Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-05-18

    ... Industrial Automation Plant (Robotics/ Programmable Logic Controllers) Carter County, TN An application has..., requesting special- purpose subzone status for the robotics/programmable logic controller products... southeast of Johnson City. The facility (620 employees) is used to produce and distribute...

  4. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first stop. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, rocks along edge of road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, view between second and third stops - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after stop 13. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 13. Roadway and place of a thousand drips looking ESE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Roadway and place of a thousand drips looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 16. Bridge at Old Road S looking ESE. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Bridge at Old Road S looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet Great Smoky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Title Sheet - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 4. Overgrown overlook number 1 looking W. Great Smoky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Overgrown overlook number 1 looking W. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Reagan House. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop four. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  17. 17. Underside of bridge and abutment with large boulder looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Underside of bridge and abutment with large boulder looking ENE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. 12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, place of a thousand drips, view from road. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 10. Reagan's Tub Mill and Roadway looking NE. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Reagan's Tub Mill and Roadway looking NE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 15. Culvert and corrugated pipe with place of a thousand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Culvert and corrugated pipe with place of a thousand drips in background looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. 1. Elevation view of bridge to Smokemont Campground. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Elevation view of bridge to Smokemont Campground. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Smokemont Bridge, Spanning Oconaluftee River at entrance to Smokemont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 2. Deck view of bridge to Smokemont Campground. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deck view of bridge to Smokemont Campground. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Smokemont Bridge, Spanning Oconaluftee River at entrance to Smokemont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 4. General view of road with grey birch trees looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of road with grey birch trees looking E. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 1. View of Cades Cove Valley from first overlook on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Cades Cove Valley from first overlook on Rich Mountain Road looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Rich Mountain Road, Between Cades Cove & park boundary at Rich Mountain Gap, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 15. Gatlinburg spur with little Pigeon River, looking toward Pigeon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Gatlinburg spur with little Pigeon River, looking toward Pigeon Forge. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 2. View of west tunnel portal and stream on Laurel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of west tunnel portal and stream on Laurel Creek Road looking ENE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, handbuilt rock pile. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, hand-built rock pile. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 10. Area of landslide on eastern section of Foothills Parkway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Area of landslide on eastern section of Foothills Parkway looking NE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Foothills Parkway, From Chilowee to Walland & from Cosby to I-40, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 1. Elkmont vehicle bridge at Elkmont Campground, galvanized corrugated arch. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Elkmont vehicle bridge at Elkmont Campground, galvanized corrugated arch. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. Toluene transposons Tn4651 and Tn4653 are class II transposons

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuda, Masataka; Minegishi, Koh-ichi; Iino, Tetsuo )

    1989-03-01

    The toluene degradative transposon Tn4651 is included within another transposon, Tn4653, and both of these elements are members of the Tn3 family. The tnpA gene product of each element mediates formation of cointegrates as intermediate products of transposition, and the tnpS and tnpT gene products encoded by Tn4651 take part in resolution of both Tn4651- and Tn4653-mediated cointegrates. Sequence analysis demonstrated that Tn4651 and Tn4653 have 46- and 38-base-pair terminal inverted repeats, respectively, and that both elements generate 5-base-pair duplication of the target sequence upon transposition. Complementation test of the Tn4651 - and Tn4653-encoded transposition functions with those of Tn3, Tn21, and Tn1721 showed that (i) the trans-acting transposition functions encoded by Tn4651 were not interchangeable with those encoded by the four other transposons, (ii) the Tn4653 tnpA function was interchangeable with the Tn1721 function, and (iii) Tn4653 coded for a resolvase (tnpR gene product) that complemented the tnpr mutations of Tn21 and Tn1721. The Tn4653 tnpR gene was located just 5{prime} upstream of the tnpA gene sheared extensive sequence homology with the Tn1721 tnpR gene. The res region was located adjacent to the tnpR gene, and sequence analysis indicated that failure of the Tn4653 tnpR product to resolve the Tn4653-mediated cointegrates is ascribed to an incomplete structure of the res region.

  15. Upper Oligocene evaporites in basin fill of Sevier Desert region, western Utah ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, D.A.; Glanzman, R.K.; Naeser, C.W.; Nicholas, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The basin fill beneath the Sevier Desert of western Utah contains evaporites that were deposited in a broad closed basin. All of the basin fill penetrated by the Gulf Oil 1 Gronning contains abundant volcanic detritus and its alteration products of Cenozoic age. Fission-track dating of tuffaceous sandstone yields ages of 26-28 m.y. Fossil pollen from mudstone in the evaporite-bearing strata includes forms no older than late Oligocene, in good agreement with the fission-track ages. Thus the age of evaporites is late Oligocene and younger. Anhydrite is present throughout approximately 900m of volcaniclastic rocks in the lower part of the section cut by the Gulf hole. Fossil pollen are indicative of an arid to semiarid flora.-from Authors

  16. [Tn5037-a Tn21-like mercury transposon, detected in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans].

    PubMed

    Kaliaeva, E S; Kholodiĭ, G Ia; Bass, I A; Gorlenko, Zh M; Iur'eva, O V; Nikiforov, V G

    2001-08-01

    The 6645-bp mercury resistance transposon of the chemolithotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was cloned and sequenced. This transposon, named Tn5037, belongs to the Tn21 branch of the Tn21 subgroup, many members of which have been isolated from clinical sources. Having the minimum set of the genes (merRTPA), the mercury resistance operon of Tn5037 is organized similarly to most of the Gram-negative bacteria mer operons and is closest to that of Thiobacillus 3.2. The operator-promoter region of the mer operon of Tn5037 also has the common (Tn21/Tn501-like) structure. However, its inverted, presumably MerR protein binding repeats in the operator/promoter element are two base pairs shorter than in Tn21/Tn501. In the merA region, this transposon shares 77.4, 79.1, 83.2 and 87.8% identical bases with Tn21, Tn501, T. ferrooxidance E-15, and Thiobacillus 3.2, respectively. No inducibility of the Tn5037 mer operon was detected in the in vivo experiments. The transposition system (terminal repeats plus gene tnpA) of Tn5037 was inactive in Escherichia coli K12, in contrast to its resolution system (res site plus gene tnpR). However, transposition of Tn5037 in this host was provided by the tnpA gene of Tn5036, a member of the Tn21 subgroup. Sequence analysis of the Tn5037 res site suggested its recombinant nature.

  17. [Proteolytic control of the antirestriction activity of Tn2l, Tn5053, Tn5045 Tn501 TN402 non-conjugative transposons].

    PubMed

    Zavilgelsky, G B; Kotova, V Yu; Melkina, O E; Balabanov, V P; Mindlin, S Z

    2015-01-01

    Conjugative plasmids and conjugative transposons contain the genes, which products specifically inhibit the type I restriction--modification systems. Here is shown that non-conjugative transposons Tn2l, Tn5053, Tn5045, Tn501, Tn402 partially inhibit the restriction activity of the type I restriction-modification endonuclease EcoKI (R2M2S1) in Escherichia coli cells K12 (the phenomenon of restriction alleviation, RA). Antirestriction activity of the transposons is determined by the MerR and ArdD proteins. Antirestriction activity of transposons is absent in mutants E. coli K12 clpX and clpP and is decreased in mutants E. coli K12 recA, recBC and dnaQ (mutD). Induction of the RA in response to the MerR and ArdD activities is consistent with the production of unmodified target sequences following DNA repair and DNA synthesis associated with recombination repair or replication errors. RA effect is determined by the ClpXP-dependent degradation of the endonuclease activity R subunit of EcoKI (R2M2S1).

  18. Characterization of Tn5801.Sag, a variant of Staphylococcus aureus Tn916 family transposon Tn5801 that is widespread in clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Mingoia, Marina; Morici, Eleonora; Tili, Emily; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Montanari, Maria Pia; Varaldo, Pietro E

    2013-09-01

    Tn5801, originally detected in Staphylococcus aureus Mu50, is a Tn916 family element in which a unique int gene (int5801) replaces the int and xis genes in Tn916 (int916 and xis916). Among 62 tet(M)-positive tetracycline-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae isolates, 43 harbored Tn916, whereas 19 harbored a Tn5801-like element (Tn5801.Sag, ∼20.6 kb). Tn5801.Sag was characterized (PCR mapping, partial sequencing, and chromosomal integration) and compared to other Tn5801-like elements. Similar to Tn5801 from S. aureus Mu50, tested in parallel, Tn5801.Sag was unable to undergo circularization and conjugal transfer.

  19. 3. BIG HOUSE (left) AND CORN CRIB (right) IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BIG HOUSE (left) AND CORN CRIB (right) IN THE BACKGROUND. See also individual HABS documentation: Walker Family Farm, Big House (HABS No. TN-121 A), and Walker Family Farm, Corn Crib (HABS No. TN-121 C). - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. Structural Discordance Between Neogene Detachments and Frontal Sevier Thrusts, Central Mormon Mountains, Southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernicke, Brian; Walker, J. Douglas; Beaufait, Mark S.

    1985-02-01

    Detailed geologic mapping in the Mormon Mountains of southern Nevada provides significant insight into processes of extensional tectonics developed within older compressional orogens. A newly discovered, WSW-directed low-angle normal fault, the Mormon Peak detachment, juxtaposes the highest levels of the frontal most part of the east-vergent, Mesozoic Sevier thrust belt with autochthonous crystalline basement. Palinspastic analysis suggests that the detachment initially dipped 20-25° to the west and cut discordantly across thrust faults. Nearly complete lateral removal of the hanging wall from the area has exposed a 5 km thick longitudinal cross-section through the thrust belt in the footwall, while highly attenuated remnants of the hanging wall (nowhere more than a few hundred meters thick) structurally veneer the range. The present arched configuration of the detachment resulted in part from progressive "domino-style" rotation of a few degrees while it was active, but is largely due to rotation on younger, structurally lower, basement-penetrating normal faults that initiated at high-angle. The geometry and kinematics of normal faulting in the Mormon Mountains suggest that pre-existing thrust planes are not required for the initiation of low-angle normal faults, and even where closely overlapped by extensional tectonism, need not function as a primary control of detachment geometry. Caution must thus be exercised in interpreting low-angle normal faults of uncertain tectonic heritage such as those seen in the COCORP west-central Utah and BIRP's MOIST deep-reflection profiles. Although thrust fault reactivation has reasonably been shown to be the origin of a very few low-angle normal faults, our results indicate that it may not be as fundamental a component of orogenic architecture as it is now widely perceived to be. We conclude that while in many instances thrust fault reactivation may be both a plausible and attractive hypothesis, it may never be assumed.

  1. Upper Oligocene evaporites in basin fill of Sevier Desert region, western Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, D.A.; Glanzman, R.K.; Naeser, C.W.; Nichols, D.J.

    1981-02-01

    The basin fill beneath the Sevier Desert of western Utah contains evaporites of late Oligocene age that were deposited in a broad closed basin. All of the basin fill penetrated by the Gulf Oil 1 Gronning (2458 m TD), one of only three deep holes in the basin, contains abundant volcanic detritus and its alteration products of Cenozoic age, when volcanism was intense in western Utah. Fission-track dating of tuffaceous sandstone, interbedded with evaporite minerals and representative of sandstone in the lower formations penetrated, yields ages of 26 to 28 m.y.; concordance of ages indicates no thermal resetting. Fossil pollen from mudstone in the evaporite-bearing strata includes forms no older than late Oligocene, in good agreement with the fission-track ages. Thus the age of the evaporites, and of all the basin fill penetrated by drilling, is late Oligocene and younger; previous work had assigned them ages ranging from Triassic to Eocene. Evaporite-bearing rocks were deposited during late Oligocene time in a broad closed basin under arid or semiarid conditions much like those of the Great Basin today. Anhydrite is present throughout approximately 900 m of volcaniclastic rocks in the lower part of the section cut by the Gulf hole, and more than 1500 m of anhydrite and halite is present in possibly equivalent strata in the nearby Argonaut dry hole. Fossil pollen from anhydrite-bearing rocks in the Gulf hole are indicative of an arid to semiarid flora, including plants similar to Mormon tea and possibly saltbush or buffalo berry. Evaporite minerals formed in the basin during dry periods; tuff was erupted from nearby volcanic centers, reworked by water, and deposited in the basin.

  2. Three-dimensional digital-computer model of the principal ground-water reservoir of the Sevier Desert, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The principal ground-water reservoir in part of the Sevier Desert, Utah was modeled using a three-dimensional finite-difference model. The model was calibrated by comparing computed and observed water-level measurements in 1952, simulating results of aquifer tests, and simulating ground-water withdrawals during 1952-81 and comparing computed water-level changes during 1952-82 to observed changes. The results indicate the model is capable of predicting future water-level changes. The report includes a complete listing of the model data for the 1952-82 simulation. (USGS)

  3. Conjugative transposition of Tn916 and detection of Tn916-Like transposon in Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    PubMed

    OZAWA, Manao; YAMAMOTO, Kinya; KOJIMA, Akemi; TAKAGI, Masami; TAKAHASHI, Toshio

    2009-11-01

    In order to investigate the origin of tetracycline resistance in Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, conjugative transpositions of Tn916 were tested. The frequency of transfer between strains of E. rhusiopathiae was about 10-fold higher than that between Enterococcus faecalis and E. rhusiopathiae. In addition, detection of a Tn916-like transposon was performed by PCR assay and DNA sequencing in E. rhusiopathiae field isolates. Of 49 tetracycline-resistant isolates, 38 (77.6 %) carried a Tn916-like transposon, while 11 (22.4 %) carried tet(M) only. These results suggested that Tn916-like transposon may be widely present in the E. rhsuiopathiae field isolates resistant to tetracycline.

  4. 78 FR 52424 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Dayton, TN, Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cleveland, TN, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ..., Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cleveland, TN, and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Bradley Memorial Hospital... Bradley Memorial Hospital is added to the Cleveland, TN, airspace description and removed from both the Dayton, TN, regulatory text as well as its listing as Bradley Memorial Hospital, Cleveland, TN,...

  5. Cretaceous to early Tertiary paleogeography in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Vandervoort, D.S.; Schmitt, J.G. )

    1990-06-01

    The Cretaceous to early Tertiary hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt in east-central Nevada underwent two periods of sedimentary basin development. The older (Early Cretaceous) episode is characterized by basins that formed coeval with deformation within a belt of contractional structures. Basins were characterized by periods of through-flowing fluvial drainage. The younger (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) episode of basin development was characterized by internally drained alluvial basins that subsequently expanded into more regional lacustrine basins. Basal alluvial detritus indicates that basin inception occurred as a result of rapid development of topographic relief. Synsedimentary tectonism was characterized by horizontal extension due to attainment of equilibrium topography in response to crustal thickening.

  6. 78 FR 48762 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00076

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00076 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Application Deadline Date: 05/02/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small...

  7. The Mormon Peak and Tule Springs Detachments of Southern Nevada and Their Role in Interpreting the Subsurface Structure of the Sevier Desert Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernicke, B.; Axen, G. J.

    2007-12-01

    The eastern Sevier front is commonly overprinted by west-dipping normal faults that have been active through much of Cenozoic time. Although examples of disparate age and geometry abound, the Sevier Desert detachment stands out as being: (1) a very large, low-angle structure, (2) probably still active, and (3) at drillable depth, and hence is a prime target for scientific drilling. Among the closest surface-exposed analogs of the detachment are the Miocene Mormon Peak and Tule Springs detachments in southern Nevada, about 250 km SSW of the Sevier Desert. In both areas, the detachments developed within a few km of the basal Sevier thrust. The few traces of the southern Nevada detachments that were identified by reconnaissance mapping in the 1950s were first interpreted as underlying "rootless" gravity-slide masses. Detailed stratigraphic and structural mapping in the 1980s revealed the full extent of these detachments and their close relationship to the basal Sevier thrust. Construction and retrodeformation of cross sections through the two detachments demonstrated that neither fault could represent the base of a surficial slide mass. The key field relationship is the structural contiguity of the hanging walls of the detachments with large mountain range blocks in their down-dip directions. "Rootless" gravity-driven masses of equivalent or larger scale are widely documented, and in contrast to the southern Nevada detachments show clear evidence along their down-dip portions of either riding over the earth's surface (e.g. Heart Mountain, WY; Shadow Valley, CA) or having been internally shortened (e.g. Bearpaw Mountains, MT; Louisiana shelf). A rootless slide origin for the Mormon Peak detachment has been revived based on meso- and microstructural analysis of the fault surface (refs. 1, 2, and 3), but the hypothesis still fails the retrodeformation test at macroscopic scale. The retrodefomed sections indicate that the footwalls of the southern Nevada detachments

  8. 77 FR 17560 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00063

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties (Physical Damage and Economic Injury Loans): Bradley.... (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate...

  9. 76 FR 27137 - Tennessee Disaster #TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties (Physical Damage and Economic Injury Loans) Bradley.... (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate...

  10. 76 FR 27138 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00052

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Bradley, Greene, Hamilton, Washington. The Interest... 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. BILLING CODE 8025-01-P...

  11. AIDS control: TN may show the way.

    PubMed

    1999-04-19

    The successful experiences of Tamil Nadu (TN) in the control and prevention of HIV/AIDS provides vital clues for the second phase of the Rs. 1,150-crore World Bank-funded national AIDS control program which will begin in July. The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) is looking at TN for concrete answers in several areas before it composes its guidelines for the second phase. Key areas of focus in the second phase will be high-risk groups, control of STDs, people living with AIDS, communication structures and blood safety. NACO and the funding agency has been impressed by TN¿s method of mobilizing NGOs in the massive anti-HIV/AIDS campaign and its handling of the cost of the care. In addition to the Tamil Nadu State AIDS Control Society (TNSACS), the AIDS Prevention and Control Project of the Voluntary Health Services (supported by USAID) also contributed to the impressive performance of this State.

  12. Syntectonic Fluid-Rock Interactions Involving Surficial Waters in the Sevier Thrust Belt, Tendoy Mountains, Southwest Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bebout, G. E.

    2002-05-01

    Calcite veins and Mississippian carbonates from the Sevier thrust front record syntectonic meteoric fluid infiltration and hydrocarbon migration. The Tendoy and Four Eyes Canyon thrust sheets were emplaced onto the western margin of the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway \\{WIS\\}. Low salinity \\{Tice = -0.6° C to +3.6° C\\} and low temperature \\{110° C +/- 10\\} fluids interacted with hanging-wall carbonates at a depth of 5km. Most veins have single or multiple generations of varying apertures, composed predominately of large euhedral crystals with some finer grained layers and protolith inclusions. Orientation analysis of mutually cross-cutting, high-angle vein sets suggest development concurrent with Four Eyes Canyon thrusting but prior to Tendoy thrusting. These vein sets are generally cut by later synfolding bed-parallel shear veins. Reactivation of both the bed-parallel and bed-perpendicular vein sets \\{strike parallel and strike perpendicular\\} in the Four Eyes Canyon thrust sheet occurred subsequent to Sevier compression, creating wide, coarse crystalline veins that often transect Sevier structures. Oxygen and Carbon isotope analyses of veins allow for reconstruction of fluid-rock interactions during thrust sheet emplacement and later reactivation. All veins and variably deformed host-rocks were microsampled and analyzed for δ 18OV-SMOW and δ 13CV-PDB. Small Tendoy veins \\{1mm-1cm wide\\} have calcite δ 18O values of +8.9 to +28.8‰ and calculated fluid \\{as H2O\\} of -8.3 to +11.6‰ \\{100° C\\}, -7.3 to +12.6‰ \\{110° C\\}, and -6.3 to +13.6‰ \\{120° C\\}. Four Eyes Canyon veins \\{1cm-3m wide\\} have calcite δ 18O values of +5.9 to +17.0‰ and calculated fluid of -11.3 to -0.2‰ \\{100° C\\}, -10.3 to +0.8‰ \\{110° C\\}, and -9.3 to +1.8‰ \\{120° C\\}. While there is significant variation in δ 18O there is relatively little systematic variation seen in δ 13C. Protolith carbonate has δ 18O values of +22.2‰ +/- 3

  13. The Tn3-family of Replicative Transposons.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Emilien; Lambin, Michael; Dandoy, Damien; Galloy, Christine; Nguyen, Nathan; Oger, Cédric A; Hallet, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    Transposons of the Tn3 family form a widespread and remarkably homogeneous group of bacterial transposable elements in terms of transposition functions and an extremely versatile system for mediating gene reassortment and genomic plasticity owing to their modular organization. They have made major contributions to antimicrobial drug resistance dissemination or to endowing environmental bacteria with novel catabolic capacities. Here, we discuss the dynamic aspects inherent to the diversity and mosaic structure of Tn3-family transposons and their derivatives. We also provide an overview of current knowledge of the replicative transposition mechanism of the family, emphasizing most recent work aimed at understanding this mechanism at the biochemical level. Previous and recent data are put in perspective with those obtained for other transposable elements to build up a tentative model linking the activities of the Tn3-family transposase protein with the cellular process of DNA replication, suggesting new lines for further investigation. Finally, we summarize our current view of the DNA site-specific recombination mechanisms responsible for converting replicative transposition intermediates into final products, comparing paradigm systems using a serine recombinase with more recently characterized systems that use a tyrosine recombinase.

  14. Mercury(II)-resistance transposons Tn502 and Tn512, from Pseudomonas clinical strains, are structurally different members of the Tn5053 family.

    PubMed

    Petrovski, Steve; Blackmore, Dale W; Jackson, Kerry L; Stanisich, Vilma A

    2011-01-01

    The mercury(II)-resistance transposons Tn502 and Tn512 were sequenced and shown to be members of the Tn5053 family. They are currently the sole representatives from the clinical setting and were obtained from geographically disparate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The family is comprised of six novel transposons that display genetic and structural variability that has arisen in different ways. The mer and tni arms of the transposons can be differently combined, suggesting that chimeric interchanges have occurred, possibly mediated by the TniR resolvase. The mer modules within the mer arms are remnants of Tn21/Tn501-like transposons that inserted into a tni-containing ancestral transposon. The mer modules themselves are polymorphic and that of Tn502 is a new type. It includes the putative urf2M gene, the 3'-end of which expresses a protein and hence is a bone fide gene (tniM). Homologues of tniM occur beyond the Tn5053 family and include Tn21 tnpM. Other studies have implicated tniM and tnpM in transposition. Based on sequence and compositional differences, members of the environmentally widespread Tn5053 family constitute a different lineage from the related and clinically successful intI-containing Tn402 family.

  15. Laserprobe 40Ar/39Ar Dating Of Strain Fringes: An Example From The Interior Of The Sevier Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, M. L.; Spell, T. L.; Hoisch, T. D.; Arriola, T.; Zanetti, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    Determining the absolute ages of deformation fabrics in metamorphic rocks is critical to understanding the nature of orogenesis in deeply exhumed ancient mountain belts. In situ isotopic analysis of fibrous strain fringes is particularly advantageous because the relationships between the analyzed mineral, deformation fabric, and isotopic age can be established, and mineral growth can be linked to the progressive strain history. Furthermore, when isotopic closure temperatures (Tc) are higher than crystallization temperatures, isotopic ages reflect deformation ages. We have applied in situ 40Ar/39Ar UV and CO2 laser techniques to dating phlogopite in quartz-phlogopite-calcite and muscovite in quartz-muscovite fibrous strain fringes in greenschist-facies metamorphic rocks from the Grouse Creek Mountains (Utah) and Black Pine Mountains (Idaho). In both cases, syntectonic mica growth occurred below the minerals Tc. Phlogopite 40Ar/39Ar ages for individual strain fringes in the Grouse Creek Mountains range from 92 Ma to 110 Ma, with the most reliable ages ranging from 101 Ma to 110 Ma (mean age, 105.0 plus or minus 5.8 Ma). Muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages for individual strain fringes in the Black Pine Mountains range from 97 Ma to 112 Ma (mean age, 104.7 plus or minus 5.8 Ma). Strain fringes are associated with a sub-horizontal foliation and a generally N-trending elongation lineation exhibiting components of top-to-the-north simple shear and coaxial strain accommodating N-S extension and sub-vertical shortening. The new dates confirm prior correlation of fabrics between these ranges and yield a mid-Cretaceous age for the earliest ductile fabric preserved in the Raft River-Albion-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex, in the interior (hinterland) of the retroarc Sevier orogenic belt. Mid-crustal northward flow at 105 (plus or minus 6) Ma within the interior of the Sevier orogen, coeval with east-directed shortening in the foreland and with plate convergence, records orogen

  16. ATP-dependent specific binding of Tn3 transposase to Tn3 inverted repeats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishart, W. L.; Broach, J. R.; Ohtsubo, E.

    1985-04-01

    Transposons are discrete segments of DNA which are capable of moving from one site in a genome to many different sites1,2. Tn3 is a prokaryotic transposon which is 4,957 base pairs (bp) long and encodes a transposase protein which is essential for transposition3-7. We report here a simple method for purifying Tn3 transposase and demonstrate that the transposase protein binds specifically to the ends of the Tn3 transposon in an ATP-dependent manner. The transposase protein binds to linear double-stranded DNA both nonspecifically and specifically; the nonspecific DNA binding activity is sensitive to challenge with heparin. Site-specific DNA binding to the ends (inverted repeats) of Tn3 is observed only when binding is performed in the presence of ATP; this ATP-dependent site-specific DNA binding activity is resistant to heparin challenge. Our results indicate that ATP qualitatively alters the DNA binding activity of the transposase protein so that the protein is able to bind specifically to the ends of the Tn3 transposon.

  17. Organization of tn2610 containing two transposition modules.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Akiko; Watanabe, Masato; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2006-04-01

    Transposon Tn2610, found in a conjugative plasmid from an Escherichia coli isolate recovered at a hospital in Chiba, Japan, in 1975, was completely sequenced. Tn2610 is 23,883 bp long and is bracketed by two transposition modules, a Tn1721-like module and a Tn21-derived module, which correspond, respectively, to the long inverted repeats IRa and IRb previously described for this transposon. Although both tnpA genes are intact, only that in the Tn21-derived module (IRb) functions in the transposition, while that in the Tn1721-derived module (IRa) cannot recognize the 38-bp imperfect repeat at the end of the IRb element. Both tnpR and res are present in IRa, while the tnpR gene of IRb is interrupted by the insertion of an IS26 insertion element. The intervening region, between the res site of the Tn1721 module and IS26, carries multiple integron-associated resistance genes within a Tn21 backbone, including a region identical to that found in the genome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104. These findings suggest that Tn2610 originated from Tn1721 and Tn21, with extensive recombination events with other elements which have resulted in a complex mosaic structure.

  18. Challenges in Antibody Development against Tn and Sialyl-Tn Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Liliana R.; Carrascal, Mylène A.; Barbas, Ana; Ramalho, José S.; Novo, Carlos; Delannoy, Philippe; Videira, Paula A.

    2015-01-01

    The carbohydrate antigens Tn and sialyl-Tn (STn) are expressed in most carcinomas and usually absent in healthy tissues. These antigens have been correlated with cancer progression and poor prognosis, and associated with immunosuppressive microenvironment. Presently they are used in clinical trials as therapeutic vaccination, but with limited success due to their low immunogenicity. Alternatively, anti-Tn and/or STn antibodies may be used to harness the immune system against tumor cells. Whilst the development of antibodies against these antigens had a boost two decades ago for diagnostic use, so far no such antibody entered into clinical trials. Possible limitations are the low specificity and efficiency of existing antibodies and that novel antibodies are still necessary. The vast array of methodologies available today will allow rapid antibody development and novel formats. Following the advent of hybridoma technology, the immortalization of human B cells became a methodology to obtain human monoclonal antibodies with better specificity. Advances in molecular biology including phage display technology for high throughput screening, transgenic mice and more recently molecularly engineered antibodies enhanced the field of antibody production. The development of novel antibodies against Tn and STn taking advantage of innovative technologies and engineering techniques may result in innovative therapeutic antibodies for cancer treatment. PMID:26270678

  19. Neotectonics of the Sevier Desert basin, Utah as seen through the lens of multi-scale geophysical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, John H.; Nelson, Stephen T.; Heiner, Brandon D.; Tingey, David G.; Morris, Thomas H.; Rey, Kevin A.

    2015-07-01

    Geophysical surveys conducted in the Clear Lake fault zone (Utah) constrain the interpretation of neotectonics and volcanism along a portion of the Colorado Plateau-Basin-and-Range Transition Zone. The fault zone lies within the Sevier Desert, a region marked by numerous Quaternary fault scarps and bimodal volcanism. Lavas as young as 660 a B.P. are usually cut by faults, and many scarps have significant offsets implying the potential for M 7 + earthquakes. The range of scarp heights and uncertainty in scarp-magnitude regressions suggest variations on the order of 0.75 moment magnitude units. In order to characterize the range of deformation styles in the Clear Lake fault zone, three fault scarps were investigated for their patterns of shallow (< 1 km depth) deformation. A suite of methods, including seismic P- and SH-wave surveys, ground-penetrating radar, auger holes, and surface geological mapping produces a more complete view of near-surface Quaternary deformation. Sub-surface faults are expressed as scarps at the ground surface, but with differing tectonic styles: (1) growth strata in the hanging wall of a fault imply aseismic creep; (2) buried lavas draped over buried paleo-scarps indicate multiple slip events; and (3) a complex fault zone is expressed as ramps that step-over from one scarp to another. On a larger scale, the results bear directly on estimating seismic and volcanic hazards. In one locality, evidence of aseismic creep suggests hazard is lower than that inferred from the exposed scarp height or length. By contrast, multiple slip events at other locations indicate that hazards could be underestimated if scarps are assumed to represent single slip events. Finally, the intimate spatial association of Quaternary volcanic vents and faults implies that volcanic and seismic hazards are interrelated, both resulting from crustal extension where eruptive events exploited faults as conduits in the shallow crust.

  20. Paleogeographic and paleotectonic setting of sedimentary basins in the Sevier thrust belt and hinterland, eastern Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Vandervoort, D.S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Suydam, J.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The eastern Great Basin contains a sparse record of broadly distributed Cretaceous sedimentary rocks which record: evolution of intermontane basins during development of the Sevier (Sv)contractional orogen and incipient extensional collapse of the elevated Sv hinterland (east-central NV), and complex tectono-sedimentary interactions between frontal thrust belt structures and the western margin of the adjacent foreland basin. Palinspastic restoration of these strata and associated structures to pre-Tertiary extension positions reveals a clearer pictures of Cretaceous basin paleogeography and allows comparison with the Puna/Altiplano plateau and precordillera thrust belt of the Neogene Andean orogen. Two syntectonic stratal assemblages are present in east-central NV. Lower Cretaceous alluvial strata (Newark Canyon Fm) record basin development coeval with emergence of contractional structures in the Sv hinterland. Localized early Cretaceous basins were possibly piggyback immature; periods of open drainage to the to the east and south suggest connection with the nascent Sv foreland basin to the east (Cedar Mountain/Sanpete Fms) prior to major thrust loading in central Utah. Development of hinterland structures is almost recorded by Aptian-Albian foreland basin alluvial deposits in SW Utah (Dakota Fm) and southern Nevada (Willow Tank Fm). Upper Cretaceous to Eocene strata (Sheep Pass Fm) record inception of regionally abundant alluvial-lacustrine basins which developed in response to onset of latest Cretaceous extension and associated collapse of the Sv hinterland. Evolution of the structurally complex western margin of the Sv foreland basin is recorded in Cretaceous through Eocene strata deposited in: piggyback basins which were at times hydrologically connected to the adjacent foreland basins, and thrust-proximal portions of the foreland basin. These proximal areas are characterized by folding and faulting of basin fill and development of intrabasinal unconformities.

  1. (U-Th)/He and U-Pb double dating constraints on the interplay between thrust deformation and basin development, Sevier foreland basin, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujols, E.; Stockli, D. F.; Horton, B. K.; Steel, R. J.; Constenius, K. N.

    2015-12-01

    The degree of connectivity between thrust-belt deformation and foreland basin evolution has been a matter of debate for decades. This is in part due to the lack of temporal constraints on the relationship between thrust-belt deformation and associated deposition. New high-resolution zircon (U-Th)-(Pb-He) double dating of pre- and syn-tectonic sedimentary strata along the Sevier thrust front and basin provide an unprecedented geochronological framework to temporally and spatially link the Sevier foreland basin stratigraphy to deforming hinterland sources. Results improve constraints on timing and magnitude of deformation, depositional ages, sediment dispersal and sources. In Late Cretaceous proximal deposits of the Indianola Group (IG) and Canyon Range Conglomerates (CRC), detrital zircon U-Pb (zUPb) and (U-Th)/He ages (ZHe) chronicle the sequential unroofing of the Charlestone-Nebo Salient (CNS) and Canyon Range (CR) duplexes. Furthermore, short ZHe depositional lag-times indicate rapid hinterland exhumation (>1km/my) associated with active thrusting during Cenomanian and Coniacian-Santonian times as supported by bedrock ZHe ages in the CNS and CR thrust sheets. Detrital zircon analyses on the Late Cretaceous marine Book Cliffs strata suggest a more complex source-to-sink evolution compared to the time-equivalent IG and CRC proximal strata due to mixing of multi-source detrital zircons, sediment recycling and more prominent volcanic input. Nonetheless, the overall cooling history recorded in the Book Cliffs clearly reflects three hinterland exhumational phases, an early phase derived from the frontal thrusts and two additional phases with more integrated hinterland ZHe signatures. These three short lag-time phases correlate with fast clastic progradational wedges in the Sevier foreland. These results strengthen the role played by hinterland deformation on clastic progradation and elucidate the temporal relationship between thrusting and foreland basin architecture.

  2. Establishment of Tn5096-Based Transposon Mutagenesis in Gordonia polyisoprenivorans

    PubMed Central

    Banh, Quyen; Arenskötter, Matthias; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The transposons Tn5, Tn10, Tn611, and Tn5096 were characterized regarding transposition in Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2. No insertional mutants were obtained employing Tn5 or Tn10. The thermosensitive plasmid pCG79 harboring Tn611 integrated into the chromosome of G. polyisoprenivorans; however, the insertional mutants were fairly unstable und reverted frequently to the wild-type phenotype. In contrast, various stable mutants were obtained employing Tn5096-mediated transposon mutagenesis. Auxotrophic mutants, mutants defective or deregulated in carotenoid biosynthesis, and mutants defective in utilization of rubber and/or highly branched isoprenoid hydrocarbons were obtained by integration of plasmid pMA5096 harboring Tn5096 as a whole into the genome. From about 25,000 isolated mutants, the insertion loci of pMA5096 were subsequently mapped in 20 independent mutants in genes which could be related to the above-mentioned metabolic pathways or to putative regulation proteins. Analyses of the genotypes of pMA5096-mediated mutants defective in biodegradation of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) did not reveal homologues to recently identified genes coding for enzymes catalyzing the initial cleavage of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene). One rubber-negative mutant was disrupted in mcr, encoding an α-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase. This mutant was defective in degradation of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and also of highly branched isoprenoid hydrocarbons. PMID:16151089

  3. Functional characterization of Tn4401, a Tn3-based transposon involved in blaKPC gene mobilization.

    PubMed

    Cuzon, Gaelle; Naas, Thierry; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-11-01

    The carbapenemase gene bla(KPC), which is rapidly spreading worldwide, is located on a Tn3-based transposon, Tn4401. In a transposition-conjugation assay, Tn4401 was able to mobilize bla(KPC-2) gene at a frequency of 4.4 × 10(-6)/recipient cell. A 5-bp target site duplication was evidenced upon each insertion without target site specificity. This study demonstrated that Tn4401 is an active transposon capable of mobilizing bla(KPC) genes at high frequency.

  4. 48 CFR 1201.301-72 - TAC or TN numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TAC or TN numbering. 1201... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-72 TAC or TN numbering. TACs and TNs will be numbered consecutively on a fiscal year basis beginning with number “01”...

  5. 77 FR 28246 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tullahoma, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tullahoma, TN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... amend Class E airspace at Tullahoma, TN (77 FR 12759). Interested parties were invited to participate...

  6. An Early Cretaceous garnet pressure-temperature path recording synconvergent burial and exhumation from the hinterland of the Sevier orogenic belt, Albion Mountains, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Eric D.; Hoisch, Thomas D.; Wells, Michael L.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.; Beyene, Mengesha A.

    2015-08-01

    Rocks may undergo complex pressure-temperature ( P- T) histories during orogenesis in response to alternating episodes of synconvergent burial and exhumation. In this study, chemical zoning in garnets combined with textural and chemical evidence from the schist of Willow Creek in the Albion Mountains of south-central Idaho (USA), reveals a complex P- T path during the early stages of Sevier orogenesis. The distribution of quartz inclusions combined with internal resorption features establishes a hiatus in garnet growth. Chemical zoning was simulated using a G-minimization approach to yield a P- T path consisting of three distinct pressure changes during increasing temperature, defining an "N" shape. Lu-Hf isochron ages from multiple garnet fractions and whole-rock analyses in two samples are 132.1 ± 2.4 and 138.7 ± 3.5 Ma. The samples were collected from the hanging wall of the Basin-Elba thrust fault and yielded results similar to those previously obtained from the footwall. This leads to several conclusions: (1) Both the hanging wall and footwall experienced the same metamorphic event, (2) the paths document a previously unrecognized crustal thickening and synorogenic extension cycle that fills an important time gap in the shortening history of the Sevier retroarc, suggesting progressive eastward growth of the orogen rather than a two-stage history, and (3) episodes of extensional exhumation during protracted convergent orogenesis are increasingly well recognized and highlight the dynamic behavior of orogenic belts.

  7. Characterization of a TnMAVS protein from Tetraodon nigroviridis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhiming; Qi, Lin; Chen, Weijian; Dong, Chuanfu; Liu, Zhaoyu; Liu, Dong; Huang, Mengli; Li, Wei; Yang, Gan; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo

    2011-11-01

    A growing family of cellular proteins encoding for caspase activation and the recruitment domain (CARD) plays a crucial role in immunity by sensing viral infections and signaling antiviral immune defenses. We obtained a MAVS-like protein (named TnMAVS) from Tetradon nigroviridis, which contains a CARD domain, a pro-rich domain, and a TM domain similar to human MAVS. A fluorescence assay showed that TnMAVS was located in the cytoplasm and near by the membrane, and not the mitochondria in FHM cells. As such, it was considered as a new member of MAVS. The TnMAVS was highly expressed in the liver and muscle of T. nigroviridis. In the spleen, TnMAVS was down-regulated when the fish was treated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid or challenged with ISKNV, but was not affected by PGN or LPS. The dual luciferase reporter assay revealed that TnMAVS overexpression resulted in the activation of the interferon-sensitive response element and NF-κB signal pathways. In addition, a characteristic TRAF3-associated peptide PVQD was found in the TnMAVS sequence. Co-immunoprecipitation assays indicated that TnMAVS could interact with zfTRAF3 in eukaryotic cells.

  8. Structural and microstructural evolution of the Rattlesnake Mountain Anticline (Wyoming, USA): New insights into the Sevier and Laramide orogenic stress build-up in the Bighorn Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Leprêtre, Rémi; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Lacombe, Olivier; Amrouch, Khalid; Callot, Jean-Paul; Emmanuel, Laurent; Daniel, Jean-Marc

    2012-11-01

    The Rocky Mountains in western US provide among the best examples of thick-skinned tectonics: following a period of thin-skinned tectonics related to the Sevier orogeny, the compressional reactivation of basement faults gave birth to the so-called Laramide uplifts/arches. The Bighorn basin, located in Wyoming, is therefore a key place to study the transition from thin- to thick-skinned tectonics in orogenic forelands, especially in terms of microstructural and stress/strain evolution. Our study focuses on a classic Laramide structure: the Rattlesnake Mountain Anticline (RMA, Wyoming, USA), a basement-cored anticline located in the western part of the Bighorn basin. Stress and strain evolution analysis in folded sedimentary layers and underlying faulted basement rocks were performed on the basis of combined analyses of fractures, fault-slip data and calcite twinning paleopiezometry. Most of the fractures are related to three main tectonic events: the Sevier thin-skinned contraction, the Laramide thick-skinned contraction, and the Basin and Range extension. Serial balanced cross-sections of RMA and displacement profiles suggest that all thrust faults were coeval, evidencing strain distribution in the basement during faulting. The comparison of RMA with another structure located in the eastern edge of the Bighorn basin, i.e. the Sheep Mountain Anticline (SMA), allows to propose a conceptual model for the geometric and kinematic evolution of Laramide-related basement-cored anticlines. Finally, the stress evolution is reconstructed at both the fold scale and the basin scale. We show that the evolution of stress trends and magnitudes was quite similar in both structures (RMA and SMA) during Laramide times (thick-skinned tectonics), in spite of different stress regimes. During Sevier (thin-skinned tectonics) and post-Laramide times, stress trends and fracture patterns were different in these two structures. These results suggest that the distance to the orogenic front

  9. Surface plasmon resonance and NMR analyses of anti Tn-antigen MLS128 monoclonal antibody binding to two or three consecutive Tn-antigen clusters.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto-Takasaki, Ayano; Hanashima, Shinya; Aoki, Ami; Yuasa, Noriyuki; Ogawa, Haruhiko; Sato, Reiko; Kawakami, Hiroko; Mizuno, Mamoru; Nakada, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2012-03-01

    Tn-antigens are tumour-associated carbohydrate antigens that are involved in metastatic processes and are associated with a poor prognosis. MLS128 monoclonal antibody recognizes the structures of two or three consecutive Tn-antigens (Tn2 or Tn3). Since MLS128 treatment inhibits colon and breast cancer cell growth [Morita, N., Yajima, Y., Asanuma, H., Nakada, H., and Fujita-Yamaguchi, Y. (2009) Inhibition of cancer cell growth by anti-Tn monoclonal antibody MLS128. Biosci. Trends 3, 32-37.], understanding the interaction between MLS128 and Tn-clusters may allow us to the development of novel cancer therapeutics. Although MLS128 was previously reported to have specificity for Tn3 rather than Tn2, similar levels of Tn2/Tn3 binding were unexpectedly observed at 37°C. Thus, thermodynamic analyses were performed via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using synthetic Tn2- and Tn3-peptides at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C. SPR results revealed that MLS128's association constants for both antigens were highly temperature dependent. Below 25°C MLS128's association constant for Tn3-peptide was clearly higher than that for Tn2-peptide. At 30°C, however, the association constant for Tn2-peptide was higher than that for Tn3-peptide. This reversal of affinity is due to the sharp increase in K(d) for Tn3. These results were confirmed by NMR, which directly measured MLS128-Tn binding in solution. This study suggested that thermodynamic control plays a critical role in the interaction between MLS128/Tn2 and MLS128/Tn3.

  10. Insertion sites and the terminal nucleotide sequences of the Tn4 transposon.

    PubMed

    Hyde, D R; Tu, C P

    1982-07-10

    The nucleotide sequences at the ends of the Tn4 transposon (mercury spectinomycin and sulfonamide resistance) have been determined. They are inverted repeated sequences of 38 nucleotides with three mismatched base pairs. These sequences are strongly homologous with the terminal sequences of Tn501 (mercury resistance) but less so with those of Tn3 (ampicillin resistance). The Tn4 transposon generates pentanucleotide members (Tn3, Tn1000, Tn501, Tn551, IS2) with the exception of Tn1721 and bacteriophage Mu. Among the three Tn4 insertion sites examined here, two of them occurred near a nonanucleotide sequence in perfect homology with part of the terminal inverted-repeat sequence of Tn4 and the third insertion occurred near a sequence of partial homology to one end of Tn4. All three insertions were in the same orientation such that IRb is proximal to its homologous sequence on the recipient DNA.

  11. 14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Place of a thousand drips, view with three culvert pipes. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 19. Photographer unknown, circa 1950 'THE LOOP OVER' BRIDGE WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photographer unknown, circa 1950 'THE LOOP OVER' BRIDGE WAS CONSTRUCTED ON NEWFOUND GAP ROAD TO REPLACE A SERIES OF DANGEROUS SWITCHBACKS. THIS ENGINEERING FEATURE QUICKLY BECAME A POPULAR TOURIST ATTRACTION. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 16. Joe Murphy, Jr., Photographer, circa 190914 LOCOMOTIVE NO. 148 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Joe Murphy, Jr., Photographer, circa 1909-14 LOCOMOTIVE NO. 148 STEAMS UP LITTLE RIVER GORGE, CA. 1909-14. LITTLE RIVER ROAD WAS CONSTRUCTED OVER THIS RIGHT OF WAY IN 1932. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. 76 FR 1512 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Savannah, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    .... Box 20636, Atlanta, Georgia 30320; telephone (404) 305-5610. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On... areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ASO TN...

  15. 76 FR 33656 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission grants a petition for rulemaking filed by...

  16. 76 FR 14855 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Kevin R....

  17. RadNet Air Data From Knoxville, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Knoxville, TN from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  18. RadNet Air Data From Memphis, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Memphis, TN from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  19. RadNet Air Data From Nashville, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Nashville, TN from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  20. 77 FR 61653 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Smyrna-Rutherford County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Smyrna-Rutherford County Airport, Smyrna, TN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... the release of land at the Smyrna-Rutherford County Airport, Smyrna, Tennessee. This property... review at the Smyrna--Rutherford County Airport, 278 Doug Warpoole Road, Smyrna, Tennessee 37167 and...

  1. Autonomous Replication of the Conjugative Transposon Tn916.

    PubMed

    Wright, Laurel D; Grossman, Alan D

    2016-12-15

    Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), also known as conjugative transposons, are self-transferable elements that are widely distributed among bacterial phyla and are important drivers of horizontal gene transfer. Many ICEs carry genes that confer antibiotic resistances to their host cells and are involved in the dissemination of these resistance genes. ICEs reside in host chromosomes but under certain conditions can excise to form a plasmid that is typically the substrate for transfer. A few ICEs are known to undergo autonomous replication following activation. However, it is not clear if autonomous replication is a general property of many ICEs. We found that Tn916, the first conjugative transposon identified, replicates autonomously via a rolling-circle mechanism. Replication of Tn916 was dependent on the relaxase encoded by orf20 of Tn916 The origin of transfer of Tn916, oriT(916), also functioned as an origin of replication. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we found that the relaxase (Orf20) and the two putative helicase processivity factors (Orf22 and Orf23) encoded by Tn916 likely interact in a complex and that the Tn916 relaxase contains a previously unidentified conserved helix-turn-helix domain in its N-terminal region that is required for relaxase function and replication. Lastly, we identified a functional single-strand origin of replication (sso) in Tn916 that we predict primes second-strand synthesis during rolling-circle replication. Together these results add to the emerging data that show that several ICEs replicate via a conserved, rolling-circle mechanism.

  2. Transposon mutagenesis in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans: Development of a random mutagenesis tool from Tn7

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, J.D.; Murnan, T.; Argyle, J.

    1996-10-01

    The transposons Tn5, Tn7, Tn9, and Tn10 or their derivatives have been examined for transposition in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20. Tn7 inserted with a frequency of 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}3} into a unique attachment site that shows strong homology with those sites identified in other gram-negative bacteria. Inactivation of the tnsD gene in Tn7, encoding the function directing insertion into the unique site, yielded a derivative that transposed essentially randomly with a frequency of ca. 10{sup {minus}6} per donor. Derivatives of Tn5, but not wild-type Tn5, were also found to undergo random transposition at a similar frequency. No evidence was obtained for transposition of Tn9 or Tn10. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Rhizobium phaseoli symbiotic mutants with transposon Tn5 insertions.

    PubMed Central

    Noel, K D; Sanchez, A; Fernandez, L; Leemans, J; Cevallos, M A

    1984-01-01

    Rhizobium phaseoli CFN42 DNA was mutated by random insertion of Tn5 from suicide plasmid pJB4JI to obtain independently arising strains that were defective in symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris but grew normally outside the plant. When these mutants were incubated with the plant, one did not initiate visible nodule tissue (Nod-), seven led to slow nodule development (Ndv), and two led to superficially normal early nodule development but lacked symbiotic nitrogenase activity (Sna-). The Nod- mutant lacked the large transmissible indigenous plasmid pCFN42d that has homology to Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase (nif) genes. The other mutants had normal plasmid content. In the two Sna- mutants and one Ndv mutant, Tn5 had inserted into plasmid pCFN42d outside the region of nif homology. The insertions of the other Ndv mutants were apparently in the chromosome. They were not in plasmids detected on agarose gels, and, in contrast to insertions on indigenous plasmids, they were transmitted in crosses to wild-type strain CFN42 at the same frequency as auxotrophic markers and with the same enhancement of transmission by conjugation plasmid R68.45. In these Ndv mutants the Tn5 insertions were the same as or very closely linked to mutations causing the Ndv phenotype. However, in two mutants with Tn5 insertions on plasmid pCFN42d, an additional mutation on the same plasmid, rather than Tn5, was responsible for the Sna- or Ndv phenotype. When plasmid pJB4JI was transferred to two other R. phaseoli strains, analysis of symbiotic mutants was complicated by Tn5-containing deleted forms of pJB4JI that were stably maintained. Images PMID:6325385

  4. Summary of reported agriculture and irrigation water use in southwestern Arkansas counties, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, T.W.; Manning, C.A.; Stafford, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1991 water-use reporting through the Conservation District Offices in the following southwestern Arkansas counties: Bradley, Calhoun, Clark, Cleveland, Columbia, Dallas, Garland, Grant, Hempstead, Hot Spring, Howard, Little River, Montgomery, Nevada, Ouachita, Pike, Polk, Saline, Sevier, and Union. The number of withdrawal registrations for southwestern Arkansas counties was 132 (31 groundwater and 101 surface water). Water withdrawals reported during the registration process total 0.84 Mgal/d (none from groundwater and 0.84 Mgal/d surface water) for agriculture and 14.22 Mgal/d (1.64 Mgal/d groundwater and 12.58 Mgal/d surface water) for irrigation. The registration reports for 1991 indicate that this water was applied to 8,455 acres of land to irrigate rice, corn, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, cash grains, vegetables, sod, berries, fruit trees, timber, shrubs, and nuts as well as for the agricultural use of animal aquaculture.

  5. Ground-water hydrology of the upper Sevier River Basin, south-central Utah, and simulation of ground-water flow in the valley-fill in Panguitch Valley.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Brothers, William C.

    1993-01-01

    The ground-water hydrology of the upper Sevier River basin, primarily of the unconsolidated valley-fill aquifers, was studied from 1988 to 1989. Recharge to the valley-fill aquifers is mostly by seepage from surface-water sources. Changes in soil-moisture content am water levels were measured in Panguitch Valley both at a flood-irrigated and at a sprinkler-irrigated alfalfa field to quantify seepage from unconsumed irrigation water. Lag time between irrigation and water-level response decreased from 6 to 2 days in the flood-irrigated field as the soil-moisture content increased. Water levels measured in the sprinkler-irrigated field did not respond to irrigation. Discharge from the valley-fill aquifer to the Sevier River in Panguitch Valley is about 53,570 acre-feet per year.Water levels measured in wells from 1951 to 1989 tend to fluctuate with the quantity of precipitation falling at higher elevations. Ground-water discharge to the Sevier River in Panguitch Valley causes a general increase in the specific conductance of the river in a downstream direction.A three-layered ground-water-flow model was used to simulate the effects of changes in irrigation practices am increased ground-water withdrawals in Panguitch Valley. The establishment of initial conditions consisted of comparing simulated water levels and simulated gains and losses from the Sevier River and selected canals with values measured during the 1988 irrigation season. The model was calibrated by comparing water-level changes measured from 1961 to 1963 to simulated changes. A simulated change from flood to sprinkler irrigation resulted in a maximum decline in water level of 0.9 feet after the first year of change. Simulating additional discharge from wells resulted in drawdowns of about 20 feet after the first year of pumping.

  6. Magnitude, Timing, and Geometry of Extension in the Southern Sevier Desert Basin From Piercing Points, Seismic-Stratigraphic Reconstruction, and Deep well Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, J. C.; Decelles, P. G.

    2007-12-01

    Palinspastic reconstruction of Mesozoic thrust sheets provides the main constraint for an estimated 47 km of Cenozoic extensional displacement along the Sevier Desert detachment (SDD) in the central Sevier Desert Basin. Hanging wall and footwall piercing points indicate that the SDD accommodated a minimum of 35 km of extensional displacement in the narrower southern part of the basin. The piercing points for the SDD are defined by the intersection of the SDD, the Canyon Range thrust (CRT), and a regional early Cenozoic erosion surface (ES). The hanging wall piercing point lies immediately northeast of the Cricket Mountains, where the SDD-CRT- ES intersection is narrowly defined by intersecting structure maps derived from published seismic reflection data. The footwall piercing point lies in the southern foothills of the Canyon Range, where the SDD breakaway plane is well constrained by an industry seismic line that lies within 2 km of the exposed intersection of the CRT with the base of the Oligocene Oak City Formation. Timing of extension in the southern Sevier Desert basin is constrained by a kinematic reconstruction of detachment and imbricate fault displacement, footwall uplift, and supradetachment sedimentation for Oligocene, Miocene, and Plio-Pleistocene seismic sequences. The reconstruction is centered on a seismic reflection and gravity interpretation along the published Pan Canadian profiles 2 and 3 that is tied to dated intervals in six industry wells. Fault restoration indicates that Oligocene and Miocene phases of slip each accounted for about 40 percent of the total displacement. Simultaneous backstripping of the Oligocene, Miocene, and Plio-Pleistocene supradetachment sequences records hanging wall subsidence simultaneous with footwall uplift, with a footwall burial history that is consistent with published Miocene apatite and zircon fission-track ages of footwall samples. The geometric evolution of the southern SDD extensional system is consistent

  7. From Source to Sink: Exhumation of the North America Cordillera Revealed by Multi-dating of Detrital Minerals from Upper Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous Sevier Foreland Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, C. S.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Gehrels, G. E.; Thomson, S. N.

    2013-12-01

    We sampled twenty-two Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous syn-orogenic conglomerate clasts in proximal units in the Sevier fold-thrust belt and their distal sandstone equivalents up to 300 km east of the thrust front, in Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and South Dakota. To better constrain depositional ages, these samples were analyzed using detrital zircon U-Pb (DZ U-Pb) geochronology. To identify a thermochronometer that measures source exhumation in the North America Cordillera, both zircon (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology was utilized, on both the conglomerate cobbles and sandstone (detrital) samples. Eleven samples were analyzed with zircon (U-Th)/He; however, discordant ages in the conglomerate cobble samples suggest that this system was not fully reset and never experienced T> ~180 °C in the source stratigraphy during the Sevier orogeny. Eleven other samples are analyzed using apatite fission track thermochronology (AFT); AFT ages are generally similar or older than depositional ages indicating that the detrital ages record source exhumation signals, and that exhumation depth corresponds to T>~120 °C. In order to test whether or not the youngest cooling AFT age population represents a source exhumation signal or a co-magmatic signal we here performed double dating of the detrital AFT samples using apatite U-Pb thermochronology. Maximum depositional ages using DZ U-Pb match existing age controls on basin stratigraphy. Our study shows that AFT is an effective thermochronometer to detect source exhumation for Cretaceous foreland stratigraphy in the western U.S.A. Lag-times (i.e. the difference between the source exhumation age and depositional age) are ~0 to 5 Myr with relatively steady-state to slightly increasing exhumation rates suggesting orogenic growth at this time. The very short lag times also indicate limited to no storage time between source and sink. The AFT lag time of the Early Cretaceous Kelvin Formation is ~5 Myr and represents

  8. 78 FR 38555 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Selmer, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... instrument approach procedures developed for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at Robert Sibley... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Robert Sibley Airport, Selmer... above the surface within a 6.7-mile radius of Robert Sibley Airport, Selmer, TN....

  9. Iceland: Grímsvötn Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Grímsvötn Volcano Injects Ash into the Stratosphere     ... p.m. local time (1730 UTC) on Saturday, May 21, 2011. The volcano, located approximately 140 miles (220 kilometers) east of the capital ...

  10. 76 FR 36166 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and...

  11. 75 FR 35103 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00038 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 8.../2010, is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by the disaster....

  12. 76 FR 48939 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00058

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00058 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1.../2011, is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by the disaster....

  13. 75 FR 35103 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 7... Tennessee, dated 05/04/2010 is hereby amended to include the following areas as adversely affected by...

  14. Geologic Map of the Pahranagat Range 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Pahranagat Range 30' x 60' quadrangle lies within an arid, sparsely populated part of Lincoln and Nye Counties, southeastern Nevada. Much of the area is public land that includes the Desert National Wildlife Range, the Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and the Nellis Air Force Base. The topography, typical of much of the Basin and Range Province, consists of north-south-trending ranges and intervening broad alluvial valleys. Elevations range from about 1,000 to 2,900 m. At the regional scale, the Pahranagat Range quadrangle lies within the Mesozoic and early Tertiary Sevier Fold-and-Thrust Belt and the Cenozoic Basin and Range Province. The quadrangle is underlain by a Proterozoic to Permian miogeoclinal section, a nonmarine clastic and volcanic section of middle Oligocene or older to late Miocene age, and alluvial deposits of late Cenozoic age. The structural features that are exposed reflect relatively shallow crustal deformation. Mesozoic deformation is dominated by thrust faults and asymmetric or open folds. Cenozoic deformation is dominated by faults that dip more than 45i and dominostyle tilted blocks. At least three major tectonic events have affected the area: Mesozoic (Sevier) folding and thrust faulting, pre-middle Oligocene extensional deformation, and late Cenozoic (mainly late Miocene to Holocene) extensional deformation. Continued tectonic activity is expressed in the Pahranagat Range area by seismicity and faults having scarps that cut alluvial deposits.

  15. 75 FR 27846 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ..., Lewis, Macon, Robertson, Smith, Stewart, Trousdale, Wayne, Wilson. Contiguous Counties: (Economic Injury... declaration remains unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James...

  16. Selection of EPS-deficient mutants (Exo-) from Rhizobiun huakuii 107 by region-directed Tn5 mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, B; Huang, J; Su, W; Song, H

    1998-01-01

    pJB-B5 was a recombinant plasmid of pRK415 containing the 5.9 kb B5 fragment from exoR'-11. After pJB-B5 was mutagenized by MT614 (mal::Tn5), 10 plasmids TN1-1, TN1-12, TN2-2, TN2-3, TN3-1, TN4-1, TN9-1, TN10-1, TN13-1, and TN14-1 with different Tn5 insertions in the B5 fragment were constructed. By conjugation of TN1-1, etc., into Rhizobium huakuii 107 containing the P-group plasmid pPH1JI which is incompatible with pRK415, and simultaneous selection for Rifr (conferred by strain 107), Gm(r) (conferred by pPH1JI), and Nmr (retention of Tn5), R. huakuii 107 transconjugant yields a strain in which Tn5 has recombined into the R. huakuii 107 genome. Three EPS-deficient (Exo-) mutants 107 (TN2-2), 107 (TN10-1), and 107 (TN13-1) were isolated and their inserted Tn5 was certified as the result of a double homologous recombinant event by Southern hybridization analysis. This result showed the Tn5 region-directed mutagenesis is an efficient way to select Exo- mutant in R. huakuii.

  17. Iceland's Grímsvötn volcano erupts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-05-01

    About 13 months after Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano began erupting on 14 April 2010, which led to extensive air traffic closures over Europe, Grímsvötn volcano in southeastern took its turn. Iceland's most active volcano, which last erupted in 2004 and lies largely beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap, began its eruption activity on 21 May, with the ash plume initially reaching about 20 kilometers in altitude, according to the Icelandic Meteorological Office. Volcanic ash from Grímsvötn has cancelled hundreds of airplane flights and prompted U.S. president Barack Obama to cut short his visit to Ireland. As Eos went to press, activity at the volcano was beginning to subside.

  18. 77 FR 12759 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tullahoma, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... informal docket may also be examined during normal business hours at the office of the Eastern Service... feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ASO TN E5 Tullahoma, TN Tullahoma...

  19. Efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of sialyl Tn-antigen and derivatives†

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Li, Yanhong; Muthana, Saddam; Wang, Junru; Chen, Xi

    2011-01-01

    An N-terminal and C-terminal truncated recombinant α2–6-sialyltransferase cloned from Photobacterium sp. JH-ISH-224, Psp2,6ST(15–501)-His6, was shown to be an efficient catalyst for one-pot three-enzyme synthesis of sialyl Tn (STn) antigens and derivatives containing natural and non-natural sialic acid forms. PMID:21725542

  20. Lightcurve Analysis of Near-Earth Asteroid 2010 TN54

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Benishek, Vladimir; Ferrero, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    CCD photometry observations of the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2010 TN 54 indicate a period of either 6.14 h or 12.12 h, depending on whether a monomodal or bimodal lightcurve is adopted. The amplitude was only 0.07 ± 0.01 mag, which - along with the period being nearly commensurate with an Earth day - made finding a definitive solution difficult, despite being observed from locations in North America and Europe.

  1. Inversion activity of the Tn5053 and Tn402 resolution system, which possess an uncommon res region

    SciTech Connect

    Kholodii, G.Ya.

    1995-12-01

    The classical bacterial site-specific systems of DNA resolution are characterized, despite their considerable divergence, by a regularly arranged res region represented as a triad of res sites. DNA resolution (deletion) is carried out more efficiently than DNA inversion, primarily due to this structure. In this report, the ratio of deletion to inversion activities is evaluated for the resolution systems of Tn5053 and Tn402, which belong to a novel family and possess an irregularly arranged res region. By this criterion, the system studied is shown to be similar to the classical ones. These data suggest that in the course of evolution of the resolvase systems, the same degree of recombination specialization could be attained by different arrangement of the res region. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Style and magnitude of Mesozoic thrust faulting in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt Pequop Mountains-Wood Hills-East Humboldt Range region, northeast Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, P.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The Pequop Mountains (PM), Wood Hills (WH) and East Humboldt Range (EHR), NE Nevada, provide evidence that the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt experienced large-magnitude Mesozoic shortening ([>=]55 km) and crustal thickening ([>=] 30 km). These ranges expose a structurally continuous crustal cross section of unmetamorphosed to high pressure upper amphibolite facies Triassic to Precambrian miogeoclinal strata. This sequence lies structurally beneath unmetamorphosed extensional klippen that omit metamorphic grade and crustal section, but also repeat stratigraphic units. Because they repeat stratigraphic units, the underlying miogeoclinal section, or footwall, must have once lain beneath a thrust fault (herein named the Windermere thrust). The footwall of the Windermere thrust was exhumed by two generations of top-to-the-W-NW low-angle normal faults that are distinguished by whether they are depositionally overlapped by Eocene volcanic rocks or if they cut the volcanic rocks in their hanging walls. The latter phase is associated with development of the mid-Tertiary extensional mylonitic shear zone in the EHR. An integration of geobarometric, metamorphic, and map data suggest (1) a NW dip of the footwall of the Windermere thrust with metamorphic facies belts trending perpendicular to dip direction and metamorphic grade increasing down dip, and (2) a top-to-the-SE sense-of-slip for the Windermere thrust. Assuming that the Windermere thrust comprised a flat on the youngest rocks exposed in the footwall (Triassic), the Mesozoic depth to the Windermere thrust in the northern PM is [>=] 7 km, in WH is [approximately]10--16 km, and in the EHR[>=]30 km. The Windermere thrust accommodated a minimum of 50 km of shortening associated with the Independence thrust is [>=] 5 km. These data indicate that the amount of hinterland shortening in NE Nevada greatly exceeds that to the south in the Eureka belt.

  3. Laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar dating of strain fringes: Mid-Cretaceous synconvergent orogen-parallel extension in the interior of the Sevier orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Michael L.; Spell, Terry L.; Hoisch, Thomas D.; Arriola, Tonia; Zanetti, Kathleen A.

    2008-06-01

    UV and CO2 laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar in situ analyses of phlogopite and muscovite in fibrous strain fringes from greenschist-facies metamorphic rocks document mica growth ages at temperatures lower than their closure temperatures, and therefore directly date deformation. The new dates resolve the age of the earliest ductile fabric recorded in the Raft River-Albion-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex of Utah and Idaho. Phlogopite was dated in quartz-calcite-phlogopite strain fringes around pyrite in Pennsylvanian-Permian rocks from the Grouse Creek Mountains (Utah) using both the UV and CO2 laser probe; muscovite was dated in quartz-muscovite strain fringes around pyrite in deformed Jurassic sills from the Black Pine Mountains (Idaho) using the CO2 laser probe. Phlogopite 40Ar/39Ar ages for individual strain fringes (Grouse Creek Mountains) range from 92 Ma to 110 Ma, with the most reliable ages ranging from 101 Ma to 110 Ma (mean age, 105.0 ± 5.8 Ma). Muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages for individual strain fringes (Black Pine Mountains) range from 97 Ma to 112 Ma (mean age, 104.7 ± 5.8 Ma). Strain fringes are associated with a subhorizontal foliation and a generally N-trending elongation lineation exhibiting components of top-to-the-north simple shear and coaxial strain accommodating N-S extension and subvertical shortening. Midcrustal northward flow at 105 (±6) Ma within the interior of the Sevier orogen, coeval with east-directed shortening in the foreland and with plate convergence, records orogen-parallel synconvergent extension. We favor gravitational relaxation of structural culminations resulting from focused crustal shortening as a driving mechanism for orogen-parallel flow.

  4. 77 FR 67057 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Anderson County, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... 4.85-mile rail line on CSXT's Southern Region, Huntington Division, KD Subdivision, extending between milepost 0AE 251.15 at the connection with CSXT's main line and milepost 0AE 256.0 at the end of... any U.S. District Court or has been decided in favor of complainant within the two-year period; and...

  5. 77 FR 24200 - American Drum & Pallet, Memphis, Shelby County, TN; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ...-04- 2012-3770 or Site name American Drum & Pallet Superfund Site by one of the following methods: www... settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the American Drum and Pallet Superfund...

  6. 75 FR 6257 - Watts Bar Reservoir Land Management Plan, Loudon, Meigs, Rhea, and Roane Counties, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ...), Industrial (Zone 5), Developed Recreation (Zone 6), and Shoreline Access (Zone 7). The allocations were made... public land for management on Watts Bar Reservoir. At full pool, the reservoir shoreline length is 721 miles, and the surface area is about 39,000 acres. Approximately 47 percent of this shoreline is...

  7. 76 FR 5194 - Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge, Henry, Benton, Decatur, and Humphreys Counties, TN; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... mammals, fish, reptiles, and amphibians. We announce our decision and the availability of the final CCP... baseline inventories for non-game mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates. We will...

  8. 75 FR 32201 - Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge, Henry, Benton, Decatur, and Humphreys Counties, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ..., and assistant refuge manager. The current office, bunkhouse, storage, and maintenance shop at the Duck... structures, and pumps would be maintained. We would maintain our existing partnerships. Alternative B--Public.... Alternative B would maintain the office, storage, and maintenance facilities at Duck River Unit, and...

  9. Structural and functional analyses of the fosfomycin resistance transposon Tn2921.

    PubMed Central

    Navas, J; García-Lobo, J M; León, J; Ortíz, J M

    1985-01-01

    The fosfomycin resistance transposon Tn2921 is flanked by directly repeated sequences homologous to the Tn10-related insertion sequence IS10. The nonrepeated DNA sequences of Tn2921 can be deleted without affecting the transposition ability of the element, showing that at least one of the direct repeats is an active insertion sequence. Transposition of Tn2921 seems to occur through direct transposition, since cointegrates have not been observed. The evolutionary relatedness of Tn2921 and IS10 is discussed. Images PMID:2987181

  10. Characterization of Tn6238 with a New Allele of aac(6′)-Ib-cr

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, María P.; Orman, Betina; Errecalde, Laura; Kaufman, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report that the genetic structure of Tn1331 remained conserved in Argentina from 1989 to 2013 (72 of 73 isolates), with the exception being the plasmid-borne Tn1331-like transposon Tn6238 containing a new aac(6′)-Ib-cr allele recovered from a colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate. A bioinformatic analysis of aac(6′)-Ib-like gene cassettes suggests that this new aac(6′)-Ib-cr allele emerged through mutation or homologous recombination in the Tn1331 genetic platform. Tn6238 is a novel platform for the dissemination of aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone resistance determinants. PMID:25691640

  11. Physical and functional mapping of Tn2603, a transposon encoding ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and mercury resistance.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Tanaka, M; Baba, R; Yamagishi, S

    1981-01-01

    A map of cleavage sites for restriction endonuclease EcoRI, BamHI, HindIII, and SalI on Tn2603, a transposon encoding resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and mercury, was constructed by an analysis of restriction cleavage patterns of plasmid pMK1.::Tn2603 and its deletion derivative. By cloning the fragments generated from pMK1.::Tn2603 with these restriction endonucleases to a pACYC184 plasmid vehicle, the regions necessary for expression of resistance were located on the restriction cleavage map of Tn2603. Ampicillin, streptomycin, and sulfonamide-resistance genes were mapped in a cluster on the region between the center and the right and the mercury-resistance gene was located to the left of the map. The final functional map of Tn2603 was compared with those of Tn4 and Tn21 and the evolutional relationships between them were discussed.

  12. Aberrant Cosmc genes result in Tn antigen expression in human colorectal carcinoma cell line HT-29

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaofeng; Du, Zhenzhen; Sun, Xuhong; Shi, Chuanqin; Zhang, Huaixiang; Hu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The Tn antigen, which arises from mutation in the Cosmc gene is one of the most common tumor associated carbohydrate antigens. Cosmc resides in X24 encoded by a single gene and functions as a specific molecular chaperone for T-synthase. While the Tn antigen cannot be detected in normal cells, Cosmc mutations inactivate T-synthase and consequently result in Tn antigen expression within certain cancers. In addition to this Cosmc mutation-induced expression, the Tn antigen is also expressed in such cell lines as Jurkat T, LSC and LS174T. Whether the Cosmc mutation is present in the colon cancer cell line HT-29 is still unclear. Here, we isolate HT-29-Tn+ cells from HT-29 cells derived from a female colon cancer patient. These HT-29-Tn+ cells show a loss of the Cosmc gene coding sequence (CDS) leading to an absence of T-synthase activity and Tn antigen expression. Additionally, almost no methylation of Cosmc CpG islands was detected in HT-29-Tn+ as well as in HT-29-Tn- and Tn- tumor cells from male patients. In contrast, the methylation frequency of CpG island of Cosmc in normal female cells was ~50%. Only one active allele of Cosmc existed in HT-29-Tn+ and HT-29-Tn- cells as based upon detection of SNP sites. These results indicate that Tn antigens expression and T-synthase inactivity in HT-29-Tn+ cells can be related to the absence of CDS in Cosmc active alleles, while an inactive allele deletion of Cosmc in HT-29 cells has no influence on Cosmc function. PMID:26045765

  13. Tn6026 and Tn6029 are found in complex resistance regions mobilised by diverse plasmids and chromosomal islands in multiple antibiotic resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Reid, Cameron J; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2015-07-01

    Transposons flanked by direct copies of IS26 are important contributors to the evolution of multiple antibiotic resistance. Tn6029 and Tn6026 are examples of composite transposons that have become widely disseminated on small and large plasmids with different incompatibility markers in pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli and various serovars of Salmonella enterica. Some of the plasmids that harbour these transposons also carry combinations of virulence genes. Recently, Tn6029 and Tn6026 and derivatives thereof have been found on chromosomal islands in both established and recently emerged pathogens. While Tn6029 and Tn6026 carry genes encoding resistance to older generation antibiotics, they also provide a scaffold for the introduction of genes encoding resistance to a wide variety of clinically relevant antibiotics that are mobilised by IS26. As a consequence, Tn6029 and Tn6026 or variants are likely to increasingly feature in complex resistance regions in multiple antibiotic resistant Enterobacteriaceae that threaten the health of humans and food production animals.

  14. The Lower Sevier River Basin Crop Monitor and Forecast Decision Support System: Exploiting Landsat Imagery to Provide Continuous Information to Farmers and Water Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Rua, A. F.; Walker, W. R.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    The last century has seen a large number of innovations in agriculture such as better policies for water control and management, upgraded water conveyance, irrigation, distribution, and monitoring systems, and better weather forecasting products. In spite of this, irrigation management and irrigation water deliveries by farmers/water managers is still based on factors like water share amounts, tradition, and past experience on irrigation. These factors are not necessarily related to the actual crop water use; they are followed because of the absence of related information provided in a timely manner at an affordable cost. Thus, it is necessary to develop means to deliver continuous and personalized information about crop water requirements to water users/managers at the field and irrigation system levels so managers at these levels can better quantify the required versus available water for irrigation during the irrigation season. This study presents a new decision support system (DSS) platform that addresses the absence of information on actual crop water requirements and crop performance by providing continuous updated farm-based crop water use along with other farm performance indicators such as crop yield and farm management to irrigators and water managers. This DSS exploits the periodicity of the Landsat Satellite Mission (8 to 16 days, depending on the period of interest) to provide remote monitoring at the individual field and irrigation system levels. The Landsat satellite images are converted into information about crop water use, yield performance and field management through application of state-of-the-art semi-physical and statistical algorithms that provide this information at a pixel basis that are ultimately aggregated to field and irrigation system levels. A version of the DSS has been implemented for the agricultural lands in the Lower Sevier River, Utah, and has been operational since the beginning of the 2013 irrigation season. The main goal of

  15. Low-temperature thermochronology of the Laramide Ranges and eastward translation of shortening in the Sevier Belt, Wyoming, Utah and Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyton, Sara Lynn

    This dissertation contains two studies that use very different techniques to investigate the Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics of the western USA. The first study investigates shortening in the Sevier thrust belt of northeast Utah and southwest Wyoming using cross sections and seismic reflection data. The second study investigates the low-temperature thermochronology of the Laramide Ranges using apatite (U-Th)/He dating. We used cross sections and seismic reflection data to investigate bed length discrepancies within the hanging wall of the Absaroka thrust in the Sevier thrust belt of northeast Utah and southwest Wyoming. Restoration of cross sections suggests that there was ˜8-14 km of pre-Absaroka-thrust shortening above the Jurassic Preuss salt detachment, but not below it, in the hanging wall of the Absaroka thrust. Reflection seismic data over the hanging wall of the Crawford thrust show that the Crawford thrust is not offset along the Preuss salt detachment, indicating that the additional shortening on the Absaroka plate was transferred east before main movement on the Crawford thrust. Although early displacement on the Crawford thrust cannot be ruled out as the cause of the extra shortening, surface and subsurface geology suggests slip from the western thrust system (Willard and Lost Creek thrusts) was transferred several tens of kilometers east along the Jurassic Preuss salt detachment between ˜102-90 Ma, to the future location of the Absaroka thrust hanging wall. The lack of deformation of the Crawford thrust on the seismic data, along with shortening and extension estimates from cross sections, also indicate that the magnitude of Paleocene and post-early Eocene shortening on the Medicine Butte thrust was essentially offset by subsequent extension on the middle Eocene to late Oligocene Almy-Acocks normal-fault system. For the second study in this dissertation, we dated 91 borehole and surface samples from Laramide-age, basement-cored uplifts of the Rocky

  16. Intramolecular transposition by a synthetic IS50 (Tn5) derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Tomcsanyi, T.; Phadnis, S.H.; Berg, D.E. ); Berg, C.M. )

    1990-11-01

    We report the formation of deletions and inversions by intramolecular transposition of Tn5-derived mobile elements. The synthetic transposons used contained the IS50 O and I end segments and the transposase gene, a contraselectable gene encoding sucrose sensitivity (sacB), antibiotic resistance genes, and a plasmid replication origin. Both deletions and inversions were associated with loss of a 300-bp segment that is designated the vector because it is outside of the transposon. Deletions were severalfold more frequent than inversions, perhaps reflecting constraints on DNA twisting or abortive transposition. Restriction and DNA sequence analyses showed that both types of rearrangements extended from one transposon end to many different sites in target DNA. In the case of inversions, transposition generated 9-bp direct repeats of target sequences.

  17. Occurrence of Tn4371-related mobile elements and sequences in (chloro)biphenyl-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Springael, D; Ryngaert, A; Merlin, C; Toussaint, A; Mergeay, M

    2001-01-01

    Tn4371, a 55-kb transposable element involved in the degradation and biphenyl or 4-chlorobiphenyl identified in Ralstonia eutropha A5, displays a modular structure including a phage-like integrase gene (int), a Pseudomonas-like (chloro)biphenyl catabolic gene cluster (bph), and RP4- and Ti-plasmid-like transfer genes (trb) (C. Merlin, D. Springael, and A. Toussaint, Plasmid 41:40-54, 1999). Southern blot hybridization was used to examine the presence of different regions of Tn4371 in a collection of (chloro)biphenyl-degrading bacteria originating from different habitats and belonging to different bacterial genera. Tn4371-related sequences were never detected on endogenous plasmids. Although the gene probes containing only bph sequences hybridized to genomic DNA from most strains tested, a limited selection of strains, all beta-proteobacteria, displayed hybridization patterns similar to the Tn4371 bph cluster. Homology between Tn4371 and DNA of two of those strains, originating from the same area as strain A5, extended outside the catabolic genes and covered the putative transfer region of Tn4371. On the other hand, none of the (chloro)biphenyl degraders hybridized with the outer left part of Tn4371 containing the int gene. The bph catabolic determinant of the two strains displaying homology to the Tn4371 transfer genes and a third strain isolated from the A5 area could be mobilized to a R. eutropha recipient, after insertion into an endogenous or introduced IncP1 plasmid. The mobilized DNA of those strains included all Tn4371 homologous sequences previously identified in their genome. Our observations show that the bph genes present on Tn4371 are highly conserved between different (chloro)biphenyl-degrading hosts, isolated globally but belonging mainly to the beta-proteobacteria. On the other hand, Tn4371-related mobile elements carrying bph genes are apparently only found in isolates from the environment that provided the Tn4371-bearing isolate A5.

  18. Enhanced Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) expression from a novel Tn4401 deletion.

    PubMed

    Cheruvanky, Anita; Stoesser, Nicole; Sheppard, Anna E; Crook, Derrick W; Hoffman, Paul S; Weddle, Erin; Carroll, Joanne; Sifri, Costi D; Chai, Weidong; Barry, Katie; Ramakrishnan, Girija; Mathers, Amy J

    2017-04-03

    The Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase gene (blaKPC) is typically located within the mobile transposon Tn4401 Enhanced KPC expression has been associated with deletions in the putative promoter region upstream of blaKPC Illumina sequences from blaKPC-positive clinical isolates from a single institution were mapped to a Tn4401b reference sequence, which carries no deletions. The novel isoform Tn4401h (188bp deletion [lsqb]between istB and blaKPC[rsqb]) was present in 14% (39/281) clinical isolates. MICs for Escherichia coli strains containing plasmids with Tn4401a and Tn4401h were more resistant to meropenem (≥16, ≥16), ertapenem (≥8, 4) and cefepime (≥64, 4) than E. coli strains with Tn4401b (0.5, ≤0.5, ≤1). Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that Tn4401a had a 16-fold and Tn4401h a 4-fold increase in blaKPC mRNA levels compared to the reference Tn4401b. A lacZ reporter plasmid was used to test the activity of the promoter regions from the different variants and showed that the Tn4401a and Tn4401h promoter sequences generated higher β-galactosidase activity than the corresponding Tn4401b sequence. Further dissection of the promoter region demonstrated that putative promoter P1 was not functional. Activity of the isolated promoter P2 was greatly enhanced by inclusion of the P1-P2 intervening sequence. These studies indicate that gene expression could be an important consideration in understanding resistance phenotypes predicted by genetic signatures in the context of sequencing-based rapid diagnostics.

  19. 75 FR 27008 - Tennessee Disaster Number TN-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Tornadoes. Incident Period: 04/30/2010 and continuing. DATES: Effective Date: 05/07/2010. Physical Loan...: Primary Counties: (Physical Damage and Economic Injury Loans): Benton, Dickson, Humphreys, Maury...: Bedford, Cannon, Coffee, Giles, Lawrence, Macon, Trousdale. All other information in the...

  20. Transposon mutagenesis in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with a Tn10 derivative.

    PubMed Central

    Tascon, R I; Rodriguez-Ferri, E F; Gutierrez-Martin, C B; Rodriguez-Barbosa, I; Berche, P; Vazquez-Boland, J A

    1993-01-01

    A transposon mutagenesis procedure functional in the gram-negative swine pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was developed for the first time. The technique involved the use of a suicide conjugative plasmid, pLOF/Km, carrying a mini-Tn10 with an isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible transposase located outside the mobile element (M. Herrero, V. de Lorenzo, and K. N. Timmis, J. Bacteriol. 172:6557-6567, 1990). The plasmid was mobilized from Escherichia coli to A. pleuropneumoniae through the RP4-mediated broad-host-range conjugal transfer functions provided by the chromosome of the donor strain. When IPTG was present in the mating medium, A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 transposon mutants were obtained at a frequency of 10(-5), while no mutants were detected in the absence of IPTG. Since the frequency of conjugal transfer of the RP4 plasmid from E. coli to A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 was found to be as low as 10(-4), the above result indicated that the expression level of the transposase was a critical factor for obtaining a workable efficiency of transposon mutagenesis. The transposon insertions occurred at random, as determined by Southern blotting of chromosomal DNA of randomly selected mutants and by the ability to generate mutants defective for the selected phenotypes. Almost all the mutants analyzed resulted from a single insertion of the Tn10 element. About 1.2% of the mutants resulted from the cointegration of pLOF/Km into the A. pleuropneumoniae chromosome. The applicability of this transposon mutagenesis system was verified on other A. pleuropneumoniae strains of different serotypes. The usefulness of this transposon mutagenesis system in genetic studies of A. pleuropneumoniae is discussed. Images PMID:8396122

  1. Biodegradation of didecyldimethylammonium chloride by Pseudomonas fluorescens TN4 isolated from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, T; Okamoto, T; Nishiyama, N

    2000-04-01

    Bacteria that degrade didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) were isolated from activated sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant by enrichment culture with DDAC as a sole carbon source. One of the isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescens TN4, degraded DDAC to produce decyldimethylamine and subsequently, dimethylamine, as the intermediates. The TN4 strain also assimilated the other quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), alkyltrimethyl- and alkylbenzyldimethyl-ammonium salts, but not alkylpyridinium salts. TN4 was highly resistant to these QACs and degraded them by an N-dealkylation process. These data mean that there are some QAC-resistant and QAC-degrading bacteria such as TN4 in the environment.

  2. Partial excision of blaKPC from Tn4401 in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Chavda, Kalyan D; Mediavilla, José R; Jacobs, Michael R; Levi, Michael H; Bonomo, Robert A; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2012-03-01

    We describe a novel Tn4401 variant (Tn4401d) in epidemic Klebsiella pneumoniae clone ST258, from which a partial bla(KPC) fragment has been excised along with ISKpn7 and a partial tnpA fragment. Nested-PCR experiments confirmed that this region can be removed from distinct Tn4401 isoforms in both K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. This study highlights that the region surrounding bla(KPC) is undergoing recombination and that Tn4401 itself is heterogeneous and highly plastic.

  3. 78 FR 35776 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Cleveland, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... FR 14475). Subsequent to publication the FAA found that existing information for Bradley Memorial... Dayton, TN, with Bradley Memorial Hospital information. To avoid confusion this proposed rule is...

  4. Sarcomere length dependent effects on the interaction between cTnC and cTnI in skinned papillary muscle strips.

    PubMed

    Li, King-Lun; Ghashghaee, Nazanin Bohlooli; Solaro, R John; Dong, Wenji

    2016-07-01

    Sarcomere length dependent activation (LDA) of myocardial force development is the cellular basis underlying the Frank-Starling law of the heart, but it is still elusive how the sarcomeres detect the length changes and convert them into altered activation of thin filament. In this study we investigated how the C-domain of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) functionally and structurally responds to the comprehensive effects of the Ca(2+), crossbridge, and sarcomere length of chemically skinned myocardial preparations. Using our in situ technique which allows for simultaneous measurements of time-resolved FRET and mechanical force of the skinned myocardial preparations, we measured changes in the FRET distance between cTnI(167C) and cTnC(89C), labeled with FRET donor and acceptor, respectively, as a function of [Ca(2+)], crossbridge state and sarcomere length of the skinned muscle preparations. Our results show that [Ca(2+)], cross-bridge feedback and sarcomere length have different effects on the structural transition of the C-domain cTnI. In particular, the interplay between crossbridges and sarcomere length has significant impacts on the functional structural change of the C-domain of cTnI in the relaxed state. These novel observations suggest the importance of the C-domain of cTnI and the dynamic and complex interplay between various components of myofilament in the LDA mechanism.

  5. 78 FR 16202 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Selmer, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... been decommissioned and new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures have been developed at Robert... developed at Robert Sibley Airport, Selmer, TN. The geographic coordinates of Robert Sibley Airport would be... of that authority as it would amend Class E airspace at Robert Sibley Airport, Selmer, TN....

  6. 75 FR 52364 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Cultural Items: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under... objects from the site. Officials of the Memphis Pink Palace Museum have determined that, pursuant to 25...

  7. Bleomycin increases amikacin and streptomycin resistance in Escherichia coli harboring transposon Tn5.

    PubMed Central

    Blazquez, J; Martinez, J L; Baquero, F

    1993-01-01

    The antitumor antibiotic bleomycin acts as a transcriptional inducer of the neo-ble-str operon of the transposon Tn5, increasing the resistance level to streptomycin and amikacin in Tn5-containing Escherichia coli. The mechanism may involve a recA-independent induction mediated by DNA damage. Images PMID:7694544

  8. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... National Recreation Area, TN/KY. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public notice is hereby given that the...] Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY AGENCY: National Park... visitor services within Big South Fork National Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, for a term not...

  9. The cytokine-cosmc signaling axis upregulates the tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen Tn

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Hsiao-Ling; Chin, Yu-Tang; Huang, Rui-Lan; Lai, Hung-Cheng; Hsu, Yaw-Wen; Kuo, Po-Jan; Chen, Chiao-En; Lin, Hung-Yun; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Nieh, Shin; Fu, Earl; Liu, Leroy F.; Hwang, Jaulang

    2016-01-01

    Tn antigen (GalNAc-α-O-Ser/Thr), a mucin-type O-linked glycan, is a well-established cell surface marker for tumors and its elevated levels have been correlated with cancer progression and prognosis. There are also reports that Tn is elevated in inflammatory tissues. However, the molecular mechanism for its elevated levels in cancer and inflammation is unclear. In the current studies, we have explored the possibility that cytokines may be one of the common regulatory molecules for elevated Tn levels in both cancer and inflammation. We showed that the Tn level is elevated by the conditioned media of HrasG12V-transformed-BEAS-2B cells. Similarly, the conditioned media obtained from LPS-stimulated monocytes also elevated Tn levels in primary human gingival fibroblasts, suggesting the involvement of cytokines and/or other soluble factors. Indeed, purified inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 up-regulated Tn levels in gingival fibroblasts. Furthermore, TNF-α was shown to down-regulate the COSMC gene as evidenced by reduced levels of the COSMC mRNA and protein, as well as hypermethylation of the CpG islands of the COSMC gene promoter. Since Cosmc, a chaperone for T-synthase, is known to negatively regulate Tn levels, our results suggest elevated Tn levels in cancer and inflammation may be commonly regulated by the cytokine-Cosmc signaling axis. PMID:27542280

  10. 8. DETAIL SHOT OF POST AND RAIL AND CUT AWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL SHOT OF POST AND RAIL AND CUT AWAY VIEW OF ABUTMENT SUPPORT INTO THE GROUND - Lost Creek Road Bridge, Spanning Sevier River at County Road 243, 2 miles east of Aurora, Aurora, Sevier County, UT

  11. Determinants for hairpin formation in Tn10 transposition

    PubMed Central

    Allingham, John S.; Wardle, Simon J.; Haniford, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Tn10 transposition involves the formation of a hairpin intermediate at the transposon termini. Here we show that hairpin formation exhibits more stringent DNA sequence requirements at the terminal two base pairs than either transpososome assembly or first strand nicking. We also observe a significant DNA distortion at the terminal base pairs upon transpososome assembly by chemical nuclease footprinting. Interest ingly, mutations at these positions do not necessarily inhibit the formation of the distortion. However, it remains a possibility that the inhibitory effect of these mutations is due to a defect in protein–DNA interactions subsequent to this deformation. Terminal base pair mutations also inhibited strand transfer, providing evidence that transposase interactions with the terminal residues on both ‘transferred’ and ‘non-transferred’ strands are important for hairpin formation. We also demonstrate that mutation of a highly conserved tyrosine residue that is a component of the YREK motif, Y285, results in a phenotype comparable to that of the terminal base pair mutations. In contrast, a mutation at another conserved position, W265, is shown to relax the specificity of the hairpin formation reaction. PMID:11387226

  12. Alpha Heating and TN Burn in NIF Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas; Wang, Yi-Ming; Merrill, Frank; Cerjan, Charlie; Batha, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable TN burn requires alpha-particle energy deposition in the hot fuel. Recently, we developed an analytic model to estimate the neutron yield generated by the alpha-particle energy deposited in the hot spot, in terms of the measured total neutron yield, the adiabat of the cold fuel and the peak implosion kinetic energy of the pusher. Our alpha heating model has been applied to a number of inertial confinement fusion capsule experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our model predictions are consistent with the post-shot calibrated code simulations and experimental data. We have also studied the uncertainty and sensitivities of alpha heating on various physics parameters, such as the adiabat of cold fuel, total neutron yield and peak implosion velocity. Our analysis demonstrates that the alpha particle heating was appreciable in only high-foot experiments. Based on our work, we will discuss paths and parameters to reach ignition at NIF (LA-UR-15-25507). This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  13. 78 FR 29657 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Vanderburgh County, Indiana, to a Nonappropriated Fund...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... FWS wage area. The proximity criterion favors the Christian, KY-Montgomery, TN, wage area more than... the Christian-Montgomery and Hardin-Jefferson survey areas. However, the two NAF FWS employees in... defining Vanderburgh County to the Christian- Montgomery wage area, we believe the...

  14. International Spread and Persistence of TEM-24 Is Caused by the Confluence of Highly Penetrating Enterobacteriaceae Clones and an IncA/C2 Plasmid Containing Tn1696::Tn1 and IS5075-Tn21▿

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Ângela; Baquero, Fernando; Machado, Elisabete; Cantón, Rafael; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M.

    2010-01-01

    TEM-24 remains one of the most widespread TEM-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae. To analyze the reasons influencing its spread and persistence, a multilevel population genetics study was carried out on 28 representative TEM-24 producers from Belgium, France, Portugal, and Spain (13 Enterobacter aerogenes isolates, 6 Escherichia coli isolates, 6 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, 2 Proteus mirabilis isolates, and 1 Klebsiella oxytoca isolate, from 1998 to 2004). Clonal relatedness (XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] and E. coli phylogroups) and antibiotic susceptibility were determined by standard procedures. Plasmid analysis included determination of the incompatibility group (by PCR, hybridization, and/or sequencing) and comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns. Characterization of genetic elements conferring antibiotic resistance included integrons (classes 1, 2, and 3) and transposons (Tn3, Tn21, and Tn402). Similar PFGE patterns were identified among E. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates, while E. coli strains were diverse (phylogenetic groups A, B2, and D). Highly related 180-kb IncA/C2 plasmids conferring resistance to kanamycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, and sulfonamides were identified. Each plasmid contained defective In0-Tn402 (dfrA1-aadA1, aacA4, or aacA4-aacC1-orfE-aadA2-cmlA1) and In4-Tn402 (aacA4 or dfrA1-aadA1) variants. These integrons were located within Tn21, Tn1696, or hybrids of these transposons, with IS5075 interrupting their IRtnp and IRmer. In all cases, blaTEM-24 was part of an IS5075-ΔTn1 transposon within tnp1696, mimicking other genetic elements containing blaTEM-2 and blaTEM-3 variants. The international dissemination of TEM-24 is fuelled by an IncA/C2 plasmid acquired by different enterobacterial clones which seem to evolve by gaining diverse genetic elements. This work highlights the risks of a confluence between highly

  15. Tn6188 - a novel transposon in Listeria monocytogenes responsible for tolerance to benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anneliese; Rychli, Kathrin; Muhterem-Uyar, Meryem; Zaiser, Andreas; Stessl, Beatrix; Guinane, Caitriona M; Cotter, Paul D; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the food-borne pathogen Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is of great importance from a food safety perspective, and thus for human health. The consequences of failures in this regard have been exemplified by recent large listeriosis outbreaks in the USA and Europe. It is thus particularly notable that tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) has been observed in many L. monocytogenes strains. However, the molecular determinants and mechanisms of BC tolerance of L. monocytogenes are still largely unknown. Here we describe Tn6188, a novel transposon in L. monocytogenes conferring tolerance to BC. Tn6188 is related to Tn554 from Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and other Tn554-like transposons such as Tn558, Tn559 and Tn5406 found in various Firmicutes. Tn6188 comprises 5117 bp, is integrated chromosomally within the radC gene and consists of three transposase genes (tnpABC) as well as genes encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and QacH, a small multidrug resistance protein family (SMR) transporter putatively associated with export of BC that shows high amino acid identity to Smr/QacC from S. aureus and to EmrE from Escherichia coli. We screened 91 L. monocytogenes strains for the presence of Tn6188 by PCR and found Tn6188 in 10 of the analyzed strains. These isolates were from food and food processing environments and predominantly from serovar 1/2a. L. monocytogenes strains harboring Tn6188 had significantly higher BC minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (28.5 ± 4.7 mg/l) than strains without Tn6188 (14 ± 3.2 mg/l). Using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR we could show a significant increase in qacH expression in the presence of BC. QacH deletion mutants were generated in two L. monocytogenes strains and growth analysis revealed that ΔqacH strains had lower BC MICs than wildtype strains. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that Tn6188 is responsible for BC tolerance in various L. monocytogenes

  16. Tn6188 - A Novel Transposon in Listeria monocytogenes Responsible for Tolerance to Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Muhterem-Uyar, Meryem; Zaiser, Andreas; Stessl, Beatrix; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the food-borne pathogen Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is of great importance from a food safety perspective, and thus for human health. The consequences of failures in this regard have been exemplified by recent large listeriosis outbreaks in the USA and Europe. It is thus particularly notable that tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) has been observed in many L. monocytogenes strains. However, the molecular determinants and mechanisms of BC tolerance of L. monocytogenes are still largely unknown. Here we describe Tn6188, a novel transposon in L. monocytogenes conferring tolerance to BC. Tn6188 is related to Tn554 from Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and other Tn554-like transposons such as Tn558, Tn559 and Tn5406 found in various Firmicutes. Tn6188 comprises 5117 bp, is integrated chromosomally within the radC gene and consists of three transposase genes (tnpABC) as well as genes encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and QacH, a small multidrug resistance protein family (SMR) transporter putatively associated with export of BC that shows high amino acid identity to Smr/QacC from S. aureus and to EmrE from Escherichia coli. We screened 91 L. monocytogenes strains for the presence of Tn6188 by PCR and found Tn6188 in 10 of the analyzed strains. These isolates were from food and food processing environments and predominantly from serovar 1/2a. L. monocytogenes strains harboring Tn6188 had significantly higher BC minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (28.5 ± 4.7 mg/l) than strains without Tn6188 (14 ± 3.2 mg/l). Using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR we could show a significant increase in qacH expression in the presence of BC. QacH deletion mutants were generated in two L. monocytogenes strains and growth analysis revealed that ΔqacH strains had lower BC MICs than wildtype strains. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that Tn6188 is responsible for BC tolerance in various L. monocytogenes

  17. Spectroscopic and ITC study of the conformational change upon Ca{sup 2+}-binding in TnC C-lobe and TnI peptide complex from Akazara scallop striated muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Yumoto, Fumiaki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Koji; Miyauchi, Yumiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Ojima, Takao; Tanokura, Masaru

    2008-04-25

    Akazara scallop (Chlamys nipponensis akazara) troponin C (TnC) of striated adductor muscle binds only one Ca{sup 2+} ion at the C-terminal EF-hand motif (Site IV), but it works as the Ca{sup 2+}-dependent regulator in adductor muscle contraction. In addition, the scallop troponin (Tn) has been thought to regulate muscle contraction via activating mechanisms that involve the region spanning from the TnC C-lobe (C-lobe) binding site to the inhibitory region of the TnI, and no alternative binding of the TnI C-terminal region to TnC because of no similarity between second TnC-binding regions of vertebrate and the scallop TnIs. To clarify the Ca{sup 2+}-regulatory mechanism of muscle contraction by scallop Tn, we have analyzed the Ca{sup 2+}-binding properties of the complex of TnC C-lobe and TnI peptide, and their interaction using isothermal titration microcalorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that single Ca{sup 2+}-binding to the Site IV leads to a structural transition not only in Site IV but also Site III through the structural network in the C-lobe of scallop TnC. We therefore assumed that the effect of Ca{sup 2+}-binding must lead to a change in the interaction mode between the C-lobe of TnC and the TnI peptide. The change should be the first event of the transmission of Ca{sup 2+} signal to TnI in Tn ternary complex.

  18. 40 CFR 81.343 - Tennessee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Robertson County X Rutherford County X Scott County X Sequatchie County X Sevier County X Shelby County X... Putnam County X Rhea County X Roane County X Robertson County X Rutherford County X Scott County X... County Pickett County Polk County Putnam County Rhea County Roane County Robertson County...

  19. Molecular Diversity and Evolutionary Relationships of Tn1546-Like Elements in Enterococci from Humans and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Rob J. L.; Top, Janetta; van den Braak, Nicole; van Belkum, Alex; Mevius, Dik J.; Hendriks, Giel; van Santen-Verheuvel, Marga; van Embden, Jan D. A.

    1999-01-01

    We report on a detailed study on the molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from humans and animals. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the VanA transposon of 97 VRE revealed seven different Tn1546 types. Subsequent sequencing of the complete VanA transposons of 13 VRE isolates representing the seven RFLP types followed by sequencing of the identified polymorphic regions in 84 other VanA transposons resulted in the identification of 22 different Tn1546 derivatives. Differences between the Tn1546 types included point mutations in orf1, vanS, vanA, vanX, and vanY. Moreover, insertions of an IS1216V-IS3-like element in orf1, of IS1251 in the vanS-vanH intergenic region, and of IS1216V in the vanX-vanY intergenic region were found. The presence of insertion sequence elements was often associated with deletions in Tn1546. Identical Tn1546 types were found among isolates from humans and farm animals in The Netherlands, suggesting the sharing of a common vancomycin resistance gene pool. Application of the genetic analysis of Tn1546 to VRE isolates causing infections in hospitals in Oxford, United Kingdom, and Chicago, Ill., suggested the possibility of the horizontal transmission of the vancomycin resistance transposon. The genetic diversity in Tn1546 combined with epidemiological data suggest that the DNA polymorphism among Tn1546 variants can successfully be exploited for the tracing of the routes of transmission of vancomycin resistance genes. PMID:10049255

  20. Epigenetic silencing of the chaperone Cosmc in human leukocytes expressing tn antigen.

    PubMed

    Mi, Rongjuan; Song, Lina; Wang, Yingchun; Ding, Xiaokun; Zeng, Junwei; Lehoux, Sylvain; Aryal, Rajindra P; Wang, Jianmei; Crew, Vanja K; van Die, Irma; Chapman, Arlene B; Cummings, Richard D; Ju, Tongzhong

    2012-11-30

    Cosmc is the specific molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum for T-synthase, a Golgi β3-galactosyltransferase that generates the core 1 O-glycan, Galβ1-3GalNAcα-Ser/Thr, in glycoproteins. Dysfunctional Cosmc results in the formation of inactive T-synthase and consequent expression of the Tn antigen (GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr), which is associated with several human diseases. However, the molecular regulation of expression of Cosmc, which is encoded by a single gene on Xq24, is poorly understood. Here we show that epigenetic silencing of Cosmc through hypermethylation of its promoter leads to loss of Cosmc transcripts in Tn4 cells, an immortalized B cell line from a male patient with a Tn-syndrome-like phenotype. These cells lack T-synthase activity and express the Tn antigen. Treatment of cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine causes restoration of Cosmc transcripts, restores T-synthase activity, and reduces Tn antigen expression. Bisulfite sequencing shows that CG dinucleotides in the Cosmc core promoter are hypermethylated. Interestingly, several other X-linked genes associated with glycosylation are not silenced in Tn4 cells, and we observed no correlation of a particular DNA methyltransferase to aberrant methylation of Cosmc in these cells. Thus, hypermethylation of the Cosmc promoter in Tn4 cells is relatively specific. Epigenetic silencing of Cosmc provides another mechanism underlying the abnormal expression of the Tn antigen, which may be important in understanding aberrant Tn antigen expression in human diseases, including IgA nephropathy and cancer.

  1. Epigenetic Silencing of the Chaperone Cosmc in Human Leukocytes Expressing Tn Antigen*

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Rongjuan; Song, Lina; Wang, Yingchun; Ding, Xiaokun; Zeng, Junwei; Lehoux, Sylvain; Aryal, Rajindra P.; Wang, Jianmei; Crew, Vanja K.; van Die, Irma; Chapman, Arlene B.; Cummings, Richard D.; Ju, Tongzhong

    2012-01-01

    Cosmc is the specific molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum for T-synthase, a Golgi β3-galactosyltransferase that generates the core 1 O-glycan, Galβ1–3GalNAcα-Ser/Thr, in glycoproteins. Dysfunctional Cosmc results in the formation of inactive T-synthase and consequent expression of the Tn antigen (GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr), which is associated with several human diseases. However, the molecular regulation of expression of Cosmc, which is encoded by a single gene on Xq24, is poorly understood. Here we show that epigenetic silencing of Cosmc through hypermethylation of its promoter leads to loss of Cosmc transcripts in Tn4 cells, an immortalized B cell line from a male patient with a Tn-syndrome-like phenotype. These cells lack T-synthase activity and express the Tn antigen. Treatment of cells with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine causes restoration of Cosmc transcripts, restores T-synthase activity, and reduces Tn antigen expression. Bisulfite sequencing shows that CG dinucleotides in the Cosmc core promoter are hypermethylated. Interestingly, several other X-linked genes associated with glycosylation are not silenced in Tn4 cells, and we observed no correlation of a particular DNA methyltransferase to aberrant methylation of Cosmc in these cells. Thus, hypermethylation of the Cosmc promoter in Tn4 cells is relatively specific. Epigenetic silencing of Cosmc provides another mechanism underlying the abnormal expression of the Tn antigen, which may be important in understanding aberrant Tn antigen expression in human diseases, including IgA nephropathy and cancer. PMID:23035125

  2. A tetracycline efflux gene on Bacteroides transposon Tn4400 does not contribute to tetracycline resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Speer, B S; Salyers, A A

    1990-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the Bacteroides transposon Tn4351, which confers tetracycline resistance only on aerobically grown Escherichia coli, carries a gene that codes for a tetracycline-inactivating enzyme (B. S. Speer and A. A. Salyers, J. Bacteriol. 170:1423-1429, 1988). However, Park et al. (B. H. Park, M. Hendricks, M. H. Malamy, F. P. Tally, and S. B. Levy, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:1739-1743, 1987) showed that E. coli carrying a closely related transposon, Tn4400, exhibits energy-dependent efflux of tetracycline as well as tetracycline-inactivating activity (B. H. Park and S. B. Levy, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:1797-1800, 1988). This result raised the question of whether efflux or inactivation or a combination of the two was necessary for resistance conferred by both transposons. We showed that cells carrying Tn4351 did not exhibit the clear-cut efflux activity seen with cells carrying Tn4400 but rather exhibited a tetracycline accumulation profile which could be explained solely on the basis of inactivation of tetracycline in the cytoplasm and rapid diffusion of altered tetracycline out of the cell. Additionally, we were able to clone the efflux and tetracycline-modifying genes of Tn4400 separately. The region carrying the efflux gene spanned one of the two regions in which Tn4400 differs from Tn4351. A clone containing the corresponding region of Tn4351 did not exhibit efflux. Thus, it appears that Tn4351 does not have the efflux gene and that efflux makes no contribution to the resistance conferred by Tn4351. The MIC for cells carrying the subclone from Tn4400 that contained only the gene for tetracycline inactivation was the same that for cells carrying both the inactivation and efflux genes. Cells carrying only the gene for tetracycline efflux were tetracycline sensitive. This was true even when the efflux gene was on a high-copy-number plasmid which increased the level of efflux to that associated with the Tcr gene on pBR328. These

  3. Inhibition of fungi and gram-negative bacteria by bacteriocin BacTN635 produced by Lactobacillus plantarum sp. TN635.

    PubMed

    Smaoui, Slim; Elleuch, Lobna; Bejar, Wacim; Karray-Rebai, Ines; Ayadi, Imen; Jaouadi, Bassem; Mathieu, Florence; Chouayekh, Hichem; Bejar, Samir; Mellouli, Lotfi

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate 54 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from meat, fermented vegetables and dairy products for their capacity to produce antimicrobial activities against several bacteria and fungi. The strain designed TN635 has been selected for advanced studies. The supernatant culture of this strain inhibits the growth of all tested pathogenic including the four Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella enterica ATCC43972, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 49189, Hafnia sp. and Serratia sp.) and the pathogenic fungus Candida tropicalis R2 CIP203. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of the strain TN635 (1,540 pb accession no FN252881) and the phylogenetic analysis, we propose the assignment of our new isolate bacterium as Lactobacillus plantarum sp. TN635 strain. Its antimicrobial compound was determined as a proteinaceous substance, stable to heat and to treatment with surfactants and organic solvents. Highest antimicrobial activity was found between pH 3 and 11 with an optimum at pH = 7. The BacTN635 was purified to homogeneity by a four-step protocol involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, centrifugal microconcentrators with a 10-kDa membrane cutoff, gel filtration Sephadex G-25, and C18 reverse-phase HPLC. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified BacTN635, revealed a single band with an estimated molecular mass of approximately 4 kDa. The maximum bacteriocin production (5,000 AU/ml) was recorded after a 16-h incubation in Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) medium at 30 degrees C. The mode of action of the partial purified BacTN635 was identified as bactericidal against Listeria ivanovii BUG 496 and as fungistatic against C. tropicalis R2 CIP203.

  4. Tn4563 transposition in Streptomyces coelicolor and its application to isolation of new morphological mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, A T; Nelson, A D; Daniel, J B

    1991-01-01

    The Tn3-like transposon Tn4556 (and its derivatives Tn4560 and Tn4563) has been used for insertion mapping of genetic loci cloned on plasmids, but it has been difficult to obtain chromosomal insertions, largely because of the lack of a strong selection against transposon donor molecules. In this communication, we report two efficient selection techniques for transposition and their use in the isolation of chromosomal insertion mutations. A number of independent Streptomyces coelicolor morphological mutants (bld and whi) were obtained. Two of the bld mutations were mapped to locations on the chromosome by SCP1-mediated conjugation; at least one mutation, bld-5m1, appears to define a novel locus involved in control of S. coelicolor morphogenesis and antibiotic production. Images PMID:1650343

  5. Multicopy integration of mini-Tn7 transposons into selected chromosomal sites of a Salmonella vaccine strain

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Karen; Werner, Esther; Loessner, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal integration of expression modules for transgenes is an important aspect for the development of novel Salmonella vectors. Mini-Tn7 transposons have been used for the insertion of one such module into the chromosomal site attTn7, present only once in most Gram-negative bacteria. However, integration of multiple mini-Tn7 copies might be suitable for expression of appropriate amounts of antigen or combination of different modules. Here we demonstrate that integration of a 9.6 kb mini-Tn7 harbouring the luciferase luxCDABE (lux) occurs at the natural attTn7 site and simultaneously other locations of the Salmonella chromosome, which were engineered using λ-Red recombinase to contain one or two additional artificial attTn7 sites (a-attTn7). Multicopy integration even at closely spaced attTn7 sites was unexpected in light of the previously reported distance-dependent Tn7 target immunity. Integration of multiple copies of a mini-Tn7 containing a gfp cassette resulted in increasing green fluorescence of bacteria. Stable consecutive integration of two mini-Tn7 encoding lacZ and lux was achieved by initial transposition of lacZ-mini-Tn7, subsequent chromosomal insertion of a-attTn7 and a second round of transposition with lux-mini-Tn7. Mini-Tn7 thus constitutes a versatile method for multicopy integration of expression cassettes into the chromosome of Salmonella and possibly other bacteria. PMID:25488129

  6. Single molecule study of heterotypic interactions between mucins possessing the Tn cancer antigen

    PubMed Central

    Haugstad, Kristin E; Stokke, Bjørn T; Brewer, C Fred; Gerken, Thomas A; Sletmoen, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Mucins are linear, heavily O-glycosylated proteins with physiological roles that include cell signaling, cell adhesion, inflammation, immune response and tumorgenesis. Cancer-associated mucins often differ from normal mucins by presenting truncated carbohydrate chains. Characterization of the binding properties of mucins with truncated carbohydrate side chains could thus prove relevant for understanding their role in cancer mechanisms such as metastasis and recognition by the immune system. In this work, heterotypic interactions of model mucins that possess the Tn (GalNAcαThr/Ser) and T (Galβ1–3GalNAcαThr/Ser) cancer antigens derived from porcine submaxillary mucin (PSM) were studied using atomic force microscopy. PSM possessing only the Tn antigen (Tn-PSM) was found to bind to PSM analogs possessing a combination of T, Tn and STn antigens as well as biosynthetic analogs of the core 1 blood group A tetrasaccharide (GalNAcα1–3[Fucα1–2] Galβ1–3GalNAcαSer/Thr). The rupture forces for the heterotypic interactions ranged from 18– to 31 pN at a force-loading rate of ∼0.5 nN/s. The thermally averaged distance from the bound complex to the transition state (xβ) was estimated to be in the range 0.37–0.87 nm for the first barrier of the Bell Evans analysis and within 0.34–0.64 nm based on a lifetime analysis. These findings reveal that the binding strength and energy landscape for heterotypic interactions of Tn-PSM with the above mucins, resemble homotypic interactions of Tn-PSM. This suggests common carbohydrate epitope interactions for the Tn cancer antigen with the above mucin analogs, a finding that may be important to the role of the Tn antigen in cancer cells. PMID:25527429

  7. Discovery and characterization of a new transposable element, Tn4811, in Streptomyces lividans 66.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C W; Yu, T W; Chung, H M; Chou, C F

    1992-01-01

    Transposition of a new 5.4-kb transposon, Tn4811, of Streptomyces lividans to the melC operon of Streptomyces antibioticus on plasmid pIJ702 was discovered. The nucleotide sequence of this copy of Tn4811, which contained an imperfect (9 of 11 bp) terminal inverted repeat, five putative Streptomyces coding sequences for an oxidoreductase and its transcription regulator, and three transposition-related proteins, was determined. SLP- strains of S. lividans contained one copy (A) of Tn4811, while SLP2+ strains contained an additional copy (B) on the SLP2 plasmid. The nucleotide sequences at three insertion junctions of Tn4811 were determined. Copy B lacked 41 bp from the left end. At the other five junctions the duplication of a putative 3-bp target sequence (TGA) was observed. A sequence of less than 3 kb homologous to Tn4811 was present in S. antibioticus. DNA homologous to Tn4811 was not detected in 14 other Streptomyces species. Images PMID:1332944

  8. Selected translocation of plasmid genes: frequency and regional specificity of translocation of the Tn3 element.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, P J; Cohen, S N

    1977-05-01

    A procedure is described that selects for the insertion of transposable antibiotic resistance elements in a variety of recipient replicons. The selected translocation procedure, which employs a plasmid having a temperature-sensitive defect in replication as a donor of transposable genetic elements, was used to investigate certain characteristics of the translocation process. Our results indicate that translocation of the Tn3 element from plasmid to plasmid occurs at a 10(3)- to 10(4)-times-higher frequency than from plasmid to chromosome. In both cases, continued accumulation of Tn3 on recipient genomes is prevented by development of an apparent equilibrium when only a small fraction of molecules in the recipient population contain Tn3. An alternative method for estimation of translocation frequency has shown that the translocation process is temperature sensitive and that its frequency is unaffected by the presence of host recA mutation. Insertions of Tn3 onto the 65 X 10(6)-dalton R6-5 plasmid in Escherichia coli are clustered on EcoRI fragments 3 (8 of 23 insertions) and 9 (7 of 23 insertions), which contain 12 and 5%, respectively, of the R6-5 genome. The occurrence of multiple insertions of Tn3 within EcoRI fragment 9, which contains the IS1 element and a terminus of the Tn4 element, is consistent with earlier evidence indicating that terminal deoxyribonucleic acid sequences of already present transposable elements may provide recognition sequences for subsequent illegitimate recombinational events.

  9. Geology of an Ordovician stratiform base-metal deposit in the Long Canyon Area, Blaine County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otto, B.R.; Zieg, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the Long Canyon area, Blaine County, Idaho, a strati-form base-metal-bearing gossan is exposed within a complexly folded and faulted sequence of Ordovician strata. The gossan horizon in graptolitic mudrock suggests preservation of bedded sulfides that were deposited by an Ordovician subaqueous hydrothermal system. Abrupt thickness changes and geochemi-cal zoning in the metal-bearing strata suggest that the gossan is near the source of the hydrothermal system. Ordovician sedimentary rocks at Long Canyon represent a coarsening-upward section that was deposited below wave base in a submarine depositional environment. The lowest exposed rocks represent deposition in a starved, euxinic basin and over-lying strata represent a prograding clastic wedge of terrigenous and calcareous detritus. The metalliferous strata are between these two types of strata. Strata at Long Canyon have been deformed by two periods of thrust faulting, at least three periods of normal faulting, and two periods of folding. Tertiary extensional faulting formed five subhorizontal structural plates. These low-angle fault-bounded plates truncate Sevier-age and possibly Antler-age thrust faults. The presence of gossan-bearing strata in the four upper plates suggests that there was only minor, although locally complex, stratigraphic displacement and rotation. The lack of correlative strata in the lowest plate suggests the displacement was greater than 2000 ft. The metalliferous strata were exposed to surface weathering, oxidation, and erosion prior to and during deposition of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group. The orientations of erosional canyons formed during this early period of exposure were related to the orientations of Sevier-age thrust faults, and stream-channel gravel was deposited in the canyons. During this and subsequent intervals of exposure, sulfidic strata were oxi-dized to a minimum depth of 700 ft.

  10. A newly generated functional antibody identifies Tn antigen as a novel determinant in the cancer cell–lymphatic endothelium interaction

    PubMed Central

    Danussi, Carla; Coslovi, Anna; Campa, Cristiana; Mucignat, Maria T; Spessotto, Paola; Uggeri, Fulvio; Paoletti, Sergio; Colombatti, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Malignant transformation of epithelial cells is frequently associated with the alteration of glycosylation pathways. Tn is a common tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen present in 90% of human carcinomas and its expression correlates with metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Despite its relevance, the functional role of Tn in tumor biology has not been firmly established probably for the lack of appropriate experimental tools. Our aims were to produce highly reactive monoclonal antibodies against Tn making use of synthetically produced Tn and to test their usefulness for in vivo imaging as well as to define their potential functional activity in tumor cell spread. We immunized mice with Tn clustered on cationized BSA and screened the positive hybridomas with Tn-biotinylated alginate. Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay and immunofluorescence assays revealed that the most reactive anti-Tn IgM mAb (2154F12A4) selectively recognized Tn on the MCF7 breast cancer cell line since its binding to the cell membrane was completely abolished by preincubation with purified Tn. Importantly, QDot 800-conjugated mAb injected in MCF7-tumor bearing mice specifically bound to primary tumor lesions as well as to metastases in lymph nodes. In addition, this mAb was able to inhibit cancer cell adhesion to lymphatic endothelium suggesting a novel involvement of Tn in the lymphatic dissemination of cancer cells and hypothesizing future applications in inhibiting lymphatic metastases. PMID:19528665

  11. DRAFT LANDSAT DATA MOSAIC: MONTGOMERY COUNTY, TEXAS; HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS; FORT BEND COUNTY, TEXAS; BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS; GALVESTON COUNTY, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a draft Landsat Data Mosaic, which contains remote sensing information for Montgomery County, Texas Harris County, Texas Fort Bend County, Texas Brazoria County, Texas Galveston County, and Texas Imagery dates on the following dates: October 6, 1999 and September 29, 200...

  12. Interactions of Tn7 and temperate phage F116L of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Caruso, M; Shapiro, J A

    1982-01-01

    Tn7 insertions into the genome of F116L, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa generalized transducing phage, were isolated by repeated cycles of transduction and induction isolated by repeated cycles of transduction and induction of strains lysogenic for F116cts mutants with selection for trimethoprim resistance (Tpr). Two non-defective F116Lcts:: Tn7 phage were characterized. They have reduced plaquing ability, produced non-lysogenic Tpr transductants, and have yielded a deletion mutant of the phage genome upon selection for plaque formation in single infection. F116L DNA is circularly permuted and terminally redundant. A circular restriction map of 61.7 kb has been defined, and a cleavage site common to many enzymes has been identified at coordinate 23.3 kb on the map. It is presumed that this site represents the sequence for the initiation of DNA encapsidation by a headful packaging mode. The Tn7 insertion targets and a 13.4 kb deletion define regions of the F116L genome non-essential for either vegetative growth or lysogenization. The restriction map of Tn7 has been determined for five enzymes. Non-lysogenic Tpr transductants reveal a Tn7 insertion hot-spot in the P. aeruginosa genome.

  13. [Variations of annual load of TN and TP in the deep bay watershed, Shenzhen].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen-Chen; Zhang, Shi-Yan; Mao, Xian-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    The empirical coefficient of sewage disposal, export coefficient model and mean concentration method were respectively used to estimate variations of annual load TN and TP from Shenzhen and Hong Kong areas in the Deep Bay Watershed from 1986 to 2011. The results showed that, the annual average loads of TN and TP were 10 388.2 t, 10 727.9 t, 10 937.3 t, and 2 694.5 t, 1 929.2 t, 1388.7 t, respectively in the whole watershed during three periods, 80s, 90s and years after 2000. With the rapid development of society, economy and the urbanization, annual pollution loading of TN and TP in Shenzhen area showed an obviously increase, 4373.6 t and 195.9 t, by 261.0% and 64.2% for point source, and 1067.2 t and 151.0 t, by 63.4% and 84.9% for non-point source, respectively. Non-point source with high pollution load was mainly caused by the expanding of land for construction and roads. The contribution ratios of TN and TP from Shenzhen area increased from 42.4% and 27.0% to 85.1% and 75.2%. Annual loads of TN and TP in Hong Kong area decreased 3 028.5 t and 1 031.5 t, by 66.3% and 79.0% reduced.

  14. Distribution of the catabolic transposon Tn5271 in a groundwater bioremediation system.

    PubMed

    Wyndham, R C; Nakatsu, C; Peel, M; Cashore, A; Ng, J; Szilagyi, F

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of Tn5271-related DNA sequences in samples of groundwater and a groundwater bioremediation system at the Hyde Park (Niagara Falls, N.Y.) chemical landfill site was investigated. PCR amplification of target sequences within the cha genes of Tn5271 revealed similar sequences in the groundwater community and in samples from the sequencing batch reactors treating that groundwater. Cell dilution combined with PCR amplification indicated that cha sequences were carried in about 1 of 10 culturable bacteria from the treatment system. Characterization of isolates involved in chlorobenzoate and toluene biodegradation in the treatment system indicated that two phenotypic clusters, Alcaligenes faecalis type 2 and CDC group IVC-2, contained all of the Tn5271 probe-positive isolates from the community. These two groups differed phenotypically from recipient groups isolated following horizontal transfer of pBRC60 (Tn5271) in pristine freshwater microcosms. A genetic rearrangement in Tn5271 attributable to the intramolecular transposition of the flanking element IS1071R was detected in an isolate from the treatment system. Comparison of the structure of the intramolecular transposition derivative from groundwater isolate OCC13(pBRC13) with a laboratory-derived intramolecular transposition derivative of pBRC60 revealed similarities. The rearrangement was shown to increase the stability of the plasmid under starvation conditions.

  15. TRANSIT--A Software Tool for Himar1 TnSeq Analysis.

    PubMed

    DeJesus, Michael A; Ambadipudi, Chaitra; Baker, Richard; Sassetti, Christopher; Ioerger, Thomas R

    2015-10-01

    TnSeq has become a popular technique for determining the essentiality of genomic regions in bacterial organisms. Several methods have been developed to analyze the wealth of data that has been obtained through TnSeq experiments. We developed a tool for analyzing Himar1 TnSeq data called TRANSIT. TRANSIT provides a graphical interface to three different statistical methods for analyzing TnSeq data. These methods cover a variety of approaches capable of identifying essential genes in individual datasets as well as comparative analysis between conditions. We demonstrate the utility of this software by analyzing TnSeq datasets of M. tuberculosis grown on glycerol and cholesterol. We show that TRANSIT can be used to discover genes which have been previously implicated for growth on these carbon sources. TRANSIT is written in Python, and thus can be run on Windows, OSX and Linux platforms. The source code is distributed under the GNU GPL v3 license and can be obtained from the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/mad-lab/transit.

  16. A Class 1 Integron Present in a Human Commensal Has a Hybrid Transposition Module Compared to Tn402: Evidence of Interaction with Mobile DNA from Natural Environments▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Labbate, M.; Chowdhury, P. Roy; Stokes, H. W.

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of class 1 integrons from human stools, an unusual class 1 integron from a strain of Enterobacter cloacae was isolated and characterized in detail. Sequence analysis of a fosmid containing the class 1 integron revealed a complex set of transposons which included two Tn402-like transposons. One of these transposons, Tn6007, included a class 1 integron with two non-antibiotic-resistance-type gene cassettes and a complete transposition module. This tni module is a hybrid with a boundary within the res site compared to Tn402, implying that a site-specific recombination event generated either Tn6007 or Tn402. The second Tn402-like transposon, Tn6008, possesses neither a mer operon nor an integron, and most of its tni module has been deleted. Tn6007, Tn6008, and the 2,478 bases between them, collectively designated Tn6006, have transposed into a Tn5036/Tn3926-like transposon as a single unit. Tn6006, Tn6007, and Tn6008 could all transpose as discrete entities. Database analysis also revealed that a version of Tn6008 was present in the genome of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Overall, the E. cloacae isolate further demonstrated that functional class 1 integrons/transposons are probably common in bacterial communities and have the potential to add substantially to the problem of multidrug-resistant nosocomial infections. PMID:18502858

  17. Myofilament Calcium Sensitivity: Mechanistic Insight into TnI Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 Phosphorylation Integration

    PubMed Central

    Salhi, Hussam E.; Hassel, Nathan C.; Siddiqui, Jalal K.; Brundage, Elizabeth A.; Ziolo, Mark T.; Janssen, Paul M. L.; Davis, Jonathan P.; Biesiadecki, Brandon J.

    2016-01-01

    Troponin I (TnI) is a major regulator of cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation. During physiological and pathological stress, TnI is differentially phosphorylated at multiple residues through different signaling pathways to match cardiac function to demand. The combination of these TnI phosphorylations can exhibit an expected or unexpected functional integration, whereby the function of two phosphorylations are different than that predicted from the combined function of each individual phosphorylation alone. We have shown that TnI Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 phosphorylation exhibit functional integration and are simultaneously increased in response to cardiac stress. In the current study, we investigated the functional integration of TnI Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 to alter cardiac contraction. We hypothesized that Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 phosphorylation each utilize distinct molecular mechanisms to alter the TnI binding affinity within the thin filament. Mathematical modeling predicts that Ser-23/24 and Ser-150 phosphorylation affect different TnI affinities within the thin filament to distinctly alter the Ca2+-binding properties of troponin. Protein binding experiments validate this assertion by demonstrating pseudo-phosphorylated Ser-150 decreases the affinity of isolated TnI for actin, whereas Ser-23/24 pseudo-phosphorylation is not different from unphosphorylated. Thus, our data supports that TnI Ser-23/24 affects TnI-TnC binding, while Ser-150 phosphorylation alters TnI-actin binding. By measuring force development in troponin-exchanged skinned myocytes, we demonstrate that the Ca2+ sensitivity of force is directly related to the amount of phosphate present on TnI. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ser-150 pseudo-phosphorylation blunts Ser-23/24-mediated decreased Ca2+-sensitive force development whether on the same or different TnI molecule. Therefore, TnI phosphorylations can integrate across troponins along the myofilament. These data demonstrate that TnI Ser-23

  18. County by County in Ohio Genealogy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khouw, Petta; And Others

    The State Library of Ohio's genealogy collection of over 8,000 items is listed by county. Within each county listing the sources are designated as atlases, cemetery and death records, census records (the majority from the 1800's), family-church-Bible records, marriage records, or county and township histories. Vital records consist of material…

  19. Tn5-mediated bleomycin resistance in Escherichia coli requires the expression of host genes.

    PubMed

    Blot, M; Heitman, J; Arber, W

    1993-06-01

    The transposon Tn5 expresses a gene, ble, whose product increases the viability of Escherichia coli and also confers resistance to the DNA-cleaving antibiotic bleomycin and the DNA-alkylating agent ethylmethanesulphonate. We find that the Ble protein induces expression of an alkylation inducible gene, aidC, and that both the AidC gene product and DNA polymerase I are required for Ble to confer bleomycin resistance. These findings support models in which Ble enhances DNA repair and suggest that Tn5 confers a fitness advantage to the host bacterium by increasing the repair of spontaneous DNA lesions. Such co-operation between a transposon and its host suggests that Tn5 is a symbiotic rather than a selfish DNA element.

  20. Novel Tn4371-ICE like element in Ralstonia pickettii and Genome mining for comparative elements

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Integrative Conjugative Elements (ICEs) are important factors in the plasticity of microbial genomes. An element related to the ICE Tn4371 was discovered during a bioinformatic search of the Ralstonia pickettii 12J genome. This element was analysed and further searches carried out for additional elements. A PCR method was designed to detect and characterise new elements of this type based on this scaffold and a culture collection of fifty-eight Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa strains were analysed for the presence of the element. Results Comparative sequence analysis of bacterial genomes has revealed the presence of a number of uncharacterised Tn4371-like ICEs in the genomes of several β and γ- Proteobacteria. These elements vary in size, GC content, putative function and have a mosaic-like structure of plasmid- and phage-like sequences which is typical of Tn4371-like ICEs. These elements were found after a through search of the GenBank database. The elements, which are found in Ralstonia, Delftia, Acidovorax, Bordetella, Comamonas, Acidovorax, Congregibacter, Shewanella, Pseudomonas Stenotrophomonas, Thioalkalivibrio sp. HL-EbGR7, Polaromonas, Burkholderia and Diaphorobacter sp. share a common scaffold. A PCR method was designed (based on the Tn4371- like element detected in the Ralstonia pickettii 12J genome) to detect and characterise new elements of this type. Conclusion All elements found in this study possess a common scaffold of core genes but contain different accessory genes. A new uniform nomenclature is suggested for ICEs of the Tn4371 family. Two novel Tn4371-like ICE were discovered and characterised, using the novel PCR method described in two different isolates of Ralstonia pickettii from laboratory purified water. PMID:19941653

  1. Tn5. 7 construction and physical mapping of pRPS404 containing photosynthetic genes from Rhodopseudomonas capsulata

    SciTech Connect

    Zsebo, K.M.; Wu, F.; Hearst J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A transposon, Tn5.7, has been constructed incorporating the transposition functions of Tn5 and the antibiotic-resistance factors from Tn7. It was used to mutagenize the plasmid pRPS404 which contains the photosynthetic genes of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata and is Kanamycin. In conjunction with the mutagenesis, physical mapping of the restriction endonuclease recognition sites for XhoI. Bg/II, KnpI, and SstI has been accomplished. 13 references, 2 figures.

  2. Rapid screen for epithelial internalization of Tn917-mutagenized Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Russell, Hugh H; Zhou, Liqing; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2009-07-01

    Group A streptococci (GAS) cause a number of human diseases ranging from pharyngitis to necrotizing fasciitis. GAS are hypothesized to escape killing by either the immune system or beta lactam antibiotics by internalization into epithelial cells. A Tn917 library of transposon mutants was screened for capacity to invade and survive in human epithelial cells using a novel blood agar overlay method. Although the screen revealed that a majority of Tn917 insertions occurred within a 10 kb region of the genome, GAS genes identified as essential for internalization into epithelial cells included ABC transporters, and DNA maintenance proteins, and citrate metabolism enzymes, underlining the importance of adaptation to the intracellular environment.

  3. Quantitative assessment of Tn antigen in breast tissue micro-arrays using CdSe aqueous quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Au, Giang H T; Mejias, Linette; Swami, Vanlila K; Brooks, Ari D; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we examined the use of CdSe aqueous quantum dots (AQDs) each conjugated to three streptavidin as a fluorescent label to image Tn antigen expression in various breast tissues via a sandwich staining procedure where the primary monoclonal anti-Tn antibody was bound to the Tn antigen on the tissue, a biotin-labeled secondary antibody was bound to the primary anti-Tn antibody, and finally the streptavidin-conjugated AQDs were bound to the biotin on the secondary antibody. We evaluated the AQD staining of Tn antigen on tissue microarrays consisting of 395 cores from 115 cases including three tumor cores and one normal-tissue core from each breast cancer case and three tumor cores from each benign case. The results indicated AQD-Tn staining was positive in more than 90% of the cells in the cancer cores but not the cells in the normal-tissue cores and the benign tumor cores. As a result, AQD-Tn staining exhibited 95% sensitivity and 90% specificity in differentiating breast cancer against normal breast tissues and benign breast conditions. These results were better than the 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity exhibited by the corresponding horse radish peroxidase (HRP) staining using the same antibodies on the same tissues and those of previous studies that used different fluorescent labels to image Tn antigen. In addition to sensitivity and specificity, the current AQD-Tn staining with a definitive threshold was quantitative.

  4. R46 encodes a site-specific recombination system interchangeable with the resolution function of TnA.

    PubMed

    Dodd, H M; Bennett, P M

    1983-05-01

    Transposition of Tn4 onto the IncN plasmic R46 generates unstable DNA molecules. The R46::TnA recombinant plasmids undergo further DNA rearrangements which depend on the orientation in which the TnA element is inserted into the plasmid, and deletions and inversions of R46 and TnA sequences have been observed. Both types of rearrangement have the same specific endpoints, one within TnA and one located between the R46 coordinates, 36.0 and 37.0. The results are consistent with the operation of a recA-independent, site-specific recombination system utilizing, at least in part, the transposon cointegrate resolution system of TnA, together with R46-encoded functions. Data are presented that indicate that R46 encodes analogs of both the res site of TnA and its tnpR gene, although little homology between this element and the plasmid is apparent. Models for the TnA-induced generation of site-specific deletions and inversions upon transposition of TnA to R46 are presented.

  5. Tn4351 transposes in Bacteroides spp. and mediates the integration of plasmid R751 into the Bacteroides chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, N.B.; Getty, C.; Gardner, J.F.; Salyers, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    The gene for resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin, which is carried on the conjugative Bacteroides plasmid, pBF4, has been shown previously to be part of an element (Tn4351) that transposes in Escherichia coli. The authors have now introduced Tn4351 into Bacteroides uniformis 0061 on the following two suicide vectors: (i) the broad-host-range IncP plasmid R751 (R751::Tn4351) and (ii) pSS-2, a chimeric plasmid which contains 33 kilobases of pBF4 (including Tn4351) cloned into the IncQ plasmid RSF1010 and which is mobilized by R751. When E. coli HB101, carrying either R751::Tn4351 or R751 and pSS-2, was mated with B. uniformis under aerobic conditions, Em/sup r/ transconjugants were detected at a frequency of 10 /sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ (R751::Tn4351) or 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -6/ (R751 and pSS-2). In matings involving pSS-2, all Em/sup r/ transconjugants contained simple insertions of Tn4351 in the chromosome, whereas in matings involving R751::Tn4351, about half of the Em/sup r/ transconjugants had R751 cointegrated with Tn4351 in the chromosome. Of the Em/sup r/ transconjugants, 13% were auxotrophs. Bacteroides spp. which had R751 cointegrated with Tn4351 in the chromosome did not transfer R751 or Tn4351 to E. coli HB101 or to isogenic B. uniformis, nor did the integrated R751 mobilize pE5-2, an E. coli-Bacteroides shuttle vector that contains a transfer origin that is recognized by R751.

  6. 77 FR 59994 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., Erwin, TN; Issuance of License Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., Erwin, TN; Issuance of License Renewal AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear... M. Ramsey, Project Manager, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S....

  7. Large-Scale Mutagenesis of the Yeast Genome Using a Tn7-Derived Multipurpose Transposon

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anuj; Seringhaus, Michael; Biery, Matthew C.; Sarnovsky, Robert J.; Umansky, Lara; Piccirillo, Stacy; Heidtman, Matthew; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Dobry, Craig J.; Gerstein, Mark B.; Craig, Nancy L.; Snyder, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We present here an unbiased and extremely versatile insertional library of yeast genomic DNA generated by in vitro mutagenesis with a multipurpose element derived from the bacterial transposon Tn7. This mini-Tn7 element has been engineered such that a single insertion can be used to generate a lacZ fusion, gene disruption, and epitope-tagged gene product. Using this transposon, we generated a plasmid-based library of ∼300,000 mutant alleles; by high-throughput screening in yeast, we identified and sequenced 9032 insertions affecting 2613 genes (45% of the genome). From analysis of 7176 insertions, we found little bias in Tn7 target-site selection in vitro. In contrast, we also sequenced 10,174 Tn3 insertions and found a markedly stronger preference for an AT-rich 5-base pair target sequence. We further screened 1327 insertion alleles in yeast for hypersensitivity to the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. Fifty-one genes were identified, including four functionally uncharacterized genes and 25 genes involved in DNA repair, replication, transcription, and chromatin structure. In total, the collection reported here constitutes the largest plasmid-based set of sequenced yeast mutant alleles to date and, as such, should be singularly useful for gene and genome-wide functional analysis. PMID:15466296

  8. Large-scale mutagenesis of the yeast genome using a Tn7-derived multipurpose transposon.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj; Seringhaus, Michael; Biery, Matthew C; Sarnovsky, Robert J; Umansky, Lara; Piccirillo, Stacy; Heidtman, Matthew; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Dobry, Craig J; Gerstein, Mark B; Craig, Nancy L; Snyder, Michael

    2004-10-01

    We present here an unbiased and extremely versatile insertional library of yeast genomic DNA generated by in vitro mutagenesis with a multipurpose element derived from the bacterial transposon Tn7. This mini-Tn7 element has been engineered such that a single insertion can be used to generate a lacZ fusion, gene disruption, and epitope-tagged gene product. Using this transposon, we generated a plasmid-based library of approximately 300,000 mutant alleles; by high-throughput screening in yeast, we identified and sequenced 9032 insertions affecting 2613 genes (45% of the genome). From analysis of 7176 insertions, we found little bias in Tn7 target-site selection in vitro. In contrast, we also sequenced 10,174 Tn3 insertions and found a markedly stronger preference for an AT-rich 5-base pair target sequence. We further screened 1327 insertion alleles in yeast for hypersensitivity to the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. Fifty-one genes were identified, including four functionally uncharacterized genes and 25 genes involved in DNA repair, replication, transcription, and chromatin structure. In total, the collection reported here constitutes the largest plasmid-based set of sequenced yeast mutant alleles to date and, as such, should be singularly useful for gene and genome-wide functional analysis.

  9. Effect of High-Z Doping on ICF TN Performance and Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Ming

    2013-10-01

    One of the challenges of ICF ignition is to achieve desired areal density ρR of the hot-spot region so that a self-sustained TN burn could be initiated and maintained. The recent study of the NIC data indicated that the areal density ρR of the hot-spot inferred by the DSR was lower than the ignition requirement set by ITF. In this work, we will study the effect of Hi-Z doping in the DT gas on the ICF TN performance. The mechanism of the high-Z doping is to utilize additional radiative cooling of high-Z doping during the implosion phase of the evolution so that the gas cavity will follow a lower adiabatic path. This allows a more isothermal compression of the gas to a high density and ρR at the center of the target. The radiative cooling caused by mixing of high Z material into the gas region was considered to degrade to the performance of ICF capsule. However, a trace of high-Z doping enhances both the TN performance as well as the hot-spot ρR. Overall, for a transparent pusher design, over 38% of improvement of gas (hot-spot) ρR and over 200% increase of the yield rate compared to the baseline design have been achieved using this. For an opaque pusher design, no TN performance improvement had been observed in calculation. Work supported by the Department of Energy.

  10. IS10/Tn10 transposition efficiently accommodates diverse transposon end configurations.

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, R M; Kleckner, N

    1996-01-01

    Transposon Tn10 and its component insertion sequence IS10 move by non-replicative transposition. We have studied the array of reaction intermediates and products in a high efficiency in vitro IS10/Tn10 transposition reaction. Synapsis of two transposon ends, followed by cleavage and strand transfer, can occur very efficiently irrespective of the relative locations and orientations of the two ends. The two participating ends can occur in inverted or direct orientation on the same molecule or, most importantly, on two different molecules. This behavior contrasts sharply with that of Mu, in which transposition is strongly biased in favor of inverted repeat synapsis. Mechanistically, the absence of discrimination amongst various end configurations implies that the architecture within the IS10/Tn10 synaptic complex is relatively simple, i.e. lacking any significant intertwining of component DNA strands. Biologically these observations are important because they suggest that the IS10 insertion sequence module has considerable flexibility in the types of DNA rearrangements that it can promote. Most importantly, it now seems highly probable that a single non-replicative IS10 element can promote DNA rearrangements usually attributed to replicative transposition, i.e. adjacent deletions and cointegrates, by utilizing transposon ends on two sister chromosomes. Other events which probably also contribute to the diversity of IS10/Tn10-promoted rearrangements are discussed. Images PMID:8890185

  11. The Tn5 bleomycin resistance gene confers improved survival and growth advantage on Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Blot, M; Hauer, B; Monnet, G

    1994-03-01

    The bleomycin resistance gene (ble) of transposon Tn5 is known to decrease the death rate of Escherichia coli during stationary phase. Bleomycin is a DNA-damaging agent and bleomycin resistance is produced by improved DNA repair which also requires the host genes aidC and polA coding, respectively, for an alkylation-inducible gene product and DNA polymerase I. In the absence of the drug, this DNA repair system is believed to cause the slower death rate of bleomycin-resistant bacteria. In this study, the effect of ble and aidC genes on the viability of bacteria and their growth rate in chemostat competitions was studied. The results indicate, that bleomycin-resistant bacteria display greater fitness under these conditions. Another beneficial effect of transposon Tn5 had been previously attributed to the insertion sequence IS 50 R. We were not able to reproduce this result with IS 50 R, however, the complete transposon was beneficial under similar conditions. Moreover, we showed the Tn5 fitness effect to be aidC-dependent. The ble gene was discovered after the fitness effect of IS 50 R had been established; it has not previously been considered to mediate the beneficial effect of Tn5. This possibility is discussed based on the molecular mechanism of bleomycin resistance.

  12. 75 FR 8414 - Tennessee Disaster # TN-00036 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Tennessee Disaster TN-00036 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration...'s EIDL declaration, applications for economic injury disaster loans may be filed at the...

  13. Characterization of glucansucrase and dextran from Weissella sp. TN610 with potential as safe food additives.

    PubMed

    Bejar, Wacim; Gabriel, Valérie; Amari, Myriam; Morel, Sandrine; Mezghani, Monia; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine; Bejar, Samir; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2013-01-01

    Pear-derived Weissella sp. TN610 produced extracellular glycosyltransferase activity responsible for the synthesis of soluble exopolysaccharide from sucrose. Acid and dextranase-catalyzed hydrolysis revealed that the synthesized polymer was a glucan. According to (1)H and (13)C NMR analysis, the glucan produced by TN610 was a linear dextran made of 96% α-(1→6) and 4% α-(1→3) linkages. Zymogram analysis confirmed the presence of a unique glucansucrase of approximately 180 kDa in the cell-free supernatant from TN610. The crude enzyme, optimally active at 37°C and pH 5, has promising potential for application as a food additive since it catalyzes dextran synthesis in sucrose-supplemented milk, allowing its solidification. A 4257-bp product corresponding to the mature glucansucrase gene was amplified by PCR from TN610. It encoded a polypeptide of 1418 residues having a calculated molecular mass of 156.089 kDa and exhibiting 96% and 95% identity with glucansucrases from Lactobacillus fermentum Kg3 and Weissella cibaria CMU, respectively.

  14. 75 FR 69398 - Foreign-Trade Zone 78-Nashville, TN; Application for Expansion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 78--Nashville, TN; Application for Expansion An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the Metropolitan Government...

  15. 76 FR 39379 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 78; Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 78; Nashville, TN Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the...

  16. 75 FR 28303 - Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on... automotive clutch products produced by the workers' firm was directly incorporated into. The Department's... (automotive clutch products) to be incorporated into an article to a firm that employed a worker...

  17. 77 FR 17360 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... International Airport, TN (Lat. 35 02'33'' N., long. 89 58'36'' W.) ] Olive Branch, MS, Olive Branch Airport... miles west of the Elvis NDB, and within a 7.5-mile radius of Olive Branch Airport, Olive Branch, MS, and... bearing from the Olive Branch NDB extending from the 7.5-mile radius to 16 miles northeast and south...

  18. Long-Term Variations of TN and TP in Four Typical Chinese Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Xu, Q.; Xi, B.; Wang, X.; Li, W.

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have examined long-term variations in the nutrients that cause lake eutrophication, namely total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP). As a result, little is known about the peaks/troughs and trends in TN and TP in lakes known to be vulnerable to eutrophication such as Lake Dongting, Lake Poyang, Lake Chao, and Lake Tai, all of which are located in the Yangtze River basin of China. The objectives of this study were therefore to: 1) detect possible step changes in nutrient time series data; and 2) elucidate TN and TP temporal trends at multiple (annual, seasonal, and monthly) time scales, as influenced by factors such as river-lake connectivity and lake hydrologic conditions (water depth and inflow source). The distribution-free cumulative sum technique and modified Mann-Kendall approach were applied to the long-term nutrient data measured for these four typical lakes and revealed that both TN and TP in Lake Dongting and Lake Poyang exhibited an upward trend at annual, seasonal, and monthly time scales, although they are oligotrophic lakes. The nutrient concentrations in Lake Dongting underwent a step change around 2003, which can be attributed to point and non-point source pollution, overexploitation, and dam construction. The TN values for Lake Chao and Lake Tai experienced step changes in 1999 and 2002, respectively. Before the step-change years, a significant (p-value < 0.05) upward trend in both TN and TP was detected for Lake Chao at the annual scale as well as in summer and May, but for Lake Tai this was manifested at the annual scale only. In contrast, after the step-change years, a significant downward trend was detected for both lakes at the corresponding time scales. As expected, the TN and TP concentrations in Lake Chao and Lake Tai, which are located in the lower basin of the Yangtze River, were noticeably higher than those in Lake Dongting and Lake Poyang, which are located in the middle basin.

  19. 77 FR 13073 - Designation for the Jamestown, ND; Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... October 20, 2011. In the Lincoln, NE; Memphis, TN; and Sioux City, IA areas, Lincoln, Midsouth, and Sioux... (901) 942-3216 4/1/2012 3/31/2015 Sioux City Sioux City, IA......... (712) 255-8073 4/1/2012...

  20. Tn5563, a transposon encoding putative mercuric ion transport proteins located on plasmid pRA2 of Pseudomonas alcaligenes.

    PubMed

    Yeo, C C; Tham, J M; Kwong, S M; Yiin, S; Poh, C L

    1998-08-15

    Sequence analysis of pRA2, an endogenous 33-kb plasmid from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 (strain P25X), revealed the presence of a 6256-bp transposon of the Tn3 family, designated Tn5563. Tn5563, which is flanked by two 39-bp inverted repeats, encodes a transposase, a resolvase, and two open reading frames which share amino acid sequence similarities with the mercuric ion transport proteins MerT and MerP encoded by several mer operons. However, no other mer operon genes were found on Tn5563. Sequencing of a RP4::XIn hybrid plasmid indicates possible interactions between pRA2 and the P25X chromosome mediated by Tn5563.

  1. Broad-host-range plasmid pRK340 delivers Tn5 into the Legionella pneumophila chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Keen, M G; Street, E D; Hoffman, P S

    1985-01-01

    Transposon Tn5 was introduced into Legionella pneumophila on plasmid pRK340, which is temperature sensitive for plasmid maintenance. The presence of plasmid DNA was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and by conjugal transfer of the plasmid to Escherichia coli. Tn5 insertions were obtained by culturing L. pneumophila at the nonpermissive temperature (43 degrees C) on buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar containing kanamycin. Of the 260 kanamycin-resistant colonies picked, 220 failed to conjugate pRK340 to E. coli. Plasmid DNA was not visualized from eight randomly picked Tn5-containing strains, and Southern hybridizations indicated that Tn5, but not pRK340, inserted into multiple sites in the Legionella chromosome. In addition, the streptomycin resistance determinant on Tn5 was expressed in L. pneumophila. Images PMID:2987191

  2. Two-stage soil infiltration treatment system for treating ammonium wastewaters of low COD/TN ratios.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhongfang; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Soil infiltration treatment (SIT) is ineffective to treat ammonium wastewaters of total nitrogen (TN) > 100 mg l(-1). This study applied a novel two-stage SIT process for effective TN removal from wastewaters of TN>100 mg l(-1) and of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/TN ratio of 3.2-8.6. The wastewater was first fed into the soil column (stage 1) at hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.06 m(3) m(-2) d(-1) for COD removal and total phosphorus (TP) immobilization. Then the effluent from stage 1 was fed individually into four soil columns (stage 2) at 0.02 m(3) m(-2) d(-1) of HLR with different proportions of raw wastewater as additional carbon source. Over the one-year field test, balanced nitrification and denitrification in the two-stage SIT revealed excellent TN removal (>90%) from the tested wastewaters.

  3. Julian Davies and the discovery of kanamycin resistance transposon Tn5.

    PubMed

    Berg, Douglas E

    2016-10-12

    This paper recounts some of my fond memories of a collaboration between Julian Davies and myself that started in 1974 in Geneva and that led to our serendipitous discovery of the bacterial kanamycin resistance transposon Tn5, and aspects of the lasting positive impact of our interaction and discovery on me and the community. Tn5 was one of the first antibiotic resistance transposons to be found. Its analysis over the ensuing decades provided valuable insights into mechanisms and control of transposition, and led to its use as a much-valued tool in diverse areas of molecular genetics, as also will be discussed here.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 12 October 2016; doi:10.1038/ja.2016.120.

  4. 77 FR 59573 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Tri-Cities, TN; Revocation of Class E Airspace; Tri...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ...; telephone (404) 305-6364. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On April 28, 2012, the FAA published a NPRM to... Upward from 700 feet or More Above the Surface of the Earth. * * * * * ASO TN E5 Tri-Cities, TN...

  5. Design analysis report for the TN-WHC cask and transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Brisbin, S.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    This document presents the evaluation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Cask and Transportation System. The system design was developed by Transnuclear, Inc. and its team members NAC International, Nelson Manufacturing, Precision Components Corporation, and Numatec, Inc. The cask is designated the TN-WHC cask. This report describes the design features and presents preliminary analyses performed to size critical dimensions of the system while meeting the requirements of the performance specification.

  6. Diversity of plasmids and Tn1546-type transposons among VanA Enterococcus faecium in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wardal, E; Kuch, A; Gawryszewska, I; Żabicka, D; Hryniewicz, W; Sadowy, E

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, Tn1546 transposon variability and plasmid diversity among Polish vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates of VanA phenotype in the context of their clonal structure. Two hundred sixteen clinical VREfm isolates collected between 1997 and 2010 were studied by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, MLST, MLVA and detection of IS16, esp Efm, pilA, intA and plasmid-specific genes by PCR. Tn1546 structure was revealed by overlapping PCR and sequencing. Selected isolates were subjected to PFGE-S1 and Southern hybridization analyses. The vast majority of the isolates (95.8 %) belonged to lineages 17/18 (during the whole study period 1997-2010) and 78 (mostly in 2006-2010) of hospital-adapted meroclone of E. faecium. All isolates displayed a multi-drug resistance phenotype. Twenty-eight Tn1546 types (including 26 novel ones) were associated with eight different ISs (IS1216, IS1251, ISEfa4, ISEfa5, ISEfm2, ISEf1, IS3-like, ISEfm1-like). The vanA-determinant was typically located on plasmids, which most commonly carried rep2pRE25, rep17pRUM, rep18pEF418, rep1pIP501, ω-ε-ζ and axe-txe genes. VanA isolates from 1997-2005 to 2006-2010 differed in clonal composition, prevalence of gentamicin- and tetracycline-resistance and plasmidome. Our analysis revealed high complexity of Tn1546-type transposons and vanA-plasmids, and suggested that diverse genetic events, such as conjugation transfer, recombination, chromosomal integration and DNA mutations shaped the structure of these elements among Polish VREfm.

  7. An Enterobacter Plasmid as a New Genetic Background for the Transposon Tn1331

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-25

    resolvase gene (tnpR′). Although Tn1331-related sequences and partial components have also been detected in Serratia marcescens, Salmonella serovars...member or employee of the US Government as part of that person’s official duties. References 1. Sanders WE Jr, Sanders CC. Enterobacter spp ...antimicrobial resistance in different Salmonella serovars. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 1995;5(3): 199–202. 22. Orman BE, Pineiro SA, Arduino S, et al

  8. An efficient (t,n) threshold quantum secret sharing without entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2016-04-01

    An efficient (t,n) threshold quantum secret sharing (QSS) scheme is proposed. In our scheme, the Hash function is used to check the eavesdropping, and no particles need to be published. So the utilization efficiency of the particles is real 100%. No entanglement is used in our scheme. The dealer uses the single particles to encode the secret information, and the participants get the secret through measuring the single particles. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is simpler and more efficient.

  9. Diversity and Evolution of the Tn5801-tet(M)-Like Integrative and Conjugative Elements among Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus.

    PubMed

    León-Sampedro, Ricardo; Novais, Carla; Peixe, Luísa; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2016-01-04

    This work describes the diversity and evolution of Tn5801 among enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci based on analysis of the 5,073 genomes of these bacterial groups available in gene databases. We also examined 610 isolates of Enterococcus (from 10 countries, 1987 to 2010) for the presence of this and other known CTn-tet(M) elements due to the scarcity of data about Tn5801 among enterococci. Genome location (by ICeu-I-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] hybridization/integration site identification), conjugation and fitness (by standard methods), Tn5801 characterization (by long-PCR mapping/sequencing), and clonality (by PFGE/multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) were studied. Twenty-three Tn5801 variants (17 unpublished) clustered in two groups, designated "A" (25 kb; n = 14; predominant in Staphylococcus aureus) and "B" (20 kb; n = 9; predominant in Streptococcus agalactiae). The percent GC content of the common backbone suggests a streptococcal origin of Tn5801 group B, with further acquisition of a 5-kb fragment that resulted in group A. Deep sequence analysis allowed identification of variants associated with clonal lineages of S. aureus (clonal complex 8 [CC8], sequence type 239 [ST239]), S. agalactiae (CC17), Enterococcus faecium (ST17/ST18), or Enterococcus faecalis (ST8), local variants, or variants located in different species and geographical areas. All Tn5801 elements were chromosomally located upstream of the guaA gene, which serves as an integration hot spot. Transferability was demonstrated only for Tn5801 type B among E. faecalis clonal backgrounds, which eventually harbored another Tn5801 copy. The study documents early acquisition of Tn5801 by Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. Clonal waves of these pathogens seem to have contributed to the geographical spread and local evolution of the transposon. Horizontal transfer, also demonstrated, could explain the variability observed, with the isolates often containing sequences of

  10. Diversity and Evolution of the Tn5801-tet(M)-Like Integrative and Conjugative Elements among Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus

    PubMed Central

    León-Sampedro, Ricardo; Novais, Carla; Peixe, Luísa; Baquero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the diversity and evolution of Tn5801 among enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci based on analysis of the 5,073 genomes of these bacterial groups available in gene databases. We also examined 610 isolates of Enterococcus (from 10 countries, 1987 to 2010) for the presence of this and other known CTn-tet(M) elements due to the scarcity of data about Tn5801 among enterococci. Genome location (by ICeu-I–pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] hybridization/integration site identification), conjugation and fitness (by standard methods), Tn5801 characterization (by long-PCR mapping/sequencing), and clonality (by PFGE/multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) were studied. Twenty-three Tn5801 variants (17 unpublished) clustered in two groups, designated “A” (25 kb; n = 14; predominant in Staphylococcus aureus) and “B” (20 kb; n = 9; predominant in Streptococcus agalactiae). The percent GC content of the common backbone suggests a streptococcal origin of Tn5801 group B, with further acquisition of a 5-kb fragment that resulted in group A. Deep sequence analysis allowed identification of variants associated with clonal lineages of S. aureus (clonal complex 8 [CC8], sequence type 239 [ST239]), S. agalactiae (CC17), Enterococcus faecium (ST17/ST18), or Enterococcus faecalis (ST8), local variants, or variants located in different species and geographical areas. All Tn5801 elements were chromosomally located upstream of the guaA gene, which serves as an integration hot spot. Transferability was demonstrated only for Tn5801 type B among E. faecalis clonal backgrounds, which eventually harbored another Tn5801 copy. The study documents early acquisition of Tn5801 by Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus. Clonal waves of these pathogens seem to have contributed to the geographical spread and local evolution of the transposon. Horizontal transfer, also demonstrated, could explain the variability observed, with the isolates often containing

  11. Incised valley fill interpretation for Mississippian Black Hand Sandstone, Appalachian Basin, USA: Implications for glacial eustasy at Kinderhookian-Osagean (Tn2-Tn3) boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matchen, D.L.; Kammer, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Lower Mississippian strata of east-central Ohio are predominantly fine-grained marine deposits of the Cuyahoga and Logan formations. Within these sediments is the Black Hand Sandstone of the Cuyahoga Formation. The Black Hand Sandstone is a multistory, crossbedded, coarse-grained conglomeratic sandstone. The contact between the Black Hand Sandstone and the subjacent Cuyahoga Formation is sharp and scoured, with intraclasts of the Cuyahoga Formation incorporated into the basal Black Hand Sandstone. The Black Hand Sandstone was previously thought to represent a distributary channel deposit; however, the combination of lithofacies and architectural elements indicates deposition in a braided stream setting. The Cuyahoga Formation was deposited in a shallow marine setting. The erosional basal contact of the Black Hand Sandstone and the juxtaposition of fluvial and marine sediments suggests a sequence boundary. The geographic distribution of the Black Hand Sandstone combined with the evidence for a sequence boundary suggests deposition in an incised valley. The age of the Black Hand Sandstone is key to inferring the causes of valley incision. The Black Hand Sandstone is nearly devoid of body fossils, necessitating a biostratigraphic analysis of the surrounding Cuyahoga and Logan formations. Analysis indicates the Logan Formation is early Osagean age. Data from the Cuyahoga Formation suggest a Kinderhookian age with a possible transition to the Osagean in the uppermost Cuyahoga Formation. This constrains the age of the Black Hand Sandstone to the transition at the Kinderhookian-Osagean boundary. Recent reports indicate late Kinderhookian (Tournaisian, Tn2) Gondwanan glaciation based upon tillites and sharp excursions in stable-isotope curves. A glacio-eustatic fall in sea level is inferred to have caused incision of the Cuyahoga Formation, followed by deposition of the Black Hand Sandstone and Logan Formation during the subsequent sea level rise. The associated

  12. Effects of supplementation with L. plantarum TN8 encapsulated in alginate-chitosan in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Imen; Ktari, Naourez; Ben Slima, Sirine; Bouchaala, Kamel; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2016-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 encapsulated in sodium alginate-chitosan or a commercial blend of essential oils on total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and growth performance of broiler chickens. The results showed that the broiler chickens supplemented with encapsulated L. plantarum TN8 or essential oil has a higher growth than the control group. After 35days, the weight means were 1860 and 1880g respectively in dietary supplementation with probiotic or essential oil, while they are 1800g in the control group. The evolution of the feed consumption and feed conversion per week showed that the supplementation of encapsulated TN8 strain or essential oil in broiler chickens food has a positive influence on their appetite. Similarly, supplementation of the feed with this encapsulated strain significantly reduced the rate of cholesterol (HDL and LDL) as well as the contents of triglycerides in broiler chickens. Through our study, it appears that the use of the probiotic supplementation or essential oil to broilers were found to be better than the control group of chickens, resulting in a significant economic impact and promoting effect on health.

  13. Comprehensive identification of virulence factors required for respiratory melioidosis using Tn-seq mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Maria G; Yoder-Himes, Deborah R; Warawa, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory melioidosis is a disease presentation of the biodefense pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is frequently associated with a lethal septicemic spread of the bacteria. We have recently developed an improved respiratory melioidosis model to study the pathogenesis of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the lung (intubation-mediated intratracheal [IMIT] inoculation), which more closely models descriptions of human melioidosis, including prominent septicemic spread from the lung and reduced involvement of the upper respiratory tract. We previously demonstrated that the Type 3 Secretion System cluster 3 (T3SS3) is a critical virulence determinant for B. pseudomallei when delivered directly into the lung. We decided to comprehensively identify all virulence determinants required for respiratory melioidosis using the Tn-seq phenotypic screen, as well as to investigate which virulence determinants are required for dissemination to the liver and spleen. While previous studies have used Tn-seq to identify essential genes for in vitro cultured B. pseudomallei, this represents the first study to use Tn-seq to identify genes required for in vivo fitness. Consistent with our previous findings, we identified T3SS3 as the largest genetic cluster required for fitness in the lung. Furthermore, we identified capsular polysaccharide and Type 6 Secretion System cluster 5 (T6SS5) as the two additional major genetic clusters facilitating respiratory melioidosis. Importantly, Tn-seq did not identify additional, novel large genetic systems supporting respiratory melioidosis, although these studies identified additional small gene clusters that may also play crucial roles in lung fitness. Interestingly, other previously identified virulence determinants do not appear to be required for lung fitness, such as lipopolysaccharide. The role of T3SS3, capsule, and T6SS5 in lung fitness was validated by competition studies, but only T3SS3 was found to be important for respiratory

  14. 75 FR 61696 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN; Application for Subzone; Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber and Oxidized Polyacrylonitrile Fiber Manufacturing); Rockwood, TN An... carbon fiber and oxidized polyacrylonitrile fiber (OPF) manufacturing and warehousing facilities of Toho... manufacturing, warehousing and distribution of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)--based carbon fiber and OPF (up to...

  15. An improved Tn7-lux reporter for broad host range, chromosomally-integrated promoter fusions in Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Glassing, Angela; Lewis, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    An improved vector for chromosomally-integrated promoter-lux fusions is described. The modified vector was tested in parallel with the unmodified vector using the well-characterized E. coli araBAD promoter in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa attTn7 site. The modified mini-Tn7 showed reduced background luminescence, and increased luminescence upon induction, giving >16-fold higher induction ratio. PMID:26341612

  16. COD and nitrogen removal and microbial communities in a novel waterfall biofilm reactor operated at different COD/TN ratios.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyao; Pu, Yuewu; Wei, Cheng

    2017-01-28

    The aim of this study was to characterize the pollutant removal efficiency and the microbial communities that arose in a newly designed waterfall biofilm reactor (WFBR) at different chemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (COD/TN) ratios. The reactor was operated continuously for 28 days at different COD/TN ratios, and its efficiency was evaluated. Results showed that as the thickness of the biofilm increased, the structure of the biofilm encouraged anaerobic-aerobic, anoxic-anaerobic, and fully anaerobic conditions in one reactor. The COD/TN ratios used had a significant effect on the removal of COD and nitrogen components. At a COD/TN ratio of 14, the ammonium nitrogen removal efficiency reached its highest value (99%), but the COD removal efficiency remained at approximately 90%. High-throughput sequencing revealed that the highest community diversity and richness were seen at a COD/TN ratio of 18, and the major phyla were Proteobacteria (average abundance of 47%), Actinobacteria (24%), and Bacteroidetes (13%). As the COD/TN ratios increased from 7 to 18, the abundance of Proteobacteria gradually increased from 25% to 68%. These results could provide important guidance for the design of new wastewater treatment systems and also enrich our theoretical understanding of microbial ecology.

  17. Purification and characterization of TnsC, a Tn7 transposition protein that binds ATP and DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Gamas, P; Craig, N L

    1992-01-01

    The bacterial transposon Tn7 encodes five transposition genes tnsABCDE. We report a simple and rapid procedure for the purification of TnsC protein. We show that purified TnsC is active in and required for Tn7 transposition in a cell-free recombination system. This finding demonstrates that TnsC participates directly in Tn7 transposition and explains the requirement for tnsC function in Tn7 transposition. We have found that TnsC binds adenine nucleotides and is thus a likely site of action of the essential ATP cofactor in Tn7 transposition. We also report that TnsC binds non-specifically to DNA in the presence of ATP or the generally non-hydrolyzable analogues AMP-PNP and ATP-gamma-S, and that TnsC displays little affinity for DNA in the presence of ADP. We speculate that TnsC plays a central role in the selection of target DNA during Tn7 transposition. Images PMID:1317955

  18. Metabolite Profiling Reveals Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tn5 Mutant of Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Vasvi; Bhatia, Anil; Bharti, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Shashank Kumar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Mishra, Aradhana; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas is an efficient plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR); however, intolerance to drought and high temperature limit its application in agriculture as a bioinoculant. Transposon 5 (Tn5) mutagenesis was used to generate a stress tolerant mutant from a PGPR Pseudomonas putida NBRI1108 isolated from chickpea rhizosphere. A mutant NBRI1108T, selected after screening of nearly 10,000 transconjugants, exhibited significant tolerance towards high temperature and drought. Southern hybridization analysis of EcoRI and XhoI restricted genomic DNA of NBRI1108T confirmed that it had a single Tn5 insertion. The metabolic changes in the polar and non-polar extracts of NBRI1108 and NBRI1108T were examined using 1H, 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty six chemically diverse metabolites consisting of amino acids, fatty acids and phospholipids were identified and quantified. Insertion of Tn5 influenced amino acid and phospholipid metabolism and resulted in significantly higher concentration of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycinebetaine, glycerophosphatidylcholine (GPC) and putrescine in NBRI1108T as compared to that in NBRI1108. The concentration of glutamic acid, glycinebetaine and GPC increased by 34%, 95% and 100%, respectively in the NBRI1108T as compared to that in NBRI1108. High concentration of glycerophosphatidylethanolamine (GPE) and undetected GPC in NBRI1108 indicates that biosynthesis of GPE may have taken place via the methylation pathway of phospholipid biosynthesis. However, high GPC and low GPE concentration in NBRI1108T suggest that methylation pathway and phosphatidylcholine synthase (PCS) pathway of phospholipid biosynthesis are being followed in the NBRI1108T. Application of multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) on the quantified metabolites revealed clear variations in NBRI1108 and NBRI1108T in polar and non-polar metabolites. Identification of abiotic stress

  19. Mucin-associated sialosyl-Tn antigen expression in gastric cancer correlates with an adverse outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Werther, J. L.; Rivera-MacMurray, S.; Bruckner, H.; Tatematsu, M.; Itzkowitz, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    The expression of sialosyl-Tn (STn) antigen was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in primary gastric cancers. Twenty-one of 31 (68%) gastric cancers expressed STn, regardless of tumour location, stage or histological type. Eighty-one per cent of patients with STn-positive tumours died of their disease or had recurrent cancer, compared with 20% of patients with STn-negative tumours (P < 0.002). STn may be a useful prognostic marker in patients with gastric cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:8123499

  20. Mutagenesis of dimeric plasmids by the transposon. gamma. delta. (Tn1000)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Berg, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The Escherichia coli F factor mediates conjugal transfer of a plasmid such as pBR322 primarily by replicative transposition of transposon {gamma}{delta} (Tn1000) from F to that plasmid to form a cointegrate intermediate. Although resolution of this cointegrate always yields a plasmid containing a single {gamma}{delta} insertion, the occasional recovery of transposon-free plasmids after connuugal transfer has led to alternative hypotheses for F mobilization. The authors show here that {gamma}{delta}-free plasmids are found after F-mediated conjugal transfer only when the donor plasmid is a dimer and the recipient is Rec{sup +}.

  1. 4. Photocopy of photograph showing the corn crib as it ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph showing the corn crib as it looked on May 21, 1936. This structure was also used as a gear shed. Immediately to the right of the shed is Hettie Walker and an unidentified family member or friend. The original photograph was taken by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is II-B-(7)-8091. - Walker Family Farm, Corn Crib, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. 5. Photocopy of May 21, 1936 photograph showing the interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of May 21, 1936 photograph showing the interior of the Big House (main portion, living-bedroom). The woman is Hettie Walker. The fireplace is on the house's front side. The original photograph was taken by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is II-B-(7)-8086. - Walker Family Farm, Big House, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. Billion year thermal histories constrained by zircon (U-Th)/He age-eU correlations: Examples from the Laramide and Sevier Provinces of the western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenthner, William; Orme, Devon; Reiners, Peter; Laskowski, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    exhumation in this particular basin, we present an "inheritance envelope" approach for interpreting partially reset detrital zircon (U-Th)/He datasets. This approach uses forward modeling of thermal histories, combined with a damage-diffusivity model and a series of pre-depositional He ages to construct "inheritance envelopes". A forward modeled time-temperature path is a permissible thermal history if an inheritance envelope encompasses the observed age variation in a given dataset. For the Oquirrh dataset, a time-temperature path with a maximum burial temperature of ~170 °C and an initial Sevier-belt related exhumation event at 110 Ma successfully captures the large observed age variation. These results demonstrate that our inheritance envelope approach can be used to describe maximum burial temperatures and the timing of initial exhumation in detrital zircons from sedimentary basins.

  4. Comparable susceptibilities of human 293 cells and insect Tn-5B1-4 cells to photoactivated alpha-terthienyl.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingchun; Liu, Yang; Zhan, Taisong; Deng, Yunfei; He, Yuan

    2010-03-10

    The hope is that photoactive compounds acting as potential insecticides will have reduced environmental risk, but that is not necessarily the case. In an attempt to elucidate the risk by which photoactivated alpha-terthienyl (alpha-T) affects human health, the effects of exposure of human 293 cells and insect Tn-5B1-4 cells to photoactivated alpha-T at certain doses were characterized. Photoactivated alpha-T exhibited dose dependence of toxicity and time kinetics of phototoxic activation on the growth of 293 cells (EC(50) = 6.23 microg/mL) and Tn-5B1-4 cells (EC(50) = 3.36 microg/mL). 293 cells appeared to be anchorage-independent, inflated, and broken; Tn-5B1-4 cells showed significant necrosis. ROS productions and lipid peroxidation of 293 cells were always lower than that of Tn-5B1-4 cells in the treatments of alpha-T at the same dose. Moreover, photoactivated alpha-T caused nonselective DNA damage in 293 and Tn-5B1-4 cells at a 10 microg/mL dose and induced cell-cycle progression of 293 cells to increase apoptosis of cells and G1 arrest and decrease in S phase cell population, whereas Tn-5B1-4 cells showed S arrest accompanied by a dose-dependent decrease in G1 and G2 phase cells at a 5 microg/mL dose. These observations suggest that Tn-5B1-4 cells are more susceptible to the action of photoactivated alpha-T than 293 cells, but photoactivated alpha-T as an efficient insecticide might be a potential factor in human mutagenic progression.

  5. Tn5-induced mutations affecting sulfur-oxidizing ability (Sox) of Thiosphaera pantotropha

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, T.S.; Friedrich, C.G.

    1986-05-01

    Mutants of Thiosphaera pantotropha defective in chemolithoautotrophic growth were obtained by transpositional mutagenesis with Tn5 coding for kanamycin resistance. The suicide vehicle for introducing Tn5 to T. pantotropha was pSUP5011 harbored by Escherichia coli. Kanamycin-resistant isolates were screened for the inability to grow with reduced sulfur compounds (Sox/sup -/). Four classes of Sox/sup -/ mutants were obtained. Three were of different pleiotropic phenotypes: (i) unable to grow with formate, nitrate, and xanthine; (this class strongly suggested the involvement of a molybdenum cofactor in inorganic sulfur-oxidizing ability); (ii) no growth with hydrogen; (iii) slight growth with hydrogen and formate. Two plasmids, pHG41 (about 450 kilobase pairs) and pHG42 (110 kilobases), were identified in lysates of T. pantotropha. In one Sox/sup -/ mutant pHG41 could not be detected. Revertant analysis suggested that pHG41 and pHG42 were not involved in the Sox character.

  6. The Sugar Creek zinc deposit, Jackson Co. TN -- Exploration history, geology and mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbold, G.; Moran, A.V.; Stevens, D.L. )

    1993-03-01

    During the 60's and 70's zinc exploration of central TN and KY was active. The Sugar Creek Project was one of several investigated by Exxon. The discovery hole, Cu 15, was drilled in early 1973. The Sugar Creek Zinc Deposit was acquired by Independence Mining Co. in 1986 and I.M.C. has subsequently completed additional drilling, both stepout and confirmation holes. A total of 137 holes for 300,833 ft have been drilled. The Sugar Creek deposit is a typical Tennessee zinc deposit (Mississippi Valley Type) which occurs in solution collapse breccias in the Lower Ordovician, Knox Dolomite. The Knox consists of fine grained dolomite with interlayered limestones and crystalline dolomite. Only scattered residual limestone is found in the Sugar Creek area. Collapse breccias have formed which control zinc deposition and are similar to other TN Zn. deposits. At Sugar Creek the types of breccias include: a vertically exaggerated glory hole breakthrough breccia which extends to within 137 ft. of the Knox unconformity, has 500 ft. of zinc mineralization with 8 significant zinc intervals; holes with stacked zinc intervals interpreted to be sides of breakthrough breccia; and single zinc intervals in laterally positioned bedded mineral zones. A total of 99 holes were drilled in the more intense mineralized areas. The ratio of ore to non ore holes is nearly 1 to 1. The mineralization is typical M.V.T. with predominantly sphalerite and only minor occurrences of galena, fluorite, pyrite, etc.

  7. MiniTn7-transposon delivery vectors for inducible or constitutive fluorescent protein expression in Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N. P.; Gisler, Pascal; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the generation and function of two sets of bacterial plasmids that harbor fluorescent genes encoding either blue, cyan, yellow or red fluorescent proteins. In the first set, protein expression is controlled by the strong and constitutive nptII promoter whereas in the second set, the strong tac promoter was chosen that underlies LacIq regulation. Furthermore, the plasmids are mobilizable, contain Tn7 transposons and a temperature-sensitive origin of replication. Using Escherichia coli S17-1 as donor strain, the plasmids allow fast and convenient Tn7-transposon delivery into many enterobacterial hosts, such as the here-used E. coli O157:H7. This procedure omits the need of preparing competent recipient cells and antibiotic resistances are only transiently conferred to the recipients. As the fluorescence proteins show little to no overlap in fluorescence emission, the constructs are well suited for the study of multicolored synthetic bacterial communities during biofilm production or in host colonization studies, e.g. of plant surfaces. Furthermore, tac promoter-reporter constructs allow the generation of so-called reproductive success reporters, which allow to estimate past doublings of bacterial individuals after introduction into environments, emphasizing the role of individual cells during colonization. PMID:27445318

  8. Hancock County Awards Gala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Gene Goldman (left), deputy director of NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, accepts an Award of Excellence from Jack Zink, executive director of the Hancock County Port and Harbor Commission, during the 2008 Annual Hancock County Awards Gala. The Award of Excellence was presented to recognize Stennis Space Center's contribution to NASA's 50 years of excellence in space exploration.

  9. The Tn7 transposition regulator TnsC interacts with the transposase subunit TnsB and target selector TnsD

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ki Young; Spencer, Jeanelle M.; Craig, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    The excision of transposon Tn7 from a donor site and its insertion into its preferred target site, attachment site attTn7, is mediated by four Tn7-encoded transposition proteins: TnsA, TnsB, TnsC, and TnsD. Transposition requires the assembly of a nucleoprotein complex containing all four Tns proteins and the DNA substrates, the donor site containing Tn7, and the preferred target site attTn7. TnsA and TnsB together form the heteromeric Tn7 transposase, and TnsD is a target-selecting protein that binds specifically to attTn7. TnsC is the key regulator of transposition, interacting with both the TnsAB transposase and TnsD-attTn7. We show here that TnsC interacts directly with TnsB, and identify the specific region of TnsC involved in the TnsB–TnsC interaction during transposition. We also show that a TnsC mutant defective in interaction with TnsB is defective for Tn7 transposition both in vitro and in vivo. Tn7 displays cis-acting target immunity, which blocks Tn7 insertion into a target DNA that already contains Tn7. We provide evidence that the direct TnsB–TnsC interaction that we have identified also mediates cis-acting Tn7 target immunity. We also show that TnsC interacts directly with the target selector protein TnsD. PMID:24982178

  10. Diversity of Tn1546 and Its Role in the Dissemination of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Portugal▿

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Carla; Freitas, Ana R.; Sousa, João C.; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.; Peixe, Luísa V.

    2008-01-01

    We characterized the molecular diversity of vanA vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE; 176 isolates/87 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types) from different sources and cities in Portugal (1996 to 2004): (i) food animals (FA; n = 38 isolates out of 31 samples), hospitalized humans (HH; n = 101/101), healthy human volunteers (HV; n = 7/4), and environmental sources (n = 30/10). Some strains were isolated from different hosts and persistently recovered for years. Twenty-four Tn1546 variants were identified, all located on plasmids (30 to 250 kb). Some Tn1546 variants were associated with specific sources such as FA (3 types), HH (11 types), or HV (1 type), while others were recovered from isolates of different origins (8 types). Polymorphisms in the central vanRSHA region of Tn1546 were scarcely detected, while alterations upstream of vanR and downstream of vanA were frequently identified involving mutations (vanS and vanX), deletions (vanY), insertions (IS1216V, ISEf1, and IS19; sequences with or without homology with others available in GenBank databases), and different genetic rearrangements. Most Tn1546 variants contained IS1216V (14 types) or ISEf1 (6 types). IS1216V was found alone or associated with an IS3-like element at different orientations and positions in Tn1546 from human, animal, and environmental samples. ISEf1 was located within vanX-vanY region at nucleotide 9044 of Tn1546 variants mostly associated with clinical isolates, suggesting a common genetic platform. IS19 was observed within the vanX-vanY region in one Tn1546 variant from poultry. Recent spread of VRE in Portugal reflects a complex epidemiology involving both clonal spread and plasmid dissemination containing a variety of Tn1546 types. Apparent Tn1546 heterogeneity among enterococci from human, animal, and environmental sources might reflect frequent genetic exchange events and evolution of particular widely disseminated genetic elements. PMID:18180362

  11. A Modular, Tn7-Based System for Making Bioluminescent or Fluorescent Salmonella and Escherichia coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shivak, Dylan J.; MacKenzie, Keith D.; Watson, Nikole L.; Pasternak, J. Alex; Jones, Brian D.; Wang, Yejun; DeVinney, Rebekah; Wilson, Heather L.; Surette, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Our goal was to develop a robust tagging method that can be used to track bacterial strains in vivo. To address this challenge, we adapted two existing systems: a modular plasmid-based reporter system (pCS26) that has been used for high-throughput gene expression studies in Salmonella and Escherichia coli and Tn7 transposition. We generated kanamycin- and chloramphenicol-resistant versions of pCS26 with bacterial luciferase, green fluorescent protein (GFP), and mCherry reporters under the control of σ70-dependent promoters to provide three different levels of constitutive expression. We improved upon the existing Tn7 system by modifying the delivery vector to accept pCS26 constructs and moving the transposase genes from a nonreplicating helper plasmid into a temperature-sensitive plasmid that can be conditionally maintained. This resulted in a 10- to 30-fold boost in transposase gene expression and transposition efficiencies of 10−8 to 10−10 in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and E. coli APEC O1, whereas the existing Tn7 system yielded no successful transposition events. The new reporter strains displayed reproducible signaling in microwell plate assays, confocal microscopy, and in vivo animal infections. We have combined two flexible and complementary tools that can be used for a multitude of molecular biology applications within the Enterobacteriaceae. This system can accommodate new promoter-reporter combinations as they become available and can help to bridge the gap between modern, high-throughput technologies and classical molecular genetics. IMPORTANCE This article describes a flexible and efficient system for tagging bacterial strains. Using our modular plasmid system, a researcher can easily change the reporter type or the promoter driving expression and test the parameters of these new constructs in vitro. Selected constructs can then be stably integrated into the chromosomes of desired strains in two simple steps. We demonstrate the

  12. National Program of Inspection of Non-Federal Dams, Tennessee. Spring Lake Dam (Candlewood II) Old Hickory Dam (Candlewood III) (Inventory Numbers TN 06930 & TN 06926), Hatchie River Basin, near Saulsbury, Hardeman County, Tennessee. Phase I Investigation Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    20314. 1.3 Past Inspections - Past inspections of Spring Lake and Old Hickory Lake Dams include cursory inspections by George Moore and Troy Wedekind of...aertificate Cursory Preliminary Site Review Damage Potential Category:One Two Three Undetermined Inspection by: George Moore and Troy Wedekind Inspection...Cursory Preliminary Site Review Damage Potential Category:One Two Three __ Undetermined Inspection by: George Moore and Troy Wedekind Inspection Results

  13. Autonomous and non-autonomous Tn3-family transposons and their role in the evolution of mobile genetic elements.

    PubMed

    Szuplewska, Magdalena; Czarnecki, Jakub; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The Tn3 family of transposons includes diverse elements that encode homologous transposases and contain conserved terminal inverted repeat sequences (IRs). The recent identification of non-autonomous elements, named TIMEs (Tn3-derived Inverted-repeat Miniature Elements), has shed new light on the diversity and evolution of this transposon family. A common feature of TIMEs and other members of this family is their ability to mobilize genomic DNA for transposition as part of composite transposons. These elements significantly influence the structure and properties of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements (MGEs). They may contain and move by transposition (i) plasmid replication systems, (ii) toxin-antitoxin systems and (iii) site-specific recombination modules that can resolve plasmid multimers. Some Tn3 family elements may also transfer large segments of chromosomal DNA into plasmids, which increases the pool of mobile DNA that can take part in horizontal gene transfer.

  14. Experimental manipulation of TN:TP ratiossuppress cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystinconcentration in large-scale in situ mesocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Theodore D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    A global dataset was compiled to examine relations between the total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratio (TN:TP) and microcystin concentration in lakes and reservoirs. Microcystin concentration decreased as TN:TP ratios increased, suggesting that manipulation of the TN:TP ratio may reduce microcystin concentrations. This relationship was experimentally tested by adding ammonium nitrate to increase the TN:TP ratio in large-scale (70 m3), in situ mesocosms located in a eutrophic reservoir that routinely experiences toxic blooms of cyanobacteria. At a TN:TP ratio >75:1, chlorophytes dominated the phytoplankton community in the mesocosms, while cyanobacterial biovolume was significantly reduced and microcystin was not detected. In contrast, the unmanipulated reservoir was dominated by cyanobacteria, and microcystin was detected. Secchi depths were 1.1 to 1.8 times greater in the mesocosms relative to the reservoir. Cladoceran zooplankton had a larger body size (0.14 mm on average) in the mesocosms compared to conspecifics in the reservoir, which was likely related to the higher quality food. Combined, these empirical and experimental data indicate that although nutrient addition is counterintuitive to current cyanobacteria management practices, increasing the TN:TP ratio by adding nitrogen may be a potential short-term management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins when other alternatives (e.g., phosphorus reduction) are not possible. Additional experimental studies with careful controls are needed to define best management practices and identify any potential unintended consequences before nitrogen addition is implemented as a lake and reservoir management practice.

  15. Green digital signage using nanoparticle embedded narrow-gap field sequential TN-LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Sawai, Hiroya; Toshima, Naoki; Okita, Masaya; Takeuchi, Kiyofumi; Takatsu, Haruyoshi

    2012-03-01

    We have fabricated field sequential color (FSC)-LCDs using cells and modules of narrow-gap TN-LCDs with and without doping the nanoparticles of PCyD-ZrO2 and AF-SiO2. It is shown that the FSC-LCD exhibits a high optical efficiency of OE=4.5 that is defined as OE=[Luminance]/[W/m2]=(cd/W). This figure may provide us a good reference or to clear the Energy Star Program Version 5-3 that issues a guideline: LCD with 50 inch on the diagonal consumes the energy of 108W. Through this research it is claimed that our FSC=LCD may be a novel green digital signage.

  16. 77 FR 15995 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ...) by the Industrial Development Board of Blount County and the Cities of Alcoa and Maryville, Tennessee.... The proposed service area is within and adjacent to the Knoxville U.S. Customs and Border Protection... magnet site from the ``sunset'' time limits that generally apply to sites under the ASF, and...

  17. 75 FR 52367 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... sponsored by the Memphis Archaeological and Geological Society. The human remains were accessioned by the... Counties. Dr. Robert Mainfort of the Arkansas Archaeological Survey stated, ``Roper referred to the Hatchie... ceramic styles and construction of pottery related to the sites, but that are not associated...

  18. TN-68 Spent Fuel Transport Cask Analytical Evaluation for Drop Events

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M. J.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Koeppel, Brian J.

    2007-03-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for licensing commercial spent nuclear fuel transported in casks certified by NRC under the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR), Title 10, Part 71 [1]. Both the International Atomic Energy Agency regulations for transporting radioactive materials [2, paragraph 727], and 10 CFR 71.73 require casks to be evaluated for hypothetical accident conditions, which includes a 9-meter (m) (30-ft) drop-impact event onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, in the most damaging orientation. This paper examines the behavior of one of the NRC certified transportation casks, the TN-68 [3], for drop-impact events. The specific area examined is the behavior of the bolted connections in the cask body and the closure lid, which are significantly loaded during the hypothetical drop-impact event. Analytical work to evaluate the NRC-certified TN-68 spent fuel transport cask [3] for a 9-m (30-ft) drop-impact event on a flat, unyielding, horizontal surface, was performed using the ANSYS® [4] and LS DYNA™ [5] finite-element analysis codes. The models were sufficiently detailed, in the areas of bolt closure interfaces and containment boundaries, to evaluate the structural integrity of the bolted connections under 9-m (30-ft) free-drop hypothetical accident conditions, as specified in 10 CFR 71.73. Evaluation of the cask for puncture, caused by a free drop through a distance of 1-m (40-in.) onto a mild steel bar mounted on a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, required by 10 CFR 71.73, was not included in the current work, and will have to be addressed in the future. Based on the analyses performed to date, it is concluded that, even though brief separation of the flange and the lid surfaces may occur under some conditions, the seals would close at the end of the drop events, because the materials remain elastic during the duration of the event.

  19. Garrett County Aids AID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Garrett County, Maryland volunteered to act as a pre-overseas learning laboratory for AID (Agency for International Development) interns who practiced data collection and planning techniques with the help of local citizenry. (JC)

  20. Sequence-Based Characterization of Tn5801-Like Genomic Islands in Tetracycline-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Other Gram-positive Bacteria from Humans and Animals

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Lisbeth E.; Hasman, Henrik; Jurado Rabadán, Sonia; Agersø, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogens is often associated with mobile genetic elements, such as genomic islands (GI) including integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). These can transfer resistance genes within and between bacteria from humans and/or animals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Tn5801-like GIs carrying the tetracycline resistance gene, tet(M), are common in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from pets, and to do an overall sequences-based characterization of Tn5801-like GIs detected in Gram-positive bacteria from humans and animals. A total of 27 tetracycline-resistant S. pseudintermedius isolates from Danish pets (1998–2005) were screened for tet(M) by PCR. Selected isolates (13) were screened for GI- or ICE-specific genes (intTn5801 or xisTn916) and their tet(M) gene was sequenced (Sanger-method). Long-range PCR mappings and whole-genome-sequencing (Illumina) were performed for selected S. pseudintermedius-isolates (seven and three isolates, respectively) as well as for human S. aureus isolates (seven and one isolates, respectively) and one porcine Enterococcus faecium isolate known to carry Tn5801-like GIs. All 27 S. pseudintermedius were positive for tet(M). Out of 13 selected isolates, seven contained Tn5801-like GIs and six contained Tn916-like ICEs. Two different Tn5801-like GI types were detected among S. pseudintermedius (Tn5801 and GI6287) - both showed high similarity compared to GenBank sequences from human pathogens. Two distinct Tn5801-like GI types were detected among the porcine E. faecium and human S. aureus isolates (Tn6014 and GI6288). Tn5801-like GIs were detected in GenBank-sequences from Gram-positive bacteria of human, animal or food origin worldwide. Known Tn5801-like GIs were divided into seven types. The results showed that Tn5801-like GIs appear to be relatively common in tetracycline-resistant S. pseudintermedius in Denmark. Almost identical Tn5801-like GIs were identified in different Gram-positive species

  1. Sequence-Based Characterization of Tn5801-Like Genomic Islands in Tetracycline-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Other Gram-positive Bacteria from Humans and Animals.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Lisbeth E; Hasman, Henrik; Jurado Rabadán, Sonia; Agersø, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogens is often associated with mobile genetic elements, such as genomic islands (GI) including integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). These can transfer resistance genes within and between bacteria from humans and/or animals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Tn5801-like GIs carrying the tetracycline resistance gene, tet(M), are common in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from pets, and to do an overall sequences-based characterization of Tn5801-like GIs detected in Gram-positive bacteria from humans and animals. A total of 27 tetracycline-resistant S. pseudintermedius isolates from Danish pets (1998-2005) were screened for tet(M) by PCR. Selected isolates (13) were screened for GI- or ICE-specific genes (int Tn5801 or xis Tn916 ) and their tet(M) gene was sequenced (Sanger-method). Long-range PCR mappings and whole-genome-sequencing (Illumina) were performed for selected S. pseudintermedius-isolates (seven and three isolates, respectively) as well as for human S. aureus isolates (seven and one isolates, respectively) and one porcine Enterococcus faecium isolate known to carry Tn5801-like GIs. All 27 S. pseudintermedius were positive for tet(M). Out of 13 selected isolates, seven contained Tn5801-like GIs and six contained Tn916-like ICEs. Two different Tn5801-like GI types were detected among S. pseudintermedius (Tn5801 and GI6287) - both showed high similarity compared to GenBank sequences from human pathogens. Two distinct Tn5801-like GI types were detected among the porcine E. faecium and human S. aureus isolates (Tn6014 and GI6288). Tn5801-like GIs were detected in GenBank-sequences from Gram-positive bacteria of human, animal or food origin worldwide. Known Tn5801-like GIs were divided into seven types. The results showed that Tn5801-like GIs appear to be relatively common in tetracycline-resistant S. pseudintermedius in Denmark. Almost identical Tn5801-like GIs were identified in different Gram-positive species

  2. Modular Evolution of TnGBSs, a New Family of Integrative and Conjugative Elements Associating Insertion Sequence Transposition, Plasmid Replication, and Conjugation for Their Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Guérillot, Romain; Da Cunha, Violette; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Bouchier, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) have a major impact on gene flow and genome dynamics in bacteria. The ICEs TnGBS1 and TnGBS2, first identified in Streptococcus agalactiae, use a DDE transposase, unlike most characterized ICEs, which depend on a phage-like integrase for their mobility. Here we identified 56 additional TnGBS-related ICEs by systematic genome analysis. Interestingly, all except one are inserted in streptococcal genomes. Sequence comparison of the proteins conserved among these ICEs defined two subtypes related to TnGBS1 or TnGBS2. We showed that both types encode different conjugation modules: a type IV secretion system, a VirD4 coupling protein, and a relaxase and its cognate oriT site, shared with distinct lineages of conjugative elements of Firmicutes. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that TnGBSs evolved from two conjugative elements of different origins by the successive recruitment of a transposition module derived from insertion sequences (ISs). Furthermore, TnGBSs share replication modules with different plasmids. Mutational analyses and conjugation experiments showed that TnGBS1 and TnGBS2 combine replication and transposition upstream promoters for their transfer and stabilization. Despite an evolutionarily successful horizontal dissemination within the genus Streptococcus, these ICEs have a restricted host range. However, we reveal that for TnGBS1 and TnGBS2, this host restriction is not due to a transfer incompatibility linked to the conjugation machineries but most likely to their ability for transient maintenance through replication after their transfer. PMID:23435978

  3. Modular evolution of TnGBSs, a new family of integrative and conjugative elements associating insertion sequence transposition, plasmid replication, and conjugation for their spreading.

    PubMed

    Guérillot, Romain; Da Cunha, Violette; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Bouchier, Christiane; Glaser, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) have a major impact on gene flow and genome dynamics in bacteria. The ICEs TnGBS1 and TnGBS2, first identified in Streptococcus agalactiae, use a DDE transposase, unlike most characterized ICEs, which depend on a phage-like integrase for their mobility. Here we identified 56 additional TnGBS-related ICEs by systematic genome analysis. Interestingly, all except one are inserted in streptococcal genomes. Sequence comparison of the proteins conserved among these ICEs defined two subtypes related to TnGBS1 or TnGBS2. We showed that both types encode different conjugation modules: a type IV secretion system, a VirD4 coupling protein, and a relaxase and its cognate oriT site, shared with distinct lineages of conjugative elements of Firmicutes. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that TnGBSs evolved from two conjugative elements of different origins by the successive recruitment of a transposition module derived from insertion sequences (ISs). Furthermore, TnGBSs share replication modules with different plasmids. Mutational analyses and conjugation experiments showed that TnGBS1 and TnGBS2 combine replication and transposition upstream promoters for their transfer and stabilization. Despite an evolutionarily successful horizontal dissemination within the genus Streptococcus, these ICEs have a restricted host range. However, we reveal that for TnGBS1 and TnGBS2, this host restriction is not due to a transfer incompatibility linked to the conjugation machineries but most likely to their ability for transient maintenance through replication after their transfer.

  4. 75 FR 33765 - Foreign-Trade Zone 77-Memphis, TN, Application for Subzone, Delta Faucet Company (Faucets...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 77--Memphis, TN, Application for Subzone, Delta Faucet... faucet manufacturing facility of Delta Faucet Company (Delta), located in Jackson, Tennessee. The.... The Delta facility (668 employees/90 acres) is located at 3441 Ridgecrest Road Ext., Jackson...

  5. Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) as a possible therapeutic alternative for the management of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) - A case report.

    PubMed

    Assiri, Khalil; Alyami, Yagoub; Uyanik, James M; Romero-Reyes, Marcela

    2017-02-01

    Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) is an alternative remedy used primarily for depression but also is used for rheumatism, gastroenteritis, headache and neuralgias. The mechanism of action of Hypericum perforatum comprehends a neurotransmitter inhibitory profile, and potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects suggesting a role for pain management. In this case report, we describe a 53-year-old Hispanic female patient who came to our orofacial pain clinical service presenting with a history of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). The patient was not able to get an appointment soon enough and decided to take an over the counter homeopathic preparation of Hypericum perforatum since she found on the internet that it was effective for nerve pain. The patient responded dramatically to the Hypericum perforatum preparation. The use of this homeopathic preparation relieved completely the TN pain. The management of TN is often a challenge. Hypericum perforatum may be a promising therapeutic option for TN that deserves to be explored further to solidly support its use in the clinical setting.

  6. SPIRITS16tn: Spitzer Discovery of a Possible Supernova in Messier 108 at 8.8 Mpc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jencson, J. E.; Adams, S.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Tinyanont, S.; Cao, Y.; Prince, T.; Lau, R. M.; Perley, D.; Masci, F.; Helou, G.; Armus, L.; Surace, J.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Cody, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Khan, R.; Bond, H. E.; Monson, A.; Bally, J.; Levesque, E.; Williams, R.; Whitelock, P. A.; Mohamed, S.; Gehrz, R. D.; Amodeo, S.; Shenoy, D.; Carlon, R.; Cass, A.; Corgan, D.; Dykhoff, D.; Faella, J.; Gburek, T.; Smith, N.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.; Ofek, E.; Johansson, J.; Parthasarathy, M.; Fox, O.; Hsiao, E.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Gonzalez, C.; Contreras, C.

    2016-08-01

    We report the discovery of a possible, nearby supernova in Messier 108 (NGC 3556) designated as SPIRITS16tn. This luminous infrared transient was discovered during ongoing monitoring of nearby galaxies with the Spitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS; ATEL#6644, Kasliwal et al. 2016, ApJ submitted), using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  7. Identification of a catabolic transposon, Tn4371, carrying biphenyl and 4-chlorobiphenyl degradation genes in Alcaligenes eutrophus A5.

    PubMed Central

    Springael, D; Kreps, S; Mergeay, M

    1993-01-01

    Alcaligenes eutrophus A5 catabolizes biphenyl to CO2 via benzoate and 4-chlorobiphenyl to 4-chlorobenzoate. In curing and conjugation experiments, the A5 endogenous 51-kb IncP1 plasmid pSS50 was found to be dispensable for biphenyl and 4-chlorobiphenyl catabolism. Transfer of the biphenyl- and 4-chlorobiphenyl-degrading phenotype by means of pSS50 was observed at a frequency of 10(-5) per transferred plasmid in matings of A5 with other A. eutrophus strains. Transconjugants harbor enlarged pSS50 derivatives which contain additional genetic information governing the oxidation of biphenyl and 4-chlorobiphenyl to benzoate and 4-chlorobenzoate and originating from the chromosome of strain A5. The following observations indicate that the catabolic genes reside on a 59-kb large transposon (Tn4371) for which a restriction map is presented. (i) Tn4371 transposes between different replicons and at different locations of the same replicon. (ii) Transposition was observed in a Rec- strain of A. eutrophus. (iii) Tn4371 transposes as a single, contiguous piece of DNA. Although an RP4::Tn4371 plasmid was stably maintained in different hosts, the plasmid conferred growth on biphenyl only when present in strains of A. eutrophus and in an Acinetobacter sp. strain. Images PMID:8383664

  8. Assessing Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty for transpositional transgenesis by cytoplasmic injection into bovine and ovine zygotes

    PubMed Central

    Bevacqua, R. J.; Fernandez-Martin, R.; Canel, N. G.; Gibbons, A.; Texeira, D.; Lange, F.; Vans Landschoot, G.; Savy, V.; Briski, O.; Hiriart, M. I.; Grueso, E.; Ivics, Z.; Taboga, O.; Kues, W. A.; Ferraris, S.

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic domestic animals represent an alternative to bioreactors for large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals and could also provide more accurate biomedical models than rodents. However, their generation remains inefficient. Recently, DNA transposons allowed improved transgenesis efficiencies in mice and pigs. In this work, Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon systems were evaluated for transgenesis by simple cytoplasmic injection in livestock zygotes. In the case of Tn5, the transposome complex of transposon nucleic acid and Tn5 protein was injected. In the case of SB, the supercoiled plasmids encoding a transposon and the SB transposase were co-injected. In vitro produced bovine zygotes were used to establish the cytoplasmic injection conditions. The in vitro cultured blastocysts were evaluated for reporter gene expression and genotyped. Subsequently, both transposon systems were injected in seasonally available ovine zygotes, employing transposons carrying the recombinant human factor IX driven by the beta-lactoglobulin promoter. The Tn5 approach did not result in transgenic lambs. In contrast, the Sleeping Beauty injection resulted in 2 lambs (29%) carrying the transgene. Both animals exhibited cellular mosaicism of the transgene. The extraembryonic tissues (placenta or umbilical cord) of three additional animals were also transgenic. These results show that transpositional transgenesis by cytoplasmic injection of SB transposon components can be applied for the production of transgenic lambs of pharmaceutical interest. PMID:28301581

  9. Assessing Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty for transpositional transgenesis by cytoplasmic injection into bovine and ovine zygotes.

    PubMed

    Bevacqua, R J; Fernandez-Martin, R; Canel, N G; Gibbons, A; Texeira, D; Lange, F; Vans Landschoot, G; Savy, V; Briski, O; Hiriart, M I; Grueso, E; Ivics, Z; Taboga, O; Kues, W A; Ferraris, S; Salamone, D F

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic domestic animals represent an alternative to bioreactors for large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals and could also provide more accurate biomedical models than rodents. However, their generation remains inefficient. Recently, DNA transposons allowed improved transgenesis efficiencies in mice and pigs. In this work, Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon systems were evaluated for transgenesis by simple cytoplasmic injection in livestock zygotes. In the case of Tn5, the transposome complex of transposon nucleic acid and Tn5 protein was injected. In the case of SB, the supercoiled plasmids encoding a transposon and the SB transposase were co-injected. In vitro produced bovine zygotes were used to establish the cytoplasmic injection conditions. The in vitro cultured blastocysts were evaluated for reporter gene expression and genotyped. Subsequently, both transposon systems were injected in seasonally available ovine zygotes, employing transposons carrying the recombinant human factor IX driven by the beta-lactoglobulin promoter. The Tn5 approach did not result in transgenic lambs. In contrast, the Sleeping Beauty injection resulted in 2 lambs (29%) carrying the transgene. Both animals exhibited cellular mosaicism of the transgene. The extraembryonic tissues (placenta or umbilical cord) of three additional animals were also transgenic. These results show that transpositional transgenesis by cytoplasmic injection of SB transposon components can be applied for the production of transgenic lambs of pharmaceutical interest.

  10. 76 FR 53115 - Foreign-Trade Zone 77-Memphis, TN; Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Manufacturing Authority; Flextronics Logistics USA, Inc. (Cell Phone/Mobile Handset Kitting); Memphis, TN An..., Memphis (Site 4). Under T/IM procedures, Flextronics has requested authority to produce cell phones/mobile... duty rates during customs entry procedures that apply to cell phone/mobile handset kits (duty free)...

  11. 76 FR 60802 - Foreign-Trade Zone 77-Memphis, TN; Withdrawal of Request for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 77--Memphis, TN; Withdrawal of Request for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; Flextronics Logistics USA, Inc., (Cell Phone/Mobile Handset Kitting). Memphis,...

  12. Temperature-dependent instability of the cTnI subunit in NIST SRM2921 characterized by tryptic peptide mapping.

    PubMed

    van der Burgt, Yuri E M; Cobbaert, Christa M; Dalebout, Hans; Smit, Nico; Deelder, André M

    2012-08-01

    In this study temperature-dependent instability of the cTnI subunit of the three-protein complex NIST SRM2921 was demonstrated using a mass spectrometric tryptic peptide mapping approach. The results were compared to the cTnI subunit obtained as a protein standard from Calbiochem with identical amino acid sequence. Both the three-protein complex from NIST as well as the cTnI subunit were incubated at elevated temperatures and then evaluated with respect to the primary sequence. The corresponding peptide maps were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. From a Mascot database search in combination with "semiTrypsin" tolerance it was found that two peptide backbone cleavages had occurred in subunit cTnI in NIST SRM2921 material upon incubation at 37°C, namely between amino acids at 148/149 and 194/195. The Calbiochem standard did not show increased levels of "unexpected" peptides in tryptic peptide maps. One of the two peptide backbone cleavages could also be monitored using a "single-step" MALDI-MS approach, i.e. without the need for peptide separation. The amount of degradation appeared rather constant in replicate temperature-instability experiments. However, for accurate quantification internal labelled standards are needed.

  13. 77 FR 73978 - Foreign-Trade Zone 148-Knoxville, TN, Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 148--Knoxville, TN, Toho Tenax America, Inc. (Carbon Fiber...), located in Rockwood, Tennessee, with authority to manufacture carbon fiber for export and oxidized... manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market; the request for such authority will continue to be reviewed...

  14. Mobility and Generation of Mosaic Non-Autonomous Transposons by Tn3-Derived Inverted-Repeat Miniature Elements (TIMEs)

    PubMed Central

    Szuplewska, Magdalena; Ludwiczak, Marta; Lyzwa, Katarzyna; Czarnecki, Jakub; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Functional transposable elements (TEs) of several Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from black shale ore of Lubin mine and from post-flotation tailings of Zelazny Most in Poland, were identified using a positive selection trap plasmid strategy. This approach led to the capture and characterization of (i) 13 insertion sequences from 5 IS families (IS3, IS5, ISL3, IS30 and IS1380), (ii) isoforms of two Tn3-family transposons – Tn5563a and Tn4662a (the latter contains a toxin-antitoxin system), as well as (iii) non-autonomous TEs of diverse structure, ranging in size from 262 to 3892 bp. The non-autonomous elements transposed into AT-rich DNA regions and generated 5- or 6-bp sequence duplications at the target site of transposition. Although these TEs lack a transposase gene, they contain homologous 38-bp-long terminal inverted repeat sequences (IRs), highly conserved in Tn5563a and many other Tn3-family transposons. The simplest elements of this type, designated TIMEs (Tn3 family-derived Inverted-repeat Miniature Elements) (262 bp), were identified within two natural plasmids (pZM1P1 and pLM8P2) of Pseudomonas spp. It was demonstrated that TIMEs are able to mobilize segments of plasmid DNA for transposition, which results in the generation of more complex non-autonomous elements, resembling IS-driven composite transposons in structure. Such transposon-like elements may contain different functional genetic modules in their core regions, including plasmid replication systems. Another non-autonomous element “captured” with a trap plasmid was a TIME derivative containing a predicted resolvase gene and a res site typical for many Tn3-family transposons. The identification of a portable site-specific recombination system is another intriguing example confirming the important role of non-autonomous TEs of the TIME family in shuffling genetic information in bacterial genomes. Transposition of such mosaic elements may have a significant impact on diversity and evolution

  15. Mobility and generation of mosaic non-autonomous transposons by Tn3-derived inverted-repeat miniature elements (TIMEs).

    PubMed

    Szuplewska, Magdalena; Ludwiczak, Marta; Lyzwa, Katarzyna; Czarnecki, Jakub; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Functional transposable elements (TEs) of several Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from black shale ore of Lubin mine and from post-flotation tailings of Zelazny Most in Poland, were identified using a positive selection trap plasmid strategy. This approach led to the capture and characterization of (i) 13 insertion sequences from 5 IS families (IS3, IS5, ISL3, IS30 and IS1380), (ii) isoforms of two Tn3-family transposons--Tn5563a and Tn4662a (the latter contains a toxin-antitoxin system), as well as (iii) non-autonomous TEs of diverse structure, ranging in size from 262 to 3892 bp. The non-autonomous elements transposed into AT-rich DNA regions and generated 5- or 6-bp sequence duplications at the target site of transposition. Although these TEs lack a transposase gene, they contain homologous 38-bp-long terminal inverted repeat sequences (IRs), highly conserved in Tn5563a and many other Tn3-family transposons. The simplest elements of this type, designated TIMEs (Tn3 family-derived Inverted-repeat Miniature Elements) (262 bp), were identified within two natural plasmids (pZM1P1 and pLM8P2) of Pseudomonas spp. It was demonstrated that TIMEs are able to mobilize segments of plasmid DNA for transposition, which results in the generation of more complex non-autonomous elements, resembling IS-driven composite transposons in structure. Such transposon-like elements may contain different functional genetic modules in their core regions, including plasmid replication systems. Another non-autonomous element "captured" with a trap plasmid was a TIME derivative containing a predicted resolvase gene and a res site typical for many Tn3-family transposons. The identification of a portable site-specific recombination system is another intriguing example confirming the important role of non-autonomous TEs of the TIME family in shuffling genetic information in bacterial genomes. Transposition of such mosaic elements may have a significant impact on diversity and evolution, not

  16. Plinian vs. phreatomagmatic eruptions at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Baptiste; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Larsen, Guðrún

    2016-04-01

    Grímsvötn is a subglacial central volcano located under the Vatnajökull ice cap, above the assumed centre of the Iceland mantle plume. Historical explosive eruptions are mostly of phreatomagmatic character whereas pure magmatic behaviour may characterize the largest eruptions. What causes this different eruption behaviour is uncertain. Here, we report petrological estimates of crystallization depth and volatile degassing as recorded by sulfur concentrations in melt inclusions (MI) hosted by ferromagnesian minerals and the groundmass glass. Tephra from four eruptions, AD 1823, 1873, 2004 and 2011, were selected. The 2011 and 1873 are the largest known historical eruptions, whereas the 2004 eruption is probably amongst the smallest. The repose time preceding those eruptions is surprisingly similar, or 6 to 7 years, and the major-element compositions are uniform. Plagioclase, clinopyroxene (cpx) and olivine are the three coexisting phases at the liquidus in the quartz-tholeiites of Grímsvötn. The cpx-melt geothermobarometer (Putirka 2008) applied to the 2011 tephra reveals that cpx crystallized over a large range of P from 60 to 640 MPa (depth range: 1.7-18km) and T between 1060 and 1175°C before the Plinian eruption, therefore mobilizing the entire crustal magma system. In contrast, the phreatomagmatic tephra do not record the shallowest crystallization but interestingly all four tephra have identical median entrapment pressure of approximately 400 MPa. Therefore, the depth from which the magma bodies are derived, does not explain the difference in explosivity between those eruptions nor the variable magma volume (V) produced. Sulfur concentrations in MI are only slightly higher in the Plinian products, the difference (10%) being insufficient to explain the different eruption regimes. The ΔS, the difference between the maximum S concentrations in MI and the mean of the groundmass glass for a given eruption, is higher in the Plinian tephra. Based on literature

  17. Electrical Properties Of Volcanic Ash Samples From Grímsvötn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, I. M.; Aplin, K. L.; Nicoll, K. A.; Green, O.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent Icelandic eruptions in 2012 and 2011 were associated with sustained charging of the ash plume (Harrison et al., 2010) and significant volcanic lightning (Bennett et al., 2010; Arason et al., 2012). The sustained charging suggests that some charging of the plume is independent of the eruption process, in addition to other electrification mechanisms such as triboelectric or fractoemission processes at the vent, the 'dirty thunderstorm' mechanism if ice forms in the plume, and the internal radioactivity of the plume (Mather and Harrison, 2006; James et al., 2008). We investigate the triboelectric charging of volcanic material using a charged particle apparatus, which allows the charged particles to fall under gravity in a screened metallic cylinder. This apparatus comprises two induction rings connected to sensitive electrometers, which detect charge induced by the falling ash, and a Faraday cup to measure the total ash charge. The release mechanism has been designed to facilitate only self charging of the ash, as is expected in the atmospheric plume. Previous work on triboelectric charging of single-material particle systems has shown that the charging is likely to be determined by the number size distribution (Lacks and Levandovsky, 2007). We present a mass distribution measurement for a sample of volcanic ash provided by the Icelandic Meteorological Office collected 70 km from the crater of the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption. This shows a high proportion of fine particles compared with the volumetric size distribution reported in Piper et al. (2012). Optical microscopy of the different size fractions of the Grímsvötn sample indicates that the composition varies with size. In addition to charge transfer as a function of size, the different substances will triboelectrically interact with each other, which complicates the nature of the charge interactions. To separate the dependence of particle charging on size from composition, particle charging experiments were

  18. Geodetic constraints on volcanic plume height at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Roberts, Matthew; Björnsson, Halldór; Grapenthin, Ronni; Arason, Pórdur; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Hólmjárn, Jósef; Geirsson, Halldór; Bennett, Richard; Gudmundsson, Magnús; Oddsson, Björn; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Villemin, Thierry; Jónsson, Torsteinn; Sturkell, Erik; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Gudrún; Thordarson, Thor; Óladóttir, Bergrún

    2014-05-01

    In 2011 a VEI 4 explosive eruption took place at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland. Grímsvötn is a subglacial basaltic volcano beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap. It is Iceland's most frequently erupting volcano, with recent eruptions in 1983, 1998, 2004, and 2011. The volcano has a low seismic velocity anomaly down to about 3 km depth, interpreted as a magma chamber. A continuous GPS station and a tiltmeter are located on a nunatak, Mount Grímsfjall, which protrudes from the ice at the southern rim of the caldera. The 21-28 May 2011 eruption was Grímsvötn's largest since 1873, resulting in airspace closure in northern Europe and the cancellation of about 900 passenger flights. The eruption was preceded by gradual inflation following the 2004 eruption and progressive increase in seismicity. Kinematic 1 Hz solutions were derived for the position of the GPS station in the hours immediately before and during the 2011 eruption. The onset of deformation preceded the eruption by one hour and reached maximum of 0.57 m within 48 hours. Throughout the eruption the GPS station moved consistently in direction N38.4+/-0.5W, opposite to the direction of movements during the 2004-2011 inter eruptive phase. The deformation characteristics suggest that the signal was mostly due to pressure change in a source at 1.7 +/- 0.2 km depth. We use the geodetic measurements to infer co-eruptive pressure change in the magma chamber using the Mogi model. The rate of pressure drop is then used to estimate the magma flow rate from the chamber. Numerous studies have shown that plume height in explosive eruptions can be related to magma discharge. Using an empirical relationship between the volcanic plume height and magma flow rate (Mastin et al., 2009) we estimate the evolution of the plume height from the geodetic data. Two weather radars monitored the height of the volcanic plume during the eruption. A strong initial plume with peaks at 20-25 km was followed by a declining, pulsating activity

  19. Structural Analysis of the Hg(II)-Regulatory Protein Tn501 MerR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Huang, Shanqing; Liu, Pingying; Liu, Xichun; He, Yafeng; Chen, Weizhong; Hu, Qingyuan; Wei, Tianbiao; Gan, Jianhua; Ma, Jing; Chen, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The metalloprotein MerR is a mercury(II)-dependent transcriptional repressor-activator that responds to mercury(II) with extraordinary sensitivity and selectivity. It’s widely distributed in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria but with barely detectable sequence identities between the two sources. To provide structural basis for the considerable biochemical and biophysical experiments previously performed on Tn501 and Tn21 MerR from Gram-negative bacteria, we analyzed the crystal structure of mercury(II)-bound Tn501 MerR. The structure in the metal-binding domain provides Tn501 MerR with a high affinity for mercury(II) and the ability to distinguish mercury(II) from other metals with its unique planar trigonal coordination geometry, which is adopted by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The mercury(II) coordination state in the C-terminal metal-binding domain is transmitted through the allosteric network across the dimer interface to the N-terminal DNA-binding domain. Together with the previous mutagenesis analyses, the present data indicate that the residues in the allosteric pathway have a central role in maintaining the functions of Tn501 MerR. In addition, the complex structure exhibits significant differences in tertiary and quaternary structural arrangements compared to those of Bacillus MerR from Gram-positive bacteria, which probably enable them to function with specific promoter DNA with different spacers between ‑35 and ‑10 elements.

  20. Robust rat pulmonary radioprotection by a lipophilic Mn N-alkylpyridylporphyrin, MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+).

    PubMed

    Gauter-Fleckenstein, Benjamin; Reboucas, Julio S; Fleckenstein, Katharina; Tovmasyan, Artak; Owzar, Kouros; Jiang, Chen; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    With the goal to enhance the distribution of cationic Mn porphyrins within mitochondria, the lipophilic Mn(III)meso-tetrakis(N-n-hexylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin, MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) has been synthesized and tested in several different model of diseases, where it shows remarkable efficacy at as low as 50 µg/kg single or multiple doses. Yet, in a rat lung radioprotection study, at higher 0.6-1 mg/kg doses, due to its high accumulation and micellar character, it became toxic. To avoid the toxicity, herein the pulmonary radioprotection of MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) was assessed at 50 µg/kg. Fischer rats were irradiated to their right hemithorax (28 Gy) and treated with 0.05 mg/kg/day of MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) for 2 weeks by subcutaneously-implanted osmotic pumps, starting at 2 h post-radiation. The body weights and breathing frequencies were followed for 10 weeks post-radiation, when the histopathology and immunohistochemistry were assessed. Impact of MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) on macrophage recruitment (ED-1), DNA oxidative damage (8-OHdG), TGF-β1, VEGF(A) and HIF-1α were measured. MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) significantly decreased radiation-induced lung histopathological (H&E staining) and functional damage (breathing frequencies), suppressed oxidative stress directly (8-OHdG), or indirectly, affecting TGF-β1, VEGF (A) and HIF-1α pathways. The magnitude of the therapeutic effects is similar to the effects demonstrated under same experimental conditions with 120-fold higher dose of ~5000-fold less lipophilic Mn(III)meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin, MnTE-2-PyP(5+).

  1. Structural Analysis of the Hg(II)-Regulatory Protein Tn501 MerR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Huang, Shanqing; Liu, Pingying; Liu, Xichun; He, Yafeng; Chen, Weizhong; Hu, Qingyuan; Wei, Tianbiao; Gan, Jianhua; Ma, Jing; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The metalloprotein MerR is a mercury(II)-dependent transcriptional repressor-activator that responds to mercury(II) with extraordinary sensitivity and selectivity. It’s widely distributed in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria but with barely detectable sequence identities between the two sources. To provide structural basis for the considerable biochemical and biophysical experiments previously performed on Tn501 and Tn21 MerR from Gram-negative bacteria, we analyzed the crystal structure of mercury(II)-bound Tn501 MerR. The structure in the metal-binding domain provides Tn501 MerR with a high affinity for mercury(II) and the ability to distinguish mercury(II) from other metals with its unique planar trigonal coordination geometry, which is adopted by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The mercury(II) coordination state in the C-terminal metal-binding domain is transmitted through the allosteric network across the dimer interface to the N-terminal DNA-binding domain. Together with the previous mutagenesis analyses, the present data indicate that the residues in the allosteric pathway have a central role in maintaining the functions of Tn501 MerR. In addition, the complex structure exhibits significant differences in tertiary and quaternary structural arrangements compared to those of Bacillus MerR from Gram-positive bacteria, which probably enable them to function with specific promoter DNA with different spacers between −35 and −10 elements. PMID:27641146

  2. Cooperative regulation of myosin-S1 binding to actin filaments by a continuous flexible Tm-Tn chain.

    PubMed

    Mijailovich, Srboljub M; Kayser-Herold, Oliver; Li, Xiaochuan; Griffiths, Hugh; Geeves, Michael A

    2012-12-01

    The regulation of striated muscle contraction involves cooperative interactions between actin filaments, myosin-S1 (S1), tropomyosin (Tm), troponin (Tn), and calcium. These interactions are modeled by treating overlapping tropomyosins as a continuous flexible chain (CFC), weakly confined by electrostatic interactions with actin. The CFC is displaced locally in opposite directions on the actin surface by the binding of either S1 or Troponin I (TnI) to actin. The apparent rate constants for myosin and TnI binding to and detachment from actin are then intrinsically coupled via the CFC model to the presence of neighboring bound S1s and TnIs. Monte Carlo simulations at prescribed values of the CFC stiffness, the CFC's degree of azimuthal confinement, and the angular displacements caused by the bound proteins were able to predict the stopped-flow transients of S1 binding to regulated F-actin. The transients collected over a large range of calcium concentrations could be well described by adjusting a single calcium-dependent parameter, the rate constant of TnI detachment from actin, k(-I). The resulting equilibrium constant K(B) ≡ 1/K(I) varied sigmoidally with the free calcium, increasing from 0.12 at low calcium (pCa >7) to 12 at high calcium (pCa <5.5) with a Hill coefficient of ~2.15. The similarity of the curves for excess-actin and excess-myosin data confirms their allosteric relationship. The spatially explicit calculations confirmed variable sizes for the cooperative units and clustering of bound myosins at low calcium concentrations. Moreover, inclusion of negative cooperativity between myosin units predicted the observed slowing of myosin binding at excess-myosin concentrations.

  3. The 2011 Grímsvötn Eruption From High Rate Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdottir, S.; Grapenthin, R.; Sigmundsson, F.; Roberts, M. J.; Holmjarn, J.; Geirsson, H.; Arnadottir, T.; Bennett, R. A.; Villemin, T.; Ofeigsson, B. G.; Sturkell, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    High rate geodetic measurements at volcanoes can give displacements at sub second intervals, revealing surface deformation associated with magma movements. The Grímsvötn volcano lies beneath the Vatnajökull icecap, Iceland, limiting the near field monitoring efforts to a single nunatak, Mt. Grímsfjall, on the southern caldera rim. A 5 Hz GPS station and an electronic tilt meter are located at Grímsfjall. The colocation of these instruments (GPS and tilt station) allows us to relate the observed surface deformation to pressure change in a magma chamber assuming a simple Mogi source within an elastic half space. During the 21-28 May 2011 Grímsvötn eruption a continuous stream of data, despite the eruption plume and lightning, was transmitted to Reykjavík. The tiltmeter measures N-S and E-W components of tilt, the N-S component was recorded at 100 samples per second (sps) but the E-W component at 4 sps. The high rate data from the GPS station at Grímsfjall (GFUM) were analyzed using the Track part of GAMIT/GLOBK. We produced kinematic solutions at 5 Hz and 1 Hz intervals using reference stations in 40-120 km distance of the volcano. To minimize multipath effects we applied sidereal filtering and stacked the individual solutions to further improve the signal to noise ratio. The resulting deformation time series suggests a rapid pressure drop starting about 50 minutes prior to the onset of the eruption when over 20 km high plume formed. The characteristics of the GPS and tilt data time series suggests that the main signal was induced by a single source of fixed location and geometry throughout the eruption; a shallow magma chamber. Small deviations in displacement direction prior to the onset of the eruption can be explained by the opening of the feeder dike. We see a total displacement of 57 cm in direction ˜N38.5°W and down at the GPS station, suggesting a source depth of ~1.7 km. About 20% of the displacement preceded the eruption and more than 95% took

  4. The effect and biological mechanism of COD/TN ratio on nitrogen removal in a novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor treating manure-free piggery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzheng; Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Wang, Cheng; Deng, Kaiwen; Sun, Kai; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    A novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR) was constructed to treat manure-free piggery wastewater with high NH4(+)-N concentration and low COD/TN ratio, and the effect and biological mechanism of COD/TN ratio on nitrogen removal were investigated at a constant hydraulic retention time of 8h and 35°C. The results showed that the UMSR could treat the wastewater with a better synchronous removal of COD, NH4(+)-N and TN. The microaerobic UMSR allowed nitrifiers, and heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers to thrive in the flocs, revealing a multiple nitrogen removal mechanism in the reactor. Both the nitrifiers and denitrifiers would be restricted by an influent COD/TN ratio more than 0.82, resulting in a decrease of TN removal in the UMSR. To get a TN removal over 80% with a TN load removal above 0.86kg/(m(3)·d) in the UMSR, the influent COD/TN ratio should be less than 0.70.

  5. Structural and functional analysis of Tn4430: identification of an integrase-like protein involved in the co-integrate-resolution process.

    PubMed Central

    Mahillon, J; Lereclus, D

    1988-01-01

    The 4149-bp transposon Tn4430 from Bacillus thuringiensis is delineated by 38-bp inverted repeats and codes for a 113-kd protein that shares homology with the transposases (TnpA) of Tn3, Tn21 and Tn501. Through transpositional recombination, this protein generates the formation of co-integrates between both donor and target replicons, with duplication of Tn4430 molecules. These features are characteristic of transposons of the Tn3 family (class II elements). The second step of the transposition process, the co-integrate resolution, is mediated by a 32-kd protein. This protein (TnpI) displays regional similarities with site-specific recombinases of the integrase family, such as Int of bacteriophage lambda, Cre of bacteriophage P1 or TnpA and TnpB of the Tn554 transposon. Moreover, the 250-bp sequence upstream to the tnpI gene contains several structural features that are reminiscent of the attP attachment site of phage lambda. This unique association between the integrase-like TnpI recombinase and the TnpA transposase qualifies Tn4430 as a member of a new group within the class II mobile genetic elements. Images PMID:2842151

  6. Solid-phase synthesis of a pentavalent GalNAc-containing glycopeptide (Tn antigen) representing the nephropathy-associated IgA hinge region

    PubMed Central

    Bolscher, Jan G.M.; Brevoord, Judith; Nazmi, Kamran; Ju, Tongzhong; Veerman, Enno C.I.; van Wijk, Joanna A. E.; Cummings, Richard D.; van Die, Irma

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete or aberrant glycosylation leading to Tn antigen (GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr) expression on human glycoproteins is strongly associated with human pathological conditions, including tumors, certain autoimmune diseases, such as the idiopathic IgA nephropathy, and may modulate immune homeostasis. In addition, the Tn antigen is highly expressed by certain pathogens and plays a role in host–pathogen interactions. To enable experimental approaches to study interactions of the Tn antigen with the immune system and analyse anti-Tn antibody responses in infection or disorders, we generated a Tn-expressing resource that can be used for high-throughput screening. In consideration of IgA nephropathy in which the hinge region is incompletely glycosylated, we used this hinge sequence that encodes five potential glycosylation sites as the ideal template for the synthesis of a Tn antigen expressing glycopeptide. Inclusion of an N-terminal biotin in the peptide enabled binding to streptavidin-coated ELISA plates as monitored using Helix pomatia agglutinin or anti-Tn monoclonal antibody. We also found that the biotinylated IgA-Tn peptide is a functional acceptor for β1-3-galactosylation using recombinant T-synthase (β1-3-galactosyltransferase). Besides its immunochemical functionality as a possible diagnostic tool for IgA nephropathy, the peptide is an excellent substrate for glycan elongation and represents a novel template applicable for glycan–antigen-associated diseases. PMID:20719305

  7. Construction of mobilizable mini-Tn7 vectors for bioluminescent detection of gram-negative bacteria and single-copy promoter lux reporter analysis.

    PubMed

    Damron, F Heath; McKenney, Elizabeth S; Barbier, Mariette; Liechti, George W; Schweizer, Herbert P; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2013-07-01

    We describe the construction of mini-Tn7-based broad-host-range vectors encoding lux genes as bioluminescent reporters. These constructs can be mobilized into the desired host(s) by conjugation for chromosomal mini-Tn7-lux integration and are useful for localization of bacteria during infections or for characterizing regulation of promoters of interest in Gram-negative bacteria.

  8. KPC-4 Is Encoded within a Truncated Tn4401 in an IncL/M Plasmid, pNE1280, Isolated from Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Kendall A.; Van Schooneveld, Trevor C.; Thapa, Ishwor; Bastola, Dhundy; Williams, Laurina O.; Safranek, Thomas J.; Hinrichs, Steven H.; Rupp, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the transfer of blaKPC-4 from Enterobacter cloacae to Serratia marcescens in a single patient. DNA sequencing revealed that KPC-4 was encoded on an IncL/M plasmid, pNE1280, closely related to pCTX-M360. Further analysis found that KPC-4 was encoded within a novel Tn4401 element (Tn4401f) containing a truncated tnpA and lacking tnpR, ISKpn7 left, and Tn4401 IRL-1, which are conserved in other Tn4401 transposons. This study highlights the continued evolution of Tn4401 transposons and movement to multiple plasmid backbones that results in acquisition by multiple species of Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:23070154

  9. Triboelectric charging of volcanic ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Isobel M P; Aplin, Karen L; Nicoll, Keri A

    2013-09-13

    The plume from the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn was highly electrically charged, as shown by the considerable lightning activity measured by the United Kingdom Met Office's low-frequency lightning detection network. Previous measurements of volcanic plumes have shown that ash particles are electrically charged up to hundreds of kilometers away from the vent, which indicates that the ash continues to charge in the plume [R. G. Harrison, K. A. Nicoll, Z. Ulanowski, and T. A. Mather, Environ. Res. Lett. 5, 024004 (2010); H. Hatakeyama J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 27, 372 (1949)]. In this Letter, we study triboelectric charging of different size fractions of a sample of volcanic ash experimentally. Consistently with previous work, we find that the particle size distribution is a determining factor in the charging. Specifically, our laboratory experiments demonstrate that the normalized span of the particle size distribution plays an important role in the magnitude of charging generated. The influence of the normalized span on plume charging suggests that all ash plumes are likely to be charged, with implications for remote sensing and plume lifetime through scavenging effects.

  10. Triboelectric Charging of Volcanic Ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Isobel M. P.; Aplin, Karen L.; Nicoll, Keri A.

    2013-09-01

    The plume from the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn was highly electrically charged, as shown by the considerable lightning activity measured by the United Kingdom Met Office’s low-frequency lightning detection network. Previous measurements of volcanic plumes have shown that ash particles are electrically charged up to hundreds of kilometers away from the vent, which indicates that the ash continues to charge in the plume [R. G. Harrison, K. A. Nicoll, Z. Ulanowski, and T. A. Mather, Environ. Res. Lett. 5, 024004 (2010)1748-932610.1088/1748-9326/5/2/024004; H. Hatakeyama J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 27, 372 (1949)JMSJAU0026-1165]. In this Letter, we study triboelectric charging of different size fractions of a sample of volcanic ash experimentally. Consistently with previous work, we find that the particle size distribution is a determining factor in the charging. Specifically, our laboratory experiments demonstrate that the normalized span of the particle size distribution plays an important role in the magnitude of charging generated. The influence of the normalized span on plume charging suggests that all ash plumes are likely to be charged, with implications for remote sensing and plume lifetime through scavenging effects.

  11. Identification of multiple mercury sources to stream sediments near Oak Ridge, TN, USA.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Patrick M; Blum, Joel D; Demers, Jason D; Gu, Baohua; Brooks, Scott C; Peryam, John

    2014-04-01

    Sediments were analyzed for total Hg concentration (THg) and isotopic composition from streams and rivers in the vicinity of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y12) in Oak Ridge, TN (USA). In the stream directly draining Y12, where industrial releases of mercury (Hg) have been documented, high THg (3.26 to 60.1 μg/g) sediments had a distinct Hg isotopic composition (δ(202)Hg of 0.02 ± 0.15‰ and Δ(199)Hg of -0.07 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n = 12) compared to sediments from relatively uncontaminated streams in the region (δ(202)Hg = -1.40 ± 0.06‰ and Δ(199)Hg of -0.26 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n = 6). Additionally, several streams that are nearby but do not drain Y12 had sediments with intermediate THg (0.06 to 0.21 μg/g) and anomalous δ(202)Hg (as low as -5.07‰). We suggest that the low δ(202)Hg values in these sediments provide evidence for the contribution of an additional Hg source to sediments, possibly derived from atmospheric deposition. In sediments directly downstream of Y12 this third Hg source is not discernible, and the Hg isotopic composition can be largely explained by the mixing of low THg sediments with high THg sediments contaminated by Y12 discharges.

  12. Stable expression of sialyl-Tn antigen in T47-D cells induces a decrease of cell adhesion and an increase of cell migration.

    PubMed

    Julien, Sylvain; Lagadec, Chann; Krzewinski-Recchi, Marie-Ange; Courtand, Gilles; Le Bourhis, Xuefen; Delannoy, Philippe

    2005-03-01

    Sialyl-Tn is a carbohydrate antigen overexpressed in several epithelial cancers including breast cancer, and usually associated with poor prognosis. Sialyl-Tn is synthesized by a CMP-Neu5Ac: GalNAc alpha2,6-sialyltransferase: ST6GalNAc I, which catalyzes the transfer of a sialic acid residue in alpha2,6-linkage to the GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser/Thr structure. The resulting disaccharide (Neu5Acalpha2-6GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser/Thr) cannot be further elongated and sialyl-Tn expression results therefore in a shortening of the O-glycan chains. However, usual breast cancer cell lines express neither ST6GalNAc I nor sialyl-Tn antigen. We have previously shown that stable transfection of MDA-MB-231 cells with the hST6GalNAc I cDNA induces the sialyl-Tn antigen expression at the cell surface and leads to a decreased cell growth and an increased cell migration. We describe herein the generation of new T47-D clones expressing sialyl-Tn antigen after hST6GalNAc I cDNA stable transfection. sialyl-Tn antigen is carried by several high molecular weight membrane bound O-glycoproteins, including MUC1. We show that sialyl-Tn expression induces a decrease of cell growth and adhesion, and an increase of cell migration in sialyl-Tn positive clones compared to mock transfected cells. These observations show that the alteration of the O-glycans pattern is sufficient to modify the biological features of cancer cells. These T47-D sialyl-Tn expressing clones might allow further in vivo investigation to determine precisely the impact of such O-glycosylation modifications on breast cancer development.

  13. The fully synthetic MAG-Tn3 therapeutic vaccine containing the tetanus toxoid-derived TT830-844 universal epitope provides anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Laubreton, Daphné; Bay, Sylvie; Sedlik, Christine; Artaud, Cécile; Ganneau, Christelle; Dériaud, Edith; Viel, Sophie; Puaux, Anne-Laure; Amigorena, Sebastian; Gérard, Catherine; Lo-Man, Richard; Leclerc, Claude

    2016-03-01

    Malignant transformations are often associated with aberrant glycosylation processes that lead to the expression of new carbohydrate antigens at the surface of tumor cells. Of these carbohydrate antigens, the Tn antigen is particularly highly expressed in many carcinomas, especially in breast carcinoma. We designed MAG-Tn3, a fully synthetic vaccine based on three consecutive Tn moieties that are O-linked to a CD4+ T cell epitope, to induce anti-Tn antibody responses that could be helpful for therapeutic vaccination against cancer. To ensure broad coverage within the human population, the tetanus toxoid-derived peptide TT830-844 was selected as a T-helper epitope because it can bind to various HLA-DRB molecules. We showed that the MAG-Tn3 vaccine, which was formulated with the GSK proprietary immunostimulant AS15 and designed for human cancer therapy, is able to induce an anti-Tn antibody response in mice of various H-2 haplotypes, and this response correlates with the ability to induce a specific T cell response against the TT830-844 peptide. The universality of the TT830-844 peptide was extended to new H-2 and HLA-DRB molecules that were capable of binding this T cell epitope. Finally, the MAG-Tn3 vaccine was able to induce anti-Tn antibody responses in cynomolgus monkeys, which targeted Tn-expressing tumor cells and mediated tumor cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MAG-Tn3 is a highly promising anticancer vaccine that is currently under evaluation in a phase I clinical trial.

  14. pp-GalNAc-T13 induces high metastatic potential of murine Lewis lung cancer by generating trimeric Tn antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Yasuyuki; Zhang, Qing; Akita, Kaoru; Nakada, Hiroshi; Hamamura, Kazunori; Tokuda, Noriyo; Tsuchida, Akiko; Matsubara, Takeshi; Hori, Tomoko; Okajima, Tetsuya; Furukawa, Keiko; Urano, Takeshi; Furukawa, Koichi

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ppGalNAc-T13 was up-regulated in high metastatic sublines of Lewis lung cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ppGalNAc-T13 expression enhanced cell invasion activity in low metastatic sublines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trimeric Tn antigen was induced in the transfectant cells of ppGalNAc-T13 cDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A major protein carrying trimeric Tn structure was identified as Syndecan-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of ppGalNAc-T13 resulted in the reduction of invasion and of metastasis.. -- Abstract: In order to analyze the mechanisms for cancer metastasis, high metastatic sublines (H7-A, H7-Lu, H7-O, C4-sc, and C4-ly) were obtained by repeated injection of mouse Lewis lung cancer sublines H7 and C4 into C57BL/6 mice. These sublines exhibited increased proliferation and invasion activity in vitro. Ganglioside profiles exhibited lower expression of GM1 in high metastatic sublines than the parent lines. Then, we established GM1-Si-1 and GM1-Si-2 by stable silencing of GM1 synthase in H7 cells. These GM1-knockdown clones exhibited increased proliferation and invasion. Then, we explored genes that markedly altered in the expression levels by DNA microarray in the combination of C4 vs. C4-ly or H7 vs. H7 (GM1-Si). Consequently, pp-GalNAc-T13 gene was identified as up-regulated genes in the high metastatic sublines. Stable transfection of pp-GalNAc-T13 cDNA into C4 (T13-TF) resulted in increased invasion and motility. Then, immunoblotting and flow cytometry using various antibodies and lectins were performed. Only anti-trimeric Tn antibody (mAb MLS128), showed increased expression levels of trimeric Tn antigen in T13-TF clones. Moreover, immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting was performed by mAb MLS128, leading to the identification of an 80 kDa band carrying trimeric Tn antigen, i.e. Syndecan-1. Stable silencing of endogenous pp-GalNAc-T13 in C4-sc (T13-KD) revealed that primary tumors generated by

  15. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a novel xylanase from the symbiotic Sphingobacterium sp. TN19.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junpei; Huang, Huoqing; Meng, Kun; Shi, Pengjun; Wang, Yaru; Luo, Huiying; Yang, Peilong; Bai, Yingguo; Zhou, Zhigang; Yao, Bin

    2009-11-01

    A xylanase-encoding gene, designated xynA19, was cloned from Sphingobacterium sp. TN19--a symbiotic bacterium isolated from the gut of Batocera horsfieldi larvae--and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The full-length xynA19 (1,155 bp in length) encodes a 384-residue polypeptide (XynA19) containing a predicted signal peptide of 24 residues and a catalytic domain belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 10 (GH 10). The deduced amino acid sequence of XynA19 is most similar (53.1% identity) to an endo-1,4-beta-xylanase from Prevotella bryantii B(1)4. Phylogenetic analysis of GH 10 Bacteroidia xylanases indicated that GH 10 xylanases from Sphingobacteria were separated into two clusters, and XynA19 is more closely related to the xylanases of Bacteroidia from gut or rumen than to those of Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria from other sources. Recombinant XynA19 (r-XynA19) showed apparent optimal activity at pH 6.5 and 45 degrees C. Compared with thermophilic and mesophilic counterparts, r-XynA19 was more active at low temperatures, retaining >65% of its maximum activity at 20-28 degrees C and approximately 40% even at 10 degrees C, and modeling indicated that XynA19 has fewer hydrogen bonds and salt bridges. These properties suggest that XynA19 has various potential applications, especially in aquaculture and the food industry.

  16. Explosive Demolition of a Fire-Water Tower At East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge TN

    SciTech Connect

    Brooksbank, R.D.; Rood, M.S.; Amrit, S.K.; Harper, M.S.; Dypolt, D.J.; Brehse, Mike

    2008-01-15

    On June 17, 2006, the Department of Energy (DOE) successfully demolished a {approx}60 year old fire-water tower (K-1206-E), located at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, TN, using strategically placed explosive charges. The subject demolition project was executed by MCM Management Corporation and Demolition Dynamics under the management of DoE's prime contractor Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). The K-1206-E Fire Water Tower (Tower) supported the ETTP fire water protection system from the mid- 1950's until 1991. The 378,500-L (100,000-gallon) Tower, elevated 53-m (175-feet) above grade, was located in a grassy area within 152-m (500-feet) of several other occupied facilities. Electrical, control circuits and supply water servicing the Tower were deactivated in 2003. Free liquids and sludge were removed from the tank prior to demolition. Demolition of a facility employing explosive demolition at a federal site in the 'post-9/11 era' was a substantial challenge. The subject paper discusses: - the planning and coordination steps that were taken to successfully overcome the challenges prior to the demolition of the empty, deactivated Tower; - the method used for the engineered demolition of the Tower; and - the factors responsible for the successful execution of this demolition project. At least two previous attempts were made to demolish the Tower. In the first attempt, the execution of the project was deferred by the re-allocation of funds. In the subsequent attempt in 2004, the execution of this project was postponed due to concerns that an adjacent facility would have to shut down operations during the duration of mobilization and execution of the project and thereby incur potential financial losses. A total of 51 cubic meters (1,800 cubic feet) of demolition debris was generated, which was compliantly disposed of at a local landfill followed by site restoration.

  17. Identification of multiple mercury sources to stream sediments near Oak Ridge, TN, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Demers, Jason D.; Gu, Baohua; Brooks, Scott C.; Peryam, John

    2014-03-03

    In this paper, sediments were analyzed for total Hg concentration (THg) and isotopic composition from streams and rivers in the vicinity of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y12) in Oak Ridge, TN (USA). In the stream directly draining Y12, where industrial releases of mercury (Hg) have been documented, high THg (3.26 to 60.1 μg/g) sediments had a distinct Hg isotopic composition (δ202Hg of 0.02 ± 0.15‰ and Δ199Hg of -0.07 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=12) compared to sediments from relatively uncontaminated streams in the region (δ202Hg = -1.40 ± 0.06‰ and Δ199Hg of –0.26 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=6). Additionally, several streams that are nearby but do not drain Y12 had sediments with intermediate THg (0.06 to 0.21 μg/g) and anomalous δ202Hg (as low as -5.07‰). We suggest that the low δ202Hg values in these sediments provide evidence for the contribution of an additional Hg source to sediments, possibly derived from atmospheric deposition. In sediments directly downstream of Y12 this third Hg source is not discernible and the Hg isotopic composition can be largely explained by the mixing of low THg sediments with high THg sediments contaminated by Y12 discharges.

  18. Identification of multiple mercury sources to stream sediments near Oak Ridge, TN, USA

    DOE PAGES

    Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Demers, Jason D.; ...

    2014-03-03

    In this paper, sediments were analyzed for total Hg concentration (THg) and isotopic composition from streams and rivers in the vicinity of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y12) in Oak Ridge, TN (USA). In the stream directly draining Y12, where industrial releases of mercury (Hg) have been documented, high THg (3.26 to 60.1 μg/g) sediments had a distinct Hg isotopic composition (δ202Hg of 0.02 ± 0.15‰ and Δ199Hg of -0.07 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=12) compared to sediments from relatively uncontaminated streams in the region (δ202Hg = -1.40 ± 0.06‰ and Δ199Hg of –0.26 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD,more » n=6). Additionally, several streams that are nearby but do not drain Y12 had sediments with intermediate THg (0.06 to 0.21 μg/g) and anomalous δ202Hg (as low as -5.07‰). We suggest that the low δ202Hg values in these sediments provide evidence for the contribution of an additional Hg source to sediments, possibly derived from atmospheric deposition. In sediments directly downstream of Y12 this third Hg source is not discernible and the Hg isotopic composition can be largely explained by the mixing of low THg sediments with high THg sediments contaminated by Y12 discharges.« less

  19. High-resolution surface connectivity measurements and runoff dynamics in five urban watersheds in Knoxville, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, T.

    2015-12-01

    Impervious surfaces and stormwater drainage networks transmit rainfall quickly to urban stream systems with greater frequency, volume, energy, and pollutant loadings than in predevelopment conditions. This has a well-established negative impact on stream ecology, channel morphology, and water quality. Green infrastructure retrofits for urban drainage systems promote more natural hydrologic pathways by disconnecting concentrated flows. However, they are expensive due to high land costs and physical constraints. If a systematic strategy for siting green infrastructure is sought to restore natural flows throughout an urban catchment, greater knowledge of the drainage patterns and areas contributing frequent surface runoff is necessary. Five diverse urban watersheds in Knoxville, TN, were assessed using high-resolution topography, land cover, and artificial drainage network data to identify how surface connectivity differs among watersheds and contributes to altered flow regimes. Rainfall-runoff patterns were determined from continuous rainfall and streamflow monitoring over the previous ten years. Fine-scale flowpath connectivity of impervious surfaces was measured by both a binary approach and by a method incorporating runoff potential by saturation excess. The effect of the spatial distribution of connected surfaces was investigated by incorporating several distance-weighting schema along established urban drainage flowpaths. Statistical relationships between runoff generation and connectivity were measured to determine the ability of these different measures of connectivity to predict runoff thresholds, frequency, volumes, and peak flows. Initial results suggest that rapid assessment of connected surficial flowpaths can be used to identify known green infrastructure assets and highly connected impervious areas and that the differences in connectivity measured between watersheds reflects differing runoff patterns observed in monitored data.

  20. Genetic analysis of transcriptional activation and repression in the Tn21 mer operon. [Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.; Park, S.J.; Summers, A.O. )

    1989-07-01

    Transcription of the Tn21 mercury resistance operon (mer) is controlled by the toxic metal cation Hg(II). This control is mediated by the product of the merR gene, a 144-amino-acid protein which represses transcription of the structural genes (merTPCAD) in the absence of Hg(II) and activates transcription in the presence of Hg(II). We have used a mer-lac transcriptional fusion to obtain regulatory mutants in this metal-responsive system. Some mutants were defective in Hg(II)-induced activation while retaining repression function, others were defective in repression but not activation, and some had lost both functions. Mutations in three of the four cysteine residues of merR resulted in complete loss of Hg(II)-inducible activation but retention of the repressor function. Other lesions adjacent to or very near these cysteines exhibited severely reduced activation and also retained repressor function. There were two putative helix-turn-helix (HTH) domains in merR, and mutants in each had very different phenotypes. A partially dominant mutation in the more amino-terminal region of the two putative HTH regions resulted in loss of both activation and repression, consistent with a role for this region in DNA binding. Mutations in the more centrally located HTH region resulted only in loss of Hg(II)-induced activation. Lesions in the central and in the carboxy-terminal regions of merR exhibited both Hg(II)-independent and Hg(II)-dependent transcriptional activation. The sole cis-acting mutant obtained with this operon fusion strategy, a down-promoter mutation, lies in a highly conserved base in the -35 region of the merTPCAD promoter.

  1. Westchester County Employers Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marcia M.

    The Westchester County Employers Survey was done in May 2003 in order learn more about employee training needs, how they accomplished these needs, and how it would be possible for the Westchester Community College to fulfill these needs. Out of the 639 surveys sent, 145 were returned in a satisfactory format, which produces a 22.6% return rate.…

  2. [City and County Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Judith O.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Institute were concerned with city and county records. They are: "EWEB and Its Records," which discusses the history, laws and records of the Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB);""Police Records: Eugene, Oregon," classifies police records, other than administrative, into three general…

  3. Humboldt County Employer Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Dave

    A project was undertaken in Humboldt County to collect information from large and small businesses in the areas of agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation, wholesale and retail, finance, services, and public information with respect to their employee requirements and needs. In all, 451 firms were surveyed to determine the size of the…

  4. Library Needs of County and County-Wide Groups in Nassau County, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javelin, Muriel C.

    A study, conducted under a grant from Title I of the Library Services and Construction Act, was undertaken to determine: (1) the present level of library service in county and county-wide departments, agencies, and organizations in Nassau County, (2) what additional services are needed, and (3) how these services can best be achieved. Data were…

  5. First report of an OXA-23 carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolate related to Tn2006 in Spain.

    PubMed

    Espinal, P; Macià, M D; Roca, I; Gato, E; Ruíz, E; Fernández-Cuenca, F; Oliver, A; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Bou, G; Tomás, M; Vila, J

    2013-01-01

    A carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolate belonging to European clone II and sequence type 2 was recovered from a patient in the Son Espases hospital in Mallorca, Spain. Genetic analysis showed the presence of the bla(OXA-23) gene in association with the widely disseminated transposon Tn2006. This is the first reported identification of A. baumannii carrying bla(OXA-23) in Spain.

  6. Molecular Description and Industrial Potential of Tn6098 Conjugative Transfer Conferring Alpha-Galactoside Metabolism in Lactococcus lactis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Machielsen, Ronnie; Siezen, Roland J.; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E. T.

    2011-01-01

    A novel 51-kb conjugative transposon of Lactococcus lactis, designated Tn6098, encoding the capacity to utilize α-galactosides such as raffinose and stachyose, was identified and characterized. Alpha-galactosides are a dominant carbon source in many plant-derived foods. Most dairy lactococcus strains are unable to use α-galactosides as a growth substrate, yet many of these strains are known to have beneficial industrial traits. Conjugal transfer of Tn6098 was demonstrated from the plant-derived donor strain L. lactis KF147 to the recipient L. lactis NZ4501, a derivative of the dairy model strain L. lactis MG1363. The integration of Tn6098 into the genome of the recipient strain was confirmed by Illumina sequencing of the transconjugant L. lactis NIZO3921. The molecular structure of the integration site was confirmed by a PCR product spanning the insertion site. A 15-bp direct repeat sequence (TTATACCATAATTAC) is present on either side of Tn6098 in the chromosome of L. lactis KF147. One copy of this sequence is also present in the L. lactis MG1363 chromosome and represents the sole integration site. Phenotypic characterization of all strains showed that the transconjugant has not only acquired the ability to grow well in soy milk, a substrate rich in α-galactosides, but also has retained the flavor-forming capabilities of the recipient strain L. lactis MG1363. This study demonstrates how (induced) conjugation can be used to exploit the beneficial industrial traits of industrial dairy lactic acid bacteria in fermentation of plant-derived substrates. PMID:21115709

  7. Targeting of T/Tn Antigens with a Plant Lectin to Kill Human Leukemia Cells by Photochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Poiroux, Guillaume; Lafont, Elodie; Ségui, Bruno; Van Damme, Els J. M.; Peumans, Willy J.; Bernadou, Jean; Levade, Thierry; Rougé, Pierre; Barre, Annick; Benoist, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Photochemotherapy is used both for solid tumors and in extracorporeal treatment of various hematologic disorders. Nevertheless, its development in oncology remains limited, because of the low selectivity of photosensitizers (PS) towards human tumor cells. To enhance PS efficiency, we recently covalently linked a porphyrin (TrMPyP) to a plant lectin (Morniga G), known to recognize with high affinity tumor-associated T and Tn antigens. The conjugation allowed a quick uptake of PS by Tn-positive Jurkat leukemia cells and efficient PS-induced phototoxicity. The present study was performed: (i) to evaluate the targeting potential of the conjugate towards tumor and normal cells and its phototoxicity on various leukemia cells, (ii) to investigate the mechanism of conjugate-mediated cell death. The conjugate: (i) strongly increased (×1000) the PS phototoxicity towards leukemic Jurkat T cells through an O-glycan-dependent process; (ii) specifically purged tumor cells from a 1∶1 mixture of Jurkat leukemia (Tn-positive) and healthy (Tn-negative) lymphocytes, preserving the activation potential of healthy lymphocytes; (iii) was effective against various leukemic cell lines with distinct phenotypes, as well as fresh human primary acute and chronic lymphoid leukemia cells; (iv) induced mostly a caspase-independent cell death, which might be an advantage as tumor cells often resist caspase-dependent cell death. Altogether, the present observations suggest that conjugation with plant lectins can allow targeting of photosensitizers towards aberrant glycosylation of tumor cells, e.g. to purge leukemia cells from blood and to preserve the normal leukocytes in extracorporeal photochemotherapy. PMID:21858067

  8. Surface modifications in the platelets of a patient with alpha-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues, the Tn-syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Nurden, A T; Dupuis, D; Pidard, D; Kieffer, N; Kunicki, T J; Cartron, J P

    1982-01-01

    The Tn-syndrome is an acquired disorder characterized by the polyagglutination of blood cells and the pathological exposure of alpha-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues (Tn-antigen) at the cell surface. We now report studies on the platelet of a patient (Ba.) of which 81% reacted positively with a fluorescein conjugate of Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA). The surface proteins of Ba. platelets were labeled with 125I by the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed procedure; single and two-dimensional electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gels was followed by autoradiography that revealed normal 125I-labeling of the major membrane glycoproteins (GP) but that GP Ib had a faster than normal migration. the abnormal GP Ib of Ba. platelets was strongly labeled when platelet suspensions were treated sequentially with neuraminidase, galactose oxidase, and sodium [3H]borohydride. Unlike the GP Ib of normal human platelets, it was also strongly labeled when Ba. platelets were treated with galactose oxidase and sodium [3H]borohydride alone. Both the alloantigen, PlA1, and quinidine-dependent antibody receptor activity were normally expressed by Ba. platelets, which also bound a monoclonal antibody (AN51) to GP Ib. Analysis of Ba. platelets by crossed immunoelectrophoresis using a rabbit anti-human platelet antibody preparation revealed the presence of an immunoprecipitate in the GP Ib position that had an abnormal appearance and migration in the second dimension. An altered position of the precipitate given by Factor VIIIR:Ag was also noted. Incorporation of HPA into the agarose gel during the first dimension electrophoresis resulted in the specific precipitation of the abnormal GP Ib of Ba. platelets. Our studies show that circulating Tn-platelets contain GP Ib with a modified oligosaccharide chain structure responsible for the platelet expression of Tn-antigen activity. Images PMID:7174794

  9. Analysis for prevalence and physical linkages amongst integrons, ISEcp1, ISCR1, Tn21 and Tn7 encountered in Escherichia coli strains from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Kenya during a 19-year period (1992–2011)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We determined the prevalence and evidence for physical linkage amongst integrons, insertion sequences, Tn21 and Tn7 transposons in a collection of 1327 E. coli obtained over a 19-year period from patients in Kenya. Results The prevalence of class 1 integrons was 35%, class 2 integrons were detected in 3 isolates but no isolate contained a class 3 integron. Integron lacking the 3’-CS or those linked to sul3 gene or IS26 or those containing the ISCR1 were only detected in multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. The dfrAs were the most common cassettes and their prevalence was: - dfrA1(28%), dfrA12(20%), dfA17(9%), dfrA7(9%), and dfrA16(5%). The aadA were the second most abundant cassettes and their prevalence was: - aadA1(25%), aadA2(21%), and aadA5(14%). Other cassettes occurred in lower prevalence of below 5%. Prevalence of Tn21, ISEcp1, ISCR1 and IS26 was 22%, 10%, 15%, and 7% respectively. Majority of Tn21 containing integrons carried a complete set of transposition genes while class 2 integrons were borne on Tn7 transposon. The qnrA genes were detected in 34(3%) isolates while 19(1%) carried qnrB. All qnr genes were in MDR strains carrying integrons containing the ISCR1. Close to 88% of blaTEM-52 were linked to IS26 while ≥ 80% of blaCTX-Ms and blaCMYs were linked to ISEcp1. Only a few studies have identified a blaCTX-M-9 containing an ISEcp1 element as reported in this study. Multiple genetic elements, especially those borne on incIl, incFII, and incL/M plasmids, and their associated resistance genes were transferrable en bloc to E. coli strain J53 in mating experiments. Conclusions This is the first detailed study on the prevalence of selected elements implicated in evolution of resistance determinants in a large collection of clinical E. coli in Africa. Proliferation of such strains carrying multiple resistance elements is likely to compromise the use of affordable and available treatment options for majority of poor patients in Africa. There is

  10. The novel tetramethylpyrazine bis-nitrone (TN-2) protects against MPTP/MPP+-induced neurotoxicity via inhibition of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Daping; Duan, Hongwei; Zhang, Zaijun; Cui, Wei; Wang, Liang; Sun, Yewei; Lang, Ming; Hoi, Pui Man; Han, Yifan; Wang, Yuqiang; Lee, Simon MingYuen

    2014-03-01

    Mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis plays an important role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra- hydropyridine (MPTP), the most widely used neurotoxin to simulate PD, is converted to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) in vivo. MPP(+) induces excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis via sequentially opening mitochondria permeability transition pore (mPTP) to release cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytoplasm and activate pro-apoptotic caspase proteins. We have previously synthesized 2,5-[[(1,1-dimethylethyl)oxidoimino]methyl]-3,6-trimethylpyrazine (TN-2), a novel derivative of the Chinese herb medicine tetramethylpyrazine (TMP). TN-2 is armed with two powerful free radical-scavenging nitrone moieties. TN-2 significantly reversed the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the decrease in dopamine level in the striatum induced by MPTP in mice. TN-2 ameliorated the MPTP-induced decrease of brain superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration and increase of brain malondialdehyde. In addition, TN-2 inhibited MPP(+)-induced neuronal damage/apoptosis in primary cerebellum granular neurons (CGNs) and SH-SY5Y cells. TN-2 decreased excessive intracellular ROS, prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, blocked the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and inhibited the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, TN-2 treatment increased the mRNA expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator-1 (PGC- 1α and β) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in SH-SY5Y cells and CGNs. These results suggest that TN-2 protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity via the inhibition of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis and possibly via the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis, indicating that TN-2 is a potential

  11. Engineered CAR T Cells Targeting the Cancer-Associated Tn-Glycoform of the Membrane Mucin MUC1 Control Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Posey, Avery D.; Schwab, Robert D.; Boesteanu, Alina C.; Steentoft, Catharina; Mandel, Ulla; Engels, Boris; Stone, Jennifer D.; Madsen, Thomas D.; Schreiber, Karin; Haines, Kathleen M.; Cogdill, Alexandria P.; Chen, Taylor J.; Song, Decheng; Scholler, John; Kranz, David M.; Feldman, Michael D.; Young, Regina; Keith, Brian; Schreiber, Hans; Clausen, Henrik; Johnson, Laura A.; June, Carl H.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Genetically modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) demonstrate robust responses against lineage restricted, non-essential targets in hematologic cancers. However, in solid tumors, the full potential of CAR T cell therapy is limited by the availability of cell surface antigens with sufficient cancer-specific expression. The majority of CAR targets have been normal self-antigens on dispensable hematopoietic tissues or overexpressed shared antigens. Here, we established that abnormal self-antigens can serve as targets for tumor rejection. We developed a CAR that recognized cancer-associated Tn glycoform of MUC1, a neoantigen expressed in a variety of cancers. Anti-Tn-MUC1 CAR T cells demonstrated target-specific cytotoxicity and successfully controlled tumor growth in xenograft models of T cell leukemia and pancreatic cancer. These findings demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of CAR T cells directed against Tn-MUC1 and present aberrantly glycosylated antigens as a novel class of targets for tumor therapy with engineered T cells. PMID:27332733

  12. Testing and analyses of the TN-24P PWR spent-fuel dry storage cask loaded with consolidated fuel

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, M A; Michener, T E; Jensen, M F; Rodman, G R

    1989-02-01

    A performance test of a Transnuclear, Inc. TN-24P storage cask configured for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel was performed. The work was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and the Electric Power Research Institute. The performance test consisted of loading the TN-24P cask with 24 canisters of consolidated PWR spent fuel from Virginia Power's Surry and Florida Power and Light's Turkey Point reactors. Cask surface and fuel canister guide tube temperatures were measured, as were cask surface gamma and neutron dose rates. Testing was performed with vacuum, nitrogen, and helium backfill environments in both vertical and horizontal cask orientations. Transnuclear, Inc., arranged to have a partially insulated run added to the end of the test to simulate impact limiters. Limited spent fuel integrity data were also obtained. From both heat transfer and shielding perspectives, the TN-24P cask with minor refinements can be effectively implemented at reactor sites and central storage facilities for safe storage of unconsolidated and consolidated spent fuel. 35 refs., 93 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. 50 CFR 17.85 - Special rules-invertebrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... continue or terminate the reintroduction efforts. (b) Sixteen mollusks in the French Broad and Holston... defined as follows: The French Broad River, Knox and Sevier Counties, Tennessee, from the base of Douglas... free-flowing reaches of the French Broad River below Douglas Dam, Knox and Sevier Counties,...

  14. Iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with a conformationally blocked α-Tn antigen mimetic for macrophage activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuelli, Massimo; Fallarini, Silvia; Lombardi, Grazia; Sangregorio, Claudio; Nativi, Cristina; Richichi, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Among new therapies to fight tumors, immunotherapy is still one of the most promising and intriguing. Thanks to the ongoing structural elucidation of several tumor antigens and the development of innovative antigen carriers, immunotherapy is in constant evolution and it is largely used either alone or in synergy with chemotherapy/radiotherapy. With the aim to develop fully synthetic immunostimulants we have recently developed a mimetic of the α-Tn mucin antigen, a relevant tumor antigen. The 4C1 blocked mimetic 1, unique example of an α-Tn mimetic antigen, was functionalized with an ω-phosphonate linker and used to decorate iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), employed as multivalent carriers. MNPs, largely exploited for supporting and carrying biomolecules, like antibodies, drugs or antigens, consent to combine in the same nanometric system the main features of an inorganic magnetic core with a bioactive organic coating. The superparamagnetic glyconanoparticles obtained, named GMNPs, are indeed biocompatible and immunoactive, and they preserve suitable characteristics for use as heat mediators in the magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatment of tumors. All together these properties make GMNPs attracting devices for innovative tumor treatment.Among new therapies to fight tumors, immunotherapy is still one of the most promising and intriguing. Thanks to the ongoing structural elucidation of several tumor antigens and the development of innovative antigen carriers, immunotherapy is in constant evolution and it is largely used either alone or in synergy with chemotherapy/radiotherapy. With the aim to develop fully synthetic immunostimulants we have recently developed a mimetic of the α-Tn mucin antigen, a relevant tumor antigen. The 4C1 blocked mimetic 1, unique example of an α-Tn mimetic antigen, was functionalized with an ω-phosphonate linker and used to decorate iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), employed as multivalent

  15. Compositional time-series from tephra and the temporal evolution of Grímsvötn's magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Arna Óladóttir, Bergrun; Larsen, Guőrún

    2010-05-01

    Improved understanding of magma chambers and the related plumbing system is needed for active volcanoes. Their architecture, size and location determine the magma dynamics from source to surface, and the rate of magma transfer is in part controlled by variable sizes and forms of magma chambers. Since these are not constant features but evolve with time, only detailed studies of fine-tuned time-series allow quantitative assessment of their physical evolution, such as their volume. The subglacial volcano Grímsvötn is the most active of all Icelandic volcanoes. Interaction between the hot basaltic magma and glacier melt-water results in tephra formation during each eruption. Careful soil inspection around the Vatnajökull ice-cap has revealed an eruption frequency, higher than 7 eruptions per century. A compositional record of major- and trace element concentrations has been obtained by electron microprobe and laser ablation ICP-MS measurements of tephra glasses for the last 7600 years. We combine these results with more precise data from isotope-dilution mass-spectrometry on historical tephra from the Vatnajökull glacier. The Holcene basalts from Grímsvötn clearly form two distinct compositional groups, G-1 and G2. The group G-1 is characterized by Mg#> 47, K2O< 0.4 wt% and Th< 0.9 ppm, whereas the G-2 magma has more evolved composition. Simple fractional crystallization readily explains the compositional variations within group G-1, while the G-2 magmas have suffered from additional crustal contamination (through AFC). The Holocene tephra record reveals that both magma types are erupted contemporaneously, and even during the same eruption such as produced during the last eruption in 2004. This clearly indicates a polybaric origin of the emitted basalts, and eliminates the possibility of a single well-mixed, steady-state magma chamber beneath Grímsvötn. After the large fissure eruption of Laki (1783-84), which is on the same volcanic system, the composition of

  16. National Program of Inspection of Non-Federal Dams, Tennessee. Candlewood Dam (Inventory Number TN 06928), Hatchie River Basin, near Saulsbury, Hardeman County, Tennessee. Phase I Investigation Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Past inspections of Candlewood Lake Dam include a cursory inspection by George Moore and Troy Wedekind of the Tennessee Division of Water Resources...Undetermined Inspection by: George Moore and Troy Wedekind Inspection Results: The dam has numerous small erosion gullies both upstream and

  17. First results from TN273 studies of the SE Mariana Forearc rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Stern, R. J.; Kelley, K. A.; Shaw, A. M.; Shimizu, N.; Martinez, F.; Ishii, T.; Ishizuka, O.; Manton, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    TN 273 aboard R/V Thomas Thompson (Dec. 22 2011- Jan. 22 2012) studied an unusual region of rifting affecting the southern Mariana forearc S.W. of Guam. The S.E. Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR) formed by diffuse tectonic and volcanic deformation (Martinez and Sleeper, this meeting) ~2.7-3.7 Ma ago to accommodate opening of the southernmost Mariana Trough backarc basin. A total of 730 km linear-track of SEMFR seafloor was surveyed with deep-towed side-scan sonar IMI-30. 14 dredges provided samples of SEMFR igneous rocks, analyzed for whole rock (WR) and glass compositions. These new results coupled with results of earlier investigations confirm that SEMFR is dominated by Miocene lavas along with minor gabbro and diabase. SEMFR lavas range in major element composition from primitive basalt to fractionated andesite (Mg# = 0.36-0.73; SiO2 = 50-57 wt%), mainly controlled by crystal fractionation. Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns range from LREE-depleted, N-MORB-like to flat patterns, reflecting different mantle processes (i.e. different sources, degree of melting …). Glassy rinds and olivine-hosted melt inclusions in these lavas contain variable volatile compositions (F = 75-358 ppm, S = 35-1126 ppm, Cl= 74-1400 ppm, CO2 = 15-520 ppm, 0.36-2.36 wt% H2O). SEMFR lavas show spider diagrams with positive anomalies in LILE and negative anomalies in HSFE. SEMFR lavas have backarc basin-like (BAB-like) chemical composition (H2O < 2.5wt%, Ba/Yb~20, Nb/Yb~1 and ɛNd~9) along with stronger enrichment in Rb and Cs than arc and BAB lavas, as demonstrated by their higher Rb/Th and Cs/Ba ratios in WR and glasses, which may reflect the role of the ultra-shallow fluids. Ultra-shallow fluids are derived from the top of the subducting slab, beneath the forearc, where most of the water and the fluid-mobile elements (Rb, Cs, Ba,) are thought to be released (Schmidt and Poli, 1998, EPSL, Savov et al., 2005, G-3). Our results suggest that i) SEMFR lavas formed by metasomatism of a BAB mantle

  18. Energy Partitioning in the Phreatomagmatic Basaltic Eruption of Grímsvötn in 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, M. T.; Zimanowski, B.; Jude-Eton, T. C.; Oddsson, B.; Buettner, R.; Dellino, P.; Thordarson, T.; Larsen, G.

    2009-12-01

    The energy of an explosive eruption is transferred to the surroundings in a variety of ways, but for plinian magmatic eruptions it is commonly assumed that most of the energy is lost to the atmosphere through the eruption plume. For a phreatomagmatic eruption some energy is also lost to a surrounding water body, by heating and boiling, and in the case of a partly subglacial eruption, a substantial part may be lost to ice melting. However, detailed studies of energy partitioning have been lacking. The eruption of Grímsvötn in November 2004 lasted for six days and produced only basaltic tephra. About half of the erupted material was deposited at the eruption site, within a 500-700 m wide and 150-200 m deep ice cauldron. The remaining half formed a well defined tephra fan towards north and northeast. Through repeated pre- and post-eruption surveying of glacier geometry the volume of ice melted in the eruption could be measured. Detailed measurements of key parameters such as volume and mass of erupted material were carried out and a total deposit grain size distribution could be determined on the basis of extensive sieving of both proximal and distal parts of the deposit. The heat capacity of the tephra and energy used for generation of new surface (fragmentation energy) was determined through laboratory measurements. On the basis of these data, the total mass of erupted material was determined as about 6 x 1010 kg, and the total thermal energy of the eruption was found to be 7 x 1016 J. Moreover, the partitioning of the total energy into energy lost to: a) ice melting, b) meltwater heating, c) residual heat in volcanic pile, d) kinetic energy and e) total fragmentation energy could be determined. The results indicate that about a third of the energy was used for ice melting, that about a tenth was expended for meltwater heating and remained as heat in the crater, and that energy expended for fragmenting the magma amounted to a few percent. The remaining energy

  19. 77 FR 73005 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County, Placer County, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... County, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control Districts AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan...

  20. Mono County update

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D. )

    1988-12-01

    The Mono County Board of Supervisors approved the issuance of a use-permit for the Mammoth-Pacific II geothermal power plant. The power plant will be a binary, air-cooled, 10-megawatt, net, project. An appeal was filed by the California Department of Fish and Game, and the permit will not take effect until this appeal is resolved. Mono County also issued a project use-permit to proposers of Bonneville Pacific Corporations Mammoth Chance Geothermal Project, also a 10-megawatt, net, binary and air-cooled project. The permit was appealed by the Sierra Club, Cal-Trout, and the California Department of Fish and Game. Now, a subsequent EIR must be prepared for public review and comment. The subsequent EIR will address the issue of cumulative impacts and will include a discussion of new information.

  1. Mono County update

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    In May 1987, the Mono County Energy Management Department recommended that a two-year moratorium be placed on geothermal power production projects on private lands within the Mono-Long Valley KGRA. The intent of the proposed moratorium was to allow for the collection and evaluation of hydrologic monitoring data in the Long Valley Caldera. Now, to still achieve this end, the Energy Management Department will suggest that mitigation measures and project-specific monitoring requirements be implemented via the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) documentation and the county use permit process. The monitoring data will provide important information to Mono County decision-makers regarding potential adverse impacts from geothermal production on such local resources as Hot Creek Gorge, the Hot Creek Fish Hatchery, and Hot Creek, itself. The Mammoth/Chance Geothermal Project is the proposed construction and operation of a 10 megawatt, net, geothermal binary-cycle power plant and production- and injection-well field by Bonneville Pacific Corporation. The project is currently under environmental review, pursuant to CEQA requirements. The Mono County Energy Management Director is providing assistance to the Town of Mammoth Lakes on its California Energy Commission (CEC) grant-funded resource assessment project. The grant of $220,000 provides for the drilling of at least two temperature-gradient wells (exploratory wells) within the town limits. If a geothermal resource is detected and found to provide adequate flows at a suitable temperature, the Town of Mammoth Lakes will proceed in the development of a geothermal space-heating system to provide heat to such users as the Centinela Mammoth Hospital, Mammoth elementary and high schools, the Gateway Industrial Park, and future residential development projects.

  2. Assessment of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and tissue velocity imaging (TVI) in 14 dogs with malignant lymphoma undergoing chemotherapy treatment with doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Tater, G; Eberle, N; Hungerbuehler, S; Joetzke, A; Nolte, I; Wess, G; Betz, D

    2017-03-01

    Doxorubicin has been shown to be cardiotoxic at high doses but is an efficacious chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of canine lymphoma. Echocardiographic measurements and serum ultrasensitive cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels were obtained before and after doxorubicin administration in 14 dogs diagnosed with lymphoma. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate changes in cTnI concentrations and tissue velocity imaging (TVI) values in dogs with lymphoma undergoing chemotherapy with doxorubicin. A total of 182 cTnI and 1017 TVI measurements were performed. Standard echocardiographic parameters, tissue Doppler indices and cTnI concentrations did not differ at any time point within a 12-week cyclic combination protocol. In conclusion, the use of doxorubicin at standard doses in the treatment of canine lymphoma may not be associated with significant myocardial damage.

  3. Mono County update

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    On February 9, 1988, the Mono County Board of Supervisors voted to approve Bonneville Pacific Corporation's Mammoth Chance Geothermal Project. The project is an air-cooled, binary, geothermal power plant, 10 megawatts, net. The Mono County Board of Supervisors issued a project use-permit with vigorous and stringent conditions. Specific emphasis was placed on the establishment of a monitoring program designed to detect the effects of geothermal development on the springs at the Hot Creek Fish Hatchery and Hot Creek Gorge. On October 5, 1987, the Mono County Planning Commission granted a use-permit to Mammoth Pacific for its Mammoth Pacific II Project, a binary, air-cooled, geothermal power plant, 10 megawatts, net. The issuance of the use-permit instigated an appeal by the Sierra Club. That appeal was heard on February 22, 1988, At the end of the testimony, the Board of Supervisors voted to uphold the appeal of the Sierra Club, thereby denying the project by a vote of 3 to 2. The main areas of concern voiced by the majority of the Board included potential hydrologic impacts to Hot Creek Gorge and Hot Creek Fish Hatchery, visual impacts, and impacts to mule deer migration and survival. One of the options now available to Mammoth Pacific is to request that the project be denied without prejudice. This would allow Mammoth Pacific to return to the Board immediately with additional material regarding its concerns.

  4. Somerset County Renewable Energy Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Katula, Denise

    2014-05-07

    The County of Somerset, New Jersey, through the Somerset County Improvement Authority (SCIA), applied Federal funding through the U.S. Department of Energy to will apply project funds to buy-down the capital costs of equipment associated with the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems at two sites owned by the County. This Renewable Energy Initiative allows the County to take advantage of clean renewable energy, without any adverse debt impacts, and at a price that results in operating budget savings beyond what is presently available in the marketplace. This project addressed the objectives of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by making the acquisition of renewable energy more affordable for the County, thereby, encouraging other counties and local units to develop similar programs and increase the deployment of solar energy technologies. The two sites that were funded by the DOE grant are part of a much larger, ambitious, and unique renewable energy project, described in the next section.

  5. KPC-3-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Portugal Linked to Previously Circulating Non-CG258 Lineages and Uncommon Genetic Platforms (Tn4401d-IncFIA and Tn4401d-IncN).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carla; Bavlovič, Jan; Machado, Elisabete; Amorim, José; Peixe, Luísa; Novais, Ângela

    2016-01-01

    KPC-3-producing bacteria are endemic in many countries but only recently became apparent their wide distribution in different Portuguese hospitals. The aim of this study is to characterize genetic backgrounds associated with bla KPC-3 among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates recently identified on non-hospitalized patients in Portugal. Twenty KPC-producing K. pneumoniae identified between October 2014 and November 2015 in three different community laboratories were characterized. Isolates were mainly from patients from long-term care facilities (n = 11) or nursing homes (n = 6), most of them (75%) previously hospitalized in different Portuguese hospitals. Standard methods were used for bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Carbapenemase production was assessed by the Blue-Carba test, and identification of bla genes was performed by PCR and sequencing. Epidemiological features of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae included population structure (XbaI-PFGE, MLST and wzi sequencing), genetic context (mapping of Tn4401), and plasmid (replicon typing, S1-PFGE, and hybridization) analysis. All K. pneumoniae isolates produced KPC-3, with two MDR K. pneumoniae epidemic clones representing 75% of the isolates, namely ST147 (wzi64/K14.64, February-November 2015) and ST15 (two lineages exhibiting capsular types wzi19/K19 or wzi93/K60, July-November 2015). Other sporadic clones were detected: ST231 (n = 3; wzi104), ST348 (n = 1; wzi94) and ST109 (n = 1, wzi22/K22.37). bla KPC-3 was identified within Tn4401d in all isolates, located in most cases (80%) on cointegrated plasmids (repA FIA+repA FII+ori ColE1;105-250 kb) or in 50 kb IncN plasmids. In conclusion, this study highlights a polyclonal structure of KPC-3-producing K. pneumoniae and the predominance of the ST147 clone among non-hospitalized patients in Portugal, linked to platforms still unnoticed in Europe (bla KPC-3-Tn4401d-IncFIA) or firstly reported (bla KPC-3-Tn4401d-IncN). This scenario underlines the

  6. KPC-3-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Portugal Linked to Previously Circulating Non-CG258 Lineages and Uncommon Genetic Platforms (Tn4401d-IncFIA and Tn4401d-IncN)

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Carla; Bavlovič, Jan; Machado, Elisabete; Amorim, José; Peixe, Luísa; Novais, Ângela

    2016-01-01

    KPC-3-producing bacteria are endemic in many countries but only recently became apparent their wide distribution in different Portuguese hospitals. The aim of this study is to characterize genetic backgrounds associated with blaKPC−3 among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates recently identified on non-hospitalized patients in Portugal. Twenty KPC-producing K. pneumoniae identified between October 2014 and November 2015 in three different community laboratories were characterized. Isolates were mainly from patients from long-term care facilities (n = 11) or nursing homes (n = 6), most of them (75%) previously hospitalized in different Portuguese hospitals. Standard methods were used for bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Carbapenemase production was assessed by the Blue-Carba test, and identification of bla genes was performed by PCR and sequencing. Epidemiological features of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae included population structure (XbaI-PFGE, MLST and wzi sequencing), genetic context (mapping of Tn4401), and plasmid (replicon typing, S1-PFGE, and hybridization) analysis. All K. pneumoniae isolates produced KPC-3, with two MDR K. pneumoniae epidemic clones representing 75% of the isolates, namely ST147 (wzi64/K14.64, February–November 2015) and ST15 (two lineages exhibiting capsular types wzi19/K19 or wzi93/K60, July-November 2015). Other sporadic clones were detected: ST231 (n = 3; wzi104), ST348 (n = 1; wzi94) and ST109 (n = 1, wzi22/K22.37). blaKPC−3 was identified within Tn4401d in all isolates, located in most cases (80%) on cointegrated plasmids (repAFIA+repAFII+oriColE1;105-250 kb) or in 50 kb IncN plasmids. In conclusion, this study highlights a polyclonal structure of KPC-3-producing K. pneumoniae and the predominance of the ST147 clone among non-hospitalized patients in Portugal, linked to platforms still unnoticed in Europe (blaKPC−3-Tn4401d-IncFIA) or firstly reported (blaKPC−3-Tn4401d-IncN). This scenario underlines

  7. Distribution Characteristics of TOC, TN and TP in the Wetland Sediments of Longbao Lake in the San-Jiang Head Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Sujin; Si, Jianhua; Qi, Yue; Wang, Zhanqing; Wu, Xiaocui; Hou, Chuanying

    2016-12-01

    The study deals with the distribution of nutrients in wetland sediments, which provide the basis for revealing the wetland eutrophication processes and mechanisms of internal pollution sources. The total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) contents and distribution characteristics of sediment samples were examined. The results showed that the TOC concentration ranged from 3.81 to 15.6 g/kg, the TN concentration ranged from 0.21 to 1.18 g/kg with a mean concentration of 0.66 g/kg, and the TP concentration ranged from 0.16 to 0.35 g/kg with a mean of 0.23 g/kg. Statistical analysis showed close correlations between TOC and TN (R2 = 0.96), and TN and TP (R2 = 0.97), which indicated that the TN and TP in the sediments were from similar sources. The concentrations of TOC, TN, and TP in Long-bao Lake wetland sediments were too low for eutrophication to occur. Our investigation indicated that Longbao Lake undergoes natural evolution rather than anthropogenic activities.

  8. Rapid and efficient introduction of a foreign gene into bacterial artificial chromosome-cloned varicella vaccine by Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition

    SciTech Connect

    Somboonthum, Pranee; Koshizuka, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Shigefumi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Michiaki; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2010-06-20

    Using a rapid and reliable system based on Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition, we have successfully constructed a recombinant Oka varicella vaccine (vOka) expressing the mumps virus (MuV) fusion protein (F). The backbone of the vector was our previously reported vOka-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) genome. We inserted the transposon Tn7 attachment sequence, LacZ{alpha}-mini-attTn7, into the region between ORF12 and ORF13 to generate a vOka-BAC-Tn genome. The MuV-F expressing cassette was transposed into the vOka-BAC genome at the mini-attTn7 transposition site. MuV-F protein was expressed in recombinant virus, rvOka-F infected cells. In addition, the MuV-F protein was cleaved in the rvOka-F infected cells as in MuV-infected cells. The growth of rvOka-F was similar to that of the original recombinant vOka without the F gene. Thus, we show that Tn7-mediated transposition is an efficient method for introducing a foreign gene expression cassette into the vOka-BAC genome as a live virus vector.

  9. Multiple functional therapeutic effects of TnP: A small stable synthetic peptide derived from fish venom in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Komegae, Evilin Naname; Souza, Tais Aparecida Matozo; Grund, Lidiane Zito; Lima, Carla

    2017-01-01

    The pathological condition of multiple sclerosis (MS) relies on innate and adaptive immunity. New types of agents that beneficially modify the course of MS, stopping the progression and repairing the damage appear promising. Here, we studied TnP, a small stable synthetic peptide derived from fish venom in the control of inflammation and demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis as prophylactic treatment. TnP decreased the number of the perivascular infiltrates in spinal cord, and the activity of MMP-9 by F4/80+ macrophages were decreased after different regimen treatments. TnP reduces in the central nervous system the infiltration of IFN-γ-producing Th1 and IL-17A-producing Th17 cells. Also, treatment with therapeutic TnP promotes the emergence of functional Treg in the central nervous system entirely dependent on IL-10. Therapeutic TnP treatment accelerates the remyelination process in a cuprizone model of demyelination. These findings support the beneficial effects of TnP and provides a new therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of MS. PMID:28235052

  10. Elution of Nitrate at the NABIR Field Research Center, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienen, M. N.; Criddle, C. S.; Jardine, P. M.; Kitanidis, P. K.; Mehlhorn, T. L.; Watson, D. B.; Wu, W.

    2003-12-01

    As part of a bioremediation project for the in situ bioreduction of uranium at the Department of Energy Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN, aquifer and groundwater conditioning is required before conducting the remediation experiment. One step includes flushing of the aquifer with pH-adjusted fresh water in order to remove extremely high concentrations of nitrate, calcium, and aluminum that would interfere with in situ bioreduction. The elution of nitrate from the test zone was used as an inverse tracer to discern contaminant transport pathways and model parameters. Concentration time series data augmented pressure tests, a bromide tracer study, and electromagnetic borehole flowmeter (EBF) measurements. The aquifer at the FRC is a fractured shale with strike of about 1.5 degrees north of west, and dip of about 30 degrees to the southwest, as inferred from area observations and EBF logging. A network of injection and extraction wells are aligned along strike, while a separate network of observation wells with multiple screen intervals (MLS wells) are oriented along dip at the midpoint of the injection/extraction well network. Flow generally occurs along strike in fractures associated with bedding planes, however other lesser fracture networks provide communication between the major fracture sets. Previous data have indicated a high hydraulic conductivity zone, approximately 10-50 cm thick located at a depth of about 12 m along the centerline of the injection/extraction well network. Above the major flow zone, the matrix weathers to saprolite, decreasing hydraulic conductivity. The elution tracer test was conducted by injecting clean, acidified tap water in the farthest upgradient injection well, and extracting at half the injection rate from the farthest downgradient extraction well. This flow ratio was chosen to produce flushing focused on a small cell of the aquifer which will later be used as an in

  11. Wind Energy Guide for County Commissioners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report provides county commissioners, planners, and other local county government officials with a practical overview of information required to successfully implement commercial wind energy projects in their county.

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): American Creosote Works, TN. (First Remedial Action), December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-05

    The American Creosote Works (ACW) site is located immediately southwest of Jackson, in central Madison County, Tennessee. ACW conducted wood-preserving operations using both creosote and PCP from the early 1930s until December 1981. Untreated process waste water and potential contaminated storm water runoff were discharged directly into Central Creek until 1973, at which time a levee was constructed to retain surface water runoff. The soil borrow pits used for the levee construction became sludge storage lagoons. A waste water treatment system was installed onsite during 1974 and 1975 and operated until 1981. The selected remedial action for the site includes consolidation and incineration of sludges in the vicinity of the buildings and tanks; on- or offsite incineration of the oils and sludges from the tanks; treatment of tanked process liquids onsite using a sand filter, filter press, and carbon adsorption unit, followed by discharge to a surface stream; decontamination and offsite disposal of site structures; construction of a flood-protection dike; deed restrictions and site fencing; and site stabilization including monitoring onsite water levels behind the dikes and pumping, treating (as needed), and discharging impounded water pending a final remedy.

  13. Phage ϕC2 Mediates Transduction of Tn6215, Encoding Erythromycin Resistance, between Clostridium difficile Strains

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Shan; Hussain, Haitham; Chang, Barbara J.; Emmett, Warren; Riley, Thomas V.; Mullany, Peter

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this work, we show that Clostridium difficile phage ϕC2 transduces erm(B), which confers erythromycin resistance, from a donor to a recipient strain at a frequency of 10−6 per PFU. The transductants were lysogenic for ϕC2 and contained the erm(B) gene in a novel transposon, Tn6215. This element is 13,008 bp in length and contains 17 putative open reading frames (ORFs). It could also be transferred at a lower frequency by filter mating. PMID:24255122

  14. Mono County geothermal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Three geothermal projects have been proposed or are underway in Mono County, California. The Mammoth/Chance geothermal development project plans to construct a 10-MW geothermal binary power plant which will include 8 production and 3 injection wells. Pacific Lighting Energy Systems is also planning a 10-MW binary power plant consisting of 5 geothermal wells and up to 4 injection wells. A geothermal research project near Mammoth Lakes has spudded a well to provide a way to periodically measure temperature gradient, pressure, and chemistry of the thermal waters and to investigate the space-heating potential of the area in the vicinity of Mammoth Lakes. All three projects are briefly described.

  15. Menominee: Wisconsin's 72nd County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidemann, Wayne H.; Fuguitt, Glenn V.

    Menominee Indian Reservation became a county after the 1960 Census of Population; therefore, data for the county as a unit were distributed throughout the census publication and appeared as civil division tabulation. This 1963 report attempts to compile these data, as well as data from previous census publications, and present them in easily…

  16. A Conversation on Distressed Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jack; Baldwin, Fred D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1999, 108 of Appalachia's 406 counties were "distressed," with high poverty and unemployment rates. Three experts on Appalachia (Ron Eller, Amy K. Glasmeier, Greg Bischak) discuss problems and potentials of these counties, focusing on the working poor, welfare reform, the utility of social indicators, the challenge of changing the…

  17. Frederick County Community Perception Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick Community Coll., MD.

    In 1997, Frederick Community College (FCC) in Maryland conducted a telephone survey of a random sample of 466 Frederick County residents to identify their perceptions of the college. In particular, the survey examined Frederick County residents' image of FCC, level of awareness of services and programs offered by FCC, and the types of services…

  18. Walking to Save a County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnick, Karen

    1981-01-01

    Describes the 10-year history and accomplishments of the Walk to Save the County which has preserved more than 400 acres of Onondaga County, New York. Outlines organizational structure, promotional strategies, awards, and educational opportunities involved in this annual fund-raising hike by third- through eighth-grade students. (NEC)

  19. [Identification of a high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterial strain TN-14 and its nitrogen removal capabilities].

    PubMed

    Xin, Xin; Yao, Li; Lu, Lei; Leng, Lu; Zhou, Ying-Qin; Guo, Jun-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    A new strain of high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium TN-14 was isolated from the environment. Its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification, performences of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic, the abilities of resistance to ammonia nitrogen as well as the decontamination abilities were studied, respectively. It was preliminary identified as Acinetobacter sp. according to its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification results. In heterotrophic nitrification system, the ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen removal rate of the bacterial strain TN-14 could reach 97.13% and 93.53% within 24 h. In nitrates denitrification system, the nitrate concentration could decline from 94.24 mg · L(-1) to 39.32 mg · L(-1) within 24 h, where the removal rate was 58.28% and the denitrification rate was 2.28 mg · (L · h)(-1); In nitrite denitrification systems, the initial concentration of nitrite could be declined from 97.78 mg · L(-1) to 21.30 mg x L(-1), with a nitrite nitrogen removal rate of 78.22%, and a denitrification rate of 2.55 mg · (L· h)(-1). Meanwhile, strain TN-14 had the capability of flocculant production, and the flocculating rate could reach 94.74% when its fermentation liquid was used to treat 0.4% kaolin suspension. Strain TN-14 could grow at an ammonia nitrogen concentration as high as 1200 mg · L(-1). In the aspect of actual piggery wastewater treatment by strain TN-14, the removal rate of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN and TP cloud reached 85.30%, 65.72%, 64.86% and 79.41%, respectively. Strain TN-14 has a good application prospect in biological treatment of real high- ammonia wastewater.

  20. Class 1 Integron Containing a New Gene Cassette, aadA10, Associated with Tn1404 from R151

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Sally R.; Collis, Christina M.; Hall, Ruth M.

    2002-01-01

    The carbenicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, spectinomycin, sulfonamide, and tobramycin resistance determinants found on Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid R151 have previously been shown to translocate to another plasmid, R388, and it was inferred that a transposon, Tn1404, carried the resistance determinants. Sequencing of the cassette array from the plasmid known as R388::Tn1404 revealed two known gene cassettes, oxa10 and aadB, and a previously unidentified cassette determining resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin, here designated aadA10, in the order oxa10-aadB-aadA10. These cassettes replaced the dfrB2-orfA cassette array of R388, indicating that movement of the resistance determinants from R151 to R388 resulted from recombinational exchange between two class 1 integrons rather than transposition. The AadA10 protein is most closely related to AadA6 (85% identical) and AadA7 (80% identical). The aadA10 cassette found here has only a simple site containing a 7-bp spacer derived from attI1 in place of a 59-base element and is likely to represent a derivative of the complete cassette. IntI1-mediated deletion of the aadA10 cassette was not detected, indicating that this single simple site is either inactive or only weakly active. PMID:12121911

  1. Improved glycosylation of a foreign protein by Tn-5B1-4 cells engineered to express mammalian glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Breitbach, K; Jarvis, D L

    2001-08-05

    The major advantages of using the baculovirus-insect cell system for recombinant protein production are its ability to produce large amounts of recombinant proteins and its ability to provide eucaryotic modifications, such as glycosylation. However, the glycans linked to recombinant glycoproteins produced by this system typically differ from those found on native mammalian products. This is an important problem because glycans on mammalian glycoproteins can influence their functions in many different ways. The inability of baculovirus-infected insect cells to produce glycans identical to those found on native mammalian glycoproteins is due, in part, to the absence of functional levels of certain glycosyltransferases in insect cells. Thus, the purpose of this study was to engineer these activities into Tn-5B1-4, an established insect cell line that is widely used as a host for baculovirus-mediated protein production. Expression plasmids were constructed in which cDNAs encoding mammalian beta1,4-galactosyltransferase and alpha2,6-sialyltransferase were placed under the transcriptional control of a baculovirus immediate early promoter. These plasmids were then used to isolate two different transgenic Tn-5B1-4 derivatives and the biological and biochemical properties of these cell lines were examined. The results show that both of the engineered insect cell lines have improved glycoprotein-processing capabilities, relative to the parental cell line.

  2. A search for HI absorption in the z=5.2 radio galaxy TN 0924-2201

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, E.; Allison, J.; Curran, S.; Wayth, R.

    2017-01-01

    We request time to use the MWA in spectral-line mode to search for redshifted 21 cm HI absorption associated with the distant, gas-rich radio galaxy TN 0924-2201. This is a challenging project that breaks new ground in high-redshift HI studies and aims to pave the way for future blind HI absorption surveys with the extended MWA. TN 0924-2201 is the highest-redshift radio galaxy currently known, with a confirmed spectroscopic redshift of z=5.2 (van Breugel et al. 1999) and a continuum flux density of 550 mJy at 230 MHz. Klamer et al. (2005) detected CO 1-0 emission from this galaxy, and found that it contains a large ( 1e11 solar mass) reservoir of molecular gas. The redshift of this galaxy places the 21cm HI line within the MWA band, and the brightness of the continuum source (coupled with the presence of molecular gas) makes this the most promising test case in which to search for 21cm HI absorption with the MWA. Detection of an HI line in this distant galaxy appears feasible, and if successful this would be a very high-profile result for MWA. It would also provide an important proof of concept for future large, HI-based searches for high-redshift radio galaxies with MWA and SKA1-low.

  3. Identification of Genes Encoding Exported Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteins Using a Tn552′phoA In Vitro Transposition System

    PubMed Central

    Braunstein, Miriam; Griffin, Thomas J.; Kriakov, Jordan I.; Friedman, Sarah T.; Grindley, Nigel D. F.; Jacobs, William R.

    2000-01-01

    Secreted and cell envelope-associated proteins are important to both Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis and the generation of protective immunity to M. tuberculosis. We used an in vitro Tn552′phoA transposition system to identify exported proteins of M. tuberculosis. The system is simple and efficient, and the transposon inserts randomly into target DNA. M. tuberculosis genomic libraries were targeted with Tn552′phoA transposons, and these libraries were screened in M. smegmatis for active PhoA translational fusions. Thirty-two different M. tuberculosis open reading frames were identified; eight contain standard signal peptides, six contain lipoprotein signal peptides, and seventeen contain one or more transmembrane domains. Four of these proteins had not yet been assigned as exported proteins in the M. tuberculosis databases. This collection of exported proteins includes factors that are known to participate in the immune response of M. tuberculosis and proteins with homologies, suggesting a role in pathogenesis. Nine of the proteins appear to be unique to mycobacteria and represent promising candidates for factors that participate in protective immunity and virulence. This technology of creating comprehensive fusion libraries should be applicable to other organisms. PMID:10781540

  4. A novel detergent-stable solvent-tolerant serine thiol alkaline protease from Streptomyces koyangensis TN650.

    PubMed

    Ben Elhoul, Mouna; Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Rekik, Hatem; Bejar, Wacim; Boulkour Touioui, Souraya; Hmidi, Maher; Badis, Abdelmalek; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2015-08-01

    An alkaline proteinase (STAP) was produced from strain TN650 isolated from a Tunisian off-shore oil field and assigned as Streptomyces koyangensis strain TN650 based on physiological and biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 45125.17-Da. The enzyme had an NH2-terminal sequence of TQSNPPSWGLDRIDQTTAFTKACSIKY, thus sharing high homology with those of Streptomyces proteases. The results showed that this protease was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), and partially inhibited by 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitro benzoic acid) (DTNB), which strongly suggested its belonging to the serine thiol protease family. Using casein as a substrate, the optimum pH and temperature values for protease activity were pH 10 and 70 °C, respectively. The protease was stable at pH 7-10 and 30-60 °C for 24 h. STAP exhibited high catalytic efficiency, significant detergent stability, and elevated organic solvent resistance compared to the SG-XIV proteases from S. griseus and KERAB from Streptomyces sp. AB1. The stap gene encoding STAP was isolated, and its DNA sequence was determined. These properties make STAP a potential candidate for future application in detergent formulations and non-aqueous peptide biocatalysis.

  5. Hydrology of Polk County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, Rick M.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2007-01-01

    Local water managers usually rely on information produced at the State and regional scale to make water-resource management decisions. Current assessments of hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Polk County, Florida, commonly end at the boundaries of two water management districts (South Florida Water Management District and the Southwest Florida Water Management District), which makes it difficult for managers to determine conditions throughout the county. The last comprehensive water-resources assessment of Polk County was published almost 40 years ago. To address the need for current countywide information, the U.S. Geological Survey began a 3?-year study in 2002 to update information about hydrologic and water-quality conditions in Polk County and identify changes that have occurred. Ground-water use in Polk County has decreased substantially since 1965. In 1965, total ground-water withdrawals in the county were about 350 million gallons per day. In 2002, withdrawals totaled about 285 million gallons per day, of which nearly 95 percent was from the Floridan aquifer system. Water-conservation practices mainly related to the phosphate-mining industry as well as the decrease in the number of mines in operation in Polk County have reduced total water use by about 65 million gallons per day since 1965. Polk County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer system, which is unconfined and composed primarily of clastic deposits. The surficial aquifer system is underlain by the intermediate confining unit, which grades into the intermediate aquifer system and consists of up to two water-bearing zones composed of interbedded clastic and carbonate rocks. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system, a thick sequence of permeable limestone and dolostone, consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semiconfining unit, a middle confining unit, and

  6. Occurrence and Distribution of Ordinary High Water Mark (OHWM) Indicators in Non-Perennial Streams in the Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast Region of the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    ID111 Boise County, ID UT9 Sevier County, UT MT5 Lincoln County, NM UT10 Sanpete County, UT MT6 Glacier County, MT UT12 Utah County, UT MT7...Powell County, MT UT70 Weber County, UT MT16* Powell/Missoula County, MT UT72 Cache County, UT MT66† Glacier County, MT UT73 Cache County, UT NM6

  7. Generation of a Tn5 transposon library in Haemophilus parasuis and analysis by transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS).

    PubMed

    Luan, Shi-Lu; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Peters, Sarah E; Mayho, Matthew; Weinert, Lucy A; Crowther, Sarah A; Wang, Jinhong; Langford, Paul R; Rycroft, Andrew; Wren, Brendan W; Tucker, Alexander W; Maskell, Duncan J

    2013-10-25

    Haemophilus parasuis is an important respiratory tract pathogen of swine and the etiological agent of Glässer's disease. The molecular pathogenesis of H. parasuis is not well studied, mainly due to the lack of efficient tools for genetic manipulation of this bacterium. In this study we describe a Tn5-based random mutagenesis method for use in H. parasuis. A novel chloramphenicol-resistant Tn5 transposome was electroporated into the virulent H. parasuis serovar 5 strain 29755. High transposition efficiency of Tn5, up to 10(4) transformants/μg of transposon DNA, was obtained by modification of the Tn5 DNA in the H. parasuis strain HS071 and establishment of optimal electrotransformation conditions, and a library of approximately 10,500 mutants was constructed. Analysis of the library using transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS) revealed that the insertion of Tn5 was evenly distributed throughout the genome. 10,001 individual mutants were identified, with 1561 genes being disrupted (69.4% of the genome). This newly-developed, efficient mutagenesis approach will be a powerful tool for genetic manipulation of H. parasuis in order to study its physiology and pathogenesis.

  8. The Corynebacterium xerosis composite transposon Tn5432 consists of two identical insertion sequences, designated IS1249, flanking the erythromycin resistance gene ermCX.

    PubMed

    Tauch, A; Kassing, F; Kalinowski, J; Pühler, A

    1995-09-01

    Analysis of the 50-kb R-plasmid pTP10 from the clinical isolate Corynebacterium xerosis M82B revealed that the erythromycin resistance gene, ermCX, is located on a 4524-bp composite transposable element, Tn5432. The ends of Tn5432 are identical, direct repeats of an insertion sequence, designated IS1249, encoding a putative transposase of the IS256 family. IS1249 consists of 1385 bp with 45/42 imperfect terminal inverted repeats. The nucleotide sequence of the 1754-bp Tn5432 central region is 99% identical to the previously sequenced erythromycin resistance region of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae plasmid pNG2. It encodes the erythromycin resistance gene, ermCX, and an ORF homologous to the amino-terminal end of the transposase of IS31831 from Corynebacterium glutamicum. Transposons with regions flanking the insertion sites were recovered from the C. glutamicum chromosome by a plasmid rescue technique. Insertion of Tn5432 created 8-bp target site duplications. A Tn5432-induced isoleucine/valine-auxotrophic mutant was found to carry the transposon in the 5' region of the ilvBNC cluster; in pTP10 the transposon is inserted in a region similar to replication and partitioning functions of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1 and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid pTAR.

  9. A method for allelic replacement that uses the conjugative transposon Tn916: deletion of the emm6.1 allele in Streptococcus pyogenes JRS4.

    PubMed

    Norgren, M; Caparon, M G; Scott, J R

    1989-12-01

    The emm6.1 allele of Streptococcus pyogenes JRS4 was deleted by using the conjugative transposon Tn916. The aphA-3 gene, conferring resistance to kanamycin, was cloned between the sequences flanking the structural gene for the type 6 M protein (emm6.1) and inserted into the BstXI site of Tn916 to generate the chimeric transposon Tn916-5K3. Because the BstXI site lies in a nonessential region of Tn916, the chimeric transposon could transfer by conjugation from Bacillus subtilis into JRS4. In some of the transconjugants, Tn916-5K3 replaced the emm6.1 locus of JRS4 by homologous recombination between the cloned emm6.1-flanking regions and the resident chromosome. One recombinant studied in detail, JRS75, was kanamycin resistant and tetracycline sensitive and lacked immunologically detectable M6 protein. Furthermore, by Southern blot analysis, the DNA region encompassing the emm6.1 structural gene was found to have been replaced by aphA-3.

  10. Somerset County Flood Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Summer, William M.

    1998-01-01

    IntroductionThe timely warning of a flood is crucial to the protection of lives and property. One has only to recall the flood of August 2, 1973, in Somerset County, New Jersey, in which six lives were lost and major property damage occurred, to realize how unexpected and costly, especially in terms of human life, a flood can be. Accurate forecasts and warnings cannot be made, however, without detailed information about precipitation and streamflow in the drainage basin.Recognizing the need for detailed hydrologic information for Somerset County, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Somerset County, installed the Somerset County Flood Information System (SCFIS) in 1990. The availability of data provided by this system will improve the flood forecasting ability of the National Weather Service (NWS), and has assisted Somerset County and municipal agencies in planning and execution of flood-preparation and emergency evacuation procedures in the county.This fact sheet describes the Somerset County Flood Information System and identifies its benefits.

  11. 32 CFR 1602.10 - County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false County. 1602.10 Section 1602.10 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.10 County. The word county includes, where applicable, counties, independent cities, and similar...

  12. A Phase I Study of Unimolecular Pentavalent (Globo-H-GM2-sTn-TF-Tn) Immunization of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer in First Remission

    PubMed Central

    O’Cearbhaill, Roisin E.; Ragupathi, Govind; Zhu, Jianglong; Wan, Qian; Mironov, Svetlana; Yang, Guangbin; Spassova, Maria K.; Iasonos, Alexia; Kravetz, Sara; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Spriggs, David R.; Danishefsky, Samuel J.; Sabbatini, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a phase I study in ovarian cancer patients to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a synthetic unimolecular pentavalent carbohydrate vaccine (Globo-H, GM2, sTn, TF, and Tn) supported on a peptide backbone, conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), and mixed with immunological adjuvant QS-21. Twenty-four advanced-stage, poor-risk, first-remission ovarian cancer patients were enrolled from January 2011–Septermber 2013. Three dose levels were planned (25, 50, 100 mcg) with three cohorts of six patients each, with an additional 6-patient expansion cohort at the MTD. ELISA serologic IgM and IgG responses for each antigen was defined as positive response if antibody titers were ≥1:80 over the respective patient’s pre-vaccination serum. The study would be considered positive if at least four of 12 patients treated at the MTD showed immune responses for at least three of the five antigens. Twenty-four patients (median age, 54 years [range, 36–68]) were included in the safety analysis. Histology was high-grade serous in 22 patients (92%); 18 had stage III and six stage IV disease. The vaccine was well-tolerated at all doses, with no DLTs. At the highest treated dose, IgG and/or IgM responses were recorded against ≥3 antigens in 9/12 patients (75%), ≥4 in 7/12 (58%), and 5 in 3/12 (25%). With a median follow-up of 19 months (range, 2–39), 20 patients (83%) recurred and six (25%) died. The unimolecular pentavalent vaccine construct was shown to be safe and immunogenic. Such a construct greatly simplifies regulatory requirements and manufacturing, facilitates scalability, and provides adaptability. PMID:27110823

  13. A combination of sbmA and tolC mutations in Escherichia coli K-12 Tn10-carrying strains results in hypersusceptibility to tetracycline.

    PubMed

    de Cristóbal, Ricardo E; Vincent, Paula A; Salomón, Raúl A

    2008-02-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that Escherichia coli tolC mutations reduce the high-level resistance to tetracycline afforded by the transposon Tn10-encoded TetA pump from resistance at 200 microg/ml to resistance at 40 microg/ml. In this study, we found that the addition of an sbmA mutation to a tolC::Tn10 mutant exacerbates this phenotype: the double mutant did not form colonies, even in the presence of tetracycline at a concentration as low as 5 microg/ml. Inactivation of sbmA alone partially inhibited high-level tetracycline resistance, from resistance at 200 microg/ml to resistance at 120 microg/ml. There thus appears to be an additive effect of the mutations, resulting in almost complete suppression of the phenotypic expression of Tn10 tetracycline resistance.

  14. Expression and characterization of recombinant human alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase III from Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and Trichoplusia ni (Tn) cells using the baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed Central

    Morais, V A; Serpa, J; Palma, A S; Costa, T; Maranga, L; Costa, J

    2001-01-01

    The human alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase III (Fuc-TIII) participates in the synthesis of Lewis determinants. The enzyme from human sources is scarce and heterogeneous. In this paper we describe the expression of a secreted form of Fuc-TIII (SFT3) in two insect cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and Trichoplusia ni (Tn), using the baculovirus expression system. The Sf9 cells secreted approx. 0.4 unit/l (1 mg/l) of the enzyme. The Tn cells secreted approx. 3-fold this amount. A large proportion of active protein was accumulated in the two cell lines (50 and 75% respectively for Sf9 and Tn cells, on the fourth day after infection) indicating a possible limitation not only of the folding machinery, but also a saturation of the secretory pathway. SFT3 was purified by cation-exchange chromatography followed by affinity chromatography. The enzyme from the Tn cell line had a lower global charge, possibly due to post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation or sulphation. The two glycosylation sites from SFT3 were occupied. SFT3 secreted by Sf9 cells was completely deglycosylated by peptide-N-glycanase F, whereas 50% of SFT3 secreted by Tn cells was resistant to deglycosylation by this enzyme. The apparent kinetic parameters determined with the type I acceptor were k(cat)=0.4 s(-1) and K(m)=0.87 mM for the SFT3 secreted by Tn cells, and k(cat)=0.09 s(-1) and K(m)=0.76 mM for the SFT3 secreted by Sf9 cells, indicating that the enzymes had substrate affinities within the same order of magnitude as their mammalian counterpart. Furthermore, SFT3 secreted by either cell type showed a clear preference for type 1 carbohydrate acceptors, similarly to human Fuc-TIII. PMID:11171070

  15. A TALE of Transposition: Tn3-Like Transposons Play a Major Role in the Spread of Pathogenicity Determinants of Xanthomonas citri and Other Xanthomonads

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rafael Marini; de Oliveira, Amanda Carolina P.; Moreira, Leandro M.; Belasque, José; Gourbeyre, Edith; Siguier, Patricia; Ferro, Maria Inês T.; Ferro, Jesus A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the genus Xanthomonas are among the most important phytopathogens. A key feature of Xanthomonas pathogenesis is the translocation of type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins (T3SEs) into the plant target cells via a T3SS. Several T3SEs and a murein lytic transglycosylase gene (mlt, required for citrus canker symptoms) are found associated with three transposition-related genes in Xanthomonas citri plasmid pXAC64. These are flanked by short inverted repeats (IRs). The region was identified as a transposon, TnXax1, with typical Tn3 family features, including a transposase and two recombination genes. Two 14-bp palindromic sequences within a 193-bp potential resolution site occur between the recombination genes. Additional derivatives carrying different T3SEs and other passenger genes occur in different Xanthomonas species. The T3SEs include transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs). Certain TALEs are flanked by the same IRs as found in TnXax1 to form mobile insertion cassettes (MICs), suggesting that they may be transmitted horizontally. A significant number of MICs carrying other passenger genes (including a number of TALE genes) were also identified, flanked by the same TnXax1 IRs and delimited by 5-bp target site duplications. We conclude that a large fraction of T3SEs, including individual TALEs and potential pathogenicity determinants, have spread by transposition and that TnXax1, which exhibits all of the essential characteristics of a functional transposon, may be involved in driving MIC transposition. We also propose that TALE genes may diversify by fork slippage during the replicative Tn3 family transposition. These mechanisms may play a crucial role in the emergence of Xanthomonas pathogenicity. PMID:25691597

  16. IMP-1 encoded by a novel Tn402-like class 1 integron in clinical Achromobacter xylosoxidans, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhenhong; Fang, Haihong; Wang, Li; Sun, Fengjun; Wang, Yong; Yin, Zhe; Yang, Huiying; Yang, Wenhui; Wang, Jie; Xia, Peiyuan; Zhou, Dongsheng; Liu, Changting

    2014-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain A22732 is isolated from a pneumonia patient in China and produces carbapenemases OXA-114e and IMP-1, which are encoded by chromosome and plasmid, respectively, and confer resistance to multiple ß-lactam antibiotics including carbapenems. The blaIMP-1 gene together with aacA7 and orfE is captured by a novel Tn402-like class 1 integron in a conjugative IncP-1ß plasmid. In addition to the intrinsic integron promoter PcW, there is still a blaIMP-1 gene cassette-specific promoter. This is the first report of carbapenemase-encoding IncP-1ß plasmid in clinical bacterial isolate. PMID:25428613

  17. Rapid release of metal salts and nutrients from the 2011 Grímsvötn, Iceland volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, J.; Stipp, S. L. S.; Dalby, K. N.; Gislason, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    On May 21st, 2011, one of Iceland’s most active volcano, Grímsvötn, started its strongest eruption in a century. Grímsvötn produced hundreds of megatonnes of fine basaltic ash, which spread over Iceland, the North Atlantic and Europe. Such fine grained ash can impact human activity and health both with fertilization and with toxicity potential for aquatic environments. The purpose of this study was: (1) to investigate the basic physical and chemical properties of the ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption, (2) to identify surface salts deposited on the ash during the eruption, (3) to identify which elements are released during ash-water interactions and their release rates, (4) to characterize the secondary phases formed during water exposure, and (5) to assess impact of the ash on humans and the environment. During the eruption, we collected a unique set of pristine ash samples over a range of 50-115 km from the source and examined them with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), surface area analysis (BET), laser absorption, electron microprobe (EMPA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ash could be classified as glassy tholeiitic basalt with <10 mass% crystalline plagioclase (Al1.6Ca0.6Na0.4Si2.4O8) and pyroxene. The particles were small (<125 μm) and elongated with sharp edges. About 50% of the particle mass was fine ash (<63 μm), which could travel long distances, and ∼8% was very fine ash (<10 μm), which is harmful if inhaled. The specific surface area of the pristine ash ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 m2/g. Material taken up on particle surfaces contributed the equivalent of <0.5 nm thick layer, consisting of salts such as CaSO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, CaF2, CaCl2, MgSO4 and MgCl2. We exposed the pristine ash to ultrapure deionised (MilliQ) water in a single pass, plug, flow through reactor and the effluent was analyzed for 73 elements using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass

  18. The Laki (Skaftár Fires) and Grímsvötn eruptions in 1783 1785

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thordarson, Th; Self, S.

    1993-05-01

    The Laki (Skaftár Fires) fissure eruption in southern Iceland lasted for eight months during 1783 to 1784, and produced one of the largest basaltic lava flows in historic times (14.7±1.0 km3). In addition, neighboring Grímsvötn central volcano was frequently active during the period from May 1783 to May 1785. The combined activity is interpreted as having been the result of a two-year-long volcano-tectonic episode on the Grímsvötn volcanic system. Contemporary descriptions of the explosive activity make it possible to relate the tephra stratigraphy to the progress of the eruption on a weekly basis and show that activity on the fissures propagated to the NE with time, towards Grímsvötn. The eruption at Laki began on 8 June with a brief explosive event on a short fissure, and lava rapidly began to flow into the Skaftá river gorge. It reached the lowlands, 35 km away, four days later and continued to flow, with variable discharge, until 7 February 1784. Approximately 90% of the lava was emplaced in the first five months of activity. The 27-km-long vent complex is composed of ten en echelon fissures distributed on both sides of the much older Laki hyaloclastite mountain. The surface expression of each fissure is a continuous row of vents consisting of scoria cones, spatter cones, and tuff cones. Six tephra fall units are positively identified; two units are completely compsed of phreatomagmatic tephra derived from two tuff cones and the others are Strombolian deposits. The volume of tephra, including ash fall that extended to mainland Europe, is 0.4 km3 dense rock equivalent volume, or 2.6% of the total erupted volume. Interpretation of contemporary descriptions of tephra falls, combined with the preserved stratigraphy, allow the identification of ten eruptive episodes during the eight months of activity on the Laki fissures. These eruptive episodes are inferred to have resulted from the unsteady flow of magma in the feeder system. In addition, at least eight

  19. Capability Description for NASA's F/A-18 TN 853 as a Testbed for the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2009-01-01

    The NASA F/A-18 tail number (TN) 853 full-scale Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) testbed has been designed with a full array of capabilities in support of the Aviation Safety Program. Highlights of the system's capabilities include: 1) a quad-redundant research flight control system for safely interfacing controls experiments to the aircraft's control surfaces; 2) a dual-redundant airborne research test system for hosting multi-disciplinary state-of-the-art adaptive control experiments; 3) a robust reversionary configuration for recovery from unusual attitudes and configurations; 4) significant research instrumentation, particularly in the area of static loads; 5) extensive facilities for experiment simulation, data logging, real-time monitoring and post-flight analysis capabilities; and 6) significant growth capability in terms of interfaces and processing power.

  20. Tn-seq of Caulobacter crescentus under uranium stress reveals genes essential for detoxification and stress tolerance

    DOE PAGES

    Yung, Mimi C.; Park, Dan M.; Overton, K. Wesley; ...

    2015-07-20

    Ubiquitous aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is highly resistant to uranium (U) and facilitates U biomineralization and thus holds promise as an agent of U bioremediation. In order to gain an understanding of how C. crescentus tolerates U, we employed transposon (Tn) mutagenesis paired with deep sequencing (Tn-seq) in a global screen for genomic elements required for U resistance. Of the 3,879 annotated genes in the C. crescentus genome, 37 were found to be specifically associated with fitness under U stress, 15 of which were subsequently tested through mutational analysis. Systematic deletion analysis revealed that mutants lacking outer membrane transporters (rsaFamore » and rsaFb), a stress-responsive transcription factor (cztR), or a ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase (spoT) exhibited a significantly lower survival rate under U stress. RsaFa and RsaFb, which are homologues of TolC in Escherichia coli, have previously been shown to mediate S-layer export. Transcriptional analysis revealed upregulation of rsaFa and rsaFb by 4- and 10-fold, respectively, in the presence of U. We additionally show that rsaFa mutants accumulated higher levels of U than the wild type, with no significant increase in oxidative stress levels. These results suggest a function for RsaFa and RsaFb in U efflux and/or maintenance of membrane integrity during U stress. In addition, we present data implicating CztR and SpoT in resistance to U stress. Together, our findings reveal novel gene targets that are key to understanding the molecular mechanisms of U resistance in C. crescentus.« less

  1. Refinement of Isotopically Derived Fine Root Lifespans Using A Locally Released Radiocarbon Label in Oak Ridge, TN.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudinski, J. B.; Riley, W. J.; Torn, M. S.; Joslin, J. D.

    2003-12-01

    Isotopic techniques (13C and 14C) are relative newcomers among the approaches used to quantify fine root (< 2 mm diameter) dynamics in a field setting. Direct measurements of the isotopic content of root tissues, used as a proxy for root age, have shown that at least some portion of the fine root system lives for 5-10 years or more. In this work we take advantage of a local radiocarbon (14C) release in Oak Ridge, TN in summer 1999, to examine (1) the influence of stored C in new root growth and (2) the lifespan of fine roots from a mature, temperate deciduous forest. This release provides a local 14C pulse of similar magnitude to the peak of the 14C bomb spike. However, since we have been able to make ecosystem wide measurements within one year of the local 14C release we have much greater time resolution than we do with the standard bomb-14C technique applied today (which is 1-2 years). We have constructed a new multi-compartment model of root growth and decay, whose structure was developed using data from field sampling at Oak Ridge, TN. Model results, constrained with a 14C time series of new root growth, show that fine roots are grown with 10% of their carbon coming from stored C sources. Additionally, a three-year time series of root cores shows that at least two pools are required to account for 14C changes in live and dead fine roots. Testing this 14C data set with our model shows that the shorter-lived root pool has a turnover time (mean lifetime) of a few months and the longer-lived pool has a turnover time of ~5 years.

  2. Tn-seq of Caulobacter crescentus under uranium stress reveals genes essential for detoxification and stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Mimi C.; Park, Dan M.; Overton, K. Wesley; Blow, Matthew J.; Hoover, Cindi A.; Smit, John R.; Murray, Sean R.; Ricci, Dante P.; Christen, Beat; Bowman, Grant R.; Jiao, Yongqin

    2015-07-20

    Ubiquitous aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is highly resistant to uranium (U) and facilitates U biomineralization and thus holds promise as an agent of U bioremediation. In order to gain an understanding of how C. crescentus tolerates U, we employed transposon (Tn) mutagenesis paired with deep sequencing (Tn-seq) in a global screen for genomic elements required for U resistance. Of the 3,879 annotated genes in the C. crescentus genome, 37 were found to be specifically associated with fitness under U stress, 15 of which were subsequently tested through mutational analysis. Systematic deletion analysis revealed that mutants lacking outer membrane transporters (rsaFa and rsaFb), a stress-responsive transcription factor (cztR), or a ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase (spoT) exhibited a significantly lower survival rate under U stress. RsaFa and RsaFb, which are homologues of TolC in Escherichia coli, have previously been shown to mediate S-layer export. Transcriptional analysis revealed upregulation of rsaFa and rsaFb by 4- and 10-fold, respectively, in the presence of U. We additionally show that rsaFa mutants accumulated higher levels of U than the wild type, with no significant increase in oxidative stress levels. These results suggest a function for RsaFa and RsaFb in U efflux and/or maintenance of membrane integrity during U stress. In addition, we present data implicating CztR and SpoT in resistance to U stress. Together, our findings reveal novel gene targets that are key to understanding the molecular mechanisms of U resistance in C. crescentus.

  3. Annual Performance Evaluation of a Pair of Energy Efficient Houses (WC3 and WC4) in Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C; Jackson, Roderick K; Boudreaux, Philip R

    2012-04-01

    Beginning in 2008, two pairs of energy-saver houses were built at Wolf Creek in Oak Ridge, TN. These houses were designed to maximize energy efficiency using new ultra-high-efficiency components emerging from ORNL s Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partners and others. The first two houses contained 3713 square feet of conditioned area and were designated as WC1 and WC2; the second pair consisted of 2721 square feet conditioned area with crawlspace foundation and they re called WC3 and WC4. This report is focused on the annual energy performance of WC3 and WC4, and how they compare against a previously benchmarked maximum energy efficient house of a similar footprint. WC3 and WC4 are both about 55-60% more efficient than traditional new construction. Each house showcases a different envelope system: WC3 is built with advanced framing featured cellulose insulation partially mixed with phase change materials (PCM); and WC4 house has cladding composed of an exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS). The previously benchmarked house was one of three built at the Campbell Creek subdivision in Knoxville, TN. This house (CC3) was designed as a transformation of a builder house (CC1) with the most advanced energy-efficiency features, including solar electricity and hot water, which market conditions are likely to permit within the 2012 2015 period. The builder house itself was representative of a standard, IECC 2006 code-certified, all-electric house built by the builder to sell around 2005 2008.

  4. Frederick County Green Homes Challenge

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Frederick County, Maryland, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  5. Calix[4]arene decorated with four Tn antigen glycomimetic units and P3CS immunoadjuvant: synthesis, characterization, and anticancer immunological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Corrada; Consoli, Grazia M L; Galante, Eva; Bousquet, Ennio; Pappalardo, Maria; Spadaro, Angelo

    2008-03-01

    A novel anticancer vaccine candidate built on a nonpeptidic scaffold has been synthesized. Four S-Tn tumor-associated glycomimetic antigens have been clustered onto a calix[4]arene scaffold bearing an immunoadjuvant moiety (P3CS). The immunogenicity of the synthetic construct has been investigated by immunization of mice in vivo. ELISA assay has evidenced that the tetravalent construct stimulates a higher production of anti-Tn antigen IgG antibodies when compared to an analogous monovalent compound. This result is ascribable to an antigen cluster effect and makes the reported vaccine candidate a good mimic of the natural motifs present on the mucine surface.

  6. Geothermal development plan: Yuma county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    One hot spring and 33 wells drilled in the county discharge water at temperatures sufficient for direct-use geothermal applications such as process heat and space heating and cooling. Currently, one industry within the county has been identified which may be able to use geothermal energy for its process heat requirements. Also, a computer simulation model was used to predict geothermal energy on line as a function of time under both private and city-owned utility development of the resource.

  7. Antiproliferative effect of T/Tn specific Artocarpus lakoocha agglutinin (ALA) on human leukemic cells (Jurkat, U937, K562) and their imaging by QD-ALA nanoconjugate.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Urmimala; Bose, Partha Pratim; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Tej P; Chatterjee, Bishnu P

    2008-11-01

    T/Tn specificity of Artocarpus lakoocha agglutinin (ALA), isolated from the seeds of A. lakoocha (Moraceae) fruit and a heterodimer (16 kD and 12 kD) of molecular mass 28 kD, was further confirmed by SPR analysis using T/Tn glycan containing mammalian glycoproteins. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of ALA showed homology at 15, 19-21, 24-27, and 29 residues with other lectin members of Moraceae family viz., Artocarpus integrifolia (jacalin) lectin, Artocarpus hirsuta lectin, and Maclura pomifera agglutinin. It is mitogenic to human PBMC and the maximum proliferation was observed at 1 ng/ml. It showed an antiproliferative effect on leukemic cells, with the highest effect toward Jurkat cells (IC(50) 13.15 ng/ml). Synthesized CdS quantum dot-ALA nanoconjugate was employed to detect the expression of T/Tn glycans on Jurkat, U937, and K562 leukemic cells surfaces as well as normal lymphocytes by fluorescence microscopy. No green fluorescence was observed with normal lymphocytes indicating that T/Tn determinants, which are recognized as human tumor associated structures were cryptic on normal lymphocyte surfaces, whereas intense green fluorescent dots appeared during imaging of leukemic cells, where such determinants were present in unmasked form. The above results indicated that QD-ALA nanoconjugate is an efficient fluorescent marker for identification of leukemic cell lines that gives rise to high quality images.

  8. Lectinochemical studies on the glyco-recognition factors of a Tn (GalNAcalpha1-->Ser/Thr) specific lectin isolated from the seeds of Salvia sclarea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Albert M

    2005-01-01

    The lectin extracted from the seeds of Salvia sclarea (SSL) recognizes the Tn antigen (GalNAc alpha1-->Ser/Thr) expressed in certain human carcinomas. In previous studies, knowledge of the binding properties of SSL was restricted to GalNAcalpha1--> related oligosaccharides and glycopeptides. Thus, the requirements of functional groups in monosaccharide and high-density polyvalent carbohydrate structural units for SSL binding and an updated affinity profile were further evaluated by enzyme-linked lectinosorbent (ELLSA) and inhibition assays. Among the glycoproteins (gps) tested for interaction, a high density of exposed Tn-containing glycoproteins such as in the armadillo salivary Tn glycoprotein and asialo ovine salivary glycoprotein reacted best with SSL. When the gps were tested for inhibition of SSL binding, which was expressed as 50% nanogram inhibition, the high density polyvalent Tn present in macromolecules was the most potent inhibitor. Among the monosaccharide and carbohydrate structural units studied, which were expressed as nanomole inhibition, GalNAc alpha1-->3GalNAc beta1-->3Gal alpha1-->4Gal beta1-->4Glc (Fp), GalNAc alpha1-->3Gal beta1-->4Glc (A(L)), GalNAc alpha1-->3GalNAc beta1-->Me (F beta), GalNAc alpha1-->3GalNAc alpha1-->Me (F alpha) and GalNAc alpha1--> Ser/Thr (Tn) were the most active ligands, being 2.5-5.0 x 10(3) and 1.25-2.5 times more active than Gal and GalNAc, respectively. From the results, it is suggested that the combining site of SSL is a shallow groove type, recognizing the monosaccharide of GalNAc as the major binding site or Tn up to the Forssman pentasaccharide (Fp). It can be concluded that the three critical factors for SSL binding are the -NH CH(3)CO at carbon-2 in Gal, the configuration of carbon-3 in GalNAc, and the polyvalent Tn (GalNAc alpha1-->Ser/Thr) present in macromolecules. These results should assist in understanding the glyco-recognition factors involved in carbohydrate-lectin interactions in biological processes

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Colusa County Chamber of Commerce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Colusa County Chamber of Commerce Booklet - Album of the 'County of Good Luck' Original: 1908 Re-photo: September 1940 - Hall of Records & County Jail, Colusa, Colusa County, CA

  10. Population substructure in Cache County, Utah: the Cache County study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Population stratification is a key concern for genetic association analyses. In addition, extreme homogeneity of ethnic origins of a population can make it difficult to interpret how genetic associations in that population may translate into other populations. Here we have evaluated the genetic substructure of samples from the Cache County study relative to the HapMap Reference populations and data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Results Our findings show that the Cache County study is similar in ethnic diversity to the self-reported "Whites" in the ADNI sample and less homogenous than the HapMap CEU population. Conclusions We conclude that the Cache County study is genetically representative of the general European American population in the USA and is an appropriate population for conducting broadly applicable genetic studies. PMID:25078123

  11. Somerset County Flood Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoppe, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    The timely warning of a flood is crucial to the protection of lives and property. One has only to recall the floods of August 2, 1973, September 16 and 17, 1999, and April 16, 2007, in Somerset County, New Jersey, in which lives were lost and major property damage occurred, to realize how costly, especially in terms of human life, an unexpected flood can be. Accurate forecasts and warnings cannot be made, however, without detailed information about precipitation and streamflow in the drainage basin. Since the mid 1960's, the National Weather Service (NWS) has been able to forecast flooding on larger streams in Somerset County, such as the Raritan and Millstone Rivers. Flooding on smaller streams in urban areas was more difficult to predict. In response to this problem the NWS, in cooperation with the Green Brook Flood Control Commission, installed a precipitation gage in North Plainfield, and two flash-flood alarms, one on Green Brook at Seeley Mills and one on Stony Brook at Watchung, in the early 1970's. In 1978, New Jersey's first countywide flood-warning system was installed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Somerset County. This system consisted of a network of eight stage and discharge gages equipped with precipitation gages linked by telephone telemetry and eight auxiliary precipitation gages. The gages were installed throughout the county to collect precipitation and runoff data that could be used to improve flood-monitoring capabilities and flood-frequency estimates. Recognizing the need for more detailed hydrologic information for Somerset County, the USGS, in cooperation with Somerset County, designed and installed the Somerset County Flood Information System (SCFIS) in 1990. This system is part of a statewide network of stream gages, precipitation gages, weather stations, and tide gages that collect data in real time. The data provided by the SCFIS improve the flood forecasting ability of the NWS and aid Somerset County and municipal agencies in

  12. Geothermal development plan: Yuma County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Yuma County Area Development Plan evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 90/sup 0/C (194/sup 0/F), and in addition, two areas are inferred to contain geothermal resources with intermediate (90/sup 0/C to 150/sup 0/C, 194/sup 0/F to 300/sup 0/F) temperature potential. The resource areas are isolated, although one resource area is located near Yuma, Arizona. One resource site is inferred to contain a hot dry rock resource. Anticipated population growth in the county is expected to be 2 percent per year over the next 40 years. The primary employment sector is agriculture, though some light industry is located in the county. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support future growth without advese affect on agriculture. Six firms were found in Yuma County which may be able to utilize geothermal energy for process heat needs. In addition, several agricultural processors were found, concentrated in citrus processing and livestock raising. Geothermal energy utilization projections suggest that by the year 2000, geothermal energy may economically provide the energy equivalent of 53,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector if developed privately. Geothermal utilization projections increase to 132,000 barrels of oil per year by 2000 if a municipal utility developed the resource.

  13. Spread of the blaOXA–23-Containing Tn2008 in Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Grouped in CC92 from China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yisheng; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Haomin; Ying, Chunmei

    2017-01-01

    The rapid expansion of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) clinical isolates is a big issue. We investigated the antibiotic susceptibility, molecular epidemiology and resistance gene of A. baumannii collected at two hospitals in Shanghai, China. Besides, the A. baumannii PCR-based replicon typing method (AB-PBRT) was conducted to categorize the plasmids into homogeneous groups on the basis of replicase genes. Most CRAB isolates showed high-level resistance to almost all antibiotics but retain susceptibility to colistin and tigecycline. A total of 101 isolates carried blaOXA-51-like gene. Sequencing identified the presence of blaOXA-66 for CRAB isolates. blaOXA–23 gene were discovered in all CRAB isolates. Each CRAB isolate contained 1–3 of 19 different plasmid replicase (rep) gene homology groups (GRs) and the GR6 (repAci6) was ubiquitous. Genotyping by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) showed seven defined MLST patterns and three novel STs were found. eBURST analysis indicated they were all grouped in CC92 (GCII) with the most frequent ST208 (50%). Two blaOXA–23-bearing transposons were found: Tn2006 and Tn2008. Tn2008 were detected in 54 (96.4%) isolates and Tn2006 in two remaining isolates. The blaOXA–23 carbapenem gene was vitally associated with repAci6 plasmid belong to CC92 clonal group. Our survey revealed severe drug resistance in A. baumannii isolates. Tn2008-containing CC92 A. baumannii were endemic, which may facilitate the blaoxa23 dissemination. PMID:28220115

  14. High-Level Heat Resistance of Spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus licheniformis Results from the Presence of a spoVA Operon in a Tn1546 Transposon.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Koning, Rosella A; Boekhorst, Jos; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial endospore formers can produce spores that are resistant to many food processing conditions, including heat. Some spores may survive heating processes aimed at production of commercially sterile foods. Recently, it was shown that a spoVA operon, designated spoVA(2mob), present on a Tn1546 transposon in Bacillus subtilis, leads to profoundly increased wet heat resistance of B. subtilis spores. Such Tn1546 transposon elements including the spoVA(2mob) operon were also found in several strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus licheniformis, and these strains were shown to produce spores with significantly higher resistances to wet heat than their counterparts lacking this transposon. In this study, the locations and compositions of Tn1546 transposons encompassing the spoVA(2mob) operons in B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis were analyzed. Introduction of these spoVA(2mob) operons into B. subtilis 168 (producing spores that are not highly heat resistant) rendered mutant 168 strains that produced high-level heat resistant spores, demonstrating that these elements in B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis are responsible for high level heat resistance of spores. Assessment of growth of the nine strains of each species between 5.2°C and 57.7°C showed some differences between strains, especially at lower temperatures, but all strains were able to grow at 57.7°C. Strains of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis that contain the Tn1546 elements (and produce high-level heat resistant spores) grew at temperatures similar to those of their Tn1546-negative counterparts that produce low-level heat resistant spores. The findings presented in this study allow for detection of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis strains that produce highly heat resistant spores in the food chain.

  15. High-Level Heat Resistance of Spores of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus licheniformis Results from the Presence of a spoVA Operon in a Tn1546 Transposon

    PubMed Central

    Berendsen, Erwin M.; Koning, Rosella A.; Boekhorst, Jos; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial endospore formers can produce spores that are resistant to many food processing conditions, including heat. Some spores may survive heating processes aimed at production of commercially sterile foods. Recently, it was shown that a spoVA operon, designated spoVA2mob, present on a Tn1546 transposon in Bacillus subtilis, leads to profoundly increased wet heat resistance of B. subtilis spores. Such Tn1546 transposon elements including the spoVA2mob operon were also found in several strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus licheniformis, and these strains were shown to produce spores with significantly higher resistances to wet heat than their counterparts lacking this transposon. In this study, the locations and compositions of Tn1546 transposons encompassing the spoVA2mob operons in B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis were analyzed. Introduction of these spoVA2mob operons into B. subtilis 168 (producing spores that are not highly heat resistant) rendered mutant 168 strains that produced high-level heat resistant spores, demonstrating that these elements in B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis are responsible for high level heat resistance of spores. Assessment of growth of the nine strains of each species between 5.2°C and 57.7°C showed some differences between strains, especially at lower temperatures, but all strains were able to grow at 57.7°C. Strains of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis that contain the Tn1546 elements (and produce high-level heat resistant spores) grew at temperatures similar to those of their Tn1546-negative counterparts that produce low-level heat resistant spores. The findings presented in this study allow for detection of B. amyloliquefaciens and B. licheniformis strains that produce highly heat resistant spores in the food chain. PMID:27994575

  16. The interaction between Siglec-15 and tumor-associated sialyl-Tn antigen enhances TGF-β secretion from monocytes/macrophages through the DAP12-Syk pathway.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Rina; Ohtsubo, Kazuaki; Takamatsu, Shinji; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Angata, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    We previously demonstrated that Siglec-15, a member of the Siglec family of glycan-recognition proteins, is expressed on a subset of macrophages and preferentially recognizes the sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen, a tumor-associated glycan structure. In this study, we report on the biological significance of the Siglec-15-mediated interaction between monocytes/macrophages and cancer cells. Siglec-15 is expressed on tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in various human tumor tissues. We further demonstrated that its expression is substantially elevated in macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced M2-like macrophages, which produced more transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in response to sTn-positive cells than to negative cells. We designed a co-culture model of THP-1 (human monocytic leukemia) cells and H157 (human lung carcinoma) cells mimicking the interaction between monocytes/macrophages and cancer cells that recapitulated the enhanced TGF-β production in Siglec-15 expressing THP-1 cells by the cellular interaction with sTn expressing H157 cells. The enhanced TGF-β production required a direct interaction between the two cell lines through sialic acids. Siglec-15 associates with adaptor protein DNAX activation protein of 12 kDa (DAP12) at the binding determinant Lys(274) in the transmembrane domain and transduces a signal to spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). The enhanced TGF-β secretion was significantly attenuated by Syk inhibitor treatment of THP-1 cells or by substitution of the Siglec-15 Lys(274) to Ala, which disrupts the molecular interaction between Siglec15 and DAP12. These findings indicate that Siglec-15 recognizes the tumoral sTn antigen and transduces a signal for enhanced TGF-β secretion in TAMs and further suggest that Siglec-15 on macrophages may contribute to tumor progression by the TGF-β-mediated modulation of intratumoral microenvironments.

  17. Mercuric ion-resistance operons of plasmid R100 and transposon Tn501: the beginning of the operon including the regulatory region and the first two structural genes.

    PubMed Central

    Misra, T K; Brown, N L; Fritzinger, D C; Pridmore, R D; Barnes, W M; Haberstroh, L; Silver, S

    1984-01-01

    The mercuric ion-resistance operons of plasmid R100 (originally from Shigella) and transposon Tn501 (originally from a plasmid isolated in Pseudomonas) have been compared by DNA sequence analysis. The sequences for the first 1340 base pairs of Tn501 are given with the best alignment with the comparable 1319 base pairs of R100. The homology between the two sequences starts at base 58 after the end of the insertion sequence IS-1 of R100. The sequences include the transcriptional regulatory region, and the homology is particularly strong in regions just upstream from potential transcriptional initiation sites. The trans-acting regulatory gene merR consists of 180 base pairs in both cases and codes for a highly basic polypeptide of 60 amino acids, which is also rich in serine. The Tn501 and R100 merR genes differ in 25 of the 180 base positions, and the resulting polypeptides differ in seven amino acids. The regulatory region before the major transcription initiation site contains potential -35 and -10 sequences and dyad symmetrical sequences, which may be the merR binding sites for transcriptional regulation. The first structural gene, merT, encodes a highly hydrophobic polypeptide of 116 amino acids. The R100 and Tn501 merT genes differ in 17% of their positions, leading to 14 (12%) amino acid changes. This region had previously been shown to encode a protein governing membrane transport of mercuric ions. The second structural gene, merC, would give a 91 amino acid polypeptide with a hydrophobic amino-terminal segment. The Tn501 and R100 merC genes differ at 37 base positions, leading to 10 amino acid changes. PMID:6091128

  18. Tn5253 family integrative and conjugative elements carrying mef(I) and catQ determinants in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Mingoia, Marina; Morici, Eleonora; Morroni, Gianluca; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Del Grosso, Maria; Pantosti, Annalisa; Varaldo, Pietro E

    2014-10-01

    The linkage between the macrolide efflux gene mef(I) and the chloramphenicol inactivation gene catQ was first described in Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain Spn529), where the two genes are located in a module designated IQ element. Subsequently, two different defective IQ elements were detected in Streptococcus pyogenes (strains Spy029 and Spy005). The genetic elements carrying the three IQ elements were characterized, and all were found to be Tn5253 family integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). The ICE from S. pneumoniae (ICESpn529IQ) was sequenced, whereas the ICEs from S. pyogenes (ICESpy029IQ and ICESpy005IQ, the first Tn5253-like ICEs reported in this species) were characterized by PCR mapping, partial sequencing, and restriction analysis. ICESpn529IQ and ICESpy029IQ were found to share the intSp 23FST81 integrase gene and an identical Tn916 fragment, whereas ICESpy005IQ has int5252 and lacks Tn916. All three ICEs were found to lack the linearized pC194 plasmid that is usually associated with Tn5253-like ICEs, and all displayed a single copy of a toxin-antitoxin operon that is typically contained in the direct repeats flanking the excisable pC194 region when this region is present. Two different insertion sites of the IQ elements were detected, one in ICESpn529IQ and ICESpy029IQ, and another in ICESpy005IQ. The chromosomal integration of the three ICEs was site specific, depending on the integrase (intSp 23FST81 or int5252). Only ICESpy005IQ was excised in circular form and transferred by conjugation. By transformation, mef(I) and catQ were cotransferred at a high frequency from S. pyogenes Spy005 and at very low frequencies from S. pneumoniae Spn529 and S. pyogenes Spy029.

  19. Volcano Deformation and Eruption Forecasting using Data Assimilation: Case of Grimsvötn volcano in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bato, Mary Grace; Pinel, Virginie; Yan, Yajing

    2016-04-01

    The recent advances in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) imaging and the increasing number of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) networks recorded on volcanoes provide continuous and spatially extensive evolution of surface displacements during inter-eruptive periods. For basaltic volcanoes, these measurements combined with simple dynamical models (Lengliné et al. 2008 [1], Pinel et al, 2010 [2], Reverso et al, 2014 [3]) can be exploited to characterise and constrain parameters of one or several magmatic reservoirs using inversion methods. On the other hand, data assimilation-a time-stepping process that best combines models and observations, sometimes a priori information based on error statistics to predict the state of a dynamical system-has gained popularity in various fields of geoscience (e.g. ocean-weather forecasting, geomagnetism and natural resources exploration). In this work, we aim to first test the applicability and benefit of data assimilation, in particular the Ensemble Kalman Filter [4], in the field of volcanology. We predict the temporal behaviors of the overpressures and deformations by applying the two-magma chamber model of Reverso et. al., 2014 [3] and by using synthetic deformation data in order to establish our forecasting strategy. GPS time-series data of the recent eruptions at Grimsvötn volcano is used for the real case applicability of the method. [1] Lengliné, O., D Marsan, J Got, V. Pinel, V. Ferrazzini, P. Obuko, Seismicity and deformation induced by magma accumulation at three basaltic volcanoes, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B12305, 2008. [2] V. Pinel, C. Jaupart and F. Albino, On the relationship between cycles of eruptive activity and volcanic edifice growth, J. Volc. Geotherm. Res, 194, 150-164, 2010 [3] T. Reverso, J. Vandemeulebrouck, F. Jouanne, V. Pinel, T. Villemin, E. Sturkell, A two-magma chamber as a source of deformation at Grimsvötn volcano, Iceland, JGR, 2014 [4] Evensen, G., The Ensemble Kalman

  20. Identification of New Genes Contributing to the Extreme Radioresistance of Deinococcus radiodurans Using a Tn5-Based Transposon Mutant Library

    PubMed Central

    Passot, Fanny; Dutertre, Murielle; Porteron, Martine; Confalonieri, Fabrice; Sommer, Suzanne; Pasternak, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Here, we have developed an extremely efficient in vivo Tn5-based mutagenesis procedure to construct a Deinococcus radiodurans insertion mutant library subsequently screened for sensitivity to genotoxic agents such as γ and UV radiations or mitomycin C. The genes inactivated in radiosensitive mutants belong to various functional categories, including DNA repair functions, stress responses, signal transduction, membrane transport, several metabolic pathways, and genes of unknown function. Interestingly, preliminary characterization of previously undescribed radiosensitive mutants suggests the contribution of cyclic di-AMP signaling in the recovery of D. radiodurans cells from genotoxic stresses, probably by modulating several pathways involved in the overall cell response. Our analyses also point out a new transcriptional regulator belonging to the GntR family, encoded by DR0265, and a predicted RNase belonging to the newly described Y family, both contributing to the extreme radioresistance of D. radiodurans. Altogether, this work has revealed new cell responses involved either directly or indirectly in repair of various cell damage and confirmed that D. radiodurans extreme radiation resistance is determined by a multiplicity of pathways acting as a complex network. PMID:25884619

  1. Massive parallel insertion site sequencing of an arrayed Sinorhizobium meliloti signature-tagged mini-Tn 5 transposon mutant library.

    PubMed

    Serrania, Javier; Johner, Tobias; Rupp, Oliver; Goesmann, Alexander; Becker, Anke

    2017-02-21

    Transposon mutagenesis in conjunction with identification of genomic transposon insertion sites is a powerful tool for gene function studies. We have implemented a protocol for parallel determination of transposon insertion sites by Illumina sequencing involving a hierarchical barcoding method that allowed for tracking back insertion sites to individual clones of an arrayed signature-tagged transposon mutant library. This protocol was applied to further characterize a signature-tagged mini-Tn 5 mutant library comprising about 12,000 mutants of the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti (Pobigaylo et al., 2006; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72, 4329-4337). Previously, insertion sites have been determined for 5000 mutants of this library. Combining an adapter-free, inverse PCR method for sequencing library preparation with next generation sequencing, we identified 4473 novel insertion sites, increasing the total number of transposon mutants with known insertion site to 9562. The number of protein-coding genes that were hit at least once by a transposon increased by 1231 to a total number of 3673 disrupted genes, which represents 59% of the predicted protein-coding genes in S. meliloti.

  2. Coherence and Variability of Ground Motion Over 600 m of the Nonvolcanic Tremor Array Site at Mooring, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, M. M.; Langston, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    This study examines wave coherency for high frequency P and S waves in the New Madrid Seismic Zone at a site near Mooring, TN. An L-shaped array consisting of 19-seismometers and having arm lengths of 600m located on Holocene fluvial sediments of the Mississippi River was used to examine wave coherency appropriate for many sites throughout the Mississippi embayment and other sediment sites associate with large rivers. Data from local and regional earthquakes within a distance range of 300km show that coherency within the frequency band of 0.5 to 16 Hz degrades with interstation distance across the array according to an empirical exponential model. Vertical component P-waves are coherent over nearly 2 horizontal wavelengths. However, the coherency for horizontal component S-waves degrades more rapidly than the vertical component P waves. S-waves become significantly incoherent at distances of only 0.2 horizontal wavelength and become completely incoherent after 0.5 wavelength. The results of this study show clear and quick decay of wave coherence likely to occur in strong ground motions from nearby earthquakes. The observed incoherence can be a significant factor for the response of structures having foundation lengths of even 100m for a nearby large magnitude earthquake in New Madrid Seismic Zone.

  3. Simulating atmospheric transport of the 2011 Grímsvötn ash cloud using a data insertion update scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, K. L.; Western, L. M.; Watson, I. M.

    2016-09-01

    Effective modelling of atmospheric volcanic ash dispersion is important to ensure aircraft safety, and has been the subject of much study since the Eyjafjallajökull ash crisis in Europe in 2010. In this paper, a novel modelling method is presented, where the atmospheric transport of the 2011 Grímsvötn ash cloud is simulated using a data insertion update scheme. Output from the volcanic ash transport and dispersion model, NAME, is updated using satellite retrievals and the results of a probabilistic ash, cloud and clear sky classification algorithm. A range of configurations of the scheme are compared with each other, in addition to a simple data insertion method presented in a previous study. Results show that simulations in which ash layer heights and depths are updated using the model output generally perform worse in relation to satellite derived ash coverage and ash column loading than simulations that use satellite-retrieved heights and an assumed layer depth of 1.0 km. Simulated ash column loading and concentration tends to be under-predicted using this update scheme, but the timing of the arrival of the ash cloud at Stockholm is well captured, as shown by comparison with lidar-derived mass concentration profiles. Most of the updated simulations in this comparison make small gains in skill on the simple data insertion scheme.

  4. Identification of genes involved in Mycoplasma gallisepticum biofilm formation using mini-Tn4001-SGM transposon mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Yi, Li; Zhang, Fanqing; Qiu, Xusheng; Tan, Lei; Yu, Shengqing; Cheng, Xiangchao; Ding, Chan

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an important pathogen that can cause chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. MG has the ability to form biofilms. The molecular mechanisms underlying MG biofilm formation are complex and poorly understood. To better understand the mechanisms involved in biofilm formation, mini-Tn4001-SGM, a novel transposon vector containing the gentamicin gene was constructed and electroporated into MG strain Rlow. Of the 738 mutants obtained, 12 had significantly reduced capacity to form biofilms in a polystyrene microtiter-plate biofilm assay. Ten different genes were identified as disrupted in these mutants using genomic walking from the transposon insertion sites and Southern bolt hybridization with a transposon-based probe. Four genes were associated with cellular processes, especially synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide and several lipoproteins encoded. Other genes were associated with translation, metabolism and gene regulation, and one had unknown function. Seven genes identified in this study have been previously associated with biofilm formation in MG or other bacterial species. The other three have not been previously reported to play a role in biofilm formation in MG. In conclusion, a new transposon vector was shown to be a powerful tool for future studies of MG pathogenesis. This study adds to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in MG biofilm formation and may shed light on the persistence of MG infections.

  5. Archuleta County CO Lineaments

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Publication Date: 2012 Title: Archuleta Lineaments Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: This layer traces apparent topographic and air-photo lineaments in the area around Pagosa springs in Archuleta County, Colorado. It was made in order to identify possible fault and fracture systems that might be conduits for geothermal fluids. Geothermal fluids commonly utilize fault and fractures in competent rocks as conduits for fluid flow. Geothermal exploration involves finding areas of high near-surface temperature gradients, along with a suitable “plumbing system” that can provide the necessary permeability. Geothermal power plants can sometimes be built where temperature and flow rates are high. To do this, georeferenced topographic maps and aerial photographs were utilized in an existing GIS, using ESRI ArcMap 10.0 software. The USA_Topo_Maps and World_Imagery map layers were chosen from the GIS Server at server.arcgisonline.com, using a UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection. This line shapefile was then constructed over that which appeared to be through-going structural lineaments in both the aerial photographs and topographic layers, taking care to avoid manmade features such as roads, fence lines, and right-of-ways. These lineaments may be displaced somewhat from their actual location, due to such factors as shadow effects with low sun angles in the aerial photographs. Note: This shape file was constructed as an aid to geothermal exploration in preparation for a site visit for field checking. We make no claims as to the existence of the lineaments, their location, orientation, and nature. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4132831.990103 m Left: 311979.997741 m Right: 331678.289280 m Bottom: 4116067

  6. Johnson County Business and Industry Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Office of Institutional Research.

    In fall 1982, Johnson County Community College (JCCC) conducted two surveys to determine the internal training needs of business and industry in Johnson County. One survey was mailed to the chief executives of some 2,000 businesses and industries, and another was distributed to about 2,000 employees of a large corporation in the county. Study…

  7. Community Types and Mortality in Georgia Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Using an "ecological regional analysis" methodology for defining types of communities and their associated mortality rates, this study of Georgia's 159 counties finds that the suburban and town centered counties have low mortality while the city-centered type predicts low mortality for the whites. The military-centered counties do not…

  8. Once Distressed, Jackson County Moves On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1981, Jackson County, North Carolina, appeared on the first list of "distressed counties" in Appalachia. Since then, the rural county has made significant improvements by investing in its physical infrastructure (which also promotes tourism); fostering economic-development partnerships among governments, small businesses, and local…

  9. Low-Wage Counties Face Locational Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Robert; Cromartie, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Small populations and remoteness are the most salient features of low-wage counties. These locational attributes coincide with fewer high-wage jobs, yet low wages within industries define low-wage counties more than industry composition. Although adults in low-wage counties have less education and labor force participation overall, the role played…

  10. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  11. 76 FR 13172 - Placer County Water Agency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Placer County Water Agency Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with... Filed: February 23, 2011 d. Applicant: Placer County Water Agency e. Name of Project: Middle Fork... Manager, Placer County Water Agency, 144 Ferguson Road, Auburn, CA 95603; Telephone: (530) 823-4490....

  12. MX Siting Investigation. Gravity Survey - Sevier Desert Valley, Utah.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-24

    set of vertical prism elements. The tops of the prisms lie in a common horizontal plane. The bottoms of the prisms collectively represent the bottom of...the valley fill. Each prism has a cross-sectional area equal to one grid square and a uniform density. A grid square of 2 kilometers by 2 kilometers...was selected as representative of the gravity station distribution. Computation was continued for eight iterations of mutually interactive prism

  13. Anal Carcinoma: Impact of TN Category of Disease on Survival, Disease Relapse, and Colostomy Failure in US Gastrointestinal Intergroup RTOG 98-11 Phase 3 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, Leonard L.; Moughan, Jennifer; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Pedersen, John E.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Benson, Al B.; Thomas, Charles R.; Haddock, Michael G.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The long-term update of US GI Intergroup RTOG 98-11 anal cancer trial found that concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) with fluorouracil (5-FU) plus mitomycin had a significant impact on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with induction plus concurrent 5-FU plus cisplatin. The intent of the current analysis was to determine the impact of tumor node (TN) category of disease on survival (DFS and OS), colostomy failure (CF), and relapse (local-regional failure [LRF] and distant metastases [DM]) in this patient group. Methods and Materials: DFS and OS were estimated univariately by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and 6 TN categories were compared by the log–rank test (T2N0, T3N0, T4N0, T2N1-3, T3N1-3, and T4N1-3). Time to relapse and colostomy were estimated by the cumulative incidence method, and TN categories were compared using Gray's test. Results: Of 682 patients, 620 were analyzable for outcomes by TN category. All endpoints showed statistically significant differences among the TN categories of disease (OS, P<.0001; DFS, P<.0001; LRF, P<.0001; DM, P=.0011; CF, P=.01). Patients with the poorest OS, DFS, and LRF outcomes were those with T3-4N-positive (+) disease. CF was lowest for T2N0 and T2N+ (11%, 11%, respectively) and worst for the T4N0, T3N+, and T4N+ categories (26%, 27%, 24%, respectively). Conclusions: TN category of disease has a statistically significant impact on OS, DFS, LRF, DM, and CF in patients treated with CCRT and provides excellent prognostic information for outcomes in patients with anal carcinoma. Significant challenges remain for patients with T4N0 and T3-4N+ categories of disease with regard to survival, relapse, and CF and lesser challenges for T2-3N0/T2N+ categories.

  14. Dispersal of Carbapenemase blaVIM-1 Gene Associated with Different Tn402 Variants, Mercury Transposons, and Conjugative Plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Tato, Marta; Coque, Teresa M.; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of blaVIM-1 within four different genetic platforms from distinct Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in an area with a low prevalence of metallo-β-lactamase producers is reported. Forty-three VIM-1-producing isolates (including 19 Enterobacter cloacae, 2 Escherichia coli, and 2 P. aeruginosa isolates, 18 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate, and 2 Klebsiella oxytoca isolate) recovered from 2005 to 2007 and corresponding to 15 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types were studied. The Enterobacteriaceae isolates corresponded to a hospital outbreak, and the P. aeruginosa isolates were sporadically recovered. The genetic context of the integrons carrying blaVIM-1 (arbitrarily designated types A, B, C, and D) was characterized by PCR mapping based on known Tn402 and mercury transposons and further sequencing. Among Enterobacteriaceae isolates, blaVIM-1 was part of integrons located either in an In2-Tn402 element linked to Tn21 (type A; In110-blaVIM-1-aacA4-aadA1) or in a Tn402 transposon lacking the whole tni module [type B; In113-blaVIM-1-aacA4-dhfrII (also called dfrB1)-aadA1-catB2] and the transposon was associated with an IncHI2 or IncI1 plasmid, respectively. Among P. aeruginosa isolates, blaVIM-1 was part of a new gene cassette array located in a defective Tn402 transposon carrying either tniBΔ3 and tniA (type C; blaVIM-1-aadA1) or tniC and ΔtniQ (type D; blaVIM-1-aadB), and both Tn402 variants were associated with conjugative plasmids of 30 kb. The dissemination of blaVIM-1 was associated with different genetic structures and bacterial hosts, depicting a complex emergence and evolutionary network scenario in our facility, Ramón y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid, Spain. Knowledge of the complex epidemiology of blaVIM-1 is necessary to control this emerging threat. PMID:19901094

  15. Geologic map of the Fish Creek Reservoir 7.5' quadrangle, Blaine County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skipp, Betty; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2012-01-01

    The Fish Creek Reservoir quadrangle in south-central Idaho lies on the north-central margin of the Cenozoic Snake River Plain at the southern end of the Pioneer Mountains. Rocks exposed in the quadrangle range in age from Paleozoic through Cenozoic. Mesozoic rocks are absent. Though Triassic and Jurassic sedimentary rocks may have been deposited in this area, they have been removed by erosion following uplift and thrusting of the Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary Sevier orogeny. The Late Devonian to Early Mississippian Antler orogeny preceded the Sevier. Ordovician through Devonian rocks of western-derived shale and sandstone facies and eastern carbonate shelf facies are unconformably overlain respectively by Pennsylvanian-Permian Wood River and Mississippian Copper Basin Formations. These two sequences are exposed in structural windows juxtaposed by the Sevier-age Pioneer thrust fault. Interpretive cross-sections accompany the map. Volcanic rocks of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group, Miocene Idavada Volcanics, and Pleistocene Snake River Group cover parts of the area that remains tectonically active.

  16. Origin and structural implications of upper Miocene rhyolites in Kingston Canyon, Piute County, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowley, P.D.; Steven, T.A.; Mehnert, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Kingston Canyon is one of the deepest antecedent canyons in the High Plateaus subprovince of the Colorado Plateaus. Here the E Fork of the Sevier River flows westward transversely across the gently E tilted Sevier Plateau, which is developed on a basin-range fault block uplifted more than 1500m along the Sevier fault zone on the W. Upper Tertiary rhyolites, uncommon in SW Utah, occur both on the northern rim and in the bottom of Kingston Canyon. Those on the northern rim consist of lava flows and volcanic domes of the rhyolite of Forshea Mountain, dated by K/Ar methods at 7.6Ma old. Those in the bottom of Kingston Canyon, the rhyolite of Phonolite Hill, are especially well exposed and provide spectacular examples of a pyroclastic cone whose base is about at river level and a steep-sided volcanic dome emplaced into and through these deposits. The pyroclastic deposits, formerly 500 or more metres thick, consist of airfall, mudflow, and ash-flow(?) material of rhyolite and foreign lithic fragments especially olivine basalt. The dome consists of flow-banded, mostly devitrified rhyolite as much as 500m thick; it has been dated by K/Ar methods at 5.4Ma. In addition to the rhyolites, a dome and lava-flow complex, the rhyodacite of Dry Lake, occurs near the northern rim and is considered to postdate the rhyolite of Forshea Mountain and predate the rhyolite of Phonolite Hill. -from Authors

  17. Spatial variability assessment of soil nutrients in an intense agricultural area, a case study of Rugao County in Yangtze River Delta Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongcun; Xu, Xianghua; Darilek, Jeremy Landon; Huang, Biao; Sun, Weixia; Shi, Xuezheng

    2009-05-01

    Topsoil samples (0-20 cm) ( n = 237) were collected from Rugao County, China. Geostatistical variogram analysis, sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and principal component (PC) analysis were applied to assess spatial variability of soil nutrients, identify the possible areas of nutrient deficiency, and explore spatial scale of variability of soil nutrients in the county. High variability of soil nutrient such as soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), available P, K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B concentrations were observed. Soil nutrient properties displayed significant differences in their spatial structures, with available Cu having strong spatial dependence, SOM and available P having weak spatial dependence, and other nutrient properties having moderate spatial dependence. The soil nutrient deficiency, defined here as measured nutrient concentrations which do not meet the advisory threshold values specific to the county for dominant crops, namely rice, wheat, and rape seeds, was observed in available K and Zn, and the deficient areas covered 38 and 11%, respectively. The first three PCs of the nine soil nutrient properties explained 62.40% of the total variance. TN and SOM with higher loadings on PC1 are closely related to soil texture derived from different parent materials. The PC2 combined intermediate response variables such as available Zn and P that are likely to be controlled by land use and soil pH. Available B has the highest loading on PC3 and its variability of concentrations may be primarily ascribed to localized anthropogenic influence. The amelioration of soil physical properties (i.e. soil texture) and soil pH may improve the availability of soil nutrients and the sustainability of the agricultural system of Rugao County.

  18. Fresno County Mock Trial Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno City Unified School District, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: The Fresno County Office of Education and the Fresno Unified School District hosted the Mock Trial Competition. The state competition is sponsored by the Constitutional Rights Foundation, with cosponsorship from the California State Bar Association and the California Young Lawyer's Association. This…

  19. Kinship Care in Walton County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon, Sara L.; Nackerud, Larry

    1996-01-01

    The quality of life of maltreated children placed with relatives was examined through interviews with nine families in Walton County (Georgia) who had taken in related children. Over half of the children had experienced some improvement in home life, school performance, and their physical and mental status. Kinship care families indicated needs…

  20. San Diego County Literacy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, June; And Others

    The Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) database for San Diego County reported in this document includes demographic and reading appraisal data collected during 15 months through April 1990 for more than 60,000 students in 6 diverse programs. Some of the findings resulting from analysis of the database include the following: (1)…

  1. Somerset County Employer Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rephann, Terance J.

    Allegany Community College in Cumberland, Maryland, conducted an employer assessment survey of Somerset County businesses during the winter of 1995 in order to provide evaluation data for planning and curriculum development for the secondary and postsecondary educational institutions. The survey was mailed to 760 establishments, with a 29 percent…

  2. Geothermal development plan: Pima County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The Pima County Area Development evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. Four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 1000 C (2120 F) were identified. In addition, one area is identified as having a temperature of 1470 F (2970 F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in Tecson where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing sector and the existence of major copper mines provide opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. However, available water supplies are identified as a major constraing to projected growth. A regional energy analysis, future predictions for energy consumption, and energy prices are given. Potential geothermal users in Pima County are identified and projections of maximum economic geothermal utilization are given. One hundred fifteen firms in 32 industrial classes have some potential for geothermal use are identified. In addition, 26 agribusiness firms were found in the county.

  3. Hydrogeology of Wood County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batten, W.G.

    1989-01-01

    The average rate of ground·water pumpage in Wood County in 1985 was 9.7 million gallons per day. Of this rate, about 6 million gallons per day is pumped from municipal-supply wells in seven communities.An additional 1.08 million gallons per day is pumped for agricultural irrigation.

  4. Southern Nevada Library Services; Serving Lincoln County, Nye County, Esmeralda County through the Clark County Library District: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Phyllis I.

    An anecdotal review covers the first year of increased library service in Nye, Lincoln, and Esmeralda Counties, Nevada, under the Southern Nevada Library Services project funded by the Library Services and Construction Act. Using information from questionnaires and site visits, the extent of library services in each community in the area is…

  5. Hydrogeology of Webb County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2004-01-01

    IntroductionWebb County, in semiarid South Texas on the U.S.-Mexico border, is a region confronted by increasing stresses on natural resources. Laredo (fig. 1), the largest city in Webb County (population 193,000 in 2000), was one of the 10 fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the country during 1990-2000 (Perry and Mackun, 2001). Commercial and industrial activities have expanded throughout the region to support the maquiladora industry (manufacturing plants in Mexico) along the border and other growth as a result of the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement. The Rio Grande currently (2002) is the primary source of public water supply for Laredo and other cities along the border in Webb County (fig. 1). Other cities, such as Bruni and Mirando City in the southeastern part of the county, rely on ground-water supplies to meet municipal demands. Increased water demand associated with development and population growth in the region has increased the need for the City of Laredo and Webb County to evaluate alternative water sources to meet future demand. Possible options include (1) supplementing the surface-water supply with ground water, and (2) applying artificial storage and recovery (ASR) technology to recharge local aquifers. These options raise issues regarding the hydraulic capability of the aquifers to store economically substantial quantities of water, current or potential uses of the resource, and possible effects on the quality of water resulting from mixing ground water with alternative source waters. To address some of these issues, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Laredo, began a study in 1996 to assess the ground-water resources of Webb County. A hydrogeologic study was conducted to review and analyze available information on the hydrogeologic units (aquifers and confining units) in Webb County, to locate available wells in the region with water-level and water-quality information from the aquifers, and to

  6. A large inversion in the linear chromosome of Streptomyces griseus caused by replicative transposition of a new Tn3 family transposon.

    PubMed

    Murata, M; Uchida, T; Yang, Y; Lezhava, A; Kinashi, H

    2011-04-01

    We have comprehensively analyzed the linear chromosomes of Streptomyces griseus mutants constructed and kept in our laboratory. During this study, macrorestriction analysis of AseI and DraI fragments of mutant 402-2 suggested a large chromosomal inversion. The junctions of chromosomal inversion were cloned and sequenced and compared with the corresponding target sequences in the parent strain 2247. Consequently, a transposon-involved mechanism was revealed. Namely, a transposon originally located at the left target site was replicatively transposed to the right target site in an inverted direction, which generated a second copy and at the same time caused a 2.5-Mb chromosomal inversion. The involved transposon named TnSGR was grouped into a new subfamily of the resolvase-encoding Tn3 family transposons based on its gene organization. At the end, terminal diversity of S. griseus chromosomes is discussed by comparing the sequences of strains 2247 and IFO13350.

  7. Defining essential genes and identifying virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis by massively-parallel sequencing of transposon libraries (Tn-seq)

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Brian A.; Duncan, Margaret J.; Hu, Linden T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in the development and progression of periodontal disease. Obstacles to the development of saturated transposon libraries have previously limited transposon mutant-based screens as well as essential gene studies. We have developed a system for efficient transposon mutagenesis of P. gingivalis using a modified mariner transposon. Tn-seq is a technique that allows for quantitative assessment of individual mutants within a transposon mutant library by sequencing the transposon-genome junctions and then compiling mutant presence by mapping to a base genome. Using Tn-seq, it is possible to quickly define all the insertional mutants in a library and thus identify non-essential genes under the conditions in which the library was produced. Identification of fitness of individual mutants under specific conditions can be performed by exposing the library to selective pressures. PMID:25636611

  8. Two types of phytases (histidine acid phytase and β-propeller phytase) in Serratia sp. TN49 from the gut of Batocera horsfieldi (coleoptera) larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Yang, Peilong; Huang, Huoqing; Shi, Pengjun; Yuan, Tiezheng; Yao, Bin

    2011-11-01

    Microbial phytases play a major role in the mineralization of organic phosphorous, especially in symbiotic plants and animals. In this study, we identified two types of phytases in Serratia sp. TN49 that was harbored in the gut of Batocera horsfieldi (Coleoptera) larvae. The two phytases, an acidic histidine acid phosphatase (PhyH49) and an alkaline β-propeller phytase (PhyB49), shared low identities with known phytases (61% at most). PhyH49 and PhyB49 produced in Escherichia coli exhibited maximal activities at pH 5.0 (60°C) and pH 7.5-8.0 (45°C), respectively, and are complementary in phytate degradation over the pH range 2.0-9.0. Serratia sp. TN49 harboring both PhyH49 and PhyB49 might make it more adaptive to environment change, corresponding to the evolution trend of microorganism.

  9. Genome-Wide Fitness and Genetic Interactions Determined by Tn-seq, a High-Throughput Massively Parallel Sequencing Method for Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    van Opijnen, Tim; Lazinski, David W; Camilli, Andrew

    2014-04-14

    The lagging annotation of bacterial genomes and the inherent genetic complexity of many phenotypes is hindering the discovery of new drug targets and the development of new antimicrobial agents and vaccines. This unit presents Tn-seq, a method that has made it possible to quantitatively determine fitness for most genes in a microorganism and to screen for quantitative genetic interactions on a genome-wide scale and in a high-throughput fashion. Tn-seq can thus direct studies on the annotation of genes and untangle complex phenotypes. The method is based on the construction of a saturated transposon insertion library. After library selection, changes in the frequency of each insertion mutant are determined by sequencing flanking regions en masse. These changes are used to calculate each mutant's fitness. The method was originally developed for the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a causative agent of pneumonia and meningitis, but has now been applied to several different microbial species.

  10. Genome-Wide Fitness and Genetic Interactions Determined by Tn-seq, a High-Throughput Massively Parallel Sequencing Method for Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    van Opijnen, Tim; Lazinski, David W; Camilli, Andrew

    2015-02-02

    The lagging annotation of bacterial genomes and the inherent genetic complexity of many phenotypes is hindering the discovery of new drug targets and the development of new antimicrobial agents and vaccines. This unit presents Tn-seq, a method that has made it possible to quantitatively determine fitness for most genes in a microorganism and to screen for quantitative genetic interactions on a genome-wide scale and in a high-throughput fashion. Tn-seq can thus direct studies on the annotation of genes and untangle complex phenotypes. The method is based on the construction of a saturated transposon insertion library. After library selection, changes in the frequency of each insertion mutant are determined by sequencing flanking regions en masse. These changes are used to calculate each mutant's fitness. The method was originally developed for the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a causative agent of pneumonia and meningitis, but has now been applied to several different microbial species.

  11. Hfq restructures RNA-IN and RNA-OUT and facilitates antisense pairing in the Tn10/IS10 system.

    PubMed

    Ross, Joseph A; Ellis, Michael J; Hossain, Shahan; Haniford, David B

    2013-05-01

    Hfq functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in a wide range of bacteria, usually by promoting base-pairing of mRNAs and trans-encoded sRNAs that share partial sequence complementarity. It is less clear if Hfq is required for pairing of cis-encoded RNAs (i.e., antisense RNAs) with their target mRNAs. In the current work, we have characterized the interactions between Escherichia coli Hfq and the components of the Tn10/IS10 antisense system, RNA-IN and RNA-OUT. We show that Hfq interacts with RNA-OUT through its proximal RNA-binding surface, as is typical for Hfq and trans-encoded sRNAs. In contrast, RNA-IN binds both proximal and distal RNA-binding surfaces in Hfq with a higher affinity for the latter, as is typical for mRNA interactions in canonical sRNA-mRNA pairs. Importantly, an amino acid substitution in Hfq that interferes with RNA binding to the proximal site negatively impacts RNA-IN:OUT pairing in vitro and suppresses the ability of Hfq to negatively regulate IS10 transposition in vivo. We also show that Hfq binding to RNA-IN and RNA-OUT alters secondary structure elements in both of these RNAs and speculate that this could be important in how Hfq facilitates RNA-IN:OUT pairing. Based on the results presented here, we suggest that Hfq could be involved in regulating RNA pairing in other antisense systems, including systems encoded by other transposable elements.

  12. Symbiotic Streptomyces sp. TN119 GH 11 xylanase: a new pH-stable, protease- and SDS-resistant xylanase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junpei; Shi, Pengjun; Zhang, Rui; Huang, Huoqing; Meng, Kun; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2011-04-01

    A pH-stable and protease-resistant xylanase (XynB119) was identified from Streptomyces sp. TN119, a strain isolated from the gut luminal contents of longhorned beetle (Batocera horsfieldi) larvae. Using the GC TAIL-PCR method, the 1,026-bp coding gene (xynB119) with 67.3% GC content was successfully cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. It encodes a 341-residue polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 35.9 kDa, including a putative 41-residue signal peptide, a catalytic domain of glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 11, a short Gly/Pro-rich linker, and a family 2 cellulose-binding domain (CBM 2). The deduced amino acid sequence is most similar to (61.9% identity) an endo-1,4-β-xylanase from Streptomyces thermoviolaceus OPC-520. Purified recombinant XynB119 exhibited peak activity at 50 °C and pH 7.0, remained stable over a broad pH range (retaining >70% activity after incubation at pH 1.0-11.0 for 1 h at 37 °C without substrate), had strong protease resistance (retaining >90% activity after proteolytic treatment at 37 °C for 1 h) and SDS resistance (at 100 mM). These properties make XynB119 promising for application in the feed industry and valuable for basic research. Compared to r-XynB119, the r-XynB119 derivative without CBM 2 and linker region (r-XynB119d) exhibited a decreased pH stability of >25% at extreme pHs (pH 1.0-3.0 and pH 11.0-12.0).

  13. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grimsvötn ash plumes as seen by GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, R.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The injection of a volcanic plume introduces a dynamic, localized, short-term heterogeneity in the atmosphere. Satellite-imagery based remote sensing techniques provide good spatial coverage for the detection of such plumes, but slow satellite repeat times (>30 minutes) and cloud cover can delay, if not entirely prevent, the detection. GPS, in turn, provides excellent temporal coverage, but requires favorable satellite-station-geometry such that the signal propagates through the plume if it is to be used for plume detection and analysis. Two methods exist to detect / analyze ash plumes with GPS: (a) Ash-heavy plumes result in signal dispersion and hence a lowered signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A lowered SNR, recorded by some receivers, can provide useful information about the plume, such as location and velocity of ascent. These data can be evaluated directly as they are recorded by the receiver; without the need of solving for a receiver's position. (b) Wet plumes refract the GPS signals piercing the plume and hence induce a propagation delay. When solving for a receiver position GPS analysis tools do not model this localized phase delay effect and solutions for plume-piercing satellites do not fit the data well. This can be exploited for plume analysis such as the estimation of changes to the atmospheric refractivity index. We analyze GPS data of the ~2 month 2010 Eyafjallajökull erption and the week-long 2011 Grímsvötn eruption to infer a first order estimate of plume geometry and its progression. Using SNR and phase delay information, we evaluate the evolution of the partitioning of wet versus dry parts of the plume. During the GPS processing we iteratively solve for phase-delay and position and fix other parameters, hence reducing the mapping of least-squares misfit into position estimates and other parameters. Nearly continuous webcam imagery provides independent observations of first-order plume characteristics for the Eyafjallajökull event.

  14. Impacts of cool cities on air quality: A preliminary modeling assessment for Nashville TN, Dallas TX and Atlanta GA

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Haider

    1998-06-15

    Previous atmospheric modeling efforts that concentrated on the Los Angeles Basin suggested beneficial and significant air quality impacts from cool cities strategies. This paper discusses an extension of similar modeling efforts to three regions, Atlanta GA, Dallas - Ft. Worth TX, and Nashville TN, that experience smog and air quality problems. According to the older ozone air quality standard (120 ppb), these regions were classified as serious, moderate, and marginal, respectively, but may be out of compliance with respect to the newer, 80-ppb/8-hours standard. Results from this exploratory modeling work suggest a range of possible impacts on meteorological and air quality conditions. For example, peak ozone concentrations during each region's respective episode could be decreased by 1-6 ppb (conservative and optimistic scenarios, respectively) in Nashville, 5-15 ppb in Dallas - Fort Worth, and 5-12 ppb in Atlanta following implementation of cool cities. The reductions are generally smaller than those obtained from simulating the Los Angeles Basin but are still significant. In all regions, the simulations suggest, the net, domain-wide effects of cool cities are reductions in ozone mass and improvements in air quality. In Atlanta, Nashville, and Dallas, urban areas benefiting from reduced smog reach up to 8460, 7350, and 12870 km{sup 2} in area, respectively. Results presented in this paper should be taken as exploratory and preliminary. These will most likely change during a more comprehensive modeling study to be started soon with the support of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The main purpose of the present project was to obtain the initial data (emission inventories) for these regions, simulate meteorological conditions, and perform preliminary sensitivity analysis. In the future, additional regions will be simulated to assess the potential of cool cities in improving urban air quality.

  15. A Phenotypically Silent vanB2 Operon Carried on a Tn1549-Like Element in Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Daniel R.; Androga, Grace O.; Ballard, Susan A.; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has reached an epidemic state with increasing incidence and severity in both health care and community settings. Vancomycin is an important first-line therapy for CDI, and the emergence of resistance would have significant clinical consequences. In this study, we describe for the first time a vanB2 vancomycin resistance operon in C. difficile, isolated from an Australian veal calf at slaughter. The operon was carried on an ~42-kb element showing significant homology and synteny to Tn1549, a conjugative transposon linked with the emergence and global dissemination of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Notably, the C. difficile strain did not show any reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in vitro (MIC, 1 mg/liter), possibly as a result of an aberrant vanRB gene. As observed for other anaerobic species of the animal gut microbiota, C. difficile may be a reservoir of clinically important vancomycin resistance genes. IMPORTANCE In an era when the development of new antimicrobial drugs is slow, vancomycin remains the preferred antimicrobial therapy for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most important health care-related infection in the world today. The emergence of resistance to vancomycin would have significant consequences in relation to treating patients with CDI. In this paper, we describe for the first time a complete set of vancomycin resistance genes in C. difficile. The genes were very similar to genes found in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) that were associated with the emergence and global dissemination of this organism. Fortunately, the C. difficile strain did not show any reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in vitro (MIC, 1 mg/liter), possibly because of a small difference in one gene. However, this observation signals that we may be very close to seeing a fully vancomycin-resistant strain of C. difficile. PMID:27536735

  16. Dissemination of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. in China: Main Roles of Conjugative Plasmid pAZJ221 and Transposon Tn2009

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Lin; Ji, Shu-Juan; Ruan, Zhi; Fu, Ying; Fu, Yi-Qi; Wang, Yan-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Production of the OXA-23 carbapenemase is the most common reason for the increasing carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. This study was conducted to reveal the genetic basis of blaOXA-23 dissemination in Acinetobacter spp. in China. A total of 63 carbapenem-resistant OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter sp. isolates, representing different backgrounds, were selected from 28 hospitals in 18 provinces for this study. Generally, two patterns of plasmids carrying blaOXA-23 were detected according to S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern blot hybridization. A ca. 78-kb plasmid, designated pAZJ221, was found in 23 Acinetobacter baumannii and three Acinetobacter nosocomialis isolates, while a novel ca. 50-kb plasmid was carried by only two other A. baumannii isolates. Three of these isolates had an additional copy of blaOXA-23 on the chromosome. Transformation of the two plasmids succeeded, but only pAZJ221 was conjugative. Plasmid pAZJ221 was sequenced completely and found to carry no previously known resistance genes except blaOXA-23. The blaOXA-23 gene of the remaining 35 isolates was chromosome borne. The blaOXA-23 genetic environments were correlated with Tn2009 in 57 isolates, Tn2008 in 5 isolates, and Tn2006 in 1 isolate. The MIC values for the carbapenems with these isolates were not significantly associated with the genomic locations or the copy numbers of blaOXA-23. Overall, these observations suggest that the plasmid pAZJ221 and Tn2009 have effectively contributed to the wide dissemination of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. in China and that horizontal gene transfer may play an important role in dissemination of the blaOXA-23 gene. PMID:25605357

  17. Deformation of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, 1992-2014: Constraints on magma flow in relation to eruptions in 1998, 2004 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hreinsdottir, Sigrun; Sturkell, Erik; Ofeigsson, Benedikt; Einarsson, Pall; Roberts, Matthew; Grapenthin, Ronni; Villemin, Thierry; Arnadottir, Thora; Geirsson, Halldor

    2014-05-01

    A time series of ground deformation at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland from 1992 to 2014 reveals deformation due to plate movements, glacial-isostatic uplift in response to the melting of the Vatnajökull ice cap, annual changes due to snow loading and magma movements. GPS measurements have been made at one nunatak, conducted intermittently since 1992 and continuously since 2004. During this period eruptions have occurred at Grímsvötn in 1998, 2004 and 2011. The component of displacement related to magma movements is obtained after the time series are corrected for signals due to other processes. Uplift and displacement away from the caldera occurs between eruptions at a rate of few cm/yr, interrupted by sudden co-eruptive subsidence and displacement towards the caldera (up to half a meter). This inflation/deflation pattern suggests deformation driven by pressure change in an upper crustal magma chamber, similar to other highly active calderas in Iceland such as Askja and Krafla. A simple model of pressure change variation in a magma chamber at shallow depth, with variable inflow between eruptions and outflow during eruptions can explain the observed deformation pattern. The erupted volume of magma in the 2011 eruption is about 10 times larger than the inferred co-eruptive volume change, attributed to compressibility of magma in the chamber. The magma compressibility is inferred to have remained constant during the 2011 eruption, as about constant scale factor is found during that eruption between eruption rate and displacement rate. This scale factor is, however, about five times lower for the 2004 eruption. This difference implies higher compressibility of magma in the shallow Grímsvötn magma chamber during the 2011 eruption compared to 2004, assuming the active part of the Grimsvötn magma plumbing system remained the same in both eruptions.

  18. Dissemination of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. in China: main roles of conjugative plasmid pAZJ221 and transposon Tn2009.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Lin; Ji, Shu-Juan; Ruan, Zhi; Fu, Ying; Fu, Yi-Qi; Wang, Yan-Fei; Yu, Yun-Song

    2015-04-01

    Production of the OXA-23 carbapenemase is the most common reason for the increasing carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. This study was conducted to reveal the genetic basis of blaOXA-23 dissemination in Acinetobacter spp. in China. A total of 63 carbapenem-resistant OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter sp. isolates, representing different backgrounds, were selected from 28 hospitals in 18 provinces for this study. Generally, two patterns of plasmids carrying blaOXA-23 were detected according to S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern blot hybridization. A ca. 78-kb plasmid, designated pAZJ221, was found in 23 Acinetobacter baumannii and three Acinetobacter nosocomialis isolates, while a novel ca. 50-kb plasmid was carried by only two other A. baumannii isolates. Three of these isolates had an additional copy of blaOXA-23 on the chromosome. Transformation of the two plasmids succeeded, but only pAZJ221 was conjugative. Plasmid pAZJ221 was sequenced completely and found to carry no previously known resistance genes except blaOXA-23. The blaOXA-23 gene of the remaining 35 isolates was chromosome borne. The blaOXA-23 genetic environments were correlated with Tn2009 in 57 isolates, Tn2008 in 5 isolates, and Tn2006 in 1 isolate. The MIC values for the carbapenems with these isolates were not significantly associated with the genomic locations or the copy numbers of blaOXA-23. Overall, these observations suggest that the plasmid pAZJ221 and Tn2009 have effectively contributed to the wide dissemination of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. in China and that horizontal gene transfer may play an important role in dissemination of the blaOXA-23 gene.

  19. Molecular diversity and transferability of the tetracycline resistance gene tet(M), carried on Tn916-1545 family transposons, in enterococci from a total food chain.

    PubMed

    Rizzotti, Lucia; La Gioia, Federica; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, 20 enterococci belonging to the species Enterococcus faecalis (12 strains), Enterococcus faecium (4), Enterococcus durans (2), Enterococcus hirae (1) and Enterococcus mundtii (1) and originating from a total production chain of swine meat commodities were analysed to investigate the diversity of their tetracycline resistance gene tet(M). PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis showed that the tet(M) gene of most strains can be correlated with the Tn916 transposon. Conversely, tet(M) of six E. faecalis and the E. hirae strain, all isolated from pig faecal samples, may be associated with previously undescribed members of the Tn916-1545 transposon family. In vitro filter conjugation trials showed the ability of 50% of the enterococcal strains, including E. mundtii, to transfer the tet(M) gene (and the associated Tn916 and new transposons) to E. faecalis or Listeria innocua recipient strains. tet(M) gene transfer to L. innocua recipient was also directly observed in meat food products. Collectively, these sequence and conjugation data indicate that various transposons can be responsible of the spread of tetracycline resistance in enterococci and validate the opinion that Enterococcus species are important sources of antibiotic resistance genes for potentially pathogenic bacteria occurring in the food chain.

  20. Bio-preservative effect of the essential oil of the endemic Mentha piperita used alone and in combination with BacTN635 in stored minced beef meat.

    PubMed

    Smaoui, Slim; Hsouna, Anis Ben; Lahmar, Aida; Ennouri, Karim; Mtibaa-Chakchouk, Ahlem; Sellem, Imen; Najah, Soumaya; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Mellouli, Lotfi

    2016-07-01

    The major compounds in Mentha piperita essential oil (EOMP) were menthol (33.59%) and iso-menthone (33%). The biopreservative effect of EOMP used alone at 0.25 or 0.5% and in combination with the semi-purified bacteriocin BacTN635 at 500 or 1000AU/g, on minced beef meat was evaluated by microbiological, physicochemical and sensory analyses during storage at 4°C for 21days. EOMP used alone limited the microbial deterioration of minced meat (P<0.05). Furthermore, the combination between EOMP and BacTN635 led to a decrease in TBARS values and slowed down the accumulation of MetMb. This combination was more efficient (P<0.05) against microflora proliferation and enhanced the sensory acceptability extending thus the shelf life of meat beef by approximately 7days. On the basis of these results, physicochemical and sensorial parameters could be used for constructing regression models to predict overall acceptability. Overall, the strongest preservative effect was achieved by using the combination of EOMP at 0.5% with BacTN535 at 1000AU/g.

  1. Transductional mapping of ksgB and a new Tn5-induced kasugamycin resistance gene, ksgD, in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Fouts, K E; Barbour, S D

    1981-02-01

    We have mapped the Escherichia coli ksgB gene to min 36.5, 0.8 min from man and 0.7 min from aroD. A new kasugamycin resistance (Ksgr) gene, ksgD, has been isolated, using a transposon, Tn5. ksgD::TN5 is 44% cotransducible with sbcA, unlinked to trp, and unlinked to man (by P1 transduction). The ksgD::Tn5 has a late time of entry from HfrB7 (PO43). These data place ksgD clockwise from sbcA (which enters early from HfrB7) at min 30.4. The reistance of ksgB ksgD single and double mutant strains has been quantitated. Single mutations, ksgB or ksgD, gave resistance to 600 micrograms of kasugamycin per ml, whereas a ksgB ksgD strain was able to grow in the presence of kasugamycin levels in excess of 3,000 micrograms/ml. This indicates that the mechanisms of resistance coded for by the two genes are independent and synergistic.

  2. Genome-wide fitness and genetic interactions determined by Tn-seq, a high-throughput massively parallel sequencing method for microorganisms.

    PubMed

    van Opijnen, Tim; Camilli, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    The lagging annotation of bacterial genomes and the inherent genetic complexity of many phenotypes is hindering the discovery of new drug targets and the development of new antimicrobials and vaccines. Here we present the method Tn-seq, with which it has become possible to quantitatively determine fitness for most genes in a microorganism and to screen for quantitative genetic interactions on a genome-wide scale and in a high-throughput fashion. Tn-seq can thus direct studies in the annotation of genes and untangle complex phenotypes. The method is based on the construction of a saturated Mariner transposon insertion library. After library selection, changes in frequency of each insertion mutant are determined by sequencing of the flanking regions en masse. These changes are used to calculate each mutant's fitness. The method has been developed for the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a causative agent of pneumonia and meningitis; however, due to the wide activity of the Mariner transposon, Tn-seq can be applied to many different microbial species.

  3. Insertion of transposon Tn5tac1 in the Sinorhizobium meliloti malate dehydrogenase (mdh) gene results in conditional polar effects on downstream TCA cycle genes.

    PubMed

    Dymov, Sergiy I; Meek, David J J; Steven, Blaire; Driscoll, Brian T

    2004-12-01

    To isolate Sinorhizobium meliloti mutants deficient in malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity, random transposon Tn5tac1 insertion mutants were screened for conditional lethal phenotypes on complex medium. Tn5tac1 has an outward-oriented isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible promoter (Ptac). The insertion in strain Rm30049 was mapped to the mdh gene, which was found to lie directly upstream of the genes encoding succinyl-CoA synthetase (sucCD) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (sucAB and lpdA). Rm30049 required IPTG for wild-type growth in complex media, and had a complex growth phenotype in minimal media with different carbon sources. The mdh:: Tn5tacl insertion eliminated MDH activity under all growth conditions, and activities of succinyl-CoA synthetase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase were affected by the addition of IPTG. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies confirmed that expression from Ptac was induced by IPTG and leaky in its absence. Alfalfa plants inoculated with Rm30049 were chlorotic and stunted, with small white root nodules, and had shoot dry weight and percent-N content values similar to those of uninoculated plants. Cosmid clone pDS15 restored MDH activity to Rm30049, complemented both the mutant growth and symbiotic phenotypes, and was found to carry six complete (sdhB, mdh, sucCDAB) and two partial (IpdA, sdhA) tricarboxylic acid cycle genes.

  4. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater- quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective. In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Waterquality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinkingwater standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county. Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  5. Evaluation of analytical performance and comparison of clinical results of the new generation method AccuTnI+3 for the measurement of cardiac troponin I using both patients and quality control plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Storti, Simona; Masotti, Silvia; Prontera, Concetta; Franzini, Maria; Buzzi, Paola; Casagranda, Ivo; Ciofini, Enrica; Zucchelli, Gian Carlo; Ndreu, Rudina; Passino, Claudio; Clerico, Aldo

    2015-12-07

    The study aims are to evaluate the analytical performance and the clinical results of the chemiluminescent Access AccuTnI+3 immunoassay for the determination of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) with DxI 800 and Access2 platforms and to compare the clinical results obtained with this method with those of three cTnI immunoassays, recently introduced in the European market. The limits of blank (LoB), detection (LoD), and quantitation (LoQ) at 20% CV and 10% CV were 4.5 ng/L and 10.9 ng/L, 17.1 and 30.4 ng/L, respectively. The results of STAT Architect high Sensitive TnI (Abbott Diagnostics), ADVIA Centaur Troponin I Ultra (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics), ST AIA-Pack cTnI third generation (Tosoh Bioscience), and Access AccuTnI+3 (Beckman Coulter Diagnostics) showed very close correlations (R ranging from 0.901 to 0.994) in 122 samples of patients admitted to the emergency department. However, on average there was a difference up to 2.4-fold between the method measuring the highest (ADVIA method) and lowest cTnI values (AccuTnI+3 method). The consensus mean values between methods ranged from 6.2% to 29.6% in 18 quality control samples distributed in an external quality control study (cTnI concentrations ranging from 29.3 ng/L to 1557.5 ng/L). In conclusion, the results of our analytical evaluation concerning the AccuTnI+3 method, using the DxI platform, are well in agreement with those suggested by the manufacturer as well as those reported by some recent studies using the Access2 platform. Our results confirm that the AccuTnI+3 method for the Access2 and DxI 800 platforms is a clinically usable method for cTnI measurement.

  6. 77 FR 74607 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    .... January 17, 1991, Reg; December 18, 2012, Susp. Region VI Arkansas: Black Rock, City of, Lawrence 050118... 18, 2012, Susp. Joseph, Town of, Sevier County.... 490127 March 23, 1976, Emerg; ......do Do....

  7. TN International and ITS operational feedback regarding the decommissioning of obsolete casks dedicated to the transport and/or storage of nuclear raw materials, fuel and used fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Blachet, L.; Bimet, F.; Rennesson, N.

    2008-07-01

    Within the AREVA group, TN International is a major actor regarding the design of casks and transportation for the nuclear cycle. In the early 2005, TN International has started the project of decommissioning some of its own equipment and was hence the first company ever in the AREVA Group to implement this new approach. In order to do so, TN International has based this project by taking into account the AREVA Sustainable Development Charter, the French regulatory framework, the ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs - National Agency for the radioactive waste management) requirements and has deployed a step by step methodology such as radiological characterization following a logical route. The aim was to define a standardized process with optimized solutions regarding the diversity of the cask's fleet. As a general matter, decommissioning of nuclear casks is a brand new field as the nuclear field is more familiar with the dismantling of nuclear facilities and/or nuclear power plant. Nevertheless existing workshops, maintenance facilities, measurements equipments and techniques have been exploited and adapted by TN International in order to turn an ambitious project into a permanent and cost-effective activity. The decommissioning of the nuclear casks implemented by TN International regarding its own needs and the French regulatory framework is formalized by several processes and is materialized for instance by the final disposal of casks as they are or in ISO container packed with cut-off casks and big bags filled with crushed internal cask equipments, etc. The first part of this paper aims to describe the history of the project that started with a specific environmental analysis which took into account the values of AREVA as regards the Sustainable Development principles that were at the time and are still a topic of current concern in the world. The second part will deal with the definition, the design and the implementation of the

  8. Hudson County Community College Periodic Review Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson County Community Coll., Jersey City, NJ.

    Hudson County Community College (HCCC) serves Hudson County, New Jersey. Although the county is the smallest in the state, its 610,000 residents make up one of the most diverse counties in New Jersey. Approximately 40% of residents are Hispanic, 12% are African-American, 10% are Asian, and 35% are White. The county is also home to a growing Middle…

  9. 32. Photocopy of original drawing in possession of the County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photocopy of original drawing in possession of the County Auditor, Johnson County, Iowa. PROFILE OF HIGHWAY BRIDGE OVER CEDAR RIVER AT SUTLIFF'S FERRY IN JOHNSON COUNTY, IOWA, 1897. (RIGHT 1/4 OF DRAWING) PLAN OF APPROACH FOR SUTLIFF'S FERRY BRIDGE OVER CEDAR RIVER, JOHNSON COUNTY, IOWA, 1897 - Sutliff's Ferry Bridge, Spanning Cedar River (Cedar Township), Solon, Johnson County, IA

  10. 78 FR 60686 - Establishment of the Big Valley District-Lake County and Kelsey Bench-Lake County Viticultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... District-Lake County and Kelsey Bench-Lake County Viticultural Areas and Modification of the Red Hills Lake... the boundary of the established 31,250-acre Red Hills Lake County viticultural area in order to align... boundary based on USGS map markings. Big Valley District-Lake County and Kelsey Bench-Lake County...

  11. Tourism Market Analysis: Cheyenne-Laramie County

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    of a study prepared by the U.S. Travel Data Center in 1981. It found that tourism substantially contributes to Wyoming employment and income. Tourist...of the annual total in the county. Economic Impact of Tourism in Laramie County The 1981 study by U.S. Travel Commission breaks out the economic...implications of tourism by county. The methodology used in estimating eco- nomic impact likely results in overstating its benefits since anyone traveling

  12. Waste source reduction county government case study

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    Itasca County is located in north-central Minnesota, has a population of 42,000 and is known for its forests and scenic waterways. With Beltrami County, it contains the upper watershed of the Mississippi River. Its major industries are timber and tourism. Itasca County government made a commitment to source reduce its waste as much as possible. Secondarily, what they could not reduce they committed themselves to recycle. The project demonstrates functional reduction in practice. It shows that reduction is a realistic goal for county governments and that reduction can be measured on a waste stream by waste stream basis.

  13. Water resources of Lehigh County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Charles R.; Flippo, Herbert N.; Lescinsky, Joseph B.; Barker, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Lehigh County occupies an area of 347 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. The northern part of Lehigh County is underlain by the Martinsburg Formation, which consists chiefly of shale and slate. The central part of the county, where most of the population centers are located and much of the urbanization is occurring, is underlain by alternating beds of limestone and dolomite. From oldest to youngest, these carbonate rocks are the Leithsville Formation, the Allentown Formation, the Beekmantown Group, and the Jacksonburg Formation. The southern part of the county is underlain chiefly by the shales, sandstones, and conglomerates of the Brunswick Formation and by metamorphic and igneous rocks.

  14. First Report of a Clinical, Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolate Coharboring Fosfomycin Resistance Gene fosA3 and Carbapenemase Gene blaKPC-2 on the Same Transposon, Tn1721

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Ying; Bi, Dexi; Shen, Pinghua; Ai, Fuqi; Liu, Hong; Tian, Yueru; Ma, Yiming; Wang, Bei; Rajakumar, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic background and dissemination mechanism of carbapenem resistance and fosfomycin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolates, we studied a clinical Escherichia coli strain HS102707 isolate and an Enterobacter aerogenes strain HS112625 isolate, both of which were resistant to carbapenem and fosfomycin and positive for the blaKPC-2 and fosA3 genes. In addition, a clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strain HS092839 isolate which was resistant to carbapenem was also studied. A 70-kb plasmid was successfully transferred to recipient E. coli J53 by a conjugation test. PCR and Southern blot analysis showed that blaKPC-2 was located on this plasmid. The complete sequence of pHS102707 showed that this plasmid belongs to the P11 subfamily (IncP1) and has a replication gene, several plasmid-stable genes, an intact type IV secretion system gene cluster, and a composite transposon Tn1721-Tn3 that harbored blaKPC-2. Interestingly, a composite IS26 transposon carrying fosA3 was inserted in the Tn1721-tnpA gene in pHS102707 and pHS112625, leading to the disruption of Tn1721-tnpA and the deletion of Tn1721-tnpR. However, only IS26 with a truncated Tn21-tnpR was inserted in pHS092839 at the same position. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fosA3 and blaKPC-2 colocated in the same Tn1721-Tn3–like composite transposon on a novel IncP group plasmid. PMID:25367902

  15. First report of a clinical, multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolate coharboring fosfomycin resistance gene fosA3 and carbapenemase gene blaKPC-2 on the same transposon, Tn1721.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Ying; Bi, Dexi; Shen, Pinghua; Ai, Fuqi; Liu, Hong; Tian, Yueru; Ma, Yiming; Wang, Bei; Rajakumar, Kumar; Ou, Hong-Yu; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic background and dissemination mechanism of carbapenem resistance and fosfomycin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolates, we studied a clinical Escherichia coli strain HS102707 isolate and an Enterobacter aerogenes strain HS112625 isolate, both of which were resistant to carbapenem and fosfomycin and positive for the bla(KPC-2) and fosA3 genes. In addition, a clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strain HS092839 isolate which was resistant to carbapenem was also studied. A 70-kb plasmid was successfully transferred to recipient E. coli J53 by a conjugation test. PCR and Southern blot analysis showed that bla(KPC-2) was located on this plasmid. The complete sequence of pHS102707 showed that this plasmid belongs to the P11 subfamily (IncP1) and has a replication gene, several plasmid-stable genes, an intact type IV secretion system gene cluster, and a composite transposon Tn1721-Tn3 that harbored bla(KPC-2). Interestingly, a composite IS26 transposon carrying fosA3 was inserted in the Tn1721-tnpA gene in pHS102707 and pHS112625, leading to the disruption of Tn1721-tnpA and the deletion of Tn1721-tnpR. However, only IS26 with a truncated Tn21-tnpR was inserted in pHS092839 at the same position. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fosA3 and bla(KPC-2) colocated in the same Tn1721-Tn3-like composite transposon on a novel IncP group plasmid.

  16. 75 FR 25308 - Environmental Impact Statement: Winnebago County, IL and Rock County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Winnebago County, IL and Rock County, WI... Beloit, Rock County, Wisconsin to the interchange of Rockton Road and I-90 southeast of South...

  17. The Economic Impact of Schenectady County Community College on Schenectady County, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chestnut, Erma Ruth

    This report on the economic impact of Schenectady County Community College (SCCC) uses a modification of the Caffrey and Isaacs model to assess SCCC-related local business volume, SCCC costs and benefits to the Schenectady County government, and the likely impact on the county if SCCC did not exist. Part I provides background to the study,…

  18. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all waters of Green...

  19. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all waters of Green...

  20. 75 FR 31463 - Comal County Regional Habitat Conservation Plan, Comal County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Comal County Regional Habitat Conservation Plan, Comal County, TX AGENCY... statement, draft habitat conservation plan, and permit application; announcement of a public hearing... County has completed a draft Habitat Conservation Plan (dHCP) as part of the application package. We...

  1. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service. ACTION: Notice... environmental impact statement is being prepared for the Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, Iowa... related to water supply demand requirements for permitting by the State was discovered. This...

  2. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  3. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  4. 33 CFR 100.905 - Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Door County Triathlon; Door County, WI. 100.905 Section 100.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.905 Door County...

  5. Digital computer processing of LANDSAT data for North Alabama. [Linestone County, Madison County, Jackson County, Marshall County, and DeKalb County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, A. D.; Atkinson, R. J.; Lybanon, M.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1977-01-01

    Computer processing procedures and programs applied to Multispectral Scanner data from LANDSAT are described. The output product produced is a level 1 land use map in conformance with a Universal Transverse Mercator projection. The region studied was a five-county area in north Alabama.

  6. 6. Photocopy of illustration on Map of Chester County Pennsylvania, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of illustration on Map of Chester County Pennsylvania, by T.J. Kennedy, published by R.L. Barnes, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1856 SOUTHWEST CORNER, 1856 - Bank of Chester County, 17 North High Street, West Chester, Chester County, PA

  7. 75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT AGENCY: Federal... highway project in Yellowstone County, Montana. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brian Hasselbach, Right... (I-90) and Old Highway 312 in or near the city of Billings, Yellowstone County, Montana....

  8. Horizontal gene transfer of atrazine-degrading genes (atz) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens St96-4 pADP1::Tn5 to bacteria of maize-cultivated soil.

    PubMed

    Devers, Marion; Henry, Sonia; Hartmann, Alain; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2005-09-01

    The plasmid pADP1::Tn5 derived from pADP1[Atr+] carrying a Tn5 transposon conferring kanamycin and streptomycin resistances was constructed and introduced in Agrobacterium tumefaciens St96-4. This genetically modified strain was inoculated (approximately 10(8) cfu g(-1)) in potted soils planted with maize and treated or not with atrazine (1.5 mg kg(-1)). Bulk and maize rhizosphere soils were sampled 39 days after planting to look for soil indigenous bacteria that had acquired pADP1::Tn5. Four transconjugants were isolated from four different soil samples. The estimated transfer frequency of pADP1::Tn5 was 10(-4) per donor. Maize rhizosphere and atrazine treatment had no obvious effect on pADP1::Tn5 transfer frequency. The sequencing of the 16S rDNA sequences of the transconjugants revealed that they were almost identical and highly similar to that of Variovorax spp (97%). In addition, their characterization suggested that the atzA and atzB genes had been transferred from pADP1::Tn5 to the bacterial chromosome in two of the four transconjugants. These data suggest that the atz degrading genes are horizontally transferred in soil and possibly subjected to gene rearrangement.

  9. Analysis of the Shallow Groundwater Flow System at Fire Island National Seashore, Suffolk County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schubert, Christopher E.

    2010-01-01

    . A variable-density model of the shallow aquifer system and adjacent marine surface waters was developed to simulate groundwater flow patterns and rates. Nitrogen loads from the shallow aquifer system were calculated from representative total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and simulated groundwater discharges to back-barrier estuaries and the ocean. The model simulates groundwater directions, velocities, and discharge rates under 2005 mean annual conditions. Groundwater budgets were developed for recharge areas of similar land use that contribute freshwater to back-barrier estuaries, the ocean, and subsea-discharge zones. Total freshwater discharge from the shallow aquifer system is about 43,500 cubic meters per day (m3/d) (79.8 percent) to back-barrier estuaries and about 10,200 m3/d (18.7 percent) to the ocean; about 836 m3/d (1.5 percent) may exit the system as subsea underflow. The total contribution of fresh groundwater to shoreline discharge zones amounts to about 53,700 m3/d (98.5 percent). The median age of freshwater discharged to back-barrier estuaries and the ocean was 3.4 years, and the 95th-percentile age was 20 years. The TN concentrations and loads under 2005 mean annual conditions for areas that contribute fresh groundwater to back-barrier estuaries and the ocean were calculated for the principal land uses on Fire Island. The overall TN load from the shallow aquifer system to shoreline discharge zones is about 16,200 kilograms per year (kg/yr) (82.2 percent) to back-barrier estuaries and about 3,500 kg/yr (17.8 percent) to the ocean. The overall TN load to marine surface waters amounts to about 19,700 kg/yr-roughly 6 percent of the annual TN load from shallow groundwater entering the South Shore Estuary Reserve (SSER) from the Suffolk County mainland, which is about 345,000 kg/yr. In contrast to the TN load from shallow groundwater for the SSER watershed, which annually yields about 353 kilograms per square kilometer (kg/km2), the overall TN loa

  10. Determining intensive parameters through clinopyroxene-liquid equilibrium in Grímsvötn 2011 and Bárðarbunga 2014 basalts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Baptiste; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Devidal, Jean-Luc

    2015-04-01

    Pressure (P) and temperature (T) at which magma is stored before eruption are parameters needed for better understanding of pre-eruptive signals. Putirka (2008) reviewed various igneous geothermobarometers based on crystal-liquid equilibrium. These allow evaluating early melt inclusion (MI) entrapment conditions and final crystal-matrix glass P-T equilibrium conditions. In this study, the former is based on clinopyroxene (cpx)-hosted MI and cpx-host measurements, whereas the latter is estimated from analyses of crystal rims and adjacent matrix glass. Olivine (ol)-liquid equilibrium is rapidly attained and records the last thermal equilibrium before basalt eruptions. In contrast, more sluggish reaction between cpx and liquid makes MI in cpx cores the choice for estimating the deepest (and hottest) crystal-liquid equilibrium. Equilibrium criteria were evaluated from the apparent Fe-Mg exchange and textural relationships. Tephra erupted at Grímsvötn central volcano 2011 is of quartz tholeiite composition whereas the 2014 tephra from Bárðarbunga volcanic system is a more primitive olivine tholeiite. These two basalt types are the most common in Iceland and form a crust with estimated density of 2800 kg/m3. Both basalts contain approximately 1-5% phenocrysts of plagioclases, cpx and ol with sparse sulphides and, in the Grímsvötn case, ubiquitous FeTi-oxides. The geothermobarometers suggest that cpx crystallized at P from 60 to 620 MPa (depth range: 1.7-17 km) and T between 1030 and 1135 °C before the Grímsvötn 2011 eruption. In marked contrast, the Bárðarbunga ol-tholeiite crystallized at higher P from 410 to 660 MPa (depth range: 11-18 km) at restricted T of 1176 to 1182 °C. The shallowest recorded crystallization depth at Grímsvötn coincides with geophysical depth estimates of its high-level magma chamber (1.8 km; Hreinsdóttir et al., 2014), whereas the deepest crystallization is within error of the estimated mantle-crust boundary, as also observed for

  11. Volcanic ash leaching as a means of tracing the environmental impact of the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption, Iceland.

    PubMed

    Cabré, J; Aulinas, M; Rejas, M; Fernandez-Turiel, J L

    2016-07-01

    The Grímsvötn volcanic eruption, from 21 to 28 May, 2011, was the largest eruption of the Grímsvötn Volcanic System since 1873, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of magnitude 4. The main geochemical features of the potential environmental impact of the volcanic ash-water interaction were determined using two different leaching methods as proxies (batch and vertical flow-through column experiments). Ash consists of glass with minor amounts of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, diopside, olivine and iron sulphide; this latter mineral phase is very rare in juvenile ash. Ash grain morphology and size reflect the intense interaction of magma and water during eruption. Batch and column leaching tests in deionised water indicate that Na, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Cl, S and F had the highest potential geochemical fluxes to the environment. Release of various elements from volcanic ash took place immediately through dissolution of soluble salts from the ash surface. Element solubilities of Grímsvötn ash regarding bulk ash composition were <1 %. Combining the element solubilities and the total estimated mass of tephra (7.29 × 10(14) g), the total inputs of environmentally important elements were estimated to be 8.91 × 10(9) g Ca, 7.02 × 10(9) g S, 1.10 × 10(9) g Cl, 9.91 × 10(8) g Mg, 9.91 × 10(8) g Fe and 1.45 × 10(8) g P The potential environmental problems were mainly associated with the release of F (5.19 × 10(9) g).

  12. 76 FR 28415 - Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee Coordinator, c/ o Sierra National Forest, High... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource ] Advisory Committee Coordinator,...

  13. 76 FR 44302 - Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee Coordinator, c/ o Sierra National Forest, High... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robbin Ekman, Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee Coordinator,...

  14. 7. Photocopy of photograph (from Broome County Historical Society) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (from Broome County Historical Society) showing SWIMMERS, PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN FACING NORTHEAST - Charles F. Johnson Pool, Charles F. Johnson Park, Johnson City, Broome County, NY

  15. Landsliding in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Reginald Peter; Pomeroy, John S.; Davies, William E.

    1975-01-01

    Man should proceed with caution if modifications such as loading, excavation, or changes of the water regime are contemplated for slopes in Allegheny County, especially those slopes described on the map as highly sensitive to disturbance by man. Features indicative of unstable slope conditions include: cracks in buildings, yard walls, and pools; doors and windows that jam; fences and other linear features bowed out of line; tilted trees and utility poles; cracks and steplike ground features; hummocky ground; and water seeps. Geologic factors related to the landsliding process include rock types, layering, fracturing, and attitude; nature of soil cover; permeability of rocks and soils; and steepness of slope.

  16. Water resources of Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Jon P.; Miller, Kirk A.

    2004-01-01

    Sweetwater County is located in the southwestern part of Wyoming and is the largest county in the State. A study to quantify the availability and describe the chemical quality of surface-water and ground-water resources in Sweetwater County was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineers Office. Most of the county has an arid climate. For this reason a large amount of the flow in perennial streams within the county is derived from outside the county. Likewise, much of the ground-water recharge to aquifers within the county is from flows into the county, and occurs slowly. Surface-water data were not collected as part of the study. Evaluations of streamflow and stream-water quality were limited to analyses of historical data and descriptions of previous investigations. Forty-six new ground-water-quality samples were collected as part of the study and the results from an additional 782 historical ground-water-quality samples were reviewed. Available hydrogeologic characteristics for various aquifers throughout the county also are described. Flow characteristics of streams in Sweetwater County vary substantially depending on regional and local basin characteristics and anthropogenic factors. Because precipitation amounts in the county are small, most streams in the county are ephemeral, flowing only as a result of regional or local rainfall or snowmelt runoff. Flows in perennial streams in the county generally are a result of snowmelt runoff in the mountainous headwater areas to the north, west, and south of the county. Flow characteristics of most perennial streams are altered substantially by diversions and regulation. Water-quality characteristics of selected streams in and near Sweetwater County during water years 1974 through 1983 were variable. Concentrations of dissolved constituents, suspended sediment, and bacteria generally were smallest at sites on the Green River because of resistant geologic units, increased

  17. pDGO100, a type 1 IncC plasmid from 1981 carrying ARI-A and a Tn1696-like transposon in a novel integrating element.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Partridge, Sally R; Hall, Ruth M

    2016-07-01

    Most A/C plasmids sequenced to date were recovered in the last two decades. To gain insight into the evolution of this group, the IncC plasmid pDGO100, found in a multiply antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli strain isolated in 1981, was sequenced. pDGO100 belongs to the type 1 lineage and carries an ARI-A antibiotic resistance island but not an ARI-B island. The A/C2 backbone of pDGO100 has a deletion in the rhs1 gene previously found in pRMH760 and differs by only six single base pair substitutions from pRMH760, recovered at the same hospital 16years later. This confirms that the separation of type 1 and type 2 IncC plasmids is long standing. The ARI-A islands are also closely related, but pRMH760 contains Tn4352B in tniA of Tn402, while in pDGO100, Tn4352 has inserted into merA of pDUmer. pDGO100 also carries an additional 46kb insertion that includes a Tn1696-like transposon with the dfrB3 gene cassette. This insertion was identified as a novel integrating element, with an int gene at one end, and also includes the fec iron uptake operon that has been acquired from the E. coli chromosome. Related integrating elements carrying the same int gene were found in A/C2, IncHI1, and IncHI2 plasmids, and in the chromosomes of Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Cronobacter sakazakii isolates. In the Enterobacteriaceae chromosomes, these integrating elements appear to target a gene encoding a radical SAM superfamily protein. In the A/C2, IncHI1, and IncHI2 plasmids, genes encoding a phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase were interrupted. The extremities of the integrating element are highly conserved, whilst the internal gene content varies. The detection of integrative elements in plasmids demonstrates an increased range of locations into which this type of mobile element can integrate and insertion in plasmids is likely to assist their spread.

  18. Double Copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a on an IncX3 Plasmid in Klebsiella pneumoniae Successful Clone ST512 from Italy.

    PubMed

    Fortini, Daniela; Villa, Laura; Feudi, Claudia; Pires, João; Bonura, Celestino; Mammina, Caterina; Endimiani, Andrea; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2015-11-02

    A carbapenem-resistant sequence type 512 (ST512) Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 3 (KPC-3)-producing K. pneumoniae strain showing a novel variant plasmid content was isolated in Palermo, Italy, in 2014. ST512 is a worldwide successful clone associated with the spread of bla(KPC) genes located on the IncFIIk pKpQIL plasmid. In our ST512 strain, the bla(KPC-3) gene was unusually located on an IncX3 plasmid, whose complete sequence was determined. Two copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a caused by intramolecular transposition events were detected in the plasmid.

  19. A Profile of Suwannee County, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.

    Agriculture and the railroad were significant forces in the development of Suwannee County, Florida, formally created in 1858 but explored and settled beginning some 300 years earlier. Lumber and cotton caused an early 20th century boom in the county which soon saw the negative effects of both industries. The introduction of tobacco in the late…

  20. County Data Book 1995: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Youth Advocates, Inc., Louisville.

    This data book presents findings of the Kids Count project on current conditions faced by Kentucky children age birth through 19. For each county, and for the state, comparisons are provided between the base years of 1980-1982 and the most recent years 1992-1994. Counties are ranked against each other and trend graphs are provided for the studied…

  1. Educational and Demographic Profile: Contra Costa County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Contra Costa County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  2. 24 CFR 570.307 - Urban counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... activities, specifically urban renewal and publicly assisted housing. In determining whether a county has the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Urban counties. 570.307 Section 570.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  3. 24 CFR 570.307 - Urban counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... activities, specifically urban renewal and publicly assisted housing. In determining whether a county has the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban counties. 570.307 Section 570.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  4. 24 CFR 570.307 - Urban counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... activities, specifically urban renewal and publicly assisted housing. In determining whether a county has the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Urban counties. 570.307 Section 570.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  5. 24 CFR 570.307 - Urban counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... activities, specifically urban renewal and publicly assisted housing. In determining whether a county has the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urban counties. 570.307 Section 570.307 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  6. Socioeconomic Heterogeneity of Mining-Dependent Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark; Luloff, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Although the socioeconomic well-being of all U.S. mining-dependent counties was slightly above the national average in 1990, disaggregation reveals substantial effects of region and mining subsector. In particular, southern and Great Lakes coal-mining counties had significantly lower high school graduation rates and higher poverty and unemployment…

  7. LANE COUNTY YOUTH PROJECT. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BREWER, EDGAR W.; AND OTHERS

    A GROUP OF LANE COUNTY, OREGON, CITIZENS WHO WERE CONCERNED ABOUT JUVENILE DELINQUENCY BANDED TOGETHER IN 1962 TO ESTABLISH THE LANE COUNTY YOUTH PROJECT (LCYP). THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF LCYP WAS TO PLAN A MAJOR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AIMED AT THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DELINQUENCY AND RELATED YOUTH PROBLEMS IN BOTH RURAL AND SMALL CITY SETTINGS.…

  8. Educational and Demographic Profile: Lake County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Lake County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced communication…

  9. Tennessee County Higher Education Profiles, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Tennessee County Higher Education Profiles 2010" provide basic information with respect to higher education for each county in Tennessee. The 2010 "Profiles" represent the fourth year for this report. In the demographic and enrollment sections, a few changes were made to better meet the needs of policymakers. This document…

  10. Groundwater management and protection Madison County, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    French, J.H.; Strunk, J.W.

    1990-07-01

    Groundwater is extremely important to Madison County as it provides nearly three quarters of the county's drinking water. In recent years, Madison County has increasingly recognized the need to protect its groundwater resource. A supply of usable groundwater is one element of a high quality environment, which can help spur economic development and provide for the needs of a growing population. Without planning protection and understanding of possible consequences, however, economic development and population pressures can cause a gradual degradation of groundwater. In April 1987, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) convened a local groundwater steering group in Madison County. At the first meeting the ground agreed upon these goals: (1) to seek incorporate groundwater protection into the planning and development process for Madison County, (2) to support efforts by Madison County to obtain authority to adopt zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, and (3) to develop a groundwater management plan for the county. This report provides essential information needed in developing a plan and is based on the following assumptions: the citizens of Madison County value the environment in which they live and wish to protect it from pollution; continued economic development is necessary for a healthy local economy; and a healthy economy can be sustained and nurtured, without degradation of the groundwater resource, through countywide planning, education, and participation.

  11. Educational and Demographic Profile: El Dorado County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for El Dorado County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  12. The Farm Crisis and Decatur County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Jan L.; And Others

    This case study assesses the impact of the farm sector on the economy and social organization of Decatur County (Kansas), a county which has historically depended on agriculture for its livelihood. Data were obtained from analysis of time series statistical indicators for the period between 1966 and 1984, questionnaire responses of local…

  13. Commodity Flow Study - Clark County, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, S.Ph.D.; Navis, I.

    2008-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy has designated Clark County, Nevada as an 'Affected Unit of Local Government' due to the potential for impacts by activities associated with the Yucca Mountain High Level Nuclear Waste Repository project. Urban Transit, LLC has led a project team of transportation including experts from the University of Nevada Las Vegas Transportation Research Center to conduct a hazardous materials community flow study along Clark County's rail and truck corridors. In addition, a critical infrastructure analysis has also been carried out in order to assess the potential impacts of transportation within Clark County of high level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel to a proposed repository 90 miles away in an adjacent county on the critical infrastructure in Clark County. These studies were designed to obtain information relating to the transportation, identification and routing of hazardous materials through Clark County. Coordinating with the United States Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the U. S. Federal Highway Administration, the Nevada Department of Transportation, and various other stakeholders, these studies and future research will examine the risk factors along the entire transportation corridor within Clark County and provide a context for understanding the additional vulnerability associated with shipping spent fuel through Clark County. (authors)

  14. A Profile of Hardee County, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Anderson, Deborah S.

    In 1977 leaders of Hardee County, Florida, listed relationships and attitudes of residents, rural atmosphere, environmental conditions, and economic potential among the county's strong points, and public service and facility improvements, developing economic potential, recreational and entertainment development, and planning and zoning as its most…

  15. Geothermal development issues: Recommendations to Deschutes County

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, C.

    1982-07-01

    This report discusses processes and issues related to geothermal development. It is intended to inform planners and interested individuals in Deschutes County about geothermal energy, and advise County officials as to steps that can be taken in anticipation of resource development. (ACR)

  16. Analysis of County School Districts in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Karol B.; Charlton, J.L.

    The 1948, Arkansas School District Reorganization Act was passed in an effort to reduce the 1589 small school districts to a smaller number. Those districts not consolidated would form county districts. As of the 1967-68 school year, 26 of these county districts remained. The purpose of this study was to provide information drawing attention to…

  17. Educational and Demographic Profile: Napa County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Napa County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced communication…

  18. A Profile of Anson County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, M. Gaston; And Others

    Since 1950 Anson County, North Carolina, has had major contributions to economic development, a source of great concern to residents of the almost entirely rural area. The increased capacity of the Blewitt Falls Dam power output and the county-wide water filtration system (one of only a few in the United States today) are attractive to industry.…

  19. Public Library Service for San Benito County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Gail

    A sparsely populated, agricultural area, San Benito County (California) provides library services in conjunction with the Hollister city library and in cooperation with the San Juan Bautista city library. Financing comes from the county general fund. There are no written goals or policy statements and no professionally trained librarians. As…

  20. [A Profile of Kershaw County, South Carolina].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Stephen C.; McLean, Edward L.

    Careful long-range planning and slow, deliberate growth have benefitted Kershaw County's 500,000 pleasantly varied acres near the state capitol. The county, famous for its equestrian activity, boasts prestige stables, riding clubs, and trails. In addition there are lakes and numerous parks. Leaders want to maintain this aesthetic appeal while…

  1. County Data Book 1997: Kentucky Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Kids Count Consortium.

    This Kids Count data book examines trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children on a statewide and county basis. An introduction summarizes some of the trends for Kentucky's children in the 1990s. The bulk of the report presents statewide and county data grouped into five categories: (1) poverty rates and programs (persons in poverty; median…

  2. Environmental assessment: Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a location in Deaf Smith County, Texas, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Deaf Smith County site and the eight other potentially sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Deaf Smith County site is in the Permian Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Deaf Smith County site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Deaf Smith County site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization. 591 refs., 147 figs., 173 tabs.

  3. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  4. Family planning in Nangong County.

    PubMed

    Sun, X

    1980-04-01

    Family planning has been practiced in Nangong county, China, since 1971; as a result the population growth rate has dropped from 16.7/1000 to 3.6/1000 in 1979; 98% of women of childbearing age use contraception, and most couples have only 1 child. Before 1971 most couples had 4-5 children; per capita grain rations had to be reduced because of the increase in population, and more grain had to be supplied by the state. 1 child families are now rewarded with an annual monetary bonus, extra grain allocations for the child, free tuition in schools, and preference in job placement and medical treatment. Parents who have more than 2 children are penalized by the withdrawal of 10% of their monthly earnings. The idea of "1 couple 1 child" is a radical change from China's traditional culture, which viewed children especially sons, as an insurance against old age insecurity. Marriage at a later age is also encouraged; in Nangong county none of the men of marriageable age married before 25, and none of the women before 23. As a result of promoting family planning Nangong country has ceased to need grain subsidies from the state, and in recent years has had a 10,000 ton surplus to sell.

  5. Use of sialylated or sulfated derivatives and acrylamide copolymers of Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha- and GalNAc alpha- to determine the specificities of blood group T- and Tn-specific lectins and the copolymers to measure anti-T and anti-Tn antibody levels in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Jain, R K; Chandrasekaran, E V; Matta, K L

    1995-02-01

    Sialylated or sulfated derivatives and acrylamide copolymers of blood group T-(Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha-) and Tn-(GalNAc alpha) haptens were studied for their interaction with the lectins of peanut (PNA), Agaricus bisporus-(ABA), Helix pomatia-(HPA) and Vicia villosa B4-(VVA), using asialo Cowper's gland mucin (ACGM), which contains both T and Tn epitopes, as the coating substrate in enzyme linked lectin assay. Both T and Tn copolymers (-40 haptens) showed high affinity and strict specificity; although the T-copolymer at 0.05-0.07 microM concentration caused 50% inhibition of interaction of either PNA or ABA with ACGM, there was little inhibition of the HPA and VVA interactions even at over 100 times that concentration. The Tn-copolymer at 0.02-0.05 microM inhibited HPA or VVA interaction with ACGM by 50% but gave virtually no inhibition of PNA and ABA binding. Sialyl, sulfate or methyl group substitution on C-6 of GalNAc of the T-haptene did not prevent interaction with PNA but almost abolished interaction with ABA. In contrast, sialyl or sulfate group on C-6 and sulfate on C-3 of Gal in Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha- inhibited almost completely the interaction of PNA with ACGM but had only a slight effect on the interaction of ABA; C-6 substitution with either sialic acid or sulfate on GalNAc alpha- almost abolished the interaction of both HPA and VVA with ACGM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Survival of Escherichia coli with and without ColE1::Tn5 after aerosol dispersal in a laboratory and a farm environment.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, B; Flynn, P; Kamely, D; Levy, S B

    1988-01-01

    The survival of a laboratory strain and a naturally occurring fecal strain of Escherichia coli, with and without a Tn5-containing derivative of ColE1, was examined after aerosol dispersal in a laboratory office and a barn under ambient temperature and humidity conditions. Following the release of paired strains, air and diverse types of surfaces were assayed for the test organisms. In both environments, the number of airborne bacteria declined rapidly within the first 2 h. Longer survival was found on surfaces and varied with surface type: recovery was greatest from wood products. Organisms persisted for 1 day in the office and for up to 20 days in the barn. Survival of the fecal strain was better than that of the laboratory strain in both test environments. In general, plasmid-bearing strains fared similarly to their plasmidless parents, but in several comparisons the ColE1::Tn5-containing strain showed enhanced survival. These studies have implications for the present and proposed release of genetically engineered organisms with and without plasmid vectors. PMID:2843099

  7. Characterization of volcanic ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption by means of single-particle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieke, K. I.; Kristensen, T. B.; Korsholm, U. S.; Sørensen, J. H.; Kandler, K.; Weinbruch, S.; Ceburnis, D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Bilde, M.

    2013-11-01

    This work focuses on transport and properties of ash from the Icelandic volcano Grímsvötn that erupted in spring 2011. Atmospheric transport of volcanic ash from the eruption was simulated using the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA). The arrivals of volcanic particles were detected on-line at Mace Head at the West coast of Ireland during volcanic plume advection identified by high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF AMS). Based on DERMA information aerosol particles were collected in Copenhagen, Denmark, before predicted arrival of the ash plume and during a period where ash was present in the air. Analysis of the meteorological conditions shows that the particles collected before arrival of the volcanic ash may serve as a good reference sample allowing identification of significant changes in ambient aerosol properties during the volcanic ash event over Copenhagen. Using single particle analysis in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), data on structure, chemical composition, size and morphology of individual volcanic ash particles from the Grímsvötn eruption after atmospheric transport to Scandinavia are provided. Particles were sliced with Focused Ion Beam (FIB). Element mappings from cross-sections through collected volcanic ash particles reveal inhomogeneous distributions of the elements K, Mg, Fe and Ti.

  8. Different VanA Elements in E. faecalis and in E. faecium Suggest at Least Two Origins of Tn1546 Among VRE in a Brazilian Hospital.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Thaís Panhan; Dabul, Andrei Nicoli Gebieluca; Camargo, Ilana Lopes Baratella Cunha

    2015-06-01

    In 2009 during surveillance in a Brazilian hospital, many patients were confirmed to be colonized by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and a few infection cases occurred. Among 14 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis, most had the same pulsotype, virulence profile (agg(+)elrA(+)gelE(+)), and were sequence type (ST)103, indicating dissemination of a clone. The 47 Enterococcus faecium were separated into four pulsotypes, the predominant virulence profile being esp(+)acm(+). All of them harbored the hospital marker IS16, and three randomly chosen isolates were ST412, belonging to the Clonal Complex 17. E. faecalis were all susceptible to penicillin and ampicillin, while all E. faecium were resistant to them. All isolates were susceptible to daptomycin and tigecycline. There were no rep-family genes common to all VRE. The VanA element of all E. faecium lost its left-side inverted repeat (IRL) region and had a specific IS insertion. On the other hand, all E. faecalis presented intact Tn1546. The size of plasmids containing the vanA gene as well as its rep-families varied between and within species. The lack of a vanA plasmid common to all VRE, together with the differences among VanA elements, despite the fact that some patients were colonized by both species during their hospitalization, leads us to suggest at least two different Tn1546 origins.

  9. Identifying Distal cis-acting Gene-Regulatory Sequences by Expressing BACs Functionalized with loxP-Tn10 Transposons in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pradeep K; Shakes, Leighcraft A; Wolf, Hope M; Mujalled, Mohammad A; Zhou, Constance; Hatcher, Charles; Norford, Derek C

    2013-06-21

    Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) are large pieces of DNA from the chromosomes of organisms propagated faithfully in bacteria as large extra-chromosomal plasmids. Expression of genes contained in BACs can be monitored after functionalizing the BAC DNA with reporter genes and other sequences that allow stable maintenance and propagation of the DNA in the new host organism. The DNA in BACs can be altered within its bacterial host in several ways. Here we discuss one such approach, using Tn10 mini-transposons, to introduce exogenous sequences into BACs for a variety of purposes. The largely random insertions of Tn10 transposons carrying lox sites have been used to position mammalian cell-selectable antibiotic resistance genes, enhancer-traps and inverted repeat ends of the vertebrate transposon Tol2 precisely at the ends of the genomic DNA insert in BACs. These modified BACs are suitable for expression in zebrafish or mouse, and have been used to functionally identify important long-range gene regulatory sequences in both species. Enhancer-trapping using BACs should prove uniquely useful in analyzing multiple discontinuous DNA domains that act in concert to regulate expression of a gene, and is not limited by genome accessibility issues of traditional enhancer-trapping methods.

  10. Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, Arthur

    2015-03-04

    The Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative represented a comprehensive and collaborative approach to promoting and implementing energy efficiency improvements. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. The ultimate goal of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative was to implement a total of 1,067 residential energy efficiency retrofits with a minimum 15% estimated energy efficiency savings per unit. Program partners included: United States Department of Energy, Allegheny Power, and Private Industry Council of Westmoreland-Fayette, Fayette County Redevelopment Authority, and various local partners. The program was open to any Fayette County residents who own their home and meet the prequalifying conditions. The level of assistance offered depended upon household income and commitment to undergo a BPI – Certified Audit and implement energy efficiency measures, which aimed to result in at least a 15% reduction in energy usage. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. Additionally, the program had components that involved recruitment and training for employment of persons in the energy sector (green jobs), as well as marketing and implementation of a commercial or community facilities component. The residential component of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative involved a comprehensive approach, providing assistance to low- moderate- and market-rate homeowners. The initiative will also coordinate activities with local utility providers to further incentivize energy efficiency improvements among qualifying homeowners. The commercial component of Fayette County’s Better Building Initiative involved grants

  11. Evaluation of the Union County Alternative to Suspension Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Joyce Ann

    2010-01-01

    The schools in Union County have undergone a tremendous amount of growth in the past decade. The growth in the county has led to an increase in discipline problems. In order to provide suspended students a second chance, Union County Public Schools implemented an alternative to suspension program, the Union County Alternative to Suspension Program…

  12. 7 CFR 7.11 - County committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false County committee members. 7.11 Section 7.11... CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.11 County committee members. (a) County committee members elected in accordance with § 7.9 of this part shall hold office for a term of three years or...

  13. Serum-Free Culture of the Suspension Cell Line QB-Tn9-4s of the Cabbage Looper, Trichoplusia ni, is Highly Productive for Virus Replication and Recombinant Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gui-Ling; Zhou, Hong-Xu; Li, Chang-You

    2014-01-01

    Serum-free cultures of insect cells play an important role in the fields of protein engineering, medicine, and biology. In this paper, the suspension cell line QB-Tn9-4s of Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was successfully adapted to serum-free Sf-900 III medium and passaged for 52 generations. The adapted QB-Tn9-4s cells grew faster. Their population doubling time shortened from 27.4 hr in serum-containing medium to 24.1 hr, and their maximal density increased by 1.83-fold, reaching 3.50 × 106 cells/mL in serum-free culture in T-flasks. The cells readily adapted to spinner culture, with maximum cell density of 4.40 × 106 cells/mL in a spinner flask. Although the infection rate of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus and production of occlusion bodies (OBs) of the adapted QB-Tn9-4s cells were 91.0% and 85.4 OBs/cell, respectively, similar to those of QB-Tn9-4s cells cultured in serum-containing medium and control BTI-Tn5B1-4 cells, their budded virus titer was 4.97 × 107 TCID50/mL, significantly higher than those of the latter two. In addition, the expression levels of β-galactosidase at six days post-infection and secreted alkaline phosphatase at seven days postinfection in the adapted QB-Tn9-4s cells reached 2.98 ± 0.15×104 IU/mL and 3.34 ± 0.13 IU/mL, respectively, significantly higher than those of QB-Tn9-4s and control BTI-Tn5B1-4 cultured in serum-containing media. The above findings establish a foundation for industrial production of virus and recombinant proteins in QB-Tn9-4s serum-free culture. PMID:25373171

  14. Rosamond Prospect, Kern county, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.

    1953-01-01

    Small quantities of autunite and gummite (?) occur in tuffaceous sedimentary rocks of the Rosamond formation of Miocene age at the Rosamond prospect. The property is about 10 miles south of Mojave, Jern County, California, in the western Mojave Desert. Examination of the propert in January 1952, by George W. Walker and Luther H. Baumgardner of the U.S. Geological Survey, indicates the the autunite occurs principally as coating on fracture and joint surfaces and, to a less extent, as disseminations in the tuffaceous rocks adjacent to faults. A waxy, reddish-brown, radioactive mineral, here called gummite (?), is found in small quantities on slickensided fault surfaces associated with iron oxides and chlorite (?). The uranium minerals are erratically distributed over an area of about 15 acres. Assay of 12 samples indicate a uranium content ranging from 0.002 to 0.59 percent and an average content of slightly less than 0.08 percent uranium.

  15. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan

    2011-08-25

    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.

  16. T (Thomsen-Friedenreich) and Tn epitope location and their spatial relations to adhesion plaques on human breast carcinoma cells: immunogold-silver staining studies at scanning electron microscopic level.

    PubMed

    Wang, B L; Springer, G F; Harwick, L C

    1998-10-01

    T and Tn are pancarcinoma epitopes (EPs) which can be immunodetected in about 90% of adenocarcinomas (CAs). To study the location of T and Tn EPs and their relations to adhesion plaques on CA cells, immunogold-silver staining method was employed at scanning electron microscope (SEM) level. Human breast CA cells grown on coverslips were fixed in paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, reacted with cocktails of monoclonal antibodies against T or Tn EPs, followed by incubation with 10 nm gold conjugated goat anti-mouse immuno-globulins. The positive gold particle labelling was amplified with silver enhancement solution, and the specimens were then routinely critical point dried, sputter-coated with palladium and observed under SEM. The studies show that T and Tn EPs are not randomly distributed on CA cell surface; they are aggregated at the adhesion plaque area. These results confirm that T and Tn EPs play roles in CA cell adhesion, and suggest that they may represent the initial points of contact by immuno-effectors and therefore can be utilized in immunointervention and anti-adhesion therapy against CA.

  17. Tri-county pilot study. [Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A. (Principal Investigator); Austin, T. W.; Kerber, A. G.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An area inventory was performed for three southeast Texas counties (Montgomery, Walker, and San Jacinto) totaling 0.65 million hectares. The inventory was performed using a two level hierarchy. Level 1 was divided into forestland, rangeland, and other land. Forestland was separated into Level 2 categories: pine, hardwood, and mixed; rangeland was not separated further. Results consisted of area statistics for each county and for the entire study site for pine, hardwood, mixed, rangeland, and other land. Color coded county classification maps were produced for the May data set, and procedures were developed and tested.

  18. 1918 Influenza: A Winnebago County, Wisconsin Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shors, Teri; McFadden, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    The population of Winnebago County in 1918 was approximately 62,000 residents. It consisted of towns supporting diverse manufacturers surrounded by farming country. For this study, records were revisited, and 1918 to 1920 influenza survivors were interviewed. A pharmacological investigation encompassing the various influenza treatments used in Wisconsin from 1918 to 1920 was documented. In 1918, over 180 individuals perished from influenza, and over 2000 cases were reported in Winnebago County, Wisconsin. Influenza returned in 1920, which some researchers refer to as the “fourth wave,” claiming nearly 50 lives in Winnebago County, Wisconsin. This study also documents the 1920 influenza wave. PMID:19889943

  19. 76 FR 30152 - East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of... response costs concerning the East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site located in Murray... Site name East Calloway County ] Middle School Mercury Spill Site by one of the following methods:...

  20. 69. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS MAP OF LOWNDES COUNTY, 1931 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. MISSISSIPPI, LOWNDES CO. COLUMBUS MAP OF LOWNDES COUNTY, 1931 ROAD MAP OF LOWNDES COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI, 1931 by C.L. Wood, the county engineer. Updated through the mid-1930s to show new federal aid-state roads. Compares modern system with older county system. Original scale: 1 in. to 1 mi. Property of Helen (Mrs. Sam L.) Crawford, Hamilton, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms., Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS