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Sample records for sewage samples collected

  1. Frequent Detection of Highly Diverse Variants of Cardiovirus, Cosavirus, Bocavirus, and Circovirus in Sewage Samples Collected in the United States▿

    PubMed Central

    Blinkova, O.; Rosario, K.; Li, L.; Kapoor, A.; Slikas, B.; Bernardin, F.; Breitbart, M.; Delwart, E.

    2009-01-01

    Untreated sewage samples from 12 cities in the United States were screened for the presence of recently characterized RNA and DNA viruses found at high prevalence in the stool specimens of South Asian children. Genetic variants of human cosaviruses and cardioviruses in the Picornaviridae family and of DNA circoviruses and human bocaviruses were detected, expanding the known genetic diversity and geographic range of these newly identified viruses. All four virus groups were detected in sewage samples of less than a milliliter from multiple U.S. cities. PCR screening of particle-protected viral nucleic acid in sewage samples could therefore rapidly establish the presence and determine the diversity of four newly described enteric viruses in large urban populations. More frequent and deeper sampling of viral nucleic acids in sewage samples could be used to monitor changes in the prevalence and genetic composition of these and other novel enteric viruses. PMID:19794058

  2. Detection of Acanthamoeba spp. in water samples collected from natural water reservoirs, sewages, and pharmaceutical factory drains using LAMP and PCR in China.

    PubMed

    Lass, Anna; Guerrero, Milena; Li, Xiuping; Karanis, Gabriele; Ma, Liqing; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2017-04-15

    Various species of amoebas belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in many parts of the world. Some strains of these protozoans may exist as parasites and pose risks to human health as causative agents of serious human diseases. Currently in China there is a lack of information about the distribution of Acanthamoeba strains in the environment. Accordingly, 261 environmental water samples taken from rivers, sewage, and pharmaceutical factory drains were collected in Qinghai Province, China. The material was filtered and then analysed with both LAMP and PCR assays. Of the samples examined, Acanthamoeba DNA was found in 32 (14.68%) samples with the use of LAMP; in 13 of these samples, DNA from this amoeba was also detected using PCR. Sequencing of selected positive samples confirmed that the PCR products were fragments of the Acanthamoeba 18S rRNA gene and that isolates represent the T4 genotype, known as the most common strain related to AK cases. The results indicate that surface water, as well as water taken from sewage and pharmaceutical drains, may be a source of acanthamoebic strains potentially pathogenic for humans in China. It has been also demonstrated that LAMP assays is more sensitive than PCR and can be regarded as useful tool for screening the environment for Acanthamoeba spp.

  3. Population Screening Using Sewage Reveals Pan-Resistant Bacteria in Hospital and Community Samples

    PubMed Central

    Mileguir, Fernando; Azar, Roberto; Smollan, Gill; Belausov, Natasha; Rahav, Galia; Shamiss, Ari; Mendelson, Ella; Keller, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The presence of pan-resistant bacteria worldwide possesses a threat to global health. It is difficult to evaluate the extent of carriage of resistant bacteria in the population. Sewage sampling is a possible way to monitor populations. We evaluated the presence of pan-resistant bacteria in Israeli sewage collected from all over Israel, by modifying the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates. This method enables convenient and fast sewage sampling and detection. We found that sewage in Israel contains multiple pan-resistant bacteria including carbapenemase resistant Enterobacteriacae carrying blaKPC and blaNDM-1, MRSA and VRE. blaKPC carrying Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter cloacae were the most common Enterobacteriacae drug resistant bacteria found in the sewage locations we sampled. Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Citrobacter spp. were the 4 main CRE isolated from Israeli sewage and also from clinical samples in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Hospitals and Community sewage had similar percentage of positive samplings for blaKPC and blaNDM-1. VRE was found to be more abundant in sewage in Israel than MRSA but there were more locations positive for MRSA and VRE bacteria in Hospital sewage than in the Community. Therefore, our upgrade of the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates can be a useful tool for routine screening and monitoring of the population for pan-resistant bacteria using sewage. PMID:27780222

  4. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description (SYS 27)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank.

  5. Distribution of coliphages against four e. Coli virotypes in hospital originated sewage sample and a sewage treatment plant in bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muntasir; Farzana, Tasmia; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Nessa, Jamalun

    2011-06-01

    The distribution of coliphages infecting different Escherichia coli virotypes (EHEC, EIEC, EPEC, ETEC) and an avirulent strain (K-12) in sewage system of a hospital and a sewage treatment plant (STP) was investigated by culture-based agar overlay methods. Coliphages were found in all the samples except stool dumping site in the sewage system of the hospital and lagoon of the STP. Bacteriophage count (pfu/ml) infecting E. coli strains showed the following ascending pattern (EHEC < EIEC < EPEC < ETEC < E coli K-12) in all the collected samples except one. Phages capable of infecting avirulent E. coli K-12 strains were present in the highest number among all the examined locations. Phages specific for E. coli K-12 presented high diversity in plaque size on the bacterial lawn. Virulent E. coli specific coliphages rarely produced plaques with diameter of 1-2 mm or over. Conventional agar overlay method was found to be not satisfactory for phage community analysis from primary stool dumping site of the hospital, probably due to the presence of high concentration of antimicrobial substances. The gradual decrease seen in the five groups of coliphage quantity with the ongoing treatment process and then the absolute absence of coliphages in the outlet of the examined treatment plant is indicative of the usefulness of the treatment processes practiced there.

  6. Quantification of viable helminth eggs in samples of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Maria Carolina Vieira da; Barés, Monica Eboly; Braga, Maria Cristina Borba

    2016-10-15

    For the application of sewage sludge as fertilizer, it is of fundamental importance the absence of pathogenic organisms, such as viable helminth eggs. Thus, the quantification of these organisms has to be carried out by means of the application of reliable and accurate methodologies. Nevertheless, until the present date, there is no consensus with regard to the adoption of a universal methodology for the detection and quantification of viable helminth eggs. It is therefore necessary to instigate a debate on the different protocols currently in use, as well as to assemble relevant information in order to assist in the development of a more comprehensive and accurate method to quantify viable helminth eggs in samples of sewage sludge and its derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Polio from Environmental Samples: ISSP, The Israeli Sewage Surveillance Protocol.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Lester M; Manor, Yossi; Hindiyeh, Musa; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-01-01

    Polioviruses are enteric viruses that cause paralytic poliomyelitis in less than 0.5 % of infections and are asymptomatic in >90 % infections of naïve hosts. Environmental surveillance monitors polio in populations rather than in individuals. When this very low morbidity to infection ratio, drops drastically in highly vaccinated populations, environmental surveillance employing manual or automatic sampling coupled with molecular analysis carried out in well-equipped central laboratories becomes the surveillance method of choice since polioviruses are excreted by infected individuals regardless of whether or not the infection is symptomatic. This chapter describes a high throughput rapid turn-around time method for molecular characterization of polioviruses from sewage. It is presented in five modules: (1) Sewage collection and concentration of the viruses in the sewage; (2) Cell cultures for identification of virus in the concentrated sewage; (3) Nucleic acid extractions directly from sewage and from tissue cultures infected with aliquots of concentrated sewage; (4) Nucleic Acid Amplification for poliovirus serotype identification and intratypic differentiation (discriminating wild and vaccine derived polioviruses form vaccine strains); and (5) Molecular characterization of viral RNA by qRT-PCR, TR-PCR, and Sequence analysis. Monitoring silent or symptomatic transmission of vaccine-derived polioviruses or wild polioviruses is critical for the endgame of poliovirus eradication. We present methods for adapting standard kits and validating the changes for this purpose based on experience gained during the recent introduction and sustained transmission of a wild type 1 poliovirus in Israel in 2013 in a population with an initial IPV vaccine coverage >90 %.

  8. Determination of mercury in sewage sludge by direct slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baralkiewicz, Danuta; Gramowska, Hanka; Kózka, Małgorzata; Kanecka, Anetta

    2005-03-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) method was elaborated to the determination of Hg in sewage sludge samples with the use of KMnO 4+Pd modifier. The minimum sample amount required for slurry preparation with respect to sample homogeneity was evaluated by weighting masses between 3 and 30 mg directly into the autosampler cups. Validation of the proposed method was performed with the use of Certified Reference Materials of sewage sludge, CRM 007-040 and CRM 144R. Two sewage sludge samples from Poznañ (Poland) city were analysed using the present direct method and a method with sample digestion, resulting in no difference within statistical error.

  9. Occurrence and behaviour of 105 active pharmaceutical ingredients in sewage waters of a municipal sewer collection system.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Richard H; Östman, Marcus; Olofsson, Ulrika; Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations and behaviour of 105 different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aqueous phase of sewage water within a municipal sewer collection system have been investigated. Sewage water samples were gathered from seven pump stations (one of which was located within a university hospital) and from sewage water treatment influent and effluent. The targeted APIs were quantified using a multi-residue method based on online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method was thoroughly validated and complies with EU regulations on sample handling, limits of quantification, quality control and selectivity. 51 APIs, including antibiotics, antidepressants, hypertension drugs, analgesics, NSAIDs and psycholeptics, were found frequently within the sewer collection system. API concentrations and mass flows were evaluated in terms of their frequency of detection, daily variation, median/minimum/maximum/average concentrations, demographic dissimilarities, removal efficiencies, and mass flow profiles relative to municipal sales data. Our results suggest that some APIs are removed from, or introduced to, the aqueous phase of sewage waters within the studied municipal collection system.

  10. Molecular detection and nucleotide sequence analysis of a new Aichi virus closely related to canine kobuvirus in sewage samples.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Teruo; Adachi, Hirokazu; Hirose, Emi; Nakamura, Noriko; Ito, Miyabi; Yasui, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Minagawa, Hiroko

    2014-05-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, 207 raw sewage samples were collected at the inflow of a sewage treatment plant in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Of the 207 sewage samples, 137 (66.2 %) were found to be positive for amplification of Aichi virus (AiV) nucleotide using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with 10 forward and 10 reverse primers in the 3D region corresponding to the nucleotide sequence of all kobuviruses. AiV genotype A sequences were detected in all 137 samples. New sequences of AiV were detected in nine samples, exhibiting 83 % similarity with AiV A846/88, but 95 % similarity with canine kobuvirus (CKV) US-PC0082 in this region. The nucleotide sequences from the VP3 region to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of sewage sample Y12/2004 were determined. The number of nucleotides in each region was the same as that of CKV. The similarity of the nucleotide (amino acid) identity of a complete VP1 region was 90.5 % (94.8 %) between Y12/2004 and CKV US-PC0082. The phylogenic analyses based on the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences of VP1 and 3D showed that Y12/2004 was independent from AiV, but closely related to CKV. These results suggested that CKV is present in Aichi Prefecture, Japan.

  11. Nutrition: blood sample collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-20

    ISS014-E-17550 (20 March 2007) --- Astronaut Michael E. Lopez-Alegria, Expedition 14 commander and NASA space station science officer, prepares to insert a test sample in the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (NUTRITION) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. MELFI is a low temperature freezer facility with nominal operating temperatures of -80, -26 and +4 degrees Celsius that will preserve experiment materials over long periods.

  12. Nutrition: blood sample collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-20

    ISS014-E-17547 (20 March 2007) --- Astronaut Michael E. Lopez-Alegria, Expedition 14 commander and NASA space station science officer, prepares to insert a test sample in the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (NUTRITION) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. MELFI is a low temperature freezer facility with nominal operating temperatures of -80, -26 and +4 degrees Celsius that will preserve experiment materials over long periods.

  13. Diversity and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of cultivable anaerobic bacteria from soil and sewage samples of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Nabonita; Alam, Syed Imteyaz; Kumar, Ravi Bhushan; Singh, Lokendra

    2011-01-01

    Soil and sewage act as a reservoir of animal pathogens and their dissemination to animals profoundly affects the safety of our food supply. Moreover, acquisition and further spread of antibiotic resistance determinants among pathogenic bacterial populations is the most relevant problem for the treatment of infectious diseases. Bacterial strains from soil and sewage are a potential reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. Accurate species determination for anaerobes from environmental samples has become increasingly important with the re-emergence of anaerobic bacteremia and prevalence of multiple-drug-resistant microorganisms. Soil samples were collected from various locations of planar India and the diversity of anaerobic bacteria was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Viable counts of anaerobic bacteria on anaerobic agar and SPS agar ranged from 1.0 × 10(2)cfu/g to 8.8 × 10(7)cfu/g and nil to 3.9 × 10(6)cfu/g, respectively. Among clostrdia, Clostridium bifermentans (35.9%) was the most dominant species followed by Clostridium perfringens (25.8%). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. perfringens beta2 toxin gene (cpb2) fragment indicated specific phylogenetic affiliation with cluster Ia for 5 out of 6 strains. Antibiotic susceptibility for 30 antibiotics was tested for 74 isolates, revealing resistance for as high as 16-25 antibiotics for 35% of the strains tested. Understanding the diversity of the anaerobic bacteria from soil and sewage with respect to animal health and spread of zoonotic pathogen infections is crucial for improvements in animal and human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Viable blastocystis cysts in Scottish and Malaysian sewage samples.

    PubMed

    Suresh, K; Smith, H V; Tan, T C

    2005-09-01

    Blastocystis cysts were detected in 38% (47/123) (37 Scottish, 17 Malaysian) of sewage treatment works. Fifty percent of influents (29% Scottish, 76% Malaysian) and 28% of effluents (9% Scottish, 60% Malaysian) contained viable cysts. Viable cysts, discharged in effluent, provide further evidence for the potential for waterborne transmission of Blastocystis.

  15. Urine sampling and collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Reinhardt, C. G.

    1971-01-01

    This specification defines the performance and design requirements for the urine sampling and collection system engineering model and establishes requirements for its design, development, and test. The model shall provide conceptual verification of a system applicable to manned space flight which will automatically provide for collection, volume sensing, and sampling of urine.

  16. Automated microorganism Sample Collection Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gall, L. S.; Graham, M. D.; Umbreit, W.

    1969-01-01

    Modified Gelman Sampler obtains representative sample of microorganism population. Proposed Sample Collection Module is based on direct inoculation of selected solid growth media encased in a cartridge at all times except during inoculation. Cartridge can be handled with no danger of contamination to sample or operator.

  17. Subsurface Samples: Collection and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Philip E.; Griffin, W. Timothy; Phelps, Tommy J.

    2002-12-01

    Microbiological data, interpretation, and conclusions from subsurface samples ultimately depend on the quality and representative character of the samples. Subsurface samples for environmental microbiology ideally contain only the microbial community and geochemical properties that are representative of the subsurface environment from which the sample was taken. To that end, sample contamination by exogenous microorganisms or chemical constituents must be eliminated or minimized, and sample analyses need to begin before changes in the microbial community or geochemical characteristics occur. This article presents sampling methods and sample processing techniques for collecting representative samples from a range of subsurface environments. Factors that should be considered when developing a subsurface sampling program are discussed, including potential benefits, costs, and limitations enabling researchers to evaluate the techniques that are presented and match them to their project requirements. Methods and protocols to address coring, sampling, processing and quality assessment issues are presented.

  18. Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Vílchez, José L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that 38 samples, collected from different Spanish regions, were studied. The statistical tool we used was Principal Component Analysis (PC), in order to reduce the number of response variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a non-parametric test such as the Kruskal-Wallis test were also studied through the estimation of the p-value (probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to study possible relations between the concentration of both analytes and the rest of variables. We also compared LAS and insoluble soap behaviors. In addition, the results obtained for LAS (mean value) were compared with the limit value proposed by the future Directive entitled "Working Document on Sludge". According to the results, the mean obtained for soap and LAS was 26.49 g kg(-1) and 6.15 g kg(-1) respectively. It is worth noting that LAS mean was significantly higher than the limit value (2.6 g kg(-1)). In addition, LAS and soap concentrations depend largely on water hardness. However, only LAS concentration depends on treatment type.

  19. Barratt collects sample from WRS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-19

    ISS019-E-017918 (19 May 2009) --- Astronaut Michael Barratt, Expedition 19/20 flight engineer, collects a sample from the Water Recovery System (WRS) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  20. Simple sample digestion of sewage and sludge for multi-element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, J.F.C.; Nevissi, A.E.; Dewalle, F.B.

    1984-01-01

    A simple digestion method of sewage, sludge, and other materials in sealed ampuls for multi-element determination is reported. The sealed samples are digested in an autoclave at 125/sup 0/C and 1.2 atmosphere pressure for one hour. In a single digestion both volatile and non-volatile elements are recovered. Comparison of this method with conventional hot plate digestion using NBS reference materials, sewage, and sludge, shows equal or better recoveries of the metals in sealed ampuls. The method is not prone to metal contamination and can be used for large numbers of samples.

  1. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  2. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  3. Micro-TLC Approach for Fast Screening of Environmental Samples Derived from Surface and Sewage Waters.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2013-01-01

    In this work we demonstrated analytical capability of micro-planar (micro-TLC) technique comprising one and two-dimensional (2D) separation modes to generate fingerprints of environmental samples originated from sewage and ecosystems waters. We showed that elaborated separation and detection protocols are complementary to previously invented HPLC method based on temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography and UV-DAD detection. Presented 1D and 2D micro-TLC chromatograms of SPE (solid-phase extraction) extracts were optimized for fast and low-cost screening of water samples collected from lakes and rivers located in the area of Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland. Moreover, we studied highly organic compounds loaded in the treated and untreated sewage waters obtained from municipal wastewater treatment plant "Jamno" near Koszalin City (Poland). Analyzed environmental samples contained number of substances characterized by polarity range from estetrol to progesterone as well as chlorophyll-related dyes previously isolated and pre-purified by simple SPE protocol involving C18 cartridges. Optimization of micro-TLC separation and quantification protocols of such samples were discussed from the practical point of view using simple separation efficiency criteria including total peaks number, log(product ΔhRF), signal intensity and peak asymmetry. Outcomes of the presented analytical approach, especially using detection involving direct fluorescence (UV366/Vis) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) visualization are compared with UV-DAD HPLC-generated data reported previously. Chemometric investigation based on principal components analysis revealed that SPE extracts separated by micro-TLC and detected under fluorescence and PMA visualization modes can be used for robust sample fingerprinting even after long-term storage of the extracts (up to 4 years) at subambient temperature (-20 °C). Such approach allows characterization of wide range of sample components that

  4. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... design capacity equivalent to that of the existing system plus a reasonable amount for future growth. For... October 18, 1972; (b) The collection system is cost-effective; (c) The population density of the area to...

  5. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... design capacity equivalent to that of the existing system plus a reasonable amount for future growth. For... October 18, 1972; (b) The collection system is cost-effective; (c) The population density of the area to...

  6. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... design capacity equivalent to that of the existing system plus a reasonable amount for future growth. For... October 18, 1972; (b) The collection system is cost-effective; (c) The population density of the area to...

  7. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... design capacity equivalent to that of the existing system plus a reasonable amount for future growth. For... October 18, 1972; (b) The collection system is cost-effective; (c) The population density of the area to...

  8. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... design capacity equivalent to that of the existing system plus a reasonable amount for future growth. For... October 18, 1972; (b) The collection system is cost-effective; (c) The population density of the area to...

  9. Determination of clindamycin and its metabolite clindamycin sulfoxide in diverse sewage samples.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Reinhard; Schubert, Sara; Mühlbauer, Viktoria; Büttner, Bozena; Marx, Conrad; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2014-10-01

    In a research project on risk management of harmful substances in water cycles, clindamycin and 12 further antibiotics were determined in different sewage samples. In contrast to other antibiotics, an increase of the clindamycin concentration in the final effluent in comparison to the influent of the sewage treatment plant (STP) was observed. A back transformation from the main metabolite clindamycin sulfoxide to clindamycin during the denitrification process has been discussed. Therefore, the concentration of this metabolite was measured additionally. Clindamycin sulfoxide was stable in the STP and the assumption of back transformation of the metabolite to clindamycin was confuted. To explain the increasing clindamycin concentration in the STP, the ratio of clindamycin sulfoxide to clindamycin was observed. The ratio increased in dry spells with concentrated samples and with long dwell time in the sewer system. A short hydraulic retention in waste water system and diluted samples in periods of extreme rainfall lead to a lower ratio of clindamycin sulfoxide to clindamycin concentration. A plausible explanation of this behavior could be that clindamycin was adsorbed strongly to a component of the sewage during this long residence time and in the STP, clindamycin was released. In the common sample preparation in the lab, clindamycin was not released. Measurements of clindamycin and clindamycin sulfoxide in the influent and effluent of STP is advised for sewage monitoring.

  10. Sample collection, biobanking, and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahsman, Maurice J; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A A; de Wildt, Saskia N

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric pharmacokinetic studies require sampling of biofluids from neonates and children. Limitations on sampling frequency and sample volume complicate the design of these studies. In addition, strict guidelines, designed to guarantee patient safety, are in place. This chapter describes the practical implications of sample collection and their storage, with special focus on the selection of the appropriate type of biofluid and withdrawal technique. In addition, we describe appropriate measures for storage of these specimens, for example, in the context of biobanking, and the requirements on drug assay methods that they pose. Pharmacokinetic studies in children are possible, but they require careful selection of an appropriate sampling method, specimen volume, and assay method. The checklist provided could help prospective researchers with the design of an appropriate study protocol and infrastructure.

  11. ALTERED SERUM SEX STEROIDS AND VITELLOGENIN INDUCTION IN WALLEYE (STIZOSTEDION VITREUM) COLLECTED NEAR A METROPOLITAN SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Feral, male walleye collected from the Mississippi River below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant (STP) contained measurable levels of the estrogen-inducible, female egg protein, vitellogenin. These same fish showed significantly decreased serum androgen and signifi...

  12. ALTERED SERUM SEX STEROIDS AND VITELLOGENIN INDUCTION IN WALLEYE (STIZOSTEDION VITREUM) COLLECTED NEAR A METROPOLITAN SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Feral, male walleye collected from the Mississippi River below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant (STP) contained measurable levels of the estrogen-inducible, female egg protein, vitellogenin. These same fish showed significantly decreased serum androgen and signifi...

  13. Volatile organic compounds in an urban airborne environment adjacent to a municipal incinerator, waste collection centre and sewage treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, J.; Blanch, A.; Bianchi, A. C.

    The occurrence and temporal distribution of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOC) at nine closely grouped locations in a suburban environment on the edge of the coastline of the Southampton Water estuary, located on the coastline of central southern England, was studied over six monthly periods spanning 1996-1997. The sampling sites circumscribed a juxtaposed municipal incinerator, waste collection and processing centre and sewage treatment plant. Three sets of airborne samples being taken before and after the closure of the municipal incinerator. VOC with volatilities of low to medium polarity ranging broadly from those of n-butane to n-octadecane were the major focus of interest. Over 100 individual compounds were routinely found in localised samples taken during the period of study. The types and concentrations of VOC identified partly reflect the imprint of the various waste processing operations on atmospheric VOC within the local environment. The most abundant VOC classes consisted of aromatic, chlorinated and organosulphide compounds, with smaller proportions of alkanes, alkenes and cycloalkane compounds. Compounds produced by sewage-processing and waste management operations, including volatile organosulphides and various oxygenated compounds, may occasionally exceed olfactory detection thresholds and represent a source of potential odour complaints in the local urban environment.

  14. Determination of siloxanes and VOC in landfill gas and sewage gas by canister sampling and GC-MS/AES analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schweigkofler, M.; Niessner, R.

    1999-10-15

    Biogases such as landfill gas and sewage gas undergo a combustion process which is generating electric energy. Since several trace compounds such as siloxanes (also halogenated and sulfur compounds) are known to cause severe problems to these gas combustion engines, they are of particular interest. In this work, a new technique for sampling, identification, and quantification of siloxanes and volatile organic carbon (VOC) in landfill gas and sewage gas is presented. After sample collection using evacuated stainless steel canisters biogas was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/atomic emission spectroscopy (GC-MS/AES). Using gas canisters, the sampling process was simplified (no vacuum pump needed), and multiple analysis was possible. The simultaneous application of MSD and AED allowed a rapid screening of silicon compounds in the complex biogases. Individual substances were identified independently both by MSD analysis and by determination of their elemental constitution. Quantification of trace compounds was achieved using a 30 component external standard containing siloxanes, organochlorine and organosulfur compounds, alkanes, terpenes, and aromatic compounds. Precision, linearity, and detection limits have been studied. In real samples, concentrations of silicon containing compounds (trimethylsilanol, hexamethyldisiloxane, octamethyltrisiloxane, decamethyltetrasiloxane, hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane, octamethylcyclotetrasilioxane, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane) in the mg/m{sub 3} range have been observed.

  15. Occurrence, temporal variation, and estrogenic burden of five parabens in sewage sludge collected across the United States.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Pycke, Benny F G; Brownawell, Bruce J; Kinney, Chad A; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Halden, Rolf U

    2017-03-24

    Five parabens used as preservatives in pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were measured in sewage sludges collected at 14 U.S. wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in nine states. Detected concentration ranges (ng/g, dry weight) and frequencies were as follows: methyl paraben (15.9 to 203.0; 100%), propyl paraben (0.5 to 7.7; 100%), ethyl paraben (<0.6 to 2.6; 63%), butyl paraben (<0.4 to 4.3; 42%) and benzyl paraben (<0.4 to 3.3; 26%). The estrogenicity inherent to the sum of parabens detected in sewage sludge (ranging from 10.1 to 500.1pg/kg 17β-estradiol equivalents) was insignificant when compared to the 10(6)-times higher value calculated for natural estrogens reported in the literature to occur in sewage sludge. Temporal monitoring at one WWTP provided insights into temporal and seasonal variations in paraben concentrations. This is the first report on the occurrence of five parabens in sewage sludges from across the U.S., and internationally, the first on temporal variations of paraben levels in sewage sludge. Study results will help to inform the risk assessment of sewage sludge destined for land application (biosolids).

  16. Fluid sample collection and storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, D.; Stone, S. E.

    1969-01-01

    Fluid sampling device collects a sample from a low-pressure fluid system and stores it for an indefinite period, with little risk of contamination of either the sample or the surrounding environment. The collector /a plastic bladder/ is separated from the sampler after a sample is collected.

  17. Field Sampling Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Michael George

    2016-10-01

    This field sampling plan describes sampling of the soil/liner of Lagoon 3 at the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The lagoon is to be closed, and samples obtained from the soil/liner will provide information to determine if Lagoon 3 and the land application area can be closed in a manner that renders it safe to human health and the environment. Samples collected under this field sampling plan will be compared to Idaho National Laboratory background soil concentrations. If the concentrations of constituents of concern exceed the background level, they will be compared to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels. If the concentrations of constituents of concern are lower than the background levels, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels, or the preliminary remediation goals, then Lagoon 3 and the land application area will be closed. If the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals are exceeded, additional sampling and action may be required.

  18. A statistical comparison of protein and carbohydrate characterisation methodology applied on sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Julie; Vedrenne, Fabien; Denis, Cécile; Mottet, Alexis; Déléris, Stephane; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Cacho Rivero, Jesús Andrés

    2013-04-01

    Biochemical characterization of organic matter is becoming of key importance in wastewater treatment. The main objectives are to predict organic matter properties, such as granulation or flocculation, and hence treatment performance. Although standardized methods do exist for some organic molecules, such as volatile fatty acids or lipids, there are no standard methods to measure proteins and carbohydrates content, both biochemical families being the main components of sewage sludge. Consequently, the aim of the present work is to investigate the efficiency of several colorimetric methods to determine proteins and carbohydrates content as well as their compatibility with the sludge matrices. The different methods have been evaluated based on statistical criteria such as sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, rightness, and specificity using standard molecules such as Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), glucose, cellulose and a certified reference product. The Lowry and the Dubois methods have been shown to be the best compromise for the considered criteria after having been tested on sewage sludge samples obtained from different locations in a wastewater treatment plant. In average, the measured volatile fatty acids, lipids, proteins and carbohydrates contents represented 80 ± 7% (% volatile solids) of the organic matter. Proteins and carbohydrates represented in average 69 ± 3%. This study underlined that the choice of a relevant methodology is of great importance for organic matter measurement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SAM Companion Documents and Sample Collection Procedures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAM Companion Documents and Sample Collection Procedures provide information intended to complement the analytical methods listed in Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  20. Dynamic Method for Identifying Collected Sample Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John

    2008-01-01

    G-Sample is designed for sample collection missions to identify the presence and quantity of sample material gathered by spacecraft equipped with end effectors. The software method uses a maximum-likelihood estimator to identify the collected sample's mass based on onboard force-sensor measurements, thruster firings, and a dynamics model of the spacecraft. This makes sample mass identification a computation rather than a process requiring additional hardware. Simulation examples of G-Sample are provided for spacecraft model configurations with a sample collection device mounted on the end of an extended boom. In the absence of thrust knowledge errors, the results indicate that G-Sample can identify the amount of collected sample mass to within 10 grams (with 95-percent confidence) by using a force sensor with a noise and quantization floor of 50 micrometers. These results hold even in the presence of realistic parametric uncertainty in actual spacecraft inertia, center-of-mass offset, and first flexibility modes. Thrust profile knowledge is shown to be a dominant sensitivity for G-Sample, entering in a nearly one-to-one relationship with the final mass estimation error. This means thrust profiles should be well characterized with onboard accelerometers prior to sample collection. An overall sample-mass estimation error budget has been developed to approximate the effect of model uncertainty, sensor noise, data rate, and thrust profile error on the expected estimate of collected sample mass.

  1. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4 Sequences Detected in Sewage from Treatment Plants of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Li, Wei; She, Ruiping; Yu, Liang; Wu, Qiaoxing; Yang, Jingling; Hu, Fengjiao; Soomro, Majid Hussain; Shi, Ruihan; Hao, Wenzhuo; Zhao, Yue; Mao, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in sewage samples in Shen Zhen, China. Sewage samples were collected from 152 sewage plants including livestock sewage, domestic sewage and treated sewage from May to July of 2015. Two of 152 samples were HEV positive (1.32%) from the livestock sewage plants. Partial ORF2 fragments of HEV were sequenced and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA5.1. Blast and phylogenetic analyses showed that both of these two sequences belonged to HEV Genotype 4. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the molecular characterization of HEV in wastewater in China and the first time to detect Genotype 4 in the sewage. Results from this study indicate that the possibilities of sporadic infections of HEV should be emphasized because virus still has the possibility to be circulating in the sewage in China.

  2. Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of Sewage Samples to Determine Oral Polio Vaccine Circulation Duration and Mutation After Mexican National Immunization Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Stephanie B.; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Huang, ChunHong; Lee, Yu-Jin; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; García-García, Lourdes; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    Background. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) can mutate and cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with prolonged replication. After poliovirus eradication, global use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may be needed until all OPV stops circulating. Mexico, where children receive routine IPV but where OPV is given only during biannual national immunization weeks (NIWs), provides a natural setting to study duration of OPV circulation in a community primarily vaccinated with IPV. Methods. One-liter sewage samples from four separate arroyos (creeks) near Orizaba, Mexico, were collected monthly for 12 months. Concentrated sewage underwent RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect OPV serotypes 1, 2, and 3 and their variants containing the serotype-specific point mutation in the 5′ untranslated region associated with neurovirulence. Results. OPV was detected 3, 4, 5, and 7 months after the May 2010 NIW, but was not detected at 6 or 8 months. A second and third NIW occurred in February 2011 and May 2011, and OPV was detected in the sewage monthly after both of these NIW through July 2011 when collection stopped. The OPV detected was primarily serotype 2 and predominantly contained the point mutations in the 5′ untranslated region associated with increased neurovirulence. Conclusions. OPV was detected in sewage as late as 7 months after an NIW in a Mexican community primarily vaccinated with IPV, but was not detected at 8 months, suggesting that OPV circulation may have ceased. These data suggest that in communities with high vaccination rates, 1 or 2 years of IPV administration after OPV cessation could be sufficient to prevent outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis from vaccine-derived strains. PMID:23667738

  3. Optimising sample collection for placental research.

    PubMed

    Burton, G J; Sebire, N J; Myatt, L; Tannetta, D; Wang, Y-L; Sadovsky, Y; Staff, A C; Redman, C W

    2014-01-01

    Biobanks provide an important repository of samples for research purposes. However, for those samples to reflect the in vivo state, and for experimental reliability and reproducibility, careful attention to collection, processing and storage is essential. This is particularly true for the placenta, which is potentially subjected to stressful conditions during delivery, and sample collection may be delayed owing to routine postpartum inspection by clinical staff. In addition, standardisation of the collection procedure enables samples to be shared among research groups, allowing larger datasets to be established. Here, we provide an evidence-based and experts' review of the factors surrounding collection that may influence data obtained from the human placenta. We outline particular requirements for specific techniques, and propose a protocol for optimal sample collection. We recognise that the relevance of these factors, and of the sample types collected to a particular study will depend on the research questions being addressed. We therefore anticipate that researchers will select from the protocol to meet their needs and resources available. Wherever possible, we encourage researchers to extend their collection to include additional samples that can be shared on an international collaborative basis, with appropriate informed consent, to raise the quality, as well as quantity, of placental research.

  4. Use of a Novel Real-Time PCR Assay To Detect Oral Polio Vaccine Shedding and Reversion in Stool and Sewage Samples after a Mexican National Immunization Day▿

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Stephanie B.; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Huang, ChunHong; Mahmud, Nadim; Lee, Yu-Jin; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Flaster, Harry; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; García-García, Lourdes; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    During replication, oral polio vaccine (OPV) can revert to neurovirulence and cause paralytic poliomyelitis. In individual vaccinees, it can acquire specific revertant point mutations, leading to vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). With longer replication, OPV can mutate into vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV), which causes poliomyelitis outbreaks similar to those caused by wild poliovirus. After wild poliovirus eradication, safely phasing out vaccination will likely require global use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) until cessation of OPV circulation. Mexico, where children receive routine IPV but where OPV is given biannually during national immunization days (NIDs), provides a natural setting to study the duration of OPV circulation in a population primarily vaccinated with IPV. We developed a real-time PCR assay to detect and distinguish revertant and nonrevertant OPV serotype 1 (OPV-1), OPV-2, and OPV-3 from RNA extracted directly from stool and sewage. Stool samples from 124 children and 8 1-liter sewage samples from Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico, collected 6 to 13 weeks after a NID were analyzed. Revertant OPV-1 was found in stool at 7 and 9 weeks, and nonrevertant OPV-2 and OPV-3 were found in stool from two children 10 weeks after the NID. Revertant OPV-1 and nonrevertant OPV-2 and -3 were detected in sewage at 6 and 13 weeks after the NID. Our real-time PCR assay was able to detect small amounts of OPV in both stool and sewage and to distinguish nonrevertant and revertant serotypes and demonstrated that OPV continues to circulate at least 13 weeks after a NID in a Mexican population routinely immunized with IPV. PMID:21411577

  5. Molecular detection of human noroviruses in influent and effluent samples from two biological sewage treatment plants in the region of Monastir, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hassine-Zaafrane, Mouna; Sdiri-Loulizi, Khira; Kaplon, Jérôme; Ben Salem, Imen; Pothier, Pierre; Aouni, Mahjoub; Ambert-Balay, Katia

    2014-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are responsible for numerous cases of waterborne and foodborne gastroenteritis every year. They are released in the sewage and their detection in this environment can reflect the epidemiology of the viral strains circulating in the community. A three-year (2007-2010) survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of human NoVs using RT-PCR in 518 sewage samples collected at the entrance and exit of two biological sewage treatment plants located in Monastir region, Tunisia. In this study, we aimed to genetically characterize the most prevalent GI and GII NoV strains, in order to obtain a rough estimate of the efficacy of disinfection treatments and to compare the results with clinical data documented in the same area during the same period. This work confirms the wide circulation and the genetic diversity of NoVs in Tunisia and the widespread distribution of NoV variants in both raw and treated wastewater. Indeed, NoV was detected in 192 (37.1%) sewage samples, among them mixed infections with group A rotavirus were detected in 125 (65.1%) cases. The genotypes of the GI NoVs were GI.1, GI.2, GI.4, GI.5, and GI of unassigned genotype (GI.UA), and the genotypes of the GII NoVs were all GII.12. This study enhances the currently poor environmental virological data gathered in Tunisia, demonstrates the benefit of environmental surveillance as a tool to determine the epidemiology of NoVs circulating in a given community, and underlines the need for the design and support of similar long-term studies in our country, in order to compensate for the absence of a national surveillance system for gastroenteric viruses.

  6. Sample Collection Procedures for Radiochemical Analytes in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report The procedures described in this document are intended to provide instructions regarding the collection of samples from outdoor building and infrastructure materials to be analyzed for radiological contaminants following an intentional or unintentional contamination incident or emergency. This document focuses on the Site Characterization, Remediation, and Final Status Survey (site release) phases (as described in Section 1.4) and is not intended to address sample collection needs during Initial Response. The procedures are intended for collection of samples in support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) following a contamination incident.

  7. Chapter A4. Collection of Water Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.

    1999-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data that are used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses preparations and appropriate methods for the collection of surface-water, groundwater, and associated quality-control samples. Among the topics covered are considerations and procedures to prevent sample contamination; establishing site files; instructions for collecting depth-integrated isokinetic and nonisokinetic samples at flowing- and still-water sites; and guidelines for collecting formation water from wells having various types of construction and hydraulic and aquifer characteristics.

  8. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo

    2004-09-21

    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  9. Rapid determination of lead and cadmium in sewage sludge samples using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with slurry sample introduction.

    PubMed

    López-García, I; Viñas, P; Arroyo-Cortéz, J; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2000-08-01

    Lead and cadmium concentrations in sewage sludge samples are determined by suspending the ground samples in a solution containing 10% (v/v) concentrated hydrofluoric acid, 1% (v/v) concentrated nitric acid, 0.5% (m/v) dihydrogen ammonium phosphate and 0.1% (m/v) sodium hexametaphosphate. Aliquots of 20 microL of these suspensions (4 mg/mL) are diluted to 1000 microL with the same solution and then injected into the electrothermal atomizer. The drying stage is performed by programming a 400 degrees C temperature, a ramp time of 20 s and a hold time of 15 s on the power supply of the atomizer. No ashing step is used. Platform atomization is carried out at 1600 and 1800 degrees C for Pb and Cd, respectively. Calibration is performed using aqueous standards in the 5-75 and 0.2-5 microg/L Pb and Cd ranges, respectively. Results obtained for three certified reference materials and four samples demonstrate the reliability of the procedures described.

  10. Asteroid Redirect Mission: EVA and Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Stich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Overview (1) Notional Development Schedule, (2) ARV Crewed Mission Accommodations; Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) Mission Summary; ARCM Accomplishments; Sample collection/curation plan (1) CAPTEM Requirements; SBAG Engagement Plan

  11. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  12. Kuipers performs Potable Water Sample Collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-15

    ISS031-E-079015 (15 May 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 31 flight engineer, collects a sample from the Water Recovery System (WRS) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  13. Kuipers performs Potable Water Sample Collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-15

    ISS031-E-157783 (15 May 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 31 flight engineer, collects a water sample from the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  14. Estimating the biodegradability of treated sewage samples using synchronous fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tien M; Shin, Jae-Ki; Hur, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) and the first derivative spectra of the influent versus the effluent wastewater samples were compared and the use of fluorescence indices is suggested as a means to estimate the biodegradability of the effluent wastewater. Three distinct peaks were identified from the SFS of the effluent wastewater samples. Protein-like fluorescence (PLF) was reduced, whereas fulvic and/or humic-like fluorescence (HLF) were enhanced, suggesting that the two fluorescence characteristics may represent biodegradable and refractory components, respectively. Five fluorescence indices were selected for the biodegradability estimation based on the spectral features changing from the influent to the effluent. Among the selected indices, the relative distribution of PLF to the total fluorescence area of SFS (Index II) exhibited the highest correlation coefficient with total organic carbon (TOC)-based biodegradability, which was even higher than those obtained with the traditional oxygen demand-based parameters. A multiple regression analysis using Index II and the area ratio of PLF to HLF (Index III) demonstrated the enhancement of the correlations from 0.558 to 0.711 for TOC-based biodegradability. The multiple regression equation finally obtained was 0.148 × Index II - 4.964 × Index III - 0.001 and 0.046 × Index II - 1.128 × Index III + 0.026. The fluorescence indices proposed here are expected to be utilized for successful development of real-time monitoring using a simple fluorescence sensing device for the biodegradability of treated sewage.

  15. Evaluation of standardized sample collection, packaging, and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Journal Sample collection procedures and primary receptacle (sample container and bag) decontamination methods should prevent contaminant transfer between contaminated and non-contaminated surfaces and areas during bio-incident operations. Cross-contamination of personnel, equipment, or sample containers may result in the exfiltration of biological agent from the exclusion (hot) zone and have unintended negative consequences on response resources, activities and outcomes. The current study was designed to: (1) evaluate currently recommended sample collection and packaging procedures to identify procedural steps that may increase the likelihood of spore exfiltration or contaminant transfer; (2) evaluate the efficacy of currently recommended primary receptacle decontamination procedures; and (3) evaluate the efficacy of outer packaging decontamination methods. Wet- and dry-deposited fluorescent tracer powder was used in contaminant transfer tests to qualitatively evaluate the currently-recommended sample collection procedures. Bacillus atrophaeus spores, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis, were used to evaluate the efficacy of spray- and wipe-based decontamination procedures.

  16. Pseudothrombocytopenia with multiple anticoagulant sample collection tubes

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Ferenc; Varga, Marina; Pataki, Zsolt; Rigo, Erzsebet

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is important for the accuracy of a clinical assessment and for avoiding unnecessary treatment. An elderly patient was hospitalized with left lung pneumonia. Severe thrombocytopenia [platelet (PLT) number: 18 × 109/L] without any clinical bleeding was found in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood collection tube. PLT measurement was repeated in various anticoagulant [sodium citrate, lithium heparin, disodium oxalate, hirudin, and magnesium sulfate (Mg-sulfate)] sample collection tubes and all of them showed thrombocytopenia except with Mg-sulfate. To the best of our knowledge, PTCP with five anticoagulant sample collection tubes has not been reported earlier. PMID:28180009

  17. Final Report BW Sample Collection& Preparation Device

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R P; Belgrader, P; Meyer, G; Benett, W J; Richards, J B; Hadley, D R; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P

    2002-01-31

    The objective of this project was to develop the technique needed to prepare a field collected sample for laboratory analysis and build a portable integrated biological detection instrument with new miniaturized and automated sample purification capabilities. The device will prepare bacterial spores, bacterial vegetative cells, and viral particles for PCR amplification.

  18. 75 FR 43989 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With SLENTROL AGENCY: Food and Drug... response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on the sample collection plan for dogs treated with... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With SLENTROL...

  19. Automated Sample collection and Analysis unit

    SciTech Connect

    Latner, Norman; Sanderson, Colin G.; Negro, Vincent C.

    1999-03-31

    Autoramp is an atmospheric radionuclide collection and analysis unit designed for unattended operation. A large volume of air passes through one of 31 filter cartridges which is then moved from a sampling chamber and past a bar code reader, to a shielded enclosure. The collected dust-borne radionuclides are counted with a high resolution germanium gamma-ray detector. An analysis is made and the results are transmitted to a central station that can also remotely control the unit.

  20. Estimating the Biodegradability of Treated Sewage Samples Using Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tien M.; Shin, Jae-Ki; Hur, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) and the first derivative spectra of the influent versus the effluent wastewater samples were compared and the use of fluorescence indices is suggested as a means to estimate the biodegradability of the effluent wastewater. Three distinct peaks were identified from the SFS of the effluent wastewater samples. Protein-like fluorescence (PLF) was reduced, whereas fulvic and/or humic-like fluorescence (HLF) were enhanced, suggesting that the two fluorescence characteristics may represent biodegradable and refractory components, respectively. Five fluorescence indices were selected for the biodegradability estimation based on the spectral features changing from the influent to the effluent. Among the selected indices, the relative distribution of PLF to the total fluorescence area of SFS (Index II) exhibited the highest correlation coefficient with total organic carbon (TOC)-based biodegradability, which was even higher than those obtained with the traditional oxygen demand-based parameters. A multiple regression analysis using Index II and the area ratio of PLF to HLF (Index III) demonstrated the enhancement of the correlations from 0.558 to 0.711 for TOC-based biodegradability. The multiple regression equation finally obtained was 0.148 × Index II − 4.964 × Index III − 0.001 and 0.046 × Index II − 1.128 × Index III + 0.026. The fluorescence indices proposed here are expected to be utilized for successful development of real-time monitoring using a simple fluorescence sensing device for the biodegradability of treated sewage. PMID:22164023

  1. Detection of Common, Emerging and Uncommon VP4, and VP7 Human Group A Rotavirus Genotypes from Urban Sewage Samples in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Tort, Luis Fernando Lopez; Victoria, Matías; Lizasoain, Andrés; García, Mariana; Berois, Mabel; Cristina, Juan; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Gómez, Mariela Martínez; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Colina, Rodney

    2015-12-01

    Environmental approach has proven to be a useful tool for epidemiological studies demonstrating through environmental studies the diversity of viruses circulating in a given population. The aim of this study was to perform a phylogenetic characterization of the group A rotavirus (RVA) glycoprotein (G)- and protease-sensitive (P)-genotypes obtained from sewage samples (n = 116) collected in six cities of Uruguay during March 2011 to April 2013. A worldwide standardized semi-nested multiplex RT-PCR (SNM RT-PCR) protocol directed against VP4 and VP7 genes were conducted for RVA detection and consensual DNA fragments were submitted to nucleotide sequencing. P and/or G genotype was successfully determined by phylogenetic analysis in 61% (n = 37) of the positive samples obtained by SNM RT-PCR (n = 61). The RVA genotypes were as follow: G1 (n = 2), G2 (n = 14), G3 (n = 5), G12 (n = 2), P[4] (n = 4), P[8] (n = 16), and P[3] (n = 2). Interestingly, through phylogenetic analysis, emerging, and uncommon human genotypes could be detected. Results obtained from the comparison of RVA genotypes detected in the current study and Uruguayan RVA strains previously described for contemporary clinical pediatric cases showed that monitoring sewage may be a good screening option for a rapid and economical overview of the circulating genotypes in the surrounding human population and a useful approximation to study RVA epidemiology in a future vaccine monitoring program. The present study represents the first report in Uruguay that describes the phylogenetic diversity of RVA from urban sewage samples.

  2. Biopolymers for sample collection, protection, and preservation.

    PubMed

    Sorokulova, Iryna; Olsen, Eric; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2015-07-01

    One of the principal challenges in the collection of biological samples from air, water, and soil matrices is that the target agents are not stable enough to be transferred from the collection point to the laboratory of choice without experiencing significant degradation and loss of viability. At present, there is no method to transport biological samples over considerable distances safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively without the use of ice or refrigeration. Current techniques of protection and preservation of biological materials have serious drawbacks. Many known techniques of preservation cause structural damages, so that biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process, which is nontoxic and water soluble and allows for the storage of samples without refrigeration. The method is capable of protecting the biological sample from the effects of environment for extended periods of time and then allows for the easy release of these collected biological materials from the protective medium without structural or DNA damage. Strategies for sample collection, preservation, and shipment of bacterial, viral samples are described. The water-soluble polymer is used to immobilize the biological material by replacing the water molecules within the sample with molecules of the biopolymer. The cured polymer results in a solid protective film that is stable to many organic solvents, but quickly removed by the application of the water-based solution. The process of immobilization does not require the use of any additives, accelerators, or plastifiers and does not involve high temperature or radiation to promote polymerization.

  3. Automated collection and processing of environmental samples

    DOEpatents

    Troyer, Gary L.; McNeece, Susan G.; Brayton, Darryl D.; Panesar, Amardip K.

    1997-01-01

    For monitoring an environmental parameter such as the level of nuclear radiation, at distributed sites, bar coded sample collectors are deployed and their codes are read using a portable data entry unit that also records the time of deployment. The time and collector identity are cross referenced in memory in the portable unit. Similarly, when later recovering the collector for testing, the code is again read and the time of collection is stored as indexed to the sample collector, or to a further bar code, for example as provided on a container for the sample. The identity of the operator can also be encoded and stored. After deploying and/or recovering the sample collectors, the data is transmitted to a base processor. The samples are tested, preferably using a test unit coupled to the base processor, and again the time is recorded. The base processor computes the level of radiation at the site during exposure of the sample collector, using the detected radiation level of the sample, the delay between recovery and testing, the duration of exposure and the half life of the isotopes collected. In one embodiment, an identity code and a site code are optically read by an image grabber coupled to the portable data entry unit.

  4. An international survey of decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) and decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) in sewage sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Ricklund, Niklas; Kierkegaard, Amelie; McLachlan, Michael S

    2008-12-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) is an additive flame retardant marketed as a replacement for decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE). The structures of the two chemicals are similar, and hence deBDethane may also become an environmental contaminant of concern. Environmental data on deBDethane are scarce. Since sewage sludge is an early indicator of leakage of these chemicals into the environment, an international survey of deBDethane and decaBDE levels in sludge was conducted. Samples were collected from 42 WWTPs in 12 different countries and analyzed with GC/LRMS. DeBDethane was present in sludge from all countries and may therefore be a worldwide concern. The levels of deBDethane in sludge samples from the Ruhr area of Germany were the highest so far reported in the literature (216 ng g(-1)d.wt.). The [deBDethane]/[decaBDE] quotient for the whole data set ranged from 0.0018 to 0.83. High ratios were found in and around Germany where deBDethane imports are known to have been high and substitution of decaBDE with deBDethane is likely to have occurred. Low ratios were found in the USA and the UK, countries that have traditionally been large users of decaBDE. An estimate of the flux of deBDEthane from the technosphere via WWTPs to the environment within the European Union gave 1.7+/-0.34 mg annually per person. The corresponding value for decaBDE was 41+/-22 mg annually per person.

  5. Investigation of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in sewage sludge samples from a metropolitan wastewater treatment plant in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ömeroğlu, Seçil; Murdoch, Fadime Kara; Sanin, F Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) have drawn significant attention within the last decade for both scientific and legislative reasons. In Turkey, the Regulation Regarding the Use of Domestic and Urban Sludges on Land states a limit value for the sum of nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) as NPE (NPE=NP+NP1EO+NP2EO). Unfortunately a standard method for the determination of these chemicals has not been yet set by the authorities and no data exists about the concentrations of NP and NPEOs in sewage sludge in Turkey. The aim of this study is to propose simple and easily applicable extraction and measurement techniques for 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP), NP, NP1EO and NP2EO in sewage sludge samples and investigate the year round concentrations in a Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Turkey. Different extraction techniques and GC/MS methods for sewage sludge were tested. The best extraction method for these compounds was found to be ultrasonication (5 min) using acetone as the solvent with acceptable recovery of analytes suggested by USEPA and other studies. The optimized extraction method showed good repeatability with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6%. The recovery of analytes were within acceptable limits suggested by USEPA and other studies. The limits of detection (LODs) were 6 µg kg(-1) for NP and NP1EO, 12 µg kg(-1) for NP2EO and 0.03 µg kg(-1) for 4-n-NP. The developed method was applied to sewage sludge samples obtained from the Central WWTP in Ankara, Turkey. The sum NPE (NP+NP1EO+NP2EO) was found to be in between 5.5 µg kg(-1) and 19.5 µg kg(-1), values which are in compliance with Turkish and European regulations.

  6. Firearms discharge residue sample collection techniques.

    PubMed

    Goleb, J A; Midkiff, C R

    1975-10-01

    Critical comparisons of Ba and Sb in firearms discharge residue were made on samples collected by three independent collection technqiues. Collection materials studied were transparent adhesive tape, (Scotch Brand), a solution of cellulose acetate in acetone ("Film Lift"), and plastic-shafted cotton swabs wetted with dilute nitric acid. Flameless atomic absorption analyses were performed with a Jarrell-Ash Model 810 instrument equipped with a tantalum strip atomizer. Tape and cotton swabs gave comparable positive indications of residue, with frequencies of 90 and 80%, respectively. The plastic Film Lift gave fewer positives, with a frequency of 50%. With the transparent tape lift, gunshot residue particles are discernible, making nondestructive microscopic identification possible prior to destructive elemental analysis.

  7. Astronaut John Young photographed collecting lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples near North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Young is using the lunar surface rake and a set of tongs. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked in the field of large boulders in the background.

  8. Determination of artificial sweeteners in sewage sludge samples using pressurised liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez, Edgar Y; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael

    2013-12-13

    An analytical method for the determination of six artificial sweeteners in sewage sludge has been developed. The procedure is based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) with water followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. After optimisation of the different PLE parameters, extraction with aqueous 500mM formate buffer (pH 3.5) at 80°C during a single static cycle of 21min proved to be best conditions. After a subsequent SPE, quantification limits, referred to dry weight (dw) of sewage sludge, ranged from 0.3ng/g for acesulfame (ACE) to 16ng/g for saccharin (SAC) and neohespiridine dihydrochalcone. The trueness, expressed as recovery, ranged between 72% and 105% and the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was lower than 16%. Moreover, the method proved its linearity up to the 2μg/g range. Finally, the described method was applied to the determination of the artificial sweeteners in primary and secondary sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants. Four of the six studied artificial sweeteners (ACE, cyclamate, SAC and sucralose) were found in the samples at concentrations ranging from 17 to 628ng/g dw.

  9. Determination of insoluble soap in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Vílchez, José L; Crovetto, Guillermo; Verge, Coral; de Ferrer, Juan A

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a new analytical procedure for determining insoluble Ca and Mg fatty acid salts (soaps) in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples. The number of analytical methodologies that focus in the determination of insoluble soap salts in different environmental compartments is very limited. In this work, we propose a methodology that involves a sample clean-up step with petroleum ether to remove soluble salts and a conversion of Ca and Mg insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetate salt and potassium carbonate, followed by the extraction of analytes from the samples using microwave-assisted extraction with methanol. An improved esterification procedure using 2,4-dibromoacetophenone before the liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection analysis also has been developed. The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two fatty acid Ca salts that are not commercial and are never detected in natural samples (C₁₃:₀ and C₁₇:₀). Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect because both standards have similar environmental behavior (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C₁₀:₀) to C₁₈:₀). We also studied the effect of the different variables on the clean-up, the conversion of Ca soap, and the extraction and derivatization procedures. The quantification limits found ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 mg/kg. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the development of a study on soap behavior in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples. © 2010 SETAC.

  10. Importance of sampling frequency when collecting diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Sun, Xiuming; Qu, Yueming; Wang, Chao; Ivetic, Snjezana; Riis, Tenna; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    There has been increasing interest in diatom-based bio-assessment but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how to capture diatoms’ temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency (ASF). To cover this research gap, we collected and analyzed daily riverine diatom samples over a 1-year period (25 April 2013–30 April 2014) at the outlet of a German lowland river. The samples were classified into five clusters (1–5) by a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method based on similarity between species compositions over time. ASFs were determined to be 25 days at Cluster 2 (June-July 2013) and 13 days at Cluster 5 (February-April 2014), whereas no specific ASFs were found at Cluster 1 (April-May 2013), 3 (August-November 2013) (>30 days) and Cluster 4 (December 2013 - January 2014) (<1 day). ASFs showed dramatic seasonality and were negatively related to hydrological wetness conditions, suggesting that sampling interval should be reduced with increasing catchment wetness. A key implication of our findings for freshwater management is that long-term bio-monitoring protocols should be developed with the knowledge of tracking algal temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency.

  11. Importance of sampling frequency when collecting diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Sun, Xiuming; Qu, Yueming; Wang, Chao; Ivetic, Snjezana; Riis, Tenna; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in diatom-based bio-assessment but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how to capture diatoms’ temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency (ASF). To cover this research gap, we collected and analyzed daily riverine diatom samples over a 1-year period (25 April 2013–30 April 2014) at the outlet of a German lowland river. The samples were classified into five clusters (1–5) by a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method based on similarity between species compositions over time. ASFs were determined to be 25 days at Cluster 2 (June-July 2013) and 13 days at Cluster 5 (February-April 2014), whereas no specific ASFs were found at Cluster 1 (April-May 2013), 3 (August-November 2013) (>30 days) and Cluster 4 (December 2013 - January 2014) (<1 day). ASFs showed dramatic seasonality and were negatively related to hydrological wetness conditions, suggesting that sampling interval should be reduced with increasing catchment wetness. A key implication of our findings for freshwater management is that long-term bio-monitoring protocols should be developed with the knowledge of tracking algal temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency. PMID:27841310

  12. Sewage: waste or resource

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlin, C.

    1980-10-01

    This article contains a historical review of sewage, its collection and disposal, its treatment and its application. It was not until the second half of the 19th Century that it was realized, that sewage should be returned to the soil where its immense fertilizer value would prove a source of prosperity. The production of biogas and/or alcohol has been largely overlooked and the utilization of sewage as a renewable resource is urged.

  13. Fabric phase sorptive extraction followed by UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of benzotriazole UV stabilizers in sewage samples.

    PubMed

    Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2015-10-01

    A fast and sensitive sample preparation strategy using fabric phase sorptive extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detection has been developed to analyse benzotriazole UV stabilizer compounds in aqueous samples. Benzotriazole UV stabilizer compounds are a group of compounds added to sunscreens and other personal care products which may present detrimental effects to aquatic ecosystems. Fabric phase sorptive extraction is a novel solvent minimized sample preparation approach that integrates the advantages of sol-gel derived hybrid inorganic-organic nanocomposite sorbents and the flexible, permeable and hydrophobic surface chemistry of polyester fabric. It is a highly sensitive, fast, efficient and inexpensive device that can be reused and does not suffer from coating damage, unlike SPME fibres or stir bars. In this paper, we optimized the extraction of seven benzotriazole UV filters evaluating the majority of the parameters involved in the extraction process, such as sorbent chemistry selection, extraction time, back-extraction solvent, back-extraction time and the impact of ionic strength. Under the optimized conditions, fabric phase sorptive extraction allows enrichment factors of 10 times with detection limits ranging from 6.01 to 60.7 ng L(-1) and intra- and inter-day % RSDs lower than 11 and 30 % for all compounds, respectively. The optimized sample preparation technique followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detection was applied to determine the target analytes in sewage samples from wastewater treatment plants with different purification processes of Gran Canaria Island (Spain). Two UV stabilizer compounds were measured in ranges 17.0-60.5 ng mL(-1) (UV 328) and 69.3-99.2 ng mL(-1) (UV 360) in the three sewage water samples analysed.

  14. Detection of low numbers of Salmonella in environmental water, sewage and food samples by a nested polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Waage, A S; Vardund, T; Lund, V; Kapperud, G

    1999-09-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with two nested pairs of primers selected from conserved sequences within a 2.3 kb randomly cloned DNA fragment from the Salmonella typhimurium chromosome was developed. The nested PCR assay correctly identified 128 of a total of 129 Salmonella strains belonging to subspecies I, II, IIIb and IV. One strain of Salm. arizona (ssp. IIIa) tested negative. No PCR products were obtained from any of the 31 non-Salmonella strains examined. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 cfu, as determined by analysis of proteinase K-treated boiled lysates of Salm. typhimurium. The performance of the assay was evaluated for environmental water, sewage and food samples spiked with Salm. typhimurium. Water and sewage samples were filtered and filters were enriched overnight in a non-selective medium. Prior to PCR, the broth cultures were subjected to a rapid and simple preparation procedure consisting of centrifugation, proteinase K treatment and boiling. This assay enabled detection of 10 cfu 100 ml(-1) water with background levels of up to 8700 heterotrophic organisms ml(-1) and 10000 cfu of coliform organisms 100 ml(-1) water. Spiked food samples were analysed with and without overnight enrichment in a non-selective medium using the same assay as above. Nested PCR performed on enriched broths enabled detection of <10 cfu g(-1) food. Variable results were obtained for food samples examined without prior enrichment and most results were negative. This rapid and simple assay provides a sensitive and specific means of screening drinking water or environmental water samples, as well as food samples, for the presence of Salmonella spp.

  15. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction.

    PubMed

    Pena, M Teresa; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M Carmen; Mejuto, M Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 microg kg(-1) dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials.

  16. Pattern of multiresistant to antimicrobials and heavy metal tolerance in bacteria isolated from sewage sludge samples from a composting process at a recycling plant in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heck, Karina; De Marco, Évilin Giordana; Duarte, Mariana Wanderlei; Salamoni, Sabrina Pinto; Van Der Sand, Sueli

    2015-06-01

    The composting process is a viable alternative for the recycling of household organic waste and sewage sludge generated during wastewater treatment. However, this technique can select microorganisms resistant to antimicrobials and heavy metals as a result of excess chemicals present in compost windrow. This study evaluates the antimicrobial multiresistant and tolerance to heavy metals in bacteria isolated from the composting process with sewage sludge. Fourteen antimicrobials were used in 344 strains for the resistance profile and four heavy metals (chromium, copper, zinc, and lead) for the minimum biocide concentration assay. The strains used were from the sewage sludge sample (beginning of the process) and the compost sample (end of the process). Strains with higher antimicrobial and heavy metal profile were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed a multiresistant profile in 48 % of the strains, with the highest percentage of strains resistant to nitrofurantoin (65 %) and β-lactams (58 %). The strains isolated from the sewage sludge and the end of the composting process were more tolerant to copper, with a lethal dose of approximately 900 mg L(-1) for about 50 % of the strains. The genera that showed the highest multiresistant profile and increased tolerance to the metals tested were Pseudomonas and Ochrobactrum. The results of this study may contribute to future research and the revision and regulation of legislation on sewage sludge reuse in soils.

  17. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing § 28.12 Collection of DNA samples. (a) The Bureau of Prisons shall collect a DNA...

  18. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing § 28.12 Collection of DNA samples. (a) The Bureau of Prisons shall collect a DNA...

  19. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing § 28.12 Collection of DNA samples. (a) The Bureau of Prisons shall collect a DNA...

  20. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing § 28.12 Collection of DNA samples. (a) The Bureau of Prisons shall collect a DNA...

  1. [Concentration and emission fluxes of halogenated flame retardants in sewage from sewage outlet in Dongjiang River].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Yu, Le-Huan; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2011-10-01

    Fourteen sewage samples from sewage outlets in Dongjiang River were collected. Halogented flame retardants were extracted and purified using dichloromethane and alumina/silica-gel column, respectively. The concentrations of halogenated flame retardants were measured utilizing GC/MS, and the emission fluxes were estimated. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) was the predominant halogenated pollutant (accounting for 64%) in sewage with the concentration ranging from 9.1 ng/L to 990 ng/L. The concentrations of polybrominated biphenyl ether (PBDEs), dominated by BDE209, in the sewage ranged from 6.9 ng/L to 470 ng/L, accounting for 30% of total halogenated flame retardants. The concentrations of other flame retardants, such as dechlorane plus (DP), 1, 2-bis(2, 4, 6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), and pentabromotoluene (PBT), were ranged within 0.17-23.6, nd-26.3, nd-1.45 and nd-0.45 ng/L, respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in sewage of Dongjiang River were comparable to those in influent wastewater of sewage treatment plants of Guangzhou, suggesting that the wastewater was discharged directly into Dongjiang River without any treatment. The emission flux of halogenated flame retardants from sewage was 191 kg. Emission from industrial wastewater, contributed to 48%-91% of total emission, was the main source of halogenated flame retardants.

  2. Total airborne mold particle sampling: evaluation of sample collection, preparation and counting procedures, and collection devices.

    PubMed

    Godish, Diana; Godish, Thad

    2008-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate (i) procedures used to collect, prepare, and count total airborne mold spore/particle concentrations, and (ii) the relative field performance of three commercially available total airborne mold spore/particle sampling devices. Differences between factory and laboratory airflow calibration values of axial fan-driven sampling instruments (used in the study) indicated a need for laboratory calibration using a mass flow meter to ensure that sample results were accurately calculated. An aniline blue-amended Calberla's solution adjusted to a pH of 4.2-4.4 provided good sample mounting/counting results using Dow Corning high vacuum grease, Dow Corning 280A adhesive, and Dow Corning 316 silicone release spray for samples collected using mini-Burkard and Allergenco samplers. Count variability among analysts was most pronounced in 5% counts of relatively low mold particle deposition density samples and trended downward with increased count percentage and particle deposition density. No significant differences were observed among means of 5, 10, and 20% counts and among analysts; a significant interaction effect was observed between analysts' counts and particle deposition densities. Significantly higher mini-Burkard and Air-O-Cell total mold spore/particle counts for 600x vs. 400x (1.9 and 2.3 x higher, respectively), 1000x vs. 600x (1.9 and 2.2 x higher, respectively) and 1000x vs. 400x (3.6 and 4.6 x higher, respectively) comparisons indicated that 1000x magnification counts best quantified total airborne mold spore/particles using light microscopy, and that lower magnification counts may result in unacceptable underreporting of airborne mold spore/particle concentrations. Modest but significantly higher (1.2x) total mold spore concentrations were observed with Allergenco vs. mini-Burkard samples collected in co-located, concurrently operated sampler studies; moderate but significantly higher mini-Burkard count values (1.4x) were

  3. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  4. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples.

  5. Analysis of the research sample collections of Uppsala biobank.

    PubMed

    Engelmark, Malin T; Beskow, Anna H

    2014-10-01

    Uppsala Biobank is the joint and only biobank organization of the two principals, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital. Biobanks are required to have updated registries on sample collection composition and management in order to fulfill legal regulations. We report here the results from the first comprehensive and overall analysis of the 131 research sample collections organized in the biobank. The results show that the median of the number of samples in the collections was 700 and that the number of samples varied from less than 500 to over one million. Blood samples, such as whole blood, serum, and plasma, were included in the vast majority, 84.0%, of the research sample collections. Also, as much as 95.5% of the newly collected samples within healthcare included blood samples, which further supports the concept that blood samples have fundamental importance for medical research. Tissue samples were also commonly used and occurred in 39.7% of the research sample collections, often combined with other types of samples. In total, 96.9% of the 131 sample collections included samples collected for healthcare, showing the importance of healthcare as a research infrastructure. Of the collections that had accessed existing samples from healthcare, as much as 96.3% included tissue samples from the Department of Pathology, which shows the importance of pathology samples as a resource for medical research. Analysis of different research areas shows that the most common of known public health diseases are covered. Collections that had generated the most publications, up to over 300, contained a large number of samples collected systematically and repeatedly over many years. More knowledge about existing biobank materials, together with public registries on sample collections, will support research collaborations, improve transparency, and bring us closer to the goals of biobanks, which is to save and prolong human lives and improve health and quality of life.

  6. Automatic Collection of Rock and Soil Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrias, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed machine would sample rock or soil automatically. Mounted on a wheeled or tracked vehicle, machine positions drill for cut at any angle from horizontal to vertical, moves power head to drive drill into cut, and stores drilled core in a container. New concept may also be useful in terrestrial agricultural and geologic surveys.

  7. Issues in Collecting and Transcribing Speech Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louko, Linda J.; Edwards, Mary Louise

    2001-01-01

    This article identifies issues in phonetic transcription of speech samples for speech language pathologists. Important terms and concepts from articulatory/clinical phonetics are reviewed and guidelines are provided for streamlining the process of whole-word live transcriptions and for refining transcriptions by incorporating features from…

  8. Technicians examine largest lunar rock sample collected

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-24

    S71-21245 (24 Feb. 1971) --- Dr. Daniel H. Anderson, an aerospace technologist and test director in the Nonsterile Nitrogen Processing Laboratory in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) looks at much-discussed Apollo 14 basketball-size rock through a microscope. The two moon-exploring crew men of Apollo 14 brought back 90-odd pounds of lunar sample material from their two periods of extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface in the Fra Mauro area.

  9. Detection of Small Numbers of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Cells in Environmental Water, Sewage, and Food Samples by a Seminested PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Waage, Astrid S.; Vardund, Traute; Lund, Vidar; Kapperud, Georg

    1999-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for detection of small numbers of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cells in environmental water, sewage, and food samples. Water and sewage samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched overnight in a nonselective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for PCR by a rapid and simple procedure consisting of centrifugation, proteinase K treatment, and boiling. A seminested PCR based on specific amplification of the intergenic sequence between the two Campylobacter flagellin genes, flaA and flaB, was performed, and the PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay allowed us to detect 3 to 15 CFU of C. jejuni per 100 ml in water samples containing a background flora consisting of up to 8,700 heterotrophic organisms per ml and 10,000 CFU of coliform bacteria per 100 ml. Dilution of the enriched cultures 1:10 with sterile broth prior to the PCR was sometimes necessary to obtain positive results. The assay was also conducted with food samples analyzed with or without overnight enrichment. As few as ≤3 CFU per g of food could be detected with samples subjected to overnight enrichment, while variable results were obtained for samples analyzed without prior enrichment. This rapid and sensitive nested PCR assay provides a useful tool for specific detection of C. jejuni or C. coli in drinking water, as well as environmental water, sewage, and food samples containing high levels of background organisms. PMID:10103261

  10. Snow White Trench Prepared for Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The informally named 'Snow White' trench is the source for the next sample to be acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander for analysis by the wet chemistry lab.

    The Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix took this shadow-enhanced image of the trench, on the eastern end of Phoenix's work area, on Sol 103, or the 103rd day of the mission, Sept. 8, 2008. The trench is about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    The wet chemistry lab is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Snow White Trench Prepared for Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The informally named 'Snow White' trench is the source for the next sample to be acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander for analysis by the wet chemistry lab.

    The Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix took this shadow-enhanced image of the trench, on the eastern end of Phoenix's work area, on Sol 103, or the 103rd day of the mission, Sept. 8, 2008. The trench is about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    The wet chemistry lab is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operational exigencies or resource limitations. (c) The DNA-sample collection requirements under this section... collection by another agency is authorized by 42 U.S.C. 14135a(a)(3) or 10 U.S.C. 1565(a)(2). (f) Each agency... sample-collection kits provided or other means authorized by the Attorney General, including...

  13. A simple and automated method to determine macrocyclic musk fragrances in sewage sludge samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vallecillos, Laura; Pocurull, Eva; Borrull, Francesc

    2013-11-01

    For the first time, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) has shown to be a powerful technique to extract macrocyclic musk fragrances directly from sewage sludge. It avoids the need to use additional extraction/preconcentration techniques or clean-up procedure and facilitates the automation of the method. Thus, a simple and fully automated method based on HS-SPME and GC-MS has been developed which allows the determination of eight macrocyclic musk fragrances at ngg(-1) (d.w.) levels. The optimal HS-SPME conditions were achieved when a PDMS/DVB 65μm fibre was exposed for 45min in the headspace of 0.25g sewage sludge samples mixed with 0.5mL of water stirred at 750rpm at 80°C. Optimal desorption conditions were found to be 250°C for 3min. Method detection limits were found in the low pgg(-1) range between 10pgg(-1) (d.w.) and 25pgg(-1) (d.w.) depending on the target analytes. In addition, under optimized conditions, the method gave good levels of intra-day and inter-day repeatabilities in sewage sludge with relative standard deviations varying between 1% to 9% and 6% to 15% respectively (n=5, 1000pgg(-1) d.w.). The applicability of the method was tested with sewage sludge from three urban sewage treatment plants (STPs). The analysis revealed the presence of the macrocyclic musks studied in several samples, with concentrations ranging between below MQL (method quantification limit) and 0.89ngg(-1) (d.w.). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling To Verify Completion of Self-Implementing Cleanup and...) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each selected sampling location for...

  15. Assessment of total mercury level in fish collected from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Subarna; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu; Dutta, Siddartha; Santra, Subhas Chandra

    2010-05-01

    Total mercury levels were quantified in Tilapia mossambicus, Cirrhinus mrigela and Labio rohita, captured from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture ponds. The bioconcentration factor of collected fish was assessed. Total mercury level ranged from 0.073 to 0.94 microg/g in both pre and post monsoon season. T. mossambicus in both season and C. mrigela at pre monsoon, cross the Indian recommended maximum limit (0.50 microg/g wet weight) for food consumption and according to World Health Organization guidelines all fish were not recommended for pregnant women and individuals under 15 years ages. A significant correlation was observed between mercury content of aquaculture pond water and fish muscle tissue. Total mercury concentration in experimental sites were higher than the control area (Wilcoxon Ranked-Sum test p > 0.05), which suggested the connection between mercury bioaccumulation and sewage fed aquaculture.

  16. Presence of antibiotic resistance genes in a sewage treatment plant in Thibodaux, Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Naquin, Anthony; Shrestha, Arsen; Sherpa, Mingma; Nathaniel, Rajkumar; Boopathy, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Increasing uses and disposals of antibiotics to the environment have increased emergence of various antibiotic resistance. One of the sources for the spread of antibiotic resistance is wastewater treatment plant, where bacteria and antibiotics can come in contact and can acquire antibiotics resistance. There are very few studies on this subject from a small town sewage treatment plant. Therefore, this study was conducted using raw sewage as well as treated sewage from a sewage treatment plant in Thibodaux in rural southeast Louisiana in USA. Samples were collected monthly from the Thibodaux sewage treatment plant and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes was monitored. The study showed the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in both raw and treated sewage in every month of the study period. The genetic transformation assay showed the successful transformation of methicillin resistant gene, mecA to an antibiotic sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, which became antibiotic resistant within 24h.

  17. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  18. Effect of fuel type and deposition surface temperature on the growth and structure of an ash deposit collected during co-firing of coal with sewage sludge and sawdust

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Kupka; Krzysztof Zajac; Roman Weber

    2009-07-15

    Blends of a South African bituminous 'Middleburg' coal, a municipal sewage sludge, and a sawdust have been fired in the slagging reactor to examine the effect of the added fuel on the slagging propensity of the mixtures. Uncooled ceramic probes and air-cooled metal probes were used to examine the influence of the deposition surface temperature on the growth and structureof the deposits. The initial stages of slagging were in a high-temperature range of 1100-1300{sup o}C and a low-temperature range of 550-700{sup o}C. Laboratory ash, ash sampled on the deposition probes, and ash collected in the cyclone have been analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence technique. The electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of the embedded resin deposit probes have been performed to determine the thickness, structure, porosity, and chemical composition in different layers of the deposit. Distinct differences in structures of the deposits collected using the uncooled ceramic probes and air-cooled steal probes were observed. Glassy, easily molten deposits collected on uncooled ceramic deposition probes are characteristic for co-firing of municipal sewage sludge with coal. Porous, sintered, but easily removable deposits of the same fuel blend have been collected on the air-cooled metal deposition probes. The addition of sawdust does not negatively influence the deposition behavior. Loose, easy removable deposits have been sampled on air-cooled metal deposition probes during co-firing of coal-sawdust blends. The mass of the deposit sampled at lower deposition surface temperatures (550-700{sup o}C) was always larger than the mass sampled at higher surface temperatures (1100-1300{sup o}C). 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Collection and Preparation of Thin Sections of Oriented Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Vicki Lynn

    1990-01-01

    Outlined is a method for collecting and cutting oriented samples for microstructural analysis including handling the samples in the laboratory, cutting and orienting chips parallel to the motion plane, and cutting and orienting chips normal to Le and foliation. (CW)

  20. USEPA/USGS Sample Collection Protocol for Bacterial ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report/SOP This Sample Collection Procedure (SCP) describes the activities and considerations for the collection of bacterial pathogens from representative surface soil samples (0-5 cm). This sampling depth can be reached without the use of a drill rig, direct-push technology, or other mechanized equipment. Analizing soil samples for biothreat agents may, for instance, define the extent of contamination or determine whether the concentrations of contaminants present a risk to public health, welfare, or the environment.

  1. USEPA/USGS Sample Collection Protocol for Bacterial ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report/SOP This Sample Collection Procedure (SCP) describes the activities and considerations for the collection of bacterial pathogens from representative surface soil samples (0-5 cm). This sampling depth can be reached without the use of a drill rig, direct-push technology, or other mechanized equipment. Analizing soil samples for biothreat agents may, for instance, define the extent of contamination or determine whether the concentrations of contaminants present a risk to public health, welfare, or the environment.

  2. The development of a Martian atmospheric Sample collection canister

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulczycki, E.; Galey, C.; Kennedy, B.; Budney, C.; Bame, D.; Van Schilfgaarde, R.; Aisen, N.; Townsend, J.; Younse, P.; Piacentine, J.

    The collection of an atmospheric sample from Mars would provide significant insight to the understanding of the elemental composition and sub-surface out-gassing rates of noble gases. A team of engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology have developed an atmospheric sample collection canister for Martian application. The engineering strategy has two basic elements: first, to collect two separately sealed 50 cubic centimeter unpressurized atmospheric samples with minimal sensing and actuation in a self contained pressure vessel; and second, to package this atmospheric sample canister in such a way that it can be easily integrated into the orbiting sample capsule for collection and return to Earth. Sample collection and integrity are demonstrated by emulating the atmospheric collection portion of the Mars Sample Return mission on a compressed timeline. The test results achieved by varying the pressure inside of a thermal vacuum chamber while opening and closing the valve on the sample canister at Mars ambient pressure. A commercial off-the-shelf medical grade micro-valve is utilized in the first iteration of this design to enable rapid testing of the system. The valve has been independently leak tested at JPL to quantify and separate the leak rates associated with the canister. The results are factored in to an overall system design that quantifies mass, power, and sensing requirements for a Martian atmospheric Sample Collection (MASC) canister as outlined in the Mars Sample Return mission profile. Qualitative results include the selection of materials to minimize sample contamination, preliminary science requirements, priorities in sample composition, flight valve selection criteria, a storyboard from sample collection to loading in the orbiting sample capsule, and contributions to maintaining “ Earth” clean exterior surfaces on the orbiting sample capsule.

  3. [Determination of bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A and alkylphenols in water samples of sewage treatment plant using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Zhang, Shenghu; Liu, Jining; Zhou, Linjun; Chen, Guosong; Shi, Lili

    2014-05-01

    Bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A and alkylphenols have received much attention in recent years because of their endocrine disrupting effects to aquatic ecosystem. The fate of these compounds in sewage treatment plant which is important to deal with this kind of compounds has significance on the study of exposure levels of the target compounds in the environment, and the development of analytical method is the basis on the above study. An analytical method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with negative ionization mode has been developed for measuring bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A and six alkylphenols in raw and treated sewage samples. The target compounds were separated on a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) with mobile phases of acetonitril and 0.02% (v/v) ammonia. Analyte confirmations were performed under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and the eight compounds were separated within 11 min. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 1 - 100 microg/L (R2 > or = 0.998). The quantification limits of the eight compounds were 2.0 - 20 ng/L. The recovery experiments were performed with samples spiked at the levels of 0.2, 2 and 20 microg/L, and the recoveries for the target compounds were in the range of 64.3%-118.0%, 65.9% - 100.5% and 70.3%-102.7% (RSD < 7.1%, n = 3), respectively. Based on the analytical method, the raw and treated sewage samples from an industrial park of Jiangsu Province were analyzed. Five compounds were detected in the water outlet in the range of 11.9-3 015.3 ng/L. It shows that the method is simple, selective, sensitive and can be used to analyze the water samples of sewage treatment plant containing alkylphenols.

  4. Avian influenza virus sample types, collection, and handling.

    PubMed

    Killian, Mary Lea

    2014-01-01

    Successful detection of avian influenza (AI) virus, viral antigen, nucleic acid, or antibody is dependent upon the collection of the appropriate sample type, the quality of the sample, and the proper storage and handling of the sample. The diagnostic tests to be performed should be considered prior to sample collection. Sera are acceptable samples for ELISA or agar gel precipitin tests, but not for real-time RT-PCR. Likewise, swabs and/or tissues are acceptable for real-time RT-PCR and virus isolation. The sample type will also depend on the type of birds that are being tested; although it is optimal to collect both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs should be collected from gallinaceous poultry and cloacal swabs should be collected from waterfowl. In addition to collecting the appropriate sample for the tests to be performed, selecting the right materials for sample collection (i.e., type of swab) is very important. This chapter outlines the collection of different specimen types and procedures for proper specimen handling.

  5. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues...

  6. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues...

  7. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues...

  8. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues...

  9. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues...

  10. Scientific guidelines for preservation of samples collected from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, James L. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The maximum scientific value of Martian geologic and atmospheric samples is retained when the samples are preserved in the conditions that applied prior to their collection. Any sample degradation equates to loss of information. Based on detailed review of pertinent scientific literature, and advice from experts in planetary sample analysis, number values are recommended for key parameters in the environmental control of collected samples with respect to material contamination, temperature, head-space gas pressure, ionizing radiation, magnetic fields, and acceleration/shock. Parametric values recommended for the most sensitive geologic samples should also be adequate to preserve any biogenic compounds or exobiological relics.

  11. Identification of Comamonas testosteroni as an androgen degrader in sewage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Yang, Fu-Chun; Ismail, Wael; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shih, Chao-Jen; Wu, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the masculinization of freshwater wildlife exposed to androgens in polluted rivers. Microbial degradation is a crucial mechanism for eliminating steroid hormones from contaminated ecosystems. The aerobic degradation of testosterone was observed in various bacterial isolates. However, the ecophysiological relevance of androgen-degrading microorganisms in the environment is unclear. Here, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms and corresponding microorganisms of androgen degradation in aerobic sewage. Sewage samples collected from the Dihua Sewage Treatment Plant (Taipei, Taiwan) were aerobically incubated with testosterone (1 mM). Androgen metabolite analysis revealed that bacteria adopt the 9, 10-seco pathway to degrade testosterone. A metagenomic analysis indicated the apparent enrichment of Comamonas spp. (mainly C. testosteroni) and Pseudomonas spp. in sewage incubated with testosterone. We used the degenerate primers derived from the meta-cleavage dioxygenase gene (tesB) of various proteobacteria to track this essential catabolic gene in the sewage. The amplified sequences showed the highest similarity (87–96%) to tesB of C. testosteroni. Using quantitative PCR, we detected a remarkable increase of the 16S rRNA and catabolic genes of C. testosteroni in the testosterone-treated sewage. Together, our data suggest that C. testosteroni, the model microorganism for aerobic testosterone degradation, plays a role in androgen biodegradation in aerobic sewage. PMID:27734937

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-28

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm{sup 3} and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  13. Occurrence of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) in sewage sludge and effluent samples of a wastewater-treatment plant in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Daso, Adegbenro P; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Odendaal, James P; Olujimi, Olanrewaju O

    2012-04-01

    The reuse of treated effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as alternative water source for sport-field or landscape irrigation, agricultural, and other industrial purposes is growing significantly. Similarly, the application of treated sludge (biosolid) to agricultural soils is now being considered globally as the most economic means of sludge disposal. However, the presence of emerging organic contaminants in these matrices, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are potential endocrine disruptors, portends a high health risk to humans and the environment in general. In this study, effluent and sewage sludge samples collected from a WWTP were analysed for some selected PBDE congeners (BDE congeners 28, 47, 99 100 153 154 183, and 209) as well as BB-153 using a high-capillary gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The sum of the eight PBDE congeners ranged from 369 to 4370, 19.2 to 2640, and 90.4 to 15,100 ng/l for raw water, secondary effluent, and final effluent, respectively. A similar result was observed for sewage sludge samples, which ranged between 13.1 and 652 ng/g dry weight (dw). The results obtained for BB-153 were generally lower compared with those found for most PBDE congeners. These ranged from ND to 18.4 ng/l and ND to 9.97 ng/g dw for effluents and sewage sludge, respectively. In both matrices, BDE 47 and 209 congeners were found to contribute significantly to the overall sum of PBDEs. The reuse of the treated effluent, particularly for agricultural purposes, could enhance the possibility of these contaminants entering into the food chain, thus causing undesirable health problems in exposed subjects.

  14. Matrix isolation apparatus with extended sample collection capability

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Gerald T.

    1987-01-01

    A gas-sample collection device provides for the matrix isolation of increased amounts of a sample material for spectrographic analysis from a gas chromatographic separation. The device includes an evacuated sample collection chamber containing a disc-like specular carousel having a generally circular lateral surface upon which the sample is deposited in an inert gas matrix for infrared (IR) spectral analysis. The evacuated sample chamber is mounted in a fixed manner and is coupled to and supports a rotating cryostatic coupler which, in turn, supports the specular carousel within the collection chamber. A rotational drive system connected to the cryostatic coupler provides for its rotational displacement as well as that of the sample collecting carousel. In addition, rotation of the cryostatic coupler effects vertical displacement of the carousel to permit the collection of an extended sample band in a helical configuration on the entire lateral surface of the carousel. The various components of the carousel's angular/linear displacement drive system are located exterior to the cryostatic coupler for easy access and improved operation. The cryostatic coupler includes a 360.degree. rotary union assembly for permitting the delivery of a high pressure working fluid to the cryostatic coupler in a continuous flow manner for maintaining the specular carousel at a low temperature, e.g., 10.degree.-20.degree. K., for improved uninterrupted gas sample collection and analysis.

  15. A perception and manipulation system for collecting rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, T.; Delingette, H.; Deluise, M.; Hsin, Y.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    1991-01-01

    An important part of a planetary exploration mission is to collect and analyze surface samples. As part of the Carnegie Mellon University Ambler Project, researchers are investigating techniques for collecting samples using a robot arm and a range sensor. The aim of this work is to make the sample collection operation fully autonomous. Described here are the components of the experimental system, including a perception module that extracts objects of interest from range images and produces models of their shapes, and a manipulation module that enables the system to pick up the objects identified by the perception module. The system was tested on a small testbed using natural terrain.

  16. Detection and characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Hungarian raw, surface and sewage water samples by IFT, PCR and sequence analysis of the SSUrRNA and GDH genes.

    PubMed

    Plutzer, Judit; Karanis, Panagiotis; Domokos, Klarissza; Törökné, Andrea; Márialigeti, Károly

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species and analysed the genotypes in 36 samples collected from different water sources and various geographic areas in Hungary. Samples were collected from drinking water and sewage treatment plants and from the recreation area of Lake Balaton. The (oo)cysts were purified according to the US EPA 1623 method and they were detected by immunofluorescence test (IFT). Genomic DNA was extracted from all samples and then the GDH target gene for Giardia and the SSUrDNA for both Giardia and for Cryptosporidium species were amplified by PCR. 24 out of 36 samples (67%) were Giardia positive and 15 (42%) were Cryptosporidium positive by IFT. PCR confirmed that 13 out of 36 samples (36%) were Giardia positive and 10 (28%) contained Cryptosporidium. Twelve Giardia and two Cryptosporidium PCR products were successfully sequenced. In seven samples G. lamblia Assemblage A and in one sample Assemblage B and in four cases Assemblages A and B have been found. In one sample C. parvum and in the other separate sample C. meleagridis were detected. Sequence analysis revealed a new subtype of G. duodenalis complex, clustered close to the Assemblage A group. This study provides the first report on simultaneous detection and genotyping of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species from water supplies in Hungary.

  17. Evaluation of bangkok sewage sludge for possible agricultural use.

    PubMed

    Pasda, Nuanjun; Panichsakpatana, Supamard; Limtong, Pitayakon; Oliver, Robert; Montange, Denis

    2006-04-01

    Bangkok (Thailand) covers more than 1500 km2 and has 10 million inhabitants. The disposal of wastewater is creating huge problems of pollution. The estimated amount of sewage sludge was estimated to be around 108 tonnes dry matter (DM) per day in 2005. In order to find a lasting way of disposal for this sewage sludge, the suitability of the sludge produced from three waste-water treatment plants for use as fertilizing material was investigated. Monthly samplings and analysis of sewage sludge from each plant showed that the composition of sludge varied according to the area of collection and period of sampling, and there was no link to rainfall cycle. Plant nutrient content was high (i.e. total N from 19 to 38 g kg(-1) DM) whereas organic matter content was low. The concentrations of heavy metals varied between sludge samples, and were sometimes higher than the E.U. or U.S. regulations for sewage sludge use in agriculture. Faecal coliforms were present in the sludge from one of the plants, indicating a possible contamination by night soil. In order to decrease this potentially pathogenic population the sewage sludge should be heated by composting. As the C/N ratio of sewage sludge was low (around 6) some organic by-products with high carbon content could be added as structural material to enhance the composting.

  18. ESBL-producing E. coli in Austrian sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Reinthaler, Franz Ferdinand; Feierl, Gebhard; Galler, Herbert; Haas, Doris; Leitner, Eva; Mascher, Franz; Melkes, Angelika; Posch, Josefa; Winter, Ingrid; Zarfel, Gernot; Marth, Egon

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of contamination of sewage sludge with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli strains and the effectiveness of different sewage sludge treatment methods. Monthly sewage sludge samples were collected between January and September 2009 in 5 different sewage treatment plants and tested for the presence of ESBL E. coli. In addition, the number of colony forming units (CFU) of E. coli and coliform bacteria before and after the different sludge treatment methods (aerobic/anaerobic digestion, lime stabilization, and thermal treatment) was investigated. Of the 72 sewage sludge samples investigated, ESBL-positive E. coli were found in 44 (61.1%) sewage sludge samples. The classification of beta-lactamase groups was carried out in 15 strains resulting in the detection of 2 different groups (CTX-M and TEM) of bla genes. All 15 of them had a CTX-M gene and 4 of these strains furthermore carried a TEM gene. With regard to the CFU of E. coli and coliform bacteria, thermal treatment and lime stabilization following dehydration sufficiently reduced pathogen concentrations. The plants using merely stabilization and dehydration showed an increase of E. coli and coliform bacteria and thus also an increase in ESBL-producing E. coli.

  19. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  20. The ABN Database: Sampling Strategies for Collection Overlap Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester, Maxine K.

    1987-01-01

    Reports the methodology and results of a study which explored the potential of three approaches to sampling the Australian Bibliographic Network (ABN) database files for determining collection overlap among Australian libraries. (Author/CLB)

  1. SAMPLE COLLECTION AND HANDLING FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to discuss sample collection and handling methods currently in use for detection and enumeration of microorganisms in biosolids and municipal wastewater sludges. Untreated sludges and biosolids are rarely homogeneous and present a challenge ...

  2. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  3. SAMPLE COLLECTION AND HANDLING FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to discuss sample collection and handling methods currently in use for detection and enumeration of microorganisms in biosolids and municipal wastewater sludges. Untreated sludges and biosolids are rarely homogeneous and present a challenge ...

  4. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  5. De Winne collects water samples in Service Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-07

    ISS020-E-018096 (7 July 2009) --- European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne, Expedition 20 flight engineer, collects water samples at the galley in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station for in-flight analysis.

  6. Prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria in hospital and community sewage in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abdulhaq, Ahmed; Basode, Vinod Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Sewage samples were collected from hospital and community sewage tanks, and bacterial strains and antibiotic sensitivity patterns were analyzed using the VITEK 2 microbial identification system p(bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). Three of the 12 isolates (25%) from the hospital sewage and 1 of the 13 isolates (7.69%) from the community sewage was extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrodynamic effects in buccal cell DNA sample collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidun, C. K.; Sozer, A. C.

    2003-11-01

    Many different methods can be used for collection of biological samples from individuals for DNA profiling purposes. However, blood and buccal cells are the two most popular sources of DNA. In situations where large numbers of samples have to be collected, buccal cell collection methods are the preferred choice because of minimized health risks and ease of collection, transportation, and storage. The normal practice in buccal cell collection is to rub a cotton swab or a piece of paper through the inner check of the subject in order to release the cells and to attach and collect the cells on the cotton or paper fibers. The problem with the current forms of sample collection and storage is that in some cases up to 20% of the samples collected do not result in a DNA profile of adequate quality to be reported by the laboratory without repeated testing. In this study, we consider the mechanics of a small sheet of paper being rubbed on the surface of the inner check. The process is not too different from coating a paper substrate with highly deformable material. The shear field developed between the paper and the fluid adjacent to the cells are estimated based on the available data. The action of the cell release and the cell adherence to the surface will be outlined.

  8. Analyses of coal samples collected 1975-1977

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.A. Jr.; Oman, C.S.; Coleman, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    In late 1975 the Virginia Division of Mineral Resources began a sampling program of coal beds in Virginia in cooperation with the US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines. A total of 134 samples were collected from coal beds of Pennsylvanian Age in five of the seven counties in the southwest Virginia coal field. Channel samples were collected at each of the sampling sites. In addition, supplemental samples of the roof- and floor-rock and major partings were collected at many sample sites, but were not analyzed. The samples are from most of the major coal beds in southwest Virginia, and are from fresh exposures in active surface and underground mines. Chemical analyses were made by the US Bureau of Mines and the US Geological Survey. The US Bureau of Mines analyses include the proximate and ultimate analyses, forms of sulfur, heat value, fusibility of ash, and the free, swelling index. The US Geological Survey analyses include the major-, minor-, and trace-element concentrations in both ash and whole coal. Statistical tables contain arithmetic and geometric means, observed range, and the standard deviation for samples collected in Virginia and are compared with samples in the National Coal Resources Data System for Tennessee, Kentucky and West Virginia.

  9. A direct method for e-cigarette aerosol sample collection.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Pablo; Navas-Acien, Ana; Hess, Catherine; Jarmul, Stephanie; Rule, Ana

    2016-08-01

    E-cigarette use is increasing in populations around the world. Recent evidence has shown that the aerosol produced by e-cigarettes can contain a variety of toxicants. Published studies characterizing toxicants in e-cigarette aerosol have relied on filters, impingers or sorbent tubes, which are methods that require diluting or extracting the sample in a solution during collection. We have developed a collection system that directly condenses e-cigarette aerosol samples for chemical and toxicological analyses. The collection system consists of several cut pipette tips connected with short pieces of tubing. The pipette tip-based collection system can be connected to a peristaltic pump, a vacuum pump, or directly to an e-cigarette user for the e-cigarette aerosol to flow through the system. The pipette tip-based system condenses the aerosol produced by the e-cigarette and collects a liquid sample that is ready for analysis without the need of intermediate extraction solutions. We tested a total of 20 e-cigarettes from 5 different brands commercially available in Maryland. The pipette tip-based collection system condensed between 0.23 and 0.53mL of post-vaped e-liquid after 150 puffs. The proposed method is highly adaptable, can be used during field work and in experimental settings, and allows collecting aerosol samples from a wide variety of e-cigarette devices, yielding a condensate of the likely exact substance that is being delivered to the lungs.

  10. Vaginal maturation index self-sample collection in mid-life women: acceptability and correlation with physician-collected samples.

    PubMed

    Hess, Rachel; Austin, R Marshall; Dillon, Stacey; Chang, Chung-Chou Ho; Ness, Roberta B

    2008-01-01

    During menopause, the ratio of the three vaginal epithelial cell types (parabasal, intermediate, and superficial) changes. The proportion of these vaginal cell types is categorized by the vaginal maturation index (VMI). The VMI provides an objective assessment of vaginal hormone response as well as overall hormonal environment. The aim of this study was to determine the concordance of self- and physician-collected samples for VMI and evaluate participant preference for self-collection. Twenty women aged 42 to 67 years were enrolled. Each woman received instructions and self-collected a sample for VMI analysis from her posterior lateral vaginal walls. Next, she underwent a vaginal speculum examination for physician VMI sampling. Finally, she completed a survey regarding sampling preference, ease of self-sampling, and previous vaginal experience. Correlation between physician- and self-collected samples were calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient and Cronbach's alpha. Participant characteristics, vaginal experiences, and sampling preferences were summarized using frequencies and measures of central tendencies. The relationships between preference for sampling method and previous vaginal experiences were examined using Fisher's exact test. Average age of the 20 participants was 52.2 years (range, 42-67 y). Women had a variety of previous vaginal experiences ranging from tampon use (100%) to previous vaginal self-swabbing (15%). Average self-collected VMI was 48.4 (range, 13.8-83.5) and physician-collected VMI was 49.9 (range, 20.5-83.5) with a correlation of 0.97 (P < 0. 001), alpha = 0.94. The majority of women preferred self-collection (80%) to physician collection, and there was no difference in preference based on previous vaginal experiences. Nineteen women (95%) found the self-collection to be very easy, and one found it to be somewhat easy. Women can reliably self-collect samples for VMI, and the majority of women in our study preferred self-collection

  11. Collection requirements for trace-element analyses of extraterrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Trace-element abundances have proven important in understanding the evolution of and interrelationships between different meteorites. Preliminary investigations of the trace-element contents of interplanetary dust particles indicate that trace-element abundances will prove equally important in distinguishing between micrometeorites of different types, comparing the interplanetary dust to the meteorites, and assessing the degree of thermal alteration experienced either on the parent body or during the collection process. Sample collection, delivery, and curation must be accomplished in a manner to avoid contamination with even trace amounts of the elements to be analyzed. The present SXRF sensitivity for micrometeorite analysis is of order 1 femtogram, but anticipated improvements in sensitivity will require sample contamination substantially below this level. Sample collection and handling equipment should be constructed from materials selected for ultrahigh purity, and serious consideration should be given in selecting the particular set of elements from which the collection apparatus is composed so as not to compromise useful information.

  12. Collection requirements for trace-element analyses of extraterrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Trace-element abundances have proven important in understanding the evolution of and interrelationships between different meteorites. Preliminary investigations of the trace-element contents of interplanetary dust particles indicate that trace-element abundances will prove equally important in distinguishing between micrometeorites of different types, comparing the interplanetary dust to the meteorites, and assessing the degree of thermal alteration experienced either on the parent body or during the collection process. Sample collection, delivery, and curation must be accomplished in a manner to avoid contamination with even trace amounts of the elements to be analyzed. The present SXRF sensitivity for micrometeorite analysis is of order 1 femtogram, but anticipated improvements in sensitivity will require sample contamination substantially below this level. Sample collection and handling equipment should be constructed from materials selected for ultrahigh purity, and serious consideration should be given in selecting the particular set of elements from which the collection apparatus is composed so as not to compromise useful information.

  13. Methods for collection and analysis of water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainwater, Frank Hays; Thatcher, Leland Lincoln

    1960-01-01

    This manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze water samples. Throughout, the emphasis is on obtaining analytical results that accurately describe the chemical composition of the water in situ. Among the topics discussed are selection of sampling sites, frequency of sampling, field equipment, preservatives and fixatives, analytical techniques of water analysis, and instruments. Seventy-seven laboratory and field procedures are given for determining fifty-three water properties.

  14. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Grasas, Alex; Ramalhinho, Helena; Pessoa, Luciana S; Resende, Mauricio G C; Caballé, Imma; Barba, Nuria

    2014-01-09

    Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem.

  15. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

  16. A low cost multi-level sampling device for synchronous aseptic collection of environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Michael L; Banishki, Nikola; Powell, Sarah; Rumack, Amy; Garrett, Jinnie M

    2014-10-01

    We describe a simple device for the aseptic collection of environmental water samples at high spatial resolution to depths of 50m. To demonstrate the utility of this technique we present geochemical and archaeal community data from samples collected throughout the water column of a stratified lake.

  17. Development of a Sampling Collection Device with Diagnostic Procedures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jhih-Yan; Feng, Mow-Jung; Wu, Chia-Chi; Wang, Jane; Chang, Ting-Chang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-08-02

    Cervicovaginal fluid plays an important role in the detection of many female genital diseases, but the lack of suitable collection devices in the market severely challenges test success rate. Appropriate clinical sampling devices for cervicovaginal fluid collection would help physicians detect diseases and disease states more rapidly, efficiently, and accurately. The objective of this study was to develop a readily usable sampling collection device that would eliminate macromolecular interference and accurately provide specimens for further studies. This study was designed to develop an effective device to collect cervicovaginal fluid from women with symptoms of endometrial lesions, women appearing in the clinic for a routine Papanicolaou smear, and/or women seeking a routine gynecologic checkup. Paper-based assay, ELISA, and qNano were used to provide accurate diagnoses. A total of 103 patients successfully used the developed device to collect cervicovaginal fluid. Some of the collected specimens were used to detect glycogen, lactate, and pH for determining pathogen infection. Other specimen samples were tested for the presence of female genital cancer by comparing interleukin 6 concentration and microvesicle concentration. We proposed a noninvasive screening test for the diagnosis of female genital diseases using a dual-material collection device. The outer, nonwoven fabric portion of this device was designed to filter macromolecules, and the inner cotton portion was designed to absorb cervicovaginal fluid.

  18. Rapid Remote Sample Collection Mechanism for Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygren, W. D.

    2000-01-01

    The Rapid Remote Sample Collection (RRSC) system is an innovative approach to the collection of regolith samples from the surface of comets or asteroids without landing the main body of the spacecraft on the surface. The RRSC system rapidly captures and retrieves a sample while the spacecraft momentarily hovers or slowly descends and-or drifts approximately 5 m above the body's surface. In this way the surface is not disturbed by landing thrusters, and the mass, volume, and complexity associated with landing and landing legs is eliminated. The sample collecting mechanism consists of an auger driven by the energy stored in a flywheel and a torroidal sample collection chamber wrapped around and rotating with the auger. The sample collector is deployed and retrieved by a Storable Tubular Extendable Member or STEM manufactured by TRW Astro Aerospace. This mechanism is similar to a motorized carpenters tape measure. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Collecting Fecal Samples for Microbiome Analyses in Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rashmi; Chen, Jun; Amir, Amnon; Vogtmann, Emily; Shi, Jianxin; Inman, Kristin S.; Flores, Roberto; Sampson, Joshua; Knight, Rob; Chia, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background The need to develop valid methods for sampling and analyzing fecal specimens for microbiome studies is increasingly important, especially for large population studies. Methods Some of the most important attributes of any sampling method are reproducibility, stability, and accuracy. We compared seven fecal sampling methods (no additive, RNAlater, 70% ethanol, EDTA, dry swab, and pre/post development fecal occult blood test (FOBT)) using 16S rRNA microbiome profiling in two laboratories. We evaluated nine commonly used microbiome metrics: abundance of 3 phyla, two alpha-diversities, and four beta-diversities. We determined the technical reproducibility, stability at ambient temperature, and accuracy. Results While microbiome profiles showed systematic biases according to sample method and time at ambient temperature, the highest source of variation was between individuals. All collection methods showed high reproducibility. FOBT and RNAlater resulted in the highest stability without freezing for four days. In comparison to no-additive samples, swab, FOBT, and 70% ethanol exhibited the greatest accuracy when immediately frozen. Conclusions Overall, optimal stability and reproducibility was achieved using FOBT, making this a reasonable sample collection method for 16s analysis. Impact Having standardized method of collecting and storing stable fecal samples will allow future investigations into the role of gut microbiota in chronic disease etiology in large population studies. PMID:26604270

  20. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Astromaterial Sample Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at NASA Johnson Space Center (hereafter JSC curation) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. JSC presently curates 9 different astromaterials collections in seven different clean-room suites: (1) Apollo Samples (ISO (International Standards Organization) class 6 + 7); (2) Antarctic Meteorites (ISO 6 + 7); (3) Cosmic Dust Particles (ISO 5); (4) Microparticle Impact Collection (ISO 7; formerly called Space-Exposed Hardware); (5) Genesis Solar Wind Atoms (ISO 4); (6) Stardust Comet Particles (ISO 5); (7) Stardust Interstellar Particles (ISO 5); (8) Hayabusa Asteroid Particles (ISO 5); (9) OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft Coupons and Witness Plates (ISO 7). Additional cleanrooms are currently being planned to house samples from two new collections, Hayabusa 2 (2021) and OSIRIS-REx (2023). In addition to the labs that house the samples, we maintain a wide variety of infra-structure facilities required to support the clean rooms: HEPA-filtered air-handling systems, ultrapure dry gaseous nitrogen systems, an ultrapure water system, and cleaning facilities to provide clean tools and equipment for the labs. We also have sample preparation facilities for making thin sections, microtome sections, and even focused ion-beam sections. We routinely monitor the cleanliness of our clean rooms and infrastructure systems, including measurements of inorganic or organic contamination, weekly airborne particle counts, compositional and isotopic monitoring of liquid N2 deliveries, and daily UPW system monitoring. In addition to the physical maintenance of the samples, we track within our databases the current and ever changing characteristics (weight, location, etc.) of more than 250,000 individually numbered samples across our various collections, as well as more than 100,000 images, and countless "analog" records that record the sample processing records of each individual sample. JSC Curation is co-located with JSC

  1. Urine sampling and collection system optimization and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Geating, J. A.; Koesterer, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A Urine Sampling and Collection System (USCS) engineering model was developed to provide for the automatic collection, volume sensing and sampling of urine from each micturition. The purpose of the engineering model was to demonstrate verification of the system concept. The objective of the optimization and testing program was to update the engineering model, to provide additional performance features and to conduct system testing to determine operational problems. Optimization tasks were defined as modifications to minimize system fluid residual and addition of thermoelectric cooling.

  2. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by Astronatu Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The lunar rake, An Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).

  3. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The lunar rake, an Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).

  4. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-11

    AS17-134-20426 (11 Dec. 1972) --- Scientist-astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The Lunar Rake, an Apollo Lunar Geology Hand Tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).

  5. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-11

    AS17-134-20425 (11 Dec. 1972) --- Scientist-astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot, collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by astronaut Eugene Cernan, commander. The lunar rake, an Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 centimeter) to one inch (2.5 centimeter).

  6. Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Dennis G [Augusta, GA; Peterson, Kurt D [Aiken, SC; Riha, Brian D [Augusta, GA

    2008-04-01

    A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial. The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool.

  7. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Mehnert, D U; Stewien, K E

    1993-01-01

    Rotaviruses were concentrated from 8-liter samples of raw domestic sewage and sewage-polluted creek water by adsorption to and elution from positively charged microporous filters (Zeta Plus 60S), followed by ultracentrifugation of the filter eluates. Indirect immunofluorescence and direct immunoperoxidase methods allowed detection and enumeration of rotavirus in 6 (20.6%) of 29 sewage samples and in 19 (34.5%) of 55 creek water samples. Levels of rotaviruses ranged from < 3 to 63 focus-forming units (FFU)/liter, and the geometric means were 2.2 FFU/liter in sewage, 2.9 FFU/liter at creek Tremembé, and 2.6 FFU/liter at creek Pirajussara. Wastewater samples examined during autumn and winter months showed a higher rate positivity for rotavirus than those collected in spring and summer, corresponding to the seasonal variation of rotaviral diarrhea in the city of São Paulo. PMID:8382461

  8. 40 CFR 761.310 - Collecting the sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collecting the sample. 761.310 Section 761.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND...

  9. [Publication of biological samples collections catalogues by tumor banks].

    PubMed

    Chabannon, C; Honstettre, A; Daufresne, L-M; Martin, P-M; Bonnetaud, C; Birtwisle-Peyrottes, I; Romain, S; Achache, K; Mery, O; Bordonne, O; Ducord, C; Jacotot, L; Vaglio, P; d'Arnoux, C; Figarella-Branger, D; Hofman, P; Borg, J-P; Atger, V

    2010-02-01

    Biobanks in general, and specifically tumour banks, are considered as essential tools for the development of translational and clinical research in biology and oncology. Biobank tasks include the collection and preservation of biological samples, and their association with information that will be essential for further scientific use ("annotations" that allow for the "qualification" of biological samples in biological resource). A collection is made of a series of biological resource that are representative of a homogeneous group of individuals or patients that are defined on the basis of clinical or biological information. Collections are used by scientists that are aware of their existence. In the absence of a published catalogue, this awareness is most often limited to research teams that are geographically close, or to investigators who already established collaborative projects with medical teams within the hospital that operates the tumour bank. Publications of catalogues, especially digitalized and online catalogues, should foster the development of high-level, large-scale and multicentric scientific projects. In addition, tumour banks will formalize rules that allow publication of collections, and upstream, rules that are used to qualify biological samples in biological resource: this should translate in an improved overall quality of samples and annotations. Tumour bank catalogues remain relatively few; however, some recent achievements established the "proof of concept" and already raise questions regarding rules for publication. It will be important to demonstrate that these high expectations translate into measurable benefits.

  10. Evaluation of Vacuum-based Sampling Devices for Collection ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report The existing surface sampling strategy for a biological incident involving B. anthracis spores requires the use of various methods depending on the surface type. This project comparatively evaluated the vacuum sock and two additional vacuum-based collection devices (37 mm filter cassette and 3M™ Trace Evidence Filter) for their sampling efficacy. The 37 mm filter cassette was evaluated with mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filters or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters installed, each was considered a unique device. These data were generated so appropriate sampling devices could be selected following a B. anthracis incident. Bacillus atrophaeus was used a surrogate.

  11. Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test

    SciTech Connect

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

    2007-12-13

    This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence

  12. Comparison of aquatic macroinvertebrate samples collected using different field methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenz, Bernard N.; Miller, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Government agencies, academic institutions, and volunteer monitoring groups in the State of Wisconsin collect aquatic macroinvertebrate data to assess water quality. Sampling methods differ among agencies, reflecting the differences in the sampling objectives of each agency. Lack of infor- mation about data comparability impedes data shar- ing among agencies, which can result in duplicated sampling efforts or the underutilization of avail- able information. To address these concerns, com- parisons were made of macroinvertebrate samples collected from wadeable streams in Wisconsin by personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey- National Water Quality Assessment Program (USGS-NAWQA), the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USDA-FS), and volunteers from the Water Action Volunteer-Water Quality Monitoring Program (WAV). This project was part of the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) Wisconsin Water Resources Coordination Project. The numbers, types, and environmental tolerances of the organ- isms collected were analyzed to determine if the four different field methods that were used by the different agencies and volunteer groups provide comparable results. Additionally, this study com- pared the results of samples taken from different locations and habitats within the same streams.

  13. Isotopic analysis of eggs: evaluating sample collection and preparation.

    PubMed

    Rock, Luc; Rowe, Sylwia; Czerwiec, Agnieszka; Richmond, Harold

    2013-02-15

    Egg traceability/authenticity is a worldwide concern. Stable isotope techniques have been suggested as a tool to address this issue. To further validate the use of these techniques, a research project was undertaken to evaluate what effect sample collection and preparation have on the measured isotopic composition of egg components. The timing of egg collection, the timing of egg preparation after collection, and the use of pasteurisation were investigated. The C, N, O, and S isotopic compositions of egg components from 7 different production systems were measured. Two sets of eggs were collected (4 months apart). It was found that the 'isotopic fingerprint' of a particular production system was maintained over time, and that it may be possible to trace liquid egg products based on isotopic data from fresh eggs. The findings from this study support the integration of stable isotope techniques in egg traceability/authenticity systems.

  14. Variability of collagen crosslinks: impact of sample collection period.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Dillon, E L; DeKerlegand, D E; Davis-Street, J E

    2004-04-01

    Because of the variability of collagen crosslinks, their use as markers for bone resorption is often criticized. We hypothesized that the variability could be reduced by collecting urine for 24 hours (or longer) instead of using single voids, and by not normalizing to creatinine. Urine samples were collected from 22 healthy subjects during two or more 24-hour periods. Each 24-hour pool and each 2nd void of the day were analyzed for N-telopeptide (NTX), pyridinium (PYD), and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks. Data were analyzed by using linear regression. For NTX, R2 for the two, 2nd-void samples (n = 38) was 0.55, whereas R2 for the two 24-hour pools was 0.51 or 0.52, expressed per day or per creatinine. For PYD and DPD, R2 for the 2nd-void samples was 0.26 and 0.18, R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per day was 0.58 and 0.74, and R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per creatinine was 0.65 and 0.76, respectively. Regression of the 2nd void and the corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per day, yielded R2 = 0.19, 0.19, and 0.08, for NTX, PYD, and DPD, respectively (n = 76 each). For the 2nd-void sample and its corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per creatinine, R2 = 0.24, 0.33, and 0.08, respectively. In a separate study, the coefficient of variation for NTX was reduced (P < 0.05) when data from more than one 24-hour collection were combined. Thus, the variability inherent in crosslink determinations can be reduced by collecting urine for longer periods. In research studies, the high variability of single-void collections, compounded by creatinine normalization, may alter or obscure findings.

  15. Variability of collagen crosslinks: impact of sample collection period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Dillon, E. L.; DeKerlegand, D. E.; Davis-Street, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Because of the variability of collagen crosslinks, their use as markers for bone resorption is often criticized. We hypothesized that the variability could be reduced by collecting urine for 24 hours (or longer) instead of using single voids, and by not normalizing to creatinine. Urine samples were collected from 22 healthy subjects during two or more 24-hour periods. Each 24-hour pool and each 2nd void of the day were analyzed for N-telopeptide (NTX), pyridinium (PYD), and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks. Data were analyzed by using linear regression. For NTX, R2 for the two, 2nd-void samples (n = 38) was 0.55, whereas R2 for the two 24-hour pools was 0.51 or 0.52, expressed per day or per creatinine. For PYD and DPD, R2 for the 2nd-void samples was 0.26 and 0.18, R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per day was 0.58 and 0.74, and R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per creatinine was 0.65 and 0.76, respectively. Regression of the 2nd void and the corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per day, yielded R2 = 0.19, 0.19, and 0.08, for NTX, PYD, and DPD, respectively (n = 76 each). For the 2nd-void sample and its corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per creatinine, R2 = 0.24, 0.33, and 0.08, respectively. In a separate study, the coefficient of variation for NTX was reduced (P < 0.05) when data from more than one 24-hour collection were combined. Thus, the variability inherent in crosslink determinations can be reduced by collecting urine for longer periods. In research studies, the high variability of single-void collections, compounded by creatinine normalization, may alter or obscure findings.

  16. Quality of DNA extracted from saliva samples collected with the Oragene™ DNA self-collection kit.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ana P; Oliveira, Isabel O; Santos, Betânia R; Millech, Cristini; Silva, Liziane P; González, David A; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana M B; Araújo, Cora L; Barros, Fernando C

    2012-05-04

    Large epidemiological studies in DNA biobanks have increasingly used less invasive methods for obtaining DNA samples, such as saliva collection. Although lower amounts of DNA are obtained as compared with blood collection, this method has been widely used because of its more simple logistics and increased response rate. The present study aimed to verify whether a storage time of 8 months decreases the quality of DNA from collected samples. Saliva samples were collected with an OrageneTM DNA Self-Collection Kit from 4,110 subjects aged 14-15 years. The samples were processed in two aliquots with an 8-month interval between them. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations were carried out in 20% of the samples by spectrophotometry and genotyping. Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were performed. The mean volume of saliva collected was 2.2 mL per subject, yielding on average 184.8 μg DNA per kit. Most samples showed a Ratio of OD differences (RAT) between 1.6 and 1.8 in the qualitative evaluation. The evaluation of DNA quality by TaqMan®, High Resolution Melting (HRM), and restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR (RFLP-PCR) showed a rate of success of up to 98% of the samples. The sample store time did not reduce either the quantity or quality of DNA extracted with the Oragene kit. The study results showed that a storage period of 8 months at room temperature did not reduce the quality of the DNA obtained. In addition, the use of the Oragene kit during fieldwork in large population-based studies allows for DNA of high quantity and high quality.

  17. Quality of DNA extracted from saliva samples collected with the Oragene™ DNA self-collection kit

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Large epidemiological studies in DNA biobanks have increasingly used less invasive methods for obtaining DNA samples, such as saliva collection. Although lower amounts of DNA are obtained as compared with blood collection, this method has been widely used because of its more simple logistics and increased response rate. The present study aimed to verify whether a storage time of 8 months decreases the quality of DNA from collected samples. Methods Saliva samples were collected with an OrageneTM DNA Self-Collection Kit from 4,110 subjects aged 14–15 years. The samples were processed in two aliquots with an 8-month interval between them. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations were carried out in 20% of the samples by spectrophotometry and genotyping. Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were performed. Results The mean volume of saliva collected was 2.2 mL per subject, yielding on average 184.8 μg DNA per kit. Most samples showed a Ratio of OD differences (RAT) between 1.6 and 1.8 in the qualitative evaluation. The evaluation of DNA quality by TaqMan®, High Resolution Melting (HRM), and restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR (RFLP-PCR) showed a rate of success of up to 98% of the samples. The sample store time did not reduce either the quantity or quality of DNA extracted with the Oragene kit. Conclusion The study results showed that a storage period of 8 months at room temperature did not reduce the quality of the DNA obtained. In addition, the use of the Oragene kit during fieldwork in large population-based studies allows for DNA of high quantity and high quality. PMID:22559914

  18. Collection and preparation of rodent embryonic samples for transcriptome study.

    PubMed

    Golubeva, Yelena; Symer, David

    2014-01-01

    The need for large-scale collection of rodent embryos and individual embryonic tissues for genomic and proteomic studies requires modification of traditional practices of embryo necropsy. The sample intended for transcriptome study should be rapidly dissected and stabilized to preserve its molecular integrity. The retrieval of high-quality RNA, DNA, and proteins from the target tissue is crucial for informative molecular analysis (e.g., gene profiling on microarray platform). We present a reliable method of collection and preparation of rodent embryos for genomic studies supported by detailed protocols and RNA extraction results for different stages of mouse embryonic development.

  19. Collection of Stratospheric Samples using Balloon-Borne Payload System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant; Sreejith, A. G.; Kumble, Sheshashayi; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Kj, Nirmal; Suresh, Ambily; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere at stratospheric altitudes contains dust particles from soil lifted by weather, volcanic dust, man-made aerosols, IDP (Interplanetary Dust Particles) - remnants of comets and asteroids, and even interstellar dust. Satellite observations suggest that approximately 100--300 tons of cosmic dust enter Earth's atmosphere every day. However, very little is known about the microbial life in the upper atmosphere, where conditions are very much similar to that on Mars and possibly on some exoplanets. Stratosphere provides a good opportunity to study the existence or survival of biological life in these conditions. Despite the importance of this topic to astrobiology, stratospheric microbial diversity/survival remains largely unexplored, probably due to significant difficulties in the access and ensuring the absence of contamination of the samples. To conduct a detailed study into this, we are developing the balloon-borne payload system SAMPLE (Stratospheric Altitude Microbiology Probe for Life Existence) to collect dust samples from stratosphere and bring them in an hygienic and uncontaminated manner to a suitable laboratory environment, where further study will be conducted to establish the possibility of microbial life in the upper atmosphere. This balloon-borne payload system will rise through the atmosphere till it reaches an altitude of about 25-30 km above sea level. The payload consists of detachable pre-sterilized sampling chambers designed to collect and contain the dust samples and get them back to the surface without contamination during the flight, a microprocessor and a controller which will determine the altitude of the payload system to actively monitor the opening and closing of the sample collection chambers. For contamination control, we will have two extra chambers, one of which will fly but not open, and one will remain closed on the ground. Other onboard devices include environmental sensors, GPS tracking devices, cameras to monitor

  20. MOLECULAR CONFIRMATION OF ENTEROVIRUS FROM SEWAGE AND DRINKING WATER SAMPLES FROM THREE CITIES, PAKISTAN: A POTENTIAL RISK FACTOR FOR PUBLIC HEALTH.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tahir; Anjum, Sadia; Afzal, Muhammad Sohail; Raza, Hamid; Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar Sadaf; Arshad, Najma

    2015-07-01

    Gastroenteritis causes from 4 to 10 million children deaths every year worldwide, mainly from infection with water-borne Enteroviruses, which consist of 67 diverse serogroups. Forty-two sewage and drinking water samples from three metropolitan cities of Pakistan were analyzed for the occurrence of Enterovirus by nested RT-PCR amplification. Molecular detection was based on amplification of a part of 5'UTR region of the viruses. Our results revealed an alarming situ- ation in densely populated areas of the three main cities of Pakistan: 28%, 19% and 21% of drinking water samples were positive for enteroviruses in Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Lahore, respectively. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic study of the amplified region of the virus revealed its close relationship with Coxsackie A strains reported from Greece, Singapore and USA.

  1. Prevention of hemolysis in blood samples collected from intravenous catheters.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Avanzini, Paola; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2013-05-01

    Samples drawn through intravenous catheters are frequently hemolyzed. We planned a prospective, randomized study to establish whether hemolysis in samples drawn from intravenous catheters may be reduced using S-Monovette® tubes collected by manual aspiration as compared with standard vacuum tubes. We studied 52 consecutive patients admitted to the ED. Blood was drawn through a 20-gauge intravenous catheter. A 5.0mL, Becton Dickinson Vacutainer® SST II Plus serum tube was collected and discarded. In the odd group of patients (i.e., n. 1, 3, 5, etc.), a second SST II tube was drawn with vacuum ("BD-V"), followed by a 5.5mL S-Monovette® serum tube collected with manual aspiration ("SD-A") and an identical S-Monovette collected by vacuum ("SD-V"). In the pair group of patients (i.e., n. 2, 4, 6, etc.), the sequence was modified to "SD-A", "SD-V" and "BD-V". Serum was separated and tested for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), potassium and cell-free hemoglobin. The mean concentration of potassium (+2.7% in BD-V and +1.7% in SD-V, respectively), LDH (+15% in BD-V and +7% in SD-V, respectively) and cell-free hemoglobin was significantly increased when samples were collected with vacuum tubes as compared with manual aspiration. No significant differences were observed between SD-V and BD-V. The frequency of hemolyzed samples was higher when blood was collected with the vacuum as compared with SD-A (i.e., 2%), but did not differ between BD-V and SD-V (i.e., 29 versus 31%; p=0.70). S-Monovette can be used with vacuum or aspiration collection. This latter approach allows blood drawing with limited shear stress and less likelihood of generating spuriously hemolysis. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Salmonellosis in wild birds feeding at sewage treatment works.

    PubMed Central

    Plant, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    Between June 1976 and August 1977 faeces were collected from 599 wild British birds caught during ringing operations at two sewage treatment works in south-east England. Samples were incubated with selenite-F broth to detect the presence of Salmonella. Salm. anatum was isolated from one bird, a Dunnock Prunella modularis an incidence of 0.17% of the total birds examined and 3.23% of the Dunnocks. Comparisons are drawn with previously reported studies and it is suggested that sewage treatment works play little part in the transmission of Salmonella infections to wild birds feeding there. PMID:690424

  3. Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Takizawa, M.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site were tested for the ability to grow under in situ conditions of temperature and pressure. The responses of cultures collected at a DWD-106 station heavily impacted by sewage sludge were compared with those of samples collected from a station at the same depth which was not contaminated by sewage sludge. Significant differences were observed in the ability of mixed bacterial cultures and isolates from the two sites to grow under deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions. The levels of sludge contamination were established by enumerating Clostridium perfringens, a sewage indicator bacterium, in sediment samples from the two sites. (Copyright (c) 1993, American Society for Microbiology.)

  4. Device for collecting and analyzing matrix-isolated samples

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Gerald T.

    1979-01-01

    A gas-sample collection device is disclosed for matrix isolation of individual gas bands from a gas chromatographic separation and for presenting these distinct samples for spectrometric examination. The device includes a vacuum chamber containing a rotatably supported, specular carrousel having a number of external, reflecting surfaces around its axis of rotation for holding samples. A gas inlet is provided for depositing sample and matrix material on the individual reflecting surfaces maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause solidification. Two optical windows or lenses are installed in the vacuum chamber walls for transmitting a beam of electromagnetic radiation, for instance infrared light, through a selected sample. Positioned within the chamber are two concave mirrors, the first aligned to receive the light beam from one of the lenses and focus it to the sample on one of the reflecting surfaces of the carrousel. The second mirror is aligned to receive reflected light from that carrousel surface and to focus it outwardly through the second lens. The light beam transmitted from the sample is received by a spectrometer for determining absorption spectra.

  5. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. [qualitative analysis of aqueous samples from several points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles. The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples. The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system.

  6. Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison Schmitt Collects Lunar Rock Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt collects rock samples from a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Littrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Schmitt; Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  7. Plume Collection Strategies for Icy World Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neveu, M.; Glavin, D. P.; Tsou, P.; Anbar, A. D.; Williams, P.

    2015-01-01

    Three icy worlds in the solar system display evidence of pluming activity. Water vapor and ice particles emanate from cracks near the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The plume gas contains simple hydrocarbons that could be fragments of larger, more complex organics. More recently, observations using the Hubble and Herschel space telescopes have hinted at transient water vapor plumes at Jupiter's moon Europa and the dwarf planet Ceres. Plume materials may be ejected directly from possible sub-surface oceans, at least on Enceladus. In such oceans, liquid water, organics, and energy may co-exist, making these environments habitable. The venting of habitable ocean material into space provides a unique opportunity to capture this material during a relatively simple flyby mission and return it to Earth. Plume collection strategies should enable investigations of evidence for life in the returned samples via laboratory analyses of the structure, distribution, isotopic composition, and chirality of the chemical components (including biomolecules) of plume materials. Here, we discuss approaches for the collection of dust and volatiles during flybys through Enceladus' plume, based on Cassini results and lessons learned from the Stardust comet sample return mission. We also highlight areas where sample collector and containment technology development and testing may be needed for future plume sample return missions.

  8. Predicting species distributions from samples collected along roadsides.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Kyle P; Fletcher, Robert J; Rota, Christopher T; Hutto, Richard L

    2012-02-01

    Predictive models of species distributions are typically developed with data collected along roads. Roadside sampling may provide a biased (nonrandom) sample; however, it is currently unknown whether roadside sampling limits the accuracy of predictions generated by species distribution models. We tested whether roadside sampling affects the accuracy of predictions generated by species distribution models by using a prospective sampling strategy designed specifically to address this issue. We built models from roadside data and validated model predictions at paired locations on unpaved roads and 200 m away from roads (off road), spatially and temporally independent from the data used for model building. We predicted species distributions of 15 bird species on the basis of point-count data from a landbird monitoring program in Montana and Idaho (U.S.A.). We used hierarchical occupancy models to account for imperfect detection. We expected predictions of species distributions derived from roadside-sampling data would be less accurate when validated with data from off-road sampling than when it was validated with data from roadside sampling and that model accuracy would be differentially affected by whether species were generalists, associated with edges, or associated with interior forest. Model performance measures (kappa, area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic plot, and true skill statistic) did not differ between model predictions of roadside and off-road distributions of species. Furthermore, performance measures did not differ among edge, generalist, and interior species, despite a difference in vegetation structure along roadsides and off road and that 2 of the 15 species were more likely to occur along roadsides. If the range of environmental gradients is surveyed in roadside-sampling efforts, our results suggest that surveys along unpaved roads can be a valuable, unbiased source of information for species distribution models. ©2011

  9. Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

    2005-09-23

    This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

  10. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling

  11. [Detection of Avian Influenza Virus in Environmental Samples Collected from Live Poultry Markets in China during 2009-2013].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Li, Xiaodan; Zou, Shumei; Bo, Hong; Dong, Libo; Gao, Rongbao; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-11-01

    Abstract: To investigate the distribution of avian influenza virus in environmental samples from live poultry markets (LPM) in China, samples were collected and tested by nucleic acid during 2009-2013 season. Each sample was tested by real-time RT PCR using flu A specific primers. If any real-time PCR was positive, the sample was inoculated into specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs for viral isolation. The results indicated that the positive rate of nucleic acid in enviromental samples exhibited seasonality. The positive rate of nucleic acid was significantly higher in Winter and Spring. The positive rate of nucleic acid in LPM located in the south of China was higher than in northern China. Samples of Sewage for cleaning poultry and chopping board showed that higher positive rate of nucleic acid than other samples. The Subtype identification showed that H5 and H9 were main subtypes in the enviromental samples. Viral isolation indicated H5 subtypes was more than H9 subtypes between 2009 and 2013 while H9 subtypes increased in 2013. Our findings suggested the significance of public health based on LPM surveillance and provided the basis of prevention and early warning for avian flu infection human.

  12. Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The discharge of untreated sewage is illegal in Michigan unless permitted under Act 245 due to public health concerns. In October, 1992, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR, now the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality) issued a discharge permit to Detroit authorizing discharge from the City's 78 combined-sewer overflows (CSOs), and requiring that a long-term control plan be developed to achieve mandated waterquality standards in receiving waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) issued a national CSO policy in April, 1994, which requires (1) operational improvements of existing systems to minimize discharges and prevent their occurrence in dry weather; (2) publicly operated treatment works (POTW) to characterize the frequency and volume of discharges; and (3) construction of CSO discharge control projects where necessary.In 1993, the Southeast Michigan Council of Governments (SEMCOG) requested assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD) and MDNR, Surface Water Quality Division, to address part of the technical data requirements for requirement 2. The USGS scope of services for this interdisciplinary, multiagency investigation consisted of collection, compilation, and interpretation of the necessary hydrologic data, and documentation of results. In addition to USGS personnel, personnel from DWSD assisted with the field collection of samples and in alerting USGS personnel to CSO effluent discharges.From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four CSOs discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan (figure 1) were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during storms and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. Discharges were sampled between 30 and 78 times

  13. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestre, Gracia; Bonmatí, August; Fernández, Belén

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Methane production rate increased between 56% and 208% during OFMSW–SS codigestion. • The OFMSW particle size reduction from 20 to 8 mm did not affect the methane yield. • OFMSW–SS codigestion promoted β-oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenic activity. • The evolution of specific activity was a feasible tool to control the process. - Abstract: The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20 days. The SS–OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1 kg{sub COD} m{sup −3} d{sup −1} (1.9 kg{sub VS} m{sup −3} d{sup −1}), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20 mm to 8 mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system.

  14. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Gracia; Bonmatí, August; Fernández, Belén

    2015-09-01

    The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20days. The SS-OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1kgCODm(-3)d(-1) (1.9kgVSm(-3)d(-1)), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20mm to 8mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system.

  15. Lunar Samples: Apollo Collection Tools, Curation Handling, Surveyor III and Soviet Luna Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The 6 Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface returned 2196 samples comprised of 382 kg. The 58 samples weighing 21.5 kg collected on Apollo 11 expanded to 741 samples weighing 110.5 kg by the time of Apollo 17. The main goal on Apollo 11 was to obtain some material and return it safely to Earth. As we gained experience, the sampling tools and a more specific sampling strategy evolved. A summary of the sample types returned is shown in Table 1. By year 1989, some statistics on allocation by sample type were compiled [2]. The "scientific interest index" is based on the assumption that the more allocations per gram of sample, the higher the scientific interest. It is basically a reflection of the amount of diversity within a given sample type. Samples were also set aside for biohazard testing. The samples set aside and used for biohazard testing were represen-tative, as opposed to diverse. They tended to be larger and be comprised of less scientifically valuable mate-rial, such as dust and debris in the bottom of sample containers.

  16. Organic analysis of ambient samples collected near Tank 241-C-103: Results from samples collected on May 12, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Lucke, R.B.; Young, J.S.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes organic analyses results from ambient samples collected both upwind and through the vapor sampling system (VSS) near Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-103 (referred to as Tank C-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed. Quantitative results were obtained for organic compounds. Five organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. We observed 39. Of these, only one was observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. Dichloromethane was above the detection limits using both methods, but the result from the TO-14 method is traceable to a standard gas mixture and is considered more accurate. Organic analytes were found only in the sample collected through the VSS, suggesting that these compounds were residual contamination from a previous sampling job. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text.

  17. Method optimization for fecal sample collection and fecal DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Mathay, Conny; Hamot, Gael; Henry, Estelle; Georges, Laura; Bellora, Camille; Lebrun, Laura; de Witt, Brian; Ammerlaan, Wim; Buschart, Anna; Wilmes, Paul; Betsou, Fay

    2015-04-01

    This is the third in a series of publications presenting formal method validation for biospecimen processing in the context of accreditation in laboratories and biobanks. We report here optimization of a stool processing protocol validated for fitness-for-purpose in terms of downstream DNA-based analyses. Stool collection was initially optimized in terms of sample input quantity and supernatant volume using canine stool. Three DNA extraction methods (PerkinElmer MSM I®, Norgen Biotek All-In-One®, MoBio PowerMag®) and six collection container types were evaluated with human stool in terms of DNA quantity and quality, DNA yield, and its reproducibility by spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, and quantitative PCR, DNA purity, SPUD assay, and 16S rRNA gene sequence-based taxonomic signatures. The optimal MSM I protocol involves a 0.2 g stool sample and 1000 μL supernatant. The MSM I extraction was superior in terms of DNA quantity and quality when compared to the other two methods tested. Optimal results were obtained with plain Sarstedt tubes (without stabilizer, requiring immediate freezing and storage at -20°C or -80°C) and Genotek tubes (with stabilizer and RT storage) in terms of DNA yields (total, human, bacterial, and double-stranded) according to spectrophotometry and spectrofluorometry, with low yield variability and good DNA purity. No inhibitors were identified at 25 ng/μL. The protocol was reproducible in terms of DNA yield among different stool aliquots. We validated a stool collection method suitable for downstream DNA metagenomic analysis. DNA extraction with the MSM I method using Genotek tubes was considered optimal, with simple logistics in terms of collection and shipment and offers the possibility of automation. Laboratories and biobanks should ensure protocol conditions are systematically recorded in the scope of accreditation.

  18. Differential BPA levels in sewage wastewater effluents from metro Detroit communities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Julia M; Putt, David A; Jurban, Michael; Joiakim, Aby; Friedrich, Klaus; Kim, Hyesook

    2016-10-01

    The endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in both aquatic and surface sediment environments because it is continuously released into sewage wastewater effluent. The measurement of BPA at wastewater treatment plants is rarely performed even though the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that current levels of environmental BPA could be a threat to aquatic organisms. Therefore, the aims of this study were to measure BPA levels in sewage wastewater at different collection points over a 1-year period and to compare the levels of BPA to 8-isoprostane, a human derived fatty acid, found in sewage wastewater. We analyzed pre-treated sewage samples collected from three source points located in different communities in the metropolitan Detroit area provided by the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department. Human urine samples were also used in the study. BPA and 8-isoprostane were measured using ELISA kits from Detroit R&D, Inc. BPA levels from the same collection point oscillated more than 10-fold over 1 year. Also, BPA levels fluctuated differentially at each collection point. Highly fluctuating BPA values were confirmed by LC/MS/MS. The concentration of BPA in sewage wastewater was ~100-fold higher than the concentration of 8-isoprostane, while urinary concentration was ~20-fold higher. Thus, BPA levels discharged into the sewage network vary among communities, and differences are also observed within communities over time. The difference in BPA and 8-isoprostane levels suggest that most of the BPA discharged to sewage wastewater might be derived from industries rather than from human urine. Therefore, the continuous monitoring of BPA could account for a better regulation of BPA release into a sewage network.

  19. Astronaut Charles Duke photographed collecting lunar samples at Station 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-04-21

    AS16-114-18423 (21 April 1972) --- Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed collecting lunar samples at Station No. 1, during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA), at the Descartes landing site. This picture, looking eastward, was taken by astronaut John W. Young, commander. Duke is standing at the rim of Plum Crater. The parked Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) can be seen in the left background. While astronauts Young and Duke descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Orion" to explore the Descartes highlands region of the moon, astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Casper" in lunar orbit.

  20. Measurement of isotopic abundances in collected stratospheric ozone samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, B.; Morton, J.; Mauersberger, K.

    1990-01-01

    Enrichment of heavy O3 isotopes has been measured in collected stratospheric samples. A balloon-borne cryogenic sampler was used to gather six O3 samples between 26 and 35 km in three flights. Subsequent laboratory mass spectrometer analysis of rare O3 isotopes at both mass 49 and 50 has resulted in more precise measurements than have previously been reported with in situ and ground-based techniques. In one flight, (O-50)3 was enriched by 12-16 percent and (O-49)3 by 9-11 percent, both increasing with altitude. In the remaining two flights, the isotope enrichment was nearly mass-independent at 8-9 percent. The enrichments in O3 at mass 50 are less than the large 40 percent value observed in some stratospheric measurements but similar to (O-49)3 and (O-50)3 fractionations produced in laboratory-generated ozone.

  1. Quantification of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and corresponding resistance genes in a sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Takashi; Hashimoto, Reina; Mekata, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and their resistance genes, vanA and vanB, to examine their presence in sewage treatment systems. Water samples were collected from primary sedimentation tank inlet, aeration tank, final sedimentation tank overflow outlet, and disinfection tank. Enterococcal strains were determined their vancomycin susceptibility by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. Vancomycin-resistance genes (vanA and vanB) were quantified by real-time PCR. The sewage treatment process indeed decreased the number of most enterococci contained in the entering sewage, with a removal rate of ≥ 5 log. The MIC test showed that two enterococcal strains resistant to a high concentration of vancomycin (>128 μg mL(-1)). However, most of the enterococcal strains exhibited sensitivity to vancomycin, indicating that VRE were virtually absent in the sewage treatment systems. On the other hand, vancomycin-resistance genes were detected in all the sewage samples, including those collected from the chlorination disinfection tank. The highest copy numbers of vanA (1.5 × 10(3) copies mL(-1)) and vanB (1.0 × 10(3) copies mL(-1)) were detected from the water sample of effluent water and chlorinated water, respectively. Therefore, antibiotic resistance genes remain in the sewage treatment plant and might discharged into water environments such as rivers and coastal areas.

  2. Modeling evaporative loss of oil mist collected by sampling filters.

    PubMed

    Raynor, P C; Volckens, J; Leith, D

    2000-01-01

    Oil mists can cause respiratory distress and have been linked to skin and gastrointestinal cancers in workers. Standard concentration assessment methods call for sampling these mists with fibrous or membrane filters. Previous experimental studies using glass fiber (GF) filters and polyvinyl chloride and polytetrafluoroethylene membrane filters indicate that mist sampled onto filters may volatilize. A model has been developed to predict the evaporation of mist collected on a fibrous sampling filter. Evaporation of retained fluid from membrane filters can be modeled by treating the filter as though it is a fibrous filter. Predictions from the model exhibit good agreement with experimental results. At low mist concentrations, the model indicates that evaporation of retained mineral oil occurs readily. At high mist concentrations, significant evaporation from the filters is not expected because the vapor accompanying the airborne mist is already saturated with the compounds in the oil. The findings from this study indicate that sampling mineral oil mist with filters in accordance with standard methods can lead to estimates of worker exposure to oil mist that are too low.

  3. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  4. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  5. Mucosal and Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses Detected in Raw Sewages

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Giuseppina; Fratini, Marta; Accardi, Luisa; D'Oro, Graziana; Della Libera, Simonetta; Muscillo, Michele; Di Bonito, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Epitheliotropic viruses can find their way into sewage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) in urban wastewaters. Sewage samples were collected from treatment plants distributed throughout Italy. The DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed by PCR using five PV-specific sets of primers targeting the L1 (GP5/GP6, MY09/MY11, FAP59/64, SKF/SKR) and E1 regions (PM-A/PM-B), according to the protocols previously validated for the detection of mucosal and cutaneous HPV genotypes. PCR products underwent sequencing analysis and the sequences were aligned to reference genomes from the Papillomavirus Episteme database. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to assess the genetic relationships among the different sequences and between the sequences of the samples and those of the prototype strains. A broad spectrum of sequences related to mucosal and cutaneous HPV types was detected in 81% of the sewage samples analyzed. Surprisingly, sequences related to the anogenital HPV6 and 11 were detected in 19% of the samples, and sequences related to the “high risk” oncogenic HPV16 were identified in two samples. Sequences related to HPV9, HPV20, HPV25, HPV76, HPV80, HPV104, HPV110, HPV111, HPV120 and HPV145 beta Papillomaviruses were detected in 76% of the samples. In addition, similarity searches and phylogenetic analysis of some sequences suggest that they could belong to putative new genotypes of the beta genus. In this study, for the first time, the presence of HPV viruses strongly related to human cancer is reported in sewage samples. Our data increases the knowledge of HPV genomic diversity and suggests that virological analysis of urban sewage can provide key information useful in supporting epidemiological studies. PMID:23341898

  6. Mucosal and cutaneous human papillomaviruses detected in raw sewages.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Giuseppina; Fratini, Marta; Accardi, Luisa; D'Oro, Graziana; Della Libera, Simonetta; Muscillo, Michele; Di Bonito, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Epitheliotropic viruses can find their way into sewage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) in urban wastewaters. Sewage samples were collected from treatment plants distributed throughout Italy. The DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed by PCR using five PV-specific sets of primers targeting the L1 (GP5/GP6, MY09/MY11, FAP59/64, SKF/SKR) and E1 regions (PM-A/PM-B), according to the protocols previously validated for the detection of mucosal and cutaneous HPV genotypes. PCR products underwent sequencing analysis and the sequences were aligned to reference genomes from the Papillomavirus Episteme database. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to assess the genetic relationships among the different sequences and between the sequences of the samples and those of the prototype strains. A broad spectrum of sequences related to mucosal and cutaneous HPV types was detected in 81% of the sewage samples analyzed. Surprisingly, sequences related to the anogenital HPV6 and 11 were detected in 19% of the samples, and sequences related to the "high risk" oncogenic HPV16 were identified in two samples. Sequences related to HPV9, HPV20, HPV25, HPV76, HPV80, HPV104, HPV110, HPV111, HPV120 and HPV145 beta Papillomaviruses were detected in 76% of the samples. In addition, similarity searches and phylogenetic analysis of some sequences suggest that they could belong to putative new genotypes of the beta genus. In this study, for the first time, the presence of HPV viruses strongly related to human cancer is reported in sewage samples. Our data increases the knowledge of HPV genomic diversity and suggests that virological analysis of urban sewage can provide key information useful in supporting epidemiological studies.

  7. Study of Cloud Water Samples Collected over Northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Polkowska, Ż; Błaś, M; Lech, D; Namieśnik, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives the results of the first studies on the chemistry of cloud water collected during 3 mo (Aug.-Oct. 2010) in the free atmosphere over the area to the south of the Tri-City (Gdansk-Sopot-Gdynia) conurbation on the Gulf of Gdansk, Poland. Taken from cumulus, stratus, and stratocumulus clouds by means of an aircraft-mounted collector, the water samples were analyzed for the following contaminants: anions (chlorides, fluorides, nitrates, sulfates, and phosphates), cations (lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium), and trace metals. In addition, pH values were measured, and the type and composition of suspended particulate matter was determined. We discuss the relationship between the concentration of inorganic ions and the type of cloud from which water was sampled. The chemistry is also likely related to the circulation pattern and inflow of clean air masses from the Baltic Sea. Moreover, a relationship was found between the composition of the samples examined and the location of pollutant emission sources.

  8. Collection, storage, and electrophoretic analysis of nanoliter microdialysis samples collected from awake animals in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Hershey, Neil D.; Mabrouk, Omar S.

    2011-01-01

    Microdialysis sampling is an important tool for chemical monitoring in living systems. Temporal resolution is an important figure of merit that is determined by sampling frequency, assay sensitivity, and dispersion of chemical zones during transport from sampling device to fraction collector or analytical system. Temporal resolution has recently been improved by segmenting flow into plugs, so that nanoliter fractions are collected at intervals of 0.1–2 s, thus eliminating temporal distortion associated with dispersion in continuous flow. Such systems, however, have yet to be used with behaving subjects. Furthermore, long-term storage of nanoliter samples created by segmented flow has not been reported. In this work, we have addressed these challenges. A microdialysis probe was integrated to a plug generator that could be stably mounted onto behaving animals. Long-term storage of dialysate plugs was achieved by collecting plugs into high-purity perfluoroalkoxy tubes, placing the tube into hexane and then freezing at −80°C. Slow warming with even temperatures prevented plug coalescence during sample thawing. As a demonstration of the system, plugs were collected from the striatum of behaving rats using a 0.5-mm-long microdialysis probe. Resulting plugs were analyzed 1–4 days later by chip-based electrophoresis. To improve throughput of plug analysis over previous work, the speed of electrophoretic separation was increased by using forced air cooling and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as a separation buffer additive, allowing resolution of six neuroactive amino acids in 30 s. Concentration changes induced by K+ microinjections were monitored with 10 s temporal resolution. The improvements reported in this work make it possible to apply segmented flow microdialysis to the study of behaving animals and enable experiments where the analytical system cannot be placed close to the animal. PMID:21465093

  9. Microbial quantities and enzyme activity in soil irrigated with sewage for different lengths of time.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoming; Ma, Teng; Chen, Liuzhu; Cui, Yahui; Du, Peng; Liao, Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Sewage is widely used on agricultural soils in peri-urban areas of developing countries to meet shortages of water resource. Although sewage is a good source of plant nutrients, it also increases the heavy metals loads to soils. Microbial responses to these contaminants may serve as early warning indicators of adverse effects of sewage irrigation on soil quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of time of sewage irrigation on soil microbial indicators. Soil samples were collected from seven soil sites (S1-S7) irrigated with 0 years, 16 years, 23 years, 25 years, 27 years, 32 years and 52 years, respectively in Shijiazhuang of China and analyzed. For each soil sample, we determined the quantities of bacteria, fungi and actinomycete, and enzyme activities of urease, sucrase, phosphatase, dehydrogenase and catalase. Our results showed that the soils of S2-S7 irrigated with sewage effluents for different times (ranged between 16 and 52 years) exhibited higher densities of bacteria, actinomycete, urease, sucrase and phosphatase but lower densities of fungi when compared with S1 irrigated with sewage effluents for 0 years. The soil S7 irrigated with sewage effluents for longest times (52 years) contained lowest activities of catalase when compared with the soils of S1-S6. The densities of bacteria (R = 0.877, p < 0.01), actinomycete (R = 0.875, p < 0.01), sucrase (R = 0.858, p < 0.01) and phosphatase (R = 0.804, p < 0.05) were significantly correlated in a positive manner with time of sewage irrigation. Soil fungi quantities and urease, dehydrogenase and catalase activities did not change significantly with irrigation time. This study confirms that sewage irrigation had negative effects on microbial properties including fungi, catalase and dehydrogenase in the long term, so there is a need for continuous monitoring for sustainable soil health.

  10. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoville, Zebulon; Sipila, Stephanie; Bowie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is challenged with primary mission objectives of demonstrating deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools, and obtaining asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Although the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) is used for the EVAs, it has limited mobility which increases fatigue and decreases the crews' capability to perform EVA tasks. Furthermore, previous Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, some vehicle interfaces and tools can leverage heritage designs and experience. However, when the crew ventures onto an asteroid capture bag to explore the asteroid and collect rock samples, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as bunching of the fabric bag will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the MACES suit. The proposed concept utilizes expandable booms and integrated features of the asteroid capture bag to position and restrain the crew at the asteroid worksite. These methods enable the capability to perform both finesse, and high load tasks necessary to collect samples for scientific characterization of the asteroid. This paper will explore the design trade space and options that were examined for EVA, the

  11. Phosphine production potential of various wastewater and sewage sludge sources

    SciTech Connect

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.; Devai, G.; Czegeny, I.

    1999-05-01

    A laboratory incubation procedure followed by gas chromatographic detection was used to measure phosphine production potential in representative wastewater and sewage sludge sources. Phosphine production potential was determined by measuring the rate of phosphine formation in samples incubated under laboratory conditions over a seven day period when both electron donors and the targeted electron acceptor were not limiting factors. Results of their experiments showed that except the primary effluent and secondary effluent wastewater samples all other samples studied (influent wastewater, various type of sludge and sediment sources) produced phosphine. The minimum phosphine production potential value (0.39 pg/ml wastewater/day) was measured in composite influent wastewater samples while the maximum (268 pg/g wet sludge/day) was measured in sediment samples collected from an open-air sewage treatment plant.

  12. Sulfate and nitrate collected by filter sampling near the tropopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.; Otterson, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Filter samples collected near the tropopause with an F-106 aircraft and two Boeing 747 aircraft were analyzed for sulfate and nitrate ion content. Within the range of routine commercial flight altitudes (at or below 12.5 km), stratospheric mass mixing ratios for the winter-spring group averaged 0.26 ppbm for sulfate and 0.35 ppbm for nitrate. For the summer-fall group, stratosphere mixing ratios averaged 0.13 ppbm and 0.25 ppbm for sulfate and nitrate, respectively. Winter-spring group tropospheric mass mixing ratios averaged 0.08 ppbm for sulfate and 0.10 ppbm for nitrate, while summer-fall group tropospheric mixing ratios averaged 0.05 ppbm for sulfate and 0.08 ppbm for nitrate. Correlations of the filter data with available ozone data suggest that the sulfate and nitrate are transported from the stratosphere to the troposphere.

  13. Miniature Blimps for Surveillance and Collection of Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Miniature blimps are under development as robots for use in exploring the thick, cold, nitrogen atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. Similar blimps can also be used for surveillance and collection of biochemical samples in buildings, caves, subways, and other, similar structures on Earth. The widely perceived need for means to thwart attacks on buildings and to mitigate the effects of such attacks has prompted consideration of the use of robots. Relative to rover-type (wheeled) robots that have been considered for such uses, miniature blimps offer the advantage of ability to move through the air in any direction and, hence, to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for wheeled robots, including climbing stairs and looking through windows. In addition, miniature blimps are expected to have greater range and to cost less, relative to wheeled robots.

  14. Review of Oceanographic and Geochemical Data Collected in Massachusetts Bay during a Large Discharge of Total Suspended Solids from Boston's Sewage-Treatment System and Ocean Outfall in August 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Butman, Bradford; Casso, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    During the period August 14-23, 2002, the discharge of total suspended solids (TSS) from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority sewage-treatment plant ranged from 32 to 132 milligrams per liter, causing the monthly average discharge to exceed the limit specified in the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit. Time-series monitoring data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in western Massachusetts Bay were examined to evaluate changes in environmental conditions during and after this exceedance event. The rate of sediment trapping and the concentrations of near-bottom suspended sediment measured near the outfall in western Massachusetts Bay increased during this period. Because similar increases in sediment-trapping rate were observed in the summers of 2003 and 2004, however, the increase in 2002 cannot be definitively attributed to the increased TSS discharge. Concentrations of copper and silver in trapped sediment collected 10 and 20 days following the 2002 TSS event were elevated compared to those in pre-event samples. Maximum concentrations were less than 50 percent of toxicity guidelines. Photographs of surficial bottom sediments obtained before and after the TSS event do not show sediment accumulation on the sea floor. Concentrations of silver, Clostridium perfringens, and clay in surficial bottom sediments sampled 10 weeks after the discharge event at a depositional site 3 kilometers west of the outfall were unchanged from those in samples obtained before the event. Simulation of the TSS event by using a coupled hydrodynamic-wave-sediment-transport model could enhance understanding of these observations and of the effects of the exceedance on the local marine environment.

  15. The occurrence and significance to animal health of salmonellas in sewage and sewage sludges.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, P. W.; Rennison, L. M.; Lewin, V. H.; Redhead, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 882 samples of settled sewage, sewage sludges and final effluents from eight sewage treatment plants were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Of these samples 68% were positive, isolations being made most frequently from settled sewage (85%), raw sludge (87%) and anaerobically digested sludge (96%). Fewer isolations were made from final effluent (24%) and processed sludges (58%). Samples usually contained less than 200 salmonellas/100 ml and arguments are presented that such concentrations should not lead to disease in animals if suitable grazing restrictions are followed. PMID:6985928

  16. The Challenge of Assimilating Older Data and Samples into Digital Datasets and Sample Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The geosciences are especially dependent on past observations of the planet to understand both processes and planetary history. As digital storage became more inexpensive - and conversion of written and published material to digital format became easier - many of us assumed that existing files of data -- and even notebooks and 'shoeboxes' of data would be assimilated into larger curated datasets. While publications are rapidly becoming available digitally, the data in them, no less data that were not published, are not being integrated into readily available datasets. Negative data, while critical are especially at risk. Samples are even more vulnerable because of the space needed and cost of maintenance. Universities are more frequently being called on to manage the data and collections of faculty who are no longer active or to find other collections that are willing to take them on, in most cases with no additional resources. Examples from datasets and collections maintained by Scripps Institution of Oceanography will be used to illustrate challenges.

  17. Analysis of fullerenes in soils samples collected in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Carboni, Andrea; Helmus, Rick; Emke, Erik; van den Brink, Nico; Parsons, John R; Kalbitz, Karsten; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-12-01

    Fullerenes are carbon based nanoparticles that may enter the environment as a consequence of both natural processes and human activities. Although little is known about the presence of these chemicals in the environment, recent studies suggested that soil may act as a sink. The aim of the present work was to investigate the presence of fullerenes in soils collected in The Netherlands. Samples (n = 91) were taken from 6 locations and analyzed using a new developed LC-QTOF-MS method. The locations included highly trafficked and industrialized as well as urban and natural areas. In general, C60 was the most abundant fullerene found in the environment, detected in almost a half of the samples and at concentrations in the range of ng/kg. Other fullerenes such as C70 and an unknown structure containing a C60 cage were detected to a lower extent. The highest concentrations were found in the proximity of combustion sites such as a coal power plant and an incinerator, suggesting that the nanoparticles were unintentionally produced during combustions processes and reached the soil through atmospheric deposition. Consistent with other recent studies, these results show that fullerenes are widely present in the environment and that the main route for their entrance may be due to human activities. These data will be helpful in the understanding of the distribution of fullerenes in the environment and for the study of their behavior and fate in soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of isotopic abundances in collected stratospheric ozone samples

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, B.; Morton, J.; Mauersberger, K. )

    1990-08-01

    Enrichment of heavy O{sub 3} isotopes has been measured in collected stratospheric samples. A balloon-borne cryogenic sampler was used to gather six O{sub 3} samples between 26 and 35 km in three flights. Subsequent laboratory mass spectrometer analysis of rare O{sub 3} isotopes at both mass 49 and 50 has resulted in more precise measurements than have previously been reported with in situ and ground-based techniques. In one flight, {sup 50}O{sub 3} was enriched by 12-16% and {sup 49}O{sub 3} by 9-11%, both increasing with altitude. In the remaining two flights, the isotope enrichment was nearly mass-independent at 8-9%. The enrichments in O{sub 3} at mass 50 are less than the large 40% value observed in some stratospheric measurements but similar to {sup 49}O{sub 3} and {sup 50}O{sub 3} fractionations produced in laboratory-generated ozone.

  19. Isotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Molly A; Baker, David M; Mmochi, Aviti J

    2012-07-01

    In Stone Town, Zanzibar, sewage treatment is minimal, with a biological oxygen demand reduction to 60% and no removal of bacteria or nutrients. Here, Stone Town's sewage pollution was studied by measuring Enterococci and NH(4)(+) concentrations in seawater and δ(15)N of benthic organisms; samples were collected along the Stone Town shoreline and from offshore coral reefs. Public perceptions of sewage pollution were investigated via interviews. Enterococci from the Stone Town shoreline exceeded USEPA guidelines for recreational use. Benthic organisms from two of the four reefs were relatively enriched (δ(15)N>10 ‰), indicative of sewage derived N. δ(15)N values of organisms from Stone Town exceeded 16 ‰. A strong correlation was found between Enterococci and δ(15)N across sites, while step-wise regression indicated rainfall and tidal stage as important predictors for bacterial concentrations. These data provide an important impact assessment from which the efficacy of future policy and management change can be assessed.

  20. Collection, chemical analysis, and evaluation of coal samples in 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Vernon Emanuel; Medlin, J.H.; Hatch, J.R.; Coleman, S.L.; Wood, G.H.; Woodruff, S.D.; Hildebrand, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    During 1975, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other Federal and State agencies, university groups, and private companies, continued its program to augment and refine information on the composition of coal in the United States. This report includes all analytical data on 799 channel samples of coal beds from major operating mines and core holes in 28 States, collected mainly by State Geological Surveys under a cooperative program funded largely by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. For each sample, the U.S. Geological Survey has quantitatively determined the amounts of 24 major, minor, and trace elements (including AI, As, Cd, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Na, Pb, Se, U, and Zn), and has semiquantitatively determined the concentrations of 15 to 20 additional trace elements (including B, Be, Cr, Ge, Mo, Ni, and V). In addition, the U.S. Bureau of Mines has provided proximate and ultimate analyses, and Btu and forms-of-sulfur determinations on 488 of the samples. Statistical summaries of the data are given for all coal samples in the United States, for coal divided by rank (53 anthracite, 509 bituminous coal, 183 subbituminous coal, and 54 lignite samples), and the arithmetic means, ranges, and geometric means and deviations are given for the coal in each of seven different major coal areas in the United States. For example, the average coal in the United States contains 11.3 percent ash, 10.0 percent moisture, 2.0 percent sulfur, and has 11,180 Btu per pound; of the 10 major oxides determined on the 525?C ash, the average SiO2 content is 38 percent, Al2O3 20 percent, and Na2O 0.67 percent; the average Cd content is 7.3 ppm, Pb 114 ppm, and Zn 151 ppm (range 1 ppm to 6.0 percent). As determined on the raw coal, the average Hg content is 0.18 ppm (range <0.01 to 63.0 ppm), the Se content 4.1 ppm (range <0.1 to 150 ppm), and the U content 1.8 ppm (range <0.2 to 42.9 ppm).

  1. A Multiple-Tracer Approach for Identifying Sewage Sources to an Urban Stream System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyer, Kenneth Edward

    2007-01-01

    sampling approach, 149 sites were sampled at least one time for indicator tracers; 52 of these sites also were sampled for confirmatory tracers at least one time. Through the analysis of multiple-tracer levels in the synoptic samples, three major sewage sources to the Accotink Creek stream network were identified, and several other minor sewage sources to the Accotink Creek system likely deserve additional investigation. Near the end of the synoptic sampling activities, three additional sampling methods were used to gain better understanding of the potential for sewage sources to the watershed. These additional sampling methods included optical brightener monitoring, intensive stream sampling using automated samplers, and additional sampling of several storm-drain networks. The samples obtained by these methods provided further understanding of possible sewage sources to the streams and a better understanding of the variability in the tracer concentrations at a given sampling site. Collectively, these additional sampling methods were a valuable complement to the synoptic sampling approach that was used for the bulk of this study. The study results provide an approach for local authorities to use in applying a relatively simple and inexpensive collection of tracers to locate sewage sources to streams. Although this multiple-tracer approach is effective in detecting sewage sources to streams, additional research is needed to better detect extremely low-volume sewage sources and better enable local authorities to identify the specific sources of the sewage once it is detected in a stream reach.

  2. Air sampling filtration media: Collection efficiency for respirable size-selective sampling.

    PubMed

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Monaghan, Keenan; Lee, Taekhee; Kashon, Mike; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The collection efficiencies of commonly used membrane air sampling filters in the ultrafine particle size range were investigated. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE; 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polycarbonate (0.4, 0.8, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; 0.45, 1, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 0.8 and 5 μm pore sizes), and silver membrane (0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes) filters were exposed to polydisperse sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 10-400 nm. Test aerosols were nebulized and introduced into a calm air chamber through a diffusion dryer and aerosol neutralizer. The testing filters (37 mm diameter) were mounted in a conductive polypropylene filter-holder (cassette) within a metal testing tube. The experiments were conducted at flow rates between 1.7 and 11.2 l min(-1). The particle size distributions of NaCl challenge aerosol were measured upstream and downstream of the test filters by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Three different filters of each type with at least three repetitions for each pore size were tested. In general, the collection efficiency varied with airflow, pore size, and sampling duration. In addition, both collection efficiency and pressure drop increased with decreased pore size and increased sampling flow rate, but they differed among filter types and manufacturer. The present study confirmed that the MCE, PTFE, and PVC filters have a relatively high collection efficiency for challenge particles much smaller than their nominal pore size and are considerably more efficient than polycarbonate and silver membrane filters, especially at larger nominal pore sizes.

  3. Air sampling filtration media: Collection efficiency for respirable size-selective sampling

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Monaghan, Keenan; Lee, Taekhee; Kashon, Mike; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The collection efficiencies of commonly used membrane air sampling filters in the ultrafine particle size range were investigated. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE; 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polycarbonate (0.4, 0.8, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; 0.45, 1, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 0.8 and 5 μm pore sizes), and silver membrane (0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes) filters were exposed to polydisperse sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 10–400 nm. Test aerosols were nebulized and introduced into a calm air chamber through a diffusion dryer and aerosol neutralizer. The testing filters (37 mm diameter) were mounted in a conductive polypropylene filter-holder (cassette) within a metal testing tube. The experiments were conducted at flow rates between 1.7 and 11.2 l min−1. The particle size distributions of NaCl challenge aerosol were measured upstream and downstream of the test filters by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Three different filters of each type with at least three repetitions for each pore size were tested. In general, the collection efficiency varied with airflow, pore size, and sampling duration. In addition, both collection efficiency and pressure drop increased with decreased pore size and increased sampling flow rate, but they differed among filter types and manufacturer. The present study confirmed that the MCE, PTFE, and PVC filters have a relatively high collection efficiency for challenge particles much smaller than their nominal pore size and are considerably more efficient than polycarbonate and silver membrane filters, especially at larger nominal pore sizes. PMID:26834310

  4. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage.

  5. Diversity and population structure of sewage derived microorganisms in wastewater treatment plant influent

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, S.L.; Huse, S.M.; Mueller-Spitz, S.R.; Andreishcheva, E.N.; Sogin, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    The release of untreated sewage introduces non-indigenous microbial populations of uncertain composition into surface waters. We used massively parallel 454 sequencing of hypervariable regions in rRNA genes to profile microbial communities from eight untreated sewage influent samples of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in metropolitan Milwaukee. The sewage profiles included a discernable human fecal signature made up of several taxonomic groups including multiple Bifidobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae genera. The fecal signature made up a small fraction of the taxa present in sewage but the relative abundance of these sequence tags mirrored the population structures of human fecal samples. These genera were much more prevalent in the sewage influent than standard indicators species. High-abundance sequences from taxonomic groups within the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the sewage samples but occurred at very low levels in fecal and surface water samples, suggesting that these organisms proliferate within the sewer system. Samples from Jones Island (JI – servicing residential plus a combined sewer system) and South Shore (SS – servicing a residential area) WWTPs had very consistent community profiles, with greater similarity between WWTPs on a given collection day than the same plant collected on different days. Rainfall increased influent flows at SS and JI WWTPs, and this corresponded to greater diversity in the community at both plants. Overall, the sewer system appears to be a defined environment with both infiltration of rainwater and stormwater inputs modulating community composition. Microbial sewage communities represent a combination of inputs from human fecal microbes and enrichment of specific microbes from the environment to form a unique population structure. PMID:19840106

  6. Diversity and population structure of sewage-derived microorganisms in wastewater treatment plant influent.

    PubMed

    McLellan, S L; Huse, S M; Mueller-Spitz, S R; Andreishcheva, E N; Sogin, M L

    2010-02-01

    The release of untreated sewage introduces non-indigenous microbial populations of uncertain composition into surface waters. We used massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing of hypervariable regions in rRNA genes to profile microbial communities from eight untreated sewage influent samples of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in metropolitan Milwaukee. The sewage profiles included a discernible human faecal signature made up of several taxonomic groups including multiple Bifidobacteriaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae genera. The faecal signature made up a small fraction of the taxa present in sewage but the relative abundance of these sequence tags mirrored the population structures of human faecal samples. These genera were much more prevalent in the sewage influent than standard indicators species. High-abundance sequences from taxonomic groups within the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the sewage samples but occurred at very low levels in faecal and surface water samples, suggesting that these organisms proliferate within the sewer system. Samples from Jones Island (JI--servicing residential plus a combined sewer system) and South Shore (SS--servicing a residential area) WWTPs had very consistent community profiles, with greater similarity between WWTPs on a given collection day than the same plant collected on different days. Rainfall increased influent flows at SS and JI WWTPs, and this corresponded to greater diversity in the community at both plants. Overall, the sewer system appears to be a defined environment with both infiltration of rainwater and stormwater inputs modulating community composition. Microbial sewage communities represent a combination of inputs from human faecal microbes and enrichment of specific microbes from the environment to form a unique population structure.

  7. DS — Software for analyzing data collected using double sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Hartley, Dana

    2011-01-01

    DS analyzes count data to estimate density or relative density and population size when appropriate. The software is available at http://iwcbm.dev4.fsr.com/IWCBM/default.asp?PageID=126. The software was designed to analyze data collected using double sampling, but it also can be used to analyze index data. DS is not currently configured to apply distance methods or methods based on capture-recapture theory. Double sampling for the purpose of this report means surveying a sample of locations with a rapid method of unknown accuracy and surveying a subset of these locations using a more intensive method assumed to yield unbiased estimates. "Detection ratios" are calculated as the ratio of results from rapid surveys on intensive plots to the number actually present as determined from the intensive surveys. The detection ratios are used to adjust results from the rapid surveys. The formula for density is (results from rapid survey)/(estimated detection ratio from intensive surveys). Population sizes are estimated as (density)(area). Double sampling is well-established in the survey sampling literature—see Cochran (1977) for the basic theory, Smith (1995) for applications of double sampling in waterfowl surveys, Bart and Earnst (2002, 2005) for discussions of its use in wildlife studies, and Bart and others (in press) for a detailed account of how the method was used to survey shorebirds across the arctic region of North America. Indices are surveys that do not involve complete counts of well-defined plots or recording information to estimate detection rates (Thompson and others, 1998). In most cases, such data should not be used to estimate density or population size but, under some circumstances, may be used to compare two densities or estimate how density changes through time or across space (Williams and others, 2005). The Breeding Bird Survey (Sauer and others, 2008) provides a good example of an index survey. Surveyors record all birds detected but do not record

  8. Quantification of human-associated fecal indicators reveal sewage from urban watersheds as a source of pollution to Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templar, Hayley A.; Dila, Deborah K.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Corsi, Steven; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Sewage contamination of urban waterways from sewer overflows and failing infrastructure is a major environmental and public health concern. Fecal coliforms (FC) are commonly employed as fecal indicator bacteria, but do not distinguish between human and non-human sources of fecal contamination. Human Bacteroides and humanLachnospiraceae, two genetic markers for human-associated indicator bacteria, were used to identify sewage signals in two urban rivers and the estuary that drains to Lake Michigan. Grab samples were collected from the rivers throughout 2012 and 2013 and hourly samples were collected in the estuary across the hydrograph during summer 2013. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae were highly correlated with each other in river samples (Pearson’s r = 0.86), with average concentrations at most sites elevated during wet weather. These human indicators were found during baseflow, indicating that sewage contamination is chronic in these waterways. FC are used for determining total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in management plans; however, FC concentrations alone failed to prioritize river reaches with potential health risks. While 84% of samples with >1000 CFU/100 ml FC had sewage contamination, 52% of samples with moderate (200–1000 CFU/100 ml) and 46% of samples with low (<200 CFU/100 ml) FC levels also had evidence of human sewage. Load calculations in the in the Milwaukee estuary revealed storm-driven sewage contamination varied greatly among events and was highest during an event with a short duration of intense rain. This work demonstrates urban areas have unrecognized sewage inputs that may not be adequately prioritized for remediation by the TMDL process. Further analysis using these approaches could determine relationships between land use, storm characteristics, and other factors that drive sewage contamination in urban waterways.

  9. Identification of Viral Pathogen Diversity in Sewage Sludge by Metagenome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    BIBBY, KYLE; PECCIA, JORDAN

    2013-01-01

    The large diversity of viruses that exist in human populations are potentially excreted into sewage collection systems and concentrated in sewage sludge. In the US, the primary fate of processed sewage sludge (class B biosolids) is application to agricultural land as a soil amendment. To characterize and understand infectious risks associated with land application, and to describe the diversity of viruses in human populations, shotgun viral metagenomics was applied to 10 sewage sludge samples from 5 wastewater treatment plants throughout the continental U.S, each serving between 100,000 and 1,000,000 people. Nearly 330 million DNA sequences were produced and assembled, and annotation resulted in identifying 43 (26 DNA, 17 RNA) different types of human viruses in sewage sludge. Novel insights include the high abundance of newly emerging viruses (e.g. Coronavirus HKU1, Klassevirus, and Cosavirus) the strong representation of respiratory viruses, and the relatively minor abundance and occurrence of Enteroviruses. Viral metagenome sequence annotations were reproducible and independent PCR-based identification of selected viruses suggests that viral metagenomes were a conservative estimate of the true viral occurrence and diversity. These results represent the most complete description of human virus diversity in any wastewater sample to date, provide engineers and environmental scientists with critical information on important viral agents and routes of infection from exposure to wastewater and sewage sludge, and represent a significant leap forward in understanding the pathogen content of class B biosolids. PMID:23346855

  10. [Contamination of protozoa by enteroviruses in fresh water and sewages].

    PubMed

    Skachkov, M V; Al'misheva, A Sh; Plotnikov, A O; Nemtseva, N V; Skvortsov, V O

    2009-01-01

    To determine rate of infection of protozoa by enteroviruses to assess the potential role of protozoa as a natural reservoir of enteroviruses. The samples were collected from flowing and stagnant water reservoirs in Orenburg region in summer and autumn. The samples of sewages were taken in all stages of their treatment. Cultures of protozoa were isolated with micromanipulator equipped with micropipette, incubated on Pratt's medium at 25 degrees C and fed with Pseudomonas fluorescens culture. RNA of enteroviruses was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Seventy-two protozoan species were found in Ural river, whereas 15 and 38 species were found in lakes and sewages respectively. Enteroviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 61.8% cultures of protozoa belonging to 23 species of flagellates, amoebae and ciliates isolated from natural water bodies undergoing anthropogenic impact as well as from sewages in all stages of their treatment. Predominant localization of enteroviruses in dominant taxons of protozoa (Paraphysomonas sp., Spumella sp., Petalomonas poosilla, Amoeba sp.) was noted. Obtained data confirm presence of enteroviruses in protozoa living both in flowing and stagnant recreation natural water bodies as well as in sewages and confirm the hypothesis of persistence of enteroviruses in protozoa and the reservoir role of the latter. Contingency of life cycles of viruses and protozoa allows to explain the seasonality of aseptic meningitis incidence caused by enteroviruses, which peaks in summer and autumn when protozoa massively multiply in water bodies.

  11. Trace determination of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid in environmental samples (surface water, wastewater, biota, sediments, and sewage sludge) using liquid chromatography - Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V

    2016-11-18

    An analytical method was established and validated for the analysis of the most frequently monitored representatives among the group of perfluorinated compounds (PFAS), namely, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and prefluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in environmental samples (surface water, wastewater, sediments, sewage sludge, and biota). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-MS) employing a heated electrospray ionization (HESI) interface operated in negative mode was used for the quantitative determination of these contaminants. HPLC separation of analytes was achieved using a reversed phase C18 (RP-C18) analytical column. The efficiency of various solid phase extraction (SPE) columns for the pre-concentration and clean-up as well as the performance of different ionization sources and detection modes for the instrumental determination were evaluated. The validation results indicate recoveries of analytes between 88 and 116%, while the intra-day and inter-day precision parameters in terms of relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 1.0-5.9% and 1.5-7.3%, respectively. The measured values for certified reference material (CRM) agreed with the provided reference values, revealing the accuracy of obtained concentrations in the range of 107-108%. The trueness of the method was verified by a successful participation in a proficiency testing (PT) program. These performance characteristics of the method permit reliable monitoring of PFOS and its derivatives in environmental samples according to the environmental quality standard (EQS) criteria regarding the maximum allowable concentrations and taking into account the annual average concentrations stated in Directive 2013/39/EU. The elaborated method was applied for the routine analysis of selected PFAS in environmental samples from the Baltic region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental Surveillance of Human Parechoviruses in Sewage in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Wuite, M.; de Roda Husman, A. M.; Rutjes, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The circulation of human parechoviruses (HPeVs) in the population was studied by environmental surveillance comprising of molecular analyses of sewage samples (n = 89) that were collected from 15 different locations in the Netherlands. Samples were taken from sewage originating from schools (n = 9) or from parts of municipalities (n = 6) during the Dutch school year 2010-2011. At 13/15 locations HPeV1, HPeV3, or HPeV6 RNA was detected at least once; however, sequence diversity did not reflect associations in time or place. A higher percentage of positives was observed in the samples originating from the municipalities. It was demonstrated that HPeV circulated in the studied population to a higher extent than would be expected from the current knowledge on infections predominating in young children. PMID:23934500

  13. Sewage contamination of a densely populated coral 'atoll' (Bermuda).

    PubMed

    Jones, Ross; Parsons, Rachel; Watkinson, Elaine; Kendell, David

    2011-08-01

    Bermuda is a densely populated coral 'atoll' located on a seamount in the mid-Atlantic (Sargasso Sea). There is no national sewerage system and the ∼20 × 10(6) L of sewage generated daily is disposed of via marine outfalls, cess pits/septic tanks underneath houses and through waste disposal (injection) wells. Gastrointestinal (GI) enterococci concentrations were measured in surface seawater samples collected monthly at multiple locations across the island over a 5-year period. According to the EU Bathing Water Directive microbial classification categories, 18 of the sites were in the 'excellent' category, four sites in the 'good', five sites were in the 'sufficient' and three sites in the 'poor' categories. One of the sites in the 'poor' category is beside a popular swimming beach. Between 20-30% of 58 sub tidal sediment samples collected from creeks, coves, bays, harbours and marinas in the Great Sound complex on the western side of Bermuda tested positive for the presence of the human specific bacterial biomarker Bacteroides (using culture-independent PCR-based methods) and for the faecal biomarker coprostanol (5β-cholestan-3-β-ol, which ranged in concentration from <0.05-0.77 mg kg( - 1). There was a significant statistical correlation between these two independent techniques for faecal contamination identification. Overall the microbial water quality and sedimentary biomarker surveys suggest sewage contamination in Bermuda was quite low compared with other published studies; nevertheless, several sewage contamination hotpots exist, and these could be attributed to discharge of raw sewage from house boats, from nearby sewage outfalls and leakage from septic tanks/cess pits.

  14. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofgren, G. E.; Todd, N. S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-03-01

    JSC curation is digitizing pictures of lunar samples taken during initial sample return and subsequent processing. These images will be available via a searchable database on the Curation website as they are produced; 69% are currently available.

  15. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF URINE SAMPLES (SOP-2.14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting urine samples from the study participants (children and their primary caregivers). Urine samples will be approximate 48-hr collections, collected as spot urine samples accumulated over the 48-hr sampling period. If the household or da...

  16. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF URINE SAMPLES (SOP-2.14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting urine samples from the study participants (children and their primary caregivers). Urine samples will be approximate 48-hr collections, collected as spot urine samples accumulated over the 48-hr sampling period. If the household or da...

  17. 21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What representative samples must you collect? 111... Process Control System § 111.80 What representative samples must you collect? The representative samples that you must collect include: (a) Representative samples of each unique lot of components, packaging...

  18. Surveillance of hepatitis E virus in sewage and drinking water in a resettlement colony of Delhi: what has been the experience?

    PubMed

    Hazam, Rajib Kishore; Singla, Rajiv; Kishore, Jugal; Singh, Saudan; Gupta, Ram Kumar; Kar, Premashis

    2010-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus infection is one of the major causes of hepatitis and has been responsible for many sporadic waterborne hepatitis epidemics. We studied 141 cases of viral hepatitis in the Gokulpuri area and collected the tap water, sewage water and serum samples from the individual cases of hepatitis in the community. Samples were analysed for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) by RT-PCR, followed by sequencing. Forty-one out of 141 (29.08%) cases of viral hepatitis had evidence of HEV infection, detected by serology and/or RT-PCR. Six out of 141 (4.25%) sewage samples and 2 out of 141 (1.42%) drinking water samples were found to be positive for HEV RNA. The HEV isolates belonged to genotype 1. Evidence of HEV infection in sewage and drinking water samples indicates contamination of drinking water with sewage; good sanitary practice still remains a subject of alarm in the subcontinent.

  19. [From project-based sample collection to biobank].

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Mersich, Tamás; Dede, Kristóf; Besznyák, István; Zaránd, Attila; Teknos, Dániel; Nagy, Péter; Salamon, Ferenc; Nagy, Pál; Nagy, Zsolt; Kótai, Zsuzsanna; Szász, Marcell; Lukács, Lilla; Szállási, Zoltán; Jósa, Valéria; Jakab, Ferenc

    2011-04-10

    The research group takes samples for molecular genetical examinations from tumors removed during operations within ischemic time interval. Samples are stored in liquid nitrogen. Clinical data of these patients are recorded in an informatics system developed by the group. Patients are followed in an out-patient clinic set up for this purpose not financed by the National Health Insurance Fund. Tissue samples and follow up data are used to cooperate with molecular genetical laboratories.

  20. Application of Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction for Determination of Chloro-Organic Compounds in Sewage Samples

    PubMed Central

    Wejnerowska, Grażyna; Gaca, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) has been optimized and applied to the determination of the volatile halogenated compounds (VHCs) and semi-volatile halogenated compounds (SVHCs). Three types of SPME fiber coated with different stationary phases (PDMS–100 μm, CAR/PDMS-75 μm, PDMS/DVB–65 μm) were used to examine their extraction efficiencies for the compounds tested. Experimental parameters such as the selection of SPME coatings, extraction time, and addition of salts were studied. The carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber appears to be the most suitable for the determination of VHCs. Analytical parameters such as linearity, limit of detection, and precision were also evaluated. Application of ECD detector for the determination of VHCs and SVHCs allows their determination on the low concentration level, ranging from 0.005 to 0.8 μg/L−1. The HS-SPME-GC/ECD procedure gave good analytical precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) (ranged from 5.08% to 8.07%) for a concentration level of 5 μg/L−1 and good linearity (r2 > 0.98) in a wide calibration range. The applied HS-SPME-GC/ECD method was found to be a quick and effective technique for the determination of microtrace amounts of volatile and semi-volatile halogenated compounds in samples containing high amounts of various organic compounds. PMID:19696911

  1. 7 CFR 160.22 - Collecting samples; issuing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 160.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Methods of Analysis, Inspection, Sampling and Grading §...

  2. 40 CFR 761.310 - Collecting the sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Porous Surfaces for Measurement-Based Use, Reuse, and On-Site or Off-Site...

  3. Technical Evaluation of Sample-Processing, Collection, and Preservation Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    purification process. Several purification methods were preprogrammed into the instrument, and all of the necessary reagents were supplied as prefilled ...attached to syringes that filter samples 17 as a means of DNA isolation. Some advantages to this kit were that it required very few materials and was...fairly quick, if used with small amounts of sample. However, this kit was ideally used only with a small quantity at one time because of the syringe

  4. A protocol for collecting environmental DNA samples from streams

    Treesearch

    Kellie J. Carim; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Taylor M. Wilcox; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is DNA that has been released by an organism into its environment, such that the DNA can be found in air, water, or soil. In aquatic systems, eDNA has been shown to provide a sampling approach that is more sensitive for detecting target organisms faster, and less expensively than previous approaches. However, eDNA needs to be sampled in a...

  5. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  6. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  7. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  8. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  9. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  10. Evaluation of standard methods for collecting and processing fuel moisture samples

    Treesearch

    Sally M. Haase; José Sánchez; David R. Weise

    2016-01-01

    A variety of techniques for collecting and processing samples to determine moisture content of wildland fuels in support of fire management activities were evaluated. The effects of using a chainsaw or handsaw to collect samples of largediameter wood, containers for storing and transporting collected samples, and quick-response ovens for estimating moisture content...

  11. Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM): An Early Mars Sample Return Mission Through the Mars Scout Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leshin, L. A.; Yen, A.; Bomba, J.; Clark, B.; Epp, C.; Forney, L.; Gamber, T.; Graves, C.; Hupp, J.; Jones, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM) mission is designed to: (1) make a 40 km pass through the Martian atmosphere; (2) collect dust and atmospheric gas; and (3) return the samples to Earth for analysis. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Sewage Reflects the Microbiomes of Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Dila, Deborah K.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Eren, A. Murat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. PMID:25714718

  13. Occurrence of microbial indicators and Clostridium perfringens in wastewater, water column samples, sediments, drinking water, and Weddell seal feces collected at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lisle, J.T.; Smith, J.J.; Edwards, D.D.; McFeters, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    McMurdo Station, Antarctica, has discharged untreated sewage into McMurdo Sound for decades. Previous studies delineated the impacted area, which included the drinking water intake, by using total coliform and Clostridium perfringens concentrations. The estimation of risk to humans in contact with the impacted and potable waters may be greater than presumed, as these microbial indicators may not be the most appropriate for this environment. To address these concerns, concentrations of these and additional indicators (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, coliphage, and enteroviruses) in the untreated wastewater, water column, and sediments of the impacted area and drinking water treatment facility and distribution system at McMurdo Station were determined. Fecal samples from Weddell seals in this area were also collected and analyzed for indicators. All drinking water samples were negative for indicators except for a single total coliform-positive sample. Total coliforms were present in water column samples at higher concentrations than other indicators. Fecal coliform and enterococcus concentrations were similar to each other and greater than those of other indicators in sediment samples closer to the discharge site. C. perfringens concentrations were higher in sediments at greater distances from the discharge site. Seal fecal samples contained concentrations of fecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, and C. perfringens similar to those found in untreated sewage. All samples were negative for enteroviruses. A wastewater treatment facility at McMurdo Station has started operation, and these data provide a baseline data set for monitoring the recovery of the impacted area. The contribution of seal feces to indicator concentrations in this area should be considered.

  14. Occurrence of microbial indicators and Clostridium perfringens in wastewater, water column samples, sediments, drinking water, and Weddell seal feces collected at McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Lisle, John T; Smith, James J; Edwards, Diane D; McFeters, Gordon A

    2004-12-01

    McMurdo Station, Antarctica, has discharged untreated sewage into McMurdo Sound for decades. Previous studies delineated the impacted area, which included the drinking water intake, by using total coliform and Clostridium perfringens concentrations. The estimation of risk to humans in contact with the impacted and potable waters may be greater than presumed, as these microbial indicators may not be the most appropriate for this environment. To address these concerns, concentrations of these and additional indicators (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, coliphage, and enteroviruses) in the untreated wastewater, water column, and sediments of the impacted area and drinking water treatment facility and distribution system at McMurdo Station were determined. Fecal samples from Weddell seals in this area were also collected and analyzed for indicators. All drinking water samples were negative for indicators except for a single total coliform-positive sample. Total coliforms were present in water column samples at higher concentrations than other indicators. Fecal coliform and enterococcus concentrations were similar to each other and greater than those of other indicators in sediment samples closer to the discharge site. C. perfringens concentrations were higher in sediments at greater distances from the discharge site. Seal fecal samples contained concentrations of fecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, and C. perfringens similar to those found in untreated sewage. All samples were negative for enteroviruses. A wastewater treatment facility at McMurdo Station has started operation, and these data provide a baseline data set for monitoring the recovery of the impacted area. The contribution of seal feces to indicator concentrations in this area should be considered.

  15. Occurrence of Microbial Indicators and Clostridium perfringens in Wastewater, Water Column Samples, Sediments, Drinking Water, and Weddell Seal Feces Collected at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Lisle, John T.; Smith, James J.; Edwards, Diane D.; McFeters, Gordon A.

    2004-01-01

    McMurdo Station, Antarctica, has discharged untreated sewage into McMurdo Sound for decades. Previous studies delineated the impacted area, which included the drinking water intake, by using total coliform and Clostridium perfringens concentrations. The estimation of risk to humans in contact with the impacted and potable waters may be greater than presumed, as these microbial indicators may not be the most appropriate for this environment. To address these concerns, concentrations of these and additional indicators (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, coliphage, and enteroviruses) in the untreated wastewater, water column, and sediments of the impacted area and drinking water treatment facility and distribution system at McMurdo Station were determined. Fecal samples from Weddell seals in this area were also collected and analyzed for indicators. All drinking water samples were negative for indicators except for a single total coliform-positive sample. Total coliforms were present in water column samples at higher concentrations than other indicators. Fecal coliform and enterococcus concentrations were similar to each other and greater than those of other indicators in sediment samples closer to the discharge site. C. perfringens concentrations were higher in sediments at greater distances from the discharge site. Seal fecal samples contained concentrations of fecal coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, and C. perfringens similar to those found in untreated sewage. All samples were negative for enteroviruses. A wastewater treatment facility at McMurdo Station has started operation, and these data provide a baseline data set for monitoring the recovery of the impacted area. The contribution of seal feces to indicator concentrations in this area should be considered. PMID:15574926

  16. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... established in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section by moving the origin one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the direction east of magnetic north. (2) Mark out a series of sampling points 1.5 meters apart oriented to the grid axes. The sampling points shall proceed in every direction...

  17. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... established in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section by moving the origin one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the direction east of magnetic north. (2) Mark out a series of sampling points 1.5 meters apart oriented to the grid axes. The sampling points shall proceed in every direction...

  18. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... established in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section by moving the origin one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the direction east of magnetic north. (2) Mark out a series of sampling points 1.5 meters apart oriented to the grid axes. The sampling points shall proceed in every direction...

  19. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... established in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section by moving the origin one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the direction east of magnetic north. (2) Mark out a series of sampling points 1.5 meters apart oriented to the grid axes. The sampling points shall proceed in every direction...

  20. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... established in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section by moving the origin one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the direction east of magnetic north. (2) Mark out a series of sampling points 1.5 meters apart oriented to the grid axes. The sampling points shall proceed in every direction...

  1. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "...curation of all extra-terrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "...documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the past, present, and future activities of the NASA Curation Office.

  2. Presence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Raj

    2017-02-23

    The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in rural sewage treatment plants are not well reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to study the frequency occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a rural sewage treatment plant. This study was conducted using raw sewage as well as treated sewage from a small town sewage treatment plant in rural southeast Louisiana of USA. Results showed the presence of MRSA consistently in both raw and treated sewage. The presence of mecA gene responsible for methicillin resistance was confirmed in the raw and treated sewage water samples.

  3. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  4. CAREX Rio Tinto Field Workshop: Instruments, Sample Collection and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, P.; Foing, B.; Direito, S.; Gomez, F.; Rull, F.

    2010-03-01

    At Rio Tinto, a Mars analogue site, Raman and fibre-optic spectrometers were successfully used to select appropriate rock and soil samples, and detect minerals for which it is interesting to study the associated microorganisms for innovative molecular biology techniques.

  5. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  6. Sample-Collection Drill Hole on Martian Sandstone Target Windjana

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-06

    This image from the Navigation Camera Navcam on NASA Curiosity Mars rover shows two holes at top center drilled into a sandstone target called Windjana. The farther hole, with larger pile of tailings around it, is a full-depth sampling hole.

  7. [Collection of data on primary care activities by sampling].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Cervelló, F; Quiles Climent, J; Menéndez Suárez, D; Peris Añón, F; Sanfélix Genovés, J

    1996-04-15

    To choose, as part of a strategy of change in the records system, the best sampling design for obtaining data on primary care activity and to evaluate the appropriateness of introducing this design. An experimental study of the errors committed and the precision of four different sampling designs. A: 8 days a month at random. B: 8 consecutive days a month. C: one day in three systematically (7 days a month). D: one day in four systematically (5 days a month). The calculations of activity indicators obtained monthly for each of the two health centres (31 doctors in general medicine and paediatrics) were compared with the real values, which we already knew from a prior exhaustive search. Type B samples gave the worst results while D contributed the best. In the variables referring to health programmes, unacceptable errors were obtained for all of them. Type D sampling was selected as the most appropriate. However, the positive and negative aspects to do with the necessity for, and use of, each piece of data, the required precision, the redistribution of tasks needed and the improvement in recording acceptability, must be assessed before it is put into practice.

  8. 7 CFR 160.22 - Collecting samples; issuing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 160.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Methods of Analysis, Inspection, Sampling and Grading § 160.22...

  9. Protocol for collecting eDNA samples from streams [Version 2.3

    Treesearch

    K. J. Carim; T. Wilcox; M. K. Young; K. S. McKelvey; M. K. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the 2014 field season, we had over two dozen biologist throughout the western US collect over 300 samples for eDNA analysis with paired controls. Control samples were collected by filtering 0.5 L of distilled water. No samples had any evidence of field contamination. This method of sampling verifies the cleanliness of the field equipment, as well as the...

  10. Acceptability of self-collected versus provider-collected sampling for HPV DNA testing among women in rural El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Alan J; Gage, Julia C; Alfaro, Karla M; Ditzian, Lauren R; Maza, Mauricio; Scarinci, Isabel C; Felix, Juan C; Castle, Philip E; Villalta, Sofia; Miranda, Esmeralda; Cremer, Miriam L

    2014-08-01

    To determine the acceptability of self-collected versus provider-collected sampling among women participating in public sector HPV-based cervical cancer screening in El Salvador. Two thousand women aged 30-49 years underwent self-collected and provider-collected sampling with careHPV between October 2012 and March 2013 (Qiagen, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). After sample collection, a random sample of women (n=518) were asked about their experience. Participants were questioned regarding sampling method preference, previous cervical cancer screening, HPV and cervical cancer knowledge, HPV risk factors, and demographic information. All 518 women approached to participate in this questionnaire study agreed and were enrolled, 27.8% (142 of 511 responding) of whom had not received cervical cancer screening within the past 3 years and were considered under-screened. Overall, 38.8% (n=201) preferred self-collection and 31.9% (n=165) preferred provider collection. Self-collection preference was associated with prior tubal ligation, HPV knowledge, future self-sampling preference, and future home-screening preference (P<0.05). Reasons for self-collection preference included privacy/embarrassment, ease, and less pain; reasons cited for provider-collection preference were result accuracy and provider knowledge/experience. Self-sampling was found to be acceptable, therefore screening programs could consider offering this option either in the clinic or at home. Self-sampling at home may increase coverage in low-resource countries and reduce the burden that screening places upon clinical infrastructure. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating the Prevalence of Potential Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Intimin Gene Diversity in a Human Community by Monitoring Sanitary Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Pagaling, Eulyn

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the understanding of bacterial enteric diseases in the community and their virulence factors relies almost exclusively on clinical disease reporting and examination of clinical pathogen isolates. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of an alternative approach that monitors potential enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) prevalence and intimin gene (eae) diversity in a community by directly quantifying and characterizing target virulence genes in the sanitary sewage. The quantitative PCR (qPCR) quantification of the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes in sanitary sewage samples collected over a 13-month period detected eae in all 13 monthly sewage samples at significantly higher abundance (93 to 7,240 calibrator cell equivalents [CCE]/100 ml) than stx1 and stx2, which were detected sporadically. The prevalence level of potential EPEC in the sanitary sewage was estimated by calculating the ratio of eae to uidA, which averaged 1.0% (σ = 0.4%) over the 13-month period. Cloning and sequencing of the eae gene directly from the sewage samples covered the majority of the eae diversity in the sewage and detected 17 unique eae alleles belonging to 14 subtypes. Among them, eae-β2 was identified to be the most prevalent subtype in the sewage, with the highest detection frequency in the clone libraries (41.2%) and within the different sampling months (85.7%). Additionally, sewage and environmental E. coli isolates were also obtained and used to determine the detection frequencies of the virulence genes as well as eae genetic diversity for comparison. PMID:24141131

  12. Inherent variability in lead and copper collected during standardized sampling.

    PubMed

    Masters, Sheldon; Parks, Jeffrey; Atassi, Amrou; Edwards, Marc A

    2016-03-01

    Variability in the concentration of lead and copper sampled at consumers' taps poses challenges to assessing consumer health threats and the effectiveness of corrosion control. To examine the minimum variability that is practically achievable, standardized rigs with three lead and copper containing plumbing materials (leaded brass, copper tube with lead solder, and a lead copper connection) were deployed at five utilities and sampled with regimented protocols. Variability represented by relative standard deviation (RSD) in lead release was high in all cases. The brass had the lowest variability in lead release (RSD = 31 %) followed by copper-solder (RSD = 49%) and lead-copper (RSD = 80%). This high inherent variability is due to semi-random detachment of particulate lead to water, and represents a modern reality of water lead problems that should be explicitly acknowledged and considered in all aspects of exposure, public education, and monitoring.

  13. Long-term impact of municipal sewage irrigation on treated soil and black locust trees in a semi-arid suburban area of Iran.

    PubMed

    Tabari, Masoud; Salehi, Azadeh

    2009-01-01

    The effects of municipal sewage irrigation on the soil and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) tree were studied. For this purpose, two artificial black locust stands under irrigation of municipal sewage and well water were selected in south of Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using technique of systematic random sampling with 4 replicates in each stand. It was found that the growth of black locust tree, as indicated by diameter at breast height, total height, crown length, average crown diameter, basal area and volume, in sewage irrigation stand was much higher than that of well water irrigation stand (P < 0.01). Plant analysis indicated that concentrations of leaf nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) were greater in sewage-irrigated trees, without toxicity to the minerals of tree leaf, than those of well waterirrigated trees, and positively correlated with their respective value in soil. Ni, Cr and Pb were not detected in leaf samples. Application of sewage resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of soil nutrients, Ni, Cr and Pb. Among these minerals only Pb and Ni in some soil samples exceeded the toxicity limit. The increase in pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and organic carbon of soil was also observed in sewage irrigation. Results confirm that besides the use as irrigation water, municipal sewages are also a potential source of plant nutrients. However, significant accumulation of heavy metals such as Pb and Ni in soil needs to be monitored.

  14. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipila, Stephanie A.; Scoville, Zebulon C.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Buffington, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenging primary objectives associated with NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is to demonstrate deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools and to obtain asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Prior Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from engineered EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as behavior of the asteroid capture mechanism will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint, and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) suit. This paper will summarize the overall operational concepts for conducting EVAs for the ARCM mission including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, and the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks.

  15. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipila, Stephanie A.; Scoville, Zebulon C.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Buffington, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenging primary objectives associated with NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is to demonstrate deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools and to obtain asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Prior Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from engineered EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as behavior of the asteroid capture mechanism will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint, and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) suit. This paper will summarize the overall operational concepts for conducting EVAs for the ARCM mission including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, and the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks.

  16. Changes in soil quality indicators under long-term sewage irrigation in a sub-tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masto, Reginald Ebhin; Chhonkar, Pramod K.; Singh, Dhyan; Patra, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Though irrigation with sewage water has potential benefits of meeting the water requirements, the sewage irrigation may mess up to harm the soil health. To assess the potential impacts of long-term sewage irrigation on soil health and to identify sensitive soil indicators, soil samples were collected from crop fields that have been irrigated with sewage water for more than 20 years. An adjacent rain-fed Leucaena leucocephala plantation system was used as a reference to compare the impact of sewage irrigation on soil qualities. Soils were analyzed for different physical, chemical, biological and biochemical parameters. Results have shown that use of sewage for irrigation improved the clay content to 18-22.7%, organic carbon to 0.51-0.86% and fertility status of soils. Build up in total N was up to 2,713 kg ha-1, available N (397 kg ha-1), available P (128 kg ha-1), available K (524 kg ha-1) and available S (65.5 kg ha-1) in the surface (0.15 m) soil. Long-term sewage irrigation has also resulted a significant build-up of DTPA extractable Zn (314%), Cu (102%), Fe (715%), Mn (197.2), Cd (203%), Ni (1358%) and Pb (15.2%) when compared with the adjacent rain-fed reference soil. Soils irrigated with sewage exhibited a significant decrease in microbial biomass carbon (-78.2%), soil respiration (-82.3%), phosphatase activity (-59.12%) and dehydrogenase activity (-59.4%). An attempt was also made to identify the sensitive soil indicators under sewage irrigation, where microbial biomass carbon was singled out as the most sensitive indicator.

  17. Mesochannel Gas Sampler for Rapid Sample Collection and Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S.; Birmingham, J.; Fountain, M.

    2001-03-01

    Under DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-00ER83048, MesoSystems Technology, Inc., (Mesosystems) completed a Phase I SBIR effort for the Department of Energy. The goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of a compact, lightweight, gas-sampling device with rapid-cycle-time characteristics. The highlights of our Phase I work include: Demonstration of a compact gas sampler with integrated heater. This device has an order of magnitude greater adsorption capacity and much faster heating/cooling times than commercial sorbent tubes. Completion of computational fluid dynamics modeling of the gas sampler to determine airflow characteristics for various design options. These modeling efforts guided the development and testing of the Mesochannel Gas Sampler prototype. Testing of the Mesochannel Gas Sampler in parallel with tests of two packed-bed samplers. These tests showed the Mesochannel Gas Sampler represents a substantial improvement compared with the packed-bed approach.

  18. Tracking human sewage microbiome in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lin; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2014-04-01

    Human sewage pollution is a major threat to public health because sewage always comes with pathogens. Human sewage is usually received and treated by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to control pathogenic risks and ameliorate environmental health. However, untreated sewage that flows into water environments may cause serious waterborne diseases, as reported in India and Bangladesh. To examine the fate of the human sewage microbiome in a local municipal WWTP of Hong Kong, we used massively parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA gene to systematically profile microbial communities in samples from three sections (i.e., influent, activated sludge, and effluent) obtained monthly throughout 1 year. The results indicated that: (1) influent sewage bacterial profile reflected the human microbiome; (2) human gut bacterial community was the dominant force shaping influent sewage bacterial profile; (3) most human sewage bacteria could be effectively removed by the WWTP; (4) a total of 75 genera were profiled as potentially pathogenic bacteria, most of which were still present in the effluent although at a very low level; (5) a grouped pattern of bacterial community was observed among the same section samples but a dispersed pattern was found among the different section samples; and (6) activated sludge was less affected by the influent sewage bacteria, but it showed a significant impact on the effluent bacteria. All of these findings provide novel insights toward a mechanistic understanding of the fate of human sewage microbiome in the WWTP.

  19. Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

    1985-01-01

    The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

  20. Comparison of self-collected vaginal, vulvar and urine samples with physician-collected cervical samples for human papillomavirus testing to detect high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sellors, John W.; Lorincz, Attila T.; Mahony, James B.; Mielzynska, Iwona; Lytwyn, Alice; Roth, Paula; Howard, Michelle; Chong, Sylvia; Daya, Dean; Chapman, William; Chernesky, Max

    2000-01-01

    Background Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples are strongly associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and invasive cervical carcinoma. We determined and compared the test characteristics of testing for HPV with samples obtained by patients and with samples obtained by their physicians. Methods In a consecutive series of women referred to a colposcopy clinic at a teaching hospital because of abnormalities on cervical cytologic screening, 200 agreed to collect vulvar, vaginal and urine samples for HPV testing. The physician then collected cervical samples for HPV testing, and colposcopy, with biopsy as indicated, was performed. Presence of HPV was evaluated using the hybrid capture II assay (Digene Corp., Silver Spring, Md.) with a probe cocktail for 13 carcinogenic types. Cervical specimens were also tested for HPV by polymerase chain reaction and hybridization with type-specific probes. Cervical smears for cytologic examination were obtained from all women. Results High-grade lesions (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSIL], equivalent to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 2 or 3, and adenocarcinoma) were found in 58 (29.0%) of the 200 women. Carcinogenic types of HPV were detected in the self-collected vaginal samples of 50 (86.2%) of these 58 women, in the self-collected vulvar samples of 36 (62.1%) and in the self-collected urine samples of 26 (44.8%). Carcinogenic types of HPV were detected in the cervical samples collected by physicians for 57 (98.3%) of these 58 women. The remaining 142 women (71.0%) had normal findings or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, CIN grade 1). Test results were negative or noncarcinogenic types of HPV were detected in the self-collected vaginal samples of 76 (53.5%) of these 142 women, in the self-collected vulvar samples of 89 (62.7%) and in the self-collected urine samples of 99 (69.7%). The sensitivity for self-collected samples ranged from 44.8% to

  1. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling To Verify Completion of Self-Implementing Cleanup...

  2. Examination of the responses of slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected on the Saint John River (Canada) downstream of pulp mill, paper mill, and sewage discharges.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Brendan J; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Currie, Steve; Gray, Michelle A; Curry, R Allen; Wood, Craig S

    2003-12-01

    As part of a larger survey on cumulative effects within the Saint John River basin (Canada), a fish survey was conducted near Edmundston (NB, Canada) in the fall of 1999 using slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). The discharge environment receives effluent from the pulp mill, a paper mill, three sewage discharges, and tributaries receiving agricultural runoff. Sculpin collected downstream of the sewage discharges and pulp mill effluent had greater growth, condition, and liver size but no significant differences in gonad size. Stable isotope data indicated slimy sculpin did not move between sites. Female sculpin collected downstream of the paper mill showed no significant differences in length, body weight, age, condition factor, liver size, and gonad size compared to fish from reference sites. Female white sucker collected downstream of the pulp mill did not differ significantly in any measured parameter compared to reference fish. Liver sizes of white sucker from the Saint John River were outside the range considered to be indicative of uncontaminated riverine sites. In 2000, sculpin collected downstream from a poultry-processing facility had larger livers and lower condition factors, suggesting that the site is contaminated. We found no significant differences in sculpin length, weight, condition (except for males), and liver size in sculpin collected downstream from the pulp mill in October 2001. The responses of slimy sculpin and white sucker differed, perhaps in relation to differences in life history characteristics. Results from this study indicate the slimy sculpin is a suitable fish species for monitoring rivers that receive multiple industrial and municipal effluents.

  3. What do qualitative rapid assessment collections of macroinvertebrates represent? A comparison with extensive quantitative sampling.

    PubMed

    Gillies, C L; Hose, G C; Turak, E

    2009-02-01

    It is a fundamental tenet of Rapid Biological Assessments (RBA) that the samples collected reflect the community from which they are drawn. As with any biological sampling, RBA collections are subject to sampling error resulting in the omission of some taxa. The aim of this study is to compare the composition of RBA samples with an estimate of community structure based on extensive quantitative sampling. We used logistic regression to explore the relationships between the frequency of a taxon being collected in an RBA sample and its biological and ecological traits, namely its abundance, distribution, body size and habit. RBA samples and quantitative estimates of community structure were made in riffles in the Kangaroo and Nepean Rivers, New South Wales, Australia. Single RBA samples may collect up to 63% of the taxa that are collected by extensive quantitative sampling at a site. The frequency of a taxon being recorded in an RBA sample was significantly and positively related to all traits tested indicating a bias in the collection methods towards large, abundant and widely distributed taxa. Accordingly, taxa missed by RBA sampling were generally small, narrowly distributed or rare. These findings enhance our understanding of what RBA samples represent, and the bias and source of errors associated with RBA sampling. This study also quantifies the utility of RBA methods for biodiversity assessment.

  4. Sewage-derived nutrient dynamics in highly urbanized coastal rivers, western Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, S. I.; Saito, M.; Jin, G.; Taniguchi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water pollution by domestic sewage is one of the critical environmental problems in the early stage of urbanization with significant growth of population. In case of Osaka metropolitan area in Japan, the pollution was significant until 1970s, while it has been improved by the development of sewage treatment systems. However, removal of nitrogen needs the advanced process therefore relatively large part of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is usually discharged by treated sewage effluent. Besides, increase of sewage-derived pollutant loads through the combined sewage systems during rainfall events is recognized as a new problem in recent years. However, the impacts of sewage-derived loads on the water environment of river and coastal area have not been fully evaluated in previous studies. In the present research, we aimed to examine the dynamics of sewage-derived nutrients in highly urbanized coastal rivers. Study area is located on the coastal area of Osaka bay in Seto Inland Sea, western Japan. Treated sewage effluent is discharged from three sewage treatment plants (KH, SU and SA) to a river and channels. Water and sediment samples were collected and electric conductivity (EC), chlorophyll-a (Chl.-a) and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) were measured from the discharging points to few kilometers offshore at 100-300 m intervals. Nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and silica), nitrogen and carbon contents and stable isotope ratios (δ15N and δ13C) of particulate organic matter (POM) and sediment, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios (δ15N and δ18O) in nitrate (NO3-) were measured. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration were significantly high near the discharging point then it decreased to offshore suggesting that impact zone of sewage effluent is about 1 km from the discharging point. Significant NO3-N uptake by phytoplankton as well as dilution process were suggested in the area. However, the impact zone expanded more than twofold during the rainfall

  5. Collecting cometary soil samples? Development of the ROSETTA sample acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coste, P. A.; Fenzi, M.; Eiden, Michael

    1993-01-01

    In the reference scenario of the ROSETTA CNRS mission, the Sample Acquisition System is mounted on the Comet Lander. Its tasks are to acquire three kinds of cometary samples and to transfer them to the Earth Return Capsule. Operations are to be performed in vacuum and microgravity, on a probably rough and dusty surface, in a largely unknown material, at temperatures in the order of 100 K. The concept and operation of the Sample Acquisition System are presented. The design of the prototype corer and surface sampling tool, and of the equipment for testing them at cryogenic temperatures in ambient conditions and in vacuum in various materials representing cometary soil, are described. Results of recent preliminary tests performed in low temperature thermal vacuum in a cometary analog ice-dust mixture are provided.

  6. Sample types, collection, and transport for influenza A viruses of swine.

    PubMed

    Culhane, Marie R; Detmer, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Detection of influenza A virus (IAV), viral antigen, nucleic acid, or antibodies in swine is dependent upon the collection of the appropriate sample type, the quality of the sample, and the proper storage and handling of the sample. The diagnostic tests to be performed should be considered prior to sample collection. Sera are acceptable samples for ELISA or hemagglutination inhibition tests, but not for real-time RT-PCR. Likewise, swabs and/or tissues are acceptable for real-time RT-PCR and virus isolation. The sample type will also depend on the age of swine that are being tested; oral fluids can be successfully collected from weaned pigs usually greater than 3 weeks of age, whereas nasal swabs should be collected from suckling pigs in the first weeks of life. This chapter outlines the collection of different specimen types and procedures for proper specimen handling.

  7. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  8. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  9. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  10. Impact of blood sample collection and processing methods on glucose levels in community outreach studies.

    PubMed

    Turchiano, Michael; Nguyen, Cuong; Fierman, Arthur; Lifshitz, Mark; Convit, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Glucose obtained from unprocessed blood samples can decrease by 5%-7% per hour due to glycolysis. This study compared the impact of glucose degradation on measured glucose values by examining two different collection methods. For the first method, blood samples were collected in tubes containing sodium fluoride (NaF), a glycolysis inhibitor. For the second method, blood samples were collected in tubes containing a clot activator and serum gel separator and were centrifuged to separate the serum and plasma 20 minutes after sample collection. The samples used in the two methods were collected during the same blood draw and were assayed by the clinical laboratory 2-4 hours after the samples were obtained. A total of 256 pairs of samples were analyzed. The average glucose reading for the centrifuged tubes was significantly higher than the NaF tubes by 0.196 ± 0.159 mmol/L (P < 0.01) or 4.2%. This study demonstrates the important role collection methods play in accurately assessing glucose levels of blood samples collected in the field, where working environment may be suboptimal. Therefore, blood samples collected in the field should be promptly centrifuged before being transported to clinical labs to ensure accurate glucose level measurements.

  11. Wild polio virus surveillance in the sewage system of selected communities at the risk of poliomyelitis in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adu, F D; Kembi, F A; Bamgboye, A; Osei-Kwasi, M

    1998-02-01

    Twenty two sewage samples collected from eleven locations among communities at risk of poliomyelitis in the southwestern part of Nigeria were screened for the presence of polio virus. The virus was isolated from seven of the samples. All the isolates were type 1 wild polio virus, an indication that all the isolates were from human contamination and that the wild polio virus is still very much in circulation in Nigeria many years after the Expanded Programme on Immunisation was introduced. It can be concluded from this study that polio immunisation campaign has not been successful in Nigeria considering the number of wild polio virus isolated from the sewage samples since virological examination of sewage has been used to document the effect of vaccination campaigns.

  12. Eukaryotic viruses in wastewater samples from the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symonds, E.M.; Griffin, Dale W.; Breitbart, M.

    2009-01-01

    Human fecal matter contains a large number of viruses, and current bacterial indicators used for monitoring water quality do not correlate with the presence of pathogenic viruses. Adenoviruses and enteroviruses have often been used to identify fecal pollution in the environment; however, other viruses shed in fecal matter may more accurately detect fecal pollution. The purpose of this study was to develop a baseline understanding of the types of viruses found in raw sewage. PCR was used to detect adenoviruses, enteroviruses, hepatitis B viruses, herpesviruses, morbilliviruses, noroviruses, papillomaviruses, picobirnaviruses, reoviruses, and rotaviruses in raw sewage collected throughout the United States. Adenoviruses and picobirnaviruses were detected in 100% of raw sewage samples and 25% and 33% of final effluent samples, respectively. Enteroviruses and noroviruses were detected in 75% and 58% of raw sewage samples, respectively, and both viral groups were found in 8% of final effluent samples. This study showed that adenoviruses, enteroviruses, noroviruses, and picobirnaviruses are widespread in raw sewage. Since adenoviruses and picobirnaviruses were detected in 100% of raw sewage samples, they are potential markers of fecal contamination. Additionally, this research uncovered previously unknown sequence diversity in human picobirnaviruses. This baseline understanding of viruses in raw sewage will enable educated decisions to be made regarding the use of different viruses in water quality assessments. Copyright ?? 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Characteristics of the overflow pollution of storm drains with inappropriate sewage entry.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hailong; Lu, Yi; Xu, Zuxin; Li, Huaizheng; Schwegler, Benedict R

    2017-02-01

    To probe the overflow pollution of separate storm drains with inappropriate sewage entries, in terms of the relationship between sewage entries and the corresponding dry-weather and wet-weather overflow, the monitoring activities were conducted in a storm drainage system in the Shanghai downtown area (374 ha). In this study site, samples from inappropriately entered dry-weather sewage and the overflow due to storm pumps operation on dry-weather and wet-weather days were collected and then monitored for six water quality constituents. It was found that overflow concentrations of dry-weather period could be higher than those of wet-weather period; under wet-weather period, the overflow concentrations of storm drains were close to or even higher than that of combined sewers. Relatively strong first flush mostly occurred under heavy rain that satisfied critical rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity, and maximum pumping discharge, while almost no first flush effect or only weak first flush effect was found for the other rainfall events. Such phenomenon was attributed to lower in-line pipe storage as compared to that of the combined sewers, and serious sediment accumulation within the storm pipes due to sewage entry. For this kind of system, treating a continuous overflow rate is a better strategy than treating the maximum amount of early part of the overflow. Correcting the key inappropriate sewage entries into storm drains should also be focused.

  14. Biochemical Fingerprinting of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Sewage and Hospital in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Fateh; Bouzari, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known as a common pathogen in nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Sewage acts as an environmental reservoir and may have a significant role in development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the epidemiological relatedness between the MRSA isolated from sewage and human infections. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from a referral hospital and also a sewage treatment plant in Tehran, Iran, during 2010. All the MRSA isolates were identified at the species level and typed using Phene plate (PhP) system and SCCmec typing. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were also performed. Results: Of the 1142 isolates, 200 MRSA strains from the sewage (n = 100) and the clinic (n = 100) were isolated. Distinct PhP types, consisting of 16 common types and 13 single types, and also 3 different staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types (III, IVa and IVc) were found amongst the MRSA isolated from the two different sources. The results of antibiotic susceptibility testing showed an increased resistance to penicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline. In addition, none of the isolates showed resistance to vancomycin, quinupristin -dalfopristin and linezolid. Conclusions: The presence of common PhP types and also SCCmec type III, as an indicator for hospital strains, among the isolates, may indicate an epidemiological link between clinical and sewage MRSA isolates in Tehran. PMID:26421131

  15. The use of Vacutainer tubes for collection of soil samples for helium analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Margaret E.; Kilburn, James E.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the helium concentration of soil samples collected and stored in Vacutainer-brand evacuated glass tubes show that Vacutainers are reliable containers for soil collection. Within the limits of reproducibility, helium content of soils appears to be independent of variations in soil temperature, barometric pressure, and quantity of soil moisture present in the sample.

  16. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  17. Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground-water samples for selected unstable constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Warren W.

    1976-01-01

    The unstable nature of many chemical and physical constituents in ground water requires special collection procedures and field analysis immediately after collection. This report describes the techniques and equipment commonly used m the collection and field analysis of samples for pH, temperature, carbonate, bicarbonate, specific conductance, Eh, and dissolved oxygen.

  18. Persistence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus in treated sewage in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tonani, K A A; Padula, J A; Julião, F C; Fregonesi, B M; Alves, R I S; Sampaio, C F; Beda, C F; Hachich, E M; Segura-Muñoz, S I

    2013-12-01

    Abstract :  The persistence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus in samples of raw and treated sewage collected monthly in 2010 at the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, was analyzed. The USEPA Method 1623 was used to detect and quantify Giardia and Cryptosporidium. An enzyme immunoassay was carried out to test Rotavirus and Adenovirus antigen optical density (Rotascreen® and Adenoscreen®). The results show a significant decrease in the concentrations of Giardia, Rotavirus and Adenovirus (P < 0.05) and a trend of decreasing Cryptosporidium densities, without statistical significance. Giardia concentrations ranged from 120 to 2,200 cysts/L in raw sewage and from 0.45 to 3.5 cysts/L in treated sewage. Cryptosporidium concentration ranged from undetectable to 28.9 oocysts/L in raw sewage and undetectable to 1.05 oocysts/L in treated sewage. Rotavirus presented absorbance values that ranged from 1.17 ± 0.81 in raw sewage to 0.46 ± 0.32 in treated sewage. Adenovirus, in turn, presented absorbance values of 0.64 ± 0.20 in raw sewage and of 0.45 ± 0.04 in treated sewage. There was no significant seasonal tendency observed in the distribution of protozoa (oo)cysts and in the viral antigen density in the monthly sewage samples during 2010 (P > 0.05). Even though these pathogenic agents decreased after treatment, the remaining loads observed in treated sewage can reach the watercourses receiving it. Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, and Adenovirus are pathogens with very low infectious doses, representing a public health risk especially for vulnerable groups, such as children living near these watercourses and homeless people using this water for various purposes. Studies addressing the environmental persistence of opportunistic pathogens in watercourses are hugely important in the public health sphere, especially in developing countries, where economic, social, cultural, and environmental factors still persist

  19. Characterisation of raw sewage and performance assessment of primary settling tanks at Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent

    The need for more stringent effluent discharge standards as prescribed by the Environmental Management Act 20:27 to protect the environment can be sustainably achieved with the aid of Activated Sludge Models. Thus, the researchers believe it is time to re-evaluate wastewater characteristics at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and make use of activated sludge simulators to address pollution challenges caused by the sewage plant. Therefore, this paper characterizes raw sewage and assesses settled and unsettled sewage in order to evaluate the performance of the primary treatment system and the suitability of the settled sewage for treatment by the subsequent Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system at Firle STW. Parameters studied included COD, BOD, TKN, TP, NH3, TSS, pH and Alkalinity. Composite samples were collected over a 9-day campaign period (27 June to 6 July 2012), hourly grab samples over 24 hrs and composite samples on 6 March 2012 which were then analysed in the lab in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater to support the City of Harare 2004-2012 lab historical records. Concentrations for unsettled sewage in mg/L were COD (527 ± 32), BOD (297 ± 83) TKN (19.0 ± 2.0), TP (18 ± 3), NH3 (24.0 ± 12.9), TSS (219 ± 57), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 266 ± 36 mg/L. For settled sewage the corresponding values in mg/L were COD (522 ± 15), BOD (324 ± 102), TKN (21.0 ± 3.0), TP (19.0 ± 2.0), NH3 (25.6 ± 11.2), TSS (250 ± 66), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 271 ± 17 mg/L. The plant design values for raw sewage are COD (650 mg/L), BOD (200 mg/L), TKN (40 mg/L) and TP (11 mg/L). Thus, COD and nitrogen were within the plant design range while BOD and TP were higher. Treatability of sewage in BNR systems is often inferred from the levels of critical parameters and also the ratios of TKN/COD and COD/TP. The wastewater average settled COD/BOD, COD/TP and TKN/COD ratio were 1.7 ± 0.5, 27.1 ± 3.1 and 0.04 ± 0

  20. Aichi Virus in Sewage and Surface Water, the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Rutjes, Saskia A.; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Husman, Ana Maria de Roda

    2013-01-01

    Detection of Aichi virus in humans was initially reported in Japan in 1989. To establish a timeline for the prevalence of Aichi virus infection among humans in the Netherlands, we conducted molecular analysis of archival water samples from 1987–2000 and 2009–2012. Aichi virus RNA was detected in 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 100% (7/7) of surface water samples collected during 1987–2000 and 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 71% (5/7) of surface water samples collected during 2009–2012. Several genotype A and B Aichi virus lineages were observed over the 25-year period studied, but the time course of viral genetic diversity showed recent expansion of the genotype B population over genotype A. Our results show that Aichi virus has been circulating among the human population in the Netherlands since before its initial detection in humans was reported and that genotype B now predominates in this country. PMID:23876456

  1. Sewage contamination in a tropical coastal area (São Sebastião Channel, SP, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Muniz, P; da Silva, D A M; Bícego, M C; Bromberg, S; Pires-Vanin, A M S

    2015-10-15

    Urban effluent discharges in Brazilian coastal areas are a chronic problem and often lead to changes in the quality of the marine environment. São-Sebastião-Channel (SSC) is an important aquatic ecosystem to be monitored for urban sewage contamination due to the intense urban activities in that region, as well as the relative high biodiversity of marine organisms. In the area are present three submarine sewage outfalls, a commercial harbour and also the biggest oil terminal in Brazil. Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulphur (TS), steroids and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) were measured in sediment samples collected in three strategic locations of the SSC in order to monitor urban sewage contamination. Total LAB and total sterols levels ranged from below DL-51.3 ng g(-1) and below DL-10.40 μg g(-1), respectively. Samples collected near sewage outfall in the central part of the SSC had higher concentrations of urban sewage-associated contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbial sewage contamination associated with Superstorm Sandy flooding in New York City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mullan, G.; Dueker, M.; Sahajpal, R.; Juhl, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    The lower Hudson River Estuary commonly experiences degraded water quality following precipitation events due to the influence of combined sewer overflows. During Super-storm Sandy large scale flooding occurred in many waterfront areas of New York City, including neighborhoods bordering the Gowanus Canal and Newtown Creek Superfund sites known to frequently contain high levels of sewage associated bacteria. Water, sediment, and surface swab samples were collected from Newtown Creek and Gowanus Canal flood impacted streets and basements in the days following the storm, along with samples from the local waterways. Samples were enumerated for the sewage indicating bacterium, Enterococcus, and DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequence analysis. Waterways were found to have relatively low levels of sewage contamination in the days following the storm. In contrast, much higher levels of Enterococci were detected in basement and storm debris samples and these bacteria were found to persist for many weeks in laboratory incubations. These data suggest that substantial sewage contamination occurred in some flood impacted New York City neighborhoods and that the environmental persistence of flood water associated microbes requires additional study and management attention.

  3. [Adolescents find it easy to collect their own samples to study sexually transmitted infections].

    PubMed

    Huneeus, Andrea; Fernández, Mario I; Schilling, Andrea; Parra, Paulina; Zakharova, Aleksandra

    2017-04-01

    As alternative for patients that fear genital examination, we assessed adolescent's comfort and ease with self-collected samples for nucleic acid amplification testing for sexually transmitted infections. Sexually active Chilean adolescents and youth under 25 years (174 males and 117 females) were enrolled. Females used self-collected vaginal swabs and males collected first-stream urine. A satisfaction survey evaluating self-sampling system was applied. Self-collection was considered easy in 99.3% of the interviewees (CI 95% 0.88-0.98). In women, 79.3% preferred vaginal self-collected samples than pelvic exam (CI 95% 0.73-0.85). In men, 80.3% preferred self-collected first-stream urine to urethral swabs (CI 95% 0.73-0.87). Assuming that self-collected sampling were available, 89.6% of women (CI 95% 0.85-0.94) and 93.2% of men (CI 95% 0.89-0.98) would be prone to be tested more often. Ease of self-collected sampling is not associated with age, gender, educational level or poverty. Chile currently does not have sexually transmitted infections surveillance or screening programs for youth and adolescents. Given self-collected sampling's good acceptability, it could be successfully used when these programs are implemented.

  4. Analysis and interpretation of specific ethanol metabolites, ethyl sulfate, and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent for the quantitative measurement of regional alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Reid, Malcolm J; Langford, Katherine H; Mørland, Jørg; Thomas, Kevin V

    2011-09-01

    The quantitative measurement of urinary metabolites in sewage streams and the subsequent estimation of consumption rates of the parent compounds have previously been demonstrated for pharmaceuticals and narcotics. Ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide are excreted in urine following the ingestion of alcohol, and are useful biomarkers for the identification of acute alcohol consumption. This study reports a novel ion-exchange-mediated chromatographic method for the quantitative measurement of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent, and presents a novel calculation method for the purposes of relating the resulting sewage concentrations with rates of alcohol consumption in the region. A total of 100 sewage samples covering a 25-day period were collected from a treatment plant servicing approximately 500,000 people, and analyzed for levels of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide. The resulting data were then used to estimate combined alcohol consumption rates for the region, and the results were compared with alcohol related sales statistics for the same region. Ethyl glucuronide was found to be unstable in sewage effluent. Ethyl sulfate was stable and measurable in all samples at concentrations ranging from 16 to 246 nM. The highest concentrations of the alcohol biomarker were observed during weekend periods. Sixty one percent of the total mass of ethyl sulfate in sewage effluent corresponds to alcohol consumption on Friday and Saturday. Sales statistics for alcohol show that consumption in the region is approximately 6,750 kg/d. The quantity of ethyl sulfate passing through the sewage system is consistent with consumption of 4,900 to 7,800 kg/d.   Sewage epidemiology assessments of ethyl sulfate can provide accurate estimates of community alcohol consumption, and detailed examination of the kinetics of this biomarker in sewage streams can also identify time-dependent trends in alcohol consumption patterns. 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Analysis of multiple enteric viral targets as sewage markers in coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Erin K; Futch, J Carrie; Griffin, Dale W

    2007-12-01

    Water and coral mucus samples were collected from throughout the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and the Dry Tortugas for three years and were analyzed for human enteric viruses (enteroviruses, noroviruses, hepatitis A virus and adenoviruses) as conservative markers of human sewage using molecular methods. Of the 100 coral and water samples collected, 40 contained genetic material from one or more human enteric viruses. DNA-based adenoviruses were detected widely, in 37.8% of samples and at 91% of stations, including 'pristine' reefs in the Dry Tortugas; however, the detection rate was < or =12% for the RNA-based enteroviruses and noroviruses (hepatitis A virus was never detected). The disparity between the prevalence of RNA- and DNA-based viruses suggests the need for additional work to determine the utility of adenovirus as marker of human sewage.

  6. Analysis of multiple enteric viral targets as sewage markers in coral reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipp, Erin K.; Futch, J. Carrie; Griffin, Dale W.

    2007-01-01

    Water and coral mucus samples were collected from throughout the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and the Dry Tortugas for three years and were analyzed for human enteric viruses (enteroviruses, noroviruses, hepatitis A virus and adenoviruses) as conservative markers of human sewage using molecular methods. Of the 100 coral and water samples collected, 40 contained genetic material from one or more human enteric viruses. DNA-based adenoviruses were detected widely, in 37.8% of samples and at 91% of stations, including ‘pristine’ reefs in the Dry Tortugas; however, the detection rate was ⩽12% for the RNA-based enteroviruses and noroviruses (hepatitis A virus was never detected). The disparity between the prevalence of RNA- and DNA-based viruses suggests the need for additional work to determine the utility of adenovirus as marker of human sewage.

  7. Adaptive Sampling-Based Information Collection for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaobin; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Wendong; Tian, Hui

    2016-01-01

    To collect important health information, WBAN applications typically sense data at a high frequency. However, limited by the quality of wireless link, the uploading of sensed data has an upper frequency. To reduce upload frequency, most of the existing WBAN data collection approaches collect data with a tolerable error. These approaches can guarantee precision of the collected data, but they are not able to ensure that the upload frequency is within the upper frequency. Some traditional sampling based approaches can control upload frequency directly, however, they usually have a high loss of information. Since the core task of WBAN applications is to collect health information, this paper aims to collect optimized information under the limitation of upload frequency. The importance of sensed data is defined according to information theory for the first time. Information-aware adaptive sampling is proposed to collect uniformly distributed data. Then we propose Adaptive Sampling-based Information Collection (ASIC) which consists of two algorithms. An adaptive sampling probability algorithm is proposed to compute sampling probabilities of different sensed values. A multiple uniform sampling algorithm provides uniform samplings for values in different intervals. Experiments based on a real dataset show that the proposed approach has higher performance in terms of data coverage and information quantity. The parameter analysis shows the optimized parameter settings and the discussion shows the underlying reason of high performance in the proposed approach. PMID:27589758

  8. Adaptive Sampling-Based Information Collection for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaobin; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Wendong; Tian, Hui

    2016-08-31

    To collect important health information, WBAN applications typically sense data at a high frequency. However, limited by the quality of wireless link, the uploading of sensed data has an upper frequency. To reduce upload frequency, most of the existing WBAN data collection approaches collect data with a tolerable error. These approaches can guarantee precision of the collected data, but they are not able to ensure that the upload frequency is within the upper frequency. Some traditional sampling based approaches can control upload frequency directly, however, they usually have a high loss of information. Since the core task of WBAN applications is to collect health information, this paper aims to collect optimized information under the limitation of upload frequency. The importance of sensed data is defined according to information theory for the first time. Information-aware adaptive sampling is proposed to collect uniformly distributed data. Then we propose Adaptive Sampling-based Information Collection (ASIC) which consists of two algorithms. An adaptive sampling probability algorithm is proposed to compute sampling probabilities of different sensed values. A multiple uniform sampling algorithm provides uniform samplings for values in different intervals. Experiments based on a real dataset show that the proposed approach has higher performance in terms of data coverage and information quantity. The parameter analysis shows the optimized parameter settings and the discussion shows the underlying reason of high performance in the proposed approach.

  9. The GENESIS Solar-Wind Sample: Summary of In-Situ Spacecraft Measurements During the Sample Collection Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Steinberg, J. T.; Wiens, R. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2004-12-01

    The GENESIS mission returned samples of solar wind to earth on September 8. These samples were collected between 30-Nov-2001 and 01-Apr-2004 at the L1 point on ultrapure substrates that are being analyzed using various laboratory techniques. The primary purpose of the GENESIS mission is to determine to unprecedented accuracy (e.g., ±1%-0.1%, 2σ ) the isotopic composition of the solar wind, and by extension, of the Sun, particularly for oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and the noble gases. In addition to a continuously-collected sample, separate samples of the different regimes-coronal hole (CH), interstream (IS), and coronal mass ejection (CME)-were collected to help deconvolve any fine-scale isotopic fractionation associated with solar-wind ionization and acceleration. The four different samples (3 regimes plus one cumulative sample) are long-term averages over varying solar-wind conditions, and need to be understood within the context of other measurements besides those that can be made on the substrates themselves. These include charge state, v, T, density, and magnetic field data. Additionally, comparisons of in-situ elemental composition measurements with the measurements made on GENESIS samples will be useful in validating the different measurement techniques. For these reasons, we are compiling a database of conditions as measured by in-situ spacecraft instruments stationed at L1 over the time period of the GENESIS sample collection. Comparison with ACE/SWICS elemental and charge-state abundances confirmed early in the GENESIS mission that the GENESIS regime-selection algorithm was successfully isolating the CME material, protecting the CH and IS samples from CME contamination. The data also demonstrate the discrimination between IS and CH flow types based mostly on solar-wind speed, but allowing compensation for evolution effects due to the transit to 1 AU.

  10. Analysis of acid precipitation samples collected by state agencies sampling period: January-December 1992. Annual project report

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, L.S.

    1995-03-01

    The report presents analytical data from the 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network. Samples are collected weekly in plastic bag bucket liners and shipped in 500 mL polyethylene bottles to Global Geochemistry Corporation, the central laboratory for the network. The report contains maps showing the location of each site, plots of analytical data, tables of all field and analytical data, plots comparing field and laboratory pH and conductivity, and information on data quality. Samples are analyzed for pH, strong acid, conductivity, fluoride, chloride, nitrite, phosphate, bromide, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium.

  11. Feasibility and informative value of environmental sample collection in the National Children's Vanguard Study.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Deziel, Nicole C; Specker, Bonny L; Collingwood, Scott; Weisel, Clifford P; Wright, David J; Dellarco, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Birth cohort studies provide the opportunity to advance understanding of the impact of environmental factors on childhood health and development through prospective collection of environmental samples. We evaluated the feasibility and informative value of the environmental sample collection methodology in the initial pilot phase of the National Children's Study, a planned U.S. environmental birth cohort study. Environmental samples were collected from January 2009-September 2010 at up to three home visits: pre-pregnancy (n=306), pregnancy (n=807), and 6-months postnatal (n=117). Collections included air for particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbonyls; vacuum dust for allergens/endotoxin; water for VOCs, trihalomethanes (THMs), and haloacetic acids (HAAs); and wipe samples for pesticides, semi-volatile organics, and metals. We characterized feasibility using sample collection rates and times and informative value using analyte detection frequencies (DF). Among the 1230 home visits, environmental sample collection rates were high across all sample types (mean=89%); all samples except the air PM2.5 samples had collection times <30 min. Informative value was low for water VOCs (median DF=0%) and pesticide floor wipes (median DF=5%). Informative value was moderate for air samples (median DF=35%) and high for water THMs and HAAs (median DF=91% and 75%, respectively). Though collection of environmental samples was feasible, some samples (e.g., wipe pesticides and water VOCs) yielded limited information. These results can be used in conjunction with other study design considerations, such as target population size and hypotheses of interest, to inform the method selection of future environmental health birth cohort studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of carbon/nitrogen ratio and heavy metals in bulking agents used for sewage composting.

    PubMed

    Alidadi, H; Najafpoor, A A; Parvaresh, A

    2007-11-15

    Improving the soil quality with organic matter and N, P and K contents are some of sewage sludge benefits. Adjusting carbonaceous materials such as plant wastes to dewatered sludge compost results in increasing the moisture content and improving C/N ratio. This study was conduced for three months in 2005, in Laboratory of Chemistry of Water and Wastewater in the School of Public Health of Isfahan University of Medical Science, to determine the C/N ratio and heavy metals concentration of bulking agents in sawdust, leaves, rice hulls and dewatered sewage sludge. Dewatered sludge was collected from Isfahan sewage treatment plant. Sawdust was collected from sawmills. Leaves were collected from municipality of Isfahan and rice hull from rice mills, then in samples determined C/N ratio and heavy metal according to standard methods. The results showed that concentrations of chromium and cadmium in the mixture of dewatered sewage sludge and bulking agents were lower them those of the standard level. Means of cobalt (115.44 mg kg(-1)), nickel (57.44 mg kg(-1)) and zinc (273.48 mg kg(-1)) concentrations were maximum in dewatered sludge but mean concentration of cobalt (25.66 mg kg(-1)) in rice hull samples and mean zinc (8.99 mg kg(-1)) and nickel (5.106 mg kg(-1)) concentrations in sawdust samples were minimum. The optimal conditions sewage sludge composting, each kilogram of sludge needs 350 g of saw dust, 470 g of leaves and 388 g of rice hull. Amount of heavy metals present in the bulking agents is lower than the amount mentioned for the compost.

  13. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOGARTY, WILLIAM J.; REEDER, MILTON E.

    A DETERMINATION OF THE HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS WAS MADE TO IDENTIFY THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND TO PROVIDE A MORE PRECISE BASIS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL FACILITIES IN SCHOOLS. WATER FLOW DATA WAS COLLECTED FOR 158 SCHOOLS AND SEWAGE FLOW DATA FROM 42 SCHOOLS. THE FINDINGS…

  14. Collecting Samples in Gale Crater, Mars; an Overview of the Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Jandura, L.; Okon, A. B.; Sunshine, D.; Roumeliotis, C.; Beegle, L. W.; Hurowitz, J.; Kennedy, B.; Limonadi, D.; McCloskey, S.; Robinson, M.; Seybold, C.; Brown, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL), scheduled to land on Mars in the summer of 2012, consists of a rover and a scientific payload designed to identify and assess the habitability, geological, and environmental histories of Gale crater. Unraveling the geologic history of the region and providing an assessment of present and past habitability requires an evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the landing site; this includes providing an in-depth examination of the chemical and physical properties of Martian regolith and rocks. The MSL Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem will be the first in-situ system designed to acquire interior rock and soil samples from Martian surface materials. These samples are processed and separated into fine particles and distributed to two onboard analytical science instruments SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite) and CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) or to a sample analysis tray for visual inspection. The SA/SPaH subsystem is also responsible for the placement of the two contact instruments, Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), on rock and soil targets. Finally, there is a Dust Removal Tool (DRT) to remove dust particles from rock surfaces for subsequent analysis by the contact and or mast mounted instruments (e.g. Mast Cameras (MastCam) and the Chemistry and Micro-Imaging instruments (ChemCam)).

  15. Comparative study of heavy metals in "soil-wheat" systems between sewage-irrigated areas and clean-water-irrigated areas in suburban Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Han, Sha-Sha; Chen, Zhi-Fan; Liu, Jing; Hu, Honq-Xia

    2015-01-01

    After years of irrigating farmland with wastewater, concern is increasing about health risks from heavy metals contaminating wheat grown in sewage-irrigated soils in suburban areas of Beijing, China. The study discussed in this article aimed to compare the characteristics of heavy metal distribution in a sewage-irrigated "soil-wheat" system with those from a clean-water-irrigated area by collecting and analyzing samples from both areas. The results indicated that the average concentrations of copper, chromium, lead, and zinc in sewage-irrigated soil were higher than the values in the clean-water-irrigated region. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to increased bioconcentration factors. Therefore, issues of food contamination caused by sewage irrigation deserve more attention.

  16. Prototype Device for Computerized Blood Sampling and Data Collection in Freely Moving Swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Collecting biofluid samples or physiological and behavioral data from animals presents challenges from excessive human intervention, and the stress of manual sampling. Our objective was to construct a device capable of protecting external leads and tubing used to facilitate automated sampling, dosin...

  17. Accuracy of human papillomavirus testing on self-collected versus clinician-collected samples: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Arbyn, Marc; Verdoodt, Freija; Snijders, Peter J F; Verhoef, Viola M J; Suonio, Eero; Dillner, Lena; Minozzi, Silvia; Bellisario, Cristina; Banzi, Rita; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Hillemanns, Peter; Anttila, Ahti

    2014-02-01

    Screening for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is more effective in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer than screening using Pap smears. Moreover, HPV testing can be done on a vaginal sample self-taken by a woman, which offers an opportunity to improve screening coverage. However, the clinical accuracy of HPV testing on self-samples is not well-known. We assessed whether HPV testing on self-collected samples is equivalent to HPV testing on samples collected by clinicians. We identified relevant studies through a search of PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they fulfilled all of the following selection criteria: a cervical cell sample was self-collected by a woman followed by a sample taken by a clinician; a high-risk HPV test was done on the self-sample (index test) and HPV-testing or cytological interpretation was done on the specimen collected by the clinician (comparator tests); and the presence or absence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or worse was verified by colposcopy and biopsy in all enrolled women or in women with one or more positive tests. The absolute accuracy for finding CIN2 or worse, or CIN grade 3 (CIN3) or worse of the index and comparator tests as well as the relative accuracy of the index versus the comparator tests were pooled using bivariate normal models and random effect models. We included data from 36 studies, which altogether enrolled 154 556 women. The absolute accuracy varied by clinical setting. In the context of screening, HPV testing on self-samples detected, on average, 76% (95% CI 69-82) of CIN2 or worse and 84% (72-92) of CIN3 or worse. The pooled absolute specificity to exclude CIN2 or worse was 86% (83-89) and 87% (84-90) to exclude CIN3 or worse. The variation of the relative accuracy of HPV testing on self-samples compared with tests on clinician-taken samples was low across settings, enabling pooling of the relative accuracy over all studies. The pooled

  18. Sewage Contamination under Different Storm and Hydrologic Conditions in Three Urban Waterways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templar, H.; Corsi, S.; McLellan, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Fecal contamination in urban waterways is a major public and environmental health threat. Sanitary sewer and combined sewer overflows are major point sources of fecal pollution. Additionally, stormwater runoff and failing sewer infrastructure contribute fecal contamination and pathogens to urban waterways. Traditionally, fecal indicator bacteria such as E. coli, enterococci, and fecal coliforms are used to gauge fecal contamination in water; however, these general indicators are unable to distinguish fecal sources in the environment. This study used two human-specific fecal indicator bacteria to identify human sewage contamination in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where three rivers form an estuary that discharges to Lake Michigan. Two-hour composite samples were collected at four sites, one in each of the three rivers and one in the estuary, to represent the entire hydrograph before, during, and after a rain event. Samples were collected throughout a variety of conditions, including dry-weather baseline, light and heavy rain events, and combined sewage overflows (CSOs). These samples were analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to determine human sewage loads in each river during each type of event. Low levels of human indicators were found during dry-weather baseline conditions, and loads increased significantly (one to two orders of magnitude) during rain events. Sampling upstream of the estuary indicated sewage contamination was originating in the heavily urbanized part of the watersheds, likely a result of failing infrastructure. CSO events contributed the highest loads, which were on average ten-fold higher than rainfall events with no CSO. This information will be a useful for directing the efforts of local agencies and municipalities to investigate failing infrastructure, as well as agencies at the state and federal levels to create appropriate goals to address the human health concerns that are posed by sewage contamination in urban

  19. A method to determine collection efficiency of particles by swipe sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkouteren, J. R.; Coleman, J. L.; Fletcher, R. A.; Smith, W. J.; Klouda, G. A.; Gillen, G.

    2008-11-01

    A methodology was developed to evaluate particle collection efficiencies from swipe sampling of trace residues. Swipe sampling is used for many applications where trace residues must be collected, including the evaluation of radioactive particle contamination and the analysis of explosives and contraband at screening checkpoints using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). Collection efficiencies were evaluated for micrometer-sized polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres with respect to the particle size and mode of deposition, collection trap, surface type and swiping force. Test surfaces containing particles were prepared under controlled conditions and swiped with a reproducible technique that allows for the evaluation of frictional forces. Collection efficiencies were determined by optical imaging and particle counting. Of the two IMS collection traps studied, the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) trap has significantly lower collection efficiencies. This is likely to be due to a combination of texture and composition. The larger (42 µm diameter) particles are collected more efficiently than the smaller (9 µm diameter) particles. Particles in a matrix similar to latent fingerprints are collected more efficiently than dry particles. Applying greater force during swiping does not greatly improve collection efficiencies. This fact, coupled with the observation that many particles are detached but not collected, implies that improvements in collection efficiency are dependent on improvements in adhesion of the particles to the collection surface, rather than larger forces to detach the particles.

  20. Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberer, Thomas

    2002-09-01

    In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are discharged as contaminants into the receiving waters. In terms of several monitoring studies carried out in Berlin between 1996 and 2000, PhACs such as clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, propyphenazone, primidone and carbamazepine were detected at individual concentrations up to the μg/l-level in influent and effluent samples from STPs and in all surface water samples collected downstream from the STPs. Under recharge conditions, several compounds were also found at individual concentrations up to 7.3 μg/l in samples collected from groundwater aquifers near to contaminated water courses. A few of the PhACs were also identified at the ng/l-level in Berlin tap water samples.

  1. Sewage-based epidemiology in monitoring the use of new psychoactive substances: Validation and application of an analytical method using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kinyua, Juliet; Covaci, Adrian; Maho, Walid; McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Neels, Hugo; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2015-09-01

    Sewage-based epidemiology (SBE) employs the analysis of sewage to detect and quantify drug use within a community. While SBE has been applied repeatedly for the estimation of classical illicit drugs, only few studies investigated new psychoactive substances (NPS). These compounds mimic effects of illicit drugs by introducing slight modifications to chemical structures of controlled illicit drugs. We describe the optimization, validation, and application of an analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the determination of seven NPS in sewage: methoxetamine (MXE), butylone, ethylone, methylone, methiopropamine (MPA), 4-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA), and 4-methoxyamphetamine (PMA). Sample preparation was performed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with Oasis MCX cartridges. The LC separation was done with a HILIC (150 x 3 mm, 5 µm) column which ensured good resolution of the analytes with a total run time of 19 min. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was between 0.5 and 5 ng/L for all compounds. The method was validated by evaluating the following parameters: sensitivity, selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recoveries and matrix effects. The method was applied on sewage samples collected from sewage treatment plants in Belgium and Switzerland in which all investigated compounds were detected, except MPA and PMA. Furthermore, a consistent presence of MXE has been observed in most of the sewage samples at levels higher than LLOQ. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. [Establishment and Management of Multicentral Collection Bio-sample Banks of Malignant Tumors from Digestive System].

    PubMed

    Shen, Si; Shen, Junwei; Zhu, Liang; Wu, Chaoqun; Li, Dongliang; Yu, Hongyu; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yi

    2015-11-01

    To establish and manage of multicentral collection bio-sample banks of malignant tumors from digestive system, the paper designed a multicentral management system, established the standard operation procedures (SOPs) and leaded ten hospitals nationwide to collect tumor samples. The biobank has been established for half a year, and has collected 695 samples from patients with digestive system malignant tumor. The clinical data is full and complete, labeled in a unified way and classified to be managed. The clinical and molecular biology researches were based on the biobank, and obtained achievements. The biobank provides a research platform for malignant tumor of digestive system from different regions and of different types.

  3. Pediatric blood sample collection from a pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter.

    PubMed

    Braniff, Heather; DeCarlo, Ann; Haskamp, Amy Corey; Broome, Marion E

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to minimize pain in a hospitalized child, the purpose of this observational study was to describe characteristics of blood samples collected from pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters in pediatric patients. One hundred and fifty blood samples were reviewed for number of unusable samples requiring a specimen to be re-drawn. Success of the blood draw and prevalence of the loss of the PIV following blood collection was also measured. Findings included one clotted specimen, success rate of 91.3%, and 1.3% of PIVs becoming non-functional after collection. Obtaining blood specimens from a pre-existing PIV should be considered in a pediatric patient.

  4. Assembly for collecting samples for purposes of identification or analysis and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V [Knoxville, TN; Smith, Rob R [Knoxville, TN

    2010-02-02

    An assembly and an associated method for collecting a sample of material desired to be characterized with diagnostic equipment includes or utilizes an elongated member having a proximal end with which the assembly is manipulated by a user and a distal end. In addition, a collection tip which is capable of being placed into contact with the material to be characterized is supported upon the distal end. The collection tip includes a body of chemically-inert porous material for binding a sample of material when the tip is placed into contact with the material and thereby holds the sample of material for subsequent introduction to the diagnostic equipment.

  5. Mars Rover Sample Return: A sample collection and analysis strategy for exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, M. H.; Fischler, M.; Schwartz, D. E.; Rosenthal, Donald A.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Nedell, Susan S.; Gamble, E.; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1989-01-01

    For reasons defined elsewhere it is reasonable to search for biological signatures, both chemical and morphological, of extinct life on Mars. Life on Earth requries the presence of liquid water, therefore, it is important to explore sites on Mars where standing bodies of water may have once existed. Outcrops of layered deposits within the Valles Marineris appear to be ancient lake beds. Because the outcrops are well exposed, relatively shallow core samples would be very informative. The most important biological signature to detect would be organics, microfossils, or larger stromato-like structures, although the presence of cherts, carbonates, clays, and shales would be significant. In spite of the limitations of current robotics and pattern recognition, and the limitations of rover power, computation, Earth communication bandwidth, and time delays, a partial scenario was developed to implement such a scientific investigation. The rover instrumentation and the procedures and decisions and IR spectrometer are described in detail. Preliminary results from a collaborative effort are described, which indicate the rover will be able to autonomously detect stratification, and hence will ease the interpretation burden and lead to greater scientific productivity during the rover's lifetime.

  6. Analyzing hydrocarbons in sewer to help in PAH source apportionment in sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Regier, Annette; Faure, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    A multi-molecular approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) source apportionment in sewage sludge was tested. Three simple catchment areas with corresponding wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were chosen. Sewage sludges of these WWTPs chronically exceeded the French guide values for PAHs. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified in sediments or wastewater suspended particulate matter sampled in different locations of the sewer as well as in sewage sludge. Various molecular indices including PAH ratios were calculated. The results showed that the ratios calculated from sewage sludge analyses provided a rather unspecific hydrocarbon fingerprint where combustion input appear as the main PAH sources. The complexity of the inputs as well as degradation occurring during wastewater treatment prevent any detailed diagnosis. Coupled to the analyses of samples collected in the sewer, the multi-molecular approach becomes more efficient especially for the identification of specific petroleum inputs such as fuel or used lubricating oils which can be important PAH sources. Indeed, the sampling in the sewer allows a spatial screening of the hydrocarbon inputs and facilitates the PAH source apportionment by avoiding the dilution of specific inputs with the whole wastewater inputs and by limiting the degradation of the molecular fingerprint that could occur during transfer and treatment in the WWTP. Then, the combination of PAH ratios and aliphatic distribution analyses is a very valuable approach that can help in sewer and WWTP management.

  7. Presence of certain enteroviruses (Coxsackie) in sewage effluents and in river waters of Roumania.

    PubMed

    Nestor, I; Costin, L

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research studies conducted during a 10-year period (1962-1971) with the view to detect certain enteroviruses (Coxsackie) from sewage, river and drinking water samples, and from the filter sand of drinking water-works supplied with river water. The method consisted first in preconcentrating the samples collected on immersed gauze pads, secondly in the concentration of the virus samples by the following methods-used either separately or in parallel: the Amberlite method, the yeast cell and the aluminium bydroxide concentration method. The isolation of A and B Coxackie viruses averaged 29.12% in the sewage samples and 14.66% in the river water samples. Lower values were found both in aqueduct water and in the filter sand (2 positive samples out of 65 and 3 positive samples out of 39, respectively). A seasonal distribution of the viral incidence was evidenced in the sewage samples with lower value in the river water, while the frequency decreased with the distance from the pollution source. For the lightly contaminated water (river and aqueduct waters) the yeast cell concentration method gave the best results, this method being also the single reliable method for Coxsackie virus isolation from the filter sand samples.

  8. Comparisons of polybrominated diphenyl ether and hexabromocyclododecane concentrations in dust collected with two sampling methods and matched breast milk samples.

    PubMed

    Björklund, J A; Sellström, U; de Wit, C A; Aune, M; Lignell, S; Darnerud, P O

    2012-08-01

    Household dust from 19 Swedish homes was collected using two different sampling methods: from the occupant's own home vacuum cleaner after insertion of a new bag and using a researcher-collected method where settled house dust was collected from surfaces above floor level. The samples were analyzed for 16 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Significant correlations (r = 0.60-0.65, Spearman r = 0.47-0.54, P < 0.05) were found between matched dust samples collected with the two sampling methods for ∑OctaBDE and ∑DecaBDE but not for ∑PentaBDE or HBCD. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of all PBDE congeners were found in the researcher-collected dust than in the home vacuum cleaner bag dust (VCBD). For HBCD, however, the concentrations were significantly higher in the home VCBD samples. Analysis of the bags themselves indicated no or very low levels of PBDEs and HBCD. This indicates that there may be specific HBCD sources to the floor and/or that it may be present in the vacuum cleaners themselves. The BDE-47 concentrations in matched pairs of VCBD and breast milk samples were significantly correlated (r = 0.514, P = 0.029), indicating that one possible exposure route for this congener may be via dust ingestion. The statistically significant correlations found for several individual polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, ∑OctaBDE and ∑DecaBDE between the two dust sampling methods in this study indicate that the same indoor sources contaminate both types of dust or that common processes govern the distribution of these compounds in the indoor environment. Therefore, either method is adequate for screening ∑OctaBDE and ∑DecaBDE in dust. The high variability seen between dust samples confirms results seen in other studies. For hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), divergent results in the two dust types indicate differences in contamination sources to the floor than to above-floor surfaces

  9. Occurrence of Leptospira DNA in water and soil samples collected in eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Wasiński, Bernard; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Sawczyn, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Leptospira is an important re-emerging zoonotic human pathogen, disseminated by sick and carrier animals, water and soil. Weather calamities, such as flooding or cyclones favour the spreading of these bacteria. To check a potential role of natural water and soil in the persistence and spread of Leptospira on the territory of eastern Poland, 40 samples of natural water and 40 samples of soil were collected from areas exposed to flooding, and 64 samples of natural water and 68 samples of soil were collected from areas not exposed to flooding. Samples of water were taken from various reservoirs (rivers, natural lakes, artificial lakes, canals, ponds, farm wells) and samples of soils were taken at the distance of 1-3 meters from the edge of the reservoirs. The samples were examined for the presence of Leptospira DNA by nested-PCR. Two out of 40 samples of water (5.0%) collected from the area exposed to flooding showed the presence of Leptospira DNA, while all 40 samples of soil from this area were negative. All samples of water and soil (64 and 68, respectively) collected from the areas not exposed to flooding were negative. No significant difference were found between the results obtained in the areas exposed and not exposed to flooding. In conclusion, these results suggest that water and soil have only limited significance in the persistence and dissemination of Leptospira in eastern Poland.

  10. Coprostanol as a potential tracer of particulate sewage effluent to shelf waters adjacent to the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. C.; Wade, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    Samples were collected in the Chesapeake Bay entrance and contiguous shelf waters and were subsequently analyzed for particulate coprostanol and cholesterol concentrations. Surface coprostanol concentrations were fairly uniform, with a slight increase with depth. This increase with depth may be due to sewage-associated particulates settling as they leave the Bay, or the resuspension of contaminated sediment. Preliminary findings indicate sewage-associated materials are being transported from the Chesapeake Bay to shelf waters, where they may have a detrimental affect on living marine resources.

  11. The representativeness of pore water samples collected from the unsaturated zone using pressure-vacuum lysimeters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, C.A.; Healy, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the chemistry of water samples may be altered by the collection technique, creating concern about the representativeness of the pore water samples obtained. A study using soil water pressure-vacuum lysimeters in outwash sand and glacial till deposits demonstrates that for non-dilute-solution samples the effect of pH of sampling with lysimeters is minimal, and that measured major cation and anion concentrations are representative of the natural pore water; trace-metal concentrations can be significantly altered by collection procedures at low concentrations. -from Authors

  12. Vacuum hand pump apparatus for collecting water samples from a horizontal intragravel pipe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a lightweight, portable vacuum hand pump apparatus for use in collecting water samples from horizontal intragravel pipe samplers buried in the stream bottom. The apparatus is easily fabricated from relatively inexpensive materials available at many laboratory supply houses.

  13. Sample Collection and Analysis from CAREX Field Workshop at Rio Tinto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Direito, S.; Foing, B. H.; Mahapatra, P.; Gomez, F.; Rull, F.; Carex Rio Tinto 2009 Workshop

    2010-04-01

    We described the sample collection protocol, multi- measurements techniques and selected results (using Ramand and visible NIR spectrometer) and interpretation from a CAREX field workshop at Rio Tinto in september 2009.

  14. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  15. Lockport Sewage Lagoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

  16. Lockport Sewage Lagoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

  17. The U.S. Government Role in Preserving Geoscience Sample and Data Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztein, E.

    2016-12-01

    Object-based scientific collections are both a national and an international resource. The U.S. government (USG) has supported the creation of scientific collections and their long-term management and use as far back as the early 19th Century. In the last few years, the USG has intensified its efforts through, for example, the 2005 creation of the Interagency Working Group on Scientific Collections and the publication of its Scientific Collections: Mission-Critical Infrastructure for Federal Science Agencies 2009 report, and the release of the White House's Science and Technology Policy Office's March 2014 memorandum entitled Improving the Management of and Access to Scientific Collections. This document requests that all Federal agencies prepare a plan for institutional scientific collection curation, preservation, growth, budgetary support, movement of collections across agencies, accession and deaccession mechanisms, and discoverability through online data and metadata to improve access by Federal and non-Federal scientists. Those types of digital data serve as bridges between the physical samples and the scientists that need to use them. The preservation of digital datasets, while a much more recent phenomenon, has challenges not unlike those presented by physical samples: accessibility, decisions on what to save and what to discard, how to manage what is being saved, and issues of discoverability and of reuse. This presentation will describe the functions of physical samples, the pathways through which a sample can become part of a permanent collection, and the policy underpinnings of the establishment, preservation, and support of scientific collections in the U.S. It will also review the status of agency management plans with respect to geoscience samples and examine the parallels that exist between the management of digital data and of physical samples. Proper preservation and accessibility to samples of importance for geoscience are crucial to the

  18. The Internet of Samples in the Earth Sciences: Providing Access to Uncurated Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. R.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Vast amounts of physical samples have been collected in the Earth Sciences for studies that address a wide range of scientific questions. Only a fraction of these samples are well curated and preserved long-term in sample repositories and museums. Many samples and collections are stored in the offices and labs of investigators, or in basements and sheds of institutions and investigators' homes. These 'uncurated' collections often contain samples that have been well studied, or are unique and irreplaceable. They may also include samples that could reveal new insights if re-analyzed using new techniques, or specimens that could have unanticipated relevance to research being conducted in fields other than the one for which they were collected. Currently, these samples cannot be accessed or discovered online by the broader science community. Investigators and departments often lack the resources to properly catalog and curate the samples and respond to requests for splits. Long-term preservation of and access to these samples is usually not provided for. iSamplES, a recently-funded EarthCube Research Coordination Network (RCN), seeks to integrate scientific samples, including 'uncurated' samples, into digital data and information infrastructure in the Earth Sciences and to facilitate their curation, discovery, access, sharing, and analysis. The RCN seeks to develop and implement best practices that increase digital access to samples with the goal of establishing a comprehensive infrastructure not only for the digital, but also physical curation of samples. The RCN will engage a broad group of individuals from domain scientists to curators to publishers to computer scientists to define, articulate, and address the needs and challenges of digital sample management and recommend community-endorsed best practices and standards for registering, describing, identifying, and citing physical specimens, drawing upon other initiatives and existing or emerging software tools for

  19. Collecting Samples of Workplace Air. Module 8. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting samples of workplace air. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) collecting information about…

  20. Comparison of indoor air sampling and dust collection methods for fungal exposure assessment using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jennie; Indugula, Reshmi; Vesper, Stephen; Zhu, Zheng; Jandarov, Roman; Reponen, Tiina

    2017-08-31

    Evaluating fungal contamination indoors is complicated because of the many different sampling methods utilized. In this study, fungal contamination was evaluated using five sampling methods and four matrices for results. The five sampling methods were a 48 hour indoor air sample collected with a Button™ inhalable aerosol sampler and four types of dust samples: a vacuumed floor dust sample, newly settled dust collected for four weeks onto two types of electrostatic dust cloths (EDCs) in trays, and a wipe sample of dust from above floor surfaces. The samples were obtained in the bedrooms of asthmatic children (n = 14). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to analyze the dust and air samples for the 36 fungal species that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). The results from the samples were compared by four matrices: total concentration of fungal cells, concentration of fungal species associated with indoor environments, concentration of fungal species associated with outdoor environments, and ERMI values (or ERMI-like values for air samples). The ERMI values for the dust samples and the ERMI-like values for the 48 hour air samples were not significantly different. The total cell concentrations of the 36 species obtained with the four dust collection methods correlated significantly (r = 0.64-0.79, p < 0.05), with the exception of the vacuumed floor dust and newly settled dust. In addition, fungal cell concentrations of indoor associated species correlated well between all four dust sampling methods (r = 0.68-0.86, p < 0.01). No correlation was found between the fungal concentrations in the air and dust samples primarily because of differences in concentrations of Cladosporium cladosporioides Type 1 and Epicoccum nigrum. A representative type of dust sample and a 48 hour air sample might both provide useful information about fungal exposures.

  1. OSIRIS-REx Touch-and-Go (TAG) Mission Design for Asteroid Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Alexander; Sutter, Brian; Linn, Timothy; Bierhaus, Beau; Berry, Kevin; Mink, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in September 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu in October 2018. After several months of proximity operations to characterize the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx flies a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to collect at least 60 g of pristine regolith sample for Earth return. This paper provides mission and flight system overviews, with more details on the TAG mission design and key events that occur to safely and successfully collect the sample. An overview of the navigation performed relative to a chosen sample site, along with the maneuvers to reach the desired site is described. Safety monitoring during descent is performed with onboard sensors providing an option to abort, troubleshoot, and try again if necessary. Sample collection occurs using a collection device at the end of an articulating robotic arm during a brief five second contact period, while a constant force spring mechanism in the arm assists to rebound the spacecraft away from the surface. Finally, the sample is measured quantitatively utilizing the law of conservation of angular momentum, along with qualitative data from imagery of the sampling device. Upon sample mass verification, the arm places the sample into the Stardust-heritage Sample Return Capsule (SRC) for return to Earth in September 2023.

  2. Study of Cyclospora cayetanensis in health care facilities, sewage water and green leafy vegetables in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sherchand, J B; Cross, J H; Jimba, M; Sherchand, S; Shrestha, M P

    1999-03-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis, a newly emerging parasite, is endemic in Nepal. A total of 2,123 stool specimens were collected from 3 health care facilities based on clinical symptoms during the period between 1995 to October, 1998. Out of these specimens, cayetanensis oocysts were found in 632 (29.8%). To identify possible sources for Cyclospora infection, drinking water, sewage water, green-leafy vegetables including fecal samples of various animals were collected and examined. The vegetable leaves were washed in distilled water then the washings, sewage water and drinking water were centrifuged and the sediment were examined microscopically. As a result, oocyst of Cyclospora were identified in sewage water and vegetable washings on four different occasions in June, August, October and November. The positive results were also confirmed as C. cayetanensis by development of 2 sporocysts after 2 week incubation period in potassium dichromate. A survey of 196 domestic animals from the same areas demonstrated that two chickens were positive for Cyclospora-like organism and others were negative. Although further studies are needed to clarify the direct link between Cyclospora infection and these sources, the results suggest that sewage water, green leafy vegetables are possible sources of infection and chickens could be possible reservoir host of Cyclospora in Nepal.

  3. Ecotoxicity Assessment of Stabilized Sewage Sludge from Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Próba, Marta; Wolny, Lidia

    2016-09-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxicity of municipal sewage sludge conditioned with polyelectrolytes, taken from selected sewage treatment plant. Using the bioindication analysis overall toxicity was assessed, which allows to know the total toxicity of all the harmful substances contained in sewage sludge, in many cases acting synergistically. To prepare a sample of sludge for the basic test, all analyses were performed with a ratio of liquid to solid of 10:1 (water extract). Daphnia pulex biological screening test was used. A dilution series of an water extract of sludge were prepared to include within its scope the lowest concentration that causes 100% effect and the highest producing less than 10% of the effect within a specified range of the assay. The results of the test were read after 24 and 48 hours. Based on the research and analysis of test results it proved that the sewage sludge conditioned with polyelectrolytes exhibit the characteristics of eco-toxic.

  4. Fitting distributions to microbial contamination data collected with an unequal probability sampling design.

    PubMed

    Williams, M S; Ebel, E D; Cao, Y

    2013-01-01

    The fitting of statistical distributions to microbial sampling data is a common application in quantitative microbiology and risk assessment applications. An underlying assumption of most fitting techniques is that data are collected with simple random sampling, which is often times not the case. This study develops a weighted maximum likelihood estimation framework that is appropriate for microbiological samples that are collected with unequal probabilities of selection. A weighted maximum likelihood estimation framework is proposed for microbiological samples that are collected with unequal probabilities of selection. Two examples, based on the collection of food samples during processing, are provided to demonstrate the method and highlight the magnitude of biases in the maximum likelihood estimator when data are inappropriately treated as a simple random sample. Failure to properly weight samples to account for how data are collected can introduce substantial biases into inferences drawn from the data. The proposed methodology will reduce or eliminate an important source of bias in inferences drawn from the analysis of microbial data. This will also make comparisons between studies and the combination of results from different studies more reliable, which is important for risk assessment applications. © 2012 No claim to US Government works.

  5. Evaluation of biochemical and redox parameters in rats fed with corn grown in soil amended with urban sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Grotto, Denise; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Sauer, Elisa; Garcia, Solange Cristina; de Melo, Wanderley José; Barbosa, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    The increased production of urban sewage sludge requires alternative methods for final disposal. A very promising choice is the use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer in agriculture, since it is rich in organic matter, macro and micronutrients. However, urban sewage sludge may contain toxic substances that may cause deleterious effects on the biota, water and soil, and consequently on humans. There is a lack of studies evaluating how safe the consumption of food cultivated in soils containing urban sewage sludge is. Thus, the aim of this paper was to evaluate biochemical and redox parameters in rats fed with corn produced in a soil treated with urban sewage sludge for a long term. For these experiments, maize plants were grown in soil amended with sewage sludge (rates of 5, 10 and 20 t/ha) or not (control). Four different diets were prepared with the corn grains produced in the field experiment, and rats were fed with these diets for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Biochemical parameters (glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) as well the redox state biomarkers such as reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase, glutathione peroxidase and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were assessed. Our results show no differences in the biomarkers over 1 or 2 weeks. However, at 4 weeks BuChE activity was inhibited in rats fed with corn grown in soil amended with sewage sludge (5, 10 and 20 t/ha), while MDA levels increased. Furthermore, prolonged exposure to corn cultivated in the highest amount per hectare of sewage sludge (8 and 12 weeks) was associated with an increase in MDA levels and a decrease in GSH levels, respectively. Our findings add new evidence of the risks of consuming food grown with urban sewage sludge. However, considering that the amount and type of toxic substances present in urban sewage sludge varies considerably among different sampling areas, further studies are needed to

  6. Collecting Comet Samples by ER-2 Aircraft: Cosmic Dust Collection During the Draconid Meteor Shower in October 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastien, Ron; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriquez, M.; Frank, D.; Gonzalez, C.; Robinson, G.-A.; Zolensky, M.; Brown, P.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Broce, S.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Many tons of dust grains, including samples of asteroids and comets, fall from space into the Earth's atmosphere each day. NASA periodically collects some of these particles from the Earth's stratosphere using sticky collectors mounted on NASA's high-flying aircraft. Sometimes, especially when the Earth experiences a known meteor shower, a special opportunity is presented to associate cosmic dust particles with a known source. NASA JSC's Cosmic Dust Collection Program has made special attempts to collect dust from particular meteor showers and asteroid families when flights can be planned well in advance. However, it has rarely been possible to make collections on very short notice. In 2012, the Draconid meteor shower presented that opportunity. The Draconid meteor shower, originating from Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, has produced both outbursts and storms several times during the last century, but the 2012 event was not predicted to be much of a show. Because of these predictions, the Cosmic Dust team had not targeted a stratospheric collection effort for the Draconids, despite the fact that they have one of the slowest atmospheric entry velocities (23 km/s) of any comet shower, and thus offer significant possibilities of successful dust capture. However, radar measurements obtained by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar during the 2012 Draconids shower indicated a meteor storm did occur October 8 with a peak at 16:38 (+/-5 min) UTC for a total duration of approximately 2 hours.

  7. Efficiency of Different Sampling Tools for Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Collections in Malaysian Streams.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Wan Mohd Hafezul Wan Abdul; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Hamid, Suhaila Abd; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2016-02-01

    This study analyses the sampling performance of three benthic sampling tools commonly used to collect freshwater macroinvertebrates. Efficiency of qualitative D-frame and square aquatic nets were compared to a quantitative Surber sampler in tropical Malaysian streams. The abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates collected using each tool evaluated along with their relative variations (RVs). Each tool was used to sample macroinvertebrates from three streams draining different areas: a vegetable farm, a tea plantation and a forest reserve. High macroinvertebrate diversities were recorded using the square net and Surber sampler at the forested stream site; however, very low species abundance was recorded by the Surber sampler. Relatively large variations in the Surber sampler collections (RVs of 36% and 28%) were observed for the vegetable farm and tea plantation streams, respectively. Of the three sampling methods, the square net was the most efficient, collecting a greater diversity of macroinvertebrate taxa and a greater number of specimens (i.e., abundance) overall, particularly from the vegetable farm and the tea plantation streams (RV<25%). Fewer square net sample passes (<8 samples) were sufficient to perform a biological assessment of water quality, but each sample required a slightly longer processing time (±20 min) compared with those gathered via the other samplers. In conclusion, all three apparatuses were suitable for macroinvertebrate collection in Malaysian streams and gathered assemblages that resulted in the determination of similar biological water quality classes using the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). However, despite a slightly longer processing time, the square net was more efficient (lowest RV) at collecting samples and more suitable for the collection of macroinvertebrates from deep, fast flowing, wadeable streams with coarse substrates.

  8. Efficiency of Different Sampling Tools for Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Collections in Malaysian Streams

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Wan Mohd Hafezul Wan Abdul; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Hamid, Suhaila Abd; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the sampling performance of three benthic sampling tools commonly used to collect freshwater macroinvertebrates. Efficiency of qualitative D-frame and square aquatic nets were compared to a quantitative Surber sampler in tropical Malaysian streams. The abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates collected using each tool evaluated along with their relative variations (RVs). Each tool was used to sample macroinvertebrates from three streams draining different areas: a vegetable farm, a tea plantation and a forest reserve. High macroinvertebrate diversities were recorded using the square net and Surber sampler at the forested stream site; however, very low species abundance was recorded by the Surber sampler. Relatively large variations in the Surber sampler collections (RVs of 36% and 28%) were observed for the vegetable farm and tea plantation streams, respectively. Of the three sampling methods, the square net was the most efficient, collecting a greater diversity of macroinvertebrate taxa and a greater number of specimens (i.e., abundance) overall, particularly from the vegetable farm and the tea plantation streams (RV<25%). Fewer square net sample passes (<8 samples) were sufficient to perform a biological assessment of water quality, but each sample required a slightly longer processing time (±20 min) compared with those gathered via the other samplers. In conclusion, all three apparatuses were suitable for macroinvertebrate collection in Malaysian streams and gathered assemblages that resulted in the determination of similar biological water quality classes using the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). However, despite a slightly longer processing time, the square net was more efficient (lowest RV) at collecting samples and more suitable for the collection of macroinvertebrates from deep, fast flowing, wadeable streams with coarse substrates. PMID:27019685

  9. Adsorptive Films in Support of In-field UF6 Destructive Assay Sample Collection and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Christopher A.; Martinez, Alonzo; McNamara, Bruce K.; Cannon, Bret D.; Anheier, Norman C.

    2014-07-20

    International Atom Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguard verification measures in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) rely on environmental sampling, non-destructive assay (NDA), and destructive assay (DA) sampling and analysis to determine uranium enrichment. UF6 bias defect measurements are made by DA sampling and analysis to assure that enrichment is consistent with declarations. DA samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision, offsite mass spectrometer analysis. Samples are typically drawn from a sampling tap into a UF6 sample bottle, then packaged, sealed, and shipped under IAEA chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Future DA safeguard measures may require improvements in efficiency and effectiveness as GCEP capacities increase and UF6 shipping regulations become increasingly more restrictive. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) DA sampler concept and Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) assay method are under development to potentially provide DA safeguard tools that increase inspection effectiveness and reduce sample shipping constraints. The PNNL DA sampler concept uses a handheld sampler to collect DA samples for either onsite LAARS assay or offsite laboratory analysis. The DA sampler design will use a small sampling planchet that is coated with an adsorptive film to collect controlled quantities of UF6 gas directly from a cylinder or process sampling tap. Development efforts are currently underway at PNNL to enhance LAARS assay performance to allow high-precision onsite bias defect measurements. In this paper, we report on the experimental investigation to develop adsorptive films for the PNNL DA sampler concept. These films are intended to efficiently capture UF6 and then stabilize the collected DA sample prior to onsite LAARS or offsite laboratory analysis. Several porous material composite films were investigated, including a film designed to maximize the chemical adsorption

  10. Collecting, archiving and processing DNA from wildlife samples using FTA® databasing paper

    PubMed Central

    Smith, LM; Burgoyne, LA

    2004-01-01

    Background Methods involving the analysis of nucleic acids have become widespread in the fields of traditional biology and ecology, however the storage and transport of samples collected in the field to the laboratory in such a manner to allow purification of intact nucleic acids can prove problematical. Results FTA® databasing paper is widely used in human forensic analysis for the storage of biological samples and for purification of nucleic acids. The possible uses of FTA® databasing paper in the purification of DNA from samples of wildlife origin were examined, with particular reference to problems expected due to the nature of samples of wildlife origin. The processing of blood and tissue samples, the possibility of excess DNA in blood samples due to nucleated erythrocytes, and the analysis of degraded samples were all examined, as was the question of long term storage of blood samples on FTA® paper. Examples of the end use of the purified DNA are given for all protocols and the rationale behind the processing procedures is also explained to allow the end user to adjust the protocols as required. Conclusions FTA® paper is eminently suitable for collection of, and purification of nucleic acids from, biological samples from a wide range of wildlife species. This technology makes the collection and storage of such samples much simpler. PMID:15072582

  11. Collecting, archiving and processing DNA from wildlife samples using FTA databasing paper.

    PubMed

    Smith, L M; Burgoyne, L A

    2004-04-08

    Methods involving the analysis of nucleic acids have become widespread in the fields of traditional biology and ecology, however the storage and transport of samples collected in the field to the laboratory in such a manner to allow purification of intact nucleic acids can prove problematical. FTA databasing paper is widely used in human forensic analysis for the storage of biological samples and for purification of nucleic acids. The possible uses of FTA databasing paper in the purification of DNA from samples of wildlife origin were examined, with particular reference to problems expected due to the nature of samples of wildlife origin. The processing of blood and tissue samples, the possibility of excess DNA in blood samples due to nucleated erythrocytes, and the analysis of degraded samples were all examined, as was the question of long term storage of blood samples on FTA paper. Examples of the end use of the purified DNA are given for all protocols and the rationale behind the processing procedures is also explained to allow the end user to adjust the protocols as required. FTA paper is eminently suitable for collection of, and purification of nucleic acids from, biological samples from a wide range of wildlife species. This technology makes the collection and storage of such samples much simpler.

  12. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  13. Isolation and identification of enteroviruses from sewage and sewage-contaminated water in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle; Faleye, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas

    2014-06-01

    Studies have confirmed silent circulation of enteroviruses in the environment even in the absence of associated clinical conditions in the community. In this light, 26 samples of sewage and sewage-contaminated water serving selected high-risk communities in Lagos Nigeria were examined between June and September 2010. To concentrate virus particles in the sample, 480 μL of each sample was centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 1 h at 4 °C. Subsequently, pellets were pooled, chloroform treated and further centrifuged at 1,500 rpm for 20 min at 4 °C. The water phase (concentrate) was then collected and stored at -20 °C. The concentrates were subsequently inoculated into RD and L20B cell lines. Recovered isolates were identified by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR), serotyping, VP1 amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Overall, 9 (34.6%) of the samples showed characteristic enterovirus cytopathic effect in RD cell line and were subsequently confirmed by pan-enterovirus rRT-PCR. The isolates were further identified by serotyping to include three E7, one E11 and one E13 isolates whilst four isolates were untypable. Further characterisation by VP1 sequencing confirmed the results of serotyping and rRT-PCR for all but isolate E13. Also, the four previously untypable isolates were identified to include two E19, one E20 and one E7 by VP1 sequencing. Results of the study confirmed circulation of Sub-Saharan Africa-specific enterovirus clades in the region, provide information on their molecular epidemiology and emphasise the need to combine methods of identification to enhance enterovirus surveillance.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of GI and GII noroviruses in sewage: 1-year surveillance in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, N; Lin, X; Wang, S; Tao, Z; Xiong, P; Wang, H; Liu, Y; Song, Y; Xu, A

    2016-10-01

    To determine the concentration and molecular epidemiology of GI and GII noroviruses in sewage in China. Twenty-three raw sewage samples were collected in the cities of Jinan and Linyi, eastern China in 2014. GI and GII noroviruses were positive in all samples after TaqMan-based quantitative PCR. The mean concentrations of GI and GII noroviruses were 4·52 × 10(4) and 7·88 × 10(4) genome copies per litre respectively. After reverse transcription-PCR, cloning and sequencing, 16 genotypes were identified. GI.6 (69·6%), GI.2 (65·2%), GII.13 (65·2%), GII.6 (60·9%) and GII.17 (60·9%) were the most common GI and GII genotypes. A recombination event was observed in two GI.6 sequences. GII.4 sequences belonged to Sydney 2012 and Den Haag 2006b variant. Interestingly, the novel GII.17 Kawasaki308 variant was detected. These results reveal that multiple norovirus genotypes cocirculated in the local population. The risk of acute gastroenteritis outbreak is high in the two cities due to the detection of GII.17 Kawasaki308 variant and the high concentration of norovirus in raw sewage. This study demonstrates sewage surveillance can be a useful approach to monitor norovirus circulating in the population. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of Valiathura Sewage Farm in Kerala, south India.

    PubMed

    Varghese, J; Jaya, D S

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of Valiathura Sewage Farm in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala using the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI). Forty two groundwater samples were collected during the summer season (April 2010) and the concentration of metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were analyzed. Results showed that groundwater was contaminated mainly with Fe, Cu and Pb. Correlation analysis revealed that the sources of metals in groundwater in the study area are the same, and it may be due to the leachates from the nearby Sewage Farm, Parvathy Puthanar canal and solid wastes dumped in the residential area. Of the groundwater samples studied, 47.62 % were medium and 2.68 % were classified in HPI high category. HPI was highest (41.79) in DW29, which was adjacent to the polluted Parvathy Puthanar canal and Sewage Farm. The present study points out that the metal pollution causes the degradation of groundwater quality around the Sewage Farm during the study period.

  16. Analysis of acid precipitation samples collected by state agencies. sampling period: January-December 1993. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, L.S.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents analytical data from the 29 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network that were operational in 1993. This report contains maps showing the location of each site, plots of analytical data, tables of all analytical data, plots comparing field and laboratory pH and conductivity, and information on data quality. Samples are analyzed for pH, strong acid, conductivity, fluoride, chloride nitrite, phosphate, bromide, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium.

  17. Analysis of acid precipitation samples collected by state agencies. Sampling period: January-December 1991. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, L.S.

    1996-04-01

    This report presents analytical data from the 30 acid precipitation collection sites in the State-Operated Network in 1991. This report contains maps showing the location of each site, plots of analytical data, tables of all field and analytical data, plots comparing field and laboratory pH and conductivity, and information on data quality. Samples are analyzed for pH, strong acid, conductivity, fluoride, chloride, nitrite, phosphate, bromide, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium.

  18. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared with a traditional egg collection method where eggs are collected directly from the medium. Within each method the observed and expected standard deviations of egg-to-adult viability were compared, whereby the difference in the randomness of the samples between the two methods was assessed. The method presented here was superior to the traditional method. Only 14% of the samples had a standard deviation higher than expected, as compared with 58% in the traditional method. To reduce bias in the estimation of the variance and the mean of a trait and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila.

  19. Microbiological analysis of environmental samples collected from child care facilities in North and South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Fraser, Angela; Chen, Xi; Cates, Sheryl; Wohlgenant, Kelly; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2014-10-01

    Children cared for outside the home are at an increased risk of enteric disease. Microbiological analyses were performed on environmental samples collected from child care facilities in North and South Carolina. There were 326 samples collected from 40 facilities corresponding to common surfaces (77% of samples) and the hands of care providers (23% of samples). Samples were analyzed for total aerobic plate counts (APCs), total coliforms, biotype I Escherichia coli, and pathogens Shigella spp, Salmonella enterica, E coli O157, Campylobacter jejuni, and human norovirus. Median APCs and coliform counts for hands were 4.6 and 1.0 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) per hand, respectively. Median APCs for surfaces were 2.0 and 2.6 log10 CFU for flat and irregular surfaces, respectively. Coliforms were detected in 16% of samples, with counts ranging from 1.0 log10 to > 4.3 log10 CFU, with higher counts most often observed for hand rinse samples. Biotype I E coli counts were below assay detection limits (< 1 log10 CFU) for all but 1 sample. No samples were positive for any of the 4 bacterial pathogens, whereas 4 samples showed evidence of human norovirus RNA. The relative absence of pathogens and biotype I E coli in environmental samples suggests the child care facilities sampled in this study managed fecal contamination well. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A strategy on constructing core collections by least distance stepwise sampling.

    PubMed

    Wang, J C; Hu, J; Xu, H M; Zhang, S

    2007-06-01

    A strategy was proposed for constructing core collections by least distance stepwise sampling (LDSS) based on genotypic values. In each procedure of cluster, the sampling is performed in the subgroup with the least distance in the dendrogram during constructing a core collection. Mean difference percentage (MD), variance difference percentage (VD), coincidence rate of range (CR) and variable rate of coefficient of variation (VR) were used to evaluate the representativeness of core collections constructed by this strategy. A cotton germplasm collection of 1,547 accessions with 18 quantitative traits was used to construct core collections. Genotypic values of all quantitative traits of the cotton collection were unbiasedly predicted based on mixed linear model approach. By three sampling percentages (10, 20 and 30%), four genetic distances (city block distance, Euclidean distance, standardized Euclidean distance and Mahalanobis distance) combining four hierarchical cluster methods (nearest distance method, furthest distance method, unweighted pair-group average method and Ward's method) were adopted to evaluate the property of this strategy. Simulations were conducted in order to draw consistent, stable and reproducible results. The principal components analysis was performed to validate this strategy. The results showed that core collections constructed by LDSS strategy had a good representativeness of the initial collection. As compared to the control strategy (stepwise clusters with random sampling strategy), LDSS strategy could construct more representative core collections. For LDSS strategy, cluster methods did not need to be considered because all hierarchical cluster methods could give same results completely. The results also suggested that standardized Euclidean distance was an appropriate genetic distance for constructing core collections in this strategy.

  1. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  2. A sampling system for collecting gas-tight time-series hydrothermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Yang, C.; Ding, K.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that the hydrothermal venting has temporal variations associated with tectonic and geochemical processes. To date, the methods for long-term monitoring of the seafloor hydrothermal systems are rare. A new sampling system has been designed to be deployed at seafloor for long term to collect gas-tight time-series samples from hydrothermal vents. Based on the modular design principle, the sampling system is currently composed of a control module and six sampling modules, which is convenient to be upgraded by adding more sampling modules if needed. The control module consists of a rechargeable battery pack and a circuit board with functions of sampling control, temperature measurement, data storage and communication. Each sampling module has an independent sampling valve, a valve actuator and a sampling cylinder. The sampling cylinder consists of a sample chamber and an accumulator chamber. Compressed nitrogen gas is used to maintain the sample at in-situ pressure. A prototype of the sampling system has been constructed and tested. First, the instrument was tested in a high-pressure vessel at a pressure of 40 MPa. Six sampling modules were successfully triggered and water samples were collected and kept at in-situ pressure after experiment. Besides, the instrument was field tested at the shallow hydrothermal field near off Kueishantao islet (24°51'N, 121°55'E), which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan, from May 25 to May 28, 2011. The sampling system worked at an automatic mode. Each sampling module was triggered according to the preset time. Time-series hydrothermal fluids have been collected from a shallow hydrothermal vent with a depth of 16 m. The preliminary tests indicated the success of the design and construction of the prototype of the sampling system. Currently, the sampling system is being upgraded by integration of a DC-DC power conversion and serial-to-Ethernet conversion module, so that it can utilize the continuous power supply and

  3. Lead Concentration Levels in Water Samples Collected in Alameda County, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethy, D.; Hoang, R.; Yu, I.; Hernandez, N.; Fang, K.; Zhang, W.; Li, J.; Munui, K. N.; Sot, R.; Luong, K.; Bonzo, R.; Sankar, R.; Chiu, D.; Rodriguez, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    The recent health crisis in Flint, Michigan has attracted an amount of interest in other public utilities' water supplies and infrastructure with regards to concerns over the presence of lead. In an effort to begin assessing the potential for a health crisis similar to that experienced in Flynt, during 2016 our team measured lead concentration levels in water samples by collected in Alameda County. More than 12 sites were selected from which samples were collected. These sites included parks, schools, and private residences. At each site 500mL samples were collected and prepared for later analysis. Samples were subjected to an analytical chemistry technique designed to isolate and concentrate lead to detectable levels of 1 part per billion (ppb). All 8 samples yielded detectable levels of lead; all samples were also well below the EPA regulatory 15 ppb. Two samples collected in West Oakland parks were found to have the highest and lowest levels: DeFremery (4 ppb) and Raimondi (1ppb), respectively. Though preliminary in nature, results from this study suggest that further investigations should be undertaken to assess possible lead contamination associated with drinking water sources in Alameda County.

  4. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  5. An instrument for collecting discrete large-volume water samples suitable for ecological studies of microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wommack, K. Eric; Williamson, Shannon J.; Sundbergh, Arthur; Helton, Rebekah R.; Glazer, Brian T.; Portune, Kevin; Craig Cary, S.

    2004-11-01

    Microbiological investigations utilizing molecular genetic approaches to characterize microbial communities can require large volume water samples, tens to hundreds of liters. The requirement for large volume samples can be especially challenging in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments of the oceanic ridge system. By and large studies of these environments rely on deep submergence vehicles. However collection of large volume (>100 L) water samples adjacent to the benthos is not feasible due to weight considerations. To address the technical difficulty of collecting large volume water samples from hydrothermal diffuse flow environments, a semi-autonomous large-volume water sampler (LVWS) was designed. The LVWS is capable of reliably collecting and bringing to the surface 120 L water samples from diffuse flow environments. Microscopy, molecular genetic and chemical analyses of water samples taken from 9°N East Pacific Rise are shown to demonstrate the utility of the LVWS for studies of near-benthos environments. To our knowledge this is the first report of virioplankton abundance within diffuse-flow waters of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment. Because of its simple design and relatively low cost, the LVWS should be applicable to a variety of studies which require large-volume water samples collected immediately adjacent to the benthos.

  6. Comparison of water-quality samples collected by siphon samplers and automatic samplers in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Steur, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    In small streams, flow and water-quality concentrations often change quickly in response to meteorological events. Hydrologists, field technicians, or locally hired stream ob- servers involved in water-data collection are often unable to reach streams quickly enough to observe or measure these rapid changes. Therefore, in hydrologic studies designed to describe changes in water quality, a combination of manual and automated sampling methods have commonly been used manual methods when flow is relatively stable and automated methods when flow is rapidly changing. Auto- mated sampling, which makes use of equipment programmed to collect samples in response to changes in stage and flow of a stream, has been shown to be an effective method of sampling to describe the rapid changes in water quality (Graczyk and others, 1993). Because of the high cost of automated sampling, however, especially for studies examining a large number of sites, alternative methods have been considered for collecting samples during rapidly changing stream conditions. One such method employs the siphon sampler (fig. 1). also referred to as the "single-stage sampler." Siphon samplers are inexpensive to build (about $25- $50 per sampler), operate, and maintain, so they are cost effective to use at a large number of sites. Their ability to collect samples representing the average quality of water passing though the entire cross section of a stream, however, has not been fully demonstrated for many types of stream sites.

  7. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  8. Effects of rainfalls variability and physical-chemical parameters on enteroviruses in sewage and lagoon in Yopougon, Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momou, Kouassi Julien; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Traoré, Karim Sory; Akré, Djako Sosthène; Dosso, Mireille

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the variability of the content of nutrients, oxidizable organic and particulate matters in raw sewage and the lagoon on the effect of rainfall. Then evaluate the impact of these changes in the concentration of enteroviruses (EVs) in waters. The sewage samples were collected at nine sampling points along the channel, which flows, into a tropical lagoon in Yopougon. Physical-chemical parameters (5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Particulate Matter, Total Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and Nitrate) as well as the concentration of EV in these waters were determined. The average numbers of EV isolated from the outlet of the channel were 9.06 × 104 PFU 100 ml-1. Consequently, EV was present in 55.55 and 33.33 % of the samples in the 2 brackish lagoon collection sites. The effect of rainfall on viral load at the both sewage and brackish lagoon environments is significant correlate (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05). Furthermore, in lagoon environment, nutrients (Orthophosphate, Total Phosphorus), 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Suspended Particulate Matter were significant correlated with EVs loads ( P < 0.05 by Pearson test). The overall results highlight the problem of sewage discharge into the lagoon and correlation between viral loads and water quality parameters in sewage and lagoon.

  9. Effects of rainfalls variability and physical-chemical parameters on enteroviruses in sewage and lagoon in Yopougon, Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momou, Kouassi Julien; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Traoré, Karim Sory; Akré, Djako Sosthène; Dosso, Mireille

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the variability of the content of nutrients, oxidizable organic and particulate matters in raw sewage and the lagoon on the effect of rainfall. Then evaluate the impact of these changes in the concentration of enteroviruses (EVs) in waters. The sewage samples were collected at nine sampling points along the channel, which flows, into a tropical lagoon in Yopougon. Physical-chemical parameters (5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Particulate Matter, Total Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and Nitrate) as well as the concentration of EV in these waters were determined. The average numbers of EV isolated from the outlet of the channel were 9.06 × 104 PFU 100 ml-1. Consequently, EV was present in 55.55 and 33.33 % of the samples in the 2 brackish lagoon collection sites. The effect of rainfall on viral load at the both sewage and brackish lagoon environments is significant correlate (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05). Furthermore, in lagoon environment, nutrients (Orthophosphate, Total Phosphorus), 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Suspended Particulate Matter were significant correlated with EVs loads (P < 0.05 by Pearson test). The overall results highlight the problem of sewage discharge into the lagoon and correlation between viral loads and water quality parameters in sewage and lagoon.

  10. Sample collection of virulent and non-virulent B. anthracis and Y. pestis for bioforensics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth; Valdez, Yolanda E; Shou, Yulin; Yoshida, Thomas M; Marrone, Babetta L; Dunbar, John

    2009-01-01

    Validated sample collection methods are needed for recovery of microbial evidence in the event of accidental or intentional release of biological agents into the environment. To address this need, we evaluated the sample recovery efficiencies of two collection methods -- swabs and wipes -- for both non-virulent and virulent strains of B. anthracis and Y. pestis from four types of non-porous surfaces: two hydrophilic surfaces, stainless steel and glass, and two hydrophobic surfaces, vinyl and plastic. Sample recovery was quantified using Real-time qPCR to assay for intact DNA signatures. We found no consistent difference in collection efficiency between swabs or wipes. Furthermore, collection efficiency was more surface-dependent for virulent strains than non-virulent strains. For the two non-virulent strains, B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis A1122, collection efficiency was approximately 100% and 1 %, respectively, from all four surfaces. In contrast, recovery of B. anthracis Ames spores and Y. pestis C092 from vinyl and plastic was generally lower compared to collection from glass or stainless steel, suggesting that surface hydrophobicity may playa role in the strength of pathogen adhesion. The surface-dependent collection efficiencies observed with the virulent strains may arise from strain-specific expression of capsular material or other cell surface receptors that alter cell adhesion to specific surfaces. These findings contribute to validation of standard bioforensics procedures and emphasize the importance of specific strain and surface interactions in pathogen detection.

  11. The Importance of Meteorite Collections to Sample Return Missions: Past, Present, and Future Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzenbach, L. C.; McCoy, T. J.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Abell, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    While much of the scientific community s current attention is drawn to sample return missions, it is the existing meteorite and cosmic dust collections that both provide the paradigms to be tested by these missions and the context for interpreting the results. Recent sample returns from the Stardust and Hayabusa missions provided us with new materials and insights about our Solar System history and processes. As an example, Stardust sampled CAIs among the population of cometary grains, requiring extensive and unexpected radial mixing in the early solar nebula. This finding would not have been possible, however, without extensive studies of meteoritic CAIs that established their high-temperature, inner Solar System formation. Samples returned by Stardust also revealed the first evidence of a cometary amino acid, a discovery that would not have been possible with current in situ flight instrument technology. The Hayabusa mission provided the final evidence linking ordinary chondrites and S asteroids, a hypothesis that developed from centuries of collection and laboratory and ground-based telescopic studies. In addition to these scientific findings, studies of existing meteorite collections have defined and refined the analytical techniques essential to studying returned samples. As an example, the fortuitous fall of the Allende CV3 and Murchison CM2 chondrites within months before the return of Apollo samples allowed testing of new state-of-the-art analytical facilities. The results of those studies not only prepared us to better study lunar materials, but unanticipated discoveries changed many of our concepts about the earliest history and processes of the solar nebula. This synergy between existing collections and future space exploration is certainly not limited to sample return missions. Laboratory studies confirmed the existence of meteorites from Mars and raised the provocative possibility of preservation of ancient microbial life. The laboratory studies in

  12. Mass balance analysis of triclosan, diethyltoluamide, crotamiton and carbamazepine in sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Nakada, N; Yasojima, M; Okayasu, Y; Komori, K; Suzuki, Y

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of antibacterial triclosan, insect-repellent diethyltoluamide (DEET), anticonvulsant carbamazepine, and antipruritic crotamiton was investigated at two sewage treatment plants (STPs) to clarify their complete mass balance. Twenty-four-hour flow-proportional composite samples were collected from the influent and effluent of primary and final sedimentation tanks, a biofiltration tank and disinfection tanks. Sludge samples (i.e., activated and excess sludge) and samples of the return flow from the sludge treatment process were collected in the same manner. The analytes in both the dissolved and particulate phases were individually determined by a gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer. Triclosan was dominantly detected in the particulate phase especially in the early stage of treatment (up to 83%) and was efficiently removed (over 90%) in STPs, mainly by sorption to sewage sludge. Limited removal was observed for DEET (55+/-24%), while no significant removal was demonstrated for crotamiton or carbamazepine. The solid-water distribution coefficients (K(d), n=4) for triclosan (log K(d): 3.7-5.1), DEET (1.3-1.9) and crotamiton (1.1-1.6) in the sludge samples are also determined in this study. These findings indicate the limitations of current sewage treatment techniques for the removal of these water-soluble drugs (i.e. DEET, carbamazepine, and crotamiton).

  13. Detection of Pathogenic Viruses in Sewage Provided Early Warnings of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. PMID:25172863

  14. Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Sahlström, Leena; Rehbinder, Verena; Albihn, Ann; Aspan, Anna; Bengtsson, Björn

    2009-05-29

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in treated sewage sludge, in a Swedish waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and to compare VRE isolates from sewage sludge with isolates from humans and chickens. During a four month long study, sewage sludge was collected weekly and cultured for VRE. The VRE isolates from sewage sludge were analysed and compared to each other and to human and chicken VRE isolates by biochemical typing (PhenePlate), PFGE and antibiograms. Biochemical typing (PhenePlate-FS) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed prevalence of specific VRE strains in sewage sludge for up to 16 weeks. No connection was found between the VRE strains isolated from sludge, chickens and humans, indicating that human VRE did not originate from Swedish chicken. This study demonstrated widespread occurrence of VRE in sewage sludge in the studied WWTP. This implies a risk of antimicrobial resistance being spread to new farms and to the society via the environment if the sewage sludge is used on arable land.

  15. Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    Sahlström, Leena; Rehbinder, Verena; Albihn, Ann; Aspan, Anna; Bengtsson, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in treated sewage sludge, in a Swedish waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and to compare VRE isolates from sewage sludge with isolates from humans and chickens. Methods During a four month long study, sewage sludge was collected weekly and cultured for VRE. The VRE isolates from sewage sludge were analysed and compared to each other and to human and chicken VRE isolates by biochemical typing (PhenePlate), PFGE and antibiograms. Results Biochemical typing (PhenePlate-FS) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed prevalence of specific VRE strains in sewage sludge for up to 16 weeks. No connection was found between the VRE strains isolated from sludge, chickens and humans, indicating that human VRE did not originate from Swedish chicken. Conclusion This study demonstrated widespread occurrence of VRE in sewage sludge in the studied WWTP. This implies a risk of antimicrobial resistance being spread to new farms and to the society via the environment if the sewage sludge is used on arable land. PMID:19480649

  16. Recommendations for Preserving the Integrity of Samples Collected on Mars and Returned to Earth for Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. R.; Jolliff, B. L.; Papike, J. J.; MacPherson, G.

    2000-07-01

    As part of an integrated approach to planetary exploration, samples will ultimately be returned from Mars to Earth for analysis. This will be the next logical step in our exploration of the red planet as we strive to learn more about its evolution and investigate the possible occurrence of life on Mars. NASA's Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials (CAPTEM) has been studying the preservation issues for returning geological samples from Mars. The overriding goal of these studies has been the preservation of pristine Martian signatures in the returned samples, thus maximizing the scientific value of such missions. Preventing contamination/alteration is particularly critical for chemical, biological, and morphological signatures that are indicative of life, either extinct of extant. Such prevention is required for the short term during collection, transport, and re-entry and impact on Earth, as well as for long term curation. In this presentation, we discuss contamination issues within the framework of an Athena-like sampling mission; however, the concepts may be extrapolated to other plausible sampling scenarios. Issues encompassing preservation from the successful collection, to return to Earth, and curation of martian samples are discussed within this framework. We build upon earlier reports, and complement the recent Mars Sample Handling and Requirements Panel (MSHARP) report by concentrating on the samples themselves. Below is a summary of recommendations made by CAPTEM that will maximize the scientific value of any returned Martian samples. These recommendations are made, for the most part, with consideration of the stringent budgetary constraints that will be part of any sample return mission to Mars. The governing principle behind this study is that any procedure or piece of equipment that can impact (contaminate) the Mars samples during collection, transportation, or curation needs to be fully evaluated through analysis and

  17. Sample Collection of Ash and Burned Soils from the October 2007 Southern California Wildfires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Martin, Deborah A.; Rochester, Carlton; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Mendez, Greg; Reichard, Eric G.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    Between November 2 through 9, 2007 scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected samples of ash and burned soils from 28 sites in six areas burned as a result of the Southern California wildfires of October 2007, including the Harris, Witch, Santiago, Ammo, Canyon, and Grass Valley Fires. The primary goal of this sampling and analysis effort was to understand how differences in ash and burned soil composition relate to vegetation type, underlying bedrock geology, burn intensity, and residential versus wildland. Sampling sites were chosen with the input of local experts from the USGS Water Resources and Biological Resources Disciplines to help understand possible effects of the fires on water supplies, ecosystems, and endangered species. The sampling was also carried out in conjunction with detailed field analysis of the spectral reflectance characteristics of the ash, so that chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the field samples could be used to help interpret data collected as part of an airborne, hyperspectral remote-sensing survey of several of the burned areas in mid-late November, 2007. This report presents an overview of the field sampling methodologies used to collect the samples, includes representative photos of the sites sampled, and summarizes important characteristics of each of the collection sites. In this report we use the term 'ash' to refer collectively to white mineral ash, which results from full combustion of vegetation and black charred organic matter from partial combustion of vegetation or other materials. These materials were found to be intermingled as a deposited residue on the soil surface following the Southern California fires of 2007.

  18. Macroinvertebrate community sample collection methods and data collected from Sand Creek and Medano Creek, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado, 2005–07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, Morgan A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Walters, David M.; Bruce, James F.

    2016-08-11

    This report provides a table of site descriptions, sample information, and semiquantitative aquatic macroinvertebrate data from 105 samples collected between 2005 and 2007 from 7 stream sites within the Sand Creek and Medano Creek watersheds in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Saguache County, Colorado. Additionally, a short description of sample collection methods and laboratory sample processing procedures is presented. These data were collected in anticipation of assessing the potential effects of fish toxicants on macroinvertebrates.

  19. Advanced Curation Activities at NASA: Implications for Astrobiological Studies of Future Sample Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Harrington, A. D.; Regberg, A. B.; Snead, C. J.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10F JSC is charged with curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions. The Directive goes on to define Curation as including documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for re-search, education, and public outreach. Here we briefly describe NASA's astromaterials collections and our ongoing efforts related to enhancing the utility of our current collections as well as our efforts to prepare for future sample return missions. We collectively refer to these efforts as advanced curation.

  20. Collection of a Lifetime: A Practical Approach to Developing a Longitudinal Collection of Women’s Healthcare Biological Samples

    PubMed Central

    Santillan, Mark K.; Leslie, Kimberly K.; Hamilton, Wendy S.; Boese, Brenda J.; Ahuja, Monika; Hunter, Stephen K.; Santillan, Donna A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to develop a biorepository of samples that represent all stages of a women’s life. Importantly, our goal is to collect longitudinal physical specimens as well as the associated short and long-term clinical information. Study Design The Women’s Health Tissue Repository was established to encompass four tissue banks: Well Women Tissue Bank, Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility Tissue Bank, Maternal Fetal Tissue Bank, and the long-established Gynecologic Malignancies Tissue Bank. Based on their health status, women being seen in Women’s Health at the University of Iowa are recruited to contribute samples and grant access to their electronic medical record to the biorepository. Samples are coded, processed, and stored for use by investigators. Results The Maternal Fetal Tissue Bank was the first expansion of our department’s biobanking efforts. Approximately 75% of the women approached consent to participate in the Maternal Fetal Tissue Bank. Enrollment has steadily increased. Samples have been used for over 20 projects in the first 3 years and are critical to 7 funded grants and 3 patent applications. Conclusion Patient samples with corresponding clinical data are initially important to women’s health research. Our model demonstrates that many research projects by faculty, fellows, and residents have benefited from the existence of the Women’s Health Tissue Repository. While challenging to achieve, longitudinal sampling allows for the greatest opportunity to study normal and pathological changes throughout all phases of a women’s life, including pregnancy. This bank facilitates and accelerates the development of novel research, technologies, and possible therapeutic options in women’s health. The establishment of more longitudinal biorepositories based on our model would enhance women’s health research. PMID:24965987

  1. Evaluation and Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals (HMs) in Sewage Sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Shanxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Baoling; Liu, Fenwu; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiaomei; Bu, Yushan

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge have become the crucial limiting factors for land use application. Samples were collected and analyzed from 32 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Shanxi Province, China. HM levels in sewage sludge were assessed. The multivariate statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the sources of HMs in sewage sludge. HM pollution classes by geochemical accumulation index Igeo and correlation analyses between HMs were also conducted. HMs were arranged in the following decreasing order of mean concentration: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd; the maximum concentrations of all HMs were within the limit of maximum content permitted by Chinese discharge standard. Igeo classes of HMs pollution in order from most polluted to least were: Cu and Hg pollution were the highest; Cd and Cr pollution were moderate; Zn, As and Pb pollution were the least. Sources of HM contamination in sewage sludge were identified as three components. The primary contaminant source accounting for 35.7% of the total variance was identified as smelting industry, coking plant and traffic sources; the second source accounting for 29.0% of the total variance was distinguished as household and water supply pollution; the smallest of the three sources accounting for 16.2% of the total variance was defined as special industries such as leather tanning, textile manufacturing and chemical processing industries. Source apportionment of HMs in sewage sludge can control HM contamination through suggesting improvements in government policies and industrial processes. PMID:26690464

  2. Evaluation and Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals (HMs) in Sewage Sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Baoling; Liu, Fenwu; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiaomei; Bu, Yushan

    2015-12-11

    Heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge have become the crucial limiting factors for land use application. Samples were collected and analyzed from 32 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Shanxi Province, China. HM levels in sewage sludge were assessed. The multivariate statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the sources of HMs in sewage sludge. HM pollution classes by geochemical accumulation index I(geo) and correlation analyses between HMs were also conducted. HMs were arranged in the following decreasing order of mean concentration: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd; the maximum concentrations of all HMs were within the limit of maximum content permitted by Chinese discharge standard. I(geo) classes of HMs pollution in order from most polluted to least were: Cu and Hg pollution were the highest; Cd and Cr pollution were moderate; Zn, As and Pb pollution were the least. Sources of HM contamination in sewage sludge were identified as three components. The primary contaminant source accounting for 35.7% of the total variance was identified as smelting industry, coking plant and traffic sources; the second source accounting for 29.0% of the total variance was distinguished as household and water supply pollution; the smallest of the three sources accounting for 16.2% of the total variance was defined as special industries such as leather tanning, textile manufacturing and chemical processing industries. Source apportionment of HMs in sewage sludge can control HM contamination through suggesting improvements in government policies and industrial processes.

  3. Water column and bed-sediment core samples collected from Brownlee Reservoir near Oxbow, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosness, Ryan L.; Naymik, Jesse; Hopkins, Candice B.; DeWild, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Idaho Power Company, collected water-column and bed-sediment core samples from eight sites in Brownlee Reservoir near Oxbow, Oregon, during May 5–7, 2012. Water-column and bed-sediment core samples were collected at each of the eight sites and analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury. Additional bed-sediment core samples, collected from three of the eight sites, were analyzed for pesticides and other organic compounds, trace metals, and physical characteristics, such as particle size. Total mercury and methylmercury were detected in each of the water column and bed-sediment core samples. Only 17 of the 417 unique pesticide and organic compounds were detected in bed-sediment core samples. Concentrations of most organic wastewater compounds detected in bed sediment were less than the reporting level. Trace metals detected were greater than the reporting level in all the bed-sediment core samples submitted for analysis. The particle size distribution of bed-sediment core samples was predominantly clay mixed with silt.

  4. Multi-element composition of historical lichen collections and bark samples, indicators of changing atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, O. W.; Chimonides, P. D. J.; Jeffries, T. E.; Jones, G. C.; Rusu, A.-M.; Read, H.

    Thirty six element signatures were compared in historical Parmelia sulcata samples from the Natural History Museum herbarium collected over the period 1797-1967 with those recorded in the same species and tree bark sampled in 2000 from Burnham Beeches, lying 40 km west of London. Nineteen elements reached highest concentrations in herbarium samples, consistent with a pollution legacy and dust contamination in the herbarium. Healthy Parmelia sampled east and down-wind of London at a farm during peak SO 2 emissions in 1967 contained highest V, Ni, Zn, Cd, Se, Ge contents, supporting derivation from fuel combustion; the same sample was previously determined as having a low δ34S and high S and N contents. Lowest V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Ba, Pb, Mo, Sb, Li, B, Cs, U, Th, Ga contents were recorded in a sample with a high δ34S and low S content collected in 1887 from a remote region from Ross-shire, Scotland. Se and Cd enrichment, never-the-less suggest a transboundary pollution influence. Lichen Pb concentrations from Burnham Beeches were amongst the lowest recorded in spite of lichens being collected close to roads. Herbarium samples help interpret changes in element deposition where few data exist, in spite of dust contamination.

  5. Pesticide content in drinking water samples collected from orchard areas in central Poland.

    PubMed

    Badach, Hanna; Nazimek, Teresa; Kamińska, Iwona A

    2007-01-01

    Samples of drinking water collected in Warka-Grójec region of central Poland were tested for the presence of pesticides. Data obtained from analysis of water samples will be used for future epidemiological and environmental studies in the region. Samples were collected during spring and autumn of 2002-2003 from dug wells, deep wells and water mains in 81 randomly-selected rural households scattered throughout this region of extensive agriculture. The concentration of pesticides from four main chemical groups was determined by gas chromatography: organochlorines (lindane, DDT, methoxychlor), triazines (atrazine, simazine), organophosphates (acephate, diazinon, fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (alpha-cypermethrin, deltamethrin). Two-year monitoring of drinking water samples indicated the presence of DDT and methoxychlor contamination. Pyrethroids were generally not detected, with the exception of alpha-cypermethrin found in only a few samples. Triazines were also found in water samples collected in the course of the study with higher incidence during spring period. Organophosphates were by far the most common contaminants of drinking water in this region. Almost all samples were contaminated by significant amounts of fenitrothion. The present study reveals an urgent need for systematic monitoring of drinking water quality in regions of intensive agriculture, since they are highly vulnerable to pesticide contamination. Consumption of pesticide-contaminated water may have a negative impact on the population living in this area, which also requires scientific assessment.

  6. Archival policies and collections database for the Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2º Celsius to -18º Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

  7. Effects of post-sampling analysis time, type of blood samples and collection tubes on values of blood gas testing.

    PubMed

    Smajić, Jasmina; Kadić, Damira; Hasić, Sabaheta; Serdarević, Nafija

    2015-08-01

    To investigate effects of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes on blood gas testing. This study included 100 patients at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases, Clinical Centre Sarajevo. The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2), and the oxygen saturation level of hemoglobin (sO2) were analyzed in the arterial blood samples (ABS) and capillary blood samples (CBS) by a potentiometric method using a blood gas analyzer ABL 555 (Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). Paired measurements of ABS were performed within 15 minutes and after 60 minutes from sampling and compared. The results of CBS obtained within 15 minutes were compared with matching ABS results, as well as the results obtained from CBS within 15 minutes taken into glass and plastic tubes. pO2 and sO2 values were significantly lower after 60 minutes compared to those within 15 minutes in ABS (9.20±1.89 vs. 9.51±1.95 and 91.25±5.03 vs. 92.40±4.5; p<0.01, respectively). Values of pO2 and sO2 in CBS were significantly lower than values obtained in ABS (8.92±2.07 vs. 9.51±1.95 and 91.25±4.86 vs. 92.40±4.50; p<0.01, respectively). Obtained pO2 and sO2 values in CBS in the plastic tubes were higher than those in the glass tubes (8.50±1.98 vs. 7.89±2.0 and 89.66±11.04 vs. 88.23±11.22, p<0.01 respectively). pCO2 blood values were not influenced significantly (p>0.05). The length of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes have significant impact on blood oxygen parameters. Analysis within 15 minutes after blood sampling is considered as appropriate. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  8. Investigation of reflectance sampling depth in biological tissues for various common illumination/collection configurations.

    PubMed

    Zonios, George

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of light penetration characteristics is very important in almost all studies in biomedical optics. In this work, the reflectance sampling depth in biological tissues was investigated using Monte Carlo simulations for various common illumination/collection configurations. The analysis shows that the average sampling depth can be described by two simple empirical analytical expressions over the entire typical ranges of absorption and scattering properties relevant to in vivo biological tissue, regardless of the specific illumination/collection configuration details. These results are promising and helpful for the quick, efficient, and accurate design of reflectance studies for various biological tissue applications.

  9. A Novel Needle-Free Blood Draw Device for Sample Collection From Short Peripheral Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Nachamkin, Irving

    2017-01-01

    A new US Food and Drug Administration-cleared needleless blood collection device (PIVO; Velano Vascular, San Francisco, CA) for short peripheral catheters was compared with conventional venipuncture for collecting blood samples for routine laboratory analysis from adult healthy volunteers. The PIVO device was comparable with venipuncture in terms of providing high-integrity samples (no hemolysis or clotting), equivalent laboratory values, and better patient experience as assessed by pain scores. Further studies to assess the overall utility of the PIVO device are warranted. PMID:28419012

  10. Satisfaction survey with DNA cards method to collect genetic samples for pharmacogenetics studies

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Taboada, Jose M; Cucala, Mercedes; Mas Herrero, Sergio; Lafuente, Amalia; Cobos, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies are essential in understanding the interindividual variability of drug responses. DNA sample collection for genotyping is a critical step in genetic studies. A method using dried blood samples from finger-puncture, collected on DNA-cards, has been described as an alternative to the usual venepuncture technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the DNA cards method in a multicentre clinical trial, and to assess the degree of investigators' satisfaction and the acceptance of the patients perceived by the investigators. Methods Blood samples were collected on DNA-cards. The quality and quantity of DNA recovered were analyzed. Investigators were questioned regarding their general interest, previous experience, safety issues, preferences and perceived patient satisfaction. Results 151 patients' blood samples were collected. Genotyping of GST polymorphisms was achieved in all samples (100%). 28 investigators completed the survey. Investigators perceived patient satisfaction as very good (60.7%) or good (39.3%), without reluctance to finger puncture. Investigators preferred this method, which was considered safer and better than the usual methods. All investigators would recommend using it in future genetic studies. Conclusion Within the clinical trial setting, the DNA-cards method was very well accepted by investigators and patients (in perception of investigators), and was preferred to conventional methods due to its ease of use and safety. PMID:16681846

  11. Application of bar codes to the automation of analytical sample data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgensen, H A

    1986-01-01

    The Health Protection Department at the Savannah River Plant collects 500 urine samples per day for tritium analyses. Prior to automation, all sample information was compiled manually. Bar code technology was chosen for automating this program because it provides a more accurate, efficient, and inexpensive method for data entry. The system has three major functions: sample labeling is accomplished at remote bar code label stations composed of an Intermec 8220 (Intermec Corp.) interfaced to an IBM-PC, data collection is done on a central VAX 11/730 (Digital Equipment Corp.). Bar code readers are used to log-in samples to be analyzed on liquid scintillation counters. The VAX 11/730 processes the data and generates reports, data storage is on the VAX 11/730 and backed up on the plant's central computer. A brief description of several other bar code applications at the Savannah River Plant is also presented.

  12. Total organic carbon in a soil recovered with sewage sludge and native species of the Atlantic Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mara Lima Goulart, Lívia; Amaral Guerrini, Iraê; Fidalgo de Faria, Marianne; Spada, Grasiela; Proença Nalesso, Pedro Henrique; Willian Carlos, Guilherme

    2017-04-01

    The use of organic waste such as sewage sludge, in the recovery of degraded áreas have shown very satisfactory results, because they are constituted by high contentes of organic matter and nutrients, essential to improve the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Thus, the objective of this study was to verify the total organic carbon (TOC) of a degraded soil, up to a metre deep, after 10 years of application of sewage sludge and planting native species of the Atlantic forest. The experiment was conducted at Fazenda Entre-Rios, owned by Suzano Papel e Celulose, in Itatinga, São Paulo, Brazil. The experiment was designed as randomized block with four replications, six doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1), conventional chemical fertilizer and only with potassium application, totaling eight treatments. Samples were collected every 20 cm (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 cm) until reaching a metre deep. Ten years after trial deployment, the sewage sludge application in degraded soil was significantly influenced the TOC at all depths sampled. The highest values of the COT were observed in plots that received 15 and 20 t ha-1 of sewage sludge, in all depths sampled, except for the layer of 80-100 cm, which presented the highest average COT in the treatment with 10 t ha-1 of residue. As observed for all treatments, the highest TOC averages were observed in the superficial layers of the soil (0-20 and 20-40 cm). The sewage sludge application is useful to recover degraded soils, as it improving their chemical characteristics and showing to be a good alternative to the final destination of this residue.

  13. An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed

  14. An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed

  15. Contamination Knowledge Strategy for the Mars 2020 Sample-Collecting Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, K. A.; Williford, K.; Beaty, D W.; McSween, H. Y.; Czaja, A. D.; Goreva, Y. S.; Hausrath, E.; Herd, C. D. K.; Humayun, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Mars 2020 rover will collect carefully selected samples of rock and regolith as it explores a potentially habitable ancient environment on Mars. Using the drill, rock cores and regolith will be collected directly into ultraclean sample tubes that are hermetically sealed and, later, deposited on the surface of Mars for potential return to Earth by a subsequent mission. Thorough characterization of any contamination of the samples at the time of their analysis will be essential for achieving the objectives of Mars returned sample science (RSS). We refer to this characterization as contamination knowledge (CK), which is distinct from contamination control (CC). CC is the set of activities that limits the input of contaminating species into a sample, and is specified by requirement thresholds. CK consists of identifying and characterizing both potential and realized contamination to better inform scientific investigations of the returned samples. Based on lessons learned by other sample return missions with contamination-sensitive scientific objectives, CC needs to be "owned" by engineering, but CK needs to be "owned" by science. Contamination present at the time of sample analysis will reflect the sum of contributions from all contamination vectors up to that point in time. For this reason, understanding the integrated history of contamination may be crucial for deciphering potentially confusing contaminant-sensitive observations. Thus, CK collected during the Mars sample return (MSR) campaign must cover the time period from the initiation of hardware construction through analysis of returned samples in labs on Earth. Because of the disciplinary breadth of the scientific objectives of MSR, CK must include a broad spectrum of contaminants covering inorganic (i.e., major, minor, and trace elements), organic, and biological molecules and materials.

  16. Sources of variability in collection and preparation of paint and lead-coating samples.

    PubMed

    Harper, S L; Gutknecht, W F

    2001-06-01

    Chronic exposure of children to lead (Pb) can result in permanent physiological impairment. Since surfaces coated with lead-containing paints and varnishes are potential sources of exposure, it is extremely important that reliable methods for sampling and analysis be available. The sources of variability in the collection and preparation of samples were investigated to improve the performance and comparability of methods and to ensure that data generated will be adequate for its intended use. Paint samples of varying sizes (areas and masses) were collected at different locations across a variety of surfaces including metal, plaster, concrete, and wood. A variety of grinding techniques were compared. Manual mortar and pestle grinding for at least 1.5 min and mechanized grinding techniques were found to generate similar homogenous particle size distributions required for aliquots as small as 0.10 g. When 342 samples were evaluated for sample weight loss during mortar and pestle grinding, 4% had 20% or greater loss with a high of 41%. Homogenization and sub-sampling steps were found to be the principal sources of variability related to the size of the sample collected. Analysis of samples from different locations on apparently identical surfaces were found to vary by more than a factor of two both in Pb concentration (mg cm-2 or %) and areal coating density (g cm-2). Analyses of substrates were performed to determine the Pb remaining after coating removal. Levels as high as 1% Pb were found in some substrate samples, corresponding to more than 35 mg cm-2 Pb. In conclusion, these sources of variability must be considered in development and/or application of any sampling and analysis methodologies.

  17. [Sewage sludges: application of a technique for recovering Enterovirus].

    PubMed

    Caillou, S; Castagnaro, N; Naval, M

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a technique to recover viruses from sewage sludges and to set a microbiological reliable index to control the efficiency of waste-water disinfection methods. Twelve samples were collected at San Felipe treatment plant, where the waste-water from Tucumán, Argentina, is received. To free virus from solids, sludges were shaken during 20 h at 4 degrees C and supernatants were obtained by centrifugation. Penicillin, streptomycin, neomycin and amphotericin B were added to avoid the development of contaminating flora. Samples were inoculated in Vero and HeLa cells and Enterovirus (Echo 7, Echo 11 and Echo 21) were isolated from five samples.

  18. Analysis of nitrosamines in water by automated SPE and isotope dilution GC/HRMS Occurrence in the different steps of a drinking water treatment plant, and in chlorinated samples from a reservoir and a sewage treatment plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Planas, Carles; Palacios, Oscar; Ventura, Francesc; Rivera, Josep; Caixach, Josep

    2008-08-15

    A method based on automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) and isotope dilution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) has been developed for the analysis of nine nitrosamines in water samples. The combination of automated SPE and GC/HRMS for the analysis of nitrosamines has not been reported previously. The method shows as advantages the selectivity and sensitivity of GC/HRMS analysis and the high efficiency of automated SPE with coconut charcoal EPA 521 cartridges. Low method detection limits (MDLs) were achieved, along with a greater facility of the procedure and less dependence on the operator with regard to the methods based on manual SPE. Quality requirements for isotope dilution-based methods were accomplished for most analysed nitrosamines, regarding to trueness (80-120%), method precision (<15%) and MDLs (0.08-1.7 ng/L). Nineteen water samples (16 samples from a drinking water treatment plant {DWTP}, 2 chlorinated samples from a sewage treatment plant {STP} effluent, and 1 chlorinated sample from a reservoir) were analysed. Concentrations of nitrosamines in the STP effluent were 309.4 and 730.2 ng/L, being higher when higher doses of chlorine were applied. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were the main compounds identified in the STP effluent, and NDEA was detected above 200 ng/L, regulatory level for NDMA in effluents stated in Ontario (Canada). Lower concentrations of nitrosamines were found in the reservoir (20.3 ng/L) and in the DWTP samples (n.d. -28.6 ng/L). NDMA and NDEA were respectively found in the reservoir and in treated and highly chlorinated DWTP samples at concentrations above 10 ng/L (guide value established in different countries). The highest concentrations of nitrosamines were found after chlorination and ozonation processes (ozonated, treated and highly chlorinated water) in DWTP samples.

  19. Water quality assessment of Malad Creek, Mumbai, India: an impact of sewage and tidal water.

    PubMed

    Sardar, V K; Vijay, R; Sohony, R A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to carry out water quality assessment and to identify sources responsible for deterioration of quality in the Malad creek, Mumbai, India. Creek receives sewage and wastewater from various drains and partially treated effluent from Malad and Versova treatment facilities. To assess the water quality, sampling locations were identified in the creek based on discharges of wastewater and sewage. Identified locations were traced in physical space by a global positioning system. Samples were collected during low and high tides and analyzed for physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters such as pH, Turbidity, DO, BOD, NH(3)-N, PO(4) and FC and compared with SW-II Standards. Parameters were also analyzed statistically and correlated to determine the relationship amongst the parameters using SPSS software. The idea was to determine the probable causes contributing to the pollution in the creek. Various options were suggested for improvement in the creek quality based on water quality assessment.

  20. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  1. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  2. Detection of manipulation in doping control urine sample collection: a multidisciplinary approach to determine identical urine samples.

    PubMed

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Mareck, Ute; Sigmund, Gerd; Henke, Jürgen; Henke, Lotte; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2007-08-01

    Manipulation of urine sampling in sports drug testing is considered a violation of anti-doping rules and is consequently sanctioned by regulatory authorities. In 2003, three identical urine specimens were provided by three different athletes, and the identity of all urine samples was detected and substantiated using numerous analytical strategies including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with steroid and metabolite profiling, gas chromatography-nitrogen/phosphorus detector analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography-UV fingerprinting, and DNA-STR (short tandem repeat) analysis. None of the respective athletes was the donor of the urine provided for doping analysis, which proved to be a urine sample collected from other unidentified individual(s). Samples were considered suspicious based on identical steroid profiles, one of the most important parameters for specimen individualization in sports drug testing. A database containing 14,224 urinary steroid profiles of athletes was screened for specific values of 4 characteristic parameters (ratios of testosterone/epitestosterone, androsterone/etiocholanolone, androsterone/testosterone, and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol/5beta-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol) and only the three suspicious samples matched all criteria. Further metabolite profiling regarding indicated medications and high-performance liquid chromatography-UV fingerprinting substantiated the assumption of manipulation. DNA-STR analyses unequivocally confirmed that the 3 urine samples were from the same individual and not from the athletes who provided DNA from either buccal cell material or blood specimens. This supportive evidence led to punishment of all three athletes according to the rules of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Application of a new multidisciplinary strategy employing common and new doping control assays enables the detection of urine substitution in sports drug testing.

  3. Field guidelines for collection, treatment, and analysis of water samples, Montana district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapton, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This manual provides a set of standardized guidelines and quality-control procedures for the collection and preservation of water samples and defines procedures for field analyses of unstable constituents or properties. Seldom is the water being samples of such uniformity that a single grab sample is representative of the whole. For this reason a variety of sampler types and sampling methods have been devised. Descriptions and procedures for field use are given for a number of sampler types. Several methods of sampling are described for which these samplers can be used. Sample-processing devices such as sample splitters and filtration apparatus are discussed along with methods of cleaning. Depending on the type of analysis to be performed in the laboratory, samples may need to be preserved shortly after collection. Various types of preservation are described in detail. Analyses for unstable constituents or properties are of necessity accomplished in the field. This manual addresses analytical techniques and quality assurance for: (1) Water temperature, (2) specific conductance, (3) pH, (4) alkalinity, (5) dissolved oxygen, and (6) bacteria. Examples of field report forms are given as attachments. Information pertinent to certain field calculations is also presented. (USGS)

  4. Chest physiotherapy for collecting sputum samples from HIV-positive patients suspected of having tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Souza Pinto, V; Bammann, R H

    2007-12-01

    A public referral hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. To evaluate chest physiotherapy as a means of obtaining sputum samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive in-patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). A prospective study. Five consecutive samples were collected from 132 patients using the 'spontaneous' technique (ST) on day 1, slow expiration with the glottis open in a lateral posture ('expiration lente totale glotte ouverte en infralatéral', ELTGOL) on day 2, ST on day 3, sputum induction with hypertonic saline (SIHS) on day 4 and ST on day 5. Samples were processed for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear and seeded onto Löwenstein-Jensen medium. Mycobacteria were recovered from 34 patients (25.8%). Nine (26.5%) of the strains were identified as mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis. AFB smear sensitivity was higher in ELTGOL samples than in ST or SIHS samples (52.9% vs. 32.4% and 29.4%), although the difference among the three was not significant (P = 0.098). In culture, the three ST samples proved significantly more sensitive (P = 0.05). Physiotherapy shows promise as a technique for obtaining sputum from HIV-positive patients, and AFB testing of a single sample presents high sensitivity. However, this does not preclude the routine collection of three samples, as TB cannot be ruled out before the culture results are known.

  5. 2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

  6. The Autism Simplex Collection: an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Joseph D; Bolshakova, Nadia; Brownfeld, Jessica M; Anney, Richard Jl; Bender, Patrick; Bernier, Raphael; Cook, Edwin H; Coon, Hilary; Cuccaro, Michael; Freitag, Christine M; Hallmayer, Joachim; Geschwind, Daniel; Klauck, Sabine M; Nurnberger, John I; Oliveira, Guiomar; Pinto, Dalila; Poustka, Fritz; Scherer, Stephen W; Shih, Andy; Sutcliffe, James S; Szatmari, Peter; Vicente, Astrid M; Vieland, Veronica; Gallagher, Louise

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection began in 2008 and was completed in 2010, and included nine sites from North America and four sites from Western Europe, as well as a centralized Data Coordinating Center. Over 1,700 trios are part of this collection, with DNA from transformed cells now available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) measures are available for all probands, as are standardized IQ measures, Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and physical measures (height, weight, and head circumference). At almost every site, additional phenotypic measures were collected, including the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) and Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), as well as the non-word repetition scale, Communication Checklist (Children's or Adult), and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). Moreover, for nearly 1,000 trios, the Autism Genome Project Consortium (AGP) has carried out Illumina 1 M SNP genotyping and called copy number variation (CNV) in the samples, with data being made available through the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Whole exome sequencing (WES) has been carried out in over 500 probands, together with ancestry matched controls, and this data is also available through the NIH. Additional WES is being carried out by the Autism Sequencing Consortium (ASC), where the focus is on sequencing complete

  7. The Autism Simplex Collection: an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. Methods In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection began in 2008 and was completed in 2010, and included nine sites from North America and four sites from Western Europe, as well as a centralized Data Coordinating Center. Results Over 1,700 trios are part of this collection, with DNA from transformed cells now available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) measures are available for all probands, as are standardized IQ measures, Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and physical measures (height, weight, and head circumference). At almost every site, additional phenotypic measures were collected, including the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) and Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), as well as the non-word repetition scale, Communication Checklist (Children’s or Adult), and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). Moreover, for nearly 1,000 trios, the Autism Genome Project Consortium (AGP) has carried out Illumina 1 M SNP genotyping and called copy number variation (CNV) in the samples, with data being made available through the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Whole exome sequencing (WES) has been carried out in over 500 probands, together with ancestry matched controls, and this data is also available through the NIH. Additional WES is being carried out by the Autism Sequencing Consortium (ASC), where the

  8. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. L.; Mavris, C.; Michalski, J. R.; Rumsey, M. S.; Russell, S. S.; Jones, C.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  9. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Sutcliffe, C. N.; Ballentine, C. J.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Slater, G.; Moser, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  10. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260...

  11. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260...

  12. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260...

  13. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260...

  14. Estimation of amphetamine and methamphetamine uses in Beijing through sewage-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Hou, Linlin; Du, Peng; Yang, Jun; Li, Kaiyang; Xu, Zeqiong; Wang, Congcong; Zhang, Huafang; Li, Xiqing

    2014-08-15

    Sewage epidemiology has been proven as an effective approach to estimate the use of illicit drugs by a population. In this study, sewage analysis was applied to examine the patterns of amphetamine (AMP) and methamphetamine (METH) uses in the urban area of Beijing. Influent and effluent samples were collected from all the thirteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the urban area during two sampling campaigns. METH concentrations in influents were found to range from several tens to several hundred ng·L(-1), whereas AMP concentrations ranged from several to several tens ng·L(-1). The concentration ratios between AMP and METH in influents at most STPs were close to the rate of AMP excretion following METH ingestion, indicating that AMP in sewage in Beijing was predominately from the metabolism of METH. Much higher METH loads were observed in the center part of the urban area in Beijing, indicating a strong correlation between METH use and economic level and entertainment activities. Seasonal variation in METH loads was significant, with greater use in summer than in winter. Significant difference in METH loads between weekdays and weekend days were observed in winter but not in summer. No clear trend in diurnal variation of METH use was observed. Nearly complete removal of METH occurred at the STPS in Beijing. Apparent removal rates of AMP were lower than those of METH, likely due to degradation of METH into AMP during the wastewater treatment processes. In summary, this study represents the first application of sewage epidemiology to the entire urban population of a metropolitan in mainland China and provided an overview of METH and AMP uses in the city. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metal distribution and contamination in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-hua; Zhao, Jing-zhu; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Söderlund, Leif; Liu, Guo-hua

    2005-08-01

    A potential hazard to Beijing was revealed due to the accumulation trend of heavy metals in agricultural soils with sewage irrigation, which results in metal contamination and human exposure risk. Samples including soils and plants were collected to assess the impacts of sewage irrigation on the irrigated farming area of Beijing. Concentrations of the five elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined in samples to calculate the accumulation factor and to establish a basis for environmental protection and the suitability of sewage irrigation for particular land use in the urban-rural interaction area of Beijing. Using reference values provided by the Beijing Background Research Cooperative Group in the 1970s, the pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factor (EF), and contamination factor (CF) of these metals were calculated. The pollution load indices (sewage irrigation land 3.49) of soils indicated that metal contamination occurred in these sites. The metal enrichment (EF of Cd 1.8, Cr 1.7, Cu 2.3, Zn 2.0, Pb 1.9) and the metal contamination (CF of Cd 2.6, Cr 1.5, Cu 2.0, Zn 1.7, Pb 1.6) showed that the accumulation trend of the five toxic metals increased during the sewage irrigation as compared with the lower reference values than other region in China and world average, and that pollution with Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb was exacerbated in soils. The distributions of these metals were homogeneous in the irrigation area, but small-scale heterogeneous spatial distribution was observed. Irrigation sources were found to affect heavy metal distributions in soils. It was suggested that heavy metal transfer from soils to plants was a key pathway to human health exposure to metal contamination. However, with the expansion of urban areas in Beijing, soil inhalation and ingestion may become important pathways of human exposure to metal contamination.

  16. Psychosocial Influences on Acceptability and Feasibility of Salivary Cortisol Collection From Community Samples of Children.

    PubMed

    Condon, Eileen M

    2016-12-01

    Salivary cortisol is considered to be a safe and noninvasive measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, and is a commonly measured biomarker of the human stress response in pediatric research. However, cortisol is highly variable and sensitive to a wide range of factors, creating a challenge for reliable salivary cortisol collection in the community setting. Furthermore, the acceptability of salivary cortisol collection in community samples of children is largely unknown. The purpose of this integrative review was to investigate current evidence on the acceptability and feasibility of salivary cortisol collection in community samples of children. In an analysis framed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, data extracted from 31 studies revealed six categories of psychosocial influences on acceptability and feasibility: uncertainty and misconceptions, cultural and ethnic values, family rules and values, difficulty following protocols and procedures, burden of multiple samples, and child refusal or resistance. Further research is required to fully understand the factors that influence acceptability and feasibility of salivary cortisol collection in community samples of children. Understanding individual, family, and community perceptions of biobehavioral research will lead to more culturally sensitive and feasible community-based research methods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 77 FR 51818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Application and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ..., Office of Management and Budget. Comments should be addressed to the OMB Desk Officer for U.S. Customs... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities; Application and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...

  18. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  19. Collecting Stream Samples for Water Quality. Module 16. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting stream samples for water quality. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) using a job aid to…

  20. 21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What representative samples must you collect? 111.80 Section 111.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  1. An evaluation of optimal methods for avian influenza virus sample collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sample collection and transport are critical components of any diagnostic testing program and due to the amount of avian influenza virus (AIV) testing in the U.S. and worldwide, small improvements in sensitivity and specificity can translate into substantial cost savings from better test accuracy. ...

  2. The GENESIS Mission Solar Wind Samples: Collection Times, Estimated Fluences, and Solar-Wind Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Steinberg, J. E.; Dekoning, C.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2005-03-01

    We have correlated the GENESIS sample collection times for the different solar-wind regimes with compositional data from GENESIS/GIM and ACE/SWICS instruments. We discuss GENESIS regime selection and new results in solar-wind elemental fractionation.

  3. College Students' Perceptions of Collective Efficacy: Results from a Nonurban Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domoff, Sarah E.; Hayman, Jennifer; Tompsett, Carolyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and collective efficacy is well established in urban populations with community samples, it is unclear if this relationship holds in rural areas. The current study fills this gap by assessing the perceptions of adolescents from nonurban areas to examine the relationships between…

  4. Astronauts Young and Duke collect rock samples along simulated lunar traverse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronauts John W. Young, left, prime crew commander for Apollo 16, and Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, collect rock samples along a simulated lunar traverse route in the Coso Hills, near Ridgecrest, California. Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, right background, prime crew commander for Apollo 17, looks on. The astronauts trained at the U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station.

  5. College Students' Perceptions of Collective Efficacy: Results from a Nonurban Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domoff, Sarah E.; Hayman, Jennifer; Tompsett, Carolyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and collective efficacy is well established in urban populations with community samples, it is unclear if this relationship holds in rural areas. The current study fills this gap by assessing the perceptions of adolescents from nonurban areas to examine the relationships between…

  6. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to te...

  7. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING COTTON GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to t...

  8. 78 FR 25308 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices...) determine the concentration of respirable dust in coal mines. CPDMs must be designed and constructed for coal miners to wear and operate without impeding their ability to perform their work safely...

  9. Collective Socialization and Child Conduct Problems: A Multilevel Analysis with an African American Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Conger, Rand D.; Brody, Gene H.

    2004-01-01

    This article uses hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of African American children and their primary caregivers to examine the association between various community factors and child conduct problems. The analysis revealed a rather strong inverse association between level of collective socialization and conduct problems. This relationship…

  10. Diagnostic yield improves with collection of 2 samples in fecal immunochemical test screening without affecting attendance.

    PubMed

    van Roon, Aafke H C; Wilschut, Janneke A; Hol, Lieke; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Reijerink, Jacqueline C I Y; 't Mannetje, Hans; Kranenburg, Laura J C; Biermann, Katharina; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Francke, Jan; van der Togt, Alexandra C M; Habbema, Dik J F; van Leerdam, Monique E; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2011-04-01

    The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is superior to the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test in detecting neoplasia. There are not much data on the optimal number of FITs to perform. We conducted a population-based trial to determine attendance and diagnostic yield of 1- and 2-sample FIT screening. The study included 2 randomly selected groups of subjects aged 50-74 years (1-sample FIT, n=5007; 2-sample FIT, n=3197). The 2-sample group was instructed to collect fecal samples on 2 consecutive days. Subjects were referred for colonoscopy when at least 1 sample tested positive (≥50 ng hemoglobin/mL). Attendance was 61.5% in the 1-sample group (2979 of 4845; 95% confidence interval, 60.1%-62.9%) and 61.3% in the 2-sample group (1875 of 3061; 95% confidence interval, 59.6%-63.0%; P=.84). In the 1-sample group 8.1% tested positive, and in the 2-sample group 12.8% had at least 1 positive test outcome and 5.0% had 2 positive test outcomes (P<.05). When the mean from both test results in the 2-sample group was used, 10.1% had a positive test outcome (P<.05). The detection rates for advanced neoplasia were 3.1% in the 1-sample group, 4.1% in the 2-sample group with at least 1 positive test outcome, 2.5% when both test results were positive, and 3.7% among subjects with the mean from both test results being positive. There is no difference in attendance for subjects offered 1- or 2-sample FIT screening. The results allow for the development of efficient FIT screening strategies that can be adapted for local colonoscopy capacities, rather than varying the cut-off value in a 1-sample strategy. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Method for rapid screening analysis of Sr-90 in edible plant samples collected near Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hikaru; Sakamoto, Hideaki; Shiga, Norikatsu; Suzuki, Kaori

    2016-06-01

    A screening method for measuring (90)Sr in edible plant samples by focusing on (90)Y in equilibrium with (90)Sr is reported. (90)Y was extracted from samples with acid, co-precipitated with iron hydroxide, and precipitated with oxalic acid. The dissolved oxalate precipitate was loaded on an extraction chromatography resin, and the (90)Y-enriched eluate was analyzed by Cherenkov counting with a TDCR liquid scintillation counter. (90)Sr ((90)Y) concentration was determined in plant samples collected near the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants with this method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prospective Collection of Tissue Samples at Autopsy in Children with Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Broniscer, Alberto; Baker, Justin N.; Baker, Suzanne J.; Chi, Susan N.; Geyer, J. Russell; Morris, E. Brannon; Gajjar, Amar

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brain tissue obtained at autopsy has been used in research for non-oncological disorders. However, this tool has never been systematically used in large investigational studies for cancer. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study to assess the feasibility of tissue collection at autopsy and its suitability for molecular analyses in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. METHODS Tumor tissue was collected at diagnosis, if clinically indicated, or at autopsy. Normal brain tissue was also collected at autopsy. The integrity of DNA and RNA was evaluated in all samples. Logistical data about autopsies were recorded. The feasibility of tissue collection at autopsy was assessed for patients treated at a single institution over a 43-month period. RESULTS Tumor samples were collected at diagnosis (n=3) or at autopsy (n=38) at 29 centers across the US; samples were obtained at diagnosis and autopsy in two cases. The median interval from death to autopsy was 7.7 hours. DNA and RNA with minimal or partial degradation, which were suitable for genome-wide analysis, were obtained from 100% and 63% of tumor samples, respectively. At the coordinating institution, approximately 40% of parents consented to autopsy and 40% declined. During the study period, 12 autopsies were obtained from patients who did not receive therapy at the coordinating center. CONCLUSIONS Multicenter, biological studies based on tissue obtained at autopsy are feasible in children with brain cancer. Our experience established a new paradigm for brain tissue collection which may increase the potential for research studies in patients with cancer. PMID:20589749

  13. Antimicrobial activity and pollen composition of honey samples collected from different provinces in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Mercan, Nazime; Guvensen, Aykut; Celik, Ali; Katircioglu, Hikmet

    2007-03-01

    The antibacterial activity of honey samples from different sources were collected and investigated against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 27736, Morganella morganii, Micrococcus luteus NRRL B-4375, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, and Candida albicans. Pathogens exhibited different sensitivities towards the honey samples. The results showed that majority of the honey samples (75%) generally inhibitied the bacteria tested. The honey samples which were obtained from Izmir (samples 1 and 2) proved more effective as inhibitors against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus. The honey which was obtained from Muğla (sample 5) exhibited high anticandidal activity on C. albicans. A comparison of the honey samples on the basis of pollen content revealed that they were heterofloral, and samples which had highest antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus were dominated by pollen from Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae (sample 1), and Trifolium, Trigonella, Cyperaceae, Zea mays and Anthemis taxa (sample 2). The honey proved more effective on bacteria than antibiotics.

  14. Salmonella Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Among Dairy Farm Environmental Samples Collected in Texas.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Rivera, Lorraine D; Cummings, Kevin J; Loneragan, Guy H; Rankin, Shelley C; Hanson, Devin L; Leone, William M; Edrington, Thomas S

    2016-04-01

    Dairy cattle are a reservoir of several Salmonella serovars that are leading causes of human salmonellosis. The objectives of this study were to estimate the environmental prevalence of Salmonella on dairy farms in Texas and to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Eleven dairy farms throughout Texas were sampled from August through October 2013, using a cross-sectional approach. Samples were collected from four locations within each farm (hospital pen, maternity pen, cow housing area, and calf housing area), and feces were collected from cull cows as available. Environmental and fecal samples were processed for Salmonella, and isolates were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents. Serovar characterization was performed on a subset of these isolates. Salmonella was isolated from 67.0% (236/352) of the environmental samples and 64.2% (43/67) of the cull cow fecal samples. Environmental samples from the maternity pen were significantly more likely to be Salmonella positive than samples from the cow and calf housing areas. Multidrug resistance was evident in 11.9% (27/226) of environmental isolates and 19.5% (8/41) of fecal isolates. Salmonella isolates from the calf housing area and maternity pen were significantly more likely to be multidrug resistant (MDR) than isolates from the cow housing area. The most common serovars found among the MDR isolates were Newport, Muenchen, and Typhimurium. These results help provide a focus for efforts to mitigate the burden of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella at the preharvest level.

  15. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  16. Toward Lower Organic Environments in Astromaterial Sample Curation for Diverse Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Calaway, M. J.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Great interest was taken during the frenzied pace of the Apollo lunar sample return to achieve and monitor organic cleanliness. Yet, the first mission resulted in higher organic contamination to samples than desired. But improvements were accomplished by Apollo 12 [1]. Quarantine complicated the goal of achieving organic cleanliness by requiring negative pressure glovebox containment environments, proximity of animal, plant and microbial organic sources, and use of organic sterilants in protocols. A special low organic laboratory was set up at University of California Berkeley (UCB) to cleanly subdivide a subset of samples [2, 3, 4]. Nevertheless, the basic approach of handling rocks and regolith inside of a positive pressure stainless steel glovebox and restrict-ing the tool and container materials allowed in the gloveboxes was established by the last Apollo sample re-turn. In the last 40 years, the collections have grown to encompass Antarctic meteorites, Cosmic Dust, Genesis solar wind, Stardust comet grains and Hayabusa asteroid grains. Each of these collections have unique curation requirements for organic contamination monitor-ing and control. Here is described some changes allowed by improved technology or driven by changes in environmental regulations and economy, concluding with comments on organic witness wafers. Future sample return missions (OSIRIS-Rex; Mars; comets) will require extremely low levels of organic contamination in spacecraft collection and thus similarly low levels in curation. JSC Curation is undertaking a program to document organic baseline levels in current operations and devise ways to reduce those levels.

  17. Collecting a better water-quality sample: Reducing vertical stratification bias in open and closed channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selbig, William R.

    2017-01-01

    Collection of water-quality samples that accurately characterize average particle concentrations and distributions in channels can be complicated by large sources of variability. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a fully automated Depth-Integrated Sample Arm (DISA) as a way to reduce bias and improve accuracy in water-quality concentration data. The DISA was designed to integrate with existing autosampler configurations commonly used for the collection of water-quality samples in vertical profile thereby providing a better representation of average suspended sediment and sediment-associated pollutant concentrations and distributions than traditional fixed-point samplers. In controlled laboratory experiments, known concentrations of suspended sediment ranging from 596 to 1,189 mg/L were injected into a 3 foot diameter closed channel (circular pipe) with regulated flows ranging from 1.4 to 27.8 ft3 /s. Median suspended sediment concentrations in water-quality samples collected using the DISA were within 7 percent of the known, injected value compared to 96 percent for traditional fixed-point samplers. Field evaluation of this technology in open channel fluvial systems showed median differences between paired DISA and fixed-point samples to be within 3 percent. The range of particle size measured in the open channel was generally that of clay and silt. Differences between the concentration and distribution measured between the two sampler configurations could potentially be much larger in open channels that transport larger particles, such as sand.

  18. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  19. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  20. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  1. Improved explosive collection and detection with rationally assembled surface sampling materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Bays, J. Timothy; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Addleman, R. Shane

    2016-01-01

    Sampling and detection of trace explosives is a key analytical process in modern transportation safety. In this work we have explored some of the fundamental analytical processes for collection and detection of trace level explosive on surfaces with the most widely utilized system, thermal desorption IMS. The performance of the standard muslin swipe material was compared with chemically modified fiberglass cloth. The fiberglass surface was modified to include phenyl functional groups. When compared to standard muslin, the phenyl functionalized fiberglass sampling material showed better analyte release from the sampling material as well as improved response and repeatability from multiple uses of the same swipe. The improved sample release of the functionalized fiberglass swipes resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity. Various physical and chemical properties were systematically explored to determine optimal performance. The results herein have relevance to improving the detection of other explosive compounds and potentially to a wide range of other chemical sampling and field detection challenges.

  2. Combining qualitative and quantitative sampling, data collection, and analysis techniques in mixed-method studies.

    PubMed

    Sandelowski, M

    2000-06-01

    Researchers have increasingly turned to mixed-method techniques to expand the scope and improve the analytic power of their studies. Yet there is still relatively little direction on and much confusion about how to combine qualitative and quantitative techniques. These techniques are neither paradigm- nor method-linked; researchers' orientations to inquiry and their methodological commitments will influence how they use them. Examples of sampling combinations include criterion sampling from instrument scores, random purposeful sampling, and stratified purposeful sampling. Examples of data collection combinations include the use of instruments for fuller qualitative description, for validation, as guides for purposeful sampling, and as elicitation devices in interviews. Examples of data analysis combinations include interpretively linking qualitative and quantitative data sets and the transformation processes of qualitizing and quantitizing.

  3. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  4. Detection of the human specific Bacteroides genetic marker provides evidence of widespread sewage contamination of stormwater in the urban environment.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Elizabeth P; Vandewalle, Jessica L; Bootsma, Melinda J; McLellan, Sandra L

    2011-08-01

    Human sewage contamination of surface waters is a major human health concern. We found urban stormwater systems that collect and convey runoff from impervious surfaces act as a conduit for sewage originating from breeches in sanitary sewer infrastructure. A total of 828 samples at 45 stormwater outfalls were collected over a four-year period and assessed by culture based methods, PCR, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to test for traditional and alternative indicators of fecal pollution. All outfalls had the HF183 (human) Bacteroides genetic marker detected in at least one sample, suggesting sewage contamination is nearly ubiquitous in the urban environment. However, most outfalls were intermittently positive, ranging from detection in 11%-100% of the samples. Positive results did not correlate with seasonality, rainfall amounts, or days since previous rainfall. Approximately two-thirds of the outfalls had high (>5000 copy number, i.e. CN, per 100 ml) or moderate levels (1000-5000 CN per 100 ml) of the human Bacteroides genetic marker. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococci levels did not correlate to human Bacteroides. A total of 66% of all outfall samples had standard fecal indicator levels above 10,000 CFU per 100 ml. A tiered assessment using this benchmark to identify high priority sites would have failed to flag 35% of the samples that had evidence of sewage contamination. In addition, high fecal indicators would have flagged 33% of samples as priority that had low or no evidence of sewage. Enteric virus levels in one outfall with high levels of the human Bacteroides genetic marker were similar to untreated wastewater, which illustrates stormwater can serve as a pathway for pathogen contamination. The major source of fecal pollution at four of five river sites that receive stormwater discharge appeared to be from sewage sources rather than non-human sources based on the ratios of human Bacteroides to total Bacteroides spp. This study shows the feasibility

  5. Measured phenol concentrations in air and rain water samples collected near a wood preserving facility

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.K.; Allen, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    Phenol concentrations were determined in air and rain water samples collected downwind from a coal tar creosote wood preserving facility in Terre Haute, IN. Coal tar creosote is known to contain a large number of constituents and is composed chiefly of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phenols, and N-, S-, and O-heterocycles. Phenol was chosen as a marker compound for coal tar creosote emissions because it is present at a large mole fraction in coal tar creosote. Phenol was determined by HPLC with UV-Visible detection. Phenol in collected rain water samples was determined directly by HPLC after acidification and filtration. Phenol concentrations in collected air samples ranged from 4.1 to 15.7 {micro}g/m3 while rain water concentrations ranged from 7.9 to 28.2 {micro}g/L. Using a value for the thermodynamic Henry`s law constant of K{sub H} = 4.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} L atm/mole at 20 C for phenol and measured gas-phase phenol concentrations, even higher rain water concentrations would be expected if equilibrium was established. This indicates that the amount of phenol present in the air parcels sampled exceeded the amount that could be scavenged by rain drops under the conditions prevailing at the time of sampling. The values for phenol concentrations reported here are roughly two orders of magnitude higher than results from previous studies where phenol concentrations in air and rain water samples collected in urban areas were reported. It is likely that other more toxic constituents of coal tar creosote are also present at high concentrations in air parcels that receive emissions from wood treatment facilities.

  6. FIRST MOLECULAR DETECTION AND VP7 (G) GENOTYPING OF GROUP A ROTAVIRUS BY SEMI-NESTED RT-PCR FROM SEWAGE IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    MOTAYO, Babatunde Olanrewaju; ADENIJI, Adekunle Johnson; FANEYE, Adedayo Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Rotavirus is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide, and sewage is a major source of the virus dissemination in the environment. Our aim was to detect and genotype rotaviruses from sewages in Nigeria. One hundred and ninety sewage samples were collected between June 2014 and January 2015. The two phase concentration method using PEG 6000 and dextran was used to concentrate sewage samples following WHO protocols. Molecular detection was performed by RT-PCR, and VP7 genotyping by semi-nested multiplex PCR. A total of 14.2% (n = 27) samples tested positive. Monthly distribution showed that June to September had a lower rate (3.7% to 7.4%), while October to January recorded 11% to 26%. Genotype G1 predominated followed by G8, G9, G4 and lastly G2, 7.4% (n = 2) of isolates were nontypeable. This is the first report of rotavirus detection in sewages from Nigeria. Genotype G1 remains the most prevalent genotype. This observation calls for an effort by the governmental authorities to implement a molecular surveillance, both clinical and environmental, in order to provide vital information for the control and the vaccine efficacy not only in Nigeria, but globally. PMID:27828615

  7. Determination of multiple toxins in whelk and clam samples collected from the Chukchi and Bering seas.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Chen, Huidan; Qiu, Jiangbing; Lin, Heshan; Gu, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Buccinidae whelk Neptunea varicifera (Dall), Cardiidae clam Serripes laperousii (Deshayes), and two unknown species of whelk and clam were collected from the Arctic Chukchi Sea and sub-Arctic Bering Sea in July 2014. In this study, the mollusk samples were analyzed by different liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for multiple shellfish toxins, including okadaic acid (OA), pectenotoxin (PTX), yessotoxin (YTX), azaspiracid (AZA), cyclic imines (CI), and saxitoxin (STX) groups. PTX2 (≈2.0 μg kg(-1) whole tissues) was detected exclusively in the clam S. laperousii collected from the Chukchi Sea. OA and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were restricted to mollusk samples collected from the Bering Sea, and OA was the dominant component of the whelk N. varicifera (63 μg kg(-1) digestive gland) and an unknown species of whelk (6.8 μg kg(-1) digestive gland). Spirolide-1 (SPX1) was confirmed in most samples except for the whelk N. varicifera collected from the Bering Sea. The highest content of SPX1 (≈18.5 μg kg(-1) digestive gland) occurred in the whelk N. varicifera collected from the Chukchi Sea, along with the suspected presence of SPX-C, SPX-D and didesMe-SPX-C. YTX, as well as its derivatives 45-OH-YTX and 45,46,47-Trinor-YTX, were found in all samples, with the highest YTX content (66 μg kg(-1) digestive gland) present in the whelk N. varicifera collected from the Chukchi Sea. Interestingly, STX and dcSTX were measured only in the whelk N. varicifera and unknown species of clam collected from the Chukchi Sea. No AZA-group toxins, gymnodimine (GYM), or pinnatoxin G were found in any samples analyzed. Results demonstrated that the mollusk samples were contaminated by multiple shellfish toxins in the Chukchi and Bering seas. This study highlights the need to monitor potentially toxic microalgae in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions, as well as species of mollusk that may be included in future commercial or

  8. Bacteriophages active against Bacteroides fragilis in sewage-polluted waters.

    PubMed Central

    Tartera, C; Jofre, J

    1987-01-01

    Twelve strains of different Bacteroides species were tested for their efficiency of detection of bacteriophages from sewage. The host range of several isolated phages was investigated. The results indicated that there was a high degree of strain specificity. Then, by using Bacteroides fragilis HSP 40 as the host, which proved to be the most efficient for the detection of phages, feces from humans and several animal species and raw sewage, river water, water from lagoons, seawater, groundwater, and sediments were tested for the presence of bacteriophages that were active against B. fragilis HSP 40. Phages were detected in feces of 10% of the human fecal samples tested and was never detected in feces of the other animal species studied. Moreover, bacteriophages were always recovered from sewage and sewage-polluted samples of waters and sediments, but not from nonpolluted samples. The titers recovered were dependent on the degree of pollution in analyzed waters and sediments. PMID:3662510

  9. Optimizing detection of noble gas emission at a former UNE site: sample strategy, collection, and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkham, R.; Olsen, K.; Hayes, J. C.; Emer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear tests may be first detected by seismic or air samplers operated by the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization). After initial detection of a suspicious event, member nations may call for an On-Site Inspection (OSI) that in part, will sample for localized releases of radioactive noble gases and particles. Although much of the commercially available equipment and methods used for surface and subsurface environmental sampling of gases can be used for an OSI scenario, on-site sampling conditions, required sampling volumes and establishment of background concentrations of noble gases require development of specialized methodologies. To facilitate development of sampling equipment and methodologies that address OSI sampling volume and detection objectives, and to collect information required for model development, a field test site was created at a former underground nuclear explosion site located in welded volcanic tuff. A mixture of SF-6, Xe127 and Ar37 was metered into 4400 m3 of air as it was injected into the top region of the UNE cavity. These tracers were expected to move towards the surface primarily in response to barometric pumping or through delayed cavity pressurization (accelerated transport to minimize source decay time). Sampling approaches compared during the field exercise included sampling at the soil surface, inside surface fractures, and at soil vapor extraction points at depths down to 2 m. Effectiveness of various sampling approaches and the results of tracer gas measurements will be presented.

  10. Transient thermal envelope for rovers and sample collecting devices on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, P. B.; Parzinger, S.; Haarmann, R.; Walter, U.

    2015-03-01

    The requirements for the design of rovers and sample collecting devices for the Moon are driven by the harsh and diverse thermal lunar environment. Local lunar surface temperatures are governed by boulders and craters. The present work quantifies the changes in solar and infrared heat fluxes q˙Sol and q˙IR impinging on a rover or a sample collecting device, on the surface of the Moon, by combining lunar surface models, spacecraft and manipulator models, and transient thermal calculations. The interaction between a rover, boulders, and craters was simulated for three solar elevation angles (θ = 2°, 10°, and 90°), resembling lunar surface temperatures of Treg = 170, 248, and 392 K, respectively. Infrared and solar heat fluxes for paths in the vicinity of a single boulder, a field of five boulders, and a single crater were compared to a path on an unobstructed surface. The same heat fluxes were applied to closed and open sample collecting devices to investigate the temperature development of the transported regolith sample. The results show how total received infrared heat on a rover may increase by up to 331%, over the course of a transit in front of sunlit boulders compared to the same transit over an unobstructed plane. Temporary this leads to a 12-fold increased infrared heat flux at closest distance to the obstacle. A transit through a small bowl shaped crater on the other hand may decrease total received solar heat by as much as 86%. Relative as well as absolute influence of surface features on received heat fluxes increases significantly towards smaller solar elevation angles. The temperature of pristine samples, transported in closed or open sample collecting devices, increase from 120 to 150 K within 1 to 1.3 h if exposed to direct solar illumination and infrared heat. Protection from solar illumination yields in 8-fold and 5-fold increased transport times for closed and open sample devices, respectively. Closed sample transporters dampen short exposure

  11. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Hu, Jiangyong; Tanaka, Shuhei; Fujii, Shigeo

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in the biological units of various full-scale municipal sewage treatment plants were measured. Samples of influent, primary effluent, aeration tank effluent, final effluent and grab samples of primary, activated, secondary and anaerobically digested sludge were collected by 5 sampling events over one year. The two sewage treatment plants (STPs) selected for this study include plant A receiving 95% domestic wastewater and plant B receiving 60% industrial wastewater and 40% domestic wastewater. PFOS and PFOA were observed at higher concentration in aqueous and sludge samples in plant B than that of plant A. Mass flow of PFOS increased significantly (mean 94.6%) in conventional activated sludge process (CAS) of plant B, while it remained consistent after the secondary treatment in plant A. Mass flow of PFOA increased 41.6% (mean) in CAS of plants A and B and 76.6% in membrane biological reactor (MBR), while it remained unchanged after the treatment of liquid treatment module (LTM). Our results suggest that mass flow of these two compounds remains consistent after treatment of activated sludge process operating at short sludge retention time (SRT). Seasonal variations of PFOS in concentrations of raw sewage were found in plant A, while PFOA did not have significant seasonal variation in both plants A and B.

  12. A simultaneous space sampling method for DNA fraction collection using a comb structure in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheyu; Sun, Kai; Sunayama, Misato; Araki, Ryoko; Ueno, Kosei; Abe, Masumi; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2011-11-01

    Fraction collection of selected components from a complex mixture plays a critical role in biomedical research, environmental analysis, and biotechnology. Here, we introduce a novel electrophoretic chip device based on a signal processing theorem that allows simultaneous space sampling for fractionation of ssDNA target fragments. Ten parallel extraction channels, which covered 1.5-mm-long sampling ranges, were used to facilitate the capturing of fast-moving fragments. Furthermore, the space sampling extraction made it possible to acquire pure collection, even from partly overlapping fragments that had been insufficiently separated after a short electrophoretic run. Fragments of 180, 181, and 182 bases were simultaneously collected, and then the recovered DNA was PCR amplified and assessed by CE analysis. The 181-base target was shown to be isolated in a 70-mm-long separation length within 10 min, in contrast to the >50 min required for the 300-mm-long separation channel in our previous study. This method provides effective combination of time and space, which is a breakthrough in the traditional concept of fraction collection on a chip. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Blood cells in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss milt: relation to milt collection method and sampling period.

    PubMed

    Ciereszko, A; Wlasow, T; Dobosz, S; Goryczko, K; Glogowski, J

    2004-10-01

    The presence of blood cells in milt of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) collected every week between the middle at the end of the spawning season, either by stripping or by catheterization was investigated. Basic sperm biological and biochemical characteristics were also evaluated. Because milt often becomes contaminated with blood during collection, we also studied the influence of experimental blood contamination on sperm motility and biochemical parameters of seminal plasma. We demonstrated the presence of blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphoid, and phagocytes) in rainbow trout milt collected by both methods. Both sampling period and collection method influenced sperm characteristics, however the relationship between these characteristics and blood cells are not clear at present. A high number of blood cells in milt was found in some samples, possibly due to inflammation, because at the same time we observed bacteria and elevated levels of protein and antiproteinase activity in contaminated samples. Experimental contamination of milt with blood did not influence sperm motility, protein concentration and LDH activity of the 5-day-stored semen. Our study demonstrated that blood cells were present in rainbow trout milt. Blood cells may also appear in milt as a result of bleeding and their elevated levels are present during inflammation.

  14. Crystallography of Powdered Samples at High Pressure: Practical Aspects of Diffraction Data Collection and Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crichton, W. A.

    2006-12-01

    In this presentation we will give an overview of some typical techniques used to collect, and to analyse, angle- dispersive x-ray diffraction data from powdered samples under high-pressure (and temperature) conditions. The presentation will have a practical basis, using data collected from samples at high-pressure and temperature conditions using large-volume presses and diamond-anvil cells that have been either resistively or laser-heated. We will show how these experiments have been optimised to obtain a variety of different experimental results (phase identification and phase diagram mapping, EoS measurement, structure solution, etc). We will demonstrate different analysis procedures, explain their methodology and, as often as possible, present these analyses with software that is freely available. Demonstration of the techniques will take the audience though basic elements of diffraction data collection and methods of phase identification to indexing and unit-cell refinement, though some common structure solution methods and Rietveld refinement strategies. We will also discuss methods for collecting better data and maximising the information that can be gleaned from powdered samples (of minerals, ceramics, element, glasses, liquids and other materials) at high pressure.

  15. IN VITRO IDENTIFICATION OF ANDROGENIC AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATIONS (CAFO) AND TERTIARY-TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fr...

  16. IN VITRO SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENT SAMPLES FOR ESTROGENIC AND ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY: CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATION, PULP MILL AND TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS, GLOBAL WATER RESEARCH COALITION, AND COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fro...

  17. IN VITRO SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENT SAMPLES FOR ESTROGENIC AND ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY: CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATION, PULP MILL AND TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS, GLOBAL WATER RESEARCH COALITION, AND COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fro...

  18. IN VITRO IDENTIFICATION OF ANDROGENIC AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATIONS (CAFO) AND TERTIARY-TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fr...

  19. A Prototype Ice-Melting Probe for Collecting Biological Samples from Cryogenic Ice at Low Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Ashley

    2017-08-01

    In the Solar System, the surface of an icy moon is composed of irregular ice formations at cryogenic temperatures (<200 K), with an oxidized surface layer and a tenuous atmosphere at very low pressure (<10-6 atm). A lander mission, whose aim is to collect and analyze biological samples from the surface ice, must contain a device that collects samples without refreezing liquid and without sublimation of ice. In addition, if the samples are biological in nature, then precautions must be taken to ensure the samples do not overheat or mix with the oxidized layer. To achieve these conditions, the collector must maintain temperatures close to maintenance or growth conditions of the organism (<293 K), and it must separate or neutralize the oxidized layer and be physically gentle. Here, we describe a device that addresses these requirements and is compatible with low atmospheric pressure while using no pumps. The device contains a heated conical probe with a central orifice, which is forced into surface ice and directs the meltwater upward into a reservoir. The force on the probe is proportional to the height of meltwater (pressure) obtained in the system and allows regulation of the melt rate and temperature of the sample. The device can collect 5-50 mL of meltwater from the surface of an ice block at 233-208 K with an environmental pressure of less than 10-2 atm while maintaining a sample temperature between 273 and 293 K. These conditions maintain most biological samples in a pristine state and maintain the integrity of most organisms' structure and function.

  20. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Enterobacteriaceae in municipal sewage and their emission to the environment.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewska, Ewa; Harnisz, Monika

    2013-10-15

    The spread of Gram-negative bacteria with plasmid-borne extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) has become a worldwide problem. Their prevalence is increasing, both in hospitals and in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in municipal sewage and their emission to the ambient air and the river receiving effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In the group of 455 isolated strains, up to 19.8% (90 isolates) were phenotypic ESBL-producers. They were detected in the 63 (100%) of sewage samples analyzed, 7 (33.3%) of river water and in 10 (23.8%) of air samples collected at the WWTP area. The plasmid-mediated genes encoding beta-lactams resistance were detected in almost 10% out of bacteria of the WWTP's final effluents and in above 32% out of bacteria of air at the WWTP area. It confirms that those genes are released into the environment, which might facilitate further dissemination among environmental bacteria. Moreover, genes encoding antibiotic resistance were shown to be transferrable to an Escherichia coli recipient strain, which indicates a high possibility of horizontal gene transfer among strains of different genera within the sewage and environmental samples. This study demonstrated that despite the treatment, the municipal sewage may be a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance genes. This may pose a public health risk, which requires future evaluation and control.

  1. Influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of organochlorine pesticides in soil-groundwater systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caixiang; Liao, Xiaoping; Li, Jiale; Xu, Liang; Liu, Ming; Du, Bin; Wang, Yanxin

    2013-07-01

    Serious shortage of water resources is one of the major factors restricting the sustainable development of cropland and pasture land in northern and northwestern China. Although the reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation becomes a well established practice in these regions, many contaminants have been also introduced into the soil-groundwater systems such as persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). To study the influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems, the groundwater flow field was investigated and 31 topsoil samples, 9 boreholes, 11 sewage effluents and 34 groundwater samples were collected in Xiaodian, Taiyuan city, one of the largest sewage irrigation districts, China. During sampling, three representative types of regions were considered including effluent-irrigated area, groundwater-irrigated area served as the control field and no-irrigated area as reference "background". The results showed over-exploitation of groundwater had changed the flow field of groundwater and wherever in soil or in groundwater, the concentration of OCPs in effluent-irrigation area presented the highest value, which indicated that the sewage irrigation had a strong influence on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems. Principal component analysis for OCPs content in groundwater showed that the major influence factors on the occurrence and distribution of OCPs in groundwater systems attribute to the flow field of groundwater and to the current pesticide use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Thomas D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Hoover, Mark D.

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post-impact, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the vehicle commander, loader, gunner, and driver. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for depleted uranium concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol.

  3. Aerosol sampling system for collection of Capstone depleted uranium particles in a high-energy environment.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Thomas D; Guilmette, Raymond A; Cheng, Yung Sung; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Hoover, Mark D

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a large-caliber DU penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post perforation, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the crew locations in the test vehicles. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for measurement of chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for DU concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol.

  4. Validation of a Sampling Method to Collect Exposure Data for Central-Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Naïma; Mertens, Karl; Overholser, Rosanna; Goetghebeur, Els; Catry, Boudewijn; Lambert, Marie-Laurence

    2016-05-01

    Surveillance of central-line-associated bloodstream infections requires the labor-intensive counting of central-line days (CLDs). This workload could be reduced by sampling. Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of various sampling strategies in the estimation of CLDs in intensive care units (ICUs) and to establish a set of rules to identify optimal sampling strategies depending on ICU characteristics. Analyses of existing data collected according to the European protocol for patient-based surveillance of ICU-acquired infections in Belgium between 2004 and 2012. CLD data were reported by 56 ICUs in 39 hospitals during 364 trimesters. We compared estimated CLD data obtained from weekly and monthly sampling schemes with the observed exhaustive CLD data over the trimester by assessing the CLD percentage error (ie, observed CLDs - estimated CLDs/observed CLDs). We identified predictors of improved accuracy using linear mixed models. When sampling once per week or 3 times per month, 80% of ICU trimesters had a CLD percentage error within 10%. When sampling twice per week, this was >90% of ICU trimesters. Sampling on Tuesdays provided the best estimations. In the linear mixed model, the observed CLD count was the best predictor for a smaller percentage error. The following sampling strategies provided an estimate within 10% of the actual CLD for 97% of the ICU trimesters with 90% confidence: 3 times per month in an ICU with >650 CLDs per trimester or each Tuesday in an ICU with >480 CLDs per trimester. Sampling of CLDs provides an acceptable alternative to daily collection of CLD data.

  5. Evaluation of a novel dried blood spot collection device (HemaSpot™) to test blood samples collected from dogs for antibodies to Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Pick, Leanne D; Hernandez, Jaime O Esquivel; Lindsay, David S

    2014-09-15

    Collection of blood samples from veterinary and wildlife patients is often challenging because the samples have to be collected on farm or in the wild under various environmental conditions. This poses many technical problems associated with venipuncture materials, their safe use and disposal, transportation and processing of collected samples. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection techniques offer a simple and practical alternative to traditional blood collection methods to obtain blood samples from animals for parasite antibody evaluation. The DBS collection devices are compact, simple to use, and are particularly useful for large number of samples. Additionally, DBS samples take up less space and they are easier to transport than traditional venipuncture-collected blood samples. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease of dogs and humans and it is frequently diagnosed by antibody tests. Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for antibodies to Leishmania infantum are commercially available for dogs and they produce qualitative results in minutes. Measurement of canine antibodies to L. infantum with the ICT using traditional venipuncture has been validated previously, but the use of DBS samples has not been evaluated using this method. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of DBS samples to detect antibodies to L. infantum in dogs using a commercial ICT assay. One hundred plasma samples from dogs experimentally infected with the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum were collected by venipuncture and frozen. Individual samples were thawed, and then 80 μl plasma (2 drops) was aliquotted onto the 8-spoked disk pad on individual DBS sample collection devices (HemaSpot™, Spot-On Sciences, Austin, TX), dried, and stored in the dark at room temperature. After one month and six months, respectively, 2 spokes of the 8 spokes of the disk pad of each DBS sample were removed and eluted in 200 μl PBS. The eluate was used to test

  6. Alkylphenol Polyethoxylate Derivatives in Groundwater and Blood Samples Collected from Pig Herds in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    CHIU, Tai-Shun; HSIEH, Chi-Ying; MIAW, Chang-Ling; LIN, Chao-Nan; CHANG, Tsung-Chou; YEN, Chia-Hung; CHIOU, Ming-Tang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEO) derivatives, such as nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP), have been detected in the surface water, sediment, food and groundwater of numerous countries. Because groundwater is the main source of water for pig herds, the aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of APEO derivatives in groundwater and blood samples that were collected from pig herds raised near the Wuluo River in Southern Taiwan. The mean concentrations of NP, OP, NP1EO and NP2EO in the groundwater supply for 10 pig herds were 0.04 µg/l, 0.26 ± 0.23 µg/l, 0.74 ± 0.69 µg/l and 0.17 ± 0.22 µg/l, respectively. NP was detected in all blood samples collected from 5 of the 10 pig herds. The highest concentrations detected in the blood samples collected from six-week-old piglets and sows were 12.00 µg/l and 56.94 µg/l, respectively. Blood samples from 4 of the 5 herds showed OP contamination. The highest OP concentrations detected in 6-week-old piglets and sows were 275.58 µg/l and 566.32 µg/l, respectively. These results indicate that APEO derivatives accumulated in the groundwater supply and the bloodstreams of the pigs. PMID:24694943

  7. Alkylphenol polyethoxylate derivatives in groundwater and blood samples collected from pig herds in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tai-Shun; Hsieh, Chi-Ying; Miaw, Chang-Ling; Lin, Chao-Nan; Chang, Tsung-Chou; Yen, Chia-Hung; Chiou, Ming-Tang

    2014-07-01

    Alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEO) derivatives, such as nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP), have been detected in the surface water, sediment, food and groundwater of numerous countries. Because groundwater is the main source of water for pig herds, the aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of APEO derivatives in groundwater and blood samples that were collected from pig herds raised near the Wuluo River in Southern Taiwan. The mean concentrations of NP, OP, NP1EO and NP2EO in the groundwater supply for 10 pig herds were 0.04 µg/l, 0.26 ± 0.23 µg/l, 0.74 ± 0.69 µg/l and 0.17 ± 0.22 µg/l, respectively. NP was detected in all blood samples collected from 5 of the 10 pig herds. The highest concentrations detected in the blood samples collected from six-week-old piglets and sows were 12.00 µg/l and 56.94 µg/l, respectively. Blood samples from 4 of the 5 herds showed OP contamination. The highest OP concentrations detected in 6-week-old piglets and sows were 275.58 µg/l and 566.32 µg/l, respectively. These results indicate that APEO derivatives accumulated in the groundwater supply and the bloodstreams of the pigs.

  8. Comparison of collection efficiencies of sampling methods for removable beryllium surface contamination.

    PubMed

    Dufay, Sarah K; Archuleta, Melecita

    2006-06-01

    The primary goal of this study is to compare wet versus dry sampling methods for three different media, (Whatman 41 filter papers, GhostWipes, and SKC Smear Tabs), These media were selected because they are the most commonly used means for the collection of beryllium from contaminated surfaces within the DOE Complex. A range of known concentrations of beryllium was introduced onto a smooth nonporous surface. All three types of media were tested for collection efficiency in both the wet and dry mode and analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES).

  9. Salivary cortisol results obtainable within minutes of sample collection correspond with traditional immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliff, E.A.; Buck, R.L.; Laughlin, M.; Hart, T.; Cole, C.R.; Slowey, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cortisol is frequently assayed as a stress-responsive biomarker which changes over the course of minutes to meet the demands of an individual’s social context. Salivary cortisol is often utilized as a non-invasive sampling methodology which possesses important health implications. A critical barrier to psychobiological research involving salivary cortisol is a time-delay of days to months before cortisol results are obtained via immunoassay, long after the individual is no longer proximate to the social context in which they provided the sample. The current study was designed to address this critical barrier through creation of a lateral flow technology (LFT) cortisol device capable of measuring salivary cortisol within minutes of sample collection. LFT is frequently used within commercial point-of-care settings to obtain rapid answers to the presence/absence of a biomarker. The present study extends LFT into the research domain by presenting performance characteristics of a quantitative LFT which measures salivary cortisol within 20 minutes of sample collection. Methods Saliva samples on N=29 adults (15 males) were obtained in the morning and afternoon using Passive Drool and then the Super•SAL™ Extra Collection Device (hereafter Super•SAL™) and later assayed with LFT and a commercially available enzyme-immunoassay. Findings Results show LFT correlated well with these collection methods (R=.872 with Super•SAL™; R=.739 with Passive Drool, p-values<.0001) and at comparable levels to correspondence of Super•SAL™ with Passive Drool (R=.798, p<.0001) which were measured with the same assay. Implications These results open up an exciting new possibility to integrate this technological advance into stress research, including knowing and potentially changing the individual’s social context in a time-sensitive manner. Methodological improvements such as this have the possibility of refining conceptual models of stress reactivity and regulation

  10. Salivary cortisol results obtainable within minutes of sample collection correspond with traditional immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Buck, Robert L; Laughlin, Mary J; Hart, Thomas; Cole, Craig R; Slowey, Paul D

    2015-03-01

    Cortisol is frequently assayed as a stress-responsive biomarker which changes over the course of minutes to meet the demands of a person's social context. Salivary cortisol is often used as a noninvasive sampling method that possesses important health implications. A critical barrier to psychobiological research that involves salivary cortisol is a time delay of days to months before cortisol results are obtained via immunoassay, long after the person is no longer proximate to the social context in which they provided the sample. The present study was designed to address this critical barrier through creation of a lateral flow test (LFT) cortisol device capable of measuring salivary cortisol within minutes of sample collection. The LFT is frequently used within commercial point-of-care settings to obtain rapid answers to the presence/absence of a biomarker. The present study extends the LFT into the research domain by presenting performance characteristics of a quantitative LFT that measures salivary cortisol within 20 minutes of sample collection. Saliva samples from 29 adults (15 men) were obtained in the morning and afternoon by using Passive Drool and then the Super·SAL Extra Collection Device (hereafter Super·SAL) and later assayed with LFT and a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Results indicate the LFT correlated well with these collection methods (R = 0.872 with Super · SAL, R = 0.739 with Passive Drool, P < 0.0001) and at comparable levels to correspondence of Super · SAL with Passive Drool (R = 0.798, P < 0.0001) which were measured with the same assay. These results open an exciting new possibility to integrate this technologic advance into stress research, including knowing and potentially changing the person's social context in a time-sensitive manner. Methodological improvements such as this have the possibility of refining conceptual models of stress reactivity and regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights

  11. Microbial monitoring and methods of sample collection: a GITMO survey (Gruppo Trapianto di Midollo Osseo)

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Erica; Callea, Emanuela; Alberani, Francesca; Orlando, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The collection of microbiological samples represents an important aspect of care both for doctors as well as nurses. It is important to recognise and identify some key points, to avoid performing ‘unnecessary’ or ‘incorrect’ sampling, which may give useless or even misleading results, these are: the moment at which the sample is collected, the collection method and timing (if indicated). The comparison between the various nursing members of the Italian National bone marrow transplant group (GITMO), showed diversity of practice across all fields. A formal survey was therefore conducted within GITMO centres looking at the methods of microbiological sample collection. These results were compared with the literature, and in addition to the lack of homogeneity of practice within the centres, a lack of compliance with the recommendations was also observed. To evaluate the effectiveness of this survey in highlighting awareness of this issue and the presence of relevant guidelines, the questionnaire was repeated (with the same centres responding), which demonstrated no major changes in care practices. Conclusion: The survey has allowed us to highlight many critical issues regarding common procedures which are not commonly discussed. Considerable differences were noted between different transplant centres, which may be attributable to the lack of Italian guidelines that can be used as a starting point for clinical practice. The plenary discussion allowed for an exchange of findings with the medical staff, who are usually responsible for requesting microbiological samples. The ideal solution would be a unique field-based training programme, associated with the dissemination of a common procedural document for ensuring evidence-based practice. PMID:24834116

  12. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "…documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working to-wards a state of maximum proficiency. Founding Principle: Curatorial activities began at JSC (Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973) as soon as design and construction planning for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) began in 1964 [1], not with the return of the Apollo samples in 1969, nor with the completion of the LRL in 1967. This practice has since proven that curation begins as soon as a sample return mission is conceived, and this founding principle continues to return dividends today [e.g., 2]. The Next Decade: Part of the curation process is planning for the future, and we refer to these planning efforts as "advanced curation" [3]. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. We are (and have been) planning for future curation, including cold curation, extended curation of ices and volatiles, curation of samples with special chemical considerations such as perchlorate-rich samples, curation of organically- and biologically-sensitive samples, and the use of minimally invasive analytical techniques (e.g., micro-CT, [4]) to characterize samples. These efforts will be useful for Mars Sample Return

  13. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS)—A master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The general consideration for implementation of the GCMS is that all active USGS geologic sample repositories will form the core of GCMS and that participating science centers will develop procedures based on proposed GCMS methodologies. The GCMS is a collective resource for the entire USGS community and the users who discover the geologic materials kept in these repositories and seek to access them.

  14. Evaluation of uncertainties associated with the determination of community drug use through the measurement of sewage drug biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Castiglioni, Sara; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Covaci, Adrian; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; Reid, Malcolm; Ort, Christoph; Thomas, Kevin V; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; de Voogt, Pim; Zuccato, Ettore

    2013-02-05

    The aim of this study was to integrally address the uncertainty associated with all the steps used to estimate community drug consumption through the chemical analysis of sewage biomarkers of illicit drugs. Uncertainty has been evaluated for sampling, chemical analysis, stability of drug biomarkers in sewage, back-calculation of drug use (specific case of cocaine), and estimation of population size in a catchment using data collected from a recent Europe-wide investigation and from the available literature. The quality of sampling protocols and analytical measurements has been evaluated by analyzing standardized questionnaires collected from 19 sewage treatments plants (STPs) and the results of an interlaboratory study (ILS), respectively. Extensive reviews of the available literature have been used to evaluate stability of drug biomarkers in sewage and the uncertainty related to back-calculation of cocaine use. Different methods for estimating population size in a catchment have been compared and the variability among the collected data was very high (7-55%). A reasonable strategy to reduce uncertainty was therefore to choose the most reliable estimation case by case. In the other cases, the highest uncertainties are related to the analysis of sewage drug biomarkers (uncertainty as relative standard deviation; RSD: 6-26% from ILS) and to the back-calculation of cocaine use (uncertainty; RSD: 26%). Uncertainty can be kept below 10% in the remaining steps, if specific requirements outlined in this work are considered. For each step, a best practice protocol has been suggested and discussed to reduce and keep to a minimum the uncertainty of the entire procedure and to improve the reliability of the estimates of drug use.

  15. Multiple Approaches to Down Sizing of the Lunar Sample Return Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Horz, F.

    2010-01-01

    Future Lunar missions are planned for at least 7 days, significantly longer than the 3 days of the later Apollo missions. The last of those missions, A-17, returned 111 kg of samples plus another 20 kg of containers. The current Constellation program requirements for return weight for science is 100 kg with the hope of raising that limit to near 250 kg including containers and other non-geological materials. The estimated return weight for rock and soil samples will, at best, be about 175 kg. One method proposed to accomplish down-sizing of the collection is the use of a Geo-Lab in the lunar habitat to complete a preliminary examination of selected samples and facilitate prioritizing the return samples.

  16. Spectroscopic Characterization of Dust-Fall Samples Collected from Greater Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shaltout, Abdallah A; Allam, Mousa A; Mostafa, Nasser Y; Heiba, Zein K

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to characterize dust-fall samples collected from street's trees in Greater Cairo (GC), Egypt, and its surroundings by different spectroscopic techniques, namely; X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), particle-size analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray measurements. Samples were collected from 19 different locations inside and outside of GC. Quantitative phase analysis of the dust-fall samples was performed using the Rietveld method. Results showed that the most frequently observed phases in the dust-fall samples were calcite (CaCO3), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and quartz (SiO2) with average concentrations of 39 ± 16, 8 ± 7, 22 ± 13, and 33 ± 14 wt%, respectively. The occurrence of these constituents referred to a combination of different anthropogenic and natural sources. The ATR-FTIR results are in good agreements with XRD data of the different observed phases. Based on the SEM and particle-size measurements, quantitative determination of the particle-size distribution was described. It was found that not only the large-sized particles are deposited but also the small-sized ones (PM10 and PM2.5). In addition, the particle size of the collected dust-fall samples varied from 0.1 to 200 µm with an average particle size of 17.36 µm; however, the particle size ranged from 2.5 to 40 µm predominated in all of the dust-fall samples.

  17. Asteroid surface impact sampling: dependence of the cavity morphology and collected mass on projectile shape.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bin; Yu, Yang; Baoyin, Hexi

    2017-08-30

    In-situ exploration and remote thermal infrared observation revealed that a large fraction of Solar System small bodies should be covered with granular regolith. The complex and varied geology of the regolith layer may preserve the historical records of the surface modification and topographic evolution experienced by asteroids, especially cratering processes, in which the projectile shape plays a crucial role. Regarding the impact sampling scheme, the projectile-shape dependence of both the cavity morphology and the collected mass remains to be explored. This paper studies the process of the low-speed impact sampling on granular regolith using projectiles of different shapes. The results demonstrate that the projectile shape significantly influences the excavation stage, forming cavities with different morphologies, i.e., cone-shaped, bowl-shaped and U-shaped. We further indicate that the different velocity distributions of the ejecta curtains due to the various projectile shapes result in various amounts of collected mass in sampler canister, regarding which the 60° conical projectile exhibits preferable performance for impact sampling scheme. The results presented in this article are expected to reveal the dependence of the excavation process on projectile shape under micro gravity and provide further information on the optimal designs of impact sampling devices for future sample-return space missions.

  18. Efficient Genome-Wide Sequencing and Low-Coverage Pedigree Analysis from Noninvasively Collected Samples

    PubMed Central

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Majoros, William H.; Yuan, Michael L.; Shaver, Amanda O.; Gordon, Jacob B.; Kopp, Gisela H.; Schlebusch, Stephen A.; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Alberts, Susan C.; Mukherjee, Sayan; Zhou, Xiang; Tung, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Research on the genetics of natural populations was revolutionized in the 1990s by methods for genotyping noninvasively collected samples. However, these methods have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years and lag far behind the genomics era. To close this gap, here we report an optimized laboratory protocol for genome-wide capture of endogenous DNA from noninvasively collected samples, coupled with a novel computational approach to reconstruct pedigree links from the resulting low-coverage data. We validated both methods using fecal samples from 62 wild baboons, including 48 from an independently constructed extended pedigree. We enriched fecal-derived DNA samples up to 40-fold for endogenous baboon DNA and reconstructed near-perfect pedigree relationships even with extremely low-coverage sequencing. We anticipate that these methods will be broadly applicable to the many research systems for which only noninvasive samples are available. The lab protocol and software (“WHODAD”) are freely available at www.tung-lab.org/protocols-and-software.html and www.xzlab.org/software.html, respectively. PMID:27098910

  19. Efficient Genome-Wide Sequencing and Low-Coverage Pedigree Analysis from Noninvasively Collected Samples.

    PubMed

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Majoros, William H; Yuan, Michael L; Shaver, Amanda O; Gordon, Jacob B; Kopp, Gisela H; Schlebusch, Stephen A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Alberts, Susan C; Mukherjee, Sayan; Zhou, Xiang; Tung, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Research on the genetics of natural populations was revolutionized in the 1990s by methods for genotyping noninvasively collected samples. However, these methods have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years and lag far behind the genomics era. To close this gap, here we report an optimized laboratory protocol for genome-wide capture of endogenous DNA from noninvasively collected samples, coupled with a novel computational approach to reconstruct pedigree links from the resulting low-coverage data. We validated both methods using fecal samples from 62 wild baboons, including 48 from an independently constructed extended pedigree. We enriched fecal-derived DNA samples up to 40-fold for endogenous baboon DNA and reconstructed near-perfect pedigree relationships even with extremely low-coverage sequencing. We anticipate that these methods will be broadly applicable to the many research systems for which only noninvasive samples are available. The lab protocol and software ("WHODAD") are freely available at www.tung-lab.org/protocols-and-software.html and www.xzlab.org/software.html, respectively. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Marine sources of ice nucleating particles: results from phytoplankton cultures and samples collected at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbourn, E.; Thornton, D.; Brooks, S. D.; Graff, J.

    2016-12-01

    The role of marine aerosols as ice nucleating particles is currently poorly understood. Despite growing interest, there are remarkably few ice nucleation measurements on representative marine samples. Here we present results of heterogeneous ice nucleation from laboratory studies and in-situ air and sea water samples collected during NAAMES (North Atlantic Aerosol and Marine Ecosystems Study). Thalassiosira weissflogii (CCMP 1051) was grown under controlled conditions in batch cultures and the ice nucleating activity depended on the growth phase of the cultures. Immersion freezing temperatures of the lab-grown diatoms were determined daily using a custom ice nucleation apparatus cooled at a set rate. Our results show that the age of the culture had a significant impact on ice nucleation temperature, with samples in stationary phase causing nucleation at -19.9 °C, approximately nine degrees warmer than the freezing temperature during exponential growth phase. Field samples gathered during the NAAMES II cruise in May 2016 were also tested for ice nucleating ability. Two types of samples were gathered. Firstly, whole cells were fractionated by size from surface seawater using a BD Biosciences Influx Cell Sorter (BD BS ISD). Secondly, aerosols were generated using the SeaSweep and subsequently size-selected using a PIXE Cascade Impactor. Samples were tested for the presence of ice nucleating particles (INP) using the technique described above. There were significant differences in the freezing temperature of the different samples; of the three sample types the lab-grown cultures tested during stationary phase froze at the warmest temperatures, followed by the SeaSweep samples (-25.6 °C) and the size-fractionated cell samples (-31.3 °C). Differences in ice nucleation ability may be due to size differences between the INP, differences in chemical composition of the sample, or some combination of these two factors. Results will be presented and atmospheric implications

  1. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  2. Evaluation of water samples collected during LANDSAT-1 overpasses of the lower Chesapeake Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Water samples were collected on 18 days when the LANDSAT-1 satellite was passing over the lower Chesapeake Bay area. A correlation between the various water parameters has been performed for the more than 300 surface samples. Six days were sufficiently cloudless that MSS digital tapes were useful for analysis. Correlation of radiance values with the water parameters revealed a low correlation for chlorophyll and good correlations with particles and sediment. The relation of total particles to sediment was linear, but varied from day to day.

  3. Potential contamination of forensic entomology samples collected in the mortuary: a case report.

    PubMed

    Archer, M S; Ranson, D L

    2005-01-01

    Carrion insects originating from infested bodies may establish small mortuary populations. Two Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine cases are presented to illustrate how these insects can potentially contaminate forensic entomology samples collected in the mortuary. The first case proves that bodies can be colonised in the mortuary: when a decomposed body in freezer storage was thawed for a procedure in the main mortuary, it was colonised within five minutes of exposure by the beetle Necrobia rufipes De Geer (Cleridae, Coleoptera). The second case illustrates that immobile juvenile insects can be transferred between bodies, and describes the transfer of an Eristalis sp. (Syrphidae, Diptera) pupa from a decomposed to a fresh body. While the contamination risk is slight, it can be further minimised by checking mortuary-collected samples against those taken from the body discovery site, by mortuary pest control, and by checking previous mortuary admittance records for possible contamination sources.

  4. Enhanced Conformational Sampling Using Replica Exchange with Collective-Variable Tempering

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The computational study of conformational transitions in RNA and proteins with atomistic molecular dynamics often requires suitable enhanced sampling techniques. We here introduce a novel method where concurrent metadynamics are integrated in a Hamiltonian replica-exchange scheme. The ladder of replicas is built with different strengths of the bias potential exploiting the tunability of well-tempered metadynamics. Using this method, free-energy barriers of individual collective variables are significantly reduced compared with simple force-field scaling. The introduced methodology is flexible and allows adaptive bias potentials to be self-consistently constructed for a large number of simple collective variables, such as distances and dihedral angles. The method is tested on alanine dipeptide and applied to the difficult problem of conformational sampling in a tetranucleotide. PMID:25838811

  5. Prevalence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance among Aeromonas populations from a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling system in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mokhlasur; Huys, Geert; Kühn, Inger; Rahman, Motiur; Möllby, Roland

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate the influence of a duckweed aquaculture based hospital sewage water recycling plant on the prevalence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance, we made use of an existing collection of 1,315 Aeromonas isolates that were previously typed by the biochemical fingerprinting PhP-AE system. In these treatment plant, hospital raw sewage water is first collected in a settlement pond (referred to as sewage water in this study) and is then transferred to a lagoon, where the duckweed (Lemnaceae) is grown (referred to as lagoon). The duckweed is harvested and used as feed for the fish in a separate pond (referred to as fish pond). From this collection, representatives of 288 PhP types were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing for eight antimicrobials by broth microdilution method. The overall resistance rates among Aeromonas isolates from the treatment plant were highest for ampicillin (87%) and erythromycin (79%) followed by cephalothin (58%), nalidixic acid (52%), streptomycin (51%), tetracycline (31%), chloramphenicol (13%) and gentamicin (8%). A significantly lower prevalence of antibiotic resistance was found in Aeromonas from environmental control water, patient stool samples, duckweed and fish compared to sewage water isolates. The prevalence of resistance in the sewage water was not significantly reduced compared to the lagoon water and fish pond. Throughout the treatment system, the frequencies of resistant strains were found to diminish during the sewage water purification process, i.e. in the lagoon where sewage water is used to grow the duckweed. However, the frequency of resistant strains again increased in the fish pond where sewage grown duckweed is used for aquaculture. Among the selected isolates, two multiresistant clonal groups of Aeromonas caviae HG4 were identified that exhibited indistinguishable PhP and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints and shared a common plasmid of approximately 5 kb

  6. Integrated exposure assessment of sewage workers to genotoxicants: an urinary biomarker approach and oxidative stress evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sewage workers are exposed to multiple chemicals among which many are suspected genotoxicants. Therefore, they might incur DNA damage and oxidative stress. We aimed to explore integrated urinary biomarkers, assessing the overall urine genotoxicity by in vitro comet and micronucleus assays and measuring urinary 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine. Methods During three consecutive working days, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds were sampled in workplace air of 34 sewage and 30 office workers, as indicators of airborne exposure. The last day, subjects collected their 24 hours urine. Genotoxicity of urinary extracts was assessed by comet and micronucleus assays on a HepG2 cell line. Using competitive enzymatic immunoassay we evaluated the 24 hours urinary 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion. Benzo(a)pyrene toxicity equivalent factors and inhalation unit risk for Benzo(a)pyrene and benzene were used to give an estimate of cancer risk levels. Results Workplace air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. 23.7 [range 2.4-104.6] ng.m-3 for fluoranthene) and volatile organic compounds (e.g. 19.1 ± 2.9 [standard error] μ.m-3 for benzene) were elevated in sewage compared to office workplaces (P < 0.01) and corresponded to an increased lifetime cancer risk. The urinary extracts of sewage workers showed higher genotoxicity (P < 0.001) than office workers. Conclusions The integrated and non-specific urinary biomarkers of exposure showed that sewage workers experience exposure to mixtures of genotoxicants in the workplace. PMID:21435260

  7. Benthic distribution of sewage sludge indicated by clostridium perfringens at a deep-ocean dump site

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.T.; Knight, I.T.; Anikis, M.S.; Colwell, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens in sediment samples collected at the Deep Water Municipal Sewage Sludge Disposal Site (also called the 106-Mile Site), off the coast of New Jersey, was enumerated. The counts of C. perfringens found in sediment samples collected within and to the southwest of the 106-Mile Site were significantly elevated (P. < 0.01) compared with counts of samples from reference stations of similar depth (2,400 to 2,700 m), topography, and distance from the continental shelf, indicating that the benthic environment was contaminated by sewage dumping at the site. Low counts of C. perfringens in sediment samples collected at stations between the base of the continental shelf and the 106-Mile Site indicated that coastal runoff was not a significant source of contamination. Elevated counts were observed for samples up to 92 km to the southwest, whereas low counts were obtained for samples from stations to the east of the 106-Mile Site. The distribution is consistent with previous model predictions of sludge deposition. In areas heavily impacted by sludge dumping, C. perfringens counts were generally highest in the top 1 cm of sediment and exceeded 9,000 CFU g (dry weight) of sediment. The patterns of C. perfringens dispersal observed in the study have proved useful for selection of heavily impacted areas and control stations for further ecological evaluation by a multidisciplinary research team.

  8. STS-55 Payload Specialist Schlegel collects fungi sample at SL-D2 Rack 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing lightweight headset, collects fungi sample while working at Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module Rack 1 Work Bench. Schlegel is conducting these procedures in conjunction with the 'Fruiting Body Development of Fungi' experiment. Pieces of the experiment casing freefloat in the workstation.Schlegel represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day spacelab mission.

  9. STS-55 Payload Specialist Schlegel collects fungi sample at SL-D2 Rack 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing lightweight headset, collects fungi sample while working at Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module Rack 1 Work Bench. Schlegel is conducting these procedures in conjunction with the 'Fruiting Body Development of Fungi' experiment. Schlegel was one of two payload specialists representing the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day spacelab mission.

  10. STS-55 Payload Specialist Schlegel collects fungi sample at SL-D2 Rack 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing lightweight headset, collects fungi sample while working at Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module Rack 1 Work Bench. Schlegel is conducting these procedures in conjunction with the 'Fruiting Body Development of Fungi' experiment. Schlegel was one of two payload specialists representing the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day spacelab mission.

  11. STS-55 Payload Specialist Schlegel collects fungi sample at SL-D2 Rack 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing lightweight headset, collects fungi sample while working at Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module Rack 1 Work Bench. Schlegel is conducting these procedures in conjunction with the 'Fruiting Body Development of Fungi' experiment. Pieces of the experiment casing freefloat in the workstation.Schlegel represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day spacelab mission.

  12. [Health agents' perspective on the incorporation of self-collected samples in HPV screening programs].

    PubMed

    Curotto, Mariana; Barletta, Paula; Paolino, Melisa; Arrossi, Silvina

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze health agents' perception of self-collecting of samples for HPV testing among women and the degree of agreement by the agents to incorporate this approach into their daily tasks. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to 127/191 health agents that participated in the EMA Project (Proyecto Evaluación Modalidad Autotoma) in the province of Jujuy, Argentina, in 2012-2013. The health agents with and without the experience of offering self-collected sampling expressed a high degree of agreement towards adoption of the strategy (78.7%), given its potential to prevent cervical cancer and its contribution to health care for the women under their coverage. However, the health agents identified the extra work and problems linking to the formal health system as the main barriers to offering this modality in the future. The study found that self-collecting of samples is a practice that can be adopted by health agents in the province of Jujuy, but that it should be accompanied by support measures from the formal health system.

  13. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Hemmersbach, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral salbutamol, subjects performed submaximal exercise for 15 min followed by two, 2-min exercise bouts at an intensity corresponding to 110% of VO2max and a bout to exhaustion at same intensity. Urine samples were collected 4, 8, and 12 h following administration of salbutamol. Samples were analyzed by the Norwegian World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) laboratory. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment according to WADA's technical documents. We observed greater (P = 0.01) urine concentrations of salbutamol 4 h after administration when samples were adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment (3089 ± 911 vs. 1918 ± 1081 ng/mL). With the current urine decision limit of 1200 ng/mL for salbutamol on WADA's 2013 list of prohibited substances, fewer false negative urine samples were observed when adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment. In conclusion, adjustment of urine samples to a USG of 1.020 g/mL decreases risk of false negative doping tests after administration of oral salbutamol. Adjusting urine samples for USG might be useful when evaluating urine concentrations of salbutamol in doping cases.

  14. Determination of trace elements in volcanic rock samples collected from cenozoic lava eruption sites using LIBS.

    PubMed

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Nasr, Mohamed M; Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Yamani, Zain H

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements of environmental significance present in the volcanic rock samples collected from sites of the Cenozoic era flood basalt flows and eruptions were detected using locally developed laser-induced breakdown spectrometer. For spectro-chemical analysis of these samples, the plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd: YAG laser radiation at 1064 nm wavelength on the target rock samples. These samples were collected from four widely separated locations surrounding the volcanic eruption sites belonging to the Harrat Hutaymah volcanic field in the vicinity of Taba town, situated to the east of Hail city of northern Saudi Arabia. These samples represent the scoria basalt lava flows as well as a large tuff-ring crater and it contains xenoliths. These flows occur widespread over the Earth's surface in this region, and their contained xenoliths are brought up from depths of a few tens of kilometers. This volcanic field has received much less attention in the previous geological studies; and consequently, its effects on the environment are not well defined. The concentration of different elements of environmental significance like Cr, Pb, Mn, Cd, Sr and other trace metals like Cu, Al, Ca, Mg, Zn, Ti and Fe in these rock samples were determined by spectral analysis. Parametric dependence for improvement of LIBS sensitivity for detection of these elements was also carried out. The highest concentration detected of environmentally significant elements like Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and Ni are 1910, 1399, 90.5, 12412 and 461.5 ppm, respectively in four different lava samples which are considered to be much higher than the safe permissible limits. The LIBS results were compared with the results obtained using other analytical techniques such as the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES).

  15. Critical evaluation of methodology commonly used in sample collection, storage and preparation for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in surface water and wastewater by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Baker, David R; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2011-11-04

    The main aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive and critical verification of methodology commonly used for sample collection, storage and preparation in studies concerning the analysis of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in aqueous environmental samples with the usage of SPE-LC/MS techniques. This manuscript reports the results of investigations into several sample preparation parameters that to the authors' knowledge have not been reported or have received very little attention. This includes: (i) effect of evaporation temperature and (ii) solvent with regards to solid phase extraction (SPE) extracts; (iii) effect of silanising glassware; (iv) recovery of analytes during vacuum filtration through glass fibre filters and (v) pre LC-MS filter membranes. All of these parameters are vital to develop efficient and reliable extraction techniques; an essential factor given that target drug residues are often present in the aqueous environment at ng L(-1) levels. Presented is also the first comprehensive review of the stability of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in wastewater. Among the parameters studied are: time of storage, temperature and pH. Over 60 analytes were targeted including stimulants, opioid and morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, dissociative anaesthetics, drug precursors, human urine indicators and their metabolites. The lack of stability of analytes in raw wastewater was found to be significant for many compounds. For instance, 34% of compounds studied reported a stability change >15% after only 12 h in raw wastewater stored at 2 °C; a very important finding given that wastewater is typically collected with the use of 24 h composite samplers. The stability of these compounds is also critical given the recent development of so-called 'sewage forensics' or 'sewage epidemiology' in which concentrations of target drug residues in wastewater are used to back-calculate drug consumption. Without an understanding of stability

  16. [Biocenotic dynamics of liquid sewage in the process of its biological purification at aeration stations].

    PubMed

    Kalina, G P; Vinogradova, L A; Gipp, E K

    1975-08-01

    A study was made of biological purification of sewage at the aeration stations on the quantitative composition of the main indicator microbes--of bacteria of the coliform group and of the fecal coliform bacilli, enterococci, Proteus, and also pathogenic enterobacteria. There was found a difference in the behaviour of different species of Proteus, i.e. reduction in the process of purification in the numbers of Pr. mirabilis, and a sharp elevation of Pr. morganii content. There was noted an insignificant amount of Pr. vulgaris both before and after the biological purification. It was found that dynamics of biocenosis was influenced by air temperature at the time of collection of the samples. A possibility of reproduction of coliform bacilli serving as one of the factors of autopurification of sewage during the biological purification was confirmed.

  17. Decline in PCDD and PCDF levels in sewage sludges from Catalonia (Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Eljarrat, E.; Caixach, J.; Rivera, J. . Mass Spectrometry Lab.)

    1999-08-01

    Nineteen sewage sludges from rural and urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Catalonia (Spain) were analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs using HRGC-HRMS to determine the present levels of contamination. Total I-TEQ values for these samples ranged from 7 to 160 pg/g, with a mean value of 55 pg/g and a median value of 42 pg/g. Moreover, archived sewage sludge samples collected and stored between 1979 and 1987 from 15 WWTPs were analyzed to gain some insight into temporal trends and possible variations in source inputs. Total I-TEQ values for archived samples ranged from 29 to 8300 pg/g, with a mean value of 620 pg/g and a median value of 110 pg/g. The findings show that contemporary sewage sludge PCDD/F concentrations have declined since the 1980s. In addition to the variations in PCDD and PCDF concentrations, there were also some changes in the isomeric patterns. These variations in levels and isomeric patterns could reflect changes in PCDD and PCDF sources to the environment over time.

  18. Tracing origins of sewage and organic matter using dissolved sterols in Masan and Haengam Bay, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyo Jin; Hong, Sang Hee; Kim, Moonkoo; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Soon Mo; Shim, Won Joon

    2011-06-01

    Masan and Haengam Bays in Korea are highly polluted and semi-enclosed. Domestic and industrial effluents are directly or indirectly discharged into the bays through sewage treatment plants (STP) and creeks. In this study, 15 dissolved sterol compounds were determined in order to understand their sources and relative contribution. Freshwater samples were taken from 13 creeks and at two STP sites on a monthly basis. Total dissolved sterol concentrations ranged from 993 to 4158 ng/L. The concentrations of sterols in winter were higher than in summer. Among the sterols analyzed, cholesterol, β-sitosterol, coprostanol and cholestanone were major compounds in creek water. Seawater samples were concurrently collected at 21 stations in Masan Bay. Total sterol concentrations ranged 118-6,956 ng/L. Inner bay showed high concentrations of sterols in summer, while outer bay showed high sterol concentrations in winter. Among the sterols, cholesterol, β-sitosterol and brassicasterol were major compounds in seawater. In order to examine the contribution of urban sewage, the concentration of coprostanol and fecal sterol ratios were calculated. Most of the creek water, inner bay and near STP outlet samples were affected by sewage. Terrestrial organic matters accounted for a high proportion of dissolved organic matter origin. Fecal origins were relatively high in the inner bay areas and in the STP outlet, while sterols of marine origin were high in the outer bay areas.

  19. Spatial Distribution and Effects of Sewage in Coastal Hawaiian Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaya, L.; Wiegner, T. N.; Colbert, S.; Lindsey, K.; Beets, J.

    2016-02-01

    Sewage pollution is a worldwide threat to marine ecosystems and human health through the release of pathogens and nutrients into nearshore waters. Goals of this study were to document hydrological connections between cesspools and nearshore waters, detect the presence of sewage through biological and chemical tracers, and determine the spatial extent of sewage offshore. Puakō, located on Hawaíi Island, was the focus of this study as most homes have cesspools. Fluorescein dye injected into cesspools was detected at the shoreline in as little as three days. Elevated δ 15N signatures in macroalgae and high Enterococcus counts further confirmed presence of sewage in nearshore waters. Offshore sampling revealed significant differences among distances from shore for fecal indicator bacteria and δ 15N signatures in macroalgae. Results indicated distance from shore and stations are important factors of variability. Additionally, nutrient concentrations and macroalgal cover were higher in areas with high groundwater discharge. Surprisingly, δ15N macroalgal signatures and Enterococcus were not correlated with salinity. These results suggest that possibly the location of cesspools, subsurface geology, and/or nearshore circulation may affect sewage transport to the coastline and offshore. Spatial analysis techniques helped visualize potential hot spots of sewage pollution using δ15N macroalgal and Enterococcus data. The combination of tools used here to document sewage pollution presence may be useful for communities facing similar environmental problems.

  20. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  1. Optimized sample preparation of endoscopic collected pancreatic fluid for SDS-PAGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Joao A; Lee, Linda S; Wu, Bechien; Repas, Kathryn; Banks, Peter A; Conwell, Darwin L; Steen, Hanno

    2010-07-01

    The standardization of methods for human body fluid protein isolation is a critical initial step for proteomic analyses aimed to discover clinically relevant biomarkers. Several caveats have hindered pancreatic fluid proteomics, including the heterogeneity of samples and protein degradation. We aim to optimize sample handling of pancreatic fluid that has been collected using a safe and effective endoscopic collection method (endoscopic pancreatic function test). Using SDS-PAGE protein profiling, we investigate (i) precipitation techniques to maximize protein extraction, (ii) auto-digestion of pancreatic fluid following prolonged exposure to a range of temperatures, (iii) effects of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on protein stability, and (iv) the utility of protease inhibitors. Our experiments revealed that TCA precipitation resulted in the most efficient extraction of protein from pancreatic fluid of the eight methods we investigated. In addition, our data reveal that although auto-digestion of proteins is prevalent at 23 and 37 degrees C, incubation on ice significantly slows such degradation. Similarly, when the sample is maintained on ice, proteolysis is minimal during multiple freeze-thaw cycles. We have also determined the addition of protease inhibitors to be assay-dependent. Our optimized sample preparation strategy can be applied to future proteomic analyses of pancreatic fluid.

  2. Optimized Sample Preparation of Endoscopic (ePFT) Collected Pancreatic Fluid for SDS-PAGE Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A.; Lee, Linda S.; Wu, Bechien; Repas, Kathryn; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin L.; Steen, Hanno

    2011-01-01

    The standardization of methods for human body fluid protein isolation is a critical initial step for proteomic analyses aimed to discover clinically-relevant biomarkers. Several caveats have hindered pancreatic fluid proteomics, including the heterogeneity of samples and protein degradation. We aim to optimize sample handling of pancreatic fluid that has been collected using a safe and effective endoscopic collection method (ePFT). Using SDS-PAGE protein profiling, we investigate (1) precipitation techniques to maximize protein extraction, (2) auto-digestion of pancreatic fluid following prolonged exposure to a range of temperatures, (3) effects of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on protein stability, and (4) the utility of protease inhibitors. Our experiments revealed that trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation resulted in the most efficient extraction of protein from pancreatic fluid of the eight methods we investigated. In addition, our data reveal that although auto-digestion of proteins is prevalent at 23°C and 37°C, incubation on ice significantly slows such degradation. Similarly, when the sample is maintained on ice, proteolysis is minimal during multiple freeze-thaw cycles. We have also determined the addition of protease inhibitors to be assay-dependent. Our optimized sample preparation strategy can be applied to future proteomic analyses of pancreatic fluid. PMID:20589857

  3. Sampling and Selection Factors that Enhance the Diversity of Microbial Collections: Application to Biopesticide Development

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Jang-Hoon; Han, Songhee; Kang, Hunseung; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Young Cheol; Gardener, Brian McSpadden

    2013-01-01

    Diverse bacteria are known to colonize plants. However, only a small fraction of that diversity has been evaluated for their biopesticide potential. To date, the criteria for sampling and selection in such bioprospecting endeavors have not been systematically evaluated in terms of the relative amount of diversity they provide for analysis. The present study aimed to enhance the success of bio-prospecting efforts by increasing the diversity while removing the genotypic redundancy often present in large collections of bacteria. We developed a multivariate sampling and marker-based selection strategy that significantly increase the diversity of bacteria recovered from plants. In doing so, we quantified the effects of varying sampling intensity, media composition, incubation conditions, plant species, and soil source on the diversity of recovered isolates. Subsequent sequencing and high-throughput phenotypic analyses of a small fraction of the collected isolates revealed that this approach led to the recovery of over a dozen rare and, to date, poorly characterized genera of plant-associated bacteria with significant biopesticide activities. Overall, the sampling and selection approach described led to an approximately 5-fold improvement in efficiency and the recovery of several novel strains of bacteria with significant biopesticide potential. PMID:25288941

  4. A remotely operated serial sampler for collecting gas-tight fluid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun; Ding, Kang; Tan, Chun-yang

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and preliminary test results for a gas-tight serial sampler intended to be deployed at seafloor for long-term operation to take time-series fluid samples from deep-sea environments such as cold seeps, water column and hydrothermal vents. The serial sampler is a modular system that is based on independent and identical sampling modules, which are designed to collect six 160 ml gas-tight fluid samples maintained at high pressure to a depth of 4000 meters. With two working modes, the sampler can be deployed either with seafloor cabled observatory for remote control or as a stand-alone device for autonomous operation. A prototype of the instrument has been constructed and tested on the MARS cabled observatory for two months. The laboratory and field tests proved the success of the design and construction of the serial sampler, and indicated the potential for future ocean sciences.

  5. Regression modeling of particle size distributions in urban storm water: advancements through improved sample collection methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Selbig, William R.

    2012-01-01

    A new sample collection system was developed to improve the representation of sediment entrained in urban storm water by integrating water quality samples from the entire water column. The depth-integrated sampler arm (DISA) was able to mitigate sediment stratification bias in storm water, thereby improving the characterization of suspended-sediment concentration and particle size distribution at three independent study locations. Use of the DISA decreased variability, which improved statistical regression to predict particle size distribution using surrogate environmental parameters, such as precipitation depth and intensity. The performance of this statistical modeling technique was compared to results using traditional fixed-point sampling methods and was found to perform better. When environmental parameters can be used to predict particle size distributions, environmental managers have more options when characterizing concentrations, loads, and particle size distributions in urban runoff.

  6. Electronic Wave Packet Interferometry of Gas Phase Samples: High Resolution Spectra and Collective Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stienkemeier, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved coherent spectroscopy has opened many new directions to study ultrafast dynamics in complex quantum systems. While most applications have been achieved in the condensed phase, we are focusing on dilute gas phase samples, in particular, on doped helium droplet beams. Isolation in such droplets at millikelvin temperatures provides unique opportunities to synthesize well-defined complexes, to prepare specific ro-vibronic states, and study their dynamics. To account for the small densities in our samples, we apply a phase modulation technique in order to reach enough sensitivity and a high spectral resolution in electronic wave packet interferometry experiments. The combination with mass-resolved ion detection enabled us e.g. to characterize vibrational structures of excimer molecules. By extending this technique we have observed collective resonances in samples of very low density (10^8 cm^{-3}). With a variant of this method, we are currently elaborating the implementation of nonlinear all-XUV spectroscopy.

  7. Nitrogen Species in Soil, Sediment, and Ground Water at a Former Sewage-Treatment Wastewater Lagoon: Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Island County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, S.E.; Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The potential for contamination of ground water from remnant sewage sludge in re-graded sediments of a deconstructed sewage-treatment lagoon was evaluated. Ground-water levels were measured in temporary drive-point wells, and ground-water samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and other water-quality characteristics. Composite soil and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for organic carbon and nitrogen species. Multiple lines of evidence, including lack of appreciable organic matter in sediments of the former lagoon, agronomic analysis of nitrogen, the sequestration of nitrogen in the developing soils at the former lagoon, and likely occurrence of peat deposits within the aquifer material, suggest that the potential for substantial additions of nitrogen to ground water beneath the former sewage lagoon resulting from remnant sewage sludge not removed from the former lagoon are small. Concentrations of nitrogen species measured in ground-water samples were small and did not exceed the established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels for nitrate (10 milligrams per liter). Concentrations of nitrate in ground-water samples were less than the laboratory reporting limit of 0.06 milligram per liter. Seventy to 90 percent of the total nitrogen present in ground water was in the ammonia form with a maximum concentration of 7.67 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of total nitrogen in ground water beneath the site, which is the sum of all forms of nitrogen including nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen, ranged from 1.15 to 8.44 milligrams per liter. Thus, even if all forms of nitrogen measured in ground water were converted to nitrate, the combined mass would be less than the maximum contaminant level. Oxidation-reduction conditions in ground water beneath the former sewage lagoon were reducing. Given the abundant supply of ambient organic carbon in the subsurface and in ground water at the former lagoon, any

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Drug Deposition in Hair Samples Collected from Different Anatomical Body Sites.

    PubMed

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Kavvalakis, Matthaios P; Vakonaki, Elena; Stivaktakis, Polychronis D; Kanaki, Katerina; Vardavas, Alexander I; Barbounis, Emmanouil G; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we focused on the validation of a method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of cannabinoids, cocaine and opiates in hair as well as on the distribution of the drugs deposition in hair collected from different anatomical body sites. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for various parameters such as selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and recovery. Four hundred and eighty-one samples were collected during 2010-2015 from 231 drug abusers. A 6-h ultrasonic-assisted methanolic extraction was applied for the isolation of the drugs. The analysis was performed in an liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system for the opiates and cocaine and in a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system for the cannabinoids. Cocaine was the most frequent detected drug (68.8-80.5%) followed by cannabinoids (47.6-63.3%) and opiates (34.7-46.7%) depending on the body site that the samples were collected. The mean concentrations of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were 0.63 ± 2.11 for head, 0.54 ± 1.03 for pubic, 0.34 ± 0.51 for axillary and 0.18 ± 0.18 ng/mg for chest hair samples. The values of cocaine were 6.52 ± 15.98, 4.64 ± 10.77, 6.96 ± 38.21 and 3.94 ± 6.35 ng/mg, while the values of 6-monoacetylmorphine (MAM) were 3.33 ± 5.89, 3.06 ± 9.33, 1.37 ± 1.37 and 16.4 ± 1.77 ng/mg for head, pubic, axillary and chest samples, respectively. Differences between the detected concentrations of cocaine and opiates between the hair samples of different anatomical sites, as well as the ratio of drug metabolites to the parent compounds were observed in some cases. Statistically significant differences in the mean detected levels were noticed for morphine and heroin between head and pubic hair and also for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, between head and axillary hair samples. Moreover, the ratio of MAM to morphine and THC to cannabinol seems to correlate statistically with the total opiate or

  9. Detection of methoxylated and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge in China with evidence for their microbial transformation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianteng; Zhu, Lizhong; Pan, Lili; Wei, Zi; Song, Yao; Zhang, Yuduo; Qu, Liping; Zhan, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (MeO-PCBs) and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were measured in the sewage sludge samples collected from twelve wastewater treatment plants in China. Two MeO-PCB congeners, including 3′-MeO-CB-65 and 4′-MeO-CB-101, were detected in three sludge with mean concentrations of 0.58 and 0.52 ng/g dry weight, respectively. OH-PCBs were detected in eight sludge samples, with an average total concentration of 4.2 ng/g dry weight. Furthermore, laboratory e