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Sample records for sex hormone concentrations

  1. Limb malformations and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in frogs.

    PubMed Central

    Sower, S A; Reed, K L; Babbitt, K J

    2000-01-01

    Declines in amphibian populations, and amphibians with gross malformations, have prompted concern regarding the biological status of many anuran species. A survey of bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, and green frogs, Rana clamitans, conducted in central and southern New Hampshire showed malformed frogs at 81% of the sites sampled (13 of 16 sites). Brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the synthesis of androgens and estradiol, hormones essential to reproductive processes, were measured from limb-malformed and normal (no limb malformation) frogs. Normal frogs had significantly higher concentrations (nearly 3-fold) of in vitro produced androgens and of brain GnRH than malformed frogs. Because most malformations are thought to occur during development, we propose that environmental factors or endocrine-disrupting chemicals that may cause developmental abnormalities also act during early development to ultimately cause abnormally reduced GnRH and androgen production in adult frogs. The consequences of reduced GnRH and androgens on anuran reproductive behavior and population dynamics are unknown but certainly may be profound and warrant further research. PMID:11102301

  2. SEX-STEROID AND THYROID HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED AND REFERENCE LAKES IN FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-...

  3. SEX-STEROID AND THYROID HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED AND REFERENCE LAKES IN FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-...

  4. The Interrelationships Among Sex Hormone Concentrations, Motoneuron Excitability, and Anterior Tibial Displacement in Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Mark; Harter, Rod A; Hayes, Bradley T; Wojtys, Edward M; Murtaugh, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Context: Sex hormone fluctuations have been implicated as a contributing factor to the high rates of noncontact injury to the anterior cruciate ligament in females. Objective: To determine the strength of the relationships among variables of sex hormone concentrations, motoneuron excitability, and anterior tibial displacement (ATD) in women and men and to determine if these relationships differ between the sexes. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Sports medicine laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-eight regularly menstruating women (age  =  22.4 ± 3.4 years) and 15 men (age  =  22.3 ± 3.7 years) participated in the study. Intervention(s): Fluctuations in sex hormones were determined for the participants. Female participants were tested every other day of their menstrual cycles, whereas male participants were tested every fourth day during the 28-day period. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured Hoffmann reflexes (maximum Hoffmann reflex [Hmax] to maximum M-wave [Mmax] ratio in the soleus), ATD under a 134-N load, and saliva concentrations of estrogen and progesterone. The independent variable was sex. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated for each participant by pairing measurements made on the same day. Two-tailed independent-samples t tests were used to determine the difference between the male and female correlations for each variable. Results: Over the course of the study, the relationships between Hmax∶Mmax and estrogen, Hmax∶Mmax and progesterone, ATD and estrogen, and ATD and progesterone were not different between the sexes. However, the relationship between ATD and progesterone was different between the sexes (P  =  .036). Conclusions: The observed correlations did not support our hypothesis that the relationships between sex hormone levels and reflex activity or between sex hormone levels and ATD would be different for women compared with men. If sex hormone concentrations significantly contribute to

  5. Sex hormone concentrations and the risk of breast cancer recurrence in postmenopausal women without hot flashes

    PubMed Central

    Emond, Jennifer A; Patterson, Ruth E; Natarajan, Loki; Laughlin, Gail A; Gold, Ellen B; Pierce, John P

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined if the reduced risk of breast cancer events seen among women without baseline hot flash symptoms in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) dietary intervention trial was related to changes in sex hormone concentrations. Methods Baseline and year one concentrations of total and bioavailable estradiol and testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were compared by intervention arm among 447 postmenopausal women without hot flashes. Cox proportional hazard models tested interaction terms between study arm and baseline hormone concentrations adjusted for study site, anti-estrogen use, positive nodes, tumor size, oophorectomy status, and hormone replacement therapy use. Results Sex hormone concentrations did not differ by study arm at baseline nor at year one. Twenty-two (9.8%) events occurred in the intervention arm vs. 42 (18.9%) in the comparison arm (p=0.009). Baseline bioavailable testosterone was significantly, positively associated with additional events (HR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.00-2.84; p=0.049). There were significant interactions between the intervention and total (p=0.015) and bioavailable (p=0.050) testosterone: the intervention was more protective among participants with higher baseline total (HR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7) or bioavailable (HR 0.4, 95%CI: 0.2-0.7) testosterone than for participants with lower baseline total (HR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4-1.5) or bioavailable (HR 0.8, 95%CI: 0.4-1.5) testosterone. No significant effects were seen for estradiol or SHBG. Conclusions The WHEL dietary intervention may have modified other risk factors of recurrence correlated with testosterone. Impact Sex hormones should be considered as part of a larger biological system related to the risk of breast cancer recurrence. PMID:21415358

  6. Ammonia and female sex hormones concentrations in human preovulatory follicular fluid are not directly related.

    PubMed

    Jóźwik, Maciej; Jóźwik, Marcin; Syrewicz, Małgorzata; Wołczyński, Sławomir; Jóźwik, Michał

    2012-12-01

    The ammonia gradient from the human preovulatory follicular fluid (FF) to blood has been documented. The purpose of the present study was to substantiate whether following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, female sex hormones are relATED TO THIS PHENOMENON. Blood was taken from the antecubital veins of 32 randomly selected patients undergoing an in vitro fertilization program prior to oocyte retrieval and FF collection. Ammonia concentrations in blood and FF were determined by the indophenol method, and 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PGS) concentrations in plasma and FF by radioimmunoassay The mean ammonia concentration was 39.15 +/- 3.25 microM for FF and 20.15 +/- 1.20 microM for blood (p < 0.001). In all subjects, the ratios of ammonia concentrations in FF to those in blood were above 1.0, confirming the production of ammonia by the preovulatory follicle. No correlation was found between FF ammonia and E2 concentrations (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r = 0.2546; p = 0.160), nor between FF ammonia and the difference in E2 concentration in FF and plasma (r = 0.2416; p = 0.183). Similarly there was no correlation between FF ammonia and PGS (r = -0.1089; p = 0.553). In support of this finding, no correlation was observed between FF ammonia and the difference in PGS concentration in FF and plasma (r = -0.1133; p = 0.537). Ammonia production is not directly related to intrafollicular female sex hormones concentrations. The accumulation of ammonia is likely to account for the alkaline pH of the human preovulatory FF.

  7. CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF THYROID HORMONE IN BELUGA WHALES (DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS): INFLUENCE OF AGE, SEX, AND SEASON.

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Allender, Matthew C; Giovanelli, Richard P; Summers, Sandra D; Spoon, Tracey R; St Leger, Judy A; Goertz, Caroline E C; Dunn, J Lawrence; Romano, Tracy A; Hobbs, Roderick C; Tuttle, Allison D

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play a critical physiologic role in regulating protein synthesis, growth, and metabolism. To date, because no published compilation of baseline values for thyroid hormones in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) exists, assessment of thyroid hormone concentrations in this species has been underused in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to document the concentrations of total thyroxine (tT4) and total triiodothyronine (tT3) in healthy aquarium-maintained and free-ranging beluga whales and to determine the influence of age, sex, and season on the thyroid hormone concentrations. Archived serum samples were collected from healthy aquarium-maintained (n=43) and free-ranging (n=39) belugas, and serum tT4 and tT3 were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay. The mean tT4 concentration in aquarium-maintained belugas was 5.67±1.43 μg/dl and the mean tT3 concentration was 70.72±2.37 ng/dl. Sex comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained males had significantly greater tT4 and tT3 (9.70±4.48 μg/dl and 92.65±30.55 ng/dl, respectively) than females (7.18±2.82 μg/dl and 77.95±20.37 ng/dl) (P=0.004 and P=0.013). Age comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained whales aged 1-5 yr had the highest concentrations of tT4 and tT3 (8.17±0.17 μg/dl and 105.46±1.98 ng/dl, respectively) (P=0.002 and P<0.001). tT4 concentrations differed significantly between seasons, with concentrations in winter (4.59±1.09 μg/dl) being significantly decreased compared with spring (P=0.009), summer (P<0.0001), and fall (P<0.0001) concentrations. There was a significant difference in tT4 and tT3 concentrations between aquarium-maintained whales (5.67±1.43 μg/dl and 70.72±15.57 ng/dl, respectively) and free-ranging whales (11.71±3.36 μg/dl and 103.38±26.45 ng/dl) (P<0.0001 and P<0.001). Clinicians should consider biologic and environmental influences (age, sex, and season) for a more accurate interpretation of thyroid hormone concentrations in belugas

  8. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and concentrations of circulating sex hormones in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Muller, David C; Giles, Graham G; Bassett, Julie; Morris, Howard A; Manning, John T; Hopper, John L; English, Dallas R; Severi, Gianluca

    2011-04-27

    The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is used as a marker of prenatal sex hormone exposure. The objective of this study was to examine whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones and SHBG measured in adulthood was associated with 2D:4D. This analysis was based on a random sample from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. The sample consisted of of 1036 men and 620 post-menopausal women aged between 39 and 70 at the time of blood draw. Concentrations of circulating sex hormones were measured from plasma collected at baseline (1990-1994), while digit length was measured from hand photocopies taken during a recent follow-up (2003-2009). The outcome measures were circulating concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenediol glucoronide for men only and oestrone sulphate for women only. Free testosterone and oestradiol were estimated using standard formulae derived empirically. Predicted geometric mean hormone concentrations (for tertiles of 2D:4D) and conditional correlation coefficients (for continuous 2D:4D) were obtained using mixed effects linear regression models. No strong associations were observed between 2D:4D measures and circulating concentrations of hormones for men or women. For males, right 2D:4D was weakly inversely associated with circulating testosterone (predicted geometric mean testosterone was 15.9 and 15.0 nmol/L for the lowest and highest tertiles of male right 2D:4D respectively (P-trend = 0.04). There was a similar weak association between male right 2D:4D and the ratio of testosterone to oestradiol. These associations were not evident in analyses of continuous 2D:4D. There were no strong associations between any adult circulating concentration of sex hormone or SHGB and 2D:4D. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence indicating that 2D:4D is unrelated to adult sex hormone concentrations.

  9. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  10. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  11. Cytokine and sex hormone effects on zidovudine- and lamivudine-triphosphate concentrations in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Peter L.; King, Tracy; Zheng, Jia-Hua; MaWhinney, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Elevated zidovudine- and lamivudine-triphosphates have been observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from females versus males and in patients with high inflammatory states versus lower inflammatory states. Consistent with high triphosphate exposures, these same patient groups also experience elevated rates of toxicity, including lipoatrophy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone as well as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-α on zidovudine- and lamivudine-triphosphates in PBMCs and, for the cytokines, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods Multiple replicates of adipocytes and human PBMCs were incubated with experimental versus control conditions using several cytokine and sex hormone doses. Zidovudine- and lamivudine-triphosphate concentrations were determined with validated LC-MS-MS assays. A mixed effects, cell means model that accounted for experiment number was used to evaluate the effects of experimental conditions relative to control. Results In adipocytes, TNF-α doses below 2 ng/mL increased zidovudine-triphosphate by 18% (5–31%). Lamivudine-triphosphate was not detectable in adipocytes. In PBMCs, pooled IFN-α doses (0.1–10 U/mL) decreased zidovudine-triphosphate 26% (10–42%); 100 and 1000 ng/mL of progesterone decreased lamivudine-triphosphate by 22% (1–43%) and 47% (25–68%), respectively. Pooled testosterone doses (10–1000 ng/mL) decreased lamivudine-triphosphate by 24% (7–41%). No other statistically significant effects were observed. Conclusions We found evidence that sex hormones and cytokines influence zidovudine-triphosphate and lamivudine-triphosphate slightly in PBMCs and adipocytes in vitro. These findings provide insight and scientific direction to address inflammation-dependent and sex-dependent phosphorylation and responses in patients. PMID:18567572

  12. Birth characteristics and female sex hormone concentrations during adolescence: results from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Terryl J.; Rovine, Michael J.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Birth characteristics and adult hormone concentrations influence breast cancer risk, but little is known about the influence of birth characteristics on hormone concentrations, particularly during adolescence. Methods We evaluated the association of birth characteristics (birth weight, birth length, and gestational age) with serum sex hormone concentrations during late childhood and adolescence in 278 female participants of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children. Repeated measures analysis of variance models were used to assess the relationships of birth characteristics and serum estrogens and androgens at five different time points over a mean period of 7 years. Results In analyses that did not take into account time from blood draw until menarche, birth weight was inversely associated with pre-menarche concentrations of estradiol, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). In the post-menarche analyses, birth weight was not significantly associated with concentration of any of the hormones under investigation. Birth length and gestational age were not associated with hormone concentrations before or after menarche. Conclusion Birth weight is inversely associated with sex hormone concentrations before menarche in the model unadjusted for time from blood draw until menarche. Impact The in utero environment has long-term influences on the hormonal milieu, which could potentially contribute to breast cancer risk. PMID:21327460

  13. Birth characteristics and female sex hormone concentrations during adolescence: results from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Elizabeth H; Hartman, Terryl J; Rovine, Michael J; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2011-04-01

    Birth characteristics and adult hormone concentrations influence breast cancer risk, but little is known about the influence of birth characteristics on hormone concentrations, particularly during adolescence. We evaluated the association of birth characteristics (birth weight, birth length, and gestational age) with serum sex hormone concentrations during late childhood and adolescence in 278 female participants of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children. Repeated measures analysis of variance models were used to assess the relationships of birth characteristics and serum estrogens and androgens at five different time points over a mean period of 7 years. In analyses that did not take into account time from blood draw until menarche, birth weight was inversely associated with pre-menarche concentrations of estradiol, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). In the post-menarche analyses, birth weight was not significantly associated with concentration of any of the hormones under investigation. Birth length and gestational age were not associated with hormone concentrations before or after menarche. Birth weight is inversely associated with sex hormone concentrations before menarche in the model unadjusted for time from blood draw until menarche. The in utero environment has long-term influences on the hormonal milieu, which could potentially contribute to breast cancer risk.

  14. Extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones, ischemic heart disease, and death in women.

    PubMed

    Benn, Marianne; Voss, Sidsel Skou; Holmegard, Haya N; Jensen, Gorm B; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-02-01

    Sex hormones may be critical determinants of ischemic heart disease and death in women, but results from previous studies are conflicting. To clarify this, we tested the hypothesis that extreme plasma concentrations of endogenous estradiol and testosterone are associated with risk of ischemic heart disease and death in women. In a nested prospective cohort study, we measured plasma estradiol in 4600 and total testosterone in 4716 women not receiving oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy from the 1981 to 1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study. During ≤30 years of follow-up, 1013 women developed ischemic heart disease and 2716 died. In women with a plasma estradiol below the fifth percentile compared with between the 10th and 89th percentiles, multifactorially adjusted risk of ischemic heart disease was 44% (95% confidence interval, 14%-81%) higher; however, plasma estradiol concentrations did not associate with death. Also, in women with a plasma testosterone concentration at or above the 95th percentile compared with between the 10th and 89th percentiles, multifactorially adjusted risk was 68% (34%-210%) higher for ischemic heart disease, 36% (18%-58%) higher for any death, and 38% (15%-65%) higher for death from other causes than cardiovascular disease and cancer. These results were similar for postmenopausal women alone. In women, extreme low concentrations of endogenous estradiol were associated with high risk of ischemic heart disease, and extreme high concentrations of endogenous testosterone were associated with high risk of ischemic heart disease and death. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Relationships between plasma concentrations of sex steroid hormones and gonadal development in the brown hagfish, Paramyxine atami.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Maki; Chiba, Hiroaki; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Shimotani, Toyokazu; Nozaki, Masumi

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between sex steroid hormone profiles in plasma and gonadal function in hagfish is poorly understood. In the present study, plasma concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone were examined with respect to gonadal development, sexual differences, and possible function of atretic follicles in the brown hagfish, Paramyxine atami, using a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Plasma concentrations of these three hormones were low in juveniles of both sexes. In females, plasma estradiol showed a significant correlation with ovarian development, with the highest concentrations in late vitellogenic adults. Plasma testosterone and progesterone also increased significantly in non-vitellogenic adult females; however, plasma testosterone showed no significant differences among adult females at different ovarian developments, while plasma progesterone was significantly lower in late vitellogenic adults than it was in non-vitellogenic adults. Vitellogenic females that possessed atretic follicles showed significantly lower concentrations of all three hormones than females that only possessed normal follicles. In males, no significant differences were found in plasma estradiol or testosterone levels among groups of different developmental stages of the testis, while plasma progesterone showed a clear inverse relationship with testicular development. Thus, differences were found in plasma sex steroid hormone profiles between male and female P. atami. Moreover, plasma estradiol showed a significant correlation with ovarian development, which suggests that estradiol is involved in the regulation of ovarian development. The present study also revealed that steroid hormone production was strongly suppressed in females that possessed atretic follicles in their ovaries.

  16. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and concentrations of circulating sex hormones in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is used as a marker of prenatal sex hormone exposure. The objective of this study was to examine whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones and SHBG measured in adulthood was associated with 2D:4D. Methods This analysis was based on a random sample from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. The sample consisted of of 1036 men and 620 post-menopausal women aged between 39 and 70 at the time of blood draw. Concentrations of circulating sex hormones were measured from plasma collected at baseline (1990-1994), while digit length was measured from hand photocopies taken during a recent follow-up (2003-2009). The outcome measures were circulating concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenediol glucoronide for men only and oestrone sulphate for women only. Free testosterone and oestradiol were estimated using standard formulae derived empirically. Predicted geometric mean hormone concentrations (for tertiles of 2D:4D) and conditional correlation coefficients (for continuous 2D:4D) were obtained using mixed effects linear regression models. Results No strong associations were observed between 2D:4D measures and circulating concentrations of hormones for men or women. For males, right 2D:4D was weakly inversely associated with circulating testosterone (predicted geometric mean testosterone was 15.9 and 15.0 nmol/L for the lowest and highest tertiles of male right 2D:4D respectively (P-trend = 0.04). There was a similar weak association between male right 2D:4D and the ratio of testosterone to oestradiol. These associations were not evident in analyses of continuous 2D:4D. Conclusions There were no strong associations between any adult circulating concentration of sex hormone or SHGB and 2D:4D. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence indicating that 2D:4D is unrelated to adult sex hormone concentrations

  17. [Concentrations of adrenal steroids and sex hormones in postmenopausal women suffering from coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Sablik, Zbigniew; Samborska-Sablik, Anna; Goch, Jan Henryk

    2008-10-01

    The lack of the benefits in the prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD) from the hormonal substitution with preparations of estradiol (E2) suggests that higher frequency of CAD in postmenopausal women (PMW) may be influenced by a hormonal mechanism different from the postmenopausal hypoestrogenism. Due to the fact adrenal glands are the important source of steroids in PMW the aim of our research was the assessment of the concentrations of the adrenal hormones and their possible relations with CAD. W-CAD group--31 PMW at the age of 66 +/- 9 years with angiographically proven CAD; 3/4 of them suffered from myocardial infarction. W-H group--17 healthy women at the age of 59 +/- 7 years. Common clinical and biochemical risk factors were searched for in each and every of the PMW. In the venous blood samples taken from them by means of immunological methods the concentrations of the hormones were assessed: starving insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), E2, progesterone, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol, aldosterone, androstenedione, folliculotropic hormone and luteinising hormone. The levels of the hormones were compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to discover possible relations among the clinical and hormonal parameters and CAD. In W-CAD mean concentration of DHEAS was lower than in W-H, close to the significant value (75 +/- 76 vs 102 +/- 79 microg/dl, p<0,08). In PMW with CAD mean concentration of cortisol (18 +/- 5 vs 15 +/- 6 microg/dl, p<0,07) and ACTH was higher, but mean concentration of aldosterone was more than twice as small as in the healthy ones. The levels of the rest aforementioned hormones were similar in the groups. In the univariate model created by logistic regression analysis DHEAS was the only hormone that revealed the significant relation between its level and the occurrence of CAD. In PMW diminished concentration of DHEAS is correlated with occurrence of CAD. The differences of

  18. Concentrations of Sex Hormones in Umbilical-Cord Blood: Their Relations to Sex and Birth Order of Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccoby, Eleanor E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that concentrations of testosterone were significantly greater in the umbilical blood of newborn males than females. In both sexes, firstborns had significantly more progesterone and estrogens than later borns, and among males, firstborns had higher concentrations of testosterone. Temporal spacing of childbirths had greater effects…

  19. Concentrations of Sex Hormones in Umbilical-Cord Blood: Their Relations to Sex and Birth Order of Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccoby, Eleanor E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that concentrations of testosterone were significantly greater in the umbilical blood of newborn males than females. In both sexes, firstborns had significantly more progesterone and estrogens than later borns, and among males, firstborns had higher concentrations of testosterone. Temporal spacing of childbirths had greater effects…

  20. Effect of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids on urinary eicosanoids and sex hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled feeding trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Substantial evidence relates increased sex hormone concentrations with increased breast cancer risk. Varying omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) intake may lead to alterations in eicosanoid balance and subsequent changes in circulating sex hormones that reduce risk. To clarify effects of dietary fat and n-3 i...

  1. Sex-steroid and thyroid hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from contaminated and reference lakes in Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grain, D.A.; Guillette, L.J.; Pickford, D.B.; Percival, H.F.; Woodward, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-171?? (E2), testosterone (T), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) in juvenile alligators (60-140 cm total length) from two contaminated lakes and one reference lake in Florida. First, the data were analyzed by comparing hormone concentrations among males and females from the different lakes. Whereas there were no differences in plasma E2 concentrations among animals of the three lakes, male alligators from the contaminated lakes (Lake Apopka and Lake Okeechobee) had significantly lower plasma T concentrations compared 10 males from the reference take (Lake Woodruff). Concentrations of thyroid hormones also differed in animals of the three lakes, with T4 concentrations being elevated in Lake Okeechobee males compared to Lake Woodruff males. Second, the relationship between body size and hormone concentration was examined using regression analysis. Most notably for steroid hormones, no clear relationship was detected between E2 and total length in Apopka females (r2 0.09, p = 0.54) or between T and total length in Apopka males (r2 = 0.007, p = 0.75). Females from Apopka (r2 = 0.318, p = 0.09) and Okeechobee (r2 = 0.222, p = 0.09) exhibited weak correlations between T3 and total length. Males from Apopka (r2 = 0.015, p = 0.66) and Okeechobee (r2 = 0.128, p = 0.19) showed no correlation between T4 and total length. These results indicate: some of the previously reported abnormalities in steroid hormones of hatchling alligators persist, at least, through the juvenile years; steroid and thyroid hormones are related to body size in juvenile alligators from the reference lake, whereas alligators living in lakes Apopka and Okeechobee experience alterations in circulating thyroid and steroid

  2. Thyroid hormone concentrations in relation to age, sex, pregnancy, and perinatal loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    West, Kristi L; Ramer, Jan; Brown, Janine L; Sweeney, Jay; Hanahoe, Erin M; Reidarson, Tom; Proudfoot, Jeffry; Bergfelt, Don R

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones in relation to age, sex, pregnancy status, and perinatal loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) under human care. A total of 373 blood samples were collected from 60 individual dolphins housed at nine aquariums/oceanariums. Serum concentrations of total and free thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were analyzed with commercial RIA kits validated for use with dolphins. While the effect of age was indicated by higher (P<0.0001) concentrations of total and free T4 and T3 in juveniles than adults, the effect of sex on thyroid hormones was inconclusive. The effect of pregnancy was indicated by higher (P<0.035) total and free T4 and T3 during early pregnancy compared to non-pregnancy. For both successful and unsuccessful pregnancy outcomes, maternal concentrations of thyroid hormones were highest during early, intermediate during mid, and lowest during late pregnancy (P<0.07 to P<0.0001). Compared to live and thriving births, concentrations of total and free T4 and total T3 were lower (P<0.08 to P<0.001) in dolphins with perinatal loss. Lower concentrations ranged from 10% to 14% during early, 11% to 18% during mid, and 23% to 37% during late pregnancy. In conclusion, the effects of age, reproductive status and stage of pregnancy on thyroid hormone concentrations are necessary factors to take into account when assessing thyroid gland function. Since perinatal loss may be associated with hypothyroidism in dolphins, analysis of serum T4 and T3 should be considered for those dolphins that have a history of pregnancy loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    MedlinePlus

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  4. Yolk concentrations of hormones and glucose and egg weight and egg dimensions in unincubated chicken eggs, in relation to egg sex and hen body weight.

    PubMed

    Aslam, M Aamir; Hulst, Marcel; Hoving-Bolink, Rita A H; Smits, Mari A; de Vries, Bonnie; Weites, Ilse; Groothuis, Ton G G; Woelders, Henri

    2013-06-15

    Birds can manipulate offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions and maternal hormones have been shown to be involved in this process. Studies also provided evidence for the presence of sex specific concentrations of yolk hormones in avian eggs. These findings led to the suggestion that yolk hormones could influence genetic sex determination in birds. However, in previous studies, yolk hormone concentrations and egg sex were studied in incubated eggs, although incubation of the eggs and embryonic development can alter yolk hormone concentrations and measured sex ratio. This study is the first to determine a wide array of egg components and hen body weight in relation to the sex of the egg in unincubated eggs. Egg parameters studied were yolk concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione, progesterone, dihydrotestosterone, and glucose, and egg weight and dimensions. In addition, we studied the associations among all measured parameters. Associations were found between a number of yolk hormones (progesterone associated with testosterone, estradiol and androstenedione; androstenedione with testosterone; dihydrotestosterone with estradiol and androstenedione) as well as between yolk testosterone and egg length and egg weight. There were no significant overall differences between male and female chicken eggs in any of the measured egg parameters. However, there were a few interactions such as the interaction of egg sex with dihydrotestosterone and with hen body weight which predicted estradiol levels and an interaction of estradiol levels with egg width for predicting sex of egg. Their biological relevance need, however, further study.

  5. Altered plasma concentrations of sex hormones in cats infected by feline immunodeficiency virus or feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Tejerizo, G; Doménech, A; Illera, J-C; Silván, G; Gómez-Lucía, E

    2012-02-01

    Gender differences may affect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans and may be related to fluctuations in sex hormone concentration. The different percentage of male and female cats observed to be infected by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) has been traditionally explained through the transmission mechanisms of both viruses. However, sexual hormones may also play a role in this different distribution. To study this possibility, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations were analyzed using a competitive enzyme immunoassay in the plasma of 258 cats naturally infected by FIV (FIV(+)), FeLV (FeLV(+)), or FeLV and FIV (F(-)F(+)) or negative for both viruses, including both sick and clinically healthy animals. Results indicated that the concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone were significantly higher in animals infected with FIV or FeLV (P < 0.05) than in negative cats. Plasma concentrations of DHEA in cats infected by either retrovirus were lower than in negative animals (P < 0.05), and F(-)F(+) cats had significantly lower plasma values than monoinfected cats (P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected in the plasma concentration of progesterone of the four groups. No relevant differences were detected in the hormone concentrations between animal genders, except that FIV(+) females had higher DHEA concentrations than the corresponding males (P < 0.05). In addition, no differences were observed in the hormone concentrations between retrovirus-infected and noninfected animals with and without clinical signs. These results suggest that FIV and FeLV infections are associated with an important deregulation of steroids, possibly from early in the infection process, which might have decisive consequences for disease progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (<3 ng/mL) in adult females during the spawning period may indicate reproductive impairment. In reproductive males, spring increases in KT and T concentrations were associated with spawning; concentrations of E2 (<0.48 ng/mL) and VTG (<0.001 mg/mL) were low in males throughout the study. In addition, the E2 : KT ratio and T were the best metrics by which to distinguish female from male adult razorback suckers throughout the year. These metrics of reproductive health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points

  7. Serum steroid hormones, sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations, and urinary hydroxylated estrogen metabolites in post-menopausal women in relation to daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; McTiernan, Anne; Tworoger, Shelley S; Atkinson, Charlotte; Thomas, Wendy K; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Marcovina, Santica M; Weigle, David S; Weiss, Noel S; Holt, Victoria L; Schwartz, Stephen M; Lampe, Johanna W

    2004-04-01

    Equol and O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) are products of bacterial metabolism of daidzein, an isoflavone in soybeans; thus, the presence or absence of equol and/or O-DMA in urine is a marker of particular intestinal bacteria profiles. Plasma hormone concentrations may be lower in pre-menopausal women who harbor the bacteria capable of producing equol (equol producers) compared to women who do not (equol non-producers). We evaluated concentrations of serum hormones, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OH E(1)) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OH E(1)) in relation to equol-producer and O-DMA-producer phenotypes in 89 post-menopausal women. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was 23% greater in O-DMA-producers compared to non-producers (P = 0.04). No significant differences in serum estrogens, androgens, metabolic hormones, or SHBG were observed in relation to either daidzein-metabolizing phenotype. Compared with non-producers within each phenotype, age-adjusted 2-OH E(1):16alpha-OH E(1) was 27% greater (P = 0.06) in equol-producers and 9% greater (P > 0.10) in O-DMA-producers, and 2-OH E(1) concentrations were 24% greater in equol producers (P = 0.07) and 42% greater in O-DMA producers (P = 0.02). No significant differences in 16alpha-OH E(1) were observed in relation to either phenotype. These results suggest that interindividual variability in intestinal bacteria may be related to differences in products of hormone metabolism in post-menopausal women.

  8. Effects of prenatal treatment with antiandrogens on luteinizing hormone secretion and sex steroid concentrations in adult spotted hyenas, Crocuta crocuta.

    PubMed

    Place, Ned J; Holekamp, Kay E; Sisk, Cheryl L; Weldele, Mary L; Coscia, Elizabeth M; Drea, Christine M; Glickman, Stephen E

    2002-11-01

    Prenatal androgen treatment can alter LH secretion in female offspring, often with adverse effects on ovulatory function. However, female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), renowned for their highly masculinized genitalia, are naturally exposed to high androgen levels in utero. To determine whether LH secretion in spotted hyenas is affected by prenatal androgens, we treated pregnant hyenas with antiandrogens (flutamide and finasteride). Later, adult offspring of the antiandrogen-treated (AA) mothers underwent a GnRH challenge to identify sex differences in the LH response and to assess the effects of prenatal antiandrogen treatment. We further considered the effects of blocking prenatal androgens on plasma sex steroid concentrations. To account for potential differences in the reproductive state of females, we suppressed endogenous hormone levels with a long-acting GnRH agonist (GnRHa) and then measured plasma androgens after an hCG challenge. Plasma concentrations of LH were sexually dimorphic in spotted hyenas, with females displaying higher levels than males. Prenatal antiandrogen treatment also significantly altered the LH response to GnRH. Plasma estradiol concentration was higher in AA-females, whereas testosterone and androstenedione levels tended to be lower. This trend toward lower androgen levels disappeared after GnRHa suppression and hCG challenge. In males, prenatal antiandrogen treatment had long-lasting effects on circulating androgens: AA-males had lower T levels than control males. The sex differences and effects of prenatal antiandrogens on LH secretion suggest that the anterior pituitary gland of the female spotted hyena is partially masculinized by the high androgen levels that normally occur during development, without adverse effects on ovulatory function.

  9. Mammalian sex hormones in plants.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, Anna; Skoczowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17beta-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube growth and callus proliferation. The regulatory abilities of mammalian sex hormones in plants makes possible their use in practice, especially in plant in vitro culture.

  10. Concentration Addition, Independent Action and Generalized Concentration Addition Models for Mixture Effect Prediction of Sex Hormone Synthesis In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hadrup, Niels; Taxvig, Camilla; Pedersen, Mikael; Nellemann, Christine; Hass, Ulla; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Humans are concomitantly exposed to numerous chemicals. An infinite number of combinations and doses thereof can be imagined. For toxicological risk assessment the mathematical prediction of mixture effects, using knowledge on single chemicals, is therefore desirable. We investigated pros and cons of the concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA) and generalized concentration addition (GCA) models. First we measured effects of single chemicals and mixtures thereof on steroid synthesis in H295R cells. Then single chemical data were applied to the models; predictions of mixture effects were calculated and compared to the experimental mixture data. Mixture 1 contained environmental chemicals adjusted in ratio according to human exposure levels. Mixture 2 was a potency adjusted mixture containing five pesticides. Prediction of testosterone effects coincided with the experimental Mixture 1 data. In contrast, antagonism was observed for effects of Mixture 2 on this hormone. The mixtures contained chemicals exerting only limited maximal effects. This hampered prediction by the CA and IA models, whereas the GCA model could be used to predict a full dose response curve. Regarding effects on progesterone and estradiol, some chemicals were having stimulatory effects whereas others had inhibitory effects. The three models were not applicable in this situation and no predictions could be performed. Finally, the expected contributions of single chemicals to the mixture effects were calculated. Prochloraz was the predominant but not sole driver of the mixtures, suggesting that one chemical alone was not responsible for the mixture effects. In conclusion, the GCA model seemed to be superior to the CA and IA models for the prediction of testosterone effects. A situation with chemicals exerting opposing effects, for which the models could not be applied, was identified. In addition, the data indicate that in non-potency adjusted mixtures the effects cannot always be

  11. Developmental abnormalities of the gonad and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators from contaminated and control lakes in Florida.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, L J; Gross, T S; Masson, G R; Matter, J M; Percival, H F; Woodward, A R

    1994-01-01

    The reproductive development of alligators from a contaminated and a control lake in central Florida was examined. Lake Apopka is adjacent to an EPA Superfund site, listed due to an extensive spill of dicofol and DDT or its metabolites. These compounds can act as estrogens. Contaminants in the lake also have been derived from extensive agricultural activities around the lake that continue today and a sewage treatment facility associated with the city of Winter Garden, Florida. We examined the hypothesis that an estrogenic contaminant has caused the current failure in recruitment of alligators on Lake Apopka. Supporting data include the following: At 6 months of age, female alligators from Lake Apopka had plasma estradiol-17 beta concentrations almost two times greater than normal females from the control lake, Lake Woodruff. The Apopka females exhibited abnormal ovarian morphology with large numbers of polyovular follicles and polynuclear oocytes. Male juvenile alligators had significantly depressed plasma testosterone concentrations comparable to levels observed in normal Lake Woodruff females but more than three times lower than normal Lake Woodruff males. Additionally, males from Lake Apopka had poorly organized testes and abnormally small phalli. The differences between lakes and sexes in plasma hormone concentrations of juvenile alligators remain even after stimulation with luteinizing hormone. Our data suggest that the gonads of juveniles from Lake Apopka have been permanently modified in ovo, so that normal steroidogenesis is not possible, and thus normal sexual maturation is unlikely. Images p680-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 4. C Figure 4. D Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C PMID:7895709

  12. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  13. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  14. CYP19A1 genetic variation in relation to prostate cancer risk and circulating sex hormone concentrations in men from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Ruth C.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Kraft, Peter; Allen, Naomi E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Berglund, Goran; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Calle, Eugenia E.; Chanock, Stephen; Dunning, Alison M.; Hayes, Richard; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ma, Jing; Rodriguez, Laudina; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O.; Thun, Michael J.; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hunter, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Sex hormones, in particular the androgens, are important for the growth of the prostate gland and have been implicated in prostate cancer carcinogenesis, yet the determinants of endogenous steroid hormone levels remain poorly understood. Twin studies suggest a heritable component for circulating concentrations of sex hormones, although epidemiological evidence linking steroid hormone gene variants to prostate cancer is limited. Here we report on findings from a comprehensive study of genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus in relation to prostate cancer risk and to circulating steroid hormone concentrations in men by the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), a large collaborative prospective study. The BPC3 systematically characterised variation in CYP19A1 by targeted resequencing and dense genotyping; selected haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) that efficiently predict common variants in U.S. and European whites, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians; and genotyped these htSNPs in 8,166 prostate cancer cases and 9,079 study-, age-, and ethnicity-matched controls. CYP19A1 htSNPs, two common missense variants and common haplotypes were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer. However, several htSNPs in linkage disequilibrium blocks 3 and 4 were significantly associated with a 5–10% difference in estradiol concentrations in men (association per copy of the two-SNP haplotype rs749292–rs727479 (A–A) versus noncarriers; P=1 × 10−5), and withinverse, although less marked changes, in free testosterone concentrations. These results suggest that although germline variation in CYP19A1 characterised by the htSNPs produces measurable differences in sex hormone concentrations in men, they do not substantially influence risk for prostate cancer. PMID:19789370

  15. The prevalence of low sex steroid hormone concentrations in men in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Shiels, Meredith S.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Menke, Andy; Feinleib, Manning; Basaria, Shehzad; Rifai, Nader; Dobs, Adrian S.; Kanarek, Norma; Nelson, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Physiologic processes during aging leading to multi-morbidity and diseases that increase risk of premature death may be influenced by aging-associated changes in endogenous hormone production. Objective To evaluate the decline in sex steroid hormone levels across age and estimate the number of US men 40+ years old who may have low hormone levels. Design We measured serum testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin by immunoassay in 1,351 men 20+ years old in NHANES III. We estimated free hormones by mass action. Results Free testosterone declined most rapidly with age (a 2% decline in geometric mean concentration occurred after aging 1.3 years), followed by total testosterone (2.4 years), free estradiol (4.1 years), and total estradiol (8.1 years). These hormone changes with age translated into 25.0% and 30.2% of men 70+ years old having low total (which we defined as <10.4 nmol/L) and free (<0.17 nmol/L) testosterone, respectively, and 8.3% and 23.9% having low total (<73.4 pmol/L) and free (<2.2 pmol/L) estradiol. Using population size projections between the 2000 and 2010 Censuses, we estimated that 8.4 (95% CI 4.7-12.2), 6.2 (3.1-9.2), and 6.0 (3.1-9.0) million 40+ year old men may have low total testosterone, free testosterone, and free estradiol, respectively. The prevalences were only modestly lower in men without prevalent chronic diseases. Conclusion Although no consensus exists for defining low hormone levels in aging men, a substantial number of US men may have low sex steroid hormone levels, possibly putting them at risk for adverse health consequences and pre-mature death. PMID:21521312

  16. Abnormal puberty in paediatric Cushing's disease: relationship with adrenal androgen, sex hormone binding globulin and gonadotrophin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, C C; Storr, H L; Perry, L A; Ho, J T F; Ahmed, L; Ong, K K; Dunger, D B; Monson, J P; Grossman, A B; Besser, G M; Savage, M O

    2007-06-01

    Paediatric Cushing's disease is frequently associated with abnormal puberty. We addressed the hypothesis that prepubertal patients show excessive virilization and pubertal patients show suppression of LH and FSH secretion. Serum androstenedione (A4), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), testosterone (T), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were determined at diagnosis and converted to standard deviation scores. LH, FSH concentrations were also determined. Severity of CD was assessed from the sleeping midnight cortisol concentration. Puberty was staged and excessive virilization defined as advance in pubic hair stage for breast stage or testicular volume (TV). Twenty-seven CD patients (17 male, 10 female), median age 13.4 years (range 5.9-17.8) were studied. In the CD group as a whole, A4, DHEAS, T standard deviation scores (SDS) values were normal. SHBG SDS values (n = 19) were low (median -1.93, -4.32-0.86) correlating with BMI (r = -0.49). A4, DHEAS, T, SHBG, LH and FSH did not correlate with midnight cortisol, but A4 and T SDS correlated with ACTH at 09.00 h (both r = 0.51). Thirteen patients (11 male, 2 female) had excessive virilization with increased A4 (P = 0.033), DHEAS (P = 0.008), testosterone (P = 0.033) and decreased SHBG (P = 0.004) compared with subjects without excessive virilization. Pubertal boys (TV > or = 4 ml) (n = 7) and girls (breasts > or = stage 2) (n = 8) had low median LH and FSH. Boys had an LH concentration of 1.2 mU/l (0.3-3.5), FSH, 0.9 mU/l (0.2-6.4) and median T SDS, -1.95 (-3.8-4.65), while girls had an LH concentration of 1 mU/l (0.3-7.4). Many patients had abnormal puberty and excessive virilization associated with increased adrenal androgens and decreased SHBG. Pubertal patients had low LH and FSH suggesting impaired pituitary-gonadal axis function.

  17. [Effects of daily consumption of milk powder on menstrual cycles and urine sex hormone concentrations of young women].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; Ju, Jing; Wang, Zhixu; Wu, Jieshu; Geng, Shanshan; Liu, Jing; Yang, Yuexin

    2014-09-01

    To observe the effects of daily consumption of milk powder on Healthy young women, including the effect on menstrual cycles, ovulation time and sex hormone concentrations in morning urine. Thirty-two young women were recruited as subjects and randomly assigned into two groups for a milk powder consumption experiment which lasted three menstrual cycles. The first menstrual cycle is control cycle, the second menstrual cycle is milk-taking cycle. The subjects take milk diluted by 33g or 55g milk powder each day, from the 4th to the 24th day of the second menstrual cycle. The third menstrual cycles is control cycle after milk-taking. During the whole three menstrual cycle, record the length of each menstrual cycle, determine ovulation time by using basal body temperature and oviposit test paper, collect their morning urine samples at specified times (the 4th, 7th, 10th, 13rd, 16th, 19th and 24th day of first and the third menstrual cycle; the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 9th, 12nd, 15th, 18th, 21st and 24th day of the second menstrual cycle), determine the concentrations of estradiol, pregnanediol and creatinine in morning urine samples; draw the curve of the concentration changing over time and calculate the area under the curve to the 24th day. In the high-dose group, the mean of the menstrual cycle length are (29.60 ±3.180) d, (28.87 ± 3.021) d, (29.60 ± 2.995) d, the mean of the ovulation time are (15.47 ± 2.200) d. There was no significant difference in menstrual cycle length and ovulation time among cycles and between groups (P>0.05). Calculate the difference between the first and the second menstrual cycle, and the difference between the two groups. In the high-dose group, the area under the curve of estradiol concentrations adjusted by creatinine are (7160.28 ±2305.52), (6700.26 ±2066.67); (6676.24 ±2573.89); the area under the curve of pregnanediol concentrations corrected by creatinine are (51.93 ±18.80), (44.55 ±14.62) and (46.49 ±22.44). In the low

  18. Sex hormones and acne.

    PubMed

    Ju, Qiang; Tao, Tao; Hu, Tingting; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap; Al-Khuzaei, Safaa; Chen, WenChieh

    The skin is an endocrine organ with the expression of metabolizing enzymes and hormone receptors for diverse hormones. The sebaceous gland is the main site of hormone biosynthesis, especially for androgens, and acne is the classical androgen-mediated dermatosis. In sebocytes, conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone directly to dihydrotestosterone bypassing testosterone has been demonstrated, while type II 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase can inactivate the action of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The androgen receptor-dependent genomic effect of dihydrotestosterone on sebocytes is confirmed. Further evidence supports the PI3 K/Akt/FoxO1/mTOR signaling in the involvement of the interplay between androgens, insulin, insulin-like growth factor, and hyperglycemic diet in acne. Androgens not only regulate embryology and lipogenesis/sebum synthesis in sebocytes but also influence inflammation in acne. Genetic studies indicate that regulation of the androgen receptor is an important factor in severe acne. Further studies are required to understand the effect of estrogen and progesterone on sebaceous gland and comedogenesis, considering the change of acne in pregnancy and postmenopausal acne. Special attention should be paid to nonobese patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome and hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome. In spite of extensive gynecologic experience in the use of combined oral contraceptives for acne, evidence based on dermatologic observation should be intensified.

  19. Serum concentrations of cortisol, sex hormones of adrenal origin, and adrenocortical steroid intermediates in healthy dogs following stimulation with two doses of cosyntropin.

    PubMed

    Frank, Linda A; Davis, Jacqueline A; Oliver, Jack W

    2004-12-01

    To compare the effects of 2 doses of cosyntropin (5 microg/kg vs 250 microg, IV) on serum concentrations of cortisol, sex hormones of adrenal origin, and adrenocortical steroid intermediates and determine the optimal sample collection time after adrenal stimulation with cosyntropin. 10 healthy, privately owned, neutered dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned to initially receive cosyntropin at 5 microg/kg or as a total dose of 250 microg, IV. Dogs received the alternate dose 1 to 2 weeks later. Serum was obtained from blood samples collected before (0 minutes) and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after cosyntropin administration. Maximum stimulation of cortisol, androstenedione, progesterone, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone production was achieved at 60 minutes following IV administration of cosyntropin at 5 microg/kg or as a total dose of 250 microg. Serum estradiol concentration did not increase in response to either cosyntropin dose. For all hormones, no significant difference in serum hormone concentrations was found among sample collection times of 0, 30, 60, and 90 minutes when comparing the 2 doses of cosyntropin. Cosyntropin, when administered at 5 microg/kg, IV, effectively stimulated maximum production of cortisol, sex hormones of adrenal origin, and adrenocortical steroid intermediates at 1 hour after administration.

  20. Are female sex hormones teratogenic?

    PubMed

    Wilson, J G; Brent, R L

    1981-11-01

    An analysis of available epidemiologic data leads the present reviewers to conclude that the use of exogenous hormones during human pregnancy has not been proved to cause developmental abnormality in nongenital organs and tissues. This conclusion is further supported by the animal laboratory data. The preponderance of evidence at this writing indicates a lack of causal association between hormonal use during pregnancy and nongenital malformation of the offspring. The quality of the epidemiologic data does not, at this time, permit a definitive conclusion that sex hormones during pregnancy may not, under as yet to be defined conditions, have some adverse effect on human prenatal development. If there are increased risks of nongenital malformations associated with the administration of certain sex steroids, the risks are very small, may not be causal, and are substantially below the spontaneous risk of malformations. In spite of the present degree of uncertainty, the clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory data do permit the formulation of a rational approach to handling problems related to sex steroid usage and exposure in pregnant women.

  1. Influence of adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge and external factors (age, sex, and body region) on hair cortisol concentration in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Terwissen, C V; Mastromonaco, G F; Murray, D L

    2013-12-01

    Land use changes are a significant factor influencing the decline of felid populations. However, additional research is needed to better understand how these factors influence populations in the wild. Hormone analysis can provide valuable information on the basic physiology and overall health of an animal, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are generally used for hair hormone analysis but must first be validated for the substrate of choice and species of interest. To date, hormone assays from hair have not been validated for Felidae, despite that the method holds considerable promise for non-invasive sampling of free-ranging animals. We sought to: (1) evaluate whether increased adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) during the period of hair growth results in elevated hair cortisol; (2) validate the enzyme immunoassay used; and (3) identify any variations in hair cortisol between age, sex and body regions, using Canada lynx. We quantified hair cortisol concentrations in captive animals through an ACTH challenge and collected samples from legally harvested lynx to compare variability between body regions. An EIA was validated for the analysis of hair cortisol. Lynx (n=3) had a qualitative increase in hair cortisol concentration following an ACTH challenge in captive animals (20 IU/kg of body weight weekly for 5 weeks), thereby supporting the use of an EIA to quantify cortisol values in hair. Based on our analysis of sampled lynx pelts, we found that hair cortisol did not vary between age and sex, but varied within the foot/leg region to a greater extent than between individuals. We recommend that future studies identify a standardized location for hair cortisol sampling.

  2. Sex hormones and the genesis of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Lindsay S

    2006-03-01

    The sexually dimorphic prevalence of autoimmune disease remains one of the most intriguing clinical observations among this group of disorders. While sex hormones have long been recognized for their roles in reproductive functions, within the past 2 decades scientists have found that sex hormones are integral signaling modulators of the mammalian immune system. Sex hormones have definitive roles in lymphocyte maturation, activation, and synthesis of antibodies and cytokines. Sex hormone expression is altered among patients with autoimmune disease, and this variation of expression contributes to immune dysregulation. English-language literature from the last 10 years was reviewed to examine the relationship between sex hormones and the function of the mammalian immune system. Approximately 50 publications were included in this review, and the majority were controlled trials with investigator blinding that compared both male and female diseased and normal subjects. The review provided basic knowledge regarding the broad impact of sex hormones on the immune system and how abnormal sex hormone expression contributes to the development and maintenance of autoimmune phenomena, with a focus on systemic lupus erythematosus, as models of "lupus-prone" mice are readily available. Sex hormones affect the function of the mammalian immune system, and sex hormone expression is different in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus than in healthy subjects. Sex hormones play a role in the genesis of autoimmunity. Future research may provide a therapeutic approach that is capable of altering disease pathogenesis, rather than targeting disease sequelae.

  3. Associations of serum sex steroid hormones and 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide concentrations with prostate cancer risk among men treated with finasteride

    PubMed Central

    Kristal, Alan R.; Till, Cathee; Tangen, Catherine M.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Chu, Lisa W.; Patel, Sherfaraz K.; Thompson, Ian; Reichardt, Juergen K.; Hoque, Ashraful; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Figg, William D.; Van Bokhoven, Adrie; Lippman, Scott M.; Hsing, Ann W

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Finasteride, an inhibitor of 5 α-reductase (Type II), lowers intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is reflected in serum as reduced 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide (3α-dG). It also modestly increases serum testosterone (T), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2). In this altered hormonal milieu, it is unknown whether serum concentrations of these hormones are associated with prostate cancer risk. METHODS In this nested case-control study of men in the finasteride arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, sex steroid hormones and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at baseline and approximately 3-years post-treatment in 553 prostate cancer cases and 694 controls. RESULTS Median post-treatment changes in concentrations of 3α-dG, T, E1, and E2 were −73.8%, +10.1%, +11.2%, and +7.5% (all p<0.001), respectively. Neither the pre- nor post-treatment concentrations of 3α-dG, nor its change, were associated with risk. Pre-treatment, high concentrations of E1 and low concentrations of T were associated with increased cancer risk (Odds Ratio[95% CI] quartile 4 vs 1: 1.38[0.99–1.93] ptrend=0.03; 0.64 [0.43–0.93] ptrend=0.07, respectively). Post-treatment, high concentrations of both E1 and E2 and were associated with increased cancer risk (OR[95% CI] quartile 4 vs 1: 1.54[1.09–2.17] ptrend=0.03; 1.49[1.07–2.07] ptrend=0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Among finasteride-treated men, concentrations of 3α-dG were not associated with total or Gleason grades 2–6, 7–10 or 8–10 cancer. High serum estrogens may increase cancer risk when intraprostatic DHT is pharmacologically lowered. IMPACT Low post-treatment serum estrogens may identify men more likely to benefit from use of finasteride to prevent prostate cancer. PMID:22879203

  4. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLASMA SEX STEROID CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

  5. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLASMA SEX STEROID CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

  6. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and cortisol concentrations are associated with overreaching during strenuous military training.

    PubMed

    Tanskanen, Minna M; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Uusitalo, Arja L; Huovinen, Jukka; Nissilä, Juuso; Kinnunen, Hannu; Atalay, Mustafa; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2011-03-01

    The purpose was (a) to study the effect of an 8-week Finnish military basic training period (BT) on physical fitness, body composition, mood state, and serum biochemical parameters among new conscripts; (b) to determine the incidence of overreaching (OR); and (c) to evaluate whether initial levels or training responses differ between OR and noOR subjects. Fifty-seven males (19.7 ± 0.3 years) were evaluated before and during BT. Overreaching subjects had to fulfill 3 of 5 criteria: decreased aerobic physical fitness (VO2max), increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in 45-minute submaximal test at 70% of VO2max or sick absence from these tests, increased somatic or emotional symptoms of OR, and high incidence of sick absence from daily service. VO2max improved during the first 4 weeks of BT. During the second half of BT, a stagnation of increase in VO2max was observed, basal serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) increased, and insulin-like growth factor-1 and cortisol decreased. Furthermore, submaximal exercise-induced increases in cortisol, maximum heart rate, and postexercise increase in blood lactate were blunted. Of 57 subjects, 33% were classified as OR. They had higher basal SHBG before and after 4 and 7 weeks of training and higher basal serum cortisol at the end of BT than noOR subjects. In addition, in contrast to noOR, OR subjects exhibited no increase in basal testosterone/cortisol ratio but a decrease in maximal La/RPE ratio during BT. As one-third of the conscripts were overreached, training after BT should involve recovery training to prevent overtraining syndrome from developing. The results confirm that serum SHBG, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol and maximal La/RPE ratios could be useful tools to indicate whether training is too strenuous.

  7. Sex Hormones and Macronutrient Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

  8. A portion of heifers attaining “early puberty” do not display estrus, are anovulatory and have altered sex hormone binding globulin concentrations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cows with excess androstenedione (High A4) in the follicular fluid of dominant follicles attain puberty earlier than their low androstenedione counterparts. Furthermore, High A4 cows are anovulatory (chronic or sporadic) and have lower Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) compared to Low A4 ovulator...

  9. Effects of androstenedione-herbal supplementation on serum sex hormone concentrations in 30- to 59-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Brown, G A; Vukovich, M D; Martini, E R; Kohut, M L; Franke, W D; Jackson, D A; King, D S

    2001-09-01

    The effectiveness of a nutritional supplement designed to enhance serum testosterone concentrations and prevent the formation of dihydrotestosterone and estrogens from the ingested androgens was investigated in healthy 30- to 59-year old men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume DION (300 mg androstenedione, 150 mg dehydroepiandrosterone, 540 mg saw palmetto, 300 mg indole-3-carbinol, 625 mg chrysin, and 750 mg Tribulus terrestris per day; n = 28) or placebo (n = 27) for 28 days. Serum free testosterone, total testosterone, androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and lipid concentrations were measured before and throughout the 4-week supplementation period. Serum concentrations of total testosterone and PSA were unchanged by supplementation. DION increased (p < 0.05) serum androstenedione (342%), free testosterone (38%), dihydrotestosterone (71%), and estradiol (103%) concentrations. Serum HDL-C concentrations were reduced by 5.0 mg/dL in DION (p < 0.05). Increases in serum free testosterone (r2 = 0.01), androstenedione (r2 = 0.01), dihydrotestosterone (r2 = 0.03), or estradiol (r2 = 0.07) concentrations in DION were not related to age. While the ingestion of androstenedione combined with herbal products increased serum free testosterone concentrations in older men, these herbal products did not prevent the conversion of ingested androstenedione to estradiol and dihydrotestosterone.

  10. Daily Bisphenol A Excretion and Associations with Sex Hormone Concentrations: Results from the InCHIANTI Adult Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Tamara; Cipelli, Riccardo; Guralnik, Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Money, Cathryn; McCormack, Paul; Melzer, David

    2010-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical widely used in packaging for food and beverages. Numerous studies have demonstrated that BPA can alter endocrine function in animals, yet human studies remain limited. Objective We estimated daily excretion of BPA among adults and examined hypothesized associations with serum estrogen and testosterone concentrations. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analyses using data from the InCHIANTI Study, a prospective population-based study of Italian adults. Our study included 715 adults between 20 and 74 years old. BPA concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry in 24-hr urine samples. The main outcome measures were serum concentrations of total testosterone and 17β-estradiol. Results Geometric mean urinary BPA concentration was 3.59 ng/mL [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.42–3.77 ng/mL], and mean excretion was 5.63 μg/day (5th population percentile, 2.1 μg/day; 95th percentile, 16.4 μg/day). We found higher excretion rates among men, younger respondents, and those with increasing waist circumference (p = 0.013) and weight (p = 0.003). Higher daily BPA excretion was associated with higher total testosterone concentrations in men, in models adjusted for age and study site (p = 0.044), and in models additionally adjusted for smoking, measures of obesity, and urinary creatinine concentrations (β = 0.046; 95% CI, 0.015–0.076; p = 0.004). We found no associations with the other serum measures. We also found no associations with the primary outcomes among women, but we did find an association between BPA and SHBG concentrations in the 60 premenopausal women. Conclusion Higher BPA exposure may be associated with endocrine changes in men. The mechanisms involved in the observed cross-sectional association with total testosterone concentrations need to be clarified. PMID:20797929

  11. Sex steroids and growth hormone interactions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Díaz, Mario; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    GH and sex hormones are critical regulators of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism, and sexual dimorphism. Deficiencies in GH- or sex hormone-dependent signaling and the influence of sex hormones on GH biology may have a dramatic impact on liver physiology during somatic development and in adulthood. Effects of sex hormones on the liver may be direct, through hepatic receptors, or indirect by modulating endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions of GH. Sex hormones can modulate GH actions by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and peripherally, by modulating GH signaling pathways. The endocrine and/or metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to sex hormone-related compounds and their influence on the GH-liver axis are largely unknown. A better understanding of these interactions in physiological and pathological states will contribute to preserve health and to improve clinical management of patients with growth, developmental, and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Interactions Between Genome-wide Significant Genetic Variants and Circulating Concentrations of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1, Sex Hormones, and Binding Proteins in Relation to Prostate Cancer Risk in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Travis, Ruth C.; Appleby, Paul N.; Allen, Naomi E.; Lindstrom, Sara; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Cox, David; Hsing, Ann W.; Ma, Jing; Severi, Gianluca; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Johansson, Mattias; Quirós, J. Ramón; Riboli, Elio; Siddiq, Afshan; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Stampfer, Meir J.; Giles, Graham G.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hayes, Richard B.; Key, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer risk. There is limited information on the mechanistic basis of these associations, particularly about whether they interact with circulating concentrations of growth factors and sex hormones, which may be important in prostate cancer etiology. Using conditional logistic regression, the authors compared per-allele odds ratios for prostate cancer for 39 GWAS-identified SNPs across thirds (tertile groups) of circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) for 3,043 cases and 3,478 controls in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. After allowing for multiple testing, none of the SNPs examined were significantly associated with growth factor or hormone concentrations, and the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by these concentrations, although 4 interactions were marginally significant (MSMB-rs10993994 with androstenedione (uncorrected P = 0.008); CTBP2-rs4962416 with IGFBP-3 (uncorrected P = 0.003); 11q13.2-rs12418451 with IGF-1 (uncorrected P = 0.006); and 11q13.2-rs10896449 with SHBG (uncorrected P = 0.005)). The authors found no strong evidence that associations between GWAS-identified SNPs and prostate cancer are modified by circulating concentrations of IGF-1, sex hormones, or their major binding proteins. PMID:22459122

  13. Dietary Patterns and Plasma Sex Hormones, Prolactin, and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Premenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Hirko, Kelly A; Spiegelman, Donna; Barnett, Junaidah B; Cho, Eunyoung; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E; Eliassen, A Heather

    2016-05-01

    Sex hormones are important for breast cancer, but it is unclear whether dietary patterns influence hormone concentrations. Dietary pattern adherence scores for the alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) were calculated from semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires administered in 1995 and 1999. Premenopausal plasma concentrations of sex hormones were measured in samples collected in 1996 to 1999. We used generalized linear models to calculate geometric mean hormone concentrations across quartiles of dietary pattern scores among 1,990 women in the Nurses' Health Study II. We did not observe significant associations between sex hormone concentrations and the DASH pattern and only one suggestive association between follicular estrone concentrations and the aMED pattern [top vs. bottom quartile -4.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI), -10.6% to 2.1%; Ptrend = 0.06]. However, women in the top versus bottom quartile of AHEI score had lower concentrations of follicular (-9.1%; 95% CI, -16.1% to -1.4%; Ptrend = 0.04) and luteal (-7.5%; 95% CI, -13.6% to -0.9%; Ptrend = 0.01) estrone, luteal-free (-9.3%; 95% CI, -16.8% to -1.1%; Ptrend = 0.01) and total (-6.7 %; 95% CI, -14.3% to 1.5%; Ptrend = 0.04) estradiol, follicular estradiol (-14.2%; 95% CI, -24.6% to -2.4%; Ptrend = 0.05), and androstenedione (-7.8%; 95% CI, -15.4% to 0.4%; Ptrend = 0.03). Diet quality measured by the AHEI is inversely associated with premenopausal estrogen concentrations. Given that we did not observe similar associations with the aMED or DASH patterns, our findings should be interpreted with caution. Given the role of estrogens in breast cancer etiology, our findings add to the substantial evidence on the benefits of adhering to a healthy diet. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(5); 791-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. ``Sex Hormones'' in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-11-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term “sex hormone” is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called “sex hormones” are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found that: (1) all the texts employed the term “sex hormone”; (2) in all texts estrogen is characterized as restricted to females and testosterone is characterized as restricted to males; and (3) in all texts testosterone and estrogen are discussed as exclusively involved in sex-related physiological roles. We conclude that (1) contemporary science textbooks preserve sex-dualistic models of steroid hormones (one sex, one “sex hormone”) that were rejected by medical science in the early 20th century and (2) use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with misconceptions regarding the presence and functions of steroid hormones in male and female bodies.

  15. Relation between sex hormones and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    El Mahdy Korah, T; Abd Elfatah Badr, E; Mohamed Emara, M; Ahmed Samy Kohla, M; Gamal Saad Michael, G

    2016-11-01

    Males have higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than females. Sex hormones may be a risk factor. The aim was to determine the levels of sex hormones in male and female patients with HCC and cirrhosis versus controls and its possible relationship with HCC. This study was conducted on 90 subjects divided into 40 patients with HCC, 30 patients with liver cirrhosis and 20 apparently healthy subjects complete blood picture, liver function tests. Determination of AFP levels and hormonal assay of oestrogen, progesterone, total testosterone, prolactin, FSH and LH were performed on all subjects. Total testosterone levels were significantly decreased in the two patients groups compared with controls. While oestrogen levels were significantly decreased in the HCC group in comparison with other two groups, prolactin levels were significantly decreased in the HCC group compared with the liver cirrhosis group and increased in the liver cirrhosis group when compared to controls. FSH and LH levels were significantly increased in the HCC group when compared to controls. There is no significant correlation between sex hormones assay and both the size of HCC and degree of cirrhosis in both patient groups. It is concluded that there is no strong relation between sex hormones and HCC when the study was carried out on the levels of sex hormones in patients with HCC.

  16. [Sex hormones and cognitive functioning of women].

    PubMed

    Simić, Natasa; Gregov, Ljiljana

    2009-09-01

    This paper discusses the organisational and activational effects of sex hormones, and their influence on cognitive functioning. Previous studies have shown gender differences in specific cognitive abilities. Women generally show an advantage in verbal fluency, perceptual speed and accuracy, as well as in fine motor skills, while men generally show an advantage in spatial and mathematical abilities. These differences in cognitive functioning are thought to occur as a result of foetal brain exposure to different levels of sex hormones during prenatal life. Additional evidence of organisational effects of sex hormones on cognitive functioning also comes from studies of subjects with genetic disorders, such as androgen insensitivity syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and Tyrner syndrome.Furthermore, former investigations have shown that increase in female sex hormone in the late follicular and/or luteal phase of the menstrual cycle intensifies the typical female cognitive pattern of functioning with improved efficiency in tasks which are usually better performed by women. At the same time, low levels of such hormones that characterise the menstrual phase of the cycle intensify the typical male cognitive pattern of functioning with better efficiency in tasks which usually better performed by men.This paper also points to methodological differences between investigations of organizational and activational effects of sex hormones on cognitive functioning, as well a to the direction of future investigations.

  17. Sex in the brain: hormones and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Marrocco, Jordan; McEwen, Bruce S

    2016-12-01

    Contrary to popular belief, sex hormones act throughout the entire brain of both males and females via both genomic and nongenomic receptors. Many neural and behavioral functions are affected by estrogens, including mood, cognitive function, blood pressure regulation, motor coordination, pain, and opioid sensitivity. Subtle sex differences exist for many of these functions that are developmentally programmed by hormones and by not yet precisely defined genetic factors, including the mitochondrial genome. These sex differences, and responses to sex hormones in brain regions and upon functions not previously regarded as subject to such differences, indicate that we are entering a new era in our ability to understand and appreciate the diversity of gender-related behaviors and brain functions.

  18. Sex in the brain: hormones and sex differences

    PubMed Central

    Marrocco, Jordan; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, sex hormones act throughout the entire brain of both males and females via both genomic and nongenomic receptors. Many neural and behavioral functions are affected by estrogens, including mood, cognitive function, blood pressure regulation, motor coordination, pain, and opioid sensitivity. Subtle sex differences exist for many of these functions that are developmentally programmed by hormones and by not yet precisely defined genetic factors, including the mitochondrial genome. These sex differences, and responses to sex hormones in brain regions and upon functions not previously regarded as subject to such differences, indicate that we are entering a new era in our ability to understand and appreciate the diversity of gender-related behaviors and brain functions. PMID:28179809

  19. Sex hormones and brain dopamine functions.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Zarate, Ramon; Cruz, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M; Espinosa, Pedro; Ramirez, Victor D

    2014-01-01

    Sex hormones exert differential effects on a variety of sensitive tissues like the reproductive tract, gonads, liver, bone and adipose tissue, among others. In the brain, sex hormones act as neuroactive steroids regulating the function of neuroendocrine diencephalic structures like the hypothalamus. In addition, steroids can exert physiological effects upon cortical, limbic and midbrain structures, influencing different behaviors such as memory, learning, mood and reward. In the last three decades, the role of sex hormones on monoamine neurotransmitters in extra-hypothalamic areas related to motivated behaviors, learning and locomotion has been the focus of much research. The purpose of this thematic issue is to present the state of art concerning the effects of sex hormones on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic midbrain areas involved in neurobiological and pathological processes, such as addiction to drugs of abuse. We also discuss evidence of how neonatal exposure to sex hormones or endocrine disrupting chemicals can produce long-term changes on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic neurons in the limbic and midbrain areas.

  20. Steroid Sex Hormones, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin, and Diabetes Incidence in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Mather, K J; Kim, C; Christophi, C A; Aroda, V R; Knowler, W C; Edelstein, S E; Florez, J C; Labrie, F; Kahn, S E; Goldberg, R B; Barrett-Connor, E

    2015-10-01

    Steroid sex hormones and SHBG may modify metabolism and diabetes risk, with implications for sex-specific diabetes risk and effects of prevention interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships of steroid sex hormones, SHBG and SHBG single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with diabetes risk factors and with progression to diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial involving 27 U.S. academic institutions. The study included 2898 DPP participants: 969 men, 948 premenopausal women not taking exogenous sex hormones, 550 postmenopausal women not taking exogenous sex hormones, and 431 postmenopausal women taking exogenous sex hormones. Participants were randomized to receive intensive lifestyle intervention, metformin, or placebo. Associations of steroid sex hormones, SHBG, and SHBG SNPs with glycemia and diabetes risk factors, and with incident diabetes over median 3.0 years (maximum, 5.0 y). T and DHT were inversely associated with fasting glucose in men, and estrone sulfate was directly associated with 2-hour post-challenge glucose in men and premenopausal women. SHBG was associated with fasting glucose in premenopausal women not taking exogenous sex hormones, and in postmenopausal women taking exogenous sex hormones, but not in the other groups. Diabetes incidence was directly associated with estrone and estradiol and inversely with T in men; the association with T was lost after adjustment for waist circumference. Sex steroids were not associated with diabetes outcomes in women. SHBG and SHBG SNPs did not predict incident diabetes in the DPP population. Estrogens and T predicted diabetes risk in men but not in women. SHBG and its polymorphisms did not predict risk in men or women. Diabetes risk is more potently determined by obesity and glycemia than by sex hormones.

  1. Effect of anticonvulsants on plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels.

    PubMed Central

    Barragry, J M; Makin, H L; Trafford, D J; Scott, D F

    1978-01-01

    Plasma sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone levels were measured in 29 patients with epilepsy (16 men and 13 women), most of them on chronic therapy with anticonvulsant drugs. Sex hormone binding globulin concentrations were increased in both sexes and testosterone levels in male patients. It is postulated that anticonvulsants may induce hepatic synthesis of SHBG. PMID:569688

  2. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. ); Gutai, J.P. ); Powell, J.G. )

    1989-06-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  3. Association between vitamin D concentration and levels of sex hormones in an elderly Polish population with different genotypes of VDR polymorphisms (rs10735810, rs1544410, rs7975232, rs731236).

    PubMed

    Laczmanski, Lukasz; Lwow, Felicja; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Puzianowska-Kuznicka, Monika; Szwed, Małgorzata; Kolackov, Katarzyna; Krzyzanowska-Swiniarska, Barbara; Bar-Andziak, Ewa; Chudek, Jerzy; Sloka, Natalia; Milewicz, Andrzej

    2015-03-15

    Vitamin D co-regulates the synthesis of sex hormones in part by interaction with its nuclear receptor. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association of vitamin D concentration vs the level of sex hormones in elderly Polish individuals with different genotypes of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. Rs10735810, rs1544410, rs7975232, and rs731236 polymorphisms of VDR, the serum sex hormone level, free estrogen index (FEI) and free androgen index (FAI) as well as vitamin D, were evaluated in 766 persons (362 women and 404 men) selected from 5695 Polish population, aged 65-90years from the PolSenior survey. We observed that women with GG (rs731236), TT (rs7975232), BB (rs1544410) and FF (rs10735810) genotypes were characterized by a significant correlation between vitamin D vs testosterone concentration and FAI value. We found a significant correlation between testosterone level and FAI vs vitamin D concentration in men with heterozygote AG in the rs731236 polymorphism and in the GG (rs7975232), the BB (rs1544410), and the Ff (rs10735810) genotypes. In elderly selected Polish population with different genotypes of VDR polymorphisms, a statistically significant relationship between vitamin D concentration vs testosterone level was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lack of pleiotropic genetic effects between adiposity and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations before and after 20 weeks of exercise training: the HERITAGE family study.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Mary F; Borecki, Ingrid B; Rankinen, Tuomo; Leon, Arthur S; Skinner, James S; Wilmore, Jack H; Bouchard, Claude; Rao, D C

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations and body fat accumulation and distribution is governed by complex dynamic factors, which may involve common genetic and/or environmental factors. The current study investigated the genetic and environmental basis for the correlation between SHBG and body fat. Several measures of adiposity were investigated including body mass index (BMI) and a trunk to extremity skinfold thickness ratio (TER) assessed by anthropometry, body composition measured by hydrostatic weighing (total body fat mass [FM], fat-free mass [FFM], and percent body fat [%BF]), and abdominal fat measured by computerized tomography scanning (abdominal visceral fat [AVF]). The study comprised 501 white subjects from 99 families and 277 black subjects from 117 families participating in the HERITAGE Family Study. Familial correlations between traits and their cosegregation were investigated both at baseline and in response to endurance exercise training. Significant inverse phenotypic correlations were detected in both races between SHBG and adiposity measures at baseline and also in response to training. Significant cross-trait familial resemblance was found between SHBG and both BMI and FFM at baseline that accounted for 11% and 4% of maximal heritability, respectively, in white families. However, a joint segregation analysis of the traits failed to implicate shared genetic effects. Specifically, neither a pleiotropic major locus nor pleiotropic polygenic effects were detected between SHBG and BMI or FFM. A maximal cross-trait heritability of 45% was obtained for SHBG and TER at baseline in black families. However, no firm conclusions as to the etiology of this relationship could be drawn because of the limitations of small sample size. For the training response phenotypes, there was no significant cross-trait correlation between SHBG and any adiposity measures studied here, suggesting that their correlation may have an

  5. Determination of SHBG-bound sex hormones by selective ammonium sulphate precipitation.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, T; Monaco, E M; Hähnel, R

    1981-03-05

    This paper describes a direct method for determining sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)-bound sex hormones in human plasma after separation of SHBG-bound and unbound hormone fractions by selective precipitation with ammonium sulphate. In normal women variations in SHBG-bound and -free hormone generally paralleled fluctuations in total hormone. Changes in SHBG-free estradiol did not have any marked effect on plasma SHBG and sHBG-free testosterone. Our results suggest a buffer role for SHBG through which the biological response to sudden changes in sex hormone concentration is moderated.

  6. Interrelation between genotypes of the vitamin D receptor gene and serum sex hormone concentrations in the Polish elderly population: the PolSenior study.

    PubMed

    Laczmanski, Lukasz; Milewicz, Andrzej; Puzianowska-Kuznicka, Monika; Lwow, Felicja; Kolackov, Katarzyna; Mieszczanowicz, Urszula; Pawlak, Maurycy; Krzyzanowska-Swiniarska, Barbara; Bar-Andziak, Ewa; Chudek, Jerzy; Mossakowska, Malgorzata

    2014-09-01

    Vitamin D co-regulates the synthesis of sex hormones. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of certain genotypes of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) is associated with the serum levels of sex hormones in the elderly Polish population. The rs10735810, rs1544410, rs7975232, and rs731236 polymorphisms of VDR, the serum levels of testosterone and estradiol, as well as free estrogen index (FEI) and free androgen index (FAI) were evaluated in 360 women and 400 men aged 65-90years selected from 5695 respondents of the PolSenior survey. Only the rs1544410 VDR polymorphism was associated with the serum levels of sex hormones. The prevalence of rs1544410 genotypes was 38% BB, 46% Bb, and 16% bb in women and 41% BB, 44% Bb, and 15% bb in men. In women the frequency of the B allele was p=0.61 and b allele q=0.39, while in men it was p=0.63 and q=0.37, respectively. We found significant differences in the serum testosterone level (p<0.0004) and FAI (p<0.0015) between the rs1544410 genotypes in women but not in men. Higher mean testosterone level and higher mean FAI were observed in women with a rare bb genotype in comparison to a common BB genotype. We hypothesize that in women the increase in VDR expression associated with a rare genotype of the rs1544410 polymorphism of this gene may be associated with an increase in testosterone and FAI levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex hormones in women with kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sofia B; Ramesh, Sharanya

    2016-11-01

    Menstrual disorders, infertility and premature menopause are common but often underrecognized phenomena among women with chronic kidney disease. Hypothalamic, rather than ovarian dysfunction, may be the cause of the abnormal reproductive milieu, which can be at least partially reversed by kidney transplantation and increased intensity of hemodialysis. Endogenous sex hormones, and specifically estradiol, appear to be renoprotective in women, although the effects of exogenous estradiol (as an oral contraceptive and postmenopausal hormone therapy) on kidney function are more controversial. Treatment with postmenopausal hormone therapy in women with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has been associated with improved quality of life, bone health and markers of cardiovascular risk, as well as an increased risk of arteriovenous access thrombosis. The selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene has been associated with both a decreased fracture risk as well as renoprotection in women with kidney disease. Young women with ESKD are more likely to die from infection or develop malignancy, suggesting an immunomodulatory role of estrogen. Whether the premature menopause commonly observed in female patients with kidney disease results in increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is unknown, although preliminary studies have suggested a possible therapeutic role for manipulation of the sex hormone milieu to mitigate risk in this population. Large, prospective, randomized studies examining the role of sex hormones in women with kidney disease are required to address the question.

  8. Sex hormones and the elderly male voice.

    PubMed

    Gugatschka, Markus; Kiesler, Karl; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Schoekler, Bernadette; Schmid, Christoph; Groselj-Strele, Andrea; Friedrich, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to describe influences of sex hormones on the male voice in an elderly cohort. Sixty-three elderly males were recruited to undergo assessment of voice parameters, stroboscopy, voice-related questionnaires, a blood draw, and an ultrasound examination of the laryngeal skeleton. The group was divided into men with normal hormonal status and men with lowered levels of sex hormones, called hypogonades. Depending on the level of androgens, voice parameters did not differ. In subjects with decreased levels of estrogens, a significant increase in mean fundamental frequency, as well as changes of highest and lowest frequency plus a shift of the frequency range could be detected. We could detect significant changes of voice parameters depending on status of estrogens in elderly males. Androgens appear to have no impact on the elderly male voice. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study that correlates sex hormones with voice parameters in elderly men. (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Why sex hormones matter for neuroscience: A very short review on sex, sex hormones, and functional brain asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Markus

    2017-01-02

    Biological sex and sex hormones are known to affect functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs). Men are generally more lateralized than women. The effect size of this sex difference is small but robust. Some of the inconsistencies in the literature may be explained by sex-related hormonal differences. Most studies focusing on neuromodulatory properties of sex hormones on FCAs have investigated women during the menstrual cycle. Although contradictions exist, these studies have typically shown that levels of estradiol and/or progesterone correlate with the degree of FCAs, suggesting that sex differences in FCAs partially depend on hormonal state and day of testing. The results indicate that FCAs are not fixed but are hormone dependent, and as such they can dynamically change within relatively short periods throughout life. Many issues raised in this Mini-Review refer not only to FCAs but also to other aspects of functional brain organization, such as functional connectivity within and between the cerebral hemispheres. Our understanding of sex differences in brain and behavior as well as their clinical relevance will improve significantly if more studies routinely take sex and sex hormones into account. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Expression of the androgen receptor in the testes and the concentrations of gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones in male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, J; Leska, A; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-04-01

    Androgens, including testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4), are essential for puberty, fertility and sexual functions. The biological activity of those hormones is mediated via the androgen receptor (AR). The regulation of androgen action in birds is poorly understood. Therefore, the present study analysed mRNA and protein expression of AR in the testes, plasma concentrations of the luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), T, A4 and oestradiol (E2), as well as the levels of T, A4 and E2 in testicular homogenates of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. Plasma concentrations of LH and FSH, as well as plasma and testicular levels of T and A4 began to increase at 20weeks of age. The lowest plasma levels of E2 were noted at 20weeks relative to other growth stages. The 20th week of life seems to be the key phase in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys. The AR protein was found in the nuclei of testicular cells in all examined growth stages. Higher expression of AR protein in the testes beginning at 20weeks of age was accompanied by high plasma concentrations of LH and high plasma and testicular levels of androgens. This relationship seems to be necessary to regulate male sexual function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-wide association study of sex hormones, gonadotropins and sex hormone-binding protein in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Tao, Sha; Gao, Yong; Zhang, Ju; Hu, Yanling; Mo, Linjian; Kim, Seong-Tae; Yang, Xiaobo; Tan, Aihua; Zhang, Haiying; Qin, Xue; Li, Li; Wu, Yongming; Zhang, Shijun; Zheng, S Lilly; Xu, Jianfeng; Mo, Zengnan; Sun, Jielin

    2013-12-01

    Sex hormones and gonadotropins exert a wide variety of effects in physiological and pathological processes. Accumulated evidence shows a strong heritable component of circulating concentrations of these hormones. Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in Caucasians have identified multiple loci that influence serum levels of sex hormones. However, the genetic determinants remain unknown in Chinese populations. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic variants associated with major sex hormones, gonadotropins, including testosterone, oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in a Chinese population. A two-stage GWAS was conducted in a total of 3495 healthy Chinese men (1999 subjects in the GWAS discovery stage and 1496 in the confirmation stage). We identified a novel genetic region at 15q21.2 (rs2414095 in CYP19A1), which was significantly associated with oestradiol and FSH in the Chinese population at a genome-wide significant level (p=6.54×10(-31) and 1.59×10(-16), respectively). Another single nucleotide polymorphism in CYP19A1 gene was significantly associated with oestradiol level (rs2445762, p=7.75×10(-28)). In addition, we confirmed the previous GWAS-identified locus at 17p13.1 for testosterone (rs2075230, p=1.13×10(-8)) and SHBG level (rs2075230, p=4.75×10(-19)) in the Chinese population. This study is the first GWAS investigation of genetic determinants of FSH and LH. The identification of novel susceptibility loci may provide more biological implications for the synthesis and metabolism of these hormones. More importantly, the confirmation of the genetic loci for testosterone and SHBG suggests common genetic components shared among different ethnicities.

  12. Responses and recovery pattern of sex steroid hormones in testis of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to sublethal concentration of methomyl.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shun Long; Qiu, Li Ping; Hu, Geng Dong; Fan, Li Min; Song, Chao; Zheng, Yao; Wu, Wei; Qu, Jian Hong; Li, Dan Dan; Chen, Jia Zhang; Xu, Pao

    2016-12-01

    Tilapia were exposed to sublethal methomyl concentrations of 0, 0.2, 2, 20 or 200 μg/L for 30 days, and then transferred to methomyl-free water for 18 days. The sexual steroid hormones 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in tilapia testes were examined at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 days after methomyl exposure, and at 18 days after fish were transferred to methomyl-free water. There were no significant changes in the hormone parameters in testes of tilapia exposed to low concentration 0.2 and 2 μg/L methomyl compared with the controls. However, high concentration 20 and 200 μg/L methomyl had the potential to disrupt the endocrine system of male tilapia, as shown by an increase in E2 and a decrease in T and 11-KT in the testes. Thus, it would appear that the 2 μg/L methomyl might be considered the no-observed-adverse-effect level. Recovery data showed that the effects produced by the lower concentration of 20 μg/L were reversible but the effects were not reversible at the higher concentration of 200 μg/L.

  13. Brain sex differences and hormone influences

    PubMed Central

    Tobet, Stuart; Knoll, J. Gabriel; Hartshorn, Cheryl; Aurand, Emily; Stratton, Matthew; Kumar, Pankaj; Searcy, Brian; McClellan, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    Sex differences in the nervous system come in many forms. Although a majority of sexually dimorphic characteristics in brain have been described in older animals, mechanisms that determine sexually differentiated brain characteristics often operate during critical perinatal periods. Both genetic and hormonal factors likely contribute to physiological mechanisms in development to generate the ontogeny of sexual dimorphisms in brain. Relevant mechanisms may include neurogenesis, cell migration, cell differentiation, cell death, axon guidance and synaptogenesis. On a molecular level, there are several ways to categorize factors that drive brain development. These range from the actions of transcription factors in cell nuclei that regulate the expression of genes that control cell development and differentiation, to effector molecules that directly contribute to signaling from one cell to another. In addition, several peptides or proteins in these and other categories might be referred to as “biomarkers” of sexual differentiation with undetermined functions in development or adulthood. While a majority of sex differences are revealed as a direct consequence of hormone actions, some may only be revealed following genetic or environmental disruption. Sex differences in cell positions in the developing hypothalamus, and steroid hormone influences on cell movements in vitro, suggest that cell migration may be one target for early molecular actions that impact brain development and sexual differentiation. PMID:19207813

  14. Sex hormones regulate hepatic fetuin expression in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Jung-Won; Lee, Dong Seok; Yun, Jong Won

    2014-01-01

    To date, there are limited studies on the sex-specific relationship between fetuins (Ft-A and Ft-B) and metabolic diseases. Our recent proteomic study has shown that fetuins may play sex-dependent roles in obesity and diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the expression of hepatic fetuins with respect to the effects of sex hormones both in vivo and in vitro. A sex hormone-treated rat model was established in order to study the effects of sex hormones on hepatic fetuin expression. Animal experiments revealed that 17β-estradiol (E2)- and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated rats showed opposite effects in terms of body weight gain in both genders. Interestingly, Ft-A and Ft-B were sex-dependently expressed in the livers of rats, responding to different regulatory modes of sex hormone receptors (ERα, ERβ, and AR). To validate in vivo data, rat normal liver cells were treated with E2 or DHT at different concentrations, and similar expression patterns as those in the animal-based experiments were confirmed. We found that these changes were mediated via sex hormone receptors using antagonist experiments. The results of the present study indicate that sex hormones induce gender-dimorphic expression of hepatic fetuins directly via sex hormone receptors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach to address the effects of sex hormones on hepatic fetuin expression. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Altered Sex Hormone Concentrations and Gonadal mRNA Expression Levels of Activin Signaling Factors in Hatchling Alligators From a Contaminated Florida Lake

    PubMed Central

    MOORE, BRANDON C.; KOHNO, SATOMI; COOK, ROBERT W.; ALVERS, ASHLEY L.; HAMLIN, HEATHER J.; WOODRUFF, TERESA K.; GUILLETTE, LOUIS J.

    2014-01-01

    Activins and estrogens participate in regulating the breakdown of ovarian germ cell nests and follicle assembly in mammals. In 1994, our group reported elevated frequencies of abnormal, multioocytic ovarian follicles in 6 month old, environmental contaminant-exposed female alligators after gonadotropin challenge. Here, we investigated if maternal contribution of endocrine disrupting contaminants to the egg subsequently alters estrogen/inhibin/activin signaling in hatchling female offspring, putatively predisposing an increased frequency of multioocytic follicle formation. We quantified basal and exogenous gonadotropin-stimulated concentrations of circulating plasma steroid hormones and ovarian activin signaling factor mRNA abundance in hatchling alligators from the same contaminated (Lake Apopka) and reference (Lake Woodruff) Florida lakes, as examined in 1994. Basal circulating plasma estradiol and testosterone concentrations were greater in alligators from the contaminated environment, whereas activin/inhibin βA subunit and follistatin mRNA abundances were lower than values measured in ovaries from reference lake animals. Challenged, contaminant-exposed animals showed a more robust increase in plasma estradiol concentration following an acute follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) challenge compared with reference site alligators. Aromatase and follistatin mRNA levels increased in response to an extended FSH challenge in the reference site animals, but not in the contaminant-exposed animals. In hatchling alligators, ovarian follicles have not yet formed; therefore, these endocrine differences are likely to affect subsequent ovarian development, including ovarian follicle assembly. PMID:20166196

  16. Altered sex hormone concentrations and gonadal mRNA expression levels of activin signaling factors in hatchling alligators from a contaminated Florida lake.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon C; Kohno, Satomi; Cook, Robert W; Alvers, Ashley L; Hamlin, Heather J; Woodruff, Teresa K; Guillette, Louis J

    2010-04-01

    Activins and estrogens participate in regulating the breakdown of ovarian germ cell nests and follicle assembly in mammals. In 1994, our group reported elevated frequencies of abnormal, multioocytic ovarian follicles in 6 month old, environmental contaminant-exposed female alligators after gonadotropin challenge. Here, we investigated if maternal contribution of endocrine disrupting contaminants to the egg subsequently alters estrogen/inhibin/activin signaling in hatchling female offspring, putatively predisposing an increased frequency of multioocytic follicle formation. We quantified basal and exogenous gonadotropin-stimulated concentrations of circulating plasma steroid hormones and ovarian activin signaling factor mRNA abundance in hatchling alligators from the same contaminated (Lake Apopka) and reference (Lake Woodruff) Florida lakes, as examined in 1994. Basal circulating plasma estradiol and testosterone concentrations were greater in alligators from the contaminated environment, whereas activin/inhibin betaA subunit and follistatin mRNA abundances were lower than values measured in ovaries from reference lake animals. Challenged, contaminant-exposed animals showed a more robust increase in plasma estradiol concentration following an acute follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) challenge compared with reference site alligators. Aromatase and follistatin mRNA levels increased in response to an extended FSH challenge in the reference site animals, but not in the contaminant-exposed animals. In hatchling alligators, ovarian follicles have not yet formed; therefore, these endocrine differences are likely to affect subsequent ovarian development, including ovarian follicle assembly. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. [Sex hormones in young pigs. I. Concentrations of plasma progesterone and estrogens of sows and urinary estrogens after synchronization of estrus and ovulation].

    PubMed

    Schneider, F; Bergfeld, J; Brauer, M; Brüssow, K P

    1980-01-01

    Treatment for synchronised heat and ovulation, using Suisynchron-Prämix, Bernburg, pregnant-mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG), and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), was followed with twelve gilts by daily measurement over 31 days of urine oestrogens, plasma progesterone as well as of plasma oestrogens during the oestric phases. Hormonal developments recorded during the oestrus and luteum phases were in agreement with the concepts and data so far known for the subject. An intermediate peak of oestrogen concentration was clearly recordable in the di-oestrus, that is between the tenth and 15th days of cycle. Its physiological importance will have to be further investigated.

  18. Phthalate Exposure and Reproductive Hormone Concentrations in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Barrett, Emily; Butts, Samantha; Wang, Christina; Swan, Shanna Helen

    2014-01-01

    Background Some phthalate chemicals can affect hormone physiology in utero resulting in adverse reproductive health outcomes in animal models. It is unknown whether these exposures are related to circulating maternal hormone concentrations during pregnancy. Methods We used multivariate linear regression to estimate associations between phthalate metabolite concentrations and concurrent serum free and total testosterone and estradiol levels in 180 pregnant women within the Study for Future Families. We also examined associations between prenatal serum hormone concentrations and anogenital outcome in infants. All analyses were adjusted for appropriate confounding variables. Results Total testosterone, free testosterone, and estradiol concentrations ranged from 8 to 406 ng/dl, 0.03 to 1.2 ng/dl, and 529 to 40600 pg/ml, respectively. We observed an inverse association between log sum di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite concentrations and lower log total testosterone concentrations (−0.15, 95% CI −0.26, −0.04) and log free testosterone (−0.15, 95% CI −0.27, −0.03). This relationship persisted regardless of fetal sex. Similarly, we observed an inverse association between log mono-butyl phthalate (MBP) concentrations and log total and free testosterone concentrations in women carrying male fetuses. Mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) concentrations were positively associated with log total and free testosterone concentrations in women carrying male fetuses (0.09, 95%CI 0.003, 0.17 and 0.10, 95% CI 0.01, 0.19 respectively). Prenatal hormone concentrations were not significantly associated with infant anogenital outcomes. Conclusions Our preliminary data suggest that DEHP metabolite, MBP, and MEP exposures during pregnancy are associated with prenatal sex steroid hormone concentrations, but sex steroid hormone concentrations were not associated with infant reproductive outcomes. PMID:24196015

  19. Sex hormones in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Roger Lyrio; da Silva, Fabrício Bragança; Ribeiro, Rogério Faustino; Stefanon, Ivanita

    2014-05-01

    Gender-associated differences in the development of cardiovascular diseases have been described in humans and animals. These differences could explain the low incidence of cardiovascular disease in women in the reproductive period, such as stroke, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. The cardiovascular protection observed in females has been attributed to the beneficial effects of estrogen on endothelial function. Besides estrogen, sex hormones are able to modulate blood pressure by acting on important systems as cardiovascular, renal, and neural. They can have complementary or antagonistic actions. For example, testosterone can raise blood pressure by stimulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, whereas estrogen alone or combined with progesterone has been associated with decreased blood pressure. The effects of testosterone in the development of cardiovascular disease are contradictory. Although some researchers suggest a positive effect, others indicate negative actions of testosterone. Estrogens physiologically stimulate the release of endothelium-derived vasodilator factors and inhibit the renin-angiotensin system. Although the cardioprotective effects of estrogen are widely appreciated, little is known about the effects of progesterone, which is commonly used in hormone replacement therapy. Progesterone has both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive effects in the vasculature, depending on the location of the vessel and the level of exposure. Nevertheless, the mechanisms through which sex hormones modulate blood pressure have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the characterization of those could lead to a better understanding of hypertension in women and men and perhaps to improved forms of therapy.

  20. Interactive effects of culture and sex hormones on the sex role self-concept.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Belinda; Petasis, Ourania; Ortner, Tuulia M; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e., a person's masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European). Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant's masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity.

  1. Interactive effects of culture and sex hormones on the sex role self-concept

    PubMed Central

    Pletzer, Belinda; Petasis, Ourania; Ortner, Tuulia M.; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e., a person's masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European). Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant's masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity. PMID:26236181

  2. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women. PMID:26356576

  3. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John; Klaver, Peter; O'Gorman, Ruth L

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  4. Sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin, and vertebral fractures in older men.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Schousboe, John T; Harrison, Stephanie L; Ensrud, Kristine E; Black, Dennis; Cauley, Jane A; Cummings, Steven R; LeBlanc, Erin S; Laughlin, Gail A; Nielson, Carrie M; Broughton, Augusta; Kado, Deborah M; Hoffman, Andrew R; Jamal, Sophie A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Orwoll, Eric S

    2016-03-01

    The association between sex hormones and sex hormone binding globin (SHBG) with vertebral fractures in men is not well studied. In these analyses, we determined whether sex hormones and SHBG were associated with greater likelihood of vertebral fractures in a prospective cohort study of community dwelling older men. We included data from participants in MrOS who had been randomly selected for hormone measurement (N=1463, including 1054 with follow-up data 4.6years later). Major outcomes included prevalent vertebral fracture (semi-quantitative grade≥2, N=140, 9.6%) and new or worsening vertebral fracture (change in SQ grade≥1, N=55, 5.2%). Odds ratios per SD decrease in sex hormones and per SD increase in SHBG were estimated with logistic regression adjusted for potentially confounding factors, including age, bone mineral density, and other sex hormones. Higher SHBG was associated with a greater likelihood of prevalent vertebral fractures (OR: 1.38 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.72). Total estradiol analyzed as a continuous variable was not associated with prevalent vertebral fractures (OR per SD decrease: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.10). Men with total estradiol values ≤17pg/ml had a borderline higher likelihood of prevalent fracture than men with higher values (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.99, 2.16). There was no association between total testosterone and prevalent fracture. In longitudinal analyses, SHBG (OR: 1.42 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.95) was associated with new or worsening vertebral fracture, but there was no association with total estradiol or total testosterone. In conclusion, higher SHBG (but not testosterone or estradiol) is an independent risk factor for vertebral fractures in older men.

  5. Sex Hormones and Sex Chromosomes Cause Sex Differences in the Development of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Arthur P; Cassis, Lisa A; Eghbali, Mansoureh; Reue, Karen; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-05-01

    This review summarizes recent evidence concerning hormonal and sex chromosome effects in obesity, atherosclerosis, aneurysms, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and hypertension. Cardiovascular diseases occur and progress differently in the 2 sexes, because biological factors differing between the sexes have sex-specific protective and harmful effects. By comparing the 2 sexes directly, and breaking down sex into its component parts, one can discover sex-biasing protective mechanisms that might be targeted in the clinic. Gonadal hormones, especially estrogens and androgens, have long been found to account for some sex differences in cardiovascular diseases, and molecular mechanisms mediating these effects have recently been elucidated. More recently, the inherent sexual inequalities in effects of sex chromosome genes have also been implicated as contributors in animal models of cardiovascular diseases, especially a deleterious effect of the second X chromosome found in females but not in males. Hormonal and sex chromosome mechanisms interact in the sex-specific control of certain diseases, sometimes by opposing the action of the other. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. [Hormone replacement therapy--growth hormone, melatonin, DHEA and sex hormones].

    PubMed

    Fukai, Shiho; Akishita, Masahiro

    2009-07-01

    The ability to maintain active and independent living as long as possible is crucial for the healthy longevity. Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with aging are growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), melatonin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormones and thyroid hormones. These hormonal changes are associated with changes in body composition, visceral obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. With the prolongation of life expectancy, both men and women today live the latter third life with endocrine deficiencies. Hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing or delaying some aspects of aging.

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEX HORMONES, SEX HORMONE BINDING GLOBULIN AND PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE IN OLDER PERSONS

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, M; Cattabiani, C; Lauretani, F; Artoni, A; Bandinelli, S; Schiavi, G; Vignali, A; Volpi, R; Ceresini, G; Lippi, G; Aloe, R; De Vita, F; Giallauria, F; McDermott, MM; Ferrucci, L; Ceda, GP

    2014-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) increases with aging and is higher in persons with metabolic syndrome and diabetes. PAD is associated with adverse outcomes, including frailty and disability. The protective effect of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) for diabetes in men suggests that the biological activity of sex hormones may affect PAD, especially in older populations. Methods Nine hundred and twenty-one elderly subjects with data on SHBG, testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) were selected from InCHIANTI study. PAD was defined as an Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) <0.90. Logistic regression models adjusted for age (Model 1), age, BMI, insulin, interleukin-6, physical activity, smoking, chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome (Model 2), and a final model including also sex hormones (Model 3) were performed to test the relationship between SHBG, sex hormones and PAD. Results The mean age (± SD) of the 419 men and 502 women was 75.0 ± 6.8 years (Sixty two participants (41 men, 21 women) had ABI<0.90. Men with PAD had SHBG levels lower than men without PAD (p=0.03). SHBG was negatively and independently associated with PAD in men (p=0.028). but not in women. The relationship was however attenuated after adjusting for sex hormones (p=0.07). The E2 was not significantly associated with PAD in both men and women. In women, but not in men, T was positively associated with PAD, even after adjusting for multiple confounders, including E2 (p=0.01). Conclusions Low SHBG and high T levels are significantly and independently associated with the presence of PAD in older men and women, respectively. PMID:23102785

  8. The relationship between sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin and peripheral artery disease in older persons.

    PubMed

    Maggio, M; Cattabiani, C; Lauretani, F; Artoni, A; Bandinelli, S; Schiavi, G; Vignali, A; Volpi, R; Ceresini, G; Lippi, G; Aloe, R; De Vita, F; Giallauria, F; McDermott, M M; Ferrucci, L; Ceda, G P

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) increases with aging and is higher in persons with metabolic syndrome and diabetes. PAD is associated with adverse outcomes, including frailty and disability. The protective effect of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) for diabetes in men suggests that the biological activity of sex hormones may affect PAD, especially in older populations. Nine hundred and twenty-one elderly subjects with data on SHBG, testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) were selected from InCHIANTI study. PAD was defined as an Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) < 0.90. Logistic regression models adjusted for age (Model 1), age, BMI, insulin, interleukin-6, physical activity, smoking, chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome (Model 2), and a final model including also sex hormones (Model 3) were performed to test the relationship between SHBG, sex hormones and PAD. The mean age (±SD) of the 419 men and 502 women was 75.0 ± 6.8 years. Sixty two participants (41 men, 21 women) had ABI < 0.90. Men with PAD had SHBG levels lower than men without PAD (p = 0.03). SHBG was negatively and independently associated with PAD in men (p = 0.028) but not in women. The relationship was however attenuated after adjusting for sex hormones (p = 0.07). The E2 was not significantly associated with PAD in both men and women. In women, but not in men, T was positively associated with PAD, even after adjusting for multiple confounders, including E2 (p = 0.01). Low SHBG and high T levels are significantly and independently associated with the presence of PAD in older men and women, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cross-sectional study of the determinants and associations of sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations in first degree relatives (FDR) of patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Abdella, N A; Mojiminiyi, O A

    2017-09-05

    This study explores the determinants of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and associations with categories of glucose intolerance and undiagnosed diabetes in first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D). Anthropometric indices, fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, SHBG, estradiol (E2), testosterone (TT), androstenedione (AND), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured in 584 FDR. Homeostasis model assessment-estimate of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), beta cell function (%B), insulin sensitivity (%S) and free androgen index (FAI) were calculated. 266 subjects were normoglycemic; 237 had prediabetes and 81 had undiagnosed diabetes. SHBG decreased stepwise with worsening categories of glucose intolerance in females whereas FAI decreased stepwise with worsening categories in males only. SHBG showed significant positive correlations with adiponectin, and HDL-C and significant negative correlations with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), Waist:hip ratio (WHR), ALT, triglycerides (TG), %B, leptin and FAI. After adjustment for WHR, only HDL-C and FAI in men and FAI and HbA1c in females remained significantly associated with SHBG. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for detection of diabetes showed that areas under the curve for FAI and SHBG were 0.711 and 0.386 for males and 0.430 and 0.660 for females respectively. Associations of SHBG with some anthropometric and metabolic variables in FDR suggests that lower levels is a marker for risk of developing T2D through obesity dependent metabolic pathways but low FAI is a better marker of state of diabetes in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Are there variances of calculated free testosterone attributed to variations in albumin and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations in men?

    PubMed

    Guay, André T; Traish, Abdulmaged M; Hislop-Chestnut, Diane T; Doros, Gheorghe; Gawoski, John M

    2013-01-01

    Calculated free testosterone (cFT) is determined from total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and albumin (Alb) levels using mathematical formulae. Variations in cFT due to changes in SHBG or Alb have not been investigated. We evaluated potential cFT variances determined with fixed Alb (4.3 g/dL) and measured Alb, and the point at which low SHBG and Alb combinations produced significant cFT variance. We analyzed 11,176 data points from 5,797 men. cFT values with fixed versus actual Alb values were evaluated and compared. cFT levels were theoretically determined for all possible combinations of TT, SHBG, and Alb (8,343,552 combinations). Agreement between the 2 measures was assessed with Lin's concordance coefficient. Mean Alb was 4.06 ± 0.32 g/dL. Mean SHBG was 39.0 ± 23.6 nmol/L. A fixed Alb of 4.3 g/dL did not produce significant variance for most cFT evaluations. Accuracy decreased when Alb was ≤3.5 g/dL in combination with SHBG ≤30 nmol/L, and this occurred in 1.2% of all data points. A fixed Alb of 4.3 g/dL is acceptable for most clinical evaluations. If Alb is ≤3.5 g/dL and SHBG is ≤30 nmol/L, the variance increases, and a free testosterone (FT) measurement by equilibrium dialysis is warranted for better accuracy.

  11. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-01-01

    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of sex hormones on fibromyalgia pain mediators.

    PubMed

    Bramwell, Bethany L

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the role of the sex hormones in the pain mechanisms and various effects on nociceptors is imperative to managing potential underlying hormone disruptions in chronic pain syndromes. The myriad of overlapping symptoms between mid-life hormone imbalances and mid-life onset of fibromyalgia syndrome in women indicates a role for sex hormones in the etiology of fibromyalgia syndrome, which is, as of yet, unsupported by the literature. However, fibromyalgia treatment should be tailored to the individual needs of the patient, and adrenal, thyroid, and ovarian hormone support can lessen the painful burden of fibromyalgia through the modulation of various hormone-regulated pain-production pathways.

  13. Sex hormones and HCV: an unresolved mystery.

    PubMed

    Mekky, Radwa Y; Abdelaziz, Ahmed I

    2013-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females advocate the ultimate need for gender-specific medicine. The variation in response to viral infection as well as therapy among different genders makes it very intriguing to reveal the responsible factors for causing this discrepancy. HCV is one of the most noxious infectious diseases, however the impact of gender on the response to HCV has received negligible attention in the literature. The controversial studies concerning the effect of gender on the outcome of interferon-based therapy urge a need to judge the gender discrepancy in host factors responsible for both interferon release and action. The main aim of this review is to disentangle the interplay between sex hormones and several viral and host factors responsible for viral clearance in an attempt to clarify the role of gender in modulating the response to HCV as well as interferon-based therapy.

  14. Alcohol consumption in relation to plasma sex hormones, prolactin, and sex hormone-binding globulin in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hirko, Kelly A; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E; Eliassen, A Heather

    2014-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a consistent risk factor for breast cancer, and evidence suggests premenopausal plasma hormones are associated with breast cancer. Plasma concentrations of estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in samples collected in 1996-99. Average alcohol intake was calculated from semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires collected in 1995 and 1999. We used generalized linear models to calculate geometric mean hormone concentrations across alcohol categories and the percentage difference for the highest versus lowest category. Comparing women who consumed >20 g/d with nondrinkers, levels were 25.7% higher for luteal estrone (geometric mean, 106 vs. 84.5 pg/mL; Ptrend = 0.001), 27.2% higher for luteal estradiol (182 vs. 143 pg/mL; Ptrend = 0.006), and 16.8% higher for SHBG (85.6 vs. 73.3 nmol/L; Ptrend = 0.03); concentrations of free testosterone were 17.9% lower (0.16 vs. 0.20 ng/dL; Ptrend = 0.002). Women consuming >10 g/d compared with nondrinkers had 26.5% higher concentrations of follicular estrone sulfate (950 vs. 751 pg/mL; Ptrend = 0.04). We did not observe significant associations between alcohol and the other sex hormones evaluated. Significant positive associations were observed with beer intake, but not other alcohol types, for DHEA (Pinteraction = 0.003) and androstenedione (Pinteraction = 0.006). Alcohol consumption was significantly positively associated with plasma luteal estrogen concentrations, but not with androgen levels, nor estrone or estradiol measured in the follicular phase. Differences in premenopausal estrogen levels may contribute to the association between alcohol and breast cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Sex hormone associations with breast cancer risk and the mediation of randomized trial postmenopausal hormone therapy effects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanshan; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Anderson, Garnet L; Kuller, Lewis H; Manson, JoAnn E; Gass, Margery; Patterson, Ruth; Rohan, Thomas E; Lane, Dorothy S; Beresford, Shirley Aa; Lavasani, Sayeh; Rossouw, Jacques E; Prentice, Ross L

    2014-03-26

    Paradoxically, a breast cancer risk reduction with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and a risk elevation with CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE + MPA) were observed in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trials. The effects of hormone therapy on serum sex hormone levels, and on the association between baseline sex hormones and disease risk, may help explain these divergent breast cancer findings. Serum sex hormone concentrations were measured for 348 breast cancer cases in the CEE + MPA trial and for 235 cases in the CEE trial along with corresponding pair-matched controls, nested within the WHI trials of healthy postmenopausal women. Association and mediation analyses, to examine the extent to which sex hormone levels and changes can explain the breast cancer findings, were conducted using logistic regression. Following CEE treatment, breast cancer risk was associated with higher concentrations of baseline serum estrogens, and with lower concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin. However, following CEE + MPA, there was no association of breast cancer risk with baseline sex hormone levels. The sex hormone changes from baseline to year 1 provided an explanation for much of the reduced breast cancer risk with CEE. Specifically, the treatment odds ratio (95% confidence interval) increased from 0.71 (0.43, 1.15) to 0.92 (0.41, 2.09) when the year 1 measures were included in the logistic regression analysis. In comparison, the CEE + MPA odds ratio was essentially unchanged when these year 1 measures were included. Breast cancer risk remains low following CEE use among women having favorable baseline sex hormone profiles, but CEE + MPA evidently produces a breast cancer risk for all women similar to that for women having an unfavorable baseline sex hormone profile. These patterns could reflect breast ductal epithelial cell stimulation by CEE + MPA that is substantially avoided with CEE, in conjunction with

  16. Glucose transporters in sex steroid hormone related cancer.

    PubMed

    Nualart, Francisco; Los Angeles García, Maríade; Medina, Rodolfo A; Owen, Gareth I

    2009-10-01

    Cancer cells, as with most mammalian cells, depend on a continuous supply of glucose; not only as a precursor of glycoproteins, triglycerides and glycogen, but also as an important source of energy. This review concentrates on GLUT transporter expression in both normal and cancerous classical sex-steroid hormone tissues (i.e. breast, uterus, ovary, testis and prostate, among others). Given the importance of estrogen, progesterone and androgens in carcinogenesis, as well as in survival and propagation of these cancers, this review also highlights the current literature on hormone regulation of glucose transporters and on the role of hypoxia in their expression. Given the recent explosion of information on the newer GLUT6-12 family members, a brief overview on their function and general expression has been included. Finally, an insight into the use of glucose transporters as markers of cancer progression and clinical outcome is also discussed.

  17. Organized for sex – steroid hormones and the developing hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Kathryn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2017-01-01

    Steroid hormones of gonadal origin act on the neonatal brain, particularly the hypothalamus, to produce sex differences that underlie copulatory behavior. Neuroanatomical sex differences include regional volume, cell number, connectivity, morphology, physiology, neurotransmitter phenotype and molecular signaling, all of which are determined by the action of steroid hormones, particularly by estradiol in males, and are established by diverse downstream effects. Sex differences in distinct hypothalamic regions can be organized by the same steroid hormone, but the direction of a sex difference is often specific to one region or cell type, illustrating the wide range of effects that steroid hormones have on the developing brain. Substantial progress has been made in elucidating the downstream mechanisms through which gonadal hormones sexually differentiate the brain, but gaps remain in establishing the precise relationship between changes in neuronal morphology and behavior. A complete understanding of sexual differentiation will require integrating the diverse mechanisms across multiple brain regions into a functional network that regulates behavioral output. PMID:21143664

  18. Sex and Hormonal influences on Seizures and Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Velíšková, Jana; DeSantis, Kara A.

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is the third most common chronic neurological disorder. Clinical and experimental evidence supports the role of sex and influence of sex hormones on seizures and epilepsy as well as alterations of the endocrine system and levels of sex hormones by epileptiform activity. Conversely, seizures are sensitive to changes in sex hormone levels, which in turn may affect the seizure-induced neuronal damage. The effects of reproductive hormones on neuronal excitability and seizure-induced damage are complex to contradictory and depend on different mechanisms, which have to be accounted for in data interpretation. Both estradiol and progesterone/allopregnanolone may have beneficial effects for patients with epilepsy. Individualized hormonal therapy should be considered as adjunctive treatment in patients with epilepsy to improve seizure control as well as quality of life. PMID:22504305

  19. Environmental hormones and their impacts on sex differentiation in fathead minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff from lands fertilized with animal manure from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a source of hormones to surface water. To test the hypothesis that juvenile fathead minnows exposed to sex steroids singly and in a “typical” CAFO mixture while undergoing sex...

  20. Environmental hormones and their impacts on sex differentiation in fathead minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff from lands fertilized with animal manure from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a source of hormones to surface water. To test the hypothesis that juvenile fathead minnows exposed to sex steroids singly and in a “typical” CAFO mixture while undergoing sex...

  1. Sex hormones adjust "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

    PubMed

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Desrochers, Alexandra Bisson; Bourdon, Olivier; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress hormone functions are presumed to depend on sex hormones. And yet, surprisingly few psychoneuroendocrine studies actually assess within-sex variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone when investigating sex-specific activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this methodological study of 204 healthy adults (60 men), we assessed whether cortisol profiles would differ between the sexes when unadjusted or adjusted for basal sex hormones among both sexes. Reactive cortisol was sampled using 6 saliva samples measured every 10-min as part of the Trier Social Stress Test that generally activates cortisol among men more than women. Diurnal cortisol was sampled over two days at (1) awakening, (2) 30-min thereafter, (3) 1400 h, (4) 1600 h, and (5) bedtime. Sex hormones were collected at baseline before the psychosocial stressor and on two occasions during diurnal cortisol assessment. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance controlled for key covariates in analyses unadjusted or adjusted for sex hormones. Results revealed that men had higher reactive cortisol than women in unadjusted analysis, but this sex difference was attenuated when adjusting for sex hormones. While diurnal cortisol showed no sex differences in unadjusted models, adjusting for sex hormones revealed that women have higher morning cortisol. Correlations using area under the curve formulae revealed intriguing sex-specific associations with progesterone in men and testosterone in women that we propose have implications for social and affective neuroscience. In summary, our results reveal that adjusting for sex hormones alters "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. TFOS DEWS II Sex, Gender, and Hormones Report.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, David A; Rocha, Eduardo M; Aragona, Pasquale; Clayton, Janine A; Ding, Juan; Golebiowski, Blanka; Hampel, Ulrike; McDermott, Alison M; Schaumberg, Debra A; Srinivasan, Sruthi; Versura, Piera; Willcox, Mark D P

    2017-07-01

    One of the most compelling features of dry eye disease (DED) is that it occurs more frequently in women than men. In fact, the female sex is a significant risk factor for the development of DED. This sex-related difference in DED prevalence is attributed in large part to the effects of sex steroids (e.g. androgens, estrogens), hypothalamic-pituitary hormones, glucocorticoids, insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 and thyroid hormones, as well as to the sex chromosome complement, sex-specific autosomal factors and epigenetics (e.g. microRNAs). In addition to sex, gender also appears to be a risk factor for DED. "Gender" and "sex" are words that are often used interchangeably, but they have distinct meanings. "Gender" refers to a person's self-representation as a man or woman, whereas "sex" distinguishes males and females based on their biological characteristics. Both gender and sex affect DED risk, presentation of the disease, immune responses, pain, care-seeking behaviors, service utilization, and myriad other facets of eye health. Overall, sex, gender and hormones play a major role in the regulation of ocular surface and adnexal tissues, and in the difference in DED prevalence between women and men. The purpose of this Subcommittee report is to review and critique the nature of this role, as well as to recommend areas for future research to advance our understanding of the interrelationships between sex, gender, hormones and DED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuronal control of breathing: sex and stress hormones.

    PubMed

    Behan, Mary; Kinkead, Richard

    2011-10-01

    There is a growing public awareness that hormones can have a significant impact on most biological systems, including the control of breathing. This review will focus on the actions of two broad classes of hormones on the neuronal control of breathing: sex hormones and stress hormones. The majority of these hormones are steroids; a striking feature is that both groups are derived from cholesterol. Stress hormones also include many peptides which are produced primarily within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and secreted into the brain or into the circulatory system. In this article we will first review and discuss the role of sex hormones in respiratory control throughout life, emphasizing how natural fluctuations in hormones are reflected in ventilatory metrics and how disruption of their endogenous cycle can predispose to respiratory disease. These effects may be mediated directly by sex hormone receptors or indirectly by neurotransmitter systems. Next, we will discuss the origins of hypothalamic stress hormones and their relationship with the respiratory control system. This relationship is 2-fold: (i) via direct anatomical connections to brainstem respiratory control centers, and (ii) via steroid hormones released from the adrenal gland in response to signals from the pituitary gland. Finally, the impact of stress on the development of neural circuits involved in breathing is evaluated in animal models, and the consequences of early stress on respiratory health and disease is discussed.

  4. Sex hormones alter sex ratios in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis: Determining sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal.

    PubMed

    Phuge, S K; Gramapurohit, N P

    2015-09-01

    In amphibians, although genetic factors are involved in sex determination, gonadal sex differentiation can be modified by exogenous steroid hormones suggesting a possible role of sex steroids in regulating the process. We studied the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) and estradiol-17β (E2) on gonadal differentiation and sex ratio at metamorphosis in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis with undifferentiated type of gonadal differentiation. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the optimum dose and sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal. Our results clearly indicate the importance of sex hormones in controlling gonadal differentiation of E. cyanophlyctis. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L TP throughout larval period resulted in the development of 100% males at metamorphosis at all concentrations. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with 40μg/L TP during ovarian and testicular differentiation resulted in the development of 90% males, 10% intersexes and 100% males respectively. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L E2 throughout larval period likewise produced 100% females at all concentrations. Furthermore, exposure to 40μg/L E2 during ovarian and testicular differentiation produced 95% females, 5% intersexes and 91% females, 9% intersexes respectively. Both TP and E2 were also effective in advancing the stages of gonadal development. Present study shows the effectiveness of both T and E2 in inducing complete sex reversal in E. cyanophlyctis. Generally, exposure to E2 increased the larval period resulting in significantly larger females than control group while the larval period of control and TP treated groups was comparable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex differences in the human brain and the impact of sex chromosomes and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Lentini, E; Kasahara, M; Arver, S; Savic, I

    2013-10-01

    While there has been increasing support for the existence of cerebral sex differences, the mechanisms underlying these differences are unclear. Based on animal data, it has long been believed that sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily linked to organizational effects of fetal testosterone. This view is, however, in question as more recent data show the presence of sex differences before the onset of testosterone production. The present study focuses on the impact that sex chromosomes might have on these differences. Utilizing the inherent differences in sex and X-chromosome dosage among XXY males, XY males, and XX females, comparative voxel-based morphometry was conducted using sex hormones and sex chromosomes as covariates. Sex differences in the cerebellar and precentral gray matter volumes (GMV) were found to be related to X-chromosome dosage, whereas sex differences in the amygdala, the parahippocamus, and the occipital cortex were linked to testosterone levels. An increased number of sex chromosomes was associated with reduced GMV in the amygdala, caudate, and the temporal and insular cortices, with increased parietal GMV and reduced frontotemporal white matter volume. No selective, testosterone independent, effect of the Y-chromosome was detected. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that programming of the motor cortex and parts of cerebellum is mediated by processes linked to X-escapee genes, which do not have Y-chromosome homologs, and that programming of certain limbic structures involves testosterone and X-chromosome escapee genes with Y-homologs.

  6. Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE) study

    PubMed Central

    Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Peeters, Petra HM; Schuit, Albertine J

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s) underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physical activity and breast cancer risk, we designed the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE) study. Purpose of SHAPE study is to examine the effects of a 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise programme on endogenous hormone levels associated with breast cancer among sedentary postmenopausal women and whether the amount of total body fat or abdominal fat mediates the effects. Methods/Design In the SHAPE study, 189 sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 50–69 years, are randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consists of an 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and strenght training exercise programme. Partcipants allocated to the control group are requested to retain their habitual exercise pattern. Primary study parameters measured at baseline, at four months and at 12 months are: serum concentrations of endogenous estrogens, endogenous androgens, sex hormone binding globuline and insuline. Other study parameters include: amount of total and abdominal fat, weight, BMI, body fat distribution, physical fitness, blood pressure and lifestyle factors. Discussion This study will contribute to the body of evidence relating physical activity and breast cancer risk and will provide insight into possible mechanisms through which physical activity might be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Trial registration NCT00359060 PMID:17767724

  7. Sex hormone-binding globulin regulation of androgen bioactivity in vivo: validation of the free hormone hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Blokland, Marco; Jardí, Ferran; Antonio, Leen; Dubois, Vanessa; Khalil, Rougin; Sterk, Saskia S.; Gielen, Evelien; Decallonne, Brigitte; Carmeliet, Geert; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Fiers, Tom; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the high-affinity binding protein for androgens and estrogens. According to the free hormone hypothesis, SHBG modulates the bioactivity of sex steroids by limiting their diffusion into target tissues. Still, the in vivo physiological role of circulating SHBG remains unclear, especially since mice and rats lack circulating SHBG post-natally. To test the free hormone hypothesis in vivo, we examined total and free sex steroid concentrations and bioactivity on target organs in mice expressing a human SHBG transgene. SHBG increased total androgen and estrogen concentrations via hypothalamic-pituitary feedback regulation and prolonged ligand half-life. Despite markedly raised total sex steroid concentrations, free testosterone was unaffected while sex steroid bioactivity on male and female reproductive organs was attenuated. This occurred via a ligand-dependent, genotype-independent mechanism according to in vitro seminal vesicle organ cultures. These results provide compelling support for the determination of free or bioavailable sex steroid concentrations in medicine, and clarify important comparative differences between translational mouse models and human endocrinology. PMID:27748448

  8. Sex hormone-binding globulin regulation of androgen bioactivity in vivo: validation of the free hormone hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Michaël R; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Blokland, Marco; Jardí, Ferran; Antonio, Leen; Dubois, Vanessa; Khalil, Rougin; Sterk, Saskia S; Gielen, Evelien; Decallonne, Brigitte; Carmeliet, Geert; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Fiers, Tom; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2016-10-17

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the high-affinity binding protein for androgens and estrogens. According to the free hormone hypothesis, SHBG modulates the bioactivity of sex steroids by limiting their diffusion into target tissues. Still, the in vivo physiological role of circulating SHBG remains unclear, especially since mice and rats lack circulating SHBG post-natally. To test the free hormone hypothesis in vivo, we examined total and free sex steroid concentrations and bioactivity on target organs in mice expressing a human SHBG transgene. SHBG increased total androgen and estrogen concentrations via hypothalamic-pituitary feedback regulation and prolonged ligand half-life. Despite markedly raised total sex steroid concentrations, free testosterone was unaffected while sex steroid bioactivity on male and female reproductive organs was attenuated. This occurred via a ligand-dependent, genotype-independent mechanism according to in vitro seminal vesicle organ cultures. These results provide compelling support for the determination of free or bioavailable sex steroid concentrations in medicine, and clarify important comparative differences between translational mouse models and human endocrinology.

  9. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of 13 studies

    PubMed Central

    Key, T J; Appleby, P N; Reeves, G K; Roddam, A W; Helzlsouer, K J; Alberg, A J; Rollison, D E; Dorgan, J F; Brinton, L A; Overvad, K; Kaaks, R; Trichopoulou, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Panico, S; Duell, E J; Peeters, P H M; Rinaldi, S; Fentiman, I S; Dowsett, M; Manjer, J; Lenner, P; Hallmans, G; Baglietto, L; English, D R; Giles, G G; Hopper, J L; Severi, G; Morris, H A; Hankinson, S E; Tworoger, S S; Koenig, K; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Arslan, A A; Toniolo, P; Shore, R E; Krogh, V; Micheli, A; Berrino, F; Barrett-Connor, E; Laughlin, G A; Kabuto, M; Akiba, S; Stevens, R G; Neriishi, K; Land, C E; Cauley, J A; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R; Gunter, M J; Rohan, T E; Strickler, H D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone concentrations in more than 6000 postmenopausal women controls in 13 prospective studies. Results: Concentrations of all hormones were lower in older than younger women, with the largest difference for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was higher in the older women. Androgens were lower in women with bilateral ovariectomy than in naturally postmenopausal women, with the largest difference for free testosterone. All hormones were higher in obese than lean women, with the largest difference for free oestradiol, whereas SHBG was lower in obese women. Smokers of 15+ cigarettes per day had higher levels of all hormones than non-smokers, with the largest difference for testosterone. Drinkers of 20+ g alcohol per day had higher levels of all hormones, but lower SHBG, than non-drinkers, with the largest difference for DHEAS. Hormone concentrations were not strongly related to age at menarche, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy or family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: Sex hormone concentrations were strongly associated with several established or suspected risk factors for breast cancer, and may mediate the effects of these factors on breast cancer risk. PMID:21772329

  10. [Correlation of sex hormones and parathyroid hormone with biochemical markers of bone turnover in aged men].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hai-Ying; Lu, Yan-Hui; Gong, Yan-Ping; Pei, Yu; Cheng, Xiao-Ling; Li, Nan; Fang, Fu-Sheng; Tian, Hui; Li, Chun-Lin

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the correlation of serum sex hormones and parathyroid hormone (PTH) with the biochemical markers of bone turnover in aged men. We collected the laboratory data of 465 men aged 60- 93 (73. 1 +/- 8. 3) years old, who came for routine physical examinations in our hospital. We obtained the levels of serum follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), PTH, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 (25(OH) D3), and bone turnover markers C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), osteocalcin (OC) and amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP). We also determined free testosterone (FT) , bioactive testosterone (BT) , testosterone secretion index (TSI) and FT index (FTI), and analyzed the correlation of each index with the biochemical markers of bone turnover. The concentrations of serum FSH, LH, and SHBG increased, while the levels of FT, BT, TSI, FTI, PTH, CTX, OC and PINP decreased with age, especially in those over 80 years old (P <0.05). PTH was positively correlated with CTX, OC and PINP (r =0. 227, 0. 269 and 0. 162, P <0. 01), even after the adjustment for age, while SHBG negatively correlated with OC (r = -0. 100, P <0.05). The bone turnover markers increased with the elevation of the PTH quartiles, with significant differences between the first and the fourth quartile (P <0. 01). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that age was correlated inversely with CTX, OC and PINP ( beta = -0. 126, -0. 141 and -0. 122, P <0.05) , PTH positively with the three markers (beta = 0. 196, 0.279 and 0.189; P <0. 001), and SHBG negatively with OC ( beta = -0. 100, P <0.05) . Aging is the fundamental cause of reduced bone turnover in aged men. The levels serum PTH and SHBG are significantly associated with the biochemical markers of bone turnover.

  11. Puberty, hormones, and sex differences in alcohol abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Witt, Ellen D

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in patterns of drinking and rates of alcohol abuse and dependence begin to emerge during the transition from late puberty to young adulthood. Increases in pubertal hormones, including gonadal and stress hormones, are a prominent developmental feature of adolescence and could contribute to the progression of sex differences in alcohol drinking patterns during puberty. This paper reviews experimental and correlational studies of gonadal and stress-related hormone changes and their effects on alcohol drinking and other associated actions of alcohol. Mechanisms are suggested by which reproductive hormones and stress-related hormones may modulate neural circuits within the brain reward system to produce sex differences in alcohol drinking patterns and vulnerability to alcohol abuse and dependence which become apparent during the late pubertal period.

  12. Interactions between Age, Sex, and Hormones in Experimental Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fudong; McCullough, Louise D.

    2012-01-01

    Age, sex, and gonadal hormones have profound effects on ischemic stroke outcomes, although how these factors impact basic stroke pathophysiology remains unclear. There is a plethora of inconsistent data reported throughout the literature, primarily due to differences in the species examined, the timing and methods used to evaluate injury, the models used, and confusion regarding differences in stroke incidence as seen in clinical populations versus effects on acute neuroprotection or neurorepair in experimental stroke models. Sex and gonadal hormone exposure have considerable independent impact on stroke outcome, but these factors also interact with each other, and the contribution of each differs throughout the lifespan. The contribution of sex and hormones to experimental stroke will be the focus of this review. Recent advances and our current understanding of age, sex, and hormone interactions in ischemic stroke with a focus on inflammation will be discussed. PMID:23068990

  13. Exogenously treated mammalian sex hormones affect inorganic constituents of plants.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Serkan; Dumlupinar, Rahmi

    2011-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to reveal the changes in inorganic constituents of plants exposed to mammalian sex hormones (MSH). Chickpea leaves were sprayed with 10(-4), 10(-6), 10(-9), 10(-12), and 10(-15) M concentrations of progesterone, β-estradiol, and androsterone at 7th day after sowing. The plants were harvested at the end of 18 days after treatment of MSH solutions and the inorganic components determined using a wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy technique. At all of the concentrations tested, MSH significantly increased the contents of K, S, Na, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, P, Cu, and Ni. Interestingly, only Mn and Cl contents decreased. The maximum changes in the inorganic composition were recorded at 10(-6) M for plants treated with progesterone and 10(-9) M for plants treated with β-estradiol and androsterone.

  14. Selected Polymorphisms in Sex Hormone-Related Genes, Circulating Sex Hormones and Risk of Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, Eva; Wirgin, Isaac; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Krogh, Vittorio; Axelsson, Tomas; Hemminki, Kari; Clendenen, Tess V.; Arslan, Alan A.; Ohlson, Nina; Sieri, Sabina; Roy, Nirmal; Koenig, Karen L.; Idahl, Annika; Berrino, Franco; Toniolo, Paolo; Hallmans, Göran; Försti, Asta; Muti, Paola; Lenner, Per; Shore, Roy E.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of estrogen and progesterone in the development of endometrial cancer is well documented. Few studies have examined the association of genetic variants in sex hormone-related genes with endometrial cancer risk. Methods We conducted a case-control study nested within three cohorts to examine the association of endometrial cancer risk with polymorphisms in hormone-related genes among 391 cases (92% postmenopausal at diagnosis) and 712 individually-matched controls. We also examined the association of these polymorphisms with circulating levels of sex hormones and SHBG in a cross-sectional analysis including 596 healthy postmenopausal women at blood donation (controls from this nested case-control study and from a nested case-control study of breast cancer in one of the three cohorts). Results Adjusting for endometrial cancer risk factors, the A allele of rs4775936 in CYP19 was significantly associated (ORper allele = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.01–1.47, ptrend = 0.04), while the T allele of rs10046 was marginally associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer (ORper allele = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.99 – 1.45, ptrend = 0.06). PGR rs1042838 was also marginally associated with risk (ORper allele = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.96–1.61, ptrend = 0.09). No significant association was found for the other polymorphisms, i.e. CYP1B1 rs1800440 and rs1056836, UGT1A1 rs8175347, SHBG rs6259 and ESR1 rs2234693. Rs8175347 was significantly associated with postmenopausal levels of estradiol, free estradiol and estrone and rs6259 with SHBG and estradiol. Conclusion Our findings support an association between genetic variants in CYP19, and possibly PGR, and risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:22633539

  15. Evaluation of serum concentrations of cortisol and sex hormones of adrenal gland origin after stimulation with two synthetic ACTH preparations in clinically normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Ginel, Pedro J; Sileo, Maria T; Blanco, Beatriz; Garfia, Bartolomé; Quintavalla, Fausto

    2012-02-01

    To compare the adrenocortical response of healthy dogs to a commonly used dose of a nonadsorbed tetracosactide product (tetracosactide) with responses to 2 doses of a depot formulation of tetracosactide (depot tetracosactide). 14 dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive tetracosactide (5 mg/kg, IV) or depot tetracosactide (250 μg, IM, or 5 μg/kg, IM). Dogs received each treatment once with a 2-week interval between treatments. Blood samples were assayed for cortisol, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol concentrations. Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly higher than the preadministration (baseline) concentrations for all treatments 60 minutes after administration of ACTH. Peak cortisol concentration was detected 180 minutes after IM administration of 250 μg of the depot tetracosactide. Serum concentrations of progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione did not differ significantly from baseline concentrations after stimulation with the 5 μg/kg dose of depot tetracosactide. Adrenal gland progesterone response was significantly higher than baseline concentrations at 60 minutes after administration of the 250-μg dose of depot tetracosactide, and the 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione responses were significantly higher than baseline concentrations at 120 minutes. Compared with the response to tetracosactide, adrenocortical response was higher and more sustained following administration of the depot tetracosactide, except for androstenedione concentration, which had a nonsignificant response. Except for androstenedione concentrations, a high dose of the depot tetracosactide (250 μg, IM) induced an adrenocortical response similar to that after administration of tetracosactide. Thus, depot tetracosactide may represent an alternative to the nonadsorbed tetracosactide product.

  16. Microwave-accelerated derivatization prior to GC-MS determination of sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Yupu; Li, Dan; Su, Rui; Yang, Qiuling; Li, Xueyuan; Zhang, Huihui; Zhang, Hanqi; Wang, Ziming

    2011-06-01

    A new microwave-accelerated derivatization method was developed for rapid determination of 13 natural sex hormones in feeds. Sex hormones were isolated from the sample matrix by ultrasonic extraction, followed by solid-phase extraction, derivatized under microwave irradiation, and then analyzed directly by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The key parameters affecting derivatization efficiency, including microwave irradiation time, microwave power, and reaction solvent were studied. Under microwave power of 360 W and microwave irradiation for 3 min, 13 natural sex hormones were simultaneously derivatized using heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBA) as derivatization reagent. This method was applied to the determination of 13 natural sex hormones in different feed samples, and the obtained results were compared with those obtained by the traditional thermal derivatization. The recoveries from 58.1 to 111% were obtained at sex hormone concentrations of 10-300 μg/kg with RSDs ≤12.0%. The results showed that the proposed method was fast, simple, efficient and can be applied to the determination of 13 natural sex hormones in different feed samples.

  17. Sex hormones and the female urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Miodrag, A; Castleden, C M; Vallance, T R

    1988-10-01

    Symptomatic clinical changes and urodynamic changes are apparent in the female urinary tract system during pregnancy, the menstrual cycle and following the menopause. The sex hormones exert physiological effects on the female urinary tract, from the ureters to the urethra, with oestrogens having an additional influence on the structures of the pelvic floor. High affinity oestrogen receptors have been identified in bladder, trigone, urethra and pubococcygeus muscle of women. Oestrogen pretreatment enhances the contractile response of animal detrusor muscle to alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, cholinomimetics and prostaglandins, as well as enhancing the contractile response to alpha-agonists in ureter and urethra. Progesterone on the other hand decreases tone in the ureter, bladder and urethra by enhancing beta-adrenergic responses. The dependence on oestrogens of the tissues of the lower urinary tract contributes to increased urinary problems in postmenopausal women. Urinary symptoms due to atrophic mucosal changes respond well to oestrogen replacement therapy. However, because they recur when treatment is stopped, continuous therapy with low dose natural oestrogens is recommended. Oestrogens may be of benefit in postmenopausal women with stress incontinence, but the doses necessary for clinical effect are higher than for the treatment of atrophic urethritis. The practice of adding a progestagen to long term oestrogen therapy to reduce the risk of endometrial carcinoma may, however, exacerbate stress incontinence by decreasing urethral pressure. Cyclical therapy with oestrogens may therefore be more appropriate particularly in women who are not suitable for surgery or have a mild degree of stress incontinence, along with other conservative measures such as pelvic floor exercises and alpha-adrenoceptor agonists. The place of oestrogen therapy in motor urge incontinence has not been determined. The risk of developing endometrial carcinoma as a result of long term high dose

  18. Role of Sex Steroid Hormones in Bacterial-Host Interactions

    PubMed Central

    García-Gómez, Elizabeth; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones play important physiological roles in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues, including immune cells. These hormones exert their functions by binding to either specific intracellular receptors that act as ligand-dependent transcription factors or membrane receptors that stimulate several signal transduction pathways. The elevated susceptibility of males to bacterial infections can be related to the usually lower immune responses presented in males as compared to females. This dimorphic sex difference is mainly due to the differential modulation of the immune system by sex steroid hormones through the control of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression, as well as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression and antibody production. Besides, sex hormones can also affect the metabolism, growth, or virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In turn, pathogenic, microbiota, and environmental bacteria are able to metabolize and degrade steroid hormones and their related compounds. All these data suggest that sex steroid hormones play a key role in the modulation of bacterial-host interactions. PMID:23509808

  19. Male sex hormones and systemic inflammation in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Butchart, Joe; Birch, Brian; Bassily, Ramy; Wolfe, Laura; Holmes, Clive

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the levels of sex hormones in men with Alzheimer disease (AD) differ from men without AD. Therefore, male sex hormones have been postulated as risk modifiers in AD, possibly through immunomodulatory effects on known inflammatory AD risk factors, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). We conducted a cross-sectional study of sex hormones and TNF-α levels in 94 community-dwelling men with AD. Comparisons were made with normal values derived from the literature. Men with AD had lower free testosterone levels than non-AD men (1-sample t test: age <80, P=0.0002; age ≥80, P<0.0001), and higher luteinizing hormone (LH) levels (Wilcoxon signed rank test: age <80, P=0.001; age ≥80, P<0.0001). Within the cohort of men with AD, there was a positive correlation between LH and TNF-α (Spearman r=0.25, P=0.019), and this remained significant after correcting for age (partial r=0.21, P=0.05). These data support the hypothesis that sex hormones and the immune system influence each other in AD. Furthermore, modulatory effects between LH and TNF-α may provide a mechanism for an effect of male sex hormones on AD risk.

  20. Role of sex hormone-binding globulin in the relationship between sex hormones and antisocial and aggressive personality in inmates.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Anton; García, Luis F

    2007-08-30

    Plasma total testosterone (TT), free bioavailable testosterone (BT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHGB), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were analysed in a sample of 89 inmates. Also, the tendency towards an Antisocial Personality Disorder (AAPS) and Aggressiveness (based on an index containing three scales of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory; BDHI) was assessed. Results showed strong correlations between SHBG, total testosterone and free bioavailable testosterone. SHBG and total testosterone correlated with Aggressiveness (0.39 and 0.29, respectively), though the latter turned out not to be significant when SHBG level was controlled. The group with a high probability of Antisocial Personality Disorder and the group with high scores in Aggressiveness obtained higher SHBG levels. Recidivists and subjects already sentenced presented higher concentrations of SHBG. No significant relation was found for the free bioavailable testosterone. It is argued that the relationship between testosterone and antisocial personality and aggressiveness is mediated by the role of SHBG. We conclude that subjects with a disinhibited life-style tend to abuse intoxicants affecting the production of SHBG in the liver. This effect is observed in healthy subjects and delinquents, but more strongly in the population of delinquents.

  1. Hormonal and behavioral determinants of the secondary sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Martin, J F

    1995-01-01

    The timing of insemination relative to ovulation and the frequency of insemination appear prominently in analyses of variations in human secondary sex ratios. Explanations invoking these variables are shown to be inadequate. A new synthetic model of sex determination is proposed in which the sex of offspring is powerfully determined by the state of the cervical mucus. The cervical state is then shown to be a function of hormonal factors endogenous to the female in interaction with the effects of previous inseminations.

  2. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-03-14

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of "microgenderome" related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder.

  3. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of “microgenderome” related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder. PMID:24627581

  4. Associations between dietary acrylamide intake and plasma sex hormone levels

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, Janneke G.; Fortner, Renee T.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Hankinson, Susan E.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rodent carcinogen acrylamide was discovered in 2002 in commonly consumed foods. Epidemiological studies have observed positive associations between acrylamide intake and endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer risks, which suggests that acrylamide may have sex-hormonal effects. Methods We cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between acrylamide intake and plasma levels of sex hormones and SHBG among 687 postmenopausal and 1300 premenopausal controls from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Studies. Results There were no associations between acrylamide and sex hormones or SHBG among premenopausal women overall or among never-smokers. Among normal-weight premenopausal women, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly positively associated with luteal total and free estradiol levels. Among postmenopausal women overall and among never-smokers, acrylamide was borderline statistically significantly associated with lower estrone sulfate levels but not with other estrogens, androgens, prolactin or SHBG. Among normal weight women, (borderline) statistically significant inverse associations were noted for estrone, free estradiol, estrone sulfate, DHEA, and prolactin, while statistically significant positive associations for testosterone and androstenedione were observed among overweight women. Conclusions Overall, this study did not show conclusive associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that would lend unequivocal biological plausibility to the observed increased risks of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer. The association between acrylamide and sex hormones may differ by menopausal and overweight status. We recommend other studies investigate the relationship between acrylamide and sex hormones in women, specifically using acrylamide biomarkers. Impact The present study showed some interesting associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that urgently need confirmation. PMID:23983241

  5. Sex steroid hormone levels in breast adipose tissue and serum in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Falk, Roni T; Gentzschein, Elisabet; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine D; Ioffe, Olga B; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A; Sherman, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of circulating estrogens and androgens are linked to higher breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women; however, little is known about hormone levels within the breast. Hormone concentrations within the breast may not be reflected in the blood and are likely important contributors to breast carcinogenesis. We used a previously validated method to measure levels of estrone, estradiol, androstenedione, and testosterone in adipose tissue removed as part of breast excisions performed for cancer in 100 postmenopausal women (69 ER/PR +/+ and 31 ER/PR -/-) participating in a breast cancer case-control study. We also measured the same steroid hormones, as well as estrone sulfate, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in serum from these patients and 100 controls matched on ages at blood collection and on menopause. Overall, concentrations of serum hormones did not vary significantly between controls and cases. However, women with ER-/PR- breast cancers had lower circulating levels of all measured sex steroid hormones and higher SHBG levels than women with ER+/PR+ breast cancers and controls. Similarly, hormone concentrations in breast adipose tissue were higher among women with ER+/PR+ compared to ER-/PR- breast cancer, although differences were only significant for testosterone. These data demonstrate that high sex steroid concentrations in both serum and adipose tissues are more strongly related to ER+/PR+ than ER-/PR- breast cancers. Measurement of sex hormones in serum and in the microenvironment may help in understanding the hormonal etiology of breast cancer, suggest methods for prevention, and have value in gauging treatment response and prognosis.

  6. Birth weight and early socio-economic disadvantage as predictors of sex hormones and sex hormone binding globulin in men at age 49-51 years.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Mark S; Groom, Alix; Relton, Caroline L; Peaston, Robert T; Pollard, Tessa M; Francis, Roger M

    2011-01-01

    A number of associations have been shown between early growth and later sex hormone levels in women, but less is known about this relationship in men. This study investigated life-course predictors of sex hormones in men in the Newcastle Thousand Families birth cohort. The Newcastle Thousand Families Study is a prospective study initiated in 1947. At age 49-51 years, 574 study members returned detailed self-completion questionnaires and 412 attended for clinical examination, including 172 men in whom blood samples were taken. Estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Free testosterone concentrations were also calculated. Social class at birth independently predicted FSH and LH, with higher levels with increasing socioeconomic disadvantage. SHBG was higher with increasing standardized birth weight and lower with increasing contemporary body mass index (BMI). BMI also predicted LH, SHBG, and testosterone. None of the variables included within this analysis were significant predictors of estradiol. No other associations were seen with any of the variables included from across the life-course. Our findings suggest that birth weight may be positively associated with SHBG and early socioeconomic status may be related to FSH and LH in men. These novel findings are independent of contemporary BMI. Given the links between sex hormones, SHBG and disease outcomes such as type II diabetes and osteoporosis, it is possible that sex hormones may play a mediating role in the associations between circumstances in early life and later risk of chronic disease. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Sex hormones in early infancy seem to predict aspects of later language development.

    PubMed

    Schaadt, Gesa; Hesse, Volker; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-02-01

    Sex differences in the development of cognitive behavior such as language have long been of great research interest. Lately, researchers have started to associate language function and brain differences with diverse sex hormones (e.g., testosterone/estradiol). However, results concerning the impact of early postnatal sex hormone concentration on the child's later language development are rare. Here, we analyze the impact of testosterone and estradiol in girls and boys as well as their neurophysiological phonemic discrimination at age 5months on language development at age 4years. Interestingly, we found strong positive estradiol and negative testosterone impact on later language performance at age 4years, which was true for both girls and boys. These results demonstrate that postnatal sex hormone surge might be viewed as one factor determining later language development, independent of gender. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex hormones induce a gender-related difference in renal expression of a novel prostaglandin transporter, OAT-PG, influencing basal PGE2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Ryo; Onoe, Kimitaka; Obara, Masaya; Matsubara, Mitsunobu; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Muto, Shigeaki; Asano, Shinji

    2012-02-01

    Based on the nucleotide sequence of a mouse prostaglandin-specific transporter (mOAT-PG), we identified a rat homolog (rOAT-PG) which shares 80% identity with mOAT-PG in a deduced amino acid sequence. rOAT-PG transports PGE(2) and colocalizes with 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a metabolic enzyme for PGs, in proximal tubules, suggesting that rOAT-PG is involved in PGE(2) clearance to regulate its physiological function in the renal cortex. We found that the expression level of rOAT-PG in the renal cortex was much higher in male rats than in female rats whereas there was no gender difference in the expression level of cyclooxygenase-2, a key enzyme producing PGE(2), and 15-PGDH in the renal cortex. Tissue PGE(2) concentration in the renal cortex was lower in male rats than in female rats, suggesting that renocortical PGE(2) concentration is primarily determined by the expression level of OAT-PG, which is regulated differently between male and female rats. Castration of male rat led to a remarkable reduction in OAT-PG expression and a significant increase in renocortical PGE(2) concentration. These alterations were recovered by testosterone supplementation. These results suggest that OAT-PG is involved in local PGE(2) clearance in the renal cortex. Although the physiological importance of the gender difference in local PGE(2) clearance is still unclear, these findings might be a key to clarifying the physiological roles of PGE(2) in the kidney.

  9. Combined effects of sex hormone-binding globulin and sex hormones on risk of incident type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinbo; Zhang, Aiping; Yang, Shumin; Wang, Yue; Goswami, Richa; Zhou, Huang; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zhihong; Li, Rong; Cheng, Qingfeng; Zhen, Qianna; Li, Qifu

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and sex hormones on the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A nested case-control study of Chinese participants in the Environment, Inflammation and Metabolic Diseases Study (2008-13) was performed. Of the 3510 subjects free of diabetes, 145 men and 87 women developed diabetes over the 5-year follow-up. One age- and sex-matched control subject was selected for each case. Baseline concentrations of SHBG, estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) were divided into tertiles and subjects were classified as having low, intermediate and high levels accordingly. After multivariate adjustment, men with low SHBG levels had a fourfold greater risk of T2D than men with high SHBG levels. Conversely, men with high estradiol levels had a fourfold greater risk of T2D than men with low estradiol levels. Men with low SHBG + high estradiol had a 20-fold greater risk of T2D than men with high SHBG + low estradiol (odds ratio [OR] 20.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.62-51.33). These risk associations in men were not observed for testosterone or DHEA-S, alone or in combination with SHBG. Compared with low SHBG, the risk of T2D decreased with increasing SHBG tertile (OR 0.92 [95% CI 0.21-4.53], 0.14 [95% CI 0.10-0.74]; Ptrend  = 0.043) after multivariate adjustment in women. Estradiol, testosterone, and DHEA-S levels showed no association with T2D in women. Low SHBG in conjunction with high estradiol has an additive detrimental effect on the risk of T2D in men. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Sex steroid hormones in relation to Barrett's esophagus: an analysis of the FINBAR Study.

    PubMed

    Cook, M B; Wood, S; Hyland, P L; Caron, P; Drahos, J; Falk, R T; Pfeiffer, R M; Dawsey, S M; Abnet, C C; Taylor, P R; Guillemette, C; Murray, L J; Anderson, L A

    2017-03-01

    Previously, we observed strong positive associations between circulating concentrations of free testosterone and free dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in relation to Barrett's esophagus in a US male military population. To replicate these findings, we conducted a second study of sex steroid hormones and Barrett's esophagus in the Factors Influencing the Barrett/Adenocarcinoma Relationship (FINBAR) Study based in Northern Ireland and Ireland. We used mass spectrometry to quantitate EDTA plasma concentrations of nine sex steroid hormones and ELISA to quantitate sex hormone-binding globulin in 177 male Barrett's esophagus cases and 185 male general population controls within the FINBAR Study. Free testosterone, free DHT, and free estradiol were estimated using standard formulas. Multivariable logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of associations between exposures and Barrett's esophagus. While plasma hormone and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations were not associated with all cases of Barrett's esophagus, we did observe positive associations with estrogens in younger men (e.g. estrone + estradiol ORcontinuous per ½IQR  = 2.92, 95%CI:1.08, 7.89), and free androgens in men with higher waist-to-hip ratios (e.g. free testosterone ORcontinuous per ½IQR  = 2.71, 95%CI:1.06, 6.92). Stratification by body mass index, antireflux medications, and geographic location did not materially affect the results. This study found evidence for associations between circulating sex steroid hormones and Barrett's esophagus in younger men and men with higher waist-to-hip ratios. Further studies are necessary to elucidate whether sex steroid hormones are consistently associated with esophageal adenocarcinogenesis.

  11. Hormone replacement in disorders of sex development: Current thinking.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Jacqueline; Zacharin, Margaret

    2015-06-01

    Congenital disruptions of sex hormone production lead to wide-ranging developmental and physiological effects in individuals who have atypical chromosomal, gonadal or anatomic sex. Aberrant developmental sex hormone exposure causes disorders of genital anatomy, attainment of secondary sexual characteristics and has long-term effects on metabolism, fertility and psychological functioning. Principles in the management of disorders of sex development (DSD) aim to improve physiological health and long-term outcome, as well as development of male or female sexual anatomy. Concerns raised by DSD patient advocacy groups about beneficence and autonomy with respect to prescribed hormone treatments and avoidance of unnecessary genital and gonadal surgery have demanded greater informed consent and attention to long-term outcome. Hormone treatment is influenced by underlying clinical diagnosis and by factors such as sex of rearing and gender identity of the affected individual. We describe diagnostic criteria for different DSDs, clinical considerations in management protocols, together with current concepts and detailed practical hormone treatments for male and female individuals with DSD. Gender identity issues requiring multidisciplinary consensus, ethical consideration and informed consent or assent from the young person are also addressed.

  12. Inhibitors of sex hormones: development of experimental models.

    PubMed

    Frost, P; Gomez, E C

    1972-01-01

    Inhibitors of sex hormones and the development of experimental models are discussed. Compounds that inhibit the action of androgens and estrogens are defined, and the possible mechanisms of action presented are: 1) inhibition of hormone synthesis; 2) inhibition of uptake of hormone into target tissues; 3) inhibition of the retention of hormone in target tissues; 4) inhibition of the binding of hormone to nonenzyme macromolecules; and 5) inhibition of the metabolism of a hormone to a more active form. Effects of antiandrogen on skin such as hirsutism, sebum production, and acne are briefly covered. Methods of study included inhibition of in vitro metabolism of testosterone by human foreskin and the use of the hamster flank organ for the bioassay of antiandrogens.

  13. Influence of female sex hormones on periodontium: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Jafri, Zeba; Bhardwaj, Ashu; Sawai, Madhuri; Sultan, Nishat

    2015-01-01

    Dental plaque is the primary etiologic factor for the periodontal diseases. Although pathogenic bacteria in dental plaque are necessary for the incidence of periodontal disease, but a susceptible host is as important. The susceptibility of the host can be modified by various systemic factors with hormones level being one. The periodontium shows an exaggerated inflammatory response to plaque modified by female sex hormone during puberty, pregnancy, in women taking oral contraceptives and at the postmenopausal stage. This paper presents such few cases where periodontium is influenced by variation in sex steroid hormones of female during different phases of their life time and to discuss how much a same hormone at different age and stage shows an exaggerated gingival response to plaque. PMID:26604605

  14. Clustering of sex hormone disruptors in Singapore's marine environment.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yinhan; Chin, Hong Soon; Lim, Lis Sa Elissa; Loy, Chong Jin; Obbard, Jeffrey P; Yong, E L

    2003-01-01

    Abnormal sexual differentiation and other reproductive abnormalities in marine animals indicate the presence in seawater of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) that perturb the function of the sex hormone signaling pathways. However, most studies to date have reported on EDC effects in freshwater and sewage samples, and there is a paucity of bioassay data on the effects of EDCs in marine waters. Our aims in this study were to devise robust methodologies suitable for extracting potential EDCs and to measure their summated effects on activities of androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta) in marine samples from Singapore's coastal waters. In this study, we examined the ability of C18, hydrophilic and lipophilic balance, and diol cartridges to extract potential EDCs from seawater samples. Extracts from C18 cartridges exhibited the highest sex hormone bioactivities in reporter gene assays based on a human cell line expressing AR, ER-alpha, and ER-beta. Examination of extracts from 20 coastal locations showed high androgenic and estrogenic agonist activities in confined clusters closest to the main island of Singapore. Sex hormone activity declined rapidly in clusters farther from the main coastline and in more open waters. Unexpectedly, surface and mid-depth samples from the confined high-activity clusters, in the presence of hormone, exhibited AR and ER-alpha activities that were 200-900% higher than those observed for the cognate hormone alone. This enhanced sex hormone activity suggests that analyses of complex seawater mixtures may uncover unusual bioactivities that may not be obvious by studying individual compounds. Our data present a "snapshot" of the sex hormone disruptor activity in Singapore's marine environment and indicate that C18 extraction for EDCs used in conjunction with reporter gene bioassays represents a robust and sensitive methodology for measuring summated androgenic and estrogenic activities in seawater. PMID

  15. Sex hormones in postmenopausal women receiving low-dose hormone therapy: the effect of BMI.

    PubMed

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Armeni, Eleni; Rizos, Demetrios; Deligeoroglou, Eythimios; Kofinakos, Panagiotis; Kaparos, George; Alexandrou, Andreas; Creatsa, Maria; Logothetis, Emmanuel; Kouskouni, Evangelia

    2011-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of BMI on the change in circulating sex hormone in postmenopausal women during 6 months of oral continuous combined low-dose hormone therapy (HT). Fifty postmenopausal women were allocated to receive daily one tablet containing combination of 17β-estradiol (1 mg)/norethindrone acetate (0.5 mg) for 6 months. Serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), free estrogen index (FEI), Δ4-androstendione (Δ4A), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were assessed at baseline and at the end of 6 months. Mean absolute values and percent changes from baseline were compared between lean and overweight women. Mean FSH decreased and mean 17β-estradiol increased significantly in both groups (FSH lean: 82.3 ± 26.7 decreased to 45.0 ± 17.0 mIU/ml, P = 0.0001; FSH overweight: 85.5 ± 22.1 decreased to 52.3 ± 23.8 mIU/ml, P = 0.003; P between groups = 0.661; E2 lean: 23.24 ± 12.55 increased to 53.62 ± 28.29 pg/ml, P = 0.006; E2 overweight: 24.17 ± 10.88 increased to 68.36 ± 53.99 pg/ml, P = 0.0001; P between groups = 0.619). Lean individuals had statistically significant higher increments of FAI and specifically FEI compared to overweight (FEI lean; 0.14 ± 0.09 increased to 0.29 ± 0.14, P = 0.009; overweight 0.23 ± 0.18 increased to 0.52 ± 0.40, P = 0.126; P between groups = 0.034). Although BMI does not affect total 17β-estradiol changes, free sex steroid concentrations increase more steeply in lean compared to overweight women receiving oral low-dose HT.

  16. Sex-Associated Hormones and Immunity to Protozoan Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Craig W.; Walker, William; Alexander, James

    2001-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological and clinical studies have noted differences in the incidence and severity of parasitic diseases between males and females. Although in some instances this may be due to gender-associated differences in behavior, there is overwhelming evidence that sex-associated hormones can also modulate immune responses and consequently directly influence the outcome of parasitic infection. Animal models of disease can often recreate the gender-dependent differences observed in humans, and the role of sex-associated hormones can be confirmed by experimentally altering their levels. Under normal circumstances, levels of sex hormones not only differ between males and females but vary according to age. Furthermore, not only are females of reproductive age subject to the regular hormonal cycles which control ovulation, they are also exposed to dramatically altered levels during pregnancy. It is thus not surprising that the severity of many diseases, including those caused by parasites, has been shown to be affected by one or more of these circumstances. In addition, infection with many pathogens has been shown to have an adverse influence on pregnancy. In this article we review the impact of sex-associated hormones on the immune system and the development and maintenance of immunity to the intracellular protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp., and Leishmania spp. PMID:11432809

  17. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications.

    PubMed

    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K

    2013-11-01

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  18. Sex hormones and the female voice.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, J; Abitbol, P; Abitbol, B

    1999-09-01

    In the following, the authors examine the relationship between hormonal climate and the female voice through discussion of hormonal biochemistry and physiology and informal reporting on a study of 197 women with either premenstrual or menopausal voice syndrome. These facts are placed in a larger historical and cultural context, which is inextricably bound to the understanding of the female voice. The female voice evolves from childhood to menopause, under the varied influences of estrogens, progesterone, and testosterone. These hormones are the dominant factor in determining voice changes throughout life. For example, a woman's voice always develops masculine characteristics after an injection of testosterone. Such a change is irreversible. Conversely, male castrati had feminine voices because they lacked the physiologic changes associated with testosterone. The vocal instrument is comprised of the vibratory body, the respiratory power source and the oropharyngeal resonating chambers. Voice is characterized by its intensity, frequency, and harmonics. The harmonics are hormonally dependent. This is illustrated by the changes that occur during male and female puberty: In the female, the impact of estrogens at puberty, in concert with progesterone, produces the characteristics of the female voice, with a fundamental frequency one third lower than that of a child. In the male, androgens released at puberty are responsible for the male vocal frequency, an octave lower than that of a child. Premenstrual vocal syndrome is characterized by vocal fatigue, decreased range, a loss of power and loss of certain harmonics. The syndrome usually starts some 4-5 days before menstruation in some 33% of women. Vocal professionals are particularly affected. Dynamic vocal exploration by televideoendoscopy shows congestion, microvarices, edema of the posterior third of the vocal folds and a loss of its vibratory amplitude. The authors studied 97 premenstrual women who were prescribed a

  19. Sex differences in adolescent depression: do sex hormones determine vulnerability?

    PubMed

    Naninck, E F G; Lucassen, P J; Bakker, J

    2011-05-01

    Depression is one of the most common, costly and severe psychopathologies worldwide. Its incidence, however, differs significantly between the sexes, and depression rates in women are twice those of men. Interestingly, this sex difference emerges during adolescence. Although the adolescent period is characterised by major physical and behavioural transformations, it is unclear why the incidence of depression increases so dramatically in girls during this otherwise generally healthy developmental period. Although psychological and environmental factors are also involved, we discuss the neuroendocrinological factors determining adolescent vulnerability to depression. In particular, we address the role of sex steroids in mood regulation, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis maturation and sexual differentiation of the brain, with a focus on hippocampal plasticity. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Effect of Sex and Prior Exposure to a Cafeteria Diet on the Distribution of Sex Hormones between Plasma and Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Romero, María del Mar; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that steroid hormones are carried in the blood free and/or bound to plasma proteins. We investigated whether blood cells were also able to bind/carry sex-related hormones: estrone, estradiol, DHEA and testosterone. Wistar male and female rats were fed a cafeteria diet for 30 days, which induced overweight. The rats were fed the standard rat diet for 15 additional days to minimize the immediate effects of excess ingested energy. Controls were always kept on standard diet. After the rats were killed, their blood was used for 1) measuring plasma hormone levels, 2) determining the binding of labeled hormones to washed red blood cells (RBC), 3) incubating whole blood with labeled hormones and determining the distribution of label between plasma and packed cells, discounting the trapped plasma volume, 4) determining free plasma hormone using labeled hormones, both through membrane ultrafiltration and dextran-charcoal removal. The results were computed individually for each rat. Cells retained up to 32% estrone, and down to 10% of testosterone, with marked differences due to sex and diet (the latter only for estrogens, not for DHEA and testosterone). Sex and diet also affected the concentrations of all hormones, with no significant diet effects for estradiol and DHEA, but with considerable interaction between both factors. Binding to RBC was non-specific for all hormones. Estrogen distribution in plasma compartments was affected by sex and diet. In conclusion: a) there is a large non-specific RBC-carried compartment for estrone, estradiol, DHEA and testosterone deeply affected by sex; b) Prior exposure to a cafeteria (hyperlipidic) diet induced hormone distribution changes, affected by sex, which hint at sex-related structural differences in RBC membranes; c) We postulate that the RBC compartment may contribute to maintain free (i.e., fully active) sex hormone levels in a way similar to plasma proteins non-specific binding. PMID:22479617

  1. Association between sex hormone levels and abnormal metabolism in a population of elderly Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yanping; Xiao, Haiying; Bai, Jie; Li, Chunlin; Wen, Xinyu; Cheng, Xiaoling; Fu, Shuhong; Lu, Yanhui; Li, Xiaoxia; Shao, Yinghong; Li, Yanyan; Jin, Mengmeng; Sun, Banruo; Tian, Yaping; Li, Shuzhang

    2013-03-01

    Low testosterone levels may be a signal of poor health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of age and abnormal metabolism on sex hormones in Chinese male. Three hundred and thirty-seven elder men were enrolled into this single-center, cross-sectional study, and their sex hormone levels and metabolic parameters were assessed. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations increased with age, while free testosterone index (FTI), testosterone secretion index (TSI), estradiol (E2)/SHBG and progestin (PROG) decreased. Abnormal metabolisms were related to androgen indices (TT, FT, BT, FTI, TSI, T/E2), SHBG and E2/SHBG even after adjusting by age and macrovascular disease. Obesity and overweight, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia were the most important abnormal metabolism that related to decreased androgen indices. Including SHBG in the stepwise regression increased the explanation effect of TT and BT by 32.7% and 28.5%, respectively, and all metabolic indices were excluded. Abnormal metabolism indies (BMI and PBG) were correlated to the decrease in SHBG levels, while age and LH was positively correlated to SHBG levels. Age and abnormal metabolism were independently important factors associated with the sex hormone levels in elderly Chinese men, which were all mediated by SHBG.

  2. Gonads and strife: Sex hormones vary according to sexual orientation for women and stress indices for both sexes.

    PubMed

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Almeida, Daniel; Cardoso, Christopher; Raymond, Catherine; Johnson, Philip Jai; Pfaus, James G; Mendrek, Adrianna; Duchesne, Annie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed sexual orientation and psychobiological stress indices in relation to salivary sex hormones as part of a well-validated laboratory-based stress paradigm. Participants included 87 healthy adults that were on average 25 years old who self-identified as lesbian/bisexual women (n=20), heterosexual women (n=21), gay/bisexual men (n=26), and heterosexual men (n=20). Two saliva samples were collected fifteen minutes before and fifteen minutes after exposure to a modified Trier Social Stress Test to determine testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone concentrations via enzyme-immune assaying. Mean sex hormones were further tested in association to stress indices related to cortisol systemic output (area under the curve with respect to ground) based on ten measures throughout the two-hour visit, allostatic load indexed using 21 biomarkers, and perceived stress assessed using a well-validated questionnaire. Results revealed that lesbian/bisexual women had higher overall testosterone and progesterone concentrations than heterosexual women, while no differences were found among gay/bisexual men in comparison to heterosexual men. Lesbian/bisexual women and heterosexual men showed positive associations between mean estradiol concentrations and allostatic load, while gay/bisexual men and heterosexual women showed positive associations between mean testosterone and cortisol systemic output. In summary, sex hormone variations appear to vary according to sexual orientation among women, but also as a function of cortisol systemic output, allostatic load, and perceived stress for both sexes.

  3. Adolescent endogenous sex hormones and breast density in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seungyoun; Egleston, Brian L; Chandler, D Walt; Van Horn, Linda; Hylton, Nola M; Klifa, Catherine C; Lasser, Norman L; LeBlanc, Erin S; Paris, Kenneth; Shepherd, John A; Snetselaar, Linda G; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Stevens, Victor J; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2015-06-04

    During adolescence the breasts undergo rapid growth and development under the influence of sex hormones. Although the hormonal etiology of breast cancer is hypothesized, it remains unknown whether adolescent sex hormones are associated with adult breast density, which is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Percentage of dense breast volume (%DBV) was measured in 2006 by magnetic resonance imaging in 177 women aged 25-29 years who had participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children from 1988 to 1997. They had sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) measured in serum collected on one to five occasions between 8 and 17 years of age. Multivariable linear mixed-effect regression models were used to evaluate the associations of adolescent sex hormones and SHBG with %DBV. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and SHBG measured in premenarche serum samples were significantly positively associated with %DBV (all P trend ≤0.03) but not when measured in postmenarche samples (all P trend ≥0.42). The multivariable geometric mean of %DBV across quartiles of premenarcheal DHEAS and SHBG increased from 16.7 to 22.1 % and from 14.1 to 24.3 %, respectively. Estrogens, progesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone in pre- or postmenarche serum samples were not associated with %DBV (all P trend ≥0.16). Our results suggest that higher premenarcheal DHEAS and SHBG levels are associated with higher %DBV in young women. Whether this association translates into an increased risk of breast cancer later in life is currently unknown. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT00458588 April 9, 2007; NCT00000459 October 27, 1999.

  4. Sex hormones and androgen receptor: risk factors of coronary heart disease in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jian; Zou, Hui; Zhu, Bing-Po; Wang, Hao; Li, Jian; Ding, Yu; Li, Xiao-Ying

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the variation of sex hormone and its receptor level in elderly male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and to evaluate the correlations between CHD and sex hormone as well as sex hormone receptor. Altogether 139 male CHD patients (CHD group) aged 60-92 years and 400 healthy men (control group) aged 60-90 years were included in this cross sectional study. The plasma concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), estradiol (E2), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured. The androgen receptor (AR) was tested by flow cytometry. Correlations between CHD and levels of sex hormones and AR were analyzed. Compared with the control group, the levels of DHEAS, TT, FT, SHBG, and the fluorescence intensity of AR in the CHD group significantly reduced (P < 0.05), while the levels of FSH and E2 significantly increased (P < 0.01). Age was negatively correlated with TT (r = -0.28, P = 0.00) and FT (r = -0.17, P = 0.01), while it was positively correlated with SHBG (r = 0.14, P = 0.04) and E2 (r = 0.33, P = 0.00). AR fluorescence intensity was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.12, P = 0.01). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that TT, SHBG, and AR were all negatively correlated with CHD (P < 0.05). Elderly male patients with CHD are found to have low levels of DHEAS, TT, FT, SHBG, and AR, while high concentrations of E2 and FSH. Low levels of TT and SHBG may be the potential risk factors of CHD in elderly men.

  5. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

  6. Endogenous sex hormones and cognitive function in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Boss, Lisa; Kang, Duck-Hee; Bergstrom, Nancy; Leasure, J Leigh

    2015-08-01

    Estrogen and testosterone may influence cognitive function in the older adult, but the relationship between sex hormones and cognitive function is complex. To examine associations of sex hormones and cognitive function among older adults ≥65 years old. Using a cross-sectional research design, data were collected once from 71 elderly (mean age 86.4 years). Global cognitive function and executive function were measured with standardized instruments, and saliva samples were collected for salivary estradiol and testosterone. Estradiol was significantly and positively correlated with global cognitive function in men only (r = 0.54, p < 0.05). Testosterone was not significantly correlated with global cognitive function or executive function in either gender. Associations between sex hormones and cognitive function were mostly non-significant. However, higher estradiol was significantly correlated with better global cognitive function in men, suggesting gender-specific differences. Along with sex hormones, other comorbidity may need to be assessed together in relation to cognitive function in the elderly. Accordingly, clinicians play an important role in educating and promoting beneficial actions to preserve cognitive function.

  7. Sex bias in paediatric autoimmune disease - Not just about sex hormones?

    PubMed

    Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel C; Munro, Jane E; Ellis, Justine A

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune diseases affect up to 10% of the world's population, and approximately 80% of those affected are female. The majority of autoimmune diseases occur more commonly in females, although some are more frequent in males, while others show no bias by sex. The mechanisms leading to sex biased disease prevalence are not well understood. However, for adult-onset autoimmune disease, at least some of the cause is usually ascribed to sex hormones. This is because levels of sex hormones are one of the most obvious physiological differences between adult males and females, and their impact on immune system function is well recognised. While for paediatric-onset autoimmune diseases a sex bias is not as common, there are several such diseases for which one sex predominates. For example, the oligoarticular subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) occurs in approximately three times more girls than boys, with a peak age of onset well before the onset of puberty, and at a time when levels of androgen and oestrogen are low and not strikingly different between the sexes. Here, we review potential explanations for autoimmune disease sex bias with a particular focus on paediatric autoimmune disease, and biological mechanisms outside of sex hormone differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. SEX DIFFERENCES AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE INFLUENCES ON HUMAN ODOR PERCEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398

  9. New insights into the role of sex steroid hormones in pregnancy: possible therapeutic approach by sex steroid hormones for the treatment of both preeclampsia and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, S; Mizutani, E

    2015-03-01

    Fetal peptide hormones are essential for the development of fetus, which increase in accordance with pregnancy term. Concentration of these hormones within the feto-placental unit is normally higher than that of maternal circulation. Since these hormones are biologically active, the leakage of these hormones into the maternal circulation is regulated by degradation activity by placental aminopeptidases, in order to maintain the balance between carriage of pregnancy and onset of labor.Because the concentration of these hormones, being regulated by the amount of endogenous production and by physiological degradation by enzymes in the blood and tissue, the balance between production and degradation is a definitive element for maintaining normal gestation and term delivery.The changes of the balance between fetal angiotensin II (A-II) and vasopressin (AVP) andA-II and AVP degrading enzymes, between aminopeptidase A (APA) and placental leucine aminopeptidase( P-LAP) - in the placenta and maternal blood due to fetal stress such as hypoxia - are the provable causes of preeclampsia or preterm labor.Induction of APA and P-LAP by estradiol benzoate (E2) and progesterone (P) from placenta has been demonstrated. They are involved in the regulation of fetal peptide hormones via placental aminopeptidases in homeostasis of pregnancy.Recently it was shown that both APA and P-LAP could be potentially safe and effective drugs for preeclampsia and preterm labor. The authors' proposed sex steroid treatment with dose increasing manner by gestational week (sex steroid treatment) for severe preeclampsia and preterm labor could be candidates replacing conventional treatments. In light of lacking safe and effective medication, the proposed sex steroid treatment is worthwhile for the prospective controlled studies for the treatment of both preeclampsia and preterm labor. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Variation in serum biomarkers with sex and female hormonal status: implications for clinical tests

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Jordan M.; Cooper, Jason D.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Few serum biomarker tests are implemented in clinical practice and recent reports raise concerns about poor reproducibility of biomarker studies. Here, we investigated the potential role of sex and female hormonal status in this widespread irreproducibility. We examined 171 serum proteins and small molecules measured in 1,676 participants from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Concentrations of 96 molecules varied with sex and 66 molecules varied between oral contraceptive pill users, postmenopausal females, and females in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (FDR-adjusted p-value <0.05). Simulations of biomarker studies yielded up to 40% false discoveries when patient and control groups were not matched for sex and up to 41% false discoveries when premenopausal females were not matched for oral contraceptive pill use. High accuracy (over 90%) classification tools were developed to label samples with sex and female hormonal status where this information was not collected. PMID:27240929

  11. Endogenous sex hormones and breast density in young women

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seungyoun; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Egleston, Brian L.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Stevens, Victor J.; Shepherd, John A.; Van Horn, Linda; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Paris, Kenneth; Klifa, Catherine; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer and reflects epithelial and stromal content. Breast tissue is particularly sensitive to hormonal stimuli before it fully differentiates following the first full-term pregnancy. Few studies have examined associations between sex hormones and breast density among young women. Methods We conducted cross-sectional study among 180 women aged 25-29 years old who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children 2006 Follow-up Study. Eighty-five percent of participants attended a clinic visit during their luteal phase of menstrual cycle. Magnetic resonance imaging measured the percentage of dense breast volume (%DBV), absolute dense breast volume (ADBV), and absolute nondense breast volume (ANDBV). Multiple-linear mixed-effect regression models were used to evaluate the association of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with %DBV, ADBV, and ANDBV. Results Testosterone was significantly positively associated with %DBV and ADBV. The multivariable geometric mean of %DBV and ADBV across testosterone quartiles increased from 16.5% to 20.3% and from 68.6cm3 to 82.3cm3, respectively (Ptrend ≤ 0.03). There was no association of %DBV or ADBV with estrogens, progesterone, non-SHBG bound testosterone or SHBG (Ptrend ≥ 0.27). Neither sex hormones nor SHBG was associated with ANDBV except progesterone; however, the progesterone result was nonsignificant in analysis restricted to women in the luteal phase. Conclusions These findings suggest a modest positive association between testosterone and breast density in young women. Impact Hormonal influences at critical periods may contribute to morphological differences in the breast associated with breast cancer risk later in life. PMID:25371447

  12. Endogenous sex hormones and breast density in young women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seungyoun; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Egleston, Brian L; Snetselaar, Linda G; Stevens, Victor J; Shepherd, John A; Van Horn, Linda; LeBlanc, Erin S; Paris, Kenneth; Klifa, Catherine; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2015-02-01

    Breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer and reflects epithelial and stromal content. Breast tissue is particularly sensitive to hormonal stimuli before it fully differentiates following the first full-term pregnancy. Few studies have examined associations between sex hormones and breast density among young women. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 180 women ages 25 to 29 years old who participated in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children 2006 Follow-up Study. Eighty-five percent of participants attended a clinic visit during their luteal phase of menstrual cycle. Magnetic resonance imaging measured the percentage of dense breast volume (%DBV), absolute dense breast volume (ADBV), and absolute nondense breast volume (ANDBV). Multiple-linear mixed-effect regression models were used to evaluate the association of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with %DBV, ADBV, and ANDBV. Testosterone was significantly positively associated with %DBV and ADBV. The multivariable geometric mean of %DBV and ADBV across testosterone quartiles increased from 16.5% to 20.3% and from 68.6 to 82.3 cm(3), respectively (Ptrend ≤ 0.03). There was no association of %DBV or ADBV with estrogens, progesterone, non-SHBG-bound testosterone, or SHBG (Ptrend ≥ 0.27). Neither sex hormones nor SHBG was associated with ANDBV except progesterone; however, the progesterone result was nonsignificant in analysis restricted to women in the luteal phase. These findings suggest a modest positive association between testosterone and breast density in young women. Hormonal influences at critical periods may contribute to morphologic differences in the breast associated with breast cancer risk later in life. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Sex hormone levels and intraocular pressure in postmenopausal Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ebeigbe, J A; Ebeigbe, P N

    2013-12-01

    A number of hormones are known to affect intra ocular pressure (IOP). Of these, the female sex hormones are the predominant ones to cause variations in IOP. During menopause, a changing hormone profile in the body causes important shifts in the levels of these hormones. Studies on the effect of menopause on visual function, cardiovascular and ocular hemodynamics showed that menopausal women had significantly higher IOP as compared to premenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of serum levels of sex hormones on IOP in postmenopausal Nigerian women. This study was an experimental, cross sectional study. Twenty postmenopausal women aged 50 to 55 years (mean age 52 +/- 2.32) and twenty premenopausal women aged 45 to 50 years (mean age 50 +/- 2.13) were selected by systematic random sampling. The women were free from systemic or ocular diseases. IOP was measured and serum levels of progesterone, estradiol and testosterone were determined by hormone assay for all subjects. Data was analyzed by correlation analysis. Mean IOP between the postmenopausal (16.00 +/- 5.81 mmHg) and premenopausal women (15.50 +/- 3.28 mmHg, p = 0.24) was not statistically significant. Although there was a positive correlation between IOP and estradiol level in the postmenopausal women (r = 0.567, p = 0.009), no significant correlation was found between IOP and serum levels of sex hormones among the premenopausal women. Our result suggests a relation between levels of estradiol and IOP in postmenopausal Nigerian women. However further studies may be required to determine a direct cause and effect relationship.

  14. Hormonal and nonhormonal factors affecting sex hormone-binding globulin levels in blood.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, J H

    1988-01-01

    Researchers in Utrecht, the Netherlands have studied the effects of different factors, such as oral contraceptives (OCs), on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in blood. The SHBG levels in women who continuously used OCs consisting only of .05 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE2) rose as high as 260% + or - 25% of those in women not using OCs. Further, mean SHBG levels of women using combination OCs of EE2 and levonorgestrel were 10-60% higher than women not using OCs. SHBG levels were significantly higher than the use of a sequential OC containing decreasing amounts of EE2 and increasing amounts of levonorgestrel than those cause by use of a continuous combined OC with .03 mg and .15 mg respectively. As the dosage of EE2 increased in combination OCs with 2.5 mg lynestrenol, the SHBG increased from 20% (.05 mg EE2) to 150% (.75 mg EE2). SHBG levels after taking EE2 and cyproterone acetate increased significantly more (240%) than levels after EE2 and desogestrel (170%), or after EE2 and gestoden (140%) [p.001]. SHBG levels of women who took OCs containing only .03 mg of levonorgestrel daily decreased 35% (p.01). These levels fell by 30% in women who received 150 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate intramuscularly every 3 months (p.001). SHBG concentrations increased when estrogens were taken orally for noncontraceptive purposes, but they did not change when they were administered percutaneously. As body weight increased the SHBG levels decreased despite hormonal status or sex. Further, the lower the fat content of one's diet the higher the SHBG levels and vice versa. SHBG levels are higher in males with flaccid lungs than they are in males with healthy lungs.

  15. Between- and within-sex variation in hormonal responses to psychological stress in a large sample of college students.

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario; Baran, Nicole M; Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated (1) sex differences in hormonal responses to psychosocial stress; (2) the relation between variability in pre-test hormone concentrations and stress-induced hormonal changes; and (3) some possible sources of within-sex variation in pre-test hormone concentrations and in hormonal responses to the test in a large human subject population. To this end, changes in salivary concentrations of testosterone and cortisol in response to a mild psychosocial stressor (a set of computerized economic decision-making tests) were measured in a sample of over 500 MBA students. Males had higher concentrations of testosterone and cortisol than females both before and after the test. After taking effects of time of testing on hormone concentrations into account, testosterone showed a post-test decrease in males but not in females. Cortisol level increased in both sexes but the post-test increase was larger in females than in males. At the individual level, the pre-test concentrations of testosterone and cortisol predicted both the direction and the magnitude of the post-test hormone change, so that low pre-test hormone concentrations showed large post-test increases whereas high pre-test concentrations showed large post-test decreases. Within-sex variation in hormone concentrations was not accounted for by variation in 2D:4D digit length ratio, a marker of prenatal androgen exposure, but by social variables. Single males without a stable romantic partner had higher testosterone level than males with stable partners, and both males and females without a partner showed a greater cortisol response to the test than married individuals with or without children. Studies conducted with large sample sizes such as this one can help understand normative patterns of hormonal responses to psychosocial stimuli as well as identify the sources of interindividual variation in endocrine function.

  16. Sex hormones, vascular function and the outcome of hormone replacement therapy in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Raouf A

    2007-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is more common in men and post-menopausal women than premenopausal women, suggesting that female sex hormones have vascular benefits. Cytosolic/nuclear estrogen and progesterone receptors mediate genomic transcriptional effects that stimulate endothelial cell growth and inhibit smooth muscle proliferation. Sex hormone receptors on the plasma membrane trigger nongenomic stimulation of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-cyclic (c)GMP, prostacyclin-cAMP and hyperpolarizing vascular relaxation pathways, as well as inhibition of [Ca2+](i), protein kinase C and Rho-kinase-dependent mechanisms of smooth muscle contraction. Despite the vasodilator effects of sex hormones, the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), HERS-II and Women's Health Initiative clinical trials have shown minimal benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in post-menopausal cardiovascular disease. The prospect of HRT relies on further mechanistic analysis of the vascular effects of natural sex hormones and phytoestrogens, and the identification of specific estrogen receptor modulators. Androgens have vascular effects, and modulators of the estrogen/testosterone ratio could provide better HRT combinations. The timing/duration and the type, dose and route of administration of HRT should be customized according to the subject's age and pre-existing cardiovascular condition, thereby enhancing the outcome of HRT in cardiovascular disease.

  17. Endogenous sex hormone exposure and repetitive element DNA methylation in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Boyne, Devon J; Friedenreich, Christine M; McIntyre, John B; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Courneya, Kerry S; King, Will D

    2017-09-19

    Epigenetic mechanisms may help to explain the complex and heterogeneous relation between sex hormones and cancer. Few studies have investigated the effects of sex hormones on epigenetic markers related to cancer risk such as levels of methylation within repetitive DNA elements. Our objective was to describe the association between endogenous sex hormone exposure and levels of LINE-1 and Alu methylation in healthy postmenopausal women. We nested a cross-sectional study within the Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (2003-2006). Study participants consisted of healthy postmenopausal women who had never been diagnosed with cancer (n = 289). Sex hormone exposures included serum concentrations of estradiol, estrone, testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding globulin. We estimated the participants' lifetime number of menstrual cycles (LNMC) as a proxy for cumulative exposure to ovarian sex hormones. Buffy coat samples were assessed for DNA methylation. Linear regression was used to model the associations of interest and to control for confounding. Both estradiol and estrone had a significant positive dose-response association with LINE-1 methylation. LNMC was associated with both LINE-1 and Alu methylation. Specifically, LNMC had a non-linear "U-shaped" association with LINE-1 methylation regardless of folate intake and a negative linear association with Alu methylation, but only amongst low folate consumers. Androgen exposure was not associated with either outcome. Current and cumulative estrogen exposure was associated with repetitive element DNA methylation in a group of healthy postmenopausal women. LINE-1 and Alu methylation may be epigenetic mechanisms through which estrogen exposure impacts cancer risk.

  18. Sex and context: hormones and primate sexual motivation.

    PubMed

    Wallen, K

    2001-09-01

    Gonadal hormones regulate the ability to copulate in most mammalian species, but not in primates because copulatory ability has been emancipated from hormonal control. Instead, gonadal hormones primarily influence sexual motivation. This separation of mating ability from hormonally modulated mating interest allows social experience and context to powerfully influence the expression of sexual behavior in nonhuman primates, both developmentally and in adulthood. For example, male rhesus monkeys mount males and females equally as juveniles, but mount females almost exclusively as adults. Having ejaculated with a female better predicted this transition to female mounting partners than did increased pubertal testosterone (T). It is proposed that increased pubertal T stimulates male sexual motivation, increasing the male's probability of sexual experience with females, ultimately producing a sexual preference for females. Eliminating T in adulthood reduces male sexual motivation in both humans and rhesus monkeys, but does not eliminate the capacity to engage in sex. In male rhesus monkeys the effects of reduced androgens on sexual behavior vary with social status and sexual experience. Human sexual behavior also varies with hormonal state, social context, and cultural conventions. Ovarian hormones influence female sexual desire, but the specific sexual behaviors engaged in are affected by perceived pregnancy risk, suggesting that cognition plays an important role in human sexual behavior. How the physical capacity to mate became emancipated from hormonal regulation in primates is not understood. This emancipation, however, increases the importance of motivational systems and results in primate sexual behavior being strongly influenced by social context.

  19. Genes and sex hormones interaction in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Romano, Emilia; Cosentino, Livia; Laviola, Giovanni; De Filippis, Bianca

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence, age of onset and symptomatology of many neurodevelopmental disorders strongly differ between genders. This review examines sex biases in human neurodevelopmental disorders and in validated animal models. A focus is made on disorders of well-established genetic origin, such as Rett syndrome, CDKL5-associated disorders, Fragile X and Down syndrome. Autism is also addressed, given its paradigmatic role as a sex-biased neurodevelopmental disorder. Reviewed literature confirms that a complex interaction between genetic factors and sex hormones may underlie the differential susceptibility of genders and may impact the severity of symptoms in most of the analyzed neurodevelopmental disorders. Even though further studies addressing the advantages and disadvantages conferred by biological sex in this class of disorders are needed to disentangle the underlying mechanisms, present findings suggest that modulation of sex steroid-related pathways may represent an innovative approach for these diseases. Much effort is now expected to unravel the potential therapeutic efficacy of drugs targeting sex hormones-related signaling pathways in neurodevelopmental disorders of well-established genetic origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Anesthetic Agent Propofol on Postoperative Sex Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H.; Ku, S.-Y.; Kim, H. C.; Suh, C. S.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, Y. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have found anesthetic agents including propofol in ovarian follicular fluid. However, little is known about the effect of anesthetic agents on ovarian function. We aimed to investigate whether there were differences in the postoperative levels of sex hormones when propofol was used as the anesthetic agent. Methods: A retrospective review was done of 80 patients who underwent ovarian surgery, with 72 infertile women serving as controls. Patients were included in the study if their serum estradiol (E2) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were measured during their first postoperative menstrual cycle. Results: Patients were grouped according to the use or non-use of propofol as follows: propofol group (n = 39) and non-propofol group (n = 41). The control group did not undergo surgery. Postoperative E2 levels did not differ between the three groups, but FSH levels were significantly higher in the patients who had undergone surgery compared to controls (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analysis of E2 and FSH levels in the propofol and non-propofol groups did not show any significant differences. Conclusions: The use of propofol did not result in any differences compared to other anesthetic agents in terms of postoperative sex hormone levels after gynecologic surgery. The type of anesthetic agent does not seem to affect the postoperative levels of female sex hormones. PMID:27134297

  1. Phthalate exposure and reproductive hormones and sex-hormone binding globulin before puberty - Phthalate contaminated-foodstuff episode in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hui-Ju; Chen, Chu-Chih; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wu, Wen-Chiu; Huang, I-Wen; Huang, Po-Chin; Yu, Tzu-Yun; Hsiung, Chao A; Wang, Shu-Li

    2017-01-01

    In May 2011, a major incident involving phthalates-contaminated foodstuffs occurred in Taiwan. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was added to foodstuffs, mainly juice, jelly, tea, sports drink, and dietary supplements. Concerns arose that normal pubertal development, especially reproductive hormone regulation in children, could be disrupted by DEHP exposure. To investigate the association between phthalate exposure and reproductive hormone levels among children following potential exposure to phthalate-tainted foodstuffs. A total of 239 children aged <12 years old were recruited from 3 hospitals in north, central, and south Taiwan after the episode. Structured questionnaires were used to collect the frequency and quantity of exposures to 5 categories of phthalate-contaminated foodstuffs to assess phthalate exposure in children. Urine samples were collected for the measurement of phthalate metabolites. The estimated daily intake of DEHP exposure at the time of the contamination incident occurred was calculated using both questionnaire data and urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations. Multiple regression analyses were applied to assess associations between phthalate exposure and reproductive hormone levels in children. After excluding children with missing data regarding exposure levels and hormone concentrations and girls with menstruation, 222 children were included in the statistical analyses. After adjustment for age and birth weight, girls with above median levels of urinary mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and sum of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate concentrations had higher odds of above median follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Girls with above median estimated average daily DEHP exposures following the contamination episode also had higher odds of sex hormone-binding globulin above median levels. Phthalate exposure was associated with alterations of reproductive hormone levels in girls.

  2. Circulating sex hormones and mammographic breast density among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Brian L.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Buist, Diana S. M.; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Sisney, Gale S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of breast density as an intermediate or predictive marker of breast cancer risk is limited by an incomplete understanding of the etiology of breast density. High blood levels of endogenous estrogens and androgens are associated with increased risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. We sought to examine whether these hormones are also associated with breast density. The Wisconsin Breast Density Study enrolled 257 postmenopausal women, ages 55–70 years, with no history of postmenopausal hormone use, from mammography clinics in Madison, Wisconsin. Subjects provided a blood sample for sex hormone analysis, and breast density was measured from subjects’ screening mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Numerous sex hormones were associated with breast density in age-adjusted analyses. However, further adjustment for body mass index and other potentially confounding factors substantially attenuated or eliminated these associations. In the fully adjusted model, there remained a positive association between percent breast density and serum progesterone (P=0.03), with percent density rising from 11.9% (95% CI: 9.8, 14.1%) among women in the lowest quartile of serum progesterone to 15.4% (12.9, 18.2%) among women in the highest quartile. There was also a positive association between sex hormone binding globulin and percent breast density (P=0.06). In contrast, there were no associations between percent breast density and estradiol (total, free, or bioavailable), estrone, estrone sulfate, or testosterone (total, free, or bioavailable). These results suggest that breast density has a hormonal etiology, however, it may differ in important ways from that of breast cancer risk. PMID:21318123

  3. Sex steroid hormones and circulating IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Mathur, R S; Goust, J M; Williamson, H O; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The possible influence of sex steroid hormones on circulating IgE levels in general and IgE anti-Candida antibodies in particular was studied by quantification of plasma levels of progesterone, estradiol and IgE (total and anti-Candida-specific) in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and during pregnancy. IgE levels during the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, although the mean values for the luteal phase were slightly lower. This trend was apparent in daily samples from two normal females during one menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, when the levels of circulating sex steroids were high, IgE levels were only slightly higher than in the follicular and luteal phases. In men and in gonadal dysgenetics, circulating progesterone levels were similar to those of women during the follicular phase (i.e., lower than in the luteal phase or in pregnancy), but the IgE levels were not different. The apparently low levels of IgE during the luteal phase may therefore be due to physiological factors other than fluctuations in the sex steroid hormones. From the present studies, it is apparent that sex steroid hormones have little or no effect on humoral IgE levels, in marked contrast to previously described correlations for other immunoglobulins, especially anti-Candida antibodies.

  4. Effects of vertebrate hormones on development and sex determination in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Kashian, Donna R; Dodson, Stanley I

    2004-05-01

    Daphnia (Crustacea) are extensively used as model organisms in ecotoxicology; however, little is known regarding their endocrine system. This study examines Daphnia vulnerability to vertebrate hormones. Twelve natural or synthetic vertebrate hormones were screened for activity on developmental and reproductive processes in Daphnia magna. Natural hormones tested included: beta-estradiol, gonadotropin, hydrocortisone, insulin, melatonin, progesterone, somatostatin, testosterone, and thyroxine at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 microg/L. Synthetic hormones tested included diethylstilbestrol (estrogenic), R-1881 (androgen), and ICI-182,780 (antiestrogen); all hormones were screened with a 6-d assay. Additionally, progesterone, insulin, testosterone, and thyroxine were screened for 25 d. Diethylstilbestrol decreased D. magna growth rate while thyroxine increased it. Short-term testosterone exposure reduced D. magna fecundity; however, long-term exposure did not, potentially indicating testosterone hydroxylation with long-term exposure. Hormones commonly considered sex-hormones (estrogens and androgens) in vertebrates do not appear to control sexual differentiation in D. magna; however, several vertebrate hormones do affect reproduction and development in D. magna making D. magna a potentially useful tool in monitoring for the presence of these hormones or compounds that mimic them.

  5. Antioxidant status and sex hormones in women with complex endometrial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pejić, S; Todorović, A; Stojiljković, V; Pavlović, I; Gavrilović, L; Popović, N; Pajović, S B

    2016-09-30

    Endometrial tissue is under a strong influence of sex hormones. These hormones are considered as developmental factors of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. We examined the influence of gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormone) and sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone) on oxidant/antioxidant parameters in blood and endometrial tissue of women with complex endometrial hyperplasia. In blood, superoxide dismutase activity was significantly higher in luteal phase and postmenopause compared to the follicular phase. A significant phase-related difference of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity was recorded in the endometrium. Both enzymes had lower activity in luteal phase and postmenopause compared to the follicular phase. The linear regression analysis of individual hormonal variables against antioxidant parameters showed negative correlation between glutathione peroxidase activity and gonadotropin concentrations in the endometrium. The regression of hyperplastic to normal endometrium is the purpose of conservative treatment based on administration of progestogens or gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues. Our findings indicate that gonadotropins influence the antioxidant enzymes activity in women with complex endometrial hyperplasia, which may affect disease development. Further studies are needed to clarify the molecular basis of hormone action on antioxidant system that may potentially initiate a development of treatments based on redox-dependent mechanism.

  6. Sex Hormones, Gonadotropins, and Sex Hormone-binding Globulin in Infants Fed Breast Milk, Cow Milk Formula, or Soy Formula.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin; Wang, Lei; Wu, Chunhua; Shi, Huijing; Zhou, Zhijun; Montgomery, Scott; Cao, Yang

    2017-06-28

    Measurement of endogenous hormones in early life is important to investigate the effects of hormonally active environmental compounds. To assess the possible hormonal effects of different feeding regimens in different sample matrices of infants, 166 infants were enrolled from two U.S hospitals between 2006 and 2009. The children were classified into exclusive soy formula, cow milk formula or breast milk regimens. Urine, saliva and blood samples were collected over the first 12 months of life. Estradiol, estrone, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured in the three matrices. Lower estradiol and LH levels were found in urine and saliva samples of soy formula-fed boys compared to cow formula-fed boys. Higher LH level was found in urine samples of soy formula-fed girls compared to cow formula-fed girls. However, we found neither a neonatal testosterone rise in the boys nor a gender-specific difference in testosterone levels, which suggests that urinary testosterone levels may not accurately reflect blood levels during mini-puberty. Nevertheless, our study shows that blood, urine and saliva samples are readily collectible and suitable for multi-hormone analyses in children and allow examination of hypotheses concerning endocrine effects from dietary compounds.

  7. Association between endogenous sex steroid hormones and inflammatory biomarkers in US men

    PubMed Central

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Rohrmann, Sabine; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Nyante, Sarah J.; Lopez, David S.; Bradwin, Gary; Feinleib, Manning; Joshu, Corinne E.; Kanarek, Norma; Nelson, William G.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones and inflammatory biomarkers are both associated with the development and progression of chronic diseases, but their interrelationship is relatively uncharacterized. We examined the association of sex hormones and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with biomarkers of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count. The study included data from 809 adult men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004. Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately for CRP and WBC concentrations by sex steroid hormones and SHBG using weighted linear regression models. Higher concentrations of total (slope per 1 quintile in concentration, −0.18; P-trend, 0.001) and calculated free (slope, −0.13; P-trend, 0.03) testosterone were statistically significantly associated with lower concentrations of CRP, but not with WBC count. Men in the bottom quintile of total testosterone (≤3.3 ng/mL), who might be considered to have clinically low testosterone, were more likely to have elevated CRP (≥ 3 mg/L) compared to men in the top four quintiles (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.00 – 2.61). Total and calculated free estradiol (E2) were positively associated with both CRP (Total E2: slope, 0.14; P-trend, <0.001; Free E2: slope, 0.15; P-trend, <0.001) and WBC (Total E2: slope, 0.02; P-trend, 0.08; Free E2: slope, 0.02; P-trend, 0.02) concentrations. SHBG concentrations were inversely associated with WBC count (slope, −0.03; P-trend, 0.04), but not with CRP. These cross-sectional findings are consistent with the hypothesis that higher androgen and lower estrogen concentrations may have an anti-inflammatory effect in men. PMID:24124163

  8. Sex disparity in colonic adenomagenesis involves promotion by male hormones, not protection by female hormones

    PubMed Central

    Amos-Landgraf, James M.; Heijmans, Jarom; Wielenga, Mattheus C. B.; Dunkin, Elisa; Krentz, Kathy J.; Clipson, Linda; Ederveen, Antwan G.; Groothuis, Patrick G.; Mosselman, Sietse; Muncan, Vanesa; Hommes, Daniel W.; Shedlovsky, Alexandra; Dove, William F.; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2014-01-01

    It recently has been recognized that men develop colonic adenomas and carcinomas at an earlier age and at a higher rate than women. In the ApcPirc/+ (Pirc) rat model of early colonic cancer, this sex susceptibility was recapitulated, with male Pirc rats developing twice as many adenomas as females. Analysis of large datasets revealed that the ApcMin/+ mouse also shows enhanced male susceptibility to adenomagenesis, but only in the colon. In addition, WT mice treated with injections of the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) showed increased numbers of colonic adenomas in males. The mechanism underlying these observations was investigated by manipulation of hormonal status. The preponderance of colonic adenomas in the Pirc rat model allowed a statistically significant investigation in vivo of the mechanism of sex hormone action on the development of colonic adenomas. Females depleted of endogenous hormones by ovariectomy did not exhibit a change in prevalence of adenomas, nor was any effect observed with replacement of one or a combination of female hormones. In contrast, depletion of male hormones by orchidectomy (castration) markedly protected the Pirc rat from adenoma development, whereas supplementation with testosterone reversed that effect. These observations were recapitulated in the AOM mouse model. Androgen receptor was undetectable in the colon or adenomas, making it likely that testosterone acts indirectly on the tumor lineage. Our findings suggest that indirect tumor-promoting effects of testosterone likely explain the disparity between the sexes in the development of colonic adenomas. PMID:25368192

  9. Sex-specific association of sex hormones and gonadotropins, with brain amyloid and hippocampal neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Byun, Min Soo; Yi, Dahyun; Choe, Young Min; Choi, Hyo Jung; Baek, Hyewon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Younghwa; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the sex-specific association between serum sex hormones and gonadotropins and the cerebral beta-amyloid (Aβ) burden and hippocampal neurodegeneration in subjects with normal cognition and impaired cognition. Two hundred sixty-five older subjects received clinical assessments, serum measurements of sex hormones, gonadotropins, (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. In females, higher free testosterone and gonadotropin levels were associated with lower cerebral Aβ positivity. In males, free testosterone was positively related to hippocampal volume with significant interaction with cognitive status. Further subgroup analyses showed that the association was significant only in impaired cognition but not in normal cognition. Free estradiol was not associated with Aβ burden or hippocampal neurodegeneration in either sex. These results suggest that testosterone might inhibit the early pathological accumulation of Aβ in females and delay neurodegeneration in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pregnancy, sex and hormonal factors in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David H; Fazekas, Franz; Montalban, Xavier; Reingold, Stephen C; Trojano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by pregnancy, sex and hormonal factors. Objectives: A comprehensive understanding of the role of pregnancy, sex and hormonal factors can provide insights into disease mechanisms, and new therapeutic developments and can provide improved patient care and treatment. Methods: Based on an international conference of experts and a comprehensive PubMed search for publications on these areas in MS, we provide a review of what is known about the impact of these factors on disease demographics, etiology, pathophysiology and clinical course and outcomes. Results and conclusions: Recommendations are provided for counseling and management of people with MS before conception, during pregnancy and after delivery. The use of disease-modifying and symptomatic therapies in pregnancy is problematic and such treatments are normally discontinued. Available knowledge about the impact of treatment on the mother, fetus and newborn is discussed. Recommendations for future research to fill knowledge gaps and clarify inconsistencies in available data are made. PMID:24446387

  11. Sex Hormones in Allergic Conjunctivitis: Altered Levels of Circulating Androgens and Estrogens in Children and Adolescents with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Sacchetti, Marta; Lambiase, Alessandro; Moretti, Costanzo; Bonini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. Methods. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG) were evaluated. Results. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P = 0.007 and P = 0.028, resp.) and SHBG (P = 0.01 and P = 0.002, resp.) when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P = 0.007). Conclusions and Relevance. VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC. PMID:25756057

  12. Female sex hormones, salt, and blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Burnier, Michel

    2004-10-01

    There are gender-associated differences in blood pressure (BP) in humans, with men having higher BP than age-matched pre-menopausal women and being at greater risk for cardiovascular and renal diseases. The mechanisms responsible for the gender differences in BP control and regulation are not clear, although there is some evidence that interactions between sex hormones and the kidneys could play a role. However, the response to salt in pre- and post-menopausal women, and in particular the influence of exogenous and endogenous female sex hormones on renal hemodynamics and tubular segmental sodium handling, have been poorly investigated. Recently we have shown that both endogenous and exogenous female sex hormones markedly influence the systemic and renal hemodynamic response to salt. We have found that BP in young normotensive women, regardless of oral contraceptive use, is rather insensitive to salt. However, the renal hemodynamic and the tubular responses to salt vary significantly during the normal menstrual cycle and with the administration of oral contraceptives. Furthermore, after the menopause, BP tends to become salt sensitive, a pattern that could be due to aging as well as to the modification of the sex hormone profile. These observations provide new insights pertaining to potential mechanisms explaining the lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and progression of renal disease in pre-menopausal women (which tend to disappear with the menopause); these observations also emphasize the importance of considering more carefully the phase of the menstrual cycle whenever conducting physiologic studies in women and enrolling women in clinical studies. Finally, increased salt sensitivity in menopausal women strongly encourages the use of diuretics.

  13. Sex differences and hormonal modulation of deep tissue pain

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Richard J.; Ji, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    Women disproportionately suffer from many deep tissue pain conditions. Experimental studies show that women have lower pain thresholds, higher pain ratings and less tolerance to a range of painful stimuli. Most clinical and epidemiological reports suggest female gonadal hormones modulate pain for some, but not all, conditions. Similarly, animal studies support greater nociceptive sensitivity in females in many deep tissue pain models. Gonadal hormones modulate responses in primary afferents, dorsal horn neurons and supraspinal sites, but the direction of modulation is variable. This review will examine sex differences in deep tissue pain in humans and animals focusing on the role of gonadal hormones (mainly estradiol) as an underlying component of the modulation of pain sensitivity. PMID:23872333

  14. Risk Preferences and Prenatal Exposure to Sex Hormones for Ladinos

    PubMed Central

    Aycinena, Diego; Baltaduonis, Rimvydas; Rentschler, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D), which is negatively (positively) correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen). We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups. PMID:25084091

  15. Brain sex differences and hormone influences: a moving experience?

    PubMed

    Tobet, S; Knoll, J G; Hartshorn, C; Aurand, E; Stratton, M; Kumar, P; Searcy, B; McClellan, K

    2009-03-01

    Sex differences in the nervous system come in many forms. Although a majority of sexually dimorphic characteristics in the brain have been described in older animals, mechanisms that determine sexually differentiated brain characteristics often operate during critical perinatal periods. Both genetic and hormonal factors likely contribute to physiological mechanisms in development to generate the ontogeny of sexual dimorphisms in brain. Relevant mechanisms may include neurogenesis, cell migration, cell differentiation, cell death, axon guidance and synaptogenesis. On a molecular level, there are several ways to categorize factors that drive brain development. These range from the actions of transcription factors in cell nuclei that regulate the expression of genes that control cell development and differentiation, to effector molecules that directly contribute to signalling from one cell to another. In addition, several peptides or proteins in these and other categories might be referred to as 'biomarkers' of sexual differentiation with undetermined functions in development or adulthood. Although a majority of sex differences are revealed as a direct consequence of hormone actions, some may only be revealed after genetic or environmental disruption. Sex differences in cell positions in the developing hypothalamus, and steroid hormone influences on cell movements in vitro, suggest that cell migration may be one target for early molecular actions that impact brain development and sexual differentiation.

  16. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Cytoskeletal proteins are necessary to form neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines, as well as to regulate the diverse functions in astrocytes. The expression pattern of proteins, such as actin, microtubule-associated protein 2, Tau, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, changes in a tissue-specific manner in the brain, particularly when variations in sex hormone levels occur during the estrous or menstrual cycles or pregnancy. Here, we review the changes in structure and organization of neurons and glial cells that require the participation of cytoskeletal proteins whose expression and activity are regulated by estradiol and progesterone. PMID:26635640

  17. Role of sex hormones in the modulation of cholangiocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Mancinelli, Romina; Onori, Paolo; DeMorrow, Sharon; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Franchitto, Antonio; Carpino, Guido; Alpini, Gianfranco; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years, cholangiocytes, the cells that line the biliary tree, have been considered an important object of study for their biological properties which involves bile formation, proliferation, injury repair, fibrosis and angiogenesis. Cholangiocyte proliferation occurs in all pathologic conditions of liver injury where it is associated with inflammation and regeneration. During these processes, biliary cells start to secrete different cytokines, growth factors, neuropeptides and hormones which represent potential mechanisms for cross talk with other liver cells. Several studies suggest that hormones, and in particular, sex hormones, play a fundamental role in the modulation of the growth of this compartment in the injured liver which functionally conditions the progression of liver disease. Understanding the mechanisms of action and the intracellular pathways of these compounds on cholangiocyte pathophysiology will provide new potential strategies for the management of chronic liver diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent findings on the role of sex hormones in cholangiocyte proliferation and biology. PMID:21607142

  18. Effects of sex steroid hormones, thyroid hormone levels, and insulin regulation on thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Changsheng, Chen; Jiangfang, Fu; Bin, Gao; Nanyan, Zhang; Xiaomiao, Li; Deqiang, Li; Ying, Xing; Wensong, Zai; Qiuhe, Ji

    2010-12-01

    Our study is to determine the expression of thyroid hormone, sex hormone, insulin, and C-peptide in Chinese male patients with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP). This study covered 102 patients with hyperthyroidism from Xijing Hospital. According to whether occurrence of TPP or not, patients were divided into two groups (those that were hyperthyroid with and without TPP) that were, matched with age, blood pressure, urea, and creatinine. We found the body mass index (BMI) in patients with TPP was higher than that in pure hyperthyroidism patients. The levels of the total thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) were significantly lower in patients with TPP compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients, while serum testosterone levels were higher compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients. Moreover, after glucose administration, the concentration of insulin at 60, 120, and 180 min were significantly higher in patients with TPP than those in pure hyperthyroidism patients. The insulin area under the curve (AUC) was significantly increased in patients with TPP compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients. The levels of thyroid hormone, sex hormone, and insulin were different in Chinese male patients with TPP compared to those with only hyperthyroidism.

  19. The Importance of the Derivative in Sex-Hormone Cycles: A Reason Why Behavioural Measures in Sex-Hormone Studies Are So Mercurial

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Adam; Moakes, Kaylee; Aston, Philip; Gavin, Christine; Sterr, Annette

    2014-01-01

    To study the dynamic changes in cognition across the human menstrual cycle, twenty, healthy, naturally-cycling women undertook a lateralized spatial figural comparison task on twelve occasions at approximately 3–4 day intervals. Each session was conducted in laboratory conditions with response times, accuracy rates, eye movements, salivary estrogen and progesterone concentrations and Profile of Mood states questionnaire data collected on each occasion. The first two sessions of twelve for the response variables were discarded to avoid early effects of learning thereby providing 10 sessions spread across each participant's complete menstrual cycle. Salivary progesterone data for each participant was utilized to normalize each participant's data to a standard 28 day cycle. Data was analysed categorically by comparing peak progesterone (luteal phase) to low progesterone (follicular phase) to emulate two-session repeated measures typical studies. Neither a significant difference in reaction times or accuracy rates was found. Moreover no significant effect of lateral presentation was observed upon reaction times or accuracy rates although inter and intra individual variance was sizeable. We demonstrate that hormone concentrations alone cannot be used to predict the response times or accuracy rates. In contrast, we constructed a standard linear model using salivary estrogen, salivary progesterone and their respective derivative values and found these inputs to be very accurate for predicting variance observed in the reaction times for all stimuli and accuracy rates for right visual field stimuli but not left visual field stimuli. The identification of sex-hormone derivatives as predictors of cognitive behaviours is of importance. The finding suggests that there is a fundamental difference between the up-surge and decline of hormonal concentrations where previous studies typically assume all points near the peak of a hormonal surge are the same. How contradictory

  20. How do sex hormones modify arrhythmogenesis in long QT syndrome? Sex hormone effects on arrhythmogenic substrate and triggered activity.

    PubMed

    Odening, Katja E; Koren, Gideon

    2014-11-01

    Gender differences in cardiac repolarization and the arrhythmogenic risk of patients with inherited and acquired long QT syndromes are well appreciated clinically. Enhancing our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these differences is critical to improve our therapeutic strategies for preventing sudden cardiac death in such patients. This review summarizes the effects of sex hormones on the expression and function of ion channels that control cardiac cell excitation and repolarization as well as key proteins that regulate Ca(2+) dynamics at the cellular level. Moreover, it examines the role of sex hormones in modifying the dynamic spatiotemporal (regional and transmural) heterogeneities in action potential duration (eg, the arrhythmogenic substrate) and the susceptibility to (sympathetic) triggered activity at the tissue, organ, and whole animal levels. Finally, it explores the implications of these effects on the management of patients with LQTS.

  1. Cognitive sex differences are not magnified as a function of age, sex hormones, or puberty development during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Herlitz, Agneta; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Lovén, Johanna; Thilers, Petra P; Rehnman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Are cognitive sex differences magnified by individual differences in age, sex hormones, or puberty development? Cross-sectional samples of 12- to 14-year-old boys (n = 85) and girls (n = 102) completed tasks assessing episodic memory, face recognition, verbal fluency, and mental rotations. Blood estradiol, free testosterone, and self-rated puberty scores were obtained. Sex differences were found on all cognitive measures. However, the magnitude was not larger for older children, hormones and cognitive performance were not associated, and early maturers did not perform better than late maturers. Thus, cognitive sex differences were not associated with age, levels of sex hormones, or puberty development.

  2. The Biological Effects of Sex Hormones on Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes from Different Genders

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen Ting

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of sex hormones (17β-estradiol and testosterone) on rabbit articular chondrocytes from different genders. We cultured primary rabbit articular chondrocytes from both genders with varying concentration of sex hormones. We evaluate cell proliferation and biochemical functions by MTT and GAG assay. The chondrocyte function and phenotypes were analyzed by mRNA level using RT-PCR. Immunocytochemical staining was also used to evaluate the generation of collagen-II. This study demonstrated that 17β-estradiol had greater positive regulation on the biological function and gene expressions of articular chondrocytes than testosterone, with the optimal concentrations of 10−6 and 10−7 M, particularly for female chondrocytes. PMID:24995337

  3. The biological effects of sex hormones on rabbit articular chondrocytes from different genders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shwu Jen; Kuo, Shyh Ming; Lin, Yen Ting; Yang, Shan-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of sex hormones (17β-estradiol and testosterone) on rabbit articular chondrocytes from different genders. We cultured primary rabbit articular chondrocytes from both genders with varying concentration of sex hormones. We evaluate cell proliferation and biochemical functions by MTT and GAG assay. The chondrocyte function and phenotypes were analyzed by mRNA level using RT-PCR. Immunocytochemical staining was also used to evaluate the generation of collagen-II. This study demonstrated that 17β-estradiol had greater positive regulation on the biological function and gene expressions of articular chondrocytes than testosterone, with the optimal concentrations of 10(-6) and 10(-7) M, particularly for female chondrocytes.

  4. Nipple Aspirate Fluid Hormone Concentrations and Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Chatterton, Robert T; Heinz, Richard E; Fought, Angela J; Ivancic, David; Shappell, Claire; Allu, Subhashini; Gapstur, Susan; Scholtens, Denise M; Gann, Peter H; Khan, Seema A

    2016-04-01

    Prior reports identify higher serum concentrations of estrogens and androgens as risk factors for breast cancer, but steroids in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) may be more related to risk. Incident breast cancer cases and mammography controls were recruited. Sex steroids were measured in NAF from the unaffected breasts of cases and one breast of controls. Menopausal status and menstrual cycle phase were determined. NAF steroids were purified by HPLC and quantified by immunoassays. Conditional logistic regression models were used to examine associations between NAF hormones and case-control status. NAF samples from 160 cases and 157 controls were evaluable for hormones. Except for progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the NAF and serum concentrations were not significantly correlated. NAF estradiol and estrone were not different between cases and controls. Higher NAF (but not serum) DHEA concentrations were associated with cases, particularly among estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases (NAF odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02, 1.36). NAF DHEA was highly correlated with NAF estradiol and estrone but not with androstenedione or testosterone. Higher progesterone concentrations in both NAF and serum were associated with a lower risk of ER-negative cancer (NAF OR = 0.69, 95 % CI 0.51, 0.92). However, this finding may be explained by case-control imbalance in the number of luteal phase subjects (2 cases and 19 controls). The significantly higher concentration of DHEA in NAF of cases and its correlation with NAF estradiol indicates a potentially important role of this steroid in breast cancer risk; however, the negative association of progesterone with risk is tentative.

  5. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  6. Disorders of sex development expose transcriptional autonomy of genetic sex and androgen-programmed hormonal sex in human blood leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Bebermeier, Jan-Hendrik; Werner, Ralf; Demeter, Janos; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Cario, Gunnar; Appari, Mahesh; Siebert, Reiner; Riepe, Felix; Brooks, James D; Hiort, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Background Gender appears to be determined by independent programs controlled by the sex-chromosomes and by androgen-dependent programming during embryonic development. To enable experimental dissection of these components in the human, we performed genome-wide profiling of the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with rare defined "disorders of sex development" (DSD, e.g., 46, XY-females due to defective androgen biosynthesis) compared to normal 46, XY-males and 46, XX-females. Results A discrete set of transcripts was directly correlated with XY or XX genotypes in all individuals independent of male or female phenotype of the external genitalia. However, a significantly larger gene set in the PBMC only reflected the degree of external genital masculinization independent of the sex chromosomes and independent of concurrent post-natal sex steroid hormone levels. Consequently, the architecture of the transcriptional PBMC-"sexes" was either male, female or even "intersex" with a discordant alignment of the DSD individuals' genetic and hormonal sex signatures. Conclusion A significant fraction of gene expression differences between males and females in the human appears to have its roots in early embryogenesis and is not only caused by sex chromosomes but also by long-term sex-specific hormonal programming due to presence or absence of androgen during the time of external genital masculinization. Genetic sex and the androgen milieu during embryonic development might therefore independently modulate functional traits, phenotype and diseases associated with male or female gender as well as with DSD conditions. PMID:19570224

  7. Hydroxylation and sulfation of sex steroid hormones in inflammatory liver.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang R; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Kim, Sang-Yun; Ryu, Si-Yun; Park, Bae-Kuen; Hong, Eui-Ju

    2017-09-26

    Sex steroids, also known as gonadal steroids, are oxidized with hydroxylation by cytochrome P450, glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, sulfation by sulfotransferase, andO-methylation by catechol O-methyltransferase. Thus, it is important to determine the process by which inflammation influences metabolism of gonadal hormones. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism of metabolic enzymes against high physiologic inflammatory responsein vivo to study their biochemical properties in liver diseases. In this study, C57BL/6N mice were induced with hepatic inflammation by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) exposure. We observed upregulation of Cyp19a1, Hsd17b1, Cyp1a1, Sult1e1 in the DEN-treated livers compared to the control-treated livers using real time PCR. Moreover, the increased Cyp19a1 and Hsd17b1 levels support the possibility that estrogen biosynthesis from androgens are accumulated during inflammatory liver diseases. Furthermore, the increased levels of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 in the hydroxylation of estrogen facilitated the conversion of estrogen to 2- or 4-hydroxyestrogen, respectively. In addition, the substantial increase in the Sult1e1 enzyme levels could lead to sulfate conjugation of hydroxyestrogen. The present information supports the concept that inflammatory response can sequester sulfate conjugates from the endogenous steroid hormones and may suppress binding of sex steroid hormones to their receptors in the whole body.

  8. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), stress, and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    King, S Bradley; Toufexis, Donna J; Hammack, Sayamwong E

    2017-06-14

    Stressor exposure is associated with the onset and severity of many psychopathologies that are more common in women than men. Moreover, the maladaptive expression and function of stress-related hormones have been implicated in these disorders. Evidence suggests that PACAP has a critical role in the stress circuits mediating stress-responding, and PACAP may interact with sex hormones to contribute to sex differences in stress-related disease. In this review, we describe the role of the PACAP/PAC1 system in stress biology, focusing on the role of stress-induced alterations in PACAP expression and signaling in the development of stress-induced behavioral change. Additionally, we present more recent data suggesting potential interactions between stress, PACAP, and circulating estradiol in pathological states, including PTSD. These studies suggest that the level of stress and circulating gonadal hormones may differentially regulate the PACAPergic system in males and females to influence anxiety-like behavior and may be one mechanism underlying the discrepancies in human psychiatric disorders.

  9. Sex Differences in Binge Eating: Gonadal Hormone Effects Across Development.

    PubMed

    Klump, Kelly L; Culbert, Kristen M; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2017-03-16

    Eating disorders are highly sexually differentiated disorders that exhibit a female predominance in risk. Most theories focus on psychosocial explanations to the exclusion of biological/genetic influences. The purpose of this descriptive review is to evaluate evidence from animal and human studies in support of gonadal hormone effects on sex differences in binge eating. Although research is in its nascent stages, findings suggest that increased prenatal testosterone exposure in males appears to protect against binge eating. Although pubertal testosterone may exert additional protective effects, the prenatal period is likely critical for the decreased risk observed in males. By contrast, studies indicate that in females it is the lack of prenatal testosterone coupled with the organizational effects of pubertal ovarian hormones that may lead to increased binge eating. Finally, twin data suggest that changes in genetic risk may underlie these hormone influences on sex differences across development. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 13 is May 7, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  10. Sex hormones have pervasive effects on thymic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dumont-Lagacé, Maude; St-Pierre, Charles; Perreault, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate at the systems-level, the effect of sex hormones on thymic epithelial cells (TECs). To this end, we sequenced the transcriptome of cortical and medullary TECs (cTECs and mTECs) from three groups of 6 month-old mice: males, females and males castrated at four weeks of age. In parallel, we analyzed variations in the size of TEC subsets in those three groups between 1 and 12 months of age. We report that sex hormones have pervasive effects on the transcriptome of TECs. These effects were exquisitely TEC-subset specific. Sexual dimorphism was particularly conspicuous in cTECs. Male cTECs displayed low proliferation rates that correlated with low expression of Foxn1 and its main targets. Furthermore, male cTECs expressed relatively low levels of genes instrumental in thymocyte expansion (e.g., Dll4) and positive selection (Psmb11 and Ctsl). Nevertheless, cTECs were more abundant in males than females. Accumulation of cTECs in males correlated with differential expression of genes regulating cell survival in cTECs and cell differentiation in mTECs. The sexual dimorphism of TECs highlighted here may be mechanistically linked to the well-recognized sex differences in susceptibility to infections and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26250469

  11. Sex Hormones and Their Receptors Regulate Liver Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2015-01-01

    The liver is one of the most essential organs involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Hepatic steatosis, a major manifestation of metabolic syndrome, is associated with imbalance between lipid formation and breakdown, glucose production and catabolism, and cholesterol synthesis and secretion. Epidemiological studies show sex difference in the prevalence in fatty liver disease and suggest that sex hormones may play vital roles in regulating hepatic steatosis. In this review, we summarize current literature and discuss the role of estrogens and androgens and the mechanisms through which estrogen receptors and androgen receptors regulate lipid and glucose metabolism in the liver. In females, estradiol regulates liver metabolism via estrogen receptors by decreasing lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid uptake, while enhancing lipolysis, cholesterol secretion, and glucose catabolism. In males, testosterone works via androgen receptors to increase insulin receptor expression and glycogen synthesis, decrease glucose uptake and lipogenesis, and promote cholesterol storage in the liver. These recent integrated concepts suggest that sex hormone receptors could be potential promising targets for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. PMID:26491440

  12. Cyclic estrous-like behavior in a spayed cat associated with excessive sex-hormone production by an adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Meler, Erika N; Scott-Moncrieff, J Catharine; Peter, Augustine T; Bennett, Sara; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Salisbury, S Kathleen; Naughton, James F

    2011-06-01

    A 15-year-old, spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for 1-year duration of cyclic intermittent estrous behavior. Diagnostic testing performed before referral, including baseline progesterone concentration, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone stimulation test and surgical exploratory laparotomy, had remained inconclusive for a remnant ovary. Evaluation of sex hormones before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration revealed increased basal concentrations of androstenedione, estradiol, progesterone, and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and normal ACTH-stimulated hormone concentrations. Enlargement of the right adrenal gland was identified by abdominal ultrasound. The cat underwent an adrenalectomy and histopathology of the excised adrenal gland was consistent with an adrenocortical carcinoma. Clinical signs resolved immediately following surgery, and most hormone concentrations declined to within or below the reference interval (RI) by 2 months after surgery. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactions between preparations containing female sex hormones and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Jawna, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of premenopausal women use contraception whereas postmenopausal women use hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This long-term hormone therapy poses a high risk of interactions with dietary supplements. Taking estrogens at the same time as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), biologically-active compounds of glycine soja, Ginkgo biloba or Pimpinella anisum, may distort the final effect of the hormone agent. On the other hand, estrogen therapy coupled with melatonin or retinol supplementation may lead to an increased level of dietary supplements in the serum as studies have proved a concomitant beneficial effect of HRT and vitamin E supplementation on lipid profiles. In turn, taking preparations containing St John's wort during hormone therapy may lead to a reduction in hormone concentrations in serum and debilitation of the pharmacological effect. It results from the inductive effect of the biologically-active compounds of St John's wort on the metabolism of hormones as a result of the enhanced activity of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4.

  14. Effect of female sex hormones on cardiorespiratory parameters

    PubMed Central

    Godbole, Gayatri; Joshi, A. R.; Vaidya, Savita M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone regulate various phases of the menstrual cycle. Hormonal changes tend to affect various parameters of physical fitness. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is a measure of aerobic power. This study was planned to assess effect of different phases of menstrual cycle on cardiorespiratory parameters like pulse rate, respiratory rate and VO2 max. Methods: 100 female medical students in the age group of 17-22 years were studied for three consecutive menstrual cycles. Weight, resting pulse rate, respiratory rate and VO2 max were measured during premenstrual phase (20th-25th day) and postmenstrual phase (5th to 10th day). Results: It was observed that there was a significant increase in body weight, pulse rate, and respiratory rate during premenstrual phase. There was a decrease in VO2 max during the premenstrual phase. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is decreased cardio-respiratory efficiency during premenstrual phase. PMID:28348998

  15. Concomitant therapies (glucocorticoids and sex hormones) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scaroni, C; Ceccato, F; Rizzati, S; Mantero, F

    2008-09-01

    Adult-onset GH deficiency (GHD), mostly due to organic lesions of the pituitary-hypothalamic region, is frequently associated with multiple anterior pituitary deficiencies that need long-term substitutive treatment. The GH-IGF-I axis may play an important role in modulating peripheral metabolism of hormones (adrenal, thyroid, and sex hormones) and these interactions may have clinically significant implications on the phenotypes of adult GHD patients and on the effects of the combined replacement hormonal treatment of this condition. By accelerating the peripheral metabolism of cortisol, GH therapy may precipitate adrenal insufficiency in susceptible hypopituitary patients; estrogen replacement blunts the response to GH in women whereas in men with androgen substitution the responsivity increases over time. Endocrinologists should be mindful of these phenomena when starting patients with hypopituitarism on GH replacement therapy.

  16. Sex hormones in women with and without migraine: Evidence of migraine-specific hormone profiles.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Jelena M; Allshouse, Amanda A; Santoro, Nanette F; Crawford, Sybil L; Thurston, Rebecca C; Neal-Perry, Genevieve S; Lipton, Richard B; Derby, Carol A

    2016-07-05

    To compare daily sex hormone levels and rates of change between women with history of migraine and controls. History of migraine, daily headache diaries, and daily hormone data were collected in ovulatory cycles of pre- and early perimenopausal women in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Peak hormone levels, average daily levels, and within-woman day-to-day rates of decline over the 5 days following each hormone peak were calculated in ovulatory cycles for conjugated urinary estrogens (E1c), pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. Comparisons were made between migraineurs and controls using 2-sample t tests on the log scale with results reported as geometric means. The sample included 114 women with history of migraine and 223 controls. Analyses of within-woman rates of decline showed that E1c decline over the 2 days following the luteal peak was greater in migraineurs for both absolute rate of decline (33.8 [95% confidence interval 28.0-40.8] pg/mgCr vs 23.1 [95% confidence interval 20.1-26.6] pg/mgCr, p = 0.002) and percent change (40% vs 30%, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between migraineurs and controls in absolute peak or daily E1c, pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Secondary analyses demonstrated that, among migraineurs, the rate of E1c decline did not differ according to whether a headache occurred during the cycle studied. Migraineurs are characterized by faster late luteal phase E1c decline compared to controls. The timing and rate of estrogen withdrawal before menses may be a marker of neuroendocrine vulnerability in women with migraine. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie; Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Halldin, Krister; Åkesson, Agneta

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  18. Flight influence on the plasma level of sex hormones of women pilots.

    PubMed

    Shen, D Y; Wang, Y M

    1990-06-01

    The plasma concentrations of six sex hormones were measured before and after flight by radioimmunoassay in 38 female pilots. The results showed 1) the plasma activity of estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone revealed no significant change after flight (p greater than 0.05), while the plasma activity of prolactin, cortisol, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone increased obviously; 2) compared with the ground crew's, the pilots' plasma estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol had no distinct change (p greater than 0.05); however, their testosterone, prolactin, and follicle stimulating hormone plasma levels were prominently varied (p less than 0.05). 3) there was no statistical difference between the plasma levels of sex hormones in pilots who had more than 2,000 hours of flight experience and in those with less than 500 hours of flight experience (p greater than 0.05). 4) the testosterone: estradiol ratio of pilots without immediate flight stress was much higher than that of the ground crew.

  19. Sex hormones and breast cancer risk in premenopausal women: collaborative reanalysis of seven prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships of circulating concentrations of oestrogens, progesterone and androgens with breast cancer and related risk factors in premenopausal women are not well understood. Methods Individual data on prediagnostic sex hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations were contributed by 7 prospective studies. Analyses were restricted to women who were premenopausal and under age 50 at blood collection, and to breast cancer cases diagnosed before age 50. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for breast cancer associated with hormone concentrations were estimated by conditional logistic regression in up to 767 cases and 1699 controls matched for age, date of blood collection, and day of cycle, with stratification by study and further adjustment for cycle phase. The associations of hormones with risk factors for breast cancer in control women were examined by comparing geometric mean hormone concentrations in categories of these risk factors, adjusted for study, age, phase of menstrual cycle and body mass index (BMI). All statistical tests were two-sided. Findings ORs for breast cancer associated with a doubling in hormone concentration were 1.19 (95% CI 1.06–1.35) for oestradiol, 1.17 (1.03–1.33) for calculated free oestradiol, 1.27 (1.05–1.54) for oestrone, 1.30 (1.10–1.55) for androstenedione, 1.17 (1.04–1.32) for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, 1.18 (1.03–1.35) for testosterone and 1.08 (0.97–1.21) for calculated free testosterone. Breast cancer risk was not associated with luteal phase progesterone (for a doubling in concentration OR=1.00 (0.92–1.09)), and adjustment for other factors had little effect on any of these ORs. The cross-sectional analyses in control women showed several associations of sex hormones with breast cancer risk factors. Interpretation Circulating oestrogens and androgens are positively associated with the risk for breast cancer in premenopausal women. PMID:23890780

  20. Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Banu; Winters, Stephen J

    2016-03-05

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a circulating glycoprotein that transports testosterone and other steroids in the blood. Interest in SHBG has escalated in recent years because of its inverse association with obesity and insulin resistance, and because many studies have linked lower circulating levels of SHBG to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, and early puberty. The purpose of this review is to summarize molecular, clinical, endocrine, and epidemiological findings to illustrate how measurement of plasma SHBG may be useful in clinical medicine in children.

  1. Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Banu; Winters, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a circulating glycoprotein that transports testosterone and other steroids in the blood. Interest in SHBG has escalated in recent years because of its inverse association with obesity and insulin resistance, and because many studies have linked lower circulating levels of SHBG to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, and early puberty. The purpose of this review is to summarize molecular, clinical, endocrine, and epidemiological findings to illustrate how measurement of plasma SHBG may be useful in clinical medicine in children. PMID:26761949

  2. Pre-diabetes and serum sex steroid hormones among US men.

    PubMed

    Arthur, R; Rohrmann, S; Møller, H; Selvin, E; Dobs, A S; Kanarek, N; Nelson, W; Platz, E A; Van Hemelrijck, M

    2017-01-01

    Several studies demonstrate a link between diabetes and sex steroid hormones, but the link with pre-diabetes remains elusive. In this study, we hypothesize that pre-diabetes, which is characterised by having impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance and/or impaired HbA1C, may influence circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in men. Thus, we investigated whether serum sex steroid hormone concentrations differ between men with and without pre-diabetes. We analyzed data for 1139 men who were aged 20+ years when they participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We calculated adjusted geometric mean serum concentrations of total and estimated free testosterone, androstanediol glucuronide, total and estimated free estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in men with and without pre-diabetes. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) of lower concentrations of androgens and SHBG, and higher concentrations of estradiol by prediabetes status. Adjusting for age and race/ethnicity, total testosterone concentration was lower among men with (geometric mean: 4.68 ng/mL) than without (5.36 ng/mL, p = 0.01) pre-diabetes. SHBG concentration was also lower in men with (31.67 nmol/L) than without (36.16 nmol/L; p = 0.01) pre-diabetes. Concentrations of the other hormones did not differ between men with and without pre-diabetes. After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors, pre-diabetic men had a higher odds of lower testosterone (OR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.54-4.29), higher free estradiol level (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.14-2.22), and lower SHBG level (OR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.32-3.92) compared to men without pre-diabetes. These associations were attenuated after adjusting for adiposity (testosterone OR: 1.76; 95% CI 0.95-3.27, free estradiol OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.88-1.88, SHBG OR: 1.71; 95% CI 0.88-3.30). Our findings suggest that men with pre-diabetes have lower circulating total testosterone

  3. Sex hormone receptors in the hypothalamus and their role in sexual differentiation of the male rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Shishkina, I.V.; Babichev, V.N.; Ozol', L.Yu.

    1986-09-01

    In this investigation, changes in the level of receptors for sex hormones in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats were studied on the first through fifth days of postnatal life, and the results obtained were compared with the levels of luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in the peripheral blood in order to discover any correlation between these parameters. 2,4,6,7,-/sup 3/H-estradiol-17..beta.. and 1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H-testosterone were used as labeled hormones. The values of the association constant and concentration of specific binding sites for estradiol and testosterone in hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats during neonatal development is shown. It is found that in male rats on the first day after birth, receptors for estradiol and testosterone are present and they enable the action both of the testicular hormone and that of estradiol to be realized.

  4. The biomarker sex hormone-binding globulin - from established applications to emerging trends in clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Markus A; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin; Luppa, Peter B

    2015-10-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a serum glycoprotein exhibiting the unique feature of binding sex steroids with high affinity and specificity. Its serum levels are regulated not only by androgens and estrogens but also by thyroid hormones and other metabolic factors. Several disease conditions are accompanied by altered SHBG levels such as hyper- and hypoandrogenism, thyroid disorders, pituitary diseases, liver disorders, and breast as well as prostate cancer. Additionally, several drugs and alcohol consumption influence serum concentrations of SHBG. In some cases, altered SHBG levels are a specific result of the underlying pathology. In others, they merely constitute an epiphenomenon, which still might offer the possibility of using serum measurements of SHBG as surrogate marker. This review article portrays the different disorders associated with altered SHBG levels and discusses the usefulness of SHBG as disease biomarker from a clinicians as well as from an endocrinological researchers point of view.

  5. Association Between Sex Steroid Hormones and Hematocrit in a Nationally Representative Sample of Men

    PubMed Central

    Paller, Channing J.; Shiels, Meredith S.; Rohrmann, Sabine; Menke, Andy; Rifai, Nader; Nelson, William G.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Dobs, Adrian S.

    2013-01-01

    Low or high hematocrit levels are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, mediated via anemia or thromboembolic events, respectively. It is therefore important to identify factors that influence hematocrit. Although androgens are known to stimulate hematopoietic cells, it is unknown whether circulating sex steroid hormones affect hematocrit. The association between serum sex steroid hormone concentrations and hematocrit in men aged ≥20 years was evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 1273 men in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1991). Outcomes were low (<10th percentile), high (>90th percentile), and mean hematocrit. Men with low free testosterone levels had a lower hematocrit than men with normal free testosterone levels (P = .03), although no relationship was found between total testosterone level and hematocrit. The relationship between sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) and hematocrit was complex, with both low (P < .001) and high (P = .01) SHBG levels associated with lower hematocrit in men aged ≥20 years and only high (P = .01) SHBG levels in men aged ≥50 years. The odds ratio (OR) of high vs normal hematocrit increased as total estradiol (OR, 2.84; P trend = .04) and free estradiol (OR, 2.23; P trend = .09) levels increased. In this nationally representative study of men, sex steroid hormone levels, particularly low free testosterone and high SHBG levels, were associated with lower hematocrit, and high total and free estradiol levels were associated with high hematocrit. Thus, changes in sex hormone levels with aging may contribute to the increased prevalence of anemia and thromboembolic stroke in men as they age. PMID:22604627

  6. Overexpression of Anti-Müllerian Hormone Disrupts Gonadal Sex Differentiation, Blocks Sex Hormone Synthesis, and Supports Cell Autonomous Sex Development in the Chicken.

    PubMed

    Lambeth, Luke S; Morris, Kirsten; Ayers, Katie L; Wise, Terry G; O'Neil, Terri; Wilson, Susanne; Cao, Yu; Sinclair, Andrew H; Cutting, Andrew D; Doran, Timothy J; Smith, Craig A

    2016-03-01

    The primary role of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during mammalian development is the regression of Müllerian ducts in males. This highly conserved function is retained in birds and is supported by the high levels of AMH expression in developing testes. Mammalian AMH expression is regulated by a combination of transcription factors, the most important being Sry-type high-mobility-group box transcription factor-9 (SOX9). In the chicken embryo, however, AMH mRNA expression precedes that of SOX9, leading to the view that AMH may play a more central role in avian testicular development. To define its role in chicken gonadal development, AMH was overexpressed using the RCASBP viral vector. AMH caused the gonads of both sexes to develop as small and undeveloped structures at both embryonic and adult stages. Molecular analysis revealed that although female gonads developed testis-like cords, gonads lacked Sertoli cells and were incapable of steroidogenesis. A similar gonadal phenotype was also observed in males, with a complete loss of both Sertoli cells, disrupted SOX9 expression and gonadal steroidogenesis. At sexual maturity both sexes showed a female external phenotype but retained sexually dimorphic body weights that matched their genetic sexes. These data suggest that AMH does not operate as an early testis activator in the chicken but can affect downstream events, such as sex steroid hormone production. In addition, this study provides a unique opportunity to assess chicken sexual development in an environment of sex hormone deficiency, demonstrating the importance of both hormonal signaling and direct cell autonomous factors for somatic sex identity in birds.

  7. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

    1983-01-01

    Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

  8. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

    1983-01-01

    Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

  9. Association of serum α-tocopherol with sex steroid hormones and interactions with smoking: implications for prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Mondul, Alison M; Rohrmann, Sabine; Menke, Andy; Feinleib, Manning; Nelson, William G; Platz, Elizabeth A; Albanes, Demetrius

    2011-06-01

    Vitamin E may protect against prostate cancer, possibly only in smokers and, we hypothesize, through altered sex steroid hormones. A controlled trial in smokers showed that sex hormone levels were inversely associated with baseline serum α-tocopherol and decreased in response to vitamin E supplementation. The vitamin E-hormone relation is understudied in non-smokers. Serum sex steroid hormones and α-tocopherol were measured for 1,457 men in NHANES III. Multivariable-adjusted geometric mean hormone concentrations by α-tocopherol quintile were estimated. We observed lower mean testosterone, estradiol, and SHBG concentrations with increasing serum α-tocopherol (Q1 = 5.5 and Q5 = 4.6 ng/ml, p-trend = 0.0007; Q1 = 37.8 and Q5 = 33.1 pg/ml, p-trend = 0.02; Q1 = 38.8 and Q5 = 30.6 pg/ml, p-trend = 0.05, respectively). Interactions between serum α-tocopherol and exposure to cigarette smoke for total testosterone, total estradiol, and SHBG were found with the inverse relation observed only among smokers. Results from this nationally representative, cross-sectional study indicate an inverse association between serum α-tocopherol and circulating testosterone, estradiol, and SHBG, but only in men who smoked. Our findings support vitamin E selectively influencing sex hormones in smokers and afford possible mechanisms through which vitamin E may impact prostate cancer risk.

  10. Imbalance in sex hormone levels exacerbates diabetic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qin; Wells, Corinne C; Garman, Joseph H; Asico, Laureano; Escano, Crisanto S; Maric, Christine

    2008-04-01

    Studies suggest that the presence of testosterone exacerbates, whereas the absence of testosterone attenuates, the development of nondiabetic renal disease. However, the effects of the absence of testosterone in diabetic renal disease have not been studied. The study was performed in male Sprague-Dawley nondiabetic, streptozotocin-induced diabetic, and streptozotocin-induced castrated rats (n=10 to 11 per group) for 14 weeks. Diabetes was associated with the following increases: 3.2-fold in urine albumin excretion, 6.3-fold in glomerulosclerosis, 6.0-fold in tubulointerstitial fibrosis, 1.6-fold in collagen type I, 1.2-fold in collagen type IV, 1.3-fold in transforming growth factor-beta protein expression, and 32.7-fold in CD68-positive cell abundance. Diabetes was also associated with a 1.3-fold decrease in matrix metalloproteinase protein expression and activity. Castration further exacerbated all of these parameters. Diabetes was also associated with a 4.7-fold decrease in plasma testosterone, 2.9-fold increase in estradiol, and 2.1-fold decrease in plasma progesterone levels. Castration further decreased plasma testosterone levels but had no additional effects on plasma estradiol and progesterone. These data suggest that diabetes is associated with abnormal sex hormone levels that correlate with the progression of diabetic renal disease. Most importantly, our results suggest an important role for sex hormones in the pathophysiology of diabetic renal complications.

  11. Immunohistochemical localization of sex hormone receptors in two Raillietina tapeworms.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Sun, Y M; Mu, L; Zeng, Y; Li, H Y; Yang, T H

    2017-03-08

    Sex hormone receptors play critical roles in development and reproduction. However, it is not known whether they exist in Raillietina tapeworms, and if they do, whether they have a similar function to that in vertebrates. We examined the immunohistochemical distributions of androgen receptors (ARs), estrogen receptors (ERs), and progesterone receptors (PRs) in the tissues of two tapeworm species: Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Immunopositive ARs were found in the entire reproductive system of R. echinobothrida, including the testes, ovaries, and oocysts, and weakly immunopositive ERs and PRs were found in the testes, ovaries, and oocysts. Immunopositive ARs were also found throughout the entire reproductive system of R. tetragona, including the testes, ovaries, and oocysts, and weakly immunopositive ERs were in the testes and oocysts; the PRs were distributed in an immunonegative manner. The results show that androgens and their receptors play critical roles in reproductive system development in the two tapeworms. The immunoreactivity and tissue localizations of the sex hormone receptors suggest that, in both species, they have similar functions as in vertebrates, and modulate reproduction.

  12. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments.

    PubMed

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead animals, either intentionally or incidentally caught, or from stranded individuals. However, morphological data, when used alone, do not provide accurate demographic information in sexually monomorphic marine vertebrate species (e.g. sharks, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans). Hormone determination is an accurate and non-destructive method that provides indirect information about sex, reproductive condition and sexual maturity of free-ranging individuals. Correlations between sex steroid concentrations and biochemical parameters, gonadal development and state, reproductive behaviour and secondary external features have been already demonstrated in many species. Different non-lethal approaches (e.g. surgical and mark-recapture procedures), with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages when applied on free-ranging organisms, have been proposed to asses sex, growth and reproductive condition. Hormone determination from blood samples will generate valuable additional demographic information needed for stock assessment and biological conservation.

  13. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments

    PubMed Central

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead animals, either intentionally or incidentally caught, or from stranded individuals. However, morphological data, when used alone, do not provide accurate demographic information in sexually monomorphic marine vertebrate species (e.g. sharks, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans). Hormone determination is an accurate and non-destructive method that provides indirect information about sex, reproductive condition and sexual maturity of free-ranging individuals. Correlations between sex steroid concentrations and biochemical parameters, gonadal development and state, reproductive behaviour and secondary external features have been already demonstrated in many species. Different non-lethal approaches (e.g. surgical and mark–recapture procedures), with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages when applied on free-ranging organisms, have been proposed to asses sex, growth and reproductive condition. Hormone determination from blood samples will generate valuable additional demographic information needed for stock assessment and biological conservation. PMID:27293619

  14. Animal models of absence epilepsies: What do they model and do sex and sex hormones matter?

    PubMed Central

    van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz; Gallagher, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, there is a paucity of studies on sex differences in seizure frequency and semiology in patients diagnosed with any absence epilepsy syndrome. Moreover, it is unknown if there are sex differences in the prevalence or expression of atypical absence epilepsy syndromes. Surprisingly, most studies of animal models of absence epilepsy either did not investigate sex differences, or failed to find sex-dependent effects. However, various rodent models for atypical syndromes such as the AY9944 model (prepubertal females show a higher incidence than prepubertal males), BN model also with a higher prevalence in males and the Gabra1 deletion mouse in the C57BL/6J strain offer unique possibilities for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in sex differences. Although the mechanistic bases for the sex differences in humans or these three models are not yet known, studies of the effects of sex hormones on seizures have offered some possibilities. The sex hormones progesterone, estradiol and testosterone exert diametrically opposite effects in genetic absence epilepsy and pharmacologically-evoked convulsive types of epilepsy models. In addition, acute pharmacological effects of progesterone on absence seizures during proestrus are opposite to those seen during pregnancy. 17β-Estradiol has anti-absence seizure effects, but it is only active in atypical absence models. It is speculated that the pro-absence action of progesterone, and perhaps also the delayed pro-absence action of testosterone, are mediated through the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and its structural and functional homolog, androstanediol. These two steroids increase extrasynaptic thalamic tonic GABAergic inhibition

  15. Associations of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin with adipose tissue hormones in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Wildman, Rachel P; Wang, Dan; Fernandez, Ivonne; Mancuso, Peter; Santoro, Nanette; Scherer, Philipp E; Sowers, MaryFran R

    2013-03-01

    Regulators of adipose tissue hormones remain incompletely understood, but may include sex hormones. As adipose tissue hormones have been shown to contribute to numerous metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, understanding their regulation in midlife women is of clinical importance. Therefore, we assessed the associations between testosterone (T) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with leptin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and the soluble form of the leptin receptor (sOB-R) in healthy midlife women. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 1,881 midlife women (average age 52.6 (±2.7) years) attending the sixth Annual follow-up visit of the multiethnic Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. T was weakly negatively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = -0.12 and r = -0.10, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and positively associated with leptin (r = 0.17; P < 0.001). SHBG was more strongly and positively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = 0.29 and r = 0.24, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and more strongly and negatively associated with leptin (r = -0.27; P < 0.001). Adjustment for fat mass, insulin resistance, or waist circumference only partially diminished associations with HMW adiponectin and sOB-R, but attenuated associations with leptin. In conclusion, in these midlife women, lower SHBG values, and to a lesser extent, higher T levels, were associated with lower, or less favorable, levels of adiponectin and sOB-R, independent of fat mass. These data suggest that variation in these adipose hormones resulting from lower SHBG levels, and possibly, though less likely, greater androgenicity, may contribute to susceptibility for metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes during midlife in women. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  16. Associations of Testosterone and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin with Adipose Tissue Hormones in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Rachel P.; Wang, Dan; Fernandez, Ivonne; Mancuso, Peter; Santoro, Nanette; Scherer, Philipp E.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regulators of adipose tissue hormones remain incompletely understood, but may include sex hormones. As adipose tissue hormones have been shown to contribute to numerous metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, understanding their regulation in midlife women is of clinical importance. Therefore, we assessed the associations between testosterone (T) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with leptin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and the soluble form of the leptin receptor (sOB-R) in healthy midlife women. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 1,881 midlife women (average age 52.6 (±2.7) years) attending the sixth Annual follow-up visit of the multiethnic Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Results T was weakly negatively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = −0.12 and r = −0.10, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and positively associated with leptin (r = 0.17; P < 0.001). SHBG was more strongly and positively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = 0.29 and r = 0.24, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and more strongly and negatively associated with leptin (r = −0.27; P < 0.001). Adjustment for fat mass, insulin resistance, or waist circumference only partially diminished associations with HMW adiponectin and sOB-R, but attenuated associations with leptin. In conclusion, in these midlife women, lower SHBG values, and to a lesser extent, higher T levels, were associated with lower, or less favorable, levels of adiponectin and sOB-R, independent of fat mass. Conclusions These data suggest that variation in these adipose hormones resulting from lower SHBG levels, and possibly, though less likely, greater androgenicity, may contribute to susceptibility for metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes during midlife in women. PMID:23592672

  17. Sex Differences in the Hemorheological Effect of Antidiuretic Hormone.

    PubMed

    Zdyumaeva, N P

    2015-12-01

    Experiments on rats showed that treatment with desmopressin in combination with water load contributes to the general nonspecific response of the blood. Increased blood viscosity, fibrinogen concentration, and erythrocyte aggregation were observed. Hemorheological changes in comparison with the control were less pronounced in females. Sex differences in erythrocyte aggregation were most significant.

  18. Association of serum inorganic phosphate with sex steroid hormones and vitamin D in a nationally representative sample of men

    PubMed Central

    Wulaningsih, W.; Van Hemelrijck, M.; Michaelsson, K.; Kanarek, N.; Nelson, W. G.; Ix, J. H.; Platz, E. A.; Rohrmann, S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Defects in bone regulatory pathways have been linked to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. In men, a link between bone metabolism and gonadal hormones has been suggested. However, to date, there is lack of evidence on the association between serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) and sex steroid hormones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between Pi, sex steroid hormones and a known Pi metabolic regulator, vitamin D, in men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). From NHANES III, we selected 1412 men aged 20+ who participated in the morning session of Phase I (1988–1991) with serum measurements of Pi, sex hormones, and vitamin D. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate crude and geometric mean Pi by total and estimated free testosterone and estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (AAG), and vitamin D. Similar analyses were performed while stratifying by race/ethnicity and vitamin D levels. We found a lack of statistically significant difference in geometric means of Pi across quintiles of concentrations of sex hormones, indicating a tight regulation of Pi. However, Pi levels were inversely associated with calculated free testosterone in non-Hispanic black men, with geometric mean levels of Pi of 1.16 and 1.02 ng/mL for those in the lowest and highest quintiles of free testosterone, respectively (p-trend < 0.05). A similar but weaker pattern was seen between total testosterone and Pi. An inverse association was also seen between AAG and Pi in men with vitamin D concentration below the median (<24.2 ng/mL). No associations were observed among men with vitamin D levels at or above the median. Our findings suggest a weak link among sex hormones, vitamin D, and Pi in men. The observed effects of race/ethnicity and vitamin D indicate a complex association involving various regulators of Pi homeostasis. PMID:25270590

  19. Association of serum inorganic phosphate with sex steroid hormones and vitamin D in a nationally representative sample of men.

    PubMed

    Wulaningsih, W; Van Hemelrijck, M; Michaelsson, K; Kanarek, N; Nelson, W G; Ix, J H; Platz, E A; Rohrmann, S

    2014-11-01

    Defects in bone regulatory pathways have been linked to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. In men, a link between bone metabolism and gonadal hormones has been suggested. However, to date, there is lack of evidence on the association between serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) and sex steroid hormones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between Pi, sex steroid hormones and a known Pi metabolic regulator, vitamin D, in men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). From NHANES III, we selected 1412 men aged 20+ who participated in the morning session of Phase I (1988-1991) with serum measurements of Pi, sex hormones, and vitamin D. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate crude and geometric mean Pi by total and estimated free testosterone and estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (AAG), and vitamin D. Similar analyses were performed while stratifying by race/ethnicity and vitamin D levels. We found a lack of statistically significant difference in geometric means of Pi across quintiles of concentrations of sex hormones, indicating a tight regulation of Pi. However, Pi levels were inversely associated with calculated free testosterone in non-Hispanic black men, with geometric mean levels of Pi of 1.16 and 1.02 ng/mL for those in the lowest and highest quintiles of free testosterone, respectively (p-trend < 0.05). A similar but weaker pattern was seen between total testosterone and Pi. An inverse association was also seen between AAG and Pi in men with vitamin D concentration below the median (<24.2 ng/mL). No associations were observed among men with vitamin D levels at or above the median. Our findings suggest a weak link among sex hormones, vitamin D, and Pi in men. The observed effects of race/ethnicity and vitamin D indicate a complex association involving various regulators of Pi homeostasis.

  20. Association of Serum Sex Hormones with Hemostatic Factors in Women On and Off Hormone Therapy: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Marlene S; Cushman, Mary; Ouyang, Pamela; Heckbert, Susan R; Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Vaidya, Dhanajay

    2016-02-01

    Hormone therapy (HT) is associated with increased risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis, which are multifactorial in origin. Our objectives were twofold: first, we sought to examine associations between endogenous serum sex hormone levels and biomarkers of thrombosis and/or coagulation in postmenopausal hormone nonusers. Second, we separately studied the associations between serum sex hormone levels and biomarkers of thrombosis and/or coagulation in postmenopausal hormone users considering the fact that pattern of circulating hormones is different in women taking exogenous hormones. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of postmenopausal women enrolled in a large multiethnic community-based cohort study, The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that higher levels of estrogen-related sex hormones would be associated with biomarkers of thrombosis, suggesting mechanisms for differences in thrombotic risk from HT. Women (n = 2878) were included if they were postmenopausal and had thrombotic biomarkers (homocysteine, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein [CRP], factor VIII, and d-dimer) and sex hormone levels (total testosterone [T], bioavailable testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], estradiol [E2], and dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA]) measured. A smaller random sample of 491 women also had von Willebrand factor (vWF), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) levels measured. We found that elevated levels of estradiol and SHBG in HT users were associated with elevated levels of CRP and lower levels of TFPI, both of which may be related to a prothrombotic milieu in HT users. HT nonusers had far more prothrombotic associations between elevated serum sex hormone levels and thrombotic biomarkers when compared with HT users.

  1. The influence of ethanol and liver disease on sex hormones and hepatic oestrogen receptors in women.

    PubMed

    Becker, U

    1993-09-01

    In contrast to the numerous studies of men, very few studies have been concerned with sex hormone disturbances in women with chronic alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver diseases. The aim of the study was, to evaluate the effect of ethanol and liver dysfunction on menstrual cycle, serum sex hormone concentrations and hepatic oestrogen receptors in women. In premenopausal female alcoholics ethanol consumption increase the frequency of menstrual disturbances, abortions, and miscarriages, while infertility is not frequent. Acute ethanol intoxication has only minor effects on pituitary-gonadal hormones in premenopausal women, while chronic ethanol abuse lead to reduced concentrations of sulphated steroids, and these changes may be seen before severe liver dysfunction has appeared. In women liver dysfunction lead to earlier occurrence of menopause in comparison with normal controls, while information is insufficient or lacking regarding the influence upon fertility, pregnancy outcome and sexual behavior in women. In postmenopausal women with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, the main disturbances of sex hormone metabolism consist of elevated oestrone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations, while serum concentrations of steroid sulphates and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are reduced, and the degree of liver dysfunction is a major determinant for the observed disturbances. The presence of high affinity, low capacity, specific oestrogen receptors (ER) in the liver is confirmed using a ligand binding assay (DCC), specificity analyses, and sucrose gradient centrifugation. Furthermore, the sensitivity of an enzyme immunoassay has been improved enabling the quantitative measurement of hepatic ER in 102 small liver biopsies from patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver diseases. The method is suitable for quantitative assessment and ER in small tissue samples, and can be applied to other tissues than the liver. Patients with chronic liver

  2. Cross-sex hormone therapy for gender dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Fabris, B; Bernardi, S; Trombetta, C

    2015-03-01

    Gender identity is the sense one has of being male or female. Gender dysphoria (GD) refers to the distress caused by the incongruence between gender identity and biological sex in gender-nonconforming individuals. Cross-sex hormone therapy (CHT) aims at easing GD, improving well-being, and quality of life of gender-nonconforming individuals. This can be achieved by inducing and maintaining the desired-sex characteristics in accordance with the specific aspirations and expectations of each individual. Nevertheless, CHT can be associated with potentially serious long-term complications. Here, we review when, how, and how long to prescribe CHT to adult transsexuals as well as what to expect and monitor once it has been initiated. In recent years, transsexualism has become more and more recognized and depathologized. To manage GD, National and International Standards of Care have been established. Nevertheless, the needs of transgender patients can still be ignored or dismissed. Moreover, some questions remain unanswered because of the lack of specific retrospective or prospective studies on CHT. Education and culturally sensitive training must be supplied to healthcare professionals to overcome the existing issues on GD management and change the perspectives of transsexual people.

  3. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurski, Robert S.; Schulze, Aga

    Numerous studies, particularly those of H. Dolk in the 1930's, established by means of bio-assay, that more growth hormone diffused from the lower, than from the upper side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot. Now, using an isotope dilution assay, with 4,5,6,7 tetradeutero indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the method of determination, we have confirmed Dolk's finding and established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is, in fact, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physico-chemical demonstration that there is more free IAA on the lower sides of a geo-stimulated plant shoot. We have also shown that free IAA occurs primarily in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, whereas IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. Now, using an especially sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay we have found that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the non-vascular tissue. Currently, efforts are directed to developing isotope dilution assays, with picogram sensitivity, to determine how this asymmetry of IAA distribution is attained so as to better understand how the plant perceives the geo-stimulus.

  4. Impacts of stress and sex hormones on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Duncan; Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Allen, Katherine M; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2014-04-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period of complex neurobiological change and heightened vulnerability to psychiatric illness. As a result, understanding factors such as sex and stress hormones which drive brain changes in adolescence, and how these factors may influence key neurotransmitter systems implicated in psychiatric illness, is paramount. In this review, we outline the impact of sex and stress hormones at adolescence on dopamine neurotransmission, a signaling pathway which is critical to healthy brain function and has been implicated in psychiatric illness. We review normative developmental changes in dopamine, sex hormone, and stress hormone signaling during adolescence and throughout postnatal life, then highlight the interaction of sex and stress hormones and review their impacts on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain. Adolescence is a time of increased responsiveness to sex and stress hormones, during which the maturing dopaminergic neural circuitry is profoundly influenced by these factors. Testosterone, estrogen, and glucocorticoids interact with each other and have distinct, brain region-specific impacts on dopamine neurotransmission in the adolescent brain, shaping brain maturation and cognitive function in adolescence and adulthood. Some effects of stress/sex hormones on cortical and subcortical dopamine parameters bear similarities with dopaminergic abnormalities seen in schizophrenia, suggesting a possible role for sex/stress hormones at adolescence in influencing risk for psychiatric illness via modulation of dopamine neurotransmission. Stress and sex hormones may prove useful targets in future strategies for modifying risk for psychiatric illness.

  5. Inhibition by female sex hormones of collagen degradation by corneal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongyan; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Orita, Tomoko; Nishida, Teruo; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2011-01-01

    Corneal fibroblasts contribute to collagen remodeling in the corneal stroma in part by mediating collagen degradation. Given that corneal structure is influenced by sex hormone status, we examined the effects of sex hormones on collagen degradation by corneal fibroblasts. Rabbit corneal fibroblasts were cultured in three-dimensional collagen gels with or without sex hormones including 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Collagen degradation was determined by measurement of hydroxyproline after acid hydrolysis. The expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were evaluated by immunoblot analysis and gelatin zymography. The phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor NF kappa B Inhibitor-alpha (IκB-α) in corneal fibroblasts was examined by immunoblot analysis. Cell proliferation and viability were evaluated by measurement of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and the release of lactate dehydrogenase, respectively. 17β-Estradiol and progesterone each inhibited interleukin (IL)-1β-induced collagen degradation by corneal fibroblasts in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas testosterone and DHEA had no such effect. MMP expression and activation in corneal fibroblasts exposed to IL-1β were also inhibited by 17β-estradiol and progesterone. These female sex hormones did not affect cell proliferation or viability. Both 17β-estradiol and progesterone inhibited the IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK without affecting that of the MAPKs extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) or c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). 17β-Estradiol also inhibited the IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of IκB-α. 17β-Estradiol and progesterone inhibited MMP expression and activity in IL-1β-stimulated corneal fibroblasts and thereby suppressed collagen degradation by these cells.

  6. Continuous elevation of blood growth hormone concentrations by beeswax implant.

    PubMed

    Davis, S L; Dodson, M V; Ohlson, D L

    1983-09-01

    We examined constancy of release of purified ovine growth hormone from an implant containing soybean oil and beeswax. Implants contained an amount of growth hormone that was sufficient to increase concentrations in blood plasma by 20 and 40 ng/ml and to maintain those concentrations over 1 wk. Growth hormone in plasma increased to approximately 65 ng/ml in lambs receiving low dose implants the 1st day after implantation, returned to 31 ng/ml on day 2, and remained near this concentration for the remainder of the week. Pulse release of growth hormone was not similiar in the high dose lambs where growth hormone concentration in plasma averaged 45 ng/ml 1 day after implantation, then gradually increased to 60 ng/ml on day 6. Unimplanted control lambs had mean growth hormone concentrations of 2.9 to 3.9 ng/ml throughout the 6-day observation. This approach should interest investigators studying the chronic influence of purified or synthetic growth hormone on dairy cows, beef steers, or lambs.

  7. Direct effects of sex steroid hormones on adipose tissues and obesity.

    PubMed

    Mayes, J S; Watson, G H

    2004-11-01

    Sex steroid hormones are involved in the metabolism, accumulation and distribution of adipose tissues. It is now known that oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and androgen receptor exist in adipose tissues, so their actions could be direct. Sex steroid hormones carry out their function in adipose tissues by both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. In the genomic mechanism, the sex steroid hormone binds to its receptor and the steroid-receptor complex regulates the transcription of given genes. Leptin and lipoprotein lipase are two key proteins in adipose tissues that are regulated by transcriptional control with sex steroid hormones. In the nongenomic mechanism, the sex steroid hormone binds to its receptor in the plasma membrane, and second messengers are formed. This involves both the cAMP cascade and the phosphoinositide cascade. Activation of the cAMP cascade by sex steroid hormones would activate hormone-sensitive lipase leading to lipolysis in adipose tissues. In the phosphoinositide cascade, diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate are formed as second messengers ultimately causing the activation of protein kinase C. Their activation appears to be involved in the control of preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In the presence of sex steroid hormones, a normal distribution of body fat exists, but with a decrease in sex steroid hormones, as occurs with ageing or gonadectomy, there is a tendency to increase central obesity, a major risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. Because sex steroid hormones regulate the amount and distribution of adipose tissues, they or adipose tissue-specific selective receptor modulators might be used to ameliorate obesity. In fact, hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women and testosterone replacement therapy in older men appear to reduce the degree of central obesity. However, these therapies have numerous side effects limiting their use, and selective receptor

  8. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenmai, A.K.; Nielsen, F.K.; Pedersen, M.; Hadrup, N.; Trier, X.; Christensen, J.H.; Vinggaard, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17β-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ► Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ► Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ► Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited

  9. Sex steroid hormone metabolism takes place in human ocular cells.

    PubMed

    Coca-Prados, Miguel; Ghosh, Sikha; Wang, Yugang; Escribano, Julio; Herrala, Annakaisa; Vihko, Pirkko

    2003-08-01

    Steroids are potentially important mediators in the pathophysiology of ocular diseases. In this study, we report on the gene expression in the human eye of a group of enzymes, the 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17HSDs), involved in the biosynthesis and inactivation of sex steroid hormones. In the eye, the ciliary epithelium, a neuroendocrine secretory epithelium, co-expresses the highest levels of 17HSD2 and 5 mRNAs, and in lesser level 17HSD7 mRNA. The regulation of gene expression of these enzymes was investigated in vitro in cell lines, ODM-C4 and chronic open glaucoma (GCE), used as cell models of the human ciliary epithelium. The estrogen, 17beta-estradiol (10(-7) M) and androgen agonist, R1881 (10(-8) M) elicited in ODM-C4 and GCE cells over a 24 h time course a robust up-regulation of 17HSD7 mRNA expression. 17HSD2 was up-regulated by estradiol in ODM-C4 cells, but not in GCE cells. Under steady-state conditions, ODM-C4 cells exhibited a predominant 17HSD2 oxidative enzymatic activity. In contrast, 17HSD2 activity was low or absent in GCE cells. Our collective data suggest that cultured human ciliary epithelial cells are able to metabolize estrogen, androgen and progesterone, and that 17HSD2 and 7 in these cells are sex steroid hormone-responsive genes and 17HSD7 is responsible to keep on intra/paracrine estrogenic milieu.

  10. Biological sex identification in the endangered dusky gopher frog (Lithobates sevosa): a comparison of body size measurements, secondary sex characteristics, ultrasound imaging, and urinary hormone analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Graham, Katherine M; Kouba, Andrew J; Langhorne, Cecilia J; Marcec, Ruth M; Willard, Scott T

    2016-08-02

    Accurate sex identification techniques are important for wildlife demographic studies and for genetic management of captive breeding colonies. Various non-invasive methods for identification of biological sex in the weakly dimorphic endangered dusky gopher frog (DGF; Lithobates sevosa) were explored to support planned recovery efforts for this species including breeding and augmentation of wild populations. Body size (snout-vent length and body weight) measurements, observation of nuptial pads, ultrasound imaging, and urinary hormone analysis for testosterone and estrone were performed on 27 male and 19 female DGFs. For each method, the mean and range of measurement values were determined for male and female DGFs housed in a captive breeding population. The ability of these methods to accurately predict the true biological sex of the individuals was assessed retrospectively. Body size measurements were of limited use for sex identification purposes, as males and females demonstrated overlapping body lengths and weights. Observation of the presence/absence of nuptial pads in males and females, respectively, proved to be accurate and easy to perform in most cases. Ultrasound imaging was useful for predicting the sex of female frogs, particularly when females were gravid. Commercial enzyme immunoassay kits were validated to measure urinary hormones in the DGF. Mean urinary testosterone (males: 2.22 ± 0.38 ng/ml; females: 0.92 ± 0.11 ng/ml) and estrone (males: 0.08 ± 0.01 ng/ml; females: 1.50 ± 0.39 ng/ml) concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) different between the sexes. However, there was some overlap in hormone concentrations between the sexes. When a ratio of testosterone (T) to estrone (E) concentrations was calculated for each individual, males demonstrated significantly greater T/E ratios compared to females (p < 0.05). Use of this ratio showed greater accuracy in predicting the sex of the animal compared to using

  11. Conservative Christianity, partnership, hormones, and sex in late life.

    PubMed

    Das, Aniruddha; Nairn, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Using nationally representative data from the 2005-2006 U.S. National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, this study queried relationship, sexual, and sex hormone patterns among married evangelical women and men aged 57-85, relative to those in other religions. Results suggested that despite potentially more unequal gender roles, evangelical older women may have better marital quality, perhaps due to the recent transformation of their male counterparts into authoritative, yet-supportive, "soft patriarchs." Correspondingly, these women, especially those with greater subjective religiosity or more support from a spouse, reported consistently better sexual outcomes than their counterparts in other religions. In addition, they also had lower estradiol, whether due to psychobiological effects of their better relationships or self-selection of those with differential hormone levels into particular partnership patterns. While older men in these communities also experienced more satisfactory marriages, and had lower androgens (testosterone, DHEA), their relational assets were less uniformly matched by better sexual outcomes, perhaps reflecting a gender disparity in the linkage between these factors.

  12. Gender difference, sex hormones, and immediate type hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Mempel, M; Schober, W; Behrendt, H; Ring, J

    2008-11-01

    Gender differences in the development and prevalence of human diseases have long been recognized. Immense interest grows in the understanding of the role of sex hormones in the homeostasis of immunity. Asthma predominates in boys before puberty and this gender preference reverses after puberty and in adulthood, when adult women tend to have a more severe disease, often recalcitrant to treatment. Atopic eczema in preschool children shows insignificant gender difference or male preponderance in different studies, with more adult females suffering from atopic eczema. The limited data on the prevalence of immediate hypersensitivity to hymenoptera venom show controversial results. Discrepancy exists regarding the gender difference in food allergy, with females reporting significantly more allergic reactions in questionnaire studies. In general, adverse reactions to nonionic iodinated radiocontrast media are more commonly observed in females. The course of allergic diseases varies unpredictably during pregnancy, whereas hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women usually has a favorable influence on the course of asthma. Experiments in rodents confirm an effect of estrogens on mast cell activation and allergic sensitization, while progesterone is shown to suppress histamine release but potentiate IgE induction. Dehydroepiandrosterone may antagonize the production of Th2 cytokines but the effect of testosterone and the other androgens remains less defined. Actual data from human studies are lacking.

  13. Quality of life and hormones after sex reassignment surgery.

    PubMed

    Castellano, E; Crespi, C; Dell'Aquila, C; Rosato, R; Catalano, C; Mineccia, V; Motta, G; Botto, E; Manieri, C

    2015-12-01

    Transpeople often look for sex reassignment surgery (SRS) to improve their quality of life (QoL). The hormonal therapy has many positive effects before and after SRS. There are no studies about correlation between hormonal status and QoL after SRS. To gather information on QoL, quality of sexual life and body image in transpeople at least 2 years after SRS,to compare these results with a control group and to evaluate the relations between the chosen items and hormonal status. Data from 60 transsexuals and from 60 healthy matched controls were collected. Testosterone,estradiol, LH and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100) self-reported questionnaire were evaluated. Student’s t test was applied to compare transsexuals and controls. Multiple regression model was applied to evaluate WHOQOL’s chosen items and LH. The QoL and the quality of body image scores intranspeople were not statistically different from the matched control groups’ ones. In the sexual life subscale,transwomen’s scores were similar to biological women’s ones, whereas transmen’s scores were statistically lower than biological men’s ones (P = 0.003). The quality of sexual life scored statistically lower in transmen than intranswomen (P = 0.048). A significant inverse relationship between LH and body image and between LH and quality of sexual life was found. This study highlights general satisfaction after SRS. In particular, transpeople’s QoL turns out to be similar to Italian matched controls. LH resulted inversely correlated to body image and sexual life scores.

  14. Embryonic sex steroid hormones accumulate in the eggshell of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shohei; Saito, Yoshimichi; Osawa, Akihisa; Katsumata, Etsuko; Karaki, Isuke; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-12-01

    Steroids hormones such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) are involved in gonadal differentiation of oviparous animals with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), and are greatly distributed. This hypothesizes that these embryonic steroid hormones probably accumulate in the eggshell throughout blood or/and chorioallantoic fluid in sea turtle species with TSD, producing females at higher temperature. To demonstrate this hypothesis, concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma from the hatchling loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and in their eggshells were measured by radioimmunoassay. In the present study we propose that both concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma are correlated with amounts of these sex steroids in the eggshell. Moreover, contents of E2 in the eggshell showed a significant positive correlation with mean incubation temperatures during a thermosensitive period in the experimental nests, whereas T contents in the eggshell did not. Taken together, these findings indicated that embryonic E2 and T that accumulated in the eggshell can be extracted and measured. Furthermore, the present study suggested that contents of E2 in the eggshell may differ between male and female, and monitoring of these steroids is a useful method to identify the sex of loggerhead sea turtle hatchling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of Sex Hormone Metabolism on the Vascular Effects of Menopausal Hormone Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Durr-e-Nayab; Roach, Emir C.; Beauregard, Katie G.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in pre-menopausal women (Pre-MW) compared to men of the same age or post-menopausal women (Post-MW), suggesting cardiovascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen receptors (ERs) have been identified in the vasculature, and experimental studies have demonstrated vasodilator effects of estrogen/ER on the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and extracellular matrix. Several natural and synthetic estrogenic preparations have been developed for relief of menopausal vasomotor symptoms. However, whether menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is beneficial in postmenopausal CVD remains controversial. Despite reports of vascular benefits of MHT from observational and experimental studies, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), have suggested that, contrary to expectations, MHT may increase the risk of CVD. These discrepancies could be due to age-related changes in sex hormone synthesis and metabolism, which would influence the effective dose of MHT and the sex hormone environment in Post-MW. Age-related changes in the vascular ER subtype, structure, expression, distribution, and post-ER signaling pathways in the endothelium and VSM, along with factors related to the design of RCTs, preexisting CVD condition, and structural changes in the blood vessels architecture have also been suggested as possible causes of MHT failure in CVD. Careful examination of these factors should help in identifying the causes of the changes in the vascular effects of estrogen with age. The sex hormone metabolic pathways, the active versus inactive estrogen metabolites, and their effects on vascular function, the mitochondria, the inflammatory process and angiogenesis should be further examined. Also, the genomic and non-genomic effects of estrogenic compounds should be viewed as integrated rather than discrete

  16. Impact of sex hormone metabolism on the vascular effects of menopausal hormone therapy in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Masood, Durr-e-Nayab; Roach, Emir C; Beauregard, Katie G; Khalil, Raouf A

    2010-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in pre-menopausal women (Pre-MW) compared to men of the same age or post-menopausal women (Post-MW), suggesting cardiovascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen receptors (ERs) have been identified in the vasculature, and experimental studies have demonstrated vasodilator effects of estrogen/ER on the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and extracellular matrix. Several natural and synthetic estrogenic preparations have been developed for relief of menopausal vasomotor symptoms. However, whether menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is beneficial in postmenopausal CVD remains controversial. Despite reports of vascular benefits of MHT from observational and experimental studies, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), have suggested that, contrary to expectations, MHT may increase the risk of CVD. These discrepancies could be due to agerelated changes in sex hormone synthesis and metabolism, which would influence the effective dose of MHT and the sex hormone environment in Post-MW. Age-related changes in the vascular ER subtype, structure, expression, distribution, and post-ER signaling pathways in the endothelium and VSM, along with factors related to the design of RCTs, preexisting CVD condition, and structural changes in the blood vessels architecture have also been suggested as possible causes of MHT failure in CVD. Careful examination of these factors should help in identifying the causes of the changes in the vascular effects of estrogen with age. The sex hormone metabolic pathways, the active versus inactive estrogen metabolites, and their effects on vascular function, the mitochondria, the inflammatory process and angiogenesis should be further examined. Also, the genomic and non-genomic effects of estrogenic compounds should be viewed as integrated rather than discrete

  17. The relationship between sex steroids and sex-hormone-binding globulin in plasma in physiological and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, S K; Loughlin, T; Culliton, M; McKenna, T J

    1985-09-01

    Physiological and many pathological changes in plasma sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels have been attributed to the opposing effects of androgens which lower, and oestrogens which elevate, levels. We examined four clinical situations in which changes in SHBG levels may not be explained by sex steroid alterations. (1) Dexamethasone caused an increase in SHBG levels in hyperandrogenaemic hirsute women whether or not androgens were suppressed. (2) In male patients with untreated isolated gonadotrophin deficiency there was a highly significant correlation between SHBG levels and age, but there was no relationship between the levels of SHBG and those of plasma testosterone, androstenedione or DHEAS. (3) Two 46-XY siblings, phenotypic female subjects with complete androgen insensitivity, demonstrated a marked decline in SHBG levels between the ages of 9-13 and 12-16 years. (4) SHBG was suppressed in obese oligomenorrhoeic women while plasma concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione and oestradiol were normal and that of oestrone was elevated; however, the testosterone:SHBG ratio, an index of free testosterone, was elevated. These observations indicate that the decline in SHBG levels which normally occurs in men during the second decade of life is independent of androgen activity and is under the influence of as yet unidentified factors. Glucocorticoids in small doses under the influence of as yet unidentified factors. Glucocorticoids in small doses increase SHBG levels independently of sex steroid alterations while elevated free testosterone concentration may contribute to suppression of SHBG in obesity.

  18. Effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in rats.

    PubMed

    Egwurugwu, J N; Ifedi, C U; Uchefuna, R C; Ezeokafor, E N; Alagwu, E A

    2013-06-30

    This study assessed the effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in male albino wistar rats. Forty rats weighing between 150- 210g, grouped into 5 of 8 rats each, were used for the research that lasted for six weeks. Group I, the control group, received normal rat chow and water ad libitum. The four test groups II-V, received 20g, 40g, 60g and 80g of zinc sulphate mixed with their rat chow respectively in addition to water for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and assayed for Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Prolactin (PL), testosterone (T), progesterone and oestradiol. Semen was also analysed for sperm motility, sperm count and morphology. Results showed statistically significant decrease in serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (p< 0.05) in groups II and IV with mean values of 0.10±0.00 and 1.20±0.00 respectively when compared with the control (1.10±0.10). The results also revealed statistically significant increase in the serum levels of testosterone in groups II, III and IV with mean values of 3.60±1.40, 4.5±0.30 and 0.80±0.70 respectively when compared with the control with a value of 0.35±0.15. The increase in testosterone levels were dose dependent as there were consistent increment in groups II and III after which the levels decreased with increasing zinc concentrations. There was statistically significant dose dependent decrease in sperm motility and morphology in the test groups compared with the control (p<0.05). In conclusion, zinc sulphate has some significant positive effects on male sex hormones and sperm quality at doses within physiological levels but harmful at higher doses.

  19. Antioxidant enzymes in women with endometrial polyps: relation with sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Pejić, Snežana A; Kasapović, Jelena D; Todorović, Ana U; Stojiljković, Vesna R; Gavrilović, Ljubica V; Popović, Nataša M; Pajović, Snežana B

    2013-09-01

    To investigate whether antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and lipid hydroperoxide levels in patients with endometrial polyps are influenced by the changes in sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone, FSH, and LH) during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopause. The material consisted of blood and endometrial tissue specimens from women diagnosed with endometrial polyps. Patients were divided into groups depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle--follicular or luteal--and the postmenopause. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and the lipid hydroperoxide levels were compared among the phases and a linear regression model was used to evaluate the associations between hormones and antioxidant/oxidant variables. In the blood of examined women, a significant difference in superoxide dismutase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels was recorded among the phases. There was also a positive correlation between the estradiol concentration and superoxide dismutase. In polyp tissue, we recorded a phase-related difference in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as in the lipid hydroperoxide levels. A negative correlation was observed between FSH/LH and glutathione peroxidase, and between LH and superoxide dismutase. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid hydroperoxide levels in patients with endometrial polyps are influenced by the changes in sex hormones during the menstrual cycle and after the menopause, pointing to a role of the observed relationship in polyp etiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic effects on serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in men: a Korean twin and family study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study to evaluate the role of genetics in determining the individual difference in total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Study participants comprised 730 Korean men consisting of 142 pairs of monozygotic twins, 191 pairs of siblings, and 259 father-offspring pairs from 270 families who participated in the Healthy Twin study. Serum concentration of total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, and free testosterone and bioavailable testosterone were calculated using Vermeulen's method. Quantitative genetic analysis based on a variance decomposition model showed that the heritability of total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were 0.56, 0.45, 0.44, and 0.69, respectively after accounting for age and body mass index. Proportions of variance explained by age and body mass index varied across different traits, from 8% for total testosterone to 31% for sex hormone-binding globulin. Bivariate analysis showed a high degree of additive genetic correlation (ρG = 0.67) and a moderate degree of individual-specific environmental correlation (ρE = 0.42) between total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. The findings confirmed the important role of genetics in determining the individually different levels of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin during adulthood in Korean men as found in non-Asian populations, which may suggest that common biologic control for determining testosterone level directly or indirectly through binding protein are largely shared among different populations.

  1. Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Monkeys after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Mukku, V. R.; Dotsenko, R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Bigbee, A. J.; Helwig, D.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12.5 day spaceflight on the endocrine status of Rhesus monkeys. Male monkeys (three to four years old; 4 kg) were adapted to chair restraint and trained for 20 months. Blood samples were obtained from four control (C) and two flight (F) monkeys preflight (PF), post-flight (Recovery-R; days 0, 3, 11, and 17), and before and after a mission length simulation (S). Cortisol, T4, T3, testosterone (T), and IGF-1 were measured by RIA (radioimmunassay). Growth hormone (GH) was measured by an in vitro bioassay. Cortisol (16-34 ug/dl), T4 (3.9-7.4 ug/dl), and T (0.2-0.4 mg/ml) did not differ between F and C or between PF, R, and S samples. The low T values reflect the immaturity of the animals. In F, T3 fell from C levels of 208 +/- 4 ng/dl to 44 on R+0 and 150 on R+3, then returned to C. F showed a 55% decrease in GH at R+0 and decreases of 93, 89, and 80%, respectively, at R+3, 11, and 17. IGF-1 decreased from PF levels of 675 ng/ml to 365 (R+0) and 243 (R+3), but returned to C at R+11. GH and IGF-1 levels before and after S did not differ from each other or from C. The cause of the transitory decrease in T3 is unknown. The suppressed GH levels for 17 days after flight may reflect reduced proprioceptive input during flight. The faster recovery of IGF-1 suggests that factors other than reduced GH secretion are involved.

  2. Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Monkeys after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Mukku, V. R.; Dotsenko, R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Bigbee, A. J.; Helwig, D.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12.5 day spaceflight on the endocrine status of Rhesus monkeys. Male monkeys (three to four years old; 4 kg) were adapted to chair restraint and trained for 20 months. Blood samples were obtained from four control (C) and two flight (F) monkeys preflight (PF), post-flight (Recovery-R; days 0, 3, 11, and 17), and before and after a mission length simulation (S). Cortisol, T4, T3, testosterone (T), and IGF-1 were measured by RIA (radioimmunassay). Growth hormone (GH) was measured by an in vitro bioassay. Cortisol (16-34 ug/dl), T4 (3.9-7.4 ug/dl), and T (0.2-0.4 mg/ml) did not differ between F and C or between PF, R, and S samples. The low T values reflect the immaturity of the animals. In F, T3 fell from C levels of 208 +/- 4 ng/dl to 44 on R+0 and 150 on R+3, then returned to C. F showed a 55% decrease in GH at R+0 and decreases of 93, 89, and 80%, respectively, at R+3, 11, and 17. IGF-1 decreased from PF levels of 675 ng/ml to 365 (R+0) and 243 (R+3), but returned to C at R+11. GH and IGF-1 levels before and after S did not differ from each other or from C. The cause of the transitory decrease in T3 is unknown. The suppressed GH levels for 17 days after flight may reflect reduced proprioceptive input during flight. The faster recovery of IGF-1 suggests that factors other than reduced GH secretion are involved.

  3. Associations of Sex Hormones and Anthropometry with the Speaking Voice Profile in the Adult General Population.

    PubMed

    Jost, Lasse; Fuchs, Michael; Loeffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Kratzsch, Juergen; Berger, Thomas; Engel, Christoph

    2017-07-21

    There is evidence that sexual hormone concentrations and anthropometric factors influence the human voice. The goal of this study was to investigate to what extent body mass index (BMI), body height, body weight, breast-to-abdomen-ratio, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone are associated with the sound pressure level and the fundamental frequency of the speaking voice in a cross-sectional approach among adults in the general population. Speaking voice profiles with four different intensity levels, hormone concentrations, and anthropometric parameters were assessed for 2,381 individuals aged 40-79 years, who were randomly sampled from the population of a large city in Germany. Multivariate analysis was performed, adjusting for age and stratified by sex. Taller body height was associated with lower frequencies. Higher body weight was associated with lower frequencies and higher sound pressure levels. The ratio of chest to abdominal circumference was associated with the sound pressure levels in males and females: participants with larger breast-to-abdomen-ratio were found to have higher sound pressure levels. Among the sexual hormones, higher concentrations of DHEA-S were associated with lower fundamental frequencies of the voice while using the normal speaking voice. In addition, bioavailable testosterone was associated with the sound pressure level of the normal speaking voice in men and the softest speaking voice in women. Our findings suggest that BMI, body height, body weight, breast-to-abdomen-ratio, bioavailable testosterone, and DHEA-S are associated with the speaking voice in adults. No associations between testosterone and the frequency of the speaking voice were found. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex hormone activity in alcohol addiction: integrating organizational and activational effects.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Bernd; Müller, Christian P; Stoessel, Christina; Sperling, Wolfgang; Biermann, Teresa; Hillemacher, Thomas; Bleich, Stefan; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    There are well-known sex differences in the epidemiology and etiopathology of alcohol dependence. Male gender is a crucial risk factor for the onset of alcohol addiction. A directly modifying role of testosterone in alcohol addiction-related behavior is well established. Sex hormones exert both permanent (organizational) and transient (activational) effects on the human brain. The sensitive period for these effects lasts throughout life. In this article, we present a novel early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction. We propose that early exposure to sex hormones triggers structural (organizational) neuroadaptations. These neuroadaptations affect cellular and behavioral responses to adult sex hormones, sensitize the brain's reward system to the reinforcing properties of alcohol and modulate alcohol addictive behavior later in life. This review outlines clinical findings related to the early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction (handedness, the second-to-fourth-finger length ratio, and the androgen receptor and aromatase) and includes clinical and preclinical literature regarding the activational effects of sex hormones in alcohol drinking behavior. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axes and the opioid system in mediating the relationship between sex hormone activity and alcohol dependence. We conclude that a combination of exposure to sex hormones in utero and during early development contributes to the risk of alcohol addiction later in life. The early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Endogenous sex hormones, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes in men and women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Catherine; Halter, Jeffrey B

    2014-04-01

    Endogenous sex hormones predict impairments of glucose regulation. Cross-sectional studies suggest that lower levels of testosterone in men and higher levels in women increase risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, whereas lower levels of sex hormone binding globulin in both men and women increase risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In a systematic review, we summarize existing longitudinal studies, which suggest similar patterns. However, these studies are often limited to a single sex steroid measure. Whether these associations are primarily a marker of adiposity, and whether these associations differ between younger eugonadal vs older hypogonadal adults is also uncertain. The impact of exogenous sex steroid therapy may not reflect relationships between sex hormones and impaired glucose regulation that occur without supplementation. Therefore, examination of endogenous sex steroid trajectories and obesity trajectories within individuals might aid our understanding of how sex steroids contribute to glucose regulation.

  6. Obesity may influence the relationship between sex hormones and lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Alberto A; Araújo, Luiz Henrique; Nakano, Elcio; Muracca, Eduardo; Srougi, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of serum testosterone in the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are not well established. The objective of the study is to evaluate the association of sex hormones with LUTS and control the results by patient weight. The study comprised a cross-sectional analysis of 725 men included in a prostate cancer screening program at University of Sao Paulo Medical School. The serum concentrations of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Variables analyzed were age, American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score, storage symptoms, voiding symptoms, quality of life score, prostate specific antigen levels and prostate volume. Obesity was measured through the calculation of body mass index (BMI). A regression analysis model was performed. Median patient age was 65 years (48 to 94). A higher TT level was significantly associated with a severe AUA symptom score only among patients with a BMI ≥ 25. Median TT was 371, 370 and 427ng/dL (p = 0.017) in patients with mild, moderate and severe LUTS respectively. The multivariate regression analysis in patients with BMI ≥ 25 showed that only age, TT and sex score were related to LUTS. A higher TT is associated with a severe AUA score symptom index only in obese patients. Further analysis are necessary to evaluate the mechanisms through which testosterone may influence LUTS in these patients.

  7. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  8. The effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on serum estrogen, progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels in healthy post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Edlefsen, Kerstin L.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Prentice, Ross L.; Janssen, Imke; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Anderson, Garnet

    2010-01-01

    Objective Differences in disease outcomes between users and non-users of hormone therapy (HT) and between users of estrogen alone (ET) and users of estrogen plus progesterone therapy (EPT) may relate to differences in serum hormone concentrations between these populations. In this study, we examine the response of serum hormone levels in healthy post-menopausal women after one year of HT. Methods A representative sub-sample of 200 healthy adherent participants from the active and placebo groups of the Women's Health Initiative randomized, controlled clinical trials of ET (conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg daily) or EPT (ET plus medroxyprogesterone actetate 2.5 mg daily) were selected for determination of selected sex hormone levels at baseline and one year after randomization. Results In participants receiving active ET intervention compared to placebo, estrogenic hormone levels increased from baseline to year 1 by 3.6-fold for total estrone, 2.7-fold for total estradiol, and 1.8-fold for bioavailable and free estradiol concentrations. Serum SHBG concentrations also increased 2.5-fold. In contrast, progesterone levels decreased slightly in women taking exogenous EPT. The response of serum estrogens and SHBG did not differ substantially with the addition of progesterone. In subgroup analyses, hormone response varied by age, ethnicity, BMI, smoking, vasomotor symptoms, and baseline hormone levels. Conclusions These data provide a reference point for the serum hormone response to HT, and demonstrate that response of serum estrogens is similar for ET and EPT. The implications of the slight decrease in serum progesterone levels with EPT therapy are uncertain. Potential treatment interactions for estrogenic hormones were identified, which suggest a larger response to HT in women with low endogenous levels. PMID:20215977

  9. Sex hormones and breast cancer risk and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Folkerd, Elizabeth; Dowsett, Mitch

    2013-08-01

    The study of large prospective collections of plasma samples from women prior to the development of breast cancer has firmly established certain sex steroids as being significantly associated with risk. The strongest associations have been found in postmenopausal women in whom the within person variability of most hormones is markedly reduced but some positive associations have also been seen in premenopausal women. Plasma estrogens show the strongest correlations with risk and these are strengthened by measurement or calculation of the proportion of estradiol that circulates free of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), consistent with this being the most active fraction. The relationships have been reported to potentially explain virtually all of the association of breast cancer with body mass index in postmenopausal women; this is likely to be due to non-ovarian estrogen synthesis being prominent in subcutaneous fat. These strong relationships have led to plasma and urine estrogen levels being used as intermediate end-points in the search for genes that affect breast cancer risk via their role in steroid disposition. Plasma androgen levels also show a relationship with breast cancer risk that is weakened but not eliminated by 'correction' for estrogen levels. This has been argued to be evidence of the local production of estrogens being important in the etiology of breast cancer. Given that plasma steroid levels do not correlate closely with mammographic density, which is strongly associated with risk, the opportunity exists to combine the two factors in assessing breast cancer risk but the low availability of suitable estrogen assays is a major impediment to this. In established breast cancer, plasma estrogens have been found to correlate with gene expression of estrogen dependent genes and the expression of these varies across the menstrual cycle of premenopausal women. There is infrequently a need for routine measurement of plasma estrogen levels but it has

  10. Interrelationship Between Alcohol Intake and Endogenous Sex-Steroid Hormones on Diabetes Risk in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, Rachelle D; Liu, Simin; You, Nai-Chieh; Buring, Julie E; Manson, JoAnn E; Song, Yiqing

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones, including estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), were associated with alcohol intake or mediated the alcohol-type 2 diabetes (T2D) association. Among women not using hormone replacement therapy and free of baseline cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes in the Women's Health Study, 359 incident cases of T2D and 359 matched controls were chosen during 10 years of follow-up. Frequent alcohol intake (≥1 drink/day) was positively and significantly associated with higher plasma estradiol concentrations in an age-adjusted model (β = 0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03, 0.26), compared to rarely/never alcohol intake. After adjusting for additional known covariates, this alcohol-estradiol association remained significant (β = 0.19, 95% CI, 0.07, 0.30). Testosterone (β = 0.13, 95% CI, -0.05, 0.31), SHBG (β = 0.07, 95% CI, -0.07, 0.20), and DHEAS (β = 0.14, 95% CI, -0.04, 0.31) showed positive associations without statistical significance. Estradiol alone or in combination with SHBG appeared to influence the observed protective association between frequent alcohol consumption and T2D risk, with a 12%-21% reduction in odds ratio in the multivariate-adjusted models. Our cross-sectional analysis showed positive associations between alcohol intake and endogenous estradiol concentrations. Our prospective data suggested that baseline concentrations of estradiol, with or without SHBG, might influence the alcohol-T2D association in postmenopausal women.

  11. SHBG, Sex Hormones, and Inflammatory Markers in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Ceda, Gian Paolo; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Giallauria, Francesco; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zuliani, Giovanni; Cattabiani, Chiara; Parrino, Stefano; Ablondi, Fabrizio; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Ceresini, Graziano; Basaria, Shehzad; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Context: In premenopausal and older women, high testosterone and estradiol (E2) and low SHBG levels are associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, conditions characterized by low-grade inflammation. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between SHBG, total testosterone, total E2, and inflammatory markers in older women. Design and Patients: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of 433 women at least 65 yr old from the InCHIANTI Study, Italy, who were not on hormone replacement therapy or recently hospitalized and who had complete data on SHBG, testosterone, E2, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6r), and TNF-α. Relationships between sex hormones and inflammatory markers were examined by multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, insulin, physical activity, and chronic disease. Results: In fully adjusted analyses, SHBG was negatively associated with CRP (P = 0.007), IL-6 (P = 0.008), and sIL-6r (P = 0.02). In addition, testosterone was positively associated with CRP (P = 0.006), IL-6 (P = 0.001), and TNF-α (P = 0.0002). The negative relationship between testosterone and sIL-6r in an age-adjusted model (P = 0.02) was no longer significant in a fully adjusted model (P = 0.12). E2 was positively associated with CRP (P = 0.002) but not with IL-6 in fully adjusted models. In a final model including E2, testosterone, and SHBG, and all the confounders previously considered, SHBG (0.23 ± 0.08; P = 0.006) and E2 (0.21 ± 0.08; P = 0.007), but not testosterone (P = 0.21), were still significantly associated with CRP. Conclusion: In late postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy, SHBG and E2 are, respectively, negative and positive, independent and significant correlates of a proinflammatory state. PMID:21239514

  12. Effect of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Batool; Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Enayati, Ehsan; Maleki, Maryam; Rezaeei, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioid consumption has been widely increasing across the globe; how- ever, it can cause adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid, can reduce sex hor- mones and fertility. Withania somnifera (WS) is a traditional herb used to improve sexual activities. This study strives to investigate the effect of WS on sex hormones and gonado- tropins in addicted male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, forty-eight male National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i. Control group, ii. WS-treated control group, iii. Addicted group, and iv. WS-treated addicted group. Wa- ter-soluble morphine was given to rats for 21 days to induce addiction, concurrently the treated groups (2 and 4) also received WS plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%). At the end of the treatment, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of the rats’ sera were deter- mined in all the groups. Results Except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropin and sex hormone levels. Whereas WS caused a considerable increase in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group. Conclusion WS increased sex hormones and gonadotropins-especially testosterone, es- trogen, and luteinizing hormone-in the addicted male rats and even increased the proges- terone level, a stimulant of most sex hormones in addicted male rats. PMID:27441058

  13. Sex, age, and sex hormones affect recall of words in a directed forgetting paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kerschbaum, Hubert H; Hofbauer, Ildiko; Gföllner, Anna; Ebner, Birgit; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-01-02

    During the course of serious discussion, an unexpected interruption may induce forgetting of the original topic of a conversation. Sex, age, and sex hormone levels may affect frequency and extension of forgetting. In a list-method directed forgetting paradigm, subjects have to learn two word lists. After learning list 1, subjects receive either a forget or a remember list 1 cue. When the participants had learned list 2 and completed a distraction task, they were asked to write down as many recalled items as possible, starting either with list 1 or list 2 items. In the present study, 96 naturally cycling women, 60 oral contraceptive users, 56 postmenopausal women, and 41 young men were assigned to one of these different experimental conditions. Forget-cued young subjects recall fewer list 1 items (list 1 forgetting) but more list 2 items (list 2 enhancement) compared with remember-cued subjects. However, forget-cued postmenopausal women showed reduced list 1 forgetting but enhanced list 2 retention. Remember-cued naturally cycling women recalled more list 1 items than oral contraceptive users, young men, and postmenopausal women. In forget-cued follicular women, salivary progesterone correlated positively with recalled list 2 items. Salivary 17β-estradiol did not correlate with recalled list 1 or list 2 items in either remember- or forget-cued young women. However, salivary 17β-estradiol correlated with item recall in remember-cued postmenopausal women. Our findings suggest that sex hormones do not globally modulate verbal memory or forgetting, but selectively affect cue-specific processing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The revolution in insect neuropeptides illustrated by the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family of peptides.

    PubMed

    Gäde, G

    1996-01-01

    The last decade has seen a surge in the knowledge on primary structures of insect neuropeptides. Particularly successful were isolations and sequence determinations of more than 30 members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family of peptides. This brief overview describes the techniques used to obtain data on purification and structure such as high performance liquid chromatography, Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry. Moreover, a short account on the precursors and on the multiple functions of the peptides of the AKH/RPCH family in various crustacean and insect species is given.

  15. The different role of sex hormones on female cardiovascular physiology and function: not only oestrogens.

    PubMed

    Salerni, Sara; Di Francescomarino, Samanta; Cadeddu, Christian; Acquistapace, Flavio; Maffei, Silvia; Gallina, Sabina

    2015-06-01

    Human response to different physiologic stimuli and cardiovascular (CV) adaptation to various pathologies seem to be gender specific. Sex-steroid hormones have been postulated as the major contributors towards these sex-related differences. This review will discuss current evidence on gender differences in CV function and remodelling, and will present the different role of the principal sex-steroid hormones on female heart. Starting from a review of sex hormones synthesis, receptors and CV signalling, we will summarize the current knowledge concerning the role of sex hormones on the regulation of our daily activities throughout the life, via the modulation of autonomic nervous system, excitation-contraction coupling pathway and ion channels activity. Many unresolved questions remain even if oestrogen effects on myocardial remodelling and function have been extensively studied. So this work will focus attention also on the controversial and complex relationship existing between androgens, progesterone and female heart. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  16. Gender-related differences in irritable bowel syndrome: potential mechanisms of sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Meleine, Mathieu; Matricon, Julien

    2014-06-14

    According to epidemiological studies, twice as many women as men are affected by irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in western countries, suggesting a role for sex hormones in IBS pathophysiology. Despite growing evidence about the implications of sex hormones in IBS symptom modulation, data on mechanisms by which they influence disease development are sparse. This review aims to determine the state of knowledge about the role of sex hormones in sensorimotor dysfunctions and to address the possible interplay of sex hormones with common risk factors associated with IBS. The scientific bibliography was searched using the following keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, sex, gender, ovarian hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, symptoms, pain, sensitivity, motility, permeability, stress, immune system, brain activity, spinal, supraspinal, imaging. Ovarian hormones variations along the menstrual cycle affect sensorimotor gastrointestinal function in both healthy and IBS populations. They can modulate pain processing by interacting with neuromodulator systems and the emotional system responsible for visceral pain perception. These hormones can also modulate the susceptibility to stress, which is a pivotal factor in IBS occurrence and symptom severity. For instance, estrogen-dependent hyper-responsiveness to stress can promote immune activation or impairments of gut barrier function. In conclusion, whereas it is important to keep in mind that ovarian hormones cannot be considered as a causal factor of IBS, they arguably modulate IBS onset and symptomatology. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited and studies assessing the link between IBS symptoms and ovarian hormone levels are needed to improve our knowledge of the disease evolution with regard to gender. Further studies assessing the role of male hormones are also needed to understand fully the role of sex hormones in IBS. Finally, investigation of brain-gut interactions is critical

  17. Gender-related differences in irritable bowel syndrome: Potential mechanisms of sex hormones

    PubMed Central

    Meleine, Mathieu; Matricon, Julien

    2014-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, twice as many women as men are affected by irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in western countries, suggesting a role for sex hormones in IBS pathophysiology. Despite growing evidence about the implications of sex hormones in IBS symptom modulation, data on mechanisms by which they influence disease development are sparse. This review aims to determine the state of knowledge about the role of sex hormones in sensorimotor dysfunctions and to address the possible interplay of sex hormones with common risk factors associated with IBS. The scientific bibliography was searched using the following keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, sex, gender, ovarian hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, symptoms, pain, sensitivity, motility, permeability, stress, immune system, brain activity, spinal, supraspinal, imaging. Ovarian hormones variations along the menstrual cycle affect sensorimotor gastrointestinal function in both healthy and IBS populations. They can modulate pain processing by interacting with neuromodulator systems and the emotional system responsible for visceral pain perception. These hormones can also modulate the susceptibility to stress, which is a pivotal factor in IBS occurrence and symptom severity. For instance, estrogen-dependent hyper-responsiveness to stress can promote immune activation or impairments of gut barrier function. In conclusion, whereas it is important to keep in mind that ovarian hormones cannot be considered as a causal factor of IBS, they arguably modulate IBS onset and symptomatology. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited and studies assessing the link between IBS symptoms and ovarian hormone levels are needed to improve our knowledge of the disease evolution with regard to gender. Further studies assessing the role of male hormones are also needed to understand fully the role of sex hormones in IBS. Finally, investigation of brain-gut interactions is critical

  18. Vitamin D metabolism, sex hormones, and male reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The spectrum of vitamin D (VD)-mediated effects has expanded in recent years, and VD is now recognized as a versatile signaling molecule rather than being solely a regulator of bone health and calcium homeostasis. One of the recently identified target areas of VD is male reproductive function. The VD receptor (VDR) and the VD metabolizing enzyme expression studies documented the presence of this system in the testes, mature spermatozoa, and ejaculatory tract, suggesting that both systemic and local VD metabolism may influence male reproductive function. However, it is still debated which cell is the main VD target in the testis and to what extent VD is important for sex hormone production and function of spermatozoa. This review summarizes descriptive studies on testicular VD metabolism and spatial distribution of VDR and the VD metabolizing enzymes in the mammalian testes and discusses mechanistic and association studies conducted in animals and humans. The reviewed evidence suggests some effects of VD on estrogen and testosterone biosynthesis and implicates involvement of both systemic and local VD metabolism in the regulation of male fertility potential.

  19. Sex hormone-binding globulin changes during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Plymate, S R; Moore, D E; Cheng, C Y; Bardin, C W; Southworth, M B; Levinski, M J

    1985-11-01

    Although sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) production is stimulated by estrogen, no change in SHBG has been demonstrated during the menstrual cycle. To further study possible cyclic changes in serum SHBG, 12 women with a normal menstrual and fertility history had daily SHBG measurements during a menstrual cycle. SHBG was measured by dextran-coated charcoal saturation analysis and RIA. Serum LH was measured by mouse Leydig cell bioassay and RIA, and FSH, estradiol (E2), and progesterone were determined by RIA. In 10 women, a significant increase in mean SHBG by both methods occurred during the luteal phase of the cycle, immediately after the preovulatory increase in serum E2 (P less than 0.001). Two women had no SHBG increase; although each had a significant rise in serum E2 before the LH surge, luteal phase E2 levels were similar to those in the early follicular phase. In one of these women, a rise in SHBG was demonstrated by RIA. This study demonstrates that SHBG changes during the menstrual cycle in association with E2 changes, and it appears to be a marker for the endogenous estrogen changes that occur in normal ovulating women.

  20. Simplified method for measuring sex-hormone binding globulin

    SciTech Connect

    Fattah, D.I.; Chard, T.

    1981-07-01

    We describe a simple, rapid method for measurement of sex-hormone binding globulin. Serial dilutions of pregnancy serum are prepared in serum from males that has been pre-treated by heating to 60 degrees C for 1 h to destroy endogenous binding globulin, which is then determined by a long-used technique to yield a set of ''standards.'' In the assay itself, a fixed amount of (/sup 3/H)-labeled and unlabeled dihydrotestosterone is incubated with standard or unknown, and the bound fraction precipitated with saturated ammonium sulfate. A plot of percent of the steroid bound vs standard dilution yields a sigmoid curve, from which the results in unknowns can be read by simple extrapolation. Within-assay CVs for pools of serum from men, women, and women in late pregnancy were 6.56, 9.59, and 8.4%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for the same pools were 8.05, 9.5, and 11.5%, respectively. The correlation between results obtained by this method and those of the older technique was 0.95 for samples from non-pregnant subjects and 0.73 for those from pregnant women. Our procedure is simpler and faster than previous methods and accurately measures the differences in the globulin in sera from men, women, and pregnant women. Forty to 50 samples can be assayed in a working day.

  1. Pharmacologic sex hormones in pregnancy in relation to offspring obesity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Elizabeth T; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2014-11-01

    To assess the association between in utero exposure to either diethylstilbestrol (DES) or an oral contraceptive in pregnancy and offspring obesity. Using data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1974), a multicenter prospective study of pregnant women and their offspring, we examined overweight or obesity among 34,419 children with height and weight data at age 7 years. Generalized linear models to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for overweight or obesity (≥85th percentile) or obesity (≥95th percentile) in the offspring according to exposure during different months of pregnancy were used. Oral contraceptive use during pregnancy was positively associated with offspring overweight or obesity and obesity. The magnitude of association was strongest in the first 2 months of pregnancy for obesity (aOR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.7). DES use was also associated with offspring overweight or obesity and obesity, with the association being strongest for exposure beginning between months 3 and 5 (e.g., for exposure beginning in months 3-4, the aOR for obesity was 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3, 6.3). Pharmacologic sex hormone use in pregnancy may be associated with childhood obesity. Whether contemporary, lower dose oral contraceptive formulations are similarly associated with increased risk of childhood obesity is unclear. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  2. People with gender dysphoria who self-prescribe cross-sex hormones: prevalence, sources, and side effects knowledge.

    PubMed

    Mepham, Nick; Bouman, Walter P; Arcelus, Jon; Hayter, Mark; Wylie, Kevan R

    2014-12-01

    There is a scarcity of research into the use of non-physician-sourced cross-sex hormones in the transgender population. However, when medication is not prescribed by health professionals, users' knowledge of such medication may be adversely affected. This study aims to define the prevalence of Internet-sourced sex hormone use in a population attending for initial assessment at a gender identity clinic, to compare the prevalence between gender-dysphoric men and women, and to compare knowledge of cross-sex hormone side effects between users who source cross-sex hormones from medical doctors and those who source them elsewhere. In the first part of the study, a cross-sectional design is used to measure the overall prevalence of sex hormone use among individuals referred to a gender clinic. The second part is a questionnaire survey aiming at measuring sex hormone knowledge among individuals referred to this clinic. Main outcome measures were (i) categorical data on the prevalence and source of cross-sex hormone use and (ii) knowledge of sex hormone side effects in a population referred to a gender clinic. Cross-sex hormone use was present in 23% of gender clinic referrals, of whom 70% sourced the hormones via the Internet. Trans men using testosterone had a sex hormone usage prevalence of 6%; one-third of users sourced it from the Internet. Trans women had a sex hormone usage prevalence of 32%; approximately 70% of users sourced hormones from the Internet. Cross-sex hormone users who sourced their hormones from physicians were more aware of side effects than those who used other sources to access hormones. One in four trans women self-prescribe cross-sex hormones before attending gender clinics, most commonly via the Internet. This practice is currently rare among trans men. Self-prescribing without medical advice leaves individuals without the knowledge required to minimize health risks. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Associations between sex hormone binding globulin and metabolic syndrome parameters in premenopausal obese women.

    PubMed

    Akin, Fulya; Bastemir, Mehmet; Alkis, Esma; Kaptanoglu, Bunyamin

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations in premenopausal obese women and to evaluate the relationships between sex hormones and features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out on 350 obese patients aged 25 to 69 years referred to the Department of Endocrinology, Pamukkale University in 2002-2003. 125 premenopausal euthyroid patients were eligible for this study. Subjects were divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI): Group I, women with BMI 2 (n = 17) and Group II,, women with BMI > or = 30 kg/m 2 (n = 108). Median SHBG concentration of Group I was 50.1 nmol/L. Group II was divided into two subgroups according to the median SHBG concentration of Group I: subjects with high SHBG levels (SHBG concentration > or = median level of the control group, i.e > or = 50.1 nmol/L) and subjects with low SHBG levels ( No significant difference was found in mean age between the low and high SHBG groups. The low SHBG group was significantly heavier, and with higher waist circumference than the high SHBG group. In the low SHBG group, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and free androgen index (FAI) were significantly higher. Lipid profile, blood pressure, uric acid, insulin and HOMA were found similar between two groups. Linear regression analyses revealed that body mass index and FAI were significant, being independent predictors of SHBG concentrations in premenopausal women. (r = 0.365, r square = 0.134). It is concluded that low SHBG concentrations may indicate visceral obesity and glucose intolerance in premenopausal women.

  4. Gonadal suppressive and cross-sex hormone therapy for gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine P; Madison, Christina M; Milne, Nikki M

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with gender dysphoria experience distress associated with incongruence between their biologic sex and their identified gender. Gender dysphoric natal males receive treatment with antiandrogens and estrogens to become feminized (transsexual females), whereas natal females with gender dysphoria receive treatment with androgens to become masculinized (transsexual males). Because of the permanence associated with cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT), adolescents diagnosed with gender dysphoria receive gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to suppress puberty. High rates of depression and suicide are linked to social marginalization and barriers to care. Behavior, emotional problems, depressive symptoms, and global functioning improve in adolescents receiving puberty suppression therapy. Gender dysphoria, psychological symptoms, quality of life, and sexual function improve in adults who receive CSHT. Within the first 6 months of CSHT, changes in transsexual females include breast growth, decreased testicular volume, and decreased spontaneous erections, and changes in transsexual males include cessation of menses, breast atrophy, clitoral enlargement, and voice deepening. Both transsexual females and males experience changes in body fat redistribution, muscle mass, and hair growth. Desired effects from CSHT can take between 3 and 5 years; however, effects that occur during puberty, such as voice deepening and skeletal structure changes, cannot be reversed with CSHT. Decreased sexual desire is a greater concern in transsexual females than in transsexual males, with testosterone concentrations linked to sexual desire in both. Regarding CSHT safety, bone mineral density is preserved with adequate hormone supplementation, but long-term fracture risk has not been studied. The transition away from high-dose traditional regimens is tied to a lower risk of venous thromboembolism and cardiovascular disease, but data quality is poor. Breast cancer has been reported in

  5. Influence of polluted SY River on child growth and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun Yu; Li, An Qi; Guan, Yong Bo; Li, Yan; Cheng, Xue Min; Li, Ping; Li, Shi Qun; Luo, Yi Xin; Huang, Qi; Chen, Hong Yang; Cui, Liu Xin

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the influence of the polluted SY River on children's growth and sex hormones, and provide scientific data for assessment of the polluted status of the SY River. The study areas were selected randomly from the SY River Basin. Lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), phthalates (DEP, DBP, DMP, DEHP), and bisphenol A (BPA) were measured both in the river water and in the drinking water. School children were selected by cluster sampling (n=154). Physical development indexes (height, weight, bust-circumference, and skinfold thickness) and sex hormones [testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2)] were measured for all the children. The contents of Pb and Hg exceeded Class V standards of surface water quality in each section of the river and other indicators exceeded Class III. Compared to the control area, the concentrations of Pb, Hg, As, BPA, DEP, and DBP in the drinking water were significantly higher than in the polluted area (P<0.05). Children from the control area had significantly lower E2 and T than children from the polluted area (P<0.05). Among anthropometric results, only skinfold thickness had statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05), while the other indexes showed no significant differences between the two groups (P>0.05). The drinking water has been polluted by the SY River and affected serum sex hormone levels of children living in the polluted area. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sesame ingestion affects sex hormones, antioxidant status, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Huey; Kang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Nai-Hung; Jou, Hei-Jen; Wang, Tzong-An

    2006-05-01

    Sesame ingestion has been shown to improve blood lipids in humans and antioxidative ability in animals. Sesamin, a sesame lignan, was recently reported to be converted by intestinal microflora to enterolactone, a compound with estrogenic activity and also an enterometabolite of flaxseed lignans, which are known to be phytoestrogens. Whether sesame can be a source of phytoestrogens is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the effect of sesame ingestion on blood sex hormones, lipids, tocopherol, and ex vivo LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women. Twenty-six healthy subjects attended, and 24 completed, this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Half of them consumed 50 g sesame seed powder daily for 5 wk, followed by a 3-wk washout period, then a 5-wk 50-g rice powder placebo period. The other half received the 2 supplements in reverse order. After sesame treatment, plasma total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in oxidized LDL, and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate decreased significantly by 5, 10, 6, 23, and 18%, respectively. The ratio of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol to TC increased significantly by 18 and 73%, respectively. All of these variables differed significantly between the 2 treatments. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (n = 8) increased significantly by 15 and 72%, respectively, after sesame treatment, and these concentrations tended to differ (P = 0.065 and P = 0.090, respectively) from those after the placebo treatment. These results suggest that sesame ingestion benefits postmenopausal women by improving blood lipids, antioxidant status, and possibly sex hormone status.

  7. Acute resistance exercise stimulates sex-specific dimeric immunoreactive growth hormone responses.

    PubMed

    Luk, Hui Ying; Kraemer, William J; Szivak, Tunde K; Flanagan, Shawn D; Hooper, David R; Kupchak, Brian R; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Vingren, Jakob L; DuPont, William H; Hymer, Wesley C

    2015-06-01

    We sought to determine if an acute heavy resistance exercise test (AHRET) would elicit sex-specific responses in circulating growth hormone (GH), with untreated serum and serum treated with a reducing agent to break disulfide-bindings between GH dimers. 19 untrained participants (nine men and ten women) participated in an acute heavy resistance exercise test using the back squat. Blood samples were drawn before exercise (Pre), immediate post (IP), +15 min (+15), and +30 min (+30) afterwards. Serum samples were chemically reduced using glutathione (GSH). ELISAs were then used to compare immunoreactive GH concentrations in reduced (+GSH) and non-reduced (-GSH) samples. Data were analyzed using a three-way (2 sex × 2 treatment × 4 time) mixed methods ANOVA, with significance set at p ≤ 0.05. GSH reduction resulted in increased immunoreactive GH concentrations when compared to non-reduced samples at Pre (1.68 ± 0.33 μg/L vs 1.25 ± 0.25 μg/L), IP (7.69 ± 1.08 μg/L vs 5.76 ± 0.80 μg/L), +15 min (4.39 ± 0.58 μg/L vs 3.24 ± 0.43 μg/L), and +30 min (2.35 ± 0.49 μg/L vs 1.45 ± 0.23 μg/L). Also, women demonstrated greater GH responses compared to men, and this was not affected by reduction. Heavy resistance exercise increases immunoreactive GH dimer concentrations in men and women, with larger increases in women and more sustained response in men. The physiological significance of a sexually dimorphic GH response adds to the growing literature on aggregate GH and may be explained by differences in sex hormones and the structure of the GH cell network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of sex hormones on anterior cruciate ligament ruptures in males.

    PubMed

    Stijak, Lazar; Kadija, Marko; Djulejić, Vuk; Aksić, Milan; Petronijević, Nataša; Aleksić, Dubravka; Radonjić, Vidosava; Bumbaširević, Marko; Filipović, Branislav

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the difference in the concentrations of testosterone, 17-β estradiol and progesterone between male patients with and without ACL rupture, as well as the possible effect of these hormones on generalized joint laxity. Male subjects with non-contact knee joint injury were included in this study. Two groups were formed: the examined group, consisting of subjects with ACL rupture and the control group consisting of patients without ACL rupture. After this, the patients from these two groups were paired off on the basis of three factors, level of professional involvement in sports (including the type of sports activity), left or right side of the body and the age of the subjects. In the end, there were 29 pairs (58 subjects). The concentration of sex hormones was determined from saliva specimens with the aid of the Salimetrics enzyme immunoassay. The testing of generalized joint laxity was performed with the aid of the "laxity score" according to Beighton et al. Subjects with ACL rupture have highly statistically significantly greater concentrations of testosterone (p < 0.01), statistically significantly greater concentrations of 17-β estradiol (p < 0.05), and a highly statistically significantly greater generalized joint laxity score than subjects with an intact ACL (p < 0.01). Increased concentrations of testosterone or 17-β estradiol may be a risk factor leading to ACL rupture. Also, generalized joint laxity may be a factor leading to ACL rupture, but none of the monitored hormones can be set down as the cause of its existence. Young male athletes with higher concentrations of testosterone and greater hyperelasticity should plan preventive programs of physiotherapy for ACL preservation since they present a vulnerable group susceptible to ACL rupture. Diagnostic study, Level II.

  9. Cross-sex hormone treatment does not change sex-sensitive cognitive performance in gender identity disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Haraldsen, Ira R; Egeland, Thore; Haug, Egil; Finset, Arnstein; Opjordsmoen, Stein

    2005-12-15

    Cognitive performance in untreated early onset gender identity disorder (GID) patients might correspond to their born sex and not to their perceived gender. As a current mode of intervention, cross-sex hormone treatment causes considerable physical changes in GID patients. We asked, as has been suggested, whether this treatment skews cognitive performance towards that of the acquired sex. Somatically healthy male and female early onset GID patients were neuropsychologically tested before, 3 and 12 months after initiating cross-sex hormone treatment, whereas untreated healthy subjects without GID served as controls (C). Performance was assessed by testing six cognitive abilities (perception, arithmetic, rotation, visualization, logic, and verbalization), and controlled for age, education, born sex, endocrine differences and treatment by means of repeated measures analysis of variance. GID patients and controls showed an identical time-dependent improvement in cognitive performance. The slopes were essentially parallel for males and females. There was no significant three-way interaction of born sex by group by time for the six investigated cognitive abilities. Only education and age significantly influenced this improvement. Despite the substantial somatic cross-sex changes in GID patients, no differential effect on cognition over time was found between C and GID participants. The cognitive performance of cross-sex hormone-treated GID patients was virtually identical to that of the control group. The documented test-retest effect should be taken into consideration when evaluating treatment effects generally in psychiatry.

  10. Urinary concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites and serum reproductive hormones: Pooled analysis of fertile and infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Mendiola, Jaime; Meeker, John D.; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Liu, Fan; Calafat, Antonia M.; Redmon, J. Bruce; Drobnis, Erma Z.; Sparks, Amy E.; Wang, Christina; Hauser, Russ; Swan, Shanna H.

    2012-01-01

    Urinary concentrations of metabolites of the anti-androgenic xenobiotic di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were previously shown to be weakly associated with serum levels of several hormones in two disparate US populations; partners of pregnant women participating in the Study for Future Families, and partners in an infertile couple from Massachusetts General Hospital infertility clinic. The observed associations between phthalate metabolites and reproductive hormones were robust and insensitive to the characteristics of the subpopulation or the laboratory in which the hormones were measured, despite the fact that these two populations span a range of fertility, urinary phthalate metabolites and reproductive hormone levels. We therefore examined associations between urinary metabolites of DEHP and reproductive hormones (follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone (T), inhibin B and estradiol (E2), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHGB) in the pooled population. The magnitude of the associations seen were similar to those reported for each population separately, but effect estimates were more precise due to the increased sample size, and the greater range of phthalate metabolite concentrations and hormone levels. Urinary concentrations of three metabolites of DEHP [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)] were inversely associated with the free androgen index (FAI = T/SHBG) and calculated free testosterone (FT). Urinary concentrations of MEHHP and MEOHP were positively associated with SHBG, and MEHP was inversely associated with E2. No other phthalate metabolites were associated with serum hormones, consistent with results in each population. Our results in this diverse population suggest that DEHP exposure is robustly associated with some male sex steroid hormones. PMID:21597090

  11. Effects of exercise intensity on plasma concentrations of appetite-regulating hormones: Potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Tom J; Islam, Hashim; Townsend, Logan K; Schmale, Matt S; Copeland, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anorexigenic (appetite-inhibiting) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety. As the effectiveness of exercise to induce weight loss is a controversial topic, there is considerable interest in the effect of exercise on the appetite-regulating hormones such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Research to date suggests short-term appetite regulation following a single exercise session is likely affected by decreases in acylated ghrelin and increases in PYY, GLP-1, and PP. Further, this exercise-induced response may be intensity-dependent. In an effort to guide future research, it is important to consider how exercise alters the circulating concentrations of these appetite-regulating hormones. Potential mechanisms include blood redistribution, sympathetic nervous system activity, gastrointestinal motility, cytokine release, free fatty acid concentrations, lactate production, and changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. This review of relevant research suggests blood redistribution during exercise may be important for suppressing ghrelin, while other mechanisms involving cytokine release, changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, SNS activity, and muscle metabolism likely mediate changes in the anorexigenic signals PYY and GLP-1. Overall, changes in appetite-regulating hormones following acute exercise appear to be intensity-dependent, with increasing intensity leading to a greater suppression of orexigenic signals and greater stimulation of anorexigenic signals. However, there is less research on how exercise-induced responses in appetite-regulating hormones differ between sexes or different age groups. A better understanding of how exercise intensity and workload affect appetite across the sexes and life

  12. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  13. Profound Changes in Sex Hormone Levels during Cross-Sex Hormone Therapy of Transsexuals do not Alter Serum Cholesterol Acceptor Capacity.

    PubMed

    Wultsch, Anna; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ott, Johannes; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Stangl, Herbert; Strobl, Witta Monika

    2015-06-01

    Men and postmenopausal women exhibit a higher risk for atherosclerosis than premenopausal women. These differences were often attributed to sex steroids, but the role of estrogen and testosterone in atherosclerosis are more complex than anticipated. Cross-sex hormone therapy of transsexuals is an interesting model, which has been used to study hormonal effects on serum lipid profile, insulin resistance, and body composition. However, studies on macrophage cholesterol efflux, the first step in reverse cholesterol transport, are not available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cross-sex hormone therapy in transsexuals on the capacity of serum to accept cholesterol from macrophages. Cholesterol acceptor capacity (CAC) of serum from transsexuals before and after at least 6 months of hormone treatment was measured using macrophage tissue culture models. CAC of serum using the human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1 cells). Unexpectedly, the CAC of serum from male to female (MtF) transsexuals was not increased, but decreased after hormone therapy. Serum from female to male (FtM) transsexuals showed no changes in CAC. Despite drastic changes in hormone status, no increase in CAC was detected in MtF patients, and no alteration in CAC was seen in FtM patients. These data further challenge the traditional view that estrogen and testosterone exert beneficial and detrimental effects, respectively, on lipoprotein metabolism and ultimately atherosclerosis. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Phthalate exposure and reproductive hormones and sex-hormone binding globulin before puberty – Phthalate contaminated-foodstuff episode in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hui-Ju; Chen, Chu-Chih; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wu, Wen-Chiu; Huang, I-Wen; Huang, Po-Chin; Yu, Tzu-Yun; Hsiung, Chao A.; Wang, Shu-Li

    2017-01-01

    Background In May 2011, a major incident involving phthalates-contaminated foodstuffs occurred in Taiwan. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was added to foodstuffs, mainly juice, jelly, tea, sports drink, and dietary supplements. Concerns arose that normal pubertal development, especially reproductive hormone regulation in children, could be disrupted by DEHP exposure. Objective To investigate the association between phthalate exposure and reproductive hormone levels among children following potential exposure to phthalate-tainted foodstuffs. Methods A total of 239 children aged <12 years old were recruited from 3 hospitals in north, central, and south Taiwan after the episode. Structured questionnaires were used to collect the frequency and quantity of exposures to 5 categories of phthalate-contaminated foodstuffs to assess phthalate exposure in children. Urine samples were collected for the measurement of phthalate metabolites. The estimated daily intake of DEHP exposure at the time of the contamination incident occurred was calculated using both questionnaire data and urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations. Multiple regression analyses were applied to assess associations between phthalate exposure and reproductive hormone levels in children. Results After excluding children with missing data regarding exposure levels and hormone concentrations and girls with menstruation, 222 children were included in the statistical analyses. After adjustment for age and birth weight, girls with above median levels of urinary mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and sum of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate concentrations had higher odds of above median follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Girls with above median estimated average daily DEHP exposures following the contamination episode also had higher odds of sex hormone-binding globulin above median levels. Conclusions Phthalate exposure was associated with alterations of

  15. Sleep regulation and sex hormones exposure in men and women across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lord, C; Sekerovic, Z; Carrier, J

    2014-10-01

    This review aims to discuss how endogenous and exogenous testosterone exposures in men and estrogens/progesterone exposures in women interact with sleep regulation. In young men, testosterone secretion peaks during sleep and is linked to sleep architecture. Animal and human studies support the notion that sleep loss suppresses testosterone secretion. Testosterone levels decline slowly throughout the aging process, but relatively few studies investigate its impact on age-related sleep modifications. Results suggest that poorer sleep quality is associated with lower testosterone concentrations and that sleep loss may have a more prominent effect on testosterone levels in older individuals. In women, sex steroid levels are characterized by a marked monthly cycle and reproductive milestones such as pregnancy and menopause. Animal models indicate that estrogens and progesterone influence sleep. Most studies do not show any clear effects of the menstrual cycle on sleep, but sample sizes are too low, and research designs often inhibit definitive conclusions. The effects of hormonal contraceptives on sleep are currently unknown. Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with increased sleep disturbances, but their relation to the hormonal milieu still needs to be determined. Finally, studies suggest that menopausal transition and the hormonal changes associated with it are linked to lower subjective sleep quality, but results concerning objective sleep measures are less conclusive. More research is necessary to unravel the effects of vasomotor symptoms on sleep. Hormone therapy seems to induce positive effects on sleep, but key concerns are still unresolved, including the long-term effects and efficacy of different hormonal regimens. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. Neural Activation During Mental Rotation in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: The Influence of Sex Hormones and Sex Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    van Hemmen, Judy; Veltman, Dick J; Hoekzema, Elseline; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B; Bakker, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Sex hormones, androgens in particular, are hypothesized to play a key role in the sexual differentiation of the human brain. However, possible direct effects of the sex chromosomes, that is, XX or XY, have not been well studied in humans. Individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who have a 46,XY karyotype but a female phenotype due to a complete androgen resistance, enable us to study the separate effects of gonadal hormones versus sex chromosomes on neural sex differences. Therefore, in the present study, we compared 46,XY men (n = 30) and 46,XX women (n = 29) to 46,XY individuals with CAIS (n = 21) on a mental rotation task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Previously reported sex differences in neural activation during mental rotation were replicated in the control groups, with control men showing more activation in the inferior parietal lobe than control women. Individuals with CAIS showed a female-like neural activation pattern in the parietal lobe, indicating feminization of the brain in CAIS. Furthermore, this first neuroimaging study in individuals with CAIS provides evidence that sex differences in regional brain function during mental rotation are most likely not directly driven by genetic sex, but rather reflect gonadal hormone exposure.

  17. Juvenoid hormone methyl farnesoate is a sex determinant in the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Allen W; Leblanc, Gerald A

    2002-12-01

    Daphnids (Daphnia magna) utilize cyclic parthenogenesis as a reproductive strategy. During periods of abundant resources, these organisms reproduce asexually. In response to environmental cues that signal the onset of environmental adversity, daphnids produce males and reproduce sexually. The environmental cues that stimulate the sexual reproductive phase are well known; however, the endocrine signals that transduce these environmental cues remain unknown. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the crustacean juvenoid hormone, methyl farnesoate, is a male sex determinant in this species. Continuous exposure to aqueous concentrations of methyl farnesoate greater than approximately 30 nM stimulated a concentration-dependent production of male-containing broods of organisms. Short-term exposures to methyl farnesoate during periods of egg and embryo maturation revealed that male sex determination occurred during a specific 12-hour period of ovarian egg development. Exposure of eggs to 400 nM methyl farnesoate during this sensitive developmental period resulted in the production of all-male broods of offspring, while exposure to concentrations as low as 52 nM produced mixed broods of males and females. This active concentration range of methyl farnesoate is consistent with levels measured in the hemolymph of some decapod crustaceans. These results demonstrate that methyl farnesoate is capable of programming daphnid embryos to develop into males and is likely the endocrine factor responsible for initiating the sexual reproductive phase in these organisms.

  18. 2d:4d, sex steroid hormones and human psychological sex differences.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, J M; Vincke, J

    2008-08-01

    Studies on 2d:4d, the ratio between the second and the fourth digit, as a possible indicator of prenatal androgen exposure, have failed to produce consistent results. This paper analyzes the relation between 2d:4d, sex steroids and well-documented sex differences in characteristics such as depression, dominance, and aggressive (ART) and non-aggressive adolescent risk-taking (NART) in a comparatively large sample of adolescent boys (N=301, mean age: 14.4 years) and girls (N=298, mean age: 14.3 years). Boys had on average a lower 2d:4d than girls (F=42.15; p<0.001). With respect to boys, controlling for age and pubertal development (PD), a small but marginally significant positive association was found between 2d:4d and total testosterone (TT) (r=0.11; p<0.05). In girls a significant association was found between 2d:4d and SHBG (r=0.18; p<0.01). However, relationships between 2d:4d and hormones depended on the phase of the menstrual cycle, with 2d:4d being negatively associated with FT (B=-0.013; p<0.05) once a positive association between 2d:4d and FT for girls in the mid-cycle group (B=0.019; p<0.01) is taken into account. With respect to sex differences in characteristics, we found evidence of a relationship between 2d:4d and depression in boys (r=-0.14; p<0.05) but not between 2d:4d and dominance, ART or NART. No relationships were found between 2d:4d and any of these variables in girls.

  19. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    PubMed

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Ahmad, Fairus; Ramli, Elvy Suhana Mohd; Aminuddin, Amilia; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) bound fractions), and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05); however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05). The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia.

  20. Sex hormones in Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia: are there age and race differences?

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Ahmad, Fairus; Ramli, Elvy Suhana Mohd; Aminuddin, Amilia; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Variations in the prevalence of sex-hormone-related diseases have been observed between Asian ethnic groups living in the same country; however, available data concerning their sex hormone levels are limited. The present study aimed to determine the influence of ethnicity and age on the sex hormone levels of Malay and Chinese men in Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 547 males of Malay and Chinese ethnicity residing in the Klang Valley Malaysia underwent a detailed screening, and their blood was collected for sex hormones analyses. RESULTS: Testosterone levels were normally distributed in the men (total, free and non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) bound fractions), and significant ethnic differences were observed (p<0.05); however, the effect size was small. In general, testosterone levels in males began to decline significantly after age 50. Significant ethnic differences in total, free and non-SHBG bound fraction estradiol levels were observed in the 20-29 and 50-59 age groups (p<0.05). The estradiol levels of Malay men decreased as they aged, but they increased for Chinese men starting at age 40. CONCLUSIONS: Small but significant differences in testosterone levels existed between Malay and Chinese males. Significant age and race differences existed in estradiol levels. These differences might contribute to the ethnic group differences in diseases related to sex hormones, which other studies have found in Malaysia. PMID:23525310

  1. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  2. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  3. Effect of dietary protein levels on sex hormones in growing male rats kept under constant darkness.

    PubMed

    Hanai, Miho; Esashi, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of dietary protein levels on the gonadal development and sex hormones in male rats kept under constant darkness as a model of disturbed daily rhythm. Four-week-old male rats (Fischer 344 strain) were kept under constant darkness or normal lighting (12-h light/dark cycle). Two kinds of experimental diet were prepared, one with low dietary protein levels (9% casein) and one with normal levels (18% casein). Harper mineral mixture and Panvitan were used as mineral and vitamin sources, respectively. After 4 weeks, gonadal weight, serum testosterone, and other hormone contents were evaluated. The gonadal weight in the constant darkness groups (D-groups) was lower than that in the normal lighting groups (N-groups). Although the low-protein diet in the D-groups significantly reduced gonadal weight, the normal-protein diet mitigated the reduction of gonadal weight in rats kept under constant darkness. Serum testosterone and androstenedione concentrations were lower in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet. There were no effects of lighting condition or protein levels on serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH), or progesterone concentrations. These results indicate that the suppression of gonadal development in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet was caused by low testosterone, which we attribute to the inhibition of synthesized androstenedione, a precursor of testosterone. The present study showed that constant darkness and the low- protein diet inhibited the synthetic pathway from progesterone to androstenedione.

  4. Acute effects of sex-specific sex hormones on heat shock proteins in fast muscle of male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Romani, William A; Russ, David W

    2013-10-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) expression and sex hormone levels have been shown to influence several aspects of skeletal muscle physiology (e.g., hypertrophy, resistance to oxidative stress), suggesting that sex hormone levels can effect HSP expression. This study evaluated the effects of differing levels of sex-specific sex hormones (i.e., testosterone in males and estrogen in females) on the expression of 4: HSP70, HSC70, HSP25, and αB-crystallin in the quadriceps muscles of male and female rats. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 groups (n = 5 M and F/group). The first group (Ctl) consisted of typically cage-housed animals that served as controls. The second group (H) was gonadectomized and received either testosterone (males) or estradiol (females) via injection for 12 consecutive days. The third group (Gx) was gonadectomized and injected as above, but with vehicle only, rather than hormones. Significant sex by condition interactions (P < 0.05 by two-way MANOVA) were found for all 4 proteins studied, except for HSP70, which exhibited a significant effect of condition only. The expression of all HSPs was greater (1.9-2.5-fold) in males vs. females in the Ctl group, except for HSP70, which was no different. Generally, gonadectomy appeared to have greater effects in males than females, but administration of the exogenous sex hormones tended to produce more robust relative changes in females than males. There were no differences in myosin composition in any of the groups, suggesting that changes in fiber type were not a factor in the differential protein expression. These data may have implications for sex-related differences in muscular responses to exercise, disuse, and injury.

  5. Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.; Monroe, Scott E.; Burnett, David A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in females. These findings suggested that sex differences in lipoprotein could reflect a sex steroid influence on the availability of fatty acids for hepatocellular triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present studies, sex steroid effects on hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization and FABP concentration were investigated directly. Hepatocytes from immature (30-d-old) rats exhibited no sex differences in [14C]oleate utilization. With maturation, total [14C]oleate utilization and triglyceride biosynthesis increased moderately in female cells and decreased markedly in male cells; the profound sex differences in adults were maximal by age 60 d. Fatty acid oxidation was little affected. Rats were castrated at age 30 d, and received estradiol, testosterone, or no hormone until age 60 d, when hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization was studied. Castration virtually eliminated maturational changes and blunted the sex differences in adults. Estradiol or testosterone largely reproduced the appropriate adult pattern of [14C]oleate utilization regardless of the genotypic sex of the treated animal. In immature females and males, total cytosolic FABP concentrations were similar. In 60-d-old animals, there was a striking correlation among all groups (females, males, castrates, and hormone-treated) between mean cytosolic FABP concentration on the one hand, and mean total [14C]oleate utilization (r = 0.91) and incorporation into triglycerides (r = 0.94) on the other. In 30-d-old animals rates of [14C

  6. Fate of sex hormones in two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants: conventional treatment.

    PubMed

    Esperanza, Mar; Suidan, Makram T; Marfil-Vega, Ruth; Gonzalez, Cristina; Sorial, George A; McCauley, Paul; Brenner, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormones in both the liquid and the solid matrixes of the plants were determined. Each of the two 20-l/h pilot-scale plants consisted of a primary clarifier followed by a three-stage aeration tank and a final clarifier. The primary sludge and the waste activated sludge (WAS) were digested anaerobically in one pilot plant and aerobically in the other. The pilot plants were fed a complex synthetic wastewater spiked with the hormones. Levels of testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone were close to method detection limit (MDL) concentrations in the final and digester effluents (both liquid and solid phases) and were considered as completely removed. Average mass flux removals from the liquid streams (plant influent minus secondary clarifier effluent) for the natural estrogens were 82% for E1, 99% for E2, and 89% for (E1+E2). An average overall removal of only 42% was achieved for EE2. These values reflect removals averaged for the two pilot plants.

  7. Sex hormones modulate the immune response to Plasmodium berghei ANKA in CBA/Ca mice.

    PubMed

    Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mosqueda-Romo, Néstor Aarón; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; Morales-Rodríguez, Ana Laura; Buendía-González, Fidel Orlando; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility to malaria differs between females and males, and this sexual dimorphism may have important implications for the effects of vaccines and drugs. However, little is known about the mechanisms mediating these sexual differences. Because the main differences between sexes are dictated by sex hormones, we studied the effect of gonadal steroids on immune responses to malaria in CBA/Ca mice. We decreased sex hormones levels by gonadectomy and evaluated the splenic index and the cells involved in the immune response, including T cells (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and NK(+)), B cells and macrophages (Mac-3(+)) in the spleens of female and male mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. In addition, we measured antibody and cytokine levels in blood. Gonadectomy increased T(+) and B(+) splenic cells in both sexes but increased Mac-3(+) cells only in male mice. By contrast, gonadectomy decreased the NK(+) cell population only in male mice. In general, female mice developed higher antibody levels than males. Contrary to our expectations, gonadectomy increased the synthesis of IgG1, IgG2b, IgG3, and total IgG in female mice, indicating negative regulation of antibody production by female sex hormones. Gonadectomy increased the synthesis of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) only in female mice, suggesting that female sex hormones have anti-inflammatory properties. This work demonstrates that the levels of sex hormones affect the immune response and should be considered when designing malaria vaccines.

  8. Influence of sex steroid hormones on the adolescent brain and behavior: An update.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Pilar; Del Río, Juan Pablo; Carrera, BÁrbara; ArÁnguiz, Florencia C; Rioseco, Hernán; Cortés, Manuel E

    2016-08-01

    This review explains the main effects exerted by sex steroids and other hormones on the adolescent brain. During the transition from puberty to adolescence, these hormones participate in the organizational phenomena that structurally shape some brain circuits. In adulthood, this will propitiate some specific behavior as responses to the hormones now activating those neural circuits. Adolescence is, then, a critical "organizational window" for the brain to develop adequately, since steroid hormones perform important functions at this stage. For this reason, the adolescent years are very important for future behaviors in human beings. Changes that occur or fail to occur during adolescence will determine behaviors for the rest of one's lifetime. Consequently, understanding the link between adolescent behavior and brain development as influenced by sex steroids and other hormones and compounds is very important in order to interpret various psycho-affective pathologies. Lay Summary : The effect of steroid hormones on the development of the adolescent brain, and therefore, on adolescent behavior, is noticeable. This review presents their main activational and organizational effects. During the transition from puberty to adolescence, organizational phenomena triggered by steroids structurally affect the remodeling of brain circuits. Later in adulthood, these changes will be reflected in behavioral responses to such hormones. Adolescence can then be seen as a fundamental "organizational window" during which sex steroids and other hormones and compounds play relevant roles. The understanding of the relationship between adolescent behavior and the way hormones influence brain development help understand some psychological disorders.

  9. Influence of sex steroid hormones on the adolescent brain and behavior: An update

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Pilar; del Río, Juan Pablo; Carrera, BÁrbara; ArÁnguiz, Florencia C.

    2016-01-01

    This review explains the main effects exerted by sex steroids and other hormones on the adolescent brain. During the transition from puberty to adolescence, these hormones participate in the organizational phenomena that structurally shape some brain circuits. In adulthood, this will propitiate some specific behavior as responses to the hormones now activating those neural circuits. Adolescence is, then, a critical “organizational window” for the brain to develop adequately, since steroid hormones perform important functions at this stage. For this reason, the adolescent years are very important for future behaviors in human beings. Changes that occur or fail to occur during adolescence will determine behaviors for the rest of one's lifetime. Consequently, understanding the link between adolescent behavior and brain development as influenced by sex steroids and other hormones and compounds is very important in order to interpret various psycho-affective pathologies. Lay Summary: The effect of steroid hormones on the development of the adolescent brain, and therefore, on adolescent behavior, is noticeable. This review presents their main activational and organizational effects. During the transition from puberty to adolescence, organizational phenomena triggered by steroids structurally affect the remodeling of brain circuits. Later in adulthood, these changes will be reflected in behavioral responses to such hormones. Adolescence can then be seen as a fundamental “organizational window” during which sex steroids and other hormones and compounds play relevant roles. The understanding of the relationship between adolescent behavior and the way hormones influence brain development help understand some psychological disorders. PMID:27833209

  10. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors.

  11. Local synthesis of sex hormones: are there consequences for the ocular surface and dry eye?

    PubMed

    Gibson, Emma J; Stapleton, Fiona; Wolffsohn, James S; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2017-08-16

    Sex hormones are associated with the physiology and pathophysiology of almost all organs in the body, as well as most diseases. Interest in the associations between sex hormones and ocular tissues has increased in recent years. Androgens may have a positive effect on dry eye, whereas the effects of oestrogen on ocular conditions remain unclear. Intracrinology, the local synthesis and metabolism of hormones that is unique to humans, is of relevance to the eye and may help to explain why studies of the relationship between oestrogens and dry eye signs and symptoms are inconclusive. Knowledge of the pathways of hormone formation and metabolism is crucial to understanding the pathogenesis of ocular disease including dry eye. This review examines the mechanisms of steroidal sex hormone biosynthesis and reviews the significance of locally produced sex hormones, with a focus on ocular surface tissues. Much of the current literature is based on animal studies, which may not be transferable to humans due to the absence of intracrine production in animals. A large proportion of the human studies investigate systemic hormone levels rather than local levels. There is subsequently a need for additional studies to provide a better understanding of the local production of sex hormones within the human eye and ocular surface and to clarify the relationships between ocular levels of sex hormones and conditions including dry eye. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Vellers, Heather L.; Letsinger, Ayland C.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Granados, Jorge Z.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s) may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD) or high fat/high sugar (HFHS) diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males) and 17β-estradiol (females) to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity. Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀) were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001) and had significantly higher body fat (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001). The HFHS diet did not reduce sex hormone levels, but did significantly reduce acute running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28%) and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%). In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat. Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones. PMID:28890701

  13. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement.

    PubMed

    Vellers, Heather L; Letsinger, Ayland C; Walker, Nicholas R; Granados, Jorge Z; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s) may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD) or high fat/high sugar (HFHS) diet for 9-11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males) and 17β-estradiol (females) to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity. Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀) were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001) and had significantly higher body fat (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001). The HFHS diet did not reduce sex hormone levels, but did significantly reduce acute running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28%) and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%). In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat. Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones.

  14. Concentrations of triiodothyronine, growth hormone, and luteinizing hormone in the plasma of thyroidectomised fowl (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Sterling, R J; Klandorf, H

    1983-05-01

    Surgical thyroidectomy increased (P less than 0.05) the basal concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the plasma of 10- to 12-week-old domestic fowl. The administration of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) (100 micrograms, sc) increased (P less than 0.01) the GH concentration in both intact and thyroidectomised birds. The magnitude of the TRH-induced increase in GH level was greater (P less than 0.01) in thyroidectomised birds than in intact controls. Although TRH had no effect on LH secretion in the controls, it induced a small (P less than 0.05) rise in the plasma LH level in thyroidectomised birds. In both the intact and thyroidectomised birds the LH concentration was enhanced (P less than 0.05) following the administration of LH-releasing hormone (LH-RH) (20 micrograms, sc). The increase in the LH level by LH-RH in the thyroidectomised birds was greater (P less than 0.001) than that in the intact controls. Plasma GH concentrations were unaffected by LH-RH treatment. These results suggest that thyroid hormones inhibit the secretion of LH and GH in birds. In thyroidectomised birds low levels of immunoreactive triiodothyronine (T3)-like material were measurable in the circulation, despite the absence of regenerated thyroid tissue. The administration of TRH (100 micrograms, sc) did not enhance the plasma level of this material in thyroidectomised birds, whereas plasma T3 concentrations were enhanced in intact birds following TRH treatment. These results suggest that the T3 immunoreactive substance in thyroidectomised birds is extrathyroidal in origin.

  15. Sex effect on polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in fish: a synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate in fish primarily via food intake, and therefore, PCBs serve as a chemical tracer for food consumption. Sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish have been attributed to the following three mechanisms: (i) females losing a substantial portion of their PCB body burden during spawning and consequently their PCB concentration is considerably reduced immediately after spawning; (ii) sex differences in habitat utilization leading to sex differences in the PCB concentrations of the prey; and (iii) sex differences in gross growth efficiency, which is defined as growth divided by the amount of food consumption needed to achieve that growth. Based on my analyses and synthesis, mechanisms (i) and (ii) operate in relatively few fish populations, but can lead to mature males having PCB concentrations two to three times higher than mature female PCB concentrations. In contrast, mechanism (iii) operates in all fish populations, but typically, mechanism (iii) results in relatively modest sex differences, with mature males only between 15 and 35% higher in PCB concentration than mature females. In summary, the study of sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish has led to insights into fish behaviour and fish physiology.

  16. The effect of sex hormones on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression and activity in mature adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiromi; Sugai, Hana; Kurosaki, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Momoko; Funaki, Asami; Kimura, Yuki; Ueno, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ plays a major role in the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Pioglitazone is a PPARγ agonist that is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, female patients have been reported to experience stronger efficacy and adverse effects than male patients. This study evaluated the effects of sex hormones on PPARγ expression and activity in adipocytes. Mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were used after being grown into matured adipocytes. The sex hormones 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), or 5α-androstan-17β-ol-3-one (dihydrotestosterone; DHT) were added to the matured adipocytes and the cells were then maintained for short (24-72 h) or long (1- or 2-weeks) periods. E2 significantly upregulated PPARγ protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner after extended exposure, whereas T and DHT did not have such an effect. When cells were co-treated with pioglitazone and E2, PPARγ protein expression significantly increased in an E2-dependent manner, whereas this expression seemed to be reduced by pioglitazone mono-treatment and co-treatment with DHT at higher concentrations. The secretion levels of adiponectin protein, a major indicator of PPARγ activity, were significantly decreased by DHT, but were not affected by E2. Finally a luciferase assay was performed using a PPAR response element-Luk reporter gene. Transcriptional activity was not changed by any of single sex hormone treatment, but was significantly downregulated by co-treatment with pioglitazone and DHT. Taken together, our results suggest that sex hormones may influence PPARγ expression and function, which may explain the observed sex-specific different effect of pioglitazone.

  17. Dysregulation of male sex hormones in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    El-Serafi, A T; Osama, S; El-Zalat, H; EL-Deen, I M

    2016-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection is a serious problem all over the world and has a special importance in Egypt, where the prevalence of infection is 14.7% of population. In males, HCV is associated with sexual dysfunction and changes in the semen parameters. This study aimed at estimation of a panel of the most important related hormones in the serum of patients and illustration of their correlation to the routine laboratory investigations. The four studied hormones showed alteration in the patients in comparison with the controls. While androstenedione, prolactin and testosterone were significantly increased in patients, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was decreased. These changes in the hormones were not related to the liver functions, pathological grade or even viral load. We hypothesised a model of how HCV can induce these hormonal changes and recommended to add these hormones to the follow-up panel of male patients with HCV.

  18. Effects of Sex Hormones on Ocular Surface Epithelia: Lessons Learned From Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Macchi, Ilaria; Massaro-Giordano, Giacomina; Cozzupoli, Grazia Maria; Lambiase, Alessandro; Bonini, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality in women of reproductive age. Although its clinical consequences have been known for a long time to extend beyond the reproductive system, with type-2 diabetes and obesity being the most common, the involvement of the ocular surface in PCOS has been described only more recently. The ocular surface is a morphofunctional unit comprising eyelid margin, tear film, cornea, and conjunctiva. Increasing evidence indicates that these structures are under a sex hormone control and relevant diseases such as ocular allergy and dry eye are often caused by alterations in circulating or local steroid hormones levels. Novel treatments targeting sex hormone receptors on ocular surface epithelial cells are also being developed. In this review we aim to describe the current knowledge on the effects of sex hormones at the ocular surface, with a special focus on the effects of androgen imbalance in PCOS.

  19. Hormone-Dependence of Sarin Lethality in Rats: Sex Differences and Stage of the Estrous Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    Literature 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: sex differences and stage of the...U01NS058183-07S1. 14. ABSTRACT See reprint. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Sarin, nerve agents, sex differences, estrous cycle, LD50 16. SECURITY...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: Sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle Carl D. Smith ⁎, Linnzi K.M

  20. Fetal sex alters maternal anti-Mullerian hormone during pregnancy in cattle.

    PubMed

    Stojsin-Carter, Anja; Costa, Nathalia N; De Morais, Rodrigo; De Bem, Tiago H; Costa, Mayra P; Carter, Timothy F; Gillis, Daniel J; Neal, Michael S; Ohashi, Otavio M; Miranda, Moyses S; Meirelles, Flavio V; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2017-09-22

    Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is expressed by both male and female fetuses during mammalian development, with males expressing AMH earlier and at significantly higher concentration. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential impact of pregnancy and fetal sex on maternal AMH and to determine if plasma (Pl) AMH or placenta intercotyledonary membrane and cotyledonary AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) mRNA expression differ in pregnant cows carrying male vs. female fetuses. AMH levels in blood were measured using a bovine optimized ELISA kit. Cows pregnant with a male fetus were observed to have a significantly greater difference in Pl AMH between day 35 and 135 of gestation. Average fetal AMH level between 54 and 220days of gestation was also observed to be significantly higher in male vs. female fetuses. Intercotyledonary membranes and cotyledons were found to express AMHR2 between days 38 and 80 of gestation at similar levels in both fetal sexes. These findings support the hypothesis that fetal sex alters maternal Pl AMH during pregnancy in cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Changes in molecular forms of sex hormone binding globulin during menstrual cycle and menopause].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, M E; Masón, M; Ochoa, R; Hernández-V, M; Zárate, A

    1996-11-01

    Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein that transports mainly androgens and estrogens regulating the amount of free and bound hormone which in turn plays a role in the metabolic balance. It is also known that estrogens increase the hepatic production of SHBG which circulates in various molecular forms containing different amounts of sialic acid as the main component of carbohydrates. In the present work we studied physiological variations of molecular forms of SHBG during the normal menstrual cycle and the menopause. During the follicular phase the form 54 KD was the predominant variant, in the periovulatory period was isomers 90 KD, and during the luteal phase corresponded to both 54 and 90 KD. In the menopause dimeric form of 90 KD corresponded to the major proportion and was present a higher molecular forms of 115-135 KD. Following estrogen therapy the chromatographic profile changed as to that observed during the menstrual cycle. Important changes in the proportion of sialic acid were observed in each of the phases of menstrual cycle and following estrogen replacement. And increase in the amount of sialic acid corresponded to higher estrogen concentrations. It is concluded that SHBG concentrations varies during the menstrual cycle according the estrogen levels which in addition regulates the proportion of molecular forms and sialic acid containt.

  2. Sex differences in immune responses: Hormonal effects, antagonistic selection, and evolutionary consequences.

    PubMed

    Roved, Jacob; Westerdahl, Helena; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    Males and females differ in both parasite load and the strength of immune responses and these effects have been verified in humans and other vertebrates. Sex hormones act as important modulators of immune responses; the male sex hormone testosterone is generally immunosuppressive while the female sex hormone estrogen tends to be immunoenhancing. Different sets of T-helper cells (Th) have important roles in adaptive immunity, e.g. Th1 cells trigger type 1 responses which are primarily cell-mediated, and Th2 cells trigger type 2 responses which are primarily humoral responses. In our review of the literature, we find that estrogen and progesterone enhance type 2 and suppress type 1 responses in females, whereas testosterone suppresses type 2 responses and shows an inconsistent pattern for type 1 responses in males. When we combine these patterns of generally immunosuppressive and immunoenhancing effects of the sex hormones, our results imply that the sex differences in immune responses should be particularly strong in immune functions associated with type 2 responses, and less pronounced with type 1 responses. In general the hormone-mediated sex differences in immune responses may lead to genetic sexual conflicts on immunity. Thus, we propose the novel hypothesis that sexually antagonistic selection may act on immune genes shared by the sexes, and that the strength of this sexually antagonistic selection should be stronger for type 2- as compared with type 1-associated immune genes. Finally, we put the consequences of sex hormone-induced effects on immune responses into behavioral and ecological contexts, considering social mating system, sexual selection, geographical distribution of hosts, and parasite abundance.

  3. Influences of menstrual cycle position and sex hormone levels on spontaneous intrusive recollections following emotional stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Ferree, Nikole K.; Kamat, Rujvi; Cahill, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous intrusive recollections (SIRs) are known to follow emotional events in clinical and nonclinical populations. Previous work in our lab has found that women report more SIRs than men after exposure to emotional films, and that this effect is driven entirely by women in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. To replicate and extend this finding, participants viewed emotional films, provided saliva samples for sex hormone concentration analysis, and estimated SIR frequency following film viewing. Women in the luteal phase reported significantly more SIRs than did women in the follicular phase, and SIR frequency significantly correlated with salivary progesterone levels. The results are consistent with an emerging pattern in the literature suggesting that menstrual cycle position of female participants can potently influence findings in numerous cognitive domains. The potential implications of these results for disorders characterized by intrusions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, are also discussed. PMID:21353599

  4. Reduced-calorie dietary weight loss, exercise, and sex hormones in postmenopausal women: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kristin L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Alfano, Catherine M; Wang, Chia-Chi; Wang, Ching-Yun; Duggan, Catherine R; Mason, Caitlin; Imayama, Ikuyo; Kong, Angela; Xiao, Liren; Bain, Carolyn E; Blackburn, George L; Stanczyk, Frank Z; McTiernan, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Estrogens and androgens are elevated in obesity and associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, but the effect of weight loss on these biomarkers is unknown. We evaluated the individual and combined effects of a reduced-calorie weight loss diet and exercise on serum sex hormones in overweight and obese postmenopausal women. We conducted a single-blind, 12-month, randomized controlled trial from 2005 to 2009. Participants (age 50 to 75 years; body mass index > 25.0 kg/m(2), exercising < 100 minutes/wk) were randomly assigned using a computer-generated sequence to (1) reduced-calorie weight loss diet ("diet"; n = 118), (2) moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise ("exercise"; n = 117), (3) combined reduced-calorie weight loss diet and moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise ("diet + exercise"; n = 117), or (4) control (n = 87). Outcomes were estrone concentration (primary) and estradiol, free estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (secondary). Mean age and body mass index were 58 years and 30.9 kg/m(2), respectively. Compared with controls, estrone decreased 9.6% (P = .001) with diet, 5.5% (P = .01) with exercise, and 11.1% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Estradiol decreased 16.2% (P < .001) with diet, 4.9% (P = .10) with exercise, and 20.3% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. SHBG increased 22.4% (P < .001) with diet and 25.8% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Free estradiol decreased 21.4% (P < .001) with diet and 26.0% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Free testosterone decreased 10.0% (P < .001) with diet and 15.6% (P < .001) with diet + exercise. Greater weight loss produced stronger effects on estrogens and SHBG. Weight loss significantly lowered serum estrogens and free testosterone, supporting weight loss for risk reduction through lowering exposure to breast cancer biomarkers.

  5. Association of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin with depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women: the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, Laura A; Craft, Lynette L; Ouyang, Pamela; Liu, Kiang; Schreiner, Pamela J; Michos, Erin D; Gapstur, Susan M

    2012-08-01

    Sex hormones are thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders in women. This study assessed the associations of total testosterone (T), bioavailable T, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with depressive symptoms stratified on postmenopausal stage to determine whether the associations were strongest for early postmenopausal women. Women (N = 1,824) free of depressive symptoms at baseline (2000-2002) in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were categorized into tertiles of years postmenopause: T1, 0 to 10 years; T2, 11 to 20 years; and T3, 21 to 58 years. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were computed for the incidence of depressive symptoms, as defined by a score of 16 or higher on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale at examination 3 (2004-2005). In analysis including all sex hormones, the RR for incident depressive symptoms associated with 1 unit higher log total T was 0.57 (P = 0.13), with log estradiol was 0.78 (P = 0.04), with log SHBG was 1.84 (P = 0.003), and with log dehydroepiandrosterone was 1.45 (P = 0.08) in T1. Without adjustment for SHBG, the RR for log bioavailable T was 0.16 (P = 0.04). However, in T2 and T3, there were no meaningful associations of hormone or SHBG levels with incident depressive symptoms. When stratified by HT use, results were consistent for HT users but attenuated for HT nonusers. In early postmenopausal women, sex hormones were associated with incident depressive symptoms.

  6. Integrating insulin-like growth factor 1 and sex hormones into neuroprotection: Implications for diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Jacob; Hoffmann, Christina; Taylor, George T

    2017-01-01

    Brain integrity and cognitive aptitude are often impaired in patients with diabetes mellitus, presumably a result of the metabolic complications inherent to the disease. However, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated the central role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and its relation to sex hormones in many neuroprotective processes. Both male and female patients with diabetes display abnormal IGF1 and sex-hormone levels but the comparison of these fluctuations is seldom a topic of interest. It is interesting to note that both IGF1 and sex hormones have the ability to regulate phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases-extracellular signal-related kinase signaling cascades in animal and cell culture models of neuroprotection. Additionally, there is considerable evidence demonstrating the neuroprotective coupling of IGF1 and estrogen. Androgens have also been implicated in many neuroprotective processes that operate on similar signaling cascades as the estrogen-IGF1 relation. Yet, androgens have not been directly linked to the brain IGF1 system and neuroprotection. Despite the sex-specific variations in brain integrity and hormone levels observed in diabetic patients, the IGF1-sex hormone relation in neuroprotection has yet to be fully substantiated in experimental models of diabetes. Taken together, there is a clear need for the comprehensive analysis of sex differences on brain integrity of diabetic patients and the relationship between IGF1 and sex hormones that may influence brain-health outcomes. As such, this review will briefly outline the basic relation of diabetes and IGF1 and its role in neuroprotection. We will also consider the findings on sex hormones and diabetes as a basis for separately analyzing males and females to identify possible hormone-induced brain abnormalities. Finally, we will introduce the neuroprotective interplay of IGF1 and estrogen and how androgen-derived neuroprotection operates through

  7. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells express functional pituitary and gonadal sex hormone receptors: Therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    PONIEWIERSKA-BARAN, AGATA; SCHNEIDER, GABRIELA; SUN, WENYUE; ABDELBASET-ISMAIL, AHMED; BARR, FREDERIC G.; RATAJCZAK, MARIUSZ Z.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that sex hormones play an important role in several types of cancer. Because they are also involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, we were therefore interested in their potential involvement in the pathogenesis of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a skeletal muscle tumor. In the present study, we employed eight RMS cell lines (three fusion positive and five fusion negative RMS cell lines) and mRNA samples obtained from RMS patients. The expression of sex hormone receptors was evaluated by RT-PCR and their functionality by chemotaxis, adhesion and direct cell proliferation assays. We report here for the first time that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors are expressed in established human RMS cell lines as well as in primary tumor samples isolated from RMS patients. We also report that human RMS cell lines responded both to pituitary and gonadal sex hormone stimulation by enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion and phosphorylation of MAPKp42/44 and AKT. In summary, our results indicate that sex hormones are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of RMS, and therefore, their therapeutic application should be avoided in patients that have been diagnosed with RMS. PMID:26983595

  8. Resistance training restores muscle sex steroid hormone steroidogenesis in older men.

    PubMed

    Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Matsutani, Kenji; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Fujita, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    Skeletal muscle can synthesize testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) via steroidogenic enzymes in vitro, but hormone levels and steroidogenic enzyme expression decline with aging. Resistance exercise has been shown to increase in plasma sex steroid hormone levels. However, it remains unclear whether resistance training can restore impaired steroidogenic enzyme expressions in older individuals. Six young and 13 older men were recruited, and muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis at basal state. The same group of older subjects underwent resistance training involving knee extension and flexion exercises for 12 wk, and post-training biopsies were performed 4-5 d after the last exercise session. Muscular sex steroid hormone levels and sex steroidgenesis-related enzyme expressions were significantly lower in older subjects than younger ones at baseline, but 12 wk of resistance training significantly restored hormone levels (DHEA: 432±26 at baseline, 682±31 pg/μg protein, DHT: 6.2±0.9 at baseline, 9.8±1.4 pg/μg protein). Furthermore, the steroidogenesis-related enzymes such as 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 17β-HSD, and 5α-reductase expressions were significantly restored by resistance training. We conclude progressive resistance training restores age-related declines in sex steroidogenic enzyme and muscle sex steroid hormone levels in older men.

  9. Effect of Nitric Oxide on Neointimal Hyperplasia based on Sex and Hormone Status

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Melissa E.; Varu, Vinit N.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Popowich, Daniel A.; Banerjee, Monisha N.; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-based therapies decrease neointimal hyperplasia; however, studies have only been performed in male animal models. Thus, we sought to evaluate the effect of NO on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vitro and neointimal hyperplasia in vivo based on sex and hormone status. In hormone-replete media, male VSMC proliferated at greater rates than female VSMC. In hormone-deplete media, female VSMC proliferated at greater rates than male VSMC. However, in both hormone environments, NO inhibited proliferation and migration to a greater extent in male versus female VSMC. These findings correlated with greater G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and changes in cell cycle protein expression in male versus female VSMC following exposure to NO. Next, the rat carotid artery injury model was performed to assess the effect of NO on neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. Consistent with the in vitro data, NO was significantly more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in hormonally intact males versus females using weight-based dosing. An increased weight-based dose of NO in females was able to achieve efficacy equal to that in males. Surprisingly, NO was less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both sexes in castrated animals. In conclusion, these data suggest that NO inhibits neointimal hyperplasia more effectively in males than females and in hormonally-intact compared to castrated rats, indicating that the effect of NO in the vasculature may be sex- and hormone-dependent. PMID:21256959

  10. Effect of nitric oxide on neointimal hyperplasia based on sex and hormone status.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Melissa E; Varu, Vinit N; Vavra, Ashley K; Popowich, Daniel A; Banerjee, Monisha N; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Saavedra, Joseph E; Keefer, Larry K; Kibbe, Melina R

    2011-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-based therapies decrease neointimal hyperplasia; however, studies have been performed only in male animal models. Thus, we sought to evaluate the effect of NO on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vitro and neointimal hyperplasia in vivo based on sex and hormone status. In hormone-replete medium, male VSMC proliferated at greater rates than female VSMC. In hormone-depleted medium, female VSMC proliferated at greater rates than male VSMC. However, in both hormone environments, NO inhibited proliferation and migration to a greater extent in male compared to female VSMC. These findings correlated with greater G₀/G₁ cell cycle arrest and changes in cell cycle protein expression in male compared to female VSMC after exposure to NO. Next, the rat carotid artery injury model was used to assess the effect of NO on neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. Consistent with the in vitro data, NO was significantly more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in hormonally intact males compared to females using weight-based dosing. An increased weight-based dose of NO in females was able to achieve efficacy equal to that in males. Surprisingly, NO was less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in castrated animals of both sexes. In conclusion, these data suggest that NO inhibits neointimal hyperplasia more effectively in males compared to females and in hormonally intact compared to castrated rats, indicating that the effects of NO in the vasculature may be sex- and hormone-dependent.

  11. Mercury concentrations of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Francis, James T.; Braunscheidel, Jeffrey J.; Bohr, Joseph R.; Geiger, Matthew J.; Knottnerus, G. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Patterns in relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes across many species of fish may reveal clues for important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes, and may also be useful in developing fish consumption advisories and efficient designs for programs meant to monitor contaminant levels in fish. We determined skin-off fillet and whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 28 adult female and 26 adult male bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) from Squaw Lake, Oakland County, Michigan (MI), USA. Bioenergetics modeling was used to quantify the effect of growth dilution on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. On average, skin-off fillet and whole-fish Hg concentrations were 25.4% higher and 26.6% higher, respectively, in females compared with males. Thus, the relative difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes for skin-off fillets was nearly identical to that for whole fish. However, mean skin-off fillet Hg concentration (363 ng/g) was 2.3 times greater than mean whole-fish Hg concentration (155 ng/g). Males grew substantially faster than females, and bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for females having 14.4% higher Hg concentrations than males. Our findings should be useful in revising fish consumption advisories.

  12. Relationship between dietary carbohydrates intake and circulating sex hormone-binding globulin levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mengna; Liu, Jinjie; Lin, Xiaochen; Goto, Atsushi; Song, Yiqing; Tinker, Lesley F; Chan, Kei-Hang Katie; Liu, Simin

    2017-03-17

    Low circulating levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) have been shown to be a direct and strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hormone-dependent cancers, although the relationship between various aspects of dietary carbohydrates and SHBG levels remains unexplored in population studies. Among postmenopausal women with available SHBG measurements at baseline (n = 11 159) in the Women's Health Initiative, a comprehensive assessment was conducted of total dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load (GL), glycemic index (GI), fiber, sugar, and various carbohydrate-abundant foods in relation to circulating SHBG levels using multiple linear regressions adjusting for potential covariates. Linear trend was tested across quartiles of dietary variables. Benjamini and Hochberg's procedure was used to calculate the false discovery rate for multiple comparisons. Higher dietary GL and GI (both based on total and available carbohydrates) and a higher intake of sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages were associated with lower circulating SHBG concentrations (all P trend  < 0.05; Q -values = 0.04,0.01, 0.07, 0.10, 0.01, and <0.0001, respectively). In contrast, women with a greater intake of dietary fiber tended to have elevated SHBG levels (P trend  = 0.01, Q -value = 0.04). There was no significant association between total carbohydrates or other carbohydrate-abundant foods and SHBG concentrations. The findings suggest that low GL or GI diets with low sugar and high fiber content may be associated with higher serum SHBG concentrations among postmenopausal women. Future studies investigating whether lower GL or GI diets increase SHBG concentrations are warranted. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Effects of levetiracetam and valproic acid monotherapy on sex-steroid hormones in prepubertal children--results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rauchenzauner, Markus; Bitsche, Gabriele; Svalheim, Sigrid; Tauboll, Erik; Haberlandt, Edda; Wildt, Ludwig; Rostasy, Kevin; Luef, Gerhard

    2010-02-01

    The influence of levetiracetam (LEV) and valproic acid (VPA) monotherapy on sex-steroid hormone profile was investigated in thirty prepubertal children. VPA-treated children showed greatest androstendione concentrations when compared to LEV treated children (p=0.016) and to controls (p=0.011). All other reproductive endocrine hormones were similar among groups. In conclusion, LEV does not seem to induce changes in reproductive endocrine functions as well as clinically relevant endocrine side effects in prepubertal children.

  14. Gestational urinary bisphenol A and maternal and newborn thyroid hormone concentrations: The HOME Study

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Megan E.; Webster, Glenys M.; Vuong, Ann M.; Thomas Zoeller, R.; Chen, Aimin; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Braun, Joseph M.

    2015-04-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor used in consumer products, may perturb thyroid function. Prenatal BPA exposure may have sex-specific effects on thyroid hormones (THs). Our objectives were to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy were associated with THs in maternal or cord serum, and whether these associations differed by newborn sex or maternal iodine status. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at 16 and 26 weeks gestation among pregnant women in the HOME Study (2003–2006, Cincinnati, Ohio). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free and total thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) were measured in maternal serum at 16 weeks (n=181) and cord serum at delivery (n=249). Associations between BPA concentrations and maternal or cord serum TH levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Mean maternal urinary BPA was not associated with cord THs in all newborns, but a 10-fold increase in mean BPA was associated with lower cord TSH in girls (percent change=−36.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −58.4, −1.7%), but not boys (7.8%; 95% CI: −28.5, 62.7%; p-for-effect modification=0.09). We observed no significant associations between 16-week BPA and THs in maternal or cord serum, but 26-week maternal BPA was inversely associated with TSH in girls (−42.9%; 95% CI: −59.9, −18.5%), but not boys (7.6%; 95% CI: −17.3, 40.2%; p-for-effect modification=0.005) at birth. The inverse BPA–TSH relation among girls was stronger, but less precise, among iodine deficient versus sufficient mothers. Prenatal BPA exposure may reduce TSH among newborn girls, particularly when exposure occurs later in gestation. - Highlights: • Examined associations of BPA with thyroid hormones in pregnant women and newborns. • Assessed effect modification of BPA–thyroid hormone associations by newborn sex. • Greater BPA related to decreased thyroid stimulating hormone in girls' cord serum. • Results may

  15. Do sex hormones play a role in ankylosing spondylitis?

    PubMed

    Masi, A T

    1992-02-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has a striking disease marker, i.e., HLA-B27, indicating the major genetic predisposition; however, expression of disease is also strongly influenced by age- and sex-related factors. Sex steroids studies suggest greater androgenicity in AS than normal control persons. Therapeutic interventions that normalize such sex steroid status have shown clinical improvements in males and females. Muscle histopathology in AS shows frequent changes early in disease consistent with neuropathic and myopathic mechanisms of a noninflammatory nature. Accepting the available, aggregate data, one may infer that sex steroid imbalance in persons susceptible to AS may target axial and proximal muscle tissues, resulting in relative functional hypertonicity. Such phenomenon, developing in preteen and younger adult ages, may contribute to peripheral and axial manifestations of enthesopathy in this disease by complex and currently unknown mechanisms.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls, sex steroid hormones and liver retinoids in adult male European common frogs Rana temporaria.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Mattis; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2006-05-01

    Declines in amphibian populations and species biodiversity during the last decades has called for an assessment of possible threats to these animals. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known endocrine disrupting contaminants and are found in high levels in some populations of wild living amphibians. To evaluate the endocrine disrupting potential of PCBs in adult frogs, Aroclor 1,254 were subcutaneously injected into male European common frogs Rana temporaria. The injected doses ranged from 0.01 to 100 mg/kg body mass, resulting in liver concentrations between 74 and 133,619 microg/kg ww. After 14 days, serum testosterone (T), estradiol (E) and hepatic retinol (R) and retinylpalmitate (RP) were easured. No dose dependent effects were found on levels of hormones or retinoids. However, a significantly higher within-group variation in the E-T ratio in the exposed groups may indicate that the sex-hormone homeostasis of male R. temporaria is affected by PCBs shortly after arousal from hibernation, but that the effects are subtle and that several different mechanisms are involved. The lack of direct effect on T, E, R and RP may be due to the timing of exposure (shortly after arousal from hibernation), or due to a relatively short exposure time to Aroclor 1,254. Based on the results, we propose that future research should focus on effects of PCBs in relation to the different physiological phases frogs experience throughout the year (hibernation, reproduction etc.).

  17. Subcortical gray matter changes in transgender subjects after long-term cross-sex hormone administration.

    PubMed

    Seiger, Rene; Hahn, Andreas; Hummer, Allan; Kranz, Georg S; Ganger, Sebastian; Woletz, Michael; Kraus, Christoph; Sladky, Ronald; Kautzky, Alexander; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-12-01

    Sex-steroid hormones are primarily involved in sexual differentiation and development and are thought to underlie processes related to cognition and emotion. However, divergent results have been reported concerning the effects of hormone administration on brain structure including side effects like brain atrophy and dementia. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender subjects offers a unique model for studying the effects of sex hormones on the living human brain. In this study, 25 Female-to-Male (FtM) and 14 Male-to-Female (MtF) subjects underwent MRI examinations at baseline and after a period of at least 4-months of continuous cross-sex hormone administration. While MtFs received estradiol and anti-androgens, FtM subjects underwent high-dose testosterone treatment. The longitudinal processing stream of the FreeSurfer software suite was used for the automated assessment and delineation of brain volumes to assess the structural changes over the treatment period of cross-sex hormone administration. Most prominent results were found for MtFs receiving estradiol and anti-androgens in the form of significant decreases in the hippocampal region. Further analysis revealed that these decreases were reflected by increases in the ventricles. Additionally, changes in progesterone levels correlated with changes in gray matter structures in MtF subjects. In line with prior studies, our results indicate hormonal influences on subcortical structures related to memory and emotional processing. Additionally, this study adds valuable knowledge that progesterone may play an important role in this process.

  18. Associations Between Sex Hormone Levels and Periodontitis in Men: Results From NHANES III.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Joao Paulo; Wang, Xiaoshan; Starr, Jacqueline R; Spolidorio, Luis Carlos; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2015-10-01

    Sex hormones are linked to inflammation and bone turnover. The goal of this study is to explore the association between sex hormone levels and periodontitis in men using data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Data from 755 men (aged ≥ 30 years), including serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, and androstenediol glucuronide, were analyzed. Calculated bioavailable testosterone (CBT) and estradiol-to-testosterone ratio were calculated. Periodontitis was defined using the latest classification of extent and severity of periodontitis for NHANES data (≥ 2 interproximal sites with ≥ 3 mm attachment loss, ≥ 2 interproximal sites with probing depth [PD] ≥ 4 mm not on the same tooth, or one site with PD ≥ 5 mm). Sex hormones were evaluated as categorized and continuous variables. Correlations between the presence and severity of periodontitis and levels of sex hormones were determined and expressed as odds ratios (ORs). When adjusted for confounding factors, high total testosterone (TT) and CBT levels correlated with both the prevalence (OR [95% confidence interval (CI)], 2.1 [1 to 4.5] and 3.9 [1 to 14.8], respectively) and severity (OR [95% CI], 2.1 [1 to 4.3] and 3.4 [1.2 to 9.8]) of periodontitis. When continuous variables were used, the ORs (95% CIs) for presence and severity of periodontitis were 1.4 (0.6 to 3.3) and 1.5 (0.6 to 3.6) for TT and 1.3 (0.9 to 1.9) and 1.3 (0.9 to 1.8) for CBT, respectively. These findings are consistent with the existence of an association of periodontitis with sex hormone levels, especially testosterone, in men.

  19. Effect of ovarian hormones on serum adiponectin and resistin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chalvatzas, Nektarios; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Kosmas, Georgios; Kallitsaris, Athanasios; Pournaras, Spyros; Messinis, Ioannis E

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the effect of ovarian hormones on adiponectin and resistin levels in women. Experimental study. University hospital. Thirteen normally cycling women (7 in group 1 and 6 in group 2) and 8 postmenopausal women (group 3). Women of group 1 were investigated in a control cycle and in a subsequent cycle in which total abdominal hysterectomy plus bilateral salpingooophorectomy (TAH+BSO) was performed on day 3. In both cycles, the women received increasing doses of E(2) from days 3 to 5. Women of group 2 underwent TAH+BSO on day 3 without receiving any hormonal treatment. Women of group 3 received increasing doses of E(2) for 15 days. Adiponectin, resistin, and E(2) concentrations. In group 1, serum adiponectin and resistin levels did not show any significant changes for the week following day 3 and were similar in the two cycles. In group 2, adiponectin and resistin levels were similar before and after TAH+BSO and remained stable during the first postoperative week. In group 3, no significant changes in adiponectin and resistin levels were seen during the 15 days of E(2) administration. Adiponectin and resistin values were not affected either by estrogen treatment or after ovariectomy in women. It is suggested that ovarian hormones are not involved in the regulation of adiponectin and resistin secretion in women.

  20. Comparison of sex hormonal and metabolic profiles between omnivores and vegetarians in pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Karelis, Antony D; Fex, Annie; Filion, Marie-Eve; Adlercreutz, Herman; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the sex hormonal and metabolic profiles in vegetarians and compare these with the profiles in omnivores. The design of the present study was cross-sectional. The study sample of pre- and post-menopausal women included forty-one omnivores and twenty-one vegetarians. Thereafter we determined: (1) plasma sex hormones, (2) fasting insulin, NEFA as well as apo-A and apo-B, (3) BMI, (4) a dietary profile (3 d dietary records), (5) physical activity and (6) total faecal excretion per 72 h and total urinary excretion per 72 h. Vegetarians showed higher levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), apo-A, total faecal excretion per 72 h and total fibre intake as well as lower levels of apo-B, free oestradiol, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) and BMI. Interestingly, after controlling for BMI, significant differences between groups still persisted except for apo-B. Moreover, stepwise regression analysis showed that total fibre intake explained 15.2 % of the variation in SHBG in our cohort, which accounted for the greatest source of unique variance. Results of the present study indicate that pre- and post-menopausal vegetarians present higher concentrations of SHBG, which could be explained, in part, by higher levels of fibre intake. This may explain, at least in part, the lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

  1. When hormone defects cannot explain it: malformative disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Grinspon, Romina P; Rey, Rodolfo A

    2014-12-01

    The birth of a baby with malformations of the genitalia urges medical action. Even in cases where the condition is not life-threatening, the identification of the external genitalia as male or female is emotionally essential for the family, and genital malformations represent one of the most stressful situations around a newborn. The female or male configuration of the genitalia normally evolves during fetal life according to the genetic, gonadal, and hormonal sex. Disorders of sex development occur when male hormone (androgens and anti-Müllerian hormone) secretion or action is insufficient in the 46,XY fetus or when there is an androgen excess in the 46,XX fetus. However, sex hormone defects during fetal development cannot explain all congenital malformations of the reproductive tract. This review is focused on those congenital conditions in which gonadal function and sex hormone target organ sensitivity are normal and, therefore, not responsible for the genital malformation. Furthermore, because the reproductive and urinary systems share many common pathways in embryo-fetal development, conditions associating urogenital malformations are discussed.

  2. GONADAL HORMONE INDEPENDENT SEX DIFFERENCES IN STEROIDOGENIC FACTOR 1 KNOCKOUT MICE BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Büdefeld, Tomaž; Tobet, Stuart A.; Majdič, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Summary Sex differences in brain morphology have been described in a number of species including humans. Gonadal hormones were shown to provide a major influence on brain sexual differentiation more than 50 years ago. A growing number of studies is providing evidence for roles of genetic factors, in particular sex chromosome complement, on brain sexual differentiation in mammals. In this review, hormone-independent brain sexual differentiation, with the emphasis on mice with a disruption of the SF-1 gene (SF-1 knockout, SF-1 KO) are discussed. PMID:21887123

  3. Sex hormone binding globulin, free estradiol index, and lipid profiles in girls with precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Chae, Hyun-Wook; Kwon, Ah-Reum; Kim, Duk-Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2013-06-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) modulates the availability of biologically active free sex hormones. The regulatory role of SHBG might be important in the relationship between hormone levels and the modification of lipid profiles in girls with precocious puberty. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship of SHBG, free estradiol index (FEI), and lipid levels in these girls. One hundred and nine girls less than 8 years of age with pubertal development were enrolled. FEI was calculated with SHBG and estradiol (E2). We analyzed SHBG between peak luteinizing hormone (LH)≥5 (IU/L) (group 1) and LH<5 (IU/L) (group 2) through a gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation test. Body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) was higher in group 2 than in group 1 (P=0.004). Serum SHBG levels did not differ and FEI was not higher in group 1 (P=0.122). Serum cholesterol, HDL, and LDL did not differ; however, triglyceride levels were higher in group 2 (P=0.023). SHBG was negatively correlated with bone age advancement, BMI, BMI SDS, and FEI, and was positively correlated with HDL. However, SHBG was not correlated with E2 or peak LH. Serum SHBG itself might not be associated with precocious puberty in girls, but it might be related to BMI and lipid profiles. Further studies are needed to reveal the relationship between sex hormone and obesity in girls with precocious puberty.

  4. Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations in juvenile American alligators.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Andrew A; Crain, D Andrew; Woodward, Allan R; Guillette, Louis J

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make a limited comparison of these seasonal patterns on two different lakes in Florida. Male juvenile alligators from a reference lake, Lake Woodruff, displayed temporal patterns in plasma testosterone (T) concentrations that appear to be seasonal. A similar pattern in plasma estradiol-17beta (E(2)) was observed in juvenile females from Lake Woodruff. Males had significantly elevated T concentrations during the spring and late summer, whereas females had elevated E(2) in the spring and late summer and significantly depressed E(2) concentrations during the winter. A limited 4-month survey of animals from contaminated Lake Apopka found a lack of such seasonality. These results suggest that: (1) healthy wild populations of juvenile alligators have a prolonged peripubescent period that is marked by seasonal hormonal cycles, (2) juvenile alligators exposed to environmental contaminants can lack such seasonal cyclicity, and (3) future studies of juvenile alligators should incorporate such seasonality into the experimental design.

  5. Hormone Concentrations and Variability: Associations with Self-Reported Moods and Energy in Early Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Christy Miller

    Examined were relations between concentrations and variability of hormones (testosterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, and leutenizing hormone) and mood intensity, mood variability (within and across days), energy, and restlessness in early adolescent girls. The study also considered the issue of whether hormones have effects on mood…

  6. Effects of male sex hormones on gender identity, sexual behavior, and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan-shan; Cai, Li-qun

    2006-04-01

    Androgens, the male sex hormones, play an essential role in male sexual differentiation and development. However, the influence of these sex hormones extends beyond their roles in sexual differentiation and development. In many animal species, sex hormones have been shown to be essential for sexual differentiation of the brain during development and for maintaining sexually dimorphic behavior throughout life. The principals of sex determination in humans have been demonstrated to be similar to other mammals. However, the hormonal influence on sexual dimorphic differences in the nervous system in humans, sex differences in behaviors, and its correlations with those of other mammals is still an emerging field. In this review, the roles of androgens in gender and cognitive function are discussed with the emphasis on subjects with androgen action defects including complete androgen insensitivity due to androgen receptor mutations and 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency syndromes due to 5alpha-reductase-2 gene mutations. The issue of the complex interaction of nature versus nurture is addressed.

  7. Hyperresponse to Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Accompanying Small Decreases in Serum Thyroid Hormone Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Vagenakis, Apostolos G.; Rapoport, Basil; Azizi, Fereidoun; Portnay, Gary I.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Ingbar, Sidney H.

    1974-01-01

    To determine whether pituitary thyrotropin (TSH) responsiveness to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is enhanced by small decreases in serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), 12 euthyroid volunteers were given 190 mg iodide po daily for 10 days to inhibit T4 and T3 release from the thyroid. Basal serum T4, T3, and TSH concentrations and the serum T4 and TSH responses to 400 μg TRH i.v. were assessed before and at the end of iodide administration. Iodide induced small but highly significant decreases in basal serum T4 (8.0±1.6 vs. 6.6±1.7 μg/100 ml; mean ± SD) and T3 (128±15 vs. 110±22 ng/100 ml) and increases in basal serum TSH (1.3±0.9 vs. 2.1±1.0 μU/ml). During iodide administration, the TSH response to TRH was significantly increased at each of seven time points up to 120 min. The maximum increment in serum TSH after TRH increased from a control mean of 8.8±4.1 to a mean of 13.0±2.8 μU/ml during iodide administration. As evidence of the inhibitory effect of iodide on hormonal release, the increment in serum T3 at 120 min after TRH was significantly lessened during iodide administration (61±42 vs. 33±24 ng/100 ml). These findings demonstrate that small acute decreases in serum T4 and T3 concentrations, resulting in values well within the normal range, are associated both with slight increases in basal TSH concentrations and pronounced increases in the TSH response to TRH. These results demonstrate that a marked sensitivity of TSH secretion and responsiveness to TRH is applicable to decreasing, as well as increasing, concentrations of thyroid hormones. PMID:4214837

  8. Microbiome impact on metabolism and function of sex, thyroid, growth and parathyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Kunc, Michał; Gabrych, Anna; Witkowski, Jacek M

    2016-01-01

    Commensal bacteria and their genes associated with host are known as microbiome. In recent years, microbial influence on host endocrine system has been under detailed investigation. The role of microbiome in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and obesity, the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and secretion of hormones regulating appetite is well described in world literature. In this article we discuss poorly reviewed issues: the microbiome role in modulation of non-peptide (sex and thyroid) and peptide (growth hormone and parathyroid hormone) functions. Understanding complex bidirectional relations between host endocrine system and bacteria is of fundamental importance to understanding microbial impact on host reproduction, risk of endocrine-related cancers, pathogenesis of non-thyroidal illness syndrome, growth failure in children and hormonal changes during chronic kidney disease. This article also highlights effects of dietary compounds on microbiome composition and bacterial enzymes activity, and thus host hormonal status.

  9. Repetitive ultrasonographic assessment of adrenal size and shape changes: a clue for an asymptomatic sex hormone-secreting adenoma.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seunghyeon; Oui, Heejin; Lee, Ju-Hwan; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Cho, Kyoung-Oh; Choi, Jihye

    2017-03-30

    Diagnosis of an adrenal tumor without typical clinical signs related to hyperadrenocorticism and elevated alkaline phosphatase is challenging. This report describes a sex hormone-secreting adrenal tumor in a 10-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu evaluated through repetitive ultrasonographic examination. An adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test revealed elevated concentrations of androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone but a normal cortisol concentration. A mass was surgically excised and adenoma was diagnosed histopathologically. In the present case, adrenal tumor was strongly suspected based on a gradual increase in adrenal size and a change from peanut shape to an irregular mass on repetitive ultrasonography. Repetitive ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal gland is recommended when an abnormal ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal gland is identified, even in an asymptomatic dog.

  10. Repetitive ultrasonographic assessment of adrenal size and shape changes: a clue for an asymptomatic sex hormone-secreting adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seunghyeon; Oui, Heejin; Lee, Ju-hwan; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of an adrenal tumor without typical clinical signs related to hyperadrenocorticism and elevated alkaline phosphatase is challenging. This report describes a sex hormone-secreting adrenal tumor in a 10-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu evaluated through repetitive ultrasonographic examination. An adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test revealed elevated concentrations of androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone but a normal cortisol concentration. A mass was surgically excised and adenoma was diagnosed histopathologically. In the present case, adrenal tumor was strongly suspected based on a gradual increase in adrenal size and a change from peanut shape to an irregular mass on repetitive ultrasonography. Repetitive ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal gland is recommended when an abnormal ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal gland is identified, even in an asymptomatic dog. PMID:27297418

  11. Changes in thyroid hormone concentrations during neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Leeuwen, L; van Heijst, A F J; van Rosmalen, J; de Rijke, Y B; Beurskens, L W J E; Tibboel, D; van den Akker, E L T; IJsselstijn, H

    2017-08-01

    Thyroid hormone concentrations can be disturbed during critical illness. Our aim was to determine changes in thyroid hormone concentrations during neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We included 21 ECMO-treated neonates. Age-specific s.d. scores (SDS) of free and total thyroxine (FT4; TT4), reverse and total triiodothyronine (rT3; TT3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) were determined at six fixed time-points. Data were analyzed using general linear models. At baseline, mean SDS FT4 (-0.78, 95% CI: -1.37 to -0.19), TT4 (-1.97, 95% CI: -2.76 to -1.18), TT3 (-0.88, 95% CI: -1.13 to -0.63), TSH (-2.14, 95% CI: -2.93 to -1.35) and TBG (-3.52, 95% CI: -4.55 to -2.50) were low with high mean SDS rT3 (0.53, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.78). One hour after start ECMO, TT4, TSH and TBG had further declined; 12 h after start ECMO TT3 had declined (all P<0.05). After this decline, mean SDS TSH increased to the baseline level 12 h after start ECMO (-2.50, 95% CI: -3.22 to -1.79), and was higher than baseline 48 h after start ECMO (-0.56, 95% CI: -1.29 to 0.17). This TSH increase was followed by increases in TT4 and TT3. FT4 remained constant within the normal range during ECMO. Thyroid hormone concentrations before ECMO were suggestive of non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). During ECMO, increases in TSH, TT4 and TT3 after an initial decline possibly reflect spontaneous restoration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. FT4 remained constant within the normal range. This suggests that thyroxine therapy is not required during ECMO.

  12. The Significance of the Excretion of Sex Hormones in the Urine

    PubMed Central

    Callow, R. K.

    1938-01-01

    Recent work on the extraction and assay of urinary sex hormones is reviewed. The “sex hormones” known to be excreted in the urine are not identical with the hormones which have been actually isolated from the organs of secretion. Experimentally it is found that when active substances are administered only a very small proportion is excreted in recognizable form, and the excreted form may even be inactive. This general statement applies to œstrogens, androgens, progestin, and gonadotropic hormone. Hormone activity in the urine is, therefore, an uncertain index of hormonal activities in the body. However, with increasing knowledge of the chemistry and metabolism of hormones, methods of urine assay have been devised which give results capable of correlation with known or assumed physiological processes, notably in pregnancy and the normal menstrual cycle, and obvious effects are produced by certain types of tumour. In the case of male hormone activity the lack of relation between urinary androgens and sexual condition has led to the assumption that the androgens in urine are largely derived from sources other than the gonads, probably from the adrenal glands. Work on this question is described in detail. PMID:19991525

  13. Effects of age and sex on olanzapine plasma concentrations.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Ulrike; Marksteiner, Josef; Kemmler, Georg; Saria, Alois; Aichhorn, Wolfgang

    2005-12-01

    Age and sex may influence both efficacy and side effects of second-generation antipsychotics. Women and elderly patients tend to have a higher prevalence for several side effects. Higher plasma levels in these groups of patients may be one reason. We studied the hypothesis that steady-state olanzapine plasma concentrations depend on age and sex. Sixty-seven inpatients on stable olanzapine dose were referred to routine therapeutic drug monitoring of olanzapine. Plasma levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Obtained data were then analyzed by analysis of covariance. Olanzapine plasma levels showed a marked sex difference with significantly higher mean concentrations in female patients (adjusted mean concentrations, 18.5 ng/mL for men and 31.7 ng/mL for women; P = 0.003). On average, the weight-corrected concentration/dose ratios shown by women were 33.5% higher than those shown by men, irrespective of age. Regarding the effect of age, weight-corrected concentration/dose ratios increased by an average of 9.4% per decade of life. All results were adjusted for smoking. Comedication did not significantly influence these results. In conclusion, age and sex are important variables to consider when prescribing olanzapine for women and in the elderly.

  14. Sex hormone effects on autonomic mechanisms of thermoregulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Stachenfeld, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Autonomic mechanisms are fundamental to human physiological thermoregulation, and female reproductive hormones have substantial influences on several aspects of these mechanisms. Of these, the best recognized are the thermoregulatory responses that occur at menopause (hot flushes) and the changes in body temperature within the menstrual cycle which may help couples predict ovulation. Our goal in this brief review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the influences of reproductive hormones on autonomic mechanisms in human thermoregulation. In general, estrogens tend to promote lower body temperatures via augmentation of heat dissipation responses, whereas progesterone tends to promote higher body temperatures. Recent evidence suggests specific influences of estrogens on central autonomic nuclei involved in control of skin blood flow and sweating. Estrogens also augment vasodilation by direct effects on peripheral blood vessels. Influences of progesterone are less well understood, but include both centrally regulated changes in thermoregulatory set-point as well as and peripheral effects, including augmented vasoconstriction in the skin. We conclude with a brief discussion of thermoregulatory adjustments associated with changing hormone levels during menopause, pregnancy and polycystic ovary syndrome. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Hormonal Control of Sex Attractant Production in the Cuban Cockroach.

    PubMed

    Barth, R H

    1961-05-19

    Virgin females of Byrsotria fumigata (Guérin) and several other species of Blattidae produce volatile substances which attract males and release in them characteristic precopulatory behavior. The removal of the corpora allata from females shortly after the imaginal molt results in a failure of production of sex attractant, as assayed by male behavior. Implantation of corpora allata can effect recovery.

  16. Sex hormones and biogenic amine turnover of sex offenders in relation to their temperament and character dimensions.

    PubMed

    Giotakos, Orestis; Markianos, Manolis; Vaidakis, Nikos; Christodoulou, George N

    2004-07-15

    Relationships between Cloninger's temperament and character dimensions and plasma sex hormone levels and biogenic amine turnover were studied in male prison inmates convicted of rape (n=61) or child molestation (n=24) and normal male controls (n=25). The participants completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which includes the temperament dimensions Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Persistence as well as the character dimensions Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness and Self-Transcendence. Plasma levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone were estimated in plasma samples and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in urine samples. Both sex offender groups had higher Novelty, Seeking and lower Reward Dependence, Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness scores compared with the controls. Plasma levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were significantly higher in rapists than in controls. Novelty Seeking scores were positively correlated with LH levels in rapists, and with testosterone levels in child molesters. Harm Avoidance scores were negatively correlated with 5-HIAA levels in rapists and with HVA levels in child molesters. In rapists, the calculated free androgen index showed a negative correlation with 5-HIAA. For the sex offender sample as a whole, the subgroup with high testosterone levels had higher Harm Avoidance scores, the subgroup with low HVA levels had lower Cooperativeness scores, and the subgroups with high 5HIAA or MHPG levels had lower Persistence scores. The results indicate that Novelty Seeking behavior in the group of rapists is associated with a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In addition, low serotonin turnover and low dopamine turnover seem to be associated with a passive-avoidant behavioral style in rapists and child molesters

  17. Effects of n3 Intake on Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Sex Hormone Profiles in Postmenopausal Women: Potential for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breast cancer risk is associated with dietary fat intake. Omega-6 fatty acids (n6) promote while omega-3 fatty acids (n3) inhibit tumorigenesis. Increased sex hormone (SH) concentrations are associated with risk of breast cancer. The effects of total fat and n3 on SH and PLFA were assessed in a f...

  18. Impact of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormones in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. Results The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Conclusion TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M

  19. Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Stapanian, Martin A.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In eight species of fish, we observed that males exceeded females in whole-fish PCB concentration by 17 to 43%. Based on results from hypothesis testing, we concluded that these sex differences were most likely primarily driven by a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from higher resting metabolic rate (or standard metabolic rate (SMR)) and higher swimming activity, in males compared with females. A higher rate of energy expenditure led to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, resulted in a higher rate of PCB accumulation. For two fish species, the growth dilution effect also made a substantial contribution to the sex difference in PCB concentrations, although the higher energy expenditure rate for males was still the primary driver. Hg concentration data were available for five of the eight species. For four of these five species, the ratio of PCB concentration in males to PCB concentration in females was substantially greater than the ratio of Hg concentration in males to Hg concentration in females. In sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a very primitive fish, the two ratios were nearly identical. The most plausible explanation for this pattern was that certain androgens, such as testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, enhanced Hg-elimination rate in males. In contrast, long-term elimination of PCBs is negligible for both sexes. According to this explanation, males ingest Hg at a higher rate than females, but also eliminate Hg at a higher rate than females, in fish species other than sea lamprey. Male sea lamprey do not possess either of the above-specified androgens. These apparent sex differences in SMRs, activities, and Hg-elimination rates in teleost fishes may also apply, to some degree, to higher

  20. Genetic variants in sex hormone metabolic pathway genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Paula L; Freedman, Neal D; Hu, Nan; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Wang, Lemin; Wang, Chaoyu; Ding, Ti; Fan, Jin-Hu; Qiao, You-Lin; Golozar, Asieh; Wheeler, William; Yu, Kai; Yuenger, Jeff; Burdett, Laurie; Chanock, Stephen J; Dawsey, Sanford M; Tucker, Margaret A; Goldstein, Alisa M; Abnet, Christian C; Taylor, Philip R

    2013-05-01

    In China, esophageal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death where essentially all cases are histologically esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), in contrast to esophageal adenocarcinoma in the West. Globally, ESCC is 2.4 times more common among men than women and recently it has been suggested that sex hormones may be associated with the risk of ESCC. We examined the association between genetic variants in sex hormone metabolic genes and ESCC risk in a population from north central China with high-incidence rates. A total of 1026 ESCC cases and 1452 controls were genotyped for 797 unique tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 51 sex hormone metabolic genes. SNP-, gene- and pathway-based associations with ESCC risk were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and geographical location and the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) method. Statistical significance was determined through use of permutation for pathway- and gene-based associations. No associations were observed for the overall sex hormone metabolic pathway (P = 0.14) or subpathways (androgen synthesis: P = 0.30, estrogen synthesis: P = 0.15 and estrogen removal: P = 0.19) with risk of ESCC. However, six individual genes (including SULT2B1, CYP1B1, CYP3A7, CYP3A5, SHBG and CYP11A1) were significantly associated with ESCC risk (P < 0.05). Our examination of genetic variation in the sex hormone metabolic pathway is consistent with a potential association with risk of ESCC. These positive findings warrant further evaluation in relation to ESCC risk and replication in other populations.

  1. Genetic variants in sex hormone metabolic pathway genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, Paula L.

    2013-01-01

    In China, esophageal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death where essentially all cases are histologically esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), in contrast to esophageal adenocarcinoma in the West. Globally, ESCC is 2.4 times more common among men than women and recently it has been suggested that sex hormones may be associated with the risk of ESCC. We examined the association between genetic variants in sex hormone metabolic genes and ESCC risk in a population from north central China with high-incidence rates. A total of 1026 ESCC cases and 1452 controls were genotyped for 797 unique tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 51 sex hormone metabolic genes. SNP-, gene- and pathway-based associations with ESCC risk were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and geographical location and the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) method. Statistical significance was determined through use of permutation for pathway- and gene-based associations. No associations were observed for the overall sex hormone metabolic pathway (P = 0.14) or subpathways (androgen synthesis: P = 0.30, estrogen synthesis: P = 0.15 and estrogen removal: P = 0.19) with risk of ESCC. However, six individual genes (including SULT2B1, CYP1B1, CYP3A7, CYP3A5, SHBG and CYP11A1) were significantly associated with ESCC risk (P < 0.05). Our examination of genetic variation in the sex hormone metabolic pathway is consistent with a potential association with risk of ESCC. These positive findings warrant further evaluation in relation to ESCC risk and replication in other populations. PMID:23358850

  2. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the

  3. The quantification of reproductive hormones in the hair of captive adult brown bears and their application as indicators of sex and reproductive state

    PubMed Central

    Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Janz, David M.; Kapronczai, Luciene; Anne Erlenbach, Joy; Jansen, Heiko T.; Nelson, O. Lynne; Robbins, Charles T.; Boulanger, John

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recognizing the potential value of steroid hormone measurements to augment non-invasive genetic sampling, we developed procedures based on enzyme-linked immunoassays to quantify reproductive steroid hormone concentrations in brown bear (Ursus arctos) hair. Then, using 94 hair samples collected from eight captive adult bears over a 2-year period, we evaluated (i) associations between hair concentrations of testosterone, progesterone, estradiol and cortisol; (ii) the effect of collecting by shaving vs. plucking; and (iii) the utility of reproductive hormone profiles to differentiate sex and reproductive state. Sample requirements (125 mg of guard hair) to assay all hormones exceeded amounts typically obtained by non-invasive sampling. Thus, broad application of this approach will require modification of non-invasive techniques to collect larger samples, use of mixed (guard and undercoat) hair samples and/or application of more sensitive laboratory procedures. Concentrations of hormones were highly correlated suggesting their sequestration in hair reflects underlying physiological processes. Marked changes in hair hormone levels during the quiescent phase of the hair cycle, coupled with the finding that progesterone concentrations, and their association with testosterone levels, differed markedly between plucked and shaved hair samples, suggests steroids sequestered in hair were likely derived from various sources, including skin. Changes in hair hormone concentrations over time, and in conjunction with key reproductive events, were similar to what has been reported concerning hormonal changes in the blood serum of brown bears. Thus, potential for the measurement of hair reproductive hormone levels to augment non-invasive genetic sampling appears compelling. Nonetheless, we are conducting additional validation studies on hair collected from free-ranging bears, representative of all sex, age and reproductive classes, to fully evaluate the utility of this

  4. Introduction: Noncontraceptive use of steroid sex hormones in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, Kurt T

    2016-12-01

    The use of estrogens and progestins in reproductive medicine is widespread and has spanned decades. Often the effect is therapeutic, but sometimes its use has unintended consequences. In this Views and Reviews, old and new indications for the use of ovarian sex steroids are examined with attention to updating knowledge, breaking bad habits, and providing evidence for use (or nonuse). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increases in Serum Growth Hormone Concentrations Associated with GHB Administration.

    PubMed

    Brailsford, Alan D; Bartlett, Christiaan; Kicman, Andrew T; Cowan, David A

    2017-01-01

    The administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been reported to augment the increase in growth hormone (GH) secretion associated with the onset of sleep. The ability of GHB to stimulate GH production in the absence of sleep in both male and female volunteers was investigated as part of a GHB administration study. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men and six women) were given a small oral dose (25 mg/kg) of GHB (as Xyrem(®)) at 10:00 h. Basal blood samples (as serum) were taken 10 min prior to GHB administration, with additional samples taken at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 360 and 480 min post-administration. The serum concentrations of GHB were measured by GC-MS and GH by immunometric assay. Following GHB administration, volunteers exhibited effects consistent with mild sedation, i.e., relaxed with normal responses to verbal stimuli. Despite none being asleep, an increase in serum GH concentration occurred in 11 out of the 12 volunteers (5 women and 6 men). In these volunteers, peak GH concentrations occurred 45-60 min post-administration compared with a mean serum tmax for GHB of 23 min (SD = 5.4 min). The absolute increase in GH was similar for men and women, averaging 3.4 and 3.7 ng/mL, respectively. The mean intra-individual increase in GH was much greater in males (29 times) compared with females (2 times), as males had (as expected) smaller basal GH concentrations (mean = 0.26 ng/mL) compared with females (mean = 5.4 ng/mL). After maximizing, the GH concentration decreased rapidly (in agreement with GHB concentrations), returning to basal concentrations at ~90-120 min post-administration. GHB administration at a small therapeutic dose results in increases in serum GH concentrations in healthy male and female volunteers in the absence of sleep onset.

  6. Physical activity and hormonal regulation of appetite: sex differences and weight control.

    PubMed

    Hagobian, Todd A; Braun, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is an important contributor to regulation of energy balance and body composition. In this article, we separate the impact of exercise from the confounding influence of energy imbalance and highlight sex differences in hormonal and appetite responses to physical activity. The evolving story may influence our thinking regarding the use of physical activity to manage body composition.

  7. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males.

    PubMed

    Kresovich, Jacob K; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999-2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males.

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of sex hormones: requirements for pregnancy and relevance in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Enninga, Elizabeth Ann L.; Holtan, Shernan G.; Creedon, Douglas J.; Dronca, Roxana S.; Nevala, Wendy K.; Ognjanovic, Simona; Markovic, Svetomir N.

    2014-01-01

    Similarities between the pathologic progression of cancer and the physiologic process of placentation (e.g., proliferation, invasion, and local/systemic tolerance) have been recognized for many years. Sex hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin, estrogens, progesterone, and others contribute to induction of immunologic tolerance at the beginning of gestation. Sex hormones have been shown to play contributory roles in the growth of cancers such as breast, prostrate, endometrial and ovarian cancer, but their involvement as putative mediators of the immunologic escape of cancer are still being elucidated. Herein, we compare the emerging mechanism by which sex hormones modulate systemic immunity in pregnancy and their potentially similar role in cancer. To do this, we conducted a PubMed search using combinations of the following key words: immune regulation, sex hormones, pregnancy, melanoma and cancer. We did not limit our search to specific publication dates. Mimicking the maternal immune response to pregnancy, especially in late gestation, might aid in design of better therapies to reconstitute endogenous anti-tumor immunity and improve survival. PMID:24684874

  9. Immunomodulatory effects of sex hormones: requirements for pregnancy and relevance in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Enninga, Elizabeth Ann L; Holtan, Shernan G; Creedon, Douglas J; Dronca, Roxana S; Nevala, Wendy K; Ognjanovic, Simona; Markovic, Svetomir N

    2014-04-01

    Similarities between the pathologic progression of cancer and the physiologic process of placentation (eg, proliferation, invasion, and local/systemic tolerance) have been recognized for many years. Sex hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin, estrogens, progesterone, and others contribute to induction of immunologic tolerance at the beginning of gestation. Sex hormones have been shown to play contributory roles in the growth of cancers such as breast cancer, prostrate cancer, endometrial cancer, and ovarian cancer, but their involvement as putative mediators of the immunologic escape of cancer is still being elucidated. Herein, we compare the emerging mechanism by which sex hormones modulate systemic immunity in pregnancy and their potentially similar role in cancer. To do this, we conducted a PubMed search using combinations of the following keywords: "immune regulation," "sex hormones," "pregnancy," "melanoma," and "cancer." We did not limit our search to specific publication dates. Mimicking the maternal immune response to pregnancy, especially in late gestation, might aid in design of better therapies to reconstitute endogenous antitumor immunity and improve survival.

  10. Toxicity classification and evaluation of four pharmaceuticals classes: antibiotics, antineoplastics, cardiovascular, and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Brain, Richard A; Johnson, David J; Wilson, Christian J; Solomon, Keith R

    2004-10-15

    Four different classes of environmental concern are quantitatively and qualitatively assessed for environmental hazards; antibiotics (n = 226), antineoplastics (n = 81), cardiovascular (n = 272), and sex hormones (n = 92). These along with an ECOSAR scan of all pharmaceuticals (n = 2848) were then classified according to the OECD aquatic toxicity classification system. The predicted species susceptibility is: daphnid > fish > algae, and the predicted rank order of relative toxicity: sex hormones > cardiovascular = antibiotics > antineoplastics (Table 1). Generally, a relatively large proportion (1/3) of all pharmaceuticals are potentially very toxic to aquatic organisms (Table 2). The qualitative risk assessment ranking relative to probability and potential severity for human and environmental health effects is: antibiotics > sex hormones > cardiovascular > antineoplastics. (Q)SARs and pharmacodynamic information should be used to prioritize and steer experimental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals, and potentially, also be used in new drug discovery optimizing efficacy and in minimising environmental hazards of new products. Nuclear receptors are relatively well conserved in evolution. Currently, antibacterial resistance represents the most significant human health hazard, and potentially the largest non-target organism hazard is sex hormones acting as endocrine modulators in wildlife. Data for the individual compounds are accessible via.

  11. Peptidal Sex Hormones Inducing Conjugation Tube Formation in Compatible Mating-Type Cells of Tremella mesenterica.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Y; Yoshida, M; Isogai, A; Suzuki, A

    1981-06-26

    The pair of peptidal sex hormones (tremerogen A-10 and tremerogen a-13) that induce conjugation tube formation in compatible type cells (A and a types) of Tremella mesenterica were isolated. Tremerogen A-10 is a dodecapeptide and tremerogen a-13, a tridecapeptide. In both peptides, the sulfiydryl group of the cysteines at the carboxyl terminus was blocked by farnesyl moieties.

  12. The role of sex and sex-related hormones in cognition, mood and well-being in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Teresa Costa; Moreira, Pedro Silva; Portugal-Nunes, Carlos; Novais, Ashley; Costa, Patrício Soares; Palha, Joana Almeida; Sousa, Nuno; Santos, Nadine Correia

    2014-12-01

    Alterations in hormone levels during aging impact on cognition and mood. Serum concentration levels of testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and prolactin (PRL) were assessed in 120 community-dwellers (51+ years of age, males and females), in a cross-sectional approach. Performance clusters based on executive functioning (GENEXEC), memory (MEM), mood and well-being were obtained. In males, higher PRL levels associated with worse cognitive performance, lower well-being, and higher scores in depression scales, and lower E2 with poorer cognition and higher depressive mood. DHEAS positively associated with GENEXEC and MEM. Nutritional status significantly associated with PRL (positively) and with DHEAS (negatively). Findings indicate that besides the more exhaustively studied E2 and TT, variations in the levels of sex-related hormones such as PRL, FSH, LH and DHEAS are of interest for the mental health aging profile particularly in men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Thyroid hormone concentrations differ between donkeys and horses.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, F J; Perez-Ecija, R A; Toribio, R E; Estepa, J C

    2013-03-01

    Reference intervals for thyroid hormones (TH) concentrations have not been previously established for donkeys, leading to potential misdiagnosis of thyroid disease. To determine the normal values of TH in healthy adult donkeys and compare them to TH values from healthy adult horses. Thirty-eight healthy Andalusian donkeys and 19 healthy Andalusian horses from 2 different farms were used. Donkeys were divided into 3 age groups: <5, 5-10 and >11 years and into 2 gender groups. Serum concentrations of fT3, tT3, rT3, fT4 and tT4 were quantified by radioimmunoassay. All blood samples were collected the same day in the morning. None of the animals had received any treatment for 30 days prior to sampling or had any history of disease. Both farms were in close proximity and under similar management. Differences between groups were determined using a one-way ANOVA analysis followed by Fisher's LSD test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Serum TH concentrations were higher in donkeys than in horses (P<0.01). Donkeys <5 years had higher serum rT3, fT4 and tT4 concentrations than donkeys >5 years (P<0.05). Furthermore, older donkeys (>11 years) had lower serum fT3 and tT3 concentrations than younger donkeys' groups (<5 and 5-10 years, P<0.05). TH concentrations were not different between genders (fT3: P = 0.06; tT3: P = 0.08; rT3: P = 0.15; fT4: P = 0.89; and tT4: P = 0.19). Thyroid hormone concentrations are different between healthy adult donkeys and horses. Establishing species-specific TH reference ranges is important when evaluating clinicopathologic data in equids in order to avoid the misdiagnosis of thyroid gland dysfunction. Further studies to elucidate the physiological mechanisms leading to these differences are warranted. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Effects of vitamin D supplementation during weight loss on sex hormones in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mason, Caitlin; De Dieu Tapsoba, Jean; Duggan, Catherine; Imayama, Ikuyo; Wang, Ching-Yun; Korde, Larissa A; Stanczyk, Frank; McTiernan, Anne

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation versus placebo on serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women completing a 12-month diet + exercise weight loss program. Two hundred eighteen overweight or obese women (50-75 y) with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at least 10 to less than 32 ng/mL ("insufficient") were randomized to either weight loss + 2,000 IU/day oral vitamin D3, or to weight loss + daily placebo. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin, estrone, total, free, and bioavailable estradiol, and testosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay before randomization and at 12 months. Mean changes were compared between groups (intent-to-treat) using generalized estimating equations. The 12-month changes in sex hormone-binding globulin, estrone, total, free, and bioavailable estradiol, and testosterone did not differ between groups (all P > 0.05). However, a greater increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was associated with a greater increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (Ptrend = 0.01), and larger decreases in free and bioavailable estradiol (Ptrend = 0.04, Ptrend = 0.03, respectively). In post-hoc analyses, we compared women randomized to vitamin D whose serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D remained insufficient (n = 38), to women who became replete (25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥32 ng/mL; n = 53). Replete women showed greater reductions in bioavailable estradiol (-1.8 vs -0.7 pg/mL), free testosterone (-0.8 vs -0.3 pg/mL), and bioavailable testosterone (-1.8 vs -0.6 ng/dL), and a greater increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (10.6 vs 4.7 nmol/L) (all P < 0.05), even after adjusting for differences in total 12-month weight loss. Overall, 12-month changes in sex hormone did not differ between groups. However, vitamin D repletion was associated with greater reductions in sex hormones during weight loss, with a possible dose-dependent effect. Future studies should test higher doses and target circulating 25

  15. [Extraction of sex hormone from antler velvet with supercritical CO2].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shu-Fen; Wang, Jin-Yu; Zhou, Ran; Tian, Song-Jiang

    2007-10-01

    To study the method of extraction of sex hormone from antler velvet with supercritical CO2. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract sex hormone from antler velvet and radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to analyze the extracts. The chemical compositions in extracts were identified by GC-MS, TLC and HPLC, respectively. The experimental results indicated that the extraction yield was 1.56% when 85% ethanol was used as co-solvent at temperature of 65 degrees C and extraction pressure of 30 MPa. Estradiol and progesterone in the extracts were 3.07, 776.18 ng x g(-1) respectively. It is feasible to extract hormone from antler velvet with supercritical CO2.

  16. The association of retinol-binding protein 4 with metabolic syndrome and obesity in adolescents: the effects of gender and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Jung; Chu, Nain Feng; Hung, Yi-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou; He, Chih-Tsueng; Hsiao, Fone-Ching; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun

    2013-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has a role in the development of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome among adults. However, data among adolescents are limited, and the effects of gender and sex hormones on RBP4 are not well defined. A total of 1082 adolescents were enrolled and categorized based on their body mass index. Blood samples were collected, and biochemical characteristics, sex hormones, RBP4 concentrations, and IR were determined. Testosterone and estradiol were not directly correlated with RBP4 concentrations in both genders. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), and testosterone levels were independently associated with RBP4 concentrations in boys; also, there was a trend of increasing RBP4 levels with the severity of obesity. Plasma RBP4 concentrations correlated with obesity and cardiovascular risk factors, predominantly evident in boys. Testosterone, FPG, and TG levels were independent predictors of RBP4 concentrations.

  17. Sleep, rhythms, and the endocrine brain: influence of sex and gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    Mong, Jessica A; Baker, Fiona C; Mahoney, Megan M; Paul, Ketema N; Schwartz, Michael D; Semba, Kazue; Silver, Rae

    2011-11-09

    While much is known about the mechanisms that underlie sleep and circadian rhythms, the investigation into sex differences and gonadal steroid modulation of sleep and biological rhythms is in its infancy. There is a growing recognition of sex disparities in sleep and rhythm disorders. Understanding how neuroendocrine mediators and sex differences influence sleep and biological rhythms is central to advancing our understanding of sleep-related disorders. While it is known that ovarian steroids affect circadian rhythms in rodents, the role of androgen is less understood. Surprising findings that androgens, acting via androgen receptors in the master "circadian clock" within the suprachiasmatic nucleus, modulate photic effects on activity in males point to novel mechanisms of circadian control. Work in aromatase-deficient mice suggests that some sex differences in photic responsiveness are independent of gonadal hormone effects during development. In parallel, aspects of sex differences in sleep are also reported to be independent of gonadal steroids and may involve sex chromosome complement. This a summary of recent work illustrating how sex differences and gonadal hormones influence sleep and circadian rhythms that was presented at a Mini-Symposium at the 2011 annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience.

  18. Sleep, Rhythms, and the Endocrine Brain: Influence of Sex and Gonadal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Mong, Jessica A.; Baker, Fiona C.; Mahoney, Megan M.; Paul, Ketema N.; Schwartz, Michael D.; Semba, Kazue; Silver, Rae

    2011-01-01

    While much is known about the mechanisms that underlie sleep and circadian rhythms, the investigation into sex differences and gonadal steroid modulation of sleep and biological rhythms is in its infancy. There is a growing recognition of sex disparities in sleep and rhythm disorders. Understanding how neuroendocrine mediators and sex differences influence sleep and biological rhythms is central to advancing our understanding of sleep-related disorders. While it is known that ovarian steroids affect circadian rhythms in rodents, the role of androgen is less understood. Surprising findings that androgens, acting via androgen receptors in the master “circadian clock” within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), modulate photic effects on activity in males points to novel mechanisms of circadian control. Work in aromatase deficient (ArKO) mice suggests that some sex differences in photic responsiveness are independent of gonadal hormone effects during development. In parallel, aspects of sex differences in sleep are also reported to be independent of gonadal steroids and may involve sex chromosome complement. This a summary of recent work illustrating how sex differences and gonadal hormones influence sleep and circadian rhythms that was presented at a mini-symposium at the 2011 annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. PMID:22072663

  19. [Equol-producing phenotype and in relation to serum sex hormones among healthy adults in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Baohua; Qin, Liqiang; Liu, Aiping; Shi, Yuhui; Wang, Peiyu

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate relations between equol-producing phenotype and serum sex hormones among adults in Beijing. 90 male and 90 female adults participated in a cross-sectional study and provided twice 24h urine samples on a regular diet and after 3-d soy isoflavone challenge respectively. A health and demographics questionnaire, and 2 days food record were completed before the urine collection. Isoflavones and their metabolites in urine were measured to determine equol phenotype by HPLC. The serum total testosterone level of the male and the serum estradiol and progesterone levels among the female participants were no significant differences between the equol producers and non-producers (P > 0.05). There were negative correlations between urinary total isoflavone, daidzein, equol, O-desmethylangolensinl, glysitein, dihydroglysitein levels and serum total testosterone concentration among the male equol producers on a regular diet (r = -0.29 - -0.36, P < 0.05). There were no significant correlations between urinary isoflavonoid excretion and serum estradiol and progesterone concentration among the female participants on a regular diet (P > 0.05), regardless of equol phenotype. The result suggests that exposure of isoflavone is correlated with the testosterone in healthy men under the usually lifestyle, and may be related to equol phenotype.

  20. Association of hair dye use with circulating levels of sex hormones in premenopausal Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chisato; Wada, Keiko; Tsuji, Michiko; Hayashi, Makoto; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2015-10-01

    Substances identified as animal carcinogens are no longer used as ingredients of hair dyes. However, hair dyes are diverse groups of chemicals, and certain compounds may affect endogenous sex hormone levels. We examined the association between hair dye use and sex hormone levels among premenopausal women. Study subjects were 431 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long. Information on the use of hair dyes or hair bleach, the type of hair coloring used, the duration of use and the frequency of application was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Fasting plasma samples were obtained to measure estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, sex hormone-binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. After controlling for covariates, the mean plasma total testosterone level was about 14% higher in women who had used hair dyes for 10 or more years than that among women who had never used them (P for trend = 0.02). A similar association was observed when the type of hair dye was restricted to permanent hair dyes. A higher frequency of applying non-permanent hair dyes was marginally significantly associated with higher total and free estradiol levels. Data suggest that long-term use of hair dyes may be associated with an increase in circulating testosterone levels. As this is, to our knowledge, the first study examining the association between hair dye use and sex hormone levels, replication of the results is required. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex, stress, and mood disorders: at the intersection of adrenal and gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guasti, A; Fiedler, J L; Herrera, L; Handa, R J

    2012-07-01

    The risk for neuropsychiatric illnesses has a strong sex bias, and for major depressive disorder (MDD), females show a more than 2-fold greater risk compared to males. Such mood disorders are commonly associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, sex differences in the incidence of MDD may be related with the levels of gonadal steroid hormone in adulthood or during early development as well as with the sex differences in HPA axis function. In rodents, organizational and activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones have been described for the regulation of HPA axis function and, if consistent with humans, this may underlie the increased risk of mood disorders in women. Other developmental factors, such as prenatal stress and prenatal overexposure to glucocorticoids can also impact behaviors and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adulthood and these effects are also reported to occur with sex differences. Similarly, in humans, the clinical benefits of antidepressants are associated with the normalization of the dysregulated HPA axis, and genetic polymorphisms have been found in some genes involved in controlling the stress response. This review examines some potential factors contributing to the sex difference in the risk of affective disorders with a focus on adrenal and gonadal hormones as potential modulators. Genetic and environmental factors that contribute to individual risk for affective disorders are also described. Ultimately, future treatment strategies for depression should consider all of these biological elements in their design.

  2. Effect of gender and sex hormones on immune responses following shock.

    PubMed

    Angele, M K; Schwacha, M G; Ayala, A; Chaudry, I H

    2000-08-01

    Several clinical and experimental studies show a gender dimorphism of the immune and organ responsiveness in the susceptibility to and morbidity from shock, trauma, and sepsis. In this respect, cell-mediated immune responses are depressed in males after trauma-hemorrhage, whereas they are unchanged or enhanced in females. Sex hormones contribute to this gender-specific immune response after adverse circulatory conditions. Specifically, studies indicate that androgens are responsible for the immunodepression after trauma-hemorrhage in males. In contrast, female sex steroids seem to exhibit immunoprotective properties after trauma and severe blood loss, because administration of estrogen prevents the androgen-induced immunodepression in castrated male mice. Nonetheless, the precise underlying mechanisms for these immunomodulatory effects of sex steroids after shock remain unknown. Although testosterone depletion, testosterone receptor antagonism, or estrogen treatment has been shown to prevent the depression of immune functions after trauma-hemorrhage, it remains to be established whether differences in the testosterone-estradiol ratio are responsible for the immune dysfunction. Furthermore, sex hormone receptors have been identified on various immune cells, suggesting direct effects. Thus, the immunomodulatory properties of sex hormones after trauma-hemorrhage might represent novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of immunodepression in trauma patients.

  3. The influence of sex hormones on seizures in dogs and humans.

    PubMed

    Van Meervenne, Sofie A E; Volk, Holger A; Matiasek, Kaspar; Van Ham, Luc M L

    2014-07-01

    Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disorder in both humans and dogs. The effect of sex hormones on seizures is well documented in human medicine. Catamenial epilepsy is defined as an increase in frequency and severity of seizures during certain periods of the menstrual cycle. Oestradiol increases seizure activity and progesterone is believed to exhibit a protective effect. The role of androgens is controversial and there is a lack of research focusing on androgens and epilepsy. Indeed, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on epilepsy in dogs. Sterilisation is believed to improve seizure control, but no systematic research has been conducted in this field. This review provides an overview of the current literature on the influence of sex hormones on seizures in humans. The literature on idiopathic epilepsy in dogs was assessed to identify potential risk factors related to sex and sterilisation status. In general, there appears to be an over-representation of male dogs with idiopathic epilepsy but no explanation for this difference in prevalence between sexes has been reported. In addition, no reliable conclusions can be drawn on the effect of sterilisation due to the lack of focused research and robust scientific evidence.

  4. Sex, Stress, and Mood Disorders: At the Intersection of Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Guasti, A.; Fiedler, J. L.; Herrera, L.; Handa, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The risk for neuropsychiatric illnesses has a strong sex bias, and for major depressive disorder (MDD), females show a more than 2-fold greater risk compared to males. Such mood disorders are commonly associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, sex differences in the incidence of MDD may be related with the levels of gonadal steroid hormone in adulthood or during early development as well as with the sex differences in HPA axis function. In rodents, organizational and activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones have been described for the regulation of HPA axis function and, if consistent with humans, this may underlie the increased risk of mood disorders in women. Other developmental factors, such as prenatal stress and prenatal overexposure to glucocorticoids can also impact behaviors and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adulthood and these effects are also reported to occur with sex differences. Similarly, in humans, the clinical benefits of antidepressants are associated with the normalization of the dysregulated HPA axis, and genetic polymorphisms have been found in some genes involved in controlling the stress response. This review examines some potential factors contributing to the sex difference in the risk of affective disorders with a focus on adrenal and gonadal hormones as potential modulators. Genetic and environmental factors that contribute to individual risk for affective disorders are also described. Ultimately, future treatment strategies for depression should consider all of these biological elements in their design. PMID:22581646

  5. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors with Premenopausal Sex Hormones in Women with Very Low Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Lauren C; Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Rosenberg, Philip S; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Hoover, Robert N; Troisi, Rebecca

    2016-10-31

    Breast cancer incidence rates are low but rising in urban Mongolia. We collected reproductive and lifestyle factor information and measured anthropometrics and serum sex steroid concentrations among 314 premenopausal women living in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Mean differences in hormone concentrations by these factors were calculated using age-adjusted quadratic regression splines. Estrone and estradiol in college-educated women were, respectively, 18.2% (p = 0.03) and 23.6% (p = 0.03) lower than in high-school-educated women. Progesterone concentrations appeared 55.8% lower (p = 0.10) in women residing in modern housing compared with women living in traditional housing (gers), although this finding was not statistically significant. Testosterone concentrations were positively associated with adiposity and central fat distribution % difference for highest vs. lowest quarter for body mass index (17.1% (p = 0.001)) and waist-to-height ratio (15.1% (p = 0.005)). Estrogens were higher in the follicular phase of women who breastfed each child for shorter durations. A distinct hormonal profile was associated with an urban lifestyle in premenopausal, Mongol women. In particular, heavier, more-educated women living in urban dwellings had higher testosterone and lower estrogen and progesterone levels. Higher breast cancer incidence in urban compared with rural women suggest that the hormonal profile associated with a more traditional lifestyle may be protective among Mongol women.

  6. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors with Premenopausal Sex Hormones in Women with Very Low Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Lauren C.; Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Hoover, Robert N.; Troisi, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence rates are low but rising in urban Mongolia. We collected reproductive and lifestyle factor information and measured anthropometrics and serum sex steroid concentrations among 314 premenopausal women living in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Mean differences in hormone concentrations by these factors were calculated using age-adjusted quadratic regression splines. Estrone and estradiol in college-educated women were, respectively, 18.2% (p = 0.03) and 23.6% (p = 0.03) lower than in high-school-educated women. Progesterone concentrations appeared 55.8% lower (p = 0.10) in women residing in modern housing compared with women living in traditional housing (gers), although this finding was not statistically significant. Testosterone concentrations were positively associated with adiposity and central fat distribution; 17.1% difference (p = 0.001) for highest vs. lowest quarter for body mass index and 15.1% difference (p = 0.005) for waist-to-height ratio. Estrogens were higher in the follicular phase of women who breastfed each child for shorter durations. A distinct hormonal profile was associated with an urban lifestyle in premenopausal, Mongol women. In particular, heavier, more-educated women living in urban dwellings had higher testosterone and lower estrogen and progesterone levels. Higher breast cancer incidence in urban compared with rural women suggest that the hormonal profile associated with a more traditional lifestyle may be protective among Mongol women. PMID:27809264

  7. [Correlation of serum sex hormone levels with metabolic syndrome in elderly men].

    PubMed

    Xiao, H Y; Lu, Y H; Gong, Y P; Cheng, X L; Tian, H; Li, C L

    2016-03-08

    To investigate the relationship between sex hormones and metabolic syndrome (MS), as well as its components in elderly men. 1 505 elderly men (≥60 years old, mean age 75.4±9.7 years old) who participated in a routine health screening examination in PLA general hospital from May to June in 2012 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum lipids, glucose and sex hormones were measured along with body height, weight and blood pressure. Free testosterone (FT) and bioavailable testosterone (BT) were calculated. The correlation of serum sex hormones with the presence of MS and its components were analyzed. The prevalence of MS was 21.7% (326/1 505) in this study. Elderly men with MS had lower levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (TT), FT and BT than those without MS. The levels of SHBG, TT, FT and BT were significantly lower in the overweight/obesity group, hyperglycemia group and dyslipidemia group than those in the respective control groups (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the SHBG level was an independent risk factor for MS in elderly men(OR=0.977, 95%CI: 0.964-0.989, P<0.001), while the levels of TT, FT and BT were not associated with MS. The prevalence of MS gradually increased with decreasing of SHBG values (P<0.001). When comparing subjects in the lowest and highest quartile of SHBG, the former group demonstrated a 2.13-fold increase in the odds ratio for MS after adjusting for age, smoking, drinking and other sex hormone indices. In elderly men, lower SHBG level, not TT, FT or BT may be an independent predictor for the prevalence of MS, in which the mechanism requires further studies.

  8. Sexually dimorphic cognitive style, female sex hormones, and cortical nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Kant, L; Yilmaz, O; Taskiran, D; Kulali, B; Furedy, J J; Demirgören, S; Pögün, S

    Recent studies using the water maze (WM) found marked sex differences in behavioral strategy employed in place learning tasks in adult rats. When a change in the platform position is introduced following learning the place of a platform (visible or hidden) in a different position, female rats escape to the newly positioned visible platform faster than males. Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated in place learning, and there are regional sex differences in its stable metabolites, NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-), in rat brain. Furthermore, NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) levels are sensitive to ovariectomy in female rats. The effect of sex hormones on brain development and function is well documented. The present study was undertaken to study the effects of ovariectomy and hormonal manipulations on cognitive performance in a WM task designed to test differences in behavioral strategy in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=48) of both sexes. Some of the females rats were ovariectomised and received either hormone replacement (estrogen or progesterone alone or in combination) or the vehicle. Cortical and hippocampal NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) levels were determined after behavioral testing. There were no group differences in cognitive ability or non-cognitive factors such as motivation or swim speed. Males and intact females differed in their cognitive style, but hormonal manipulations in female rats did not affect this relative use of behavioral strategy. There was a correlation between performance on the trial where sex differences were most prominent and NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) levels in the cortex. Our results suggest that the activational effects of circulating gonadal hormones do not play a major role in sexually dimorphic cognitive styles.

  9. Increased fat deposition in injured skeletal muscle is regulated by sex-specific hormones.

    PubMed

    McHale, Matthew J; Sarwar, Zaheer U; Cardenas, Damon P; Porter, Laurel; Salinas, Anna S; Michalek, Joel E; McManus, Linda M; Shireman, Paula K

    2012-02-01

    Sex differences in skeletal muscle regeneration are controversial; comparisons of regenerative events between sexes have not been rigorously defined in severe injury models. We comprehensively quantified inflammation and muscle regeneration between sexes and manipulated sex-specific hormones to determine effects on regeneration. Cardiotoxin injury was induced in intact, castrated and ovariectomized female and male mice; ovariectomized mice were replaced with low- or high-dose 17-β estradiol (E(2)) or progesterone (P4). Extent of injury was comparable between intact mice, but females were more efficient in removal of necrotic debris, despite similar tissue levels of inflammatory cells and chemokines. Myofiber size during regeneration was equivalent between intact mice and after castration or ovariectomy (OVX) but was decreased (P < 0.001) in ovariectomized mice with high-dose E(2) replacement. Intermuscular adipocytes were absent in uninjured muscle, whereas adipocyte area was increased among regenerated myofibers in all groups. Interestingly, intermuscular fat was greater (P = 0.03) in intact females at day 14 compared with intact males. Furthermore, castration increased (P = 0.01) and OVX decreased adipocyte accumulation. After OVX, E(2), but not P4, replacement decreased (P ≤ 0.03) fat accumulation. In conclusion, sex-dependent differences in regeneration consisted of more efficient removal of necrosis and increased fat deposition in females with similar injury, inflammation, and regenerated myofiber size; high-dose E(2) decreased myofiber size and fat deposition. Adipocyte accumulation in regenerating muscle was influenced by sex-specific hormones. Recovery following muscle injury was different between males and females, and sex-specific hormones contributed to these differences, suggesting that sex-specific treatments could be beneficial after injury.

  10. Experimental studies on the late effects of female sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Gao, F M; Jiang, H Y; Yu, Y N; Li, X L; Wang, W H

    1990-03-01

    Inj. Hydroxyprogesterone Co. (EP) was injected i.m. into female Wistar rats, different strains of mice of both sex and Syrian golden hamsters with doses of 5-100 times the human contraceptive dose once or twice a month for 10-32 times. In some experiments EP was combined with whole-body 3 Gy gamma ray radiation once or twice. Results show that EP has obvious carcinogenicity and can enhance the gamma ray carcinogenicity, thereby increasing the tumor incidence or the ratio of malignant to benign tumours. Carcinogenic mechanisms of EP have also been studied.

  11. Antimüllerian hormone levels decrease in female-to-male transsexuals using testosterone as cross-sex therapy.

    PubMed

    Caanen, Mirte R; Soleman, Remi S; Kuijper, Esther A M; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; De Roo, Chloë; Tilleman, Kelly; De Sutter, Petra; van Trotsenburg, Mick A A; Broekmans, Frank J; Lambalk, Cornelis B

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effect of hormonal androgenic treatment on antimüllerian hormone (AMH) serum levels in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with elevated AMH levels. Some hypothesize that the high AMH level is a consequence of androgen-induced excessive development of small antral follicles. However, this role of androgens is not yet clear. Observational, prospective, cohort study. Tertiary academic medical center. Twenty-two FtM transsexuals, healthy native females receiving cross-sex hormone therapy/androgenic treatment. Androgenic treatment with testosterone (T) and an aromatase inhibitor while endogenous hormone secretion was suppressed with the use of a GnRH agonist. Hormone concentrations were measured before and after androgenic treatment (administration of T and aromatase inhibitor). Measured hormones: AMH, inhibin B, T, androstenedione, DHEAS, E2, SHBG, LH, and FSH. AMH concentrations were significantly lower after androgenic treatment (4.4 ± 4.4 μg/L vs. 1.4 ± 2.1 μg/L). Androgenic treatment resulted in a strong suppression of AMH secretion over a relative short period of 16 weeks. Our data underscore the likely important role of androgens in the dynamics of folliculogenesis. It challenges the idea that androgens induce high AMH levels, which is gaining more interest nowadays as an important particular PCOS feature. This strong decline furthermore indicates that AMH must be interpreted in the context of other reproductive endocrine conditions. NTR2493. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Interactions between Fear, Stress, and Gonadal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Lisa Y.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2015-01-01

    Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account. PMID:25888456

  13. Reassessing the role of growth hormone and sex steroids in thymic involution.

    PubMed

    Min, Hyeyoung; Montecino-Rodriguez, Encarnacion; Dorshkind, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    The concomitant decline in growth hormone (GH) and increase in sex steroid production with age is thought to be responsible for thymic involution. If changes in the production of these hormones trigger or sustain thymic involution, that process should be accelerated in little mice, which have a genetic deficiency resulting in reduced production of thymopoietic GH, and delayed in the hypogonadal strain, which fails to produce thymocytotoxic sex steroids. The results indicated that thymic involution in both strains progressed in a manner similar to their normal littermates. That blocking sex steroid production did not delay thymic involution was surprising since castration reportedly increases thymus cellularity. Re-examination of that phenomenon revealed that, while gonadectomy results in increased thymus size, its effects are transient, and the thymus ultimately undergoes involution. Taken together, these data suggest that age-related changes in the endocrine system do not underlie thymic involution.

  14. Development of pulmonary arterial hypertension in women: interplay of sex hormones and pulmonary vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Meredith E; Hemnes, Anna R

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease of the pulmonary vasculature, ultimately resulting in right heart failure and death. This disease is strongly predominant in females, although little is known regarding how sex influences disease development. Recent developments highlighting the importance of estrogen metabolites in both animal models and human disease have substantially increased our understanding of PAH in women. This review will focus on general knowledge of PAH, translational and basic science data regarding sex hormones in the pulmonary vasculature and on clinical issues that are particular to women with PAH. Future directions for study include the influence of sex hormones on right ventricular responses, improving the understanding of the influence of estrogen exposure in human disease and the study of dehydroepiandrosterone in basic science and human disease. PMID:20187732

  15. Sex differences in anxiety disorders: Interactions between fear, stress, and gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account.

  16. Effects of head down tilt upon cortisol and sex hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strollo, Felice; Pecorelli, Lia; Uva, Bianca Maria; Masini, Maria Angela; More, Massimo; Strollo, Giovanna; Riondino, Giuseppe

    2005-08-01

    Real and modelled μG conditions seem to induce reversible testicular failure. Suitable onground simulation methods are anyway needed in order to better aim further studies in humans in space. A 5- hour head down tilt (5h-HDT) was therefore performed in 22 male and female healthy volunteers looking at adrenal and gonadal hormones as compared to 12 age- and gender- matched controls. Cortisol and A decreased significantly in both genders, being cortisol decrease less pronounced in women, while leptin, LH, testosterone, estradiol and estrone failed to do so. The authors conclude that a 5h-HDT is only acceptable for adrenal adaptation studies whole longer duration HDT protocols are needed for gonadal investigations.

  17. Caffeine and Blood Pressure Response: Sex, Age, and Hormonal Status

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Thomas L.; McKey, Barbara S.; Wilson, Michael F.; Vincent, Andrea S.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Lovallo, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The pressor effect of caffeine has been established in young men and premenopausal women. The effect of caffeine on blood pressure (BP) remains unknown in postmenopausal women and in relation to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. Materials and Methods In a randomized, 2-week cross-over design, we studied 165 healthy men and women in 6 groups: men and premenopausal women (35–-49 yrs) vs. men and postmenopausal women (50–-64 yrs), with postmenopausal women divided into those taking no hormone replacements (HR), estrogen alone, or estrogen and progesterone. Testing during one week of the study involved 6 days of caffeine maintenance at home (80 mg, 3x/day) followed by testing of responses to a challenge dose of caffeine (250 mg) in the laboratory. The other week involved ingesting placebos on maintenance and lab days. Resting BP responses to caffeine were measured at baseline and at 45 to 60 min following caffeine vs placebo ingestion, using automated monitors. Results Ingestion of caffeine resulted in a significant increase in systolic BP in all 6 groups (4 ± .6, p < 0.01). Diastolic BP significantly increased in response to caffeine in all (3 ± .4, p < 0.04) but the group of older men (2 ± 1.0, p = 0.1). The observed pressor responses to caffeine did not vary by age. Conclusions Caffeine resulted in an increase in BP in healthy, normotensive, young and older men and women. This finding warrants the consideration of caffeine in the lifestyle interventions recommended for BP control across the age span. PMID:20500126

  18. Effects of chromosomal sex and hormonal influences on shaping sex differences in brain and behavior: Lessons from cases of disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Bramble, Matthew S; Lipson, Allen; Vashist, Neerja; Vilain, Eric

    2017-01-02

    Sex differences in brain development and postnatal behavior are determined largely by genetic sex and in utero gonadal hormone secretions. In humans however, determining the weight that each of these factors contributes remains a challenge because social influences should also be considered. Cases of disorders of sex development (DSD) provide unique insight into how mutations in genes responsible for gonadal formation can perturb the subsequent developmental hormonal milieu and elicit changes in normal human brain maturation. Specific forms of DSDs such as complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and 5α-reductase deficiency syndrome have variable effects between males and females, and the developmental outcomes of such conditions are largely dependent on sex chromosome composition. Medical and psychological works focused on CAH, CAIS, and 5α-reductase deficiency have helped form the foundation for understanding the roles of genetic and hormonal factors necessary for guiding human brain development. Here we highlight how the three aforementioned DSDs contribute to brain and behavioral phenotypes that can uniquely affect 46,XY and 46,XX individuals in dramatically different fashions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Transgender Persons on Cross-Sex Hormone Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sven C; Landré, Lionel; Wierckx, Katrien; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2017-01-01

    To date, research findings are inconsistent about whether the neuroanatomy in transgender persons resembles that of their natal sex or their gender identity. Moreover, few studies have examined the effects of long-term cross-sex hormonal treatment on neuroanatomy in this cohort. The purpose of the present study was to examine neuroanatomical differences in transgender persons after prolonged cross-sex hormone therapy. Eighteen transgender men (female-to-male), 17 transgender women (male-to-female), 30 nontransgender men (natal men), and 27 nontransgender women (natal women) completed a high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scan at 3 T. Eligibility criteria for transgender persons were gender-affirming surgery and at least 2 years of cross-sex hormone therapy. Exclusion criteria for nontransgender persons were presence of psychiatric or neurological disorders. The mean neuroanatomical volume for the amygdala, putamen, and corpus callosum differed between transgender women and natal women but not between transgender women and natal men. Differences between transgender men and natal men were found in several brain structures, including the medial temporal lobe structures and cerebellum. Differences between transgender men and natal women were found in the medial temporal lobe, nucleus accumbens, and 3rd ventricle. Sexual dimorphism between nontransgender men and women included larger cerebellar volumes and a smaller anterior corpus callosum in natal men than in natal women. The results remained stable after correcting for additional factors including age, total intracranial volume, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Neuroanatomical differences were region specific between transgender persons and their natal sex as well as their gender identity, raising the possibility of a localized influence of sex hormones on neuroanatomy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Sex-specific developmental profiles of juvenile hormone synthesis in honey bee larvae.

    PubMed

    Hartfelder, Klaus; de Oliveira Tozetto, Sibele; Rachinsky, Anna

    1993-02-01

    Juvenile hormone synthesis in drone larvae of the honey bee was measured by an in vitro radiochemical assay. The developmental profile of corpora allata activity in male larvae showed considerable differences from queen larvae, the presumptive reproductive females, and was comparable to workers, the sterile female morph. Drone and worker larvae, however, differed drastically in the regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, as revealed by the addition of farnesoic acid to the culture medium. This precursor stimulated juvenile hormone synthesis of drone glands nearly eightfold, whereas in worker larvae it is known to lead to an accumulation of methyl farnesoate. The sex-specific differences in endocrine activity indicate a role for juvenile hormone in the expression of genetically determined sexually dimorphic characters during metamorphosis, a role not currently accounted for in models describing endocrine regulation of insect development.

  1. Experimental benefits of sex hormones on vascular function and the outcome of hormone therapy in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ross, Reagan L; Serock, Michelle R; Khalil, Raouf A

    2008-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in men and postmenopausal women than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of female sex hormones. Experimental data have shown beneficial vascular effects of estrogen including stimulation of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide, prostacyclin and hyperpolarizing factor-mediated vascular relaxation. However, the experimental evidence did not translate into vascular benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women, and HERS, HERS-II and WHI clinical trials demonstrated adverse cardiovascular events with HRT. The lack of vascular benefits of HRT could be related to the hormone used, the vascular estrogen receptor (ER), and the subject's age and preexisting cardiovascular condition. Natural and phytoestrogens in small doses may be more beneficial than synthetic estrogen. Specific estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) could maximize the vascular benefits, with little side effects on breast cancer. Transdermal estrogens avoid the first-pass liver metabolism associated with the oral route. Postmenopausal decrease and genetic polymorphism in vascular ER and post-receptor signaling mechanisms could also modify the effects of HRT. Variants of cytosolic/nuclear ER mediate transcriptional genomic effects that stimulate endothelial cell growth, but inhibit vascular smooth muscle (VSM) proliferation. Also, plasma membrane ERs trigger not only non-genomic stimulation of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, but also inhibition of [Ca(2+)]i, protein kinase C and Rho kinase-dependent VSM contraction. HRT could also be more effective in the perimenopausal period than in older postmenopausal women, and may prevent the development, while worsening preexisting CVD. Lastly, progesterone may modify the vascular effects of estrogen, and modulators of estrogen/testosterone ratio could provide alternative HRT combinations. Thus, the type, dose, route of administration and the timing/duration of HRT should be

  2. Experimental Benefits of Sex Hormones on Vascular Function and the Outcome of Hormone Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Reagan L; Serock, Michelle R; Khalil, Raouf A

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in men and postmenopausal women than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of female sex hormones. Experimental data have shown beneficial vascular effects of estrogen including stimulation of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide, prostacyclin and hyperpolarizing factor-mediated vascular relaxation. However, the experimental evidence did not translate into vascular benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women, and HERS, HERS-II and WHI clinical trials demonstrated adverse cardiovascular events with HRT. The lack of vascular benefits of HRT could be related to the hormone used, the vascular estrogen receptor (ER), and the subject’s age and preexisting cardiovascular condition. Natural and phytoestrogens in small doses may be more beneficial than synthetic estrogen. Specific estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) could maximize the vascular benefits, with little side effects on breast cancer. Transdermal estrogens avoid the first-pass liver metabolism associated with the oral route. Postmenopausal decrease and genetic polymorphism in vascular ER and post-receptor signaling mechanisms could also modify the effects of HRT. Variants of cytosolic/nuclear ER mediate transcriptional genomic effects that stimulate endothelial cell growth, but inhibit vascular smooth muscle (VSM) proliferation. Also, plasma membrane ERs trigger not only non-genomic stimulation of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, but also inhibition of [Ca2+]i, protein kinase C and Rho kinase-dependent VSM contraction. HRT could also be more effective in the perimenopausal period than in older postmenopausal women, and may prevent the development, while worsening preexisting CVD. Lastly, progesterone may modify the vascular effects of estrogen, and modulators of estrogen/testosterone ratio could provide alternative HRT combinations. Thus, the type, dose, route of administration and the timing/duration of HRT should be

  3. Non-protein bound oestradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, breast cancer and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Bruning, P. F.; Bonfrèr, J. M.; Hart, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    It has recently been found by various authors that despite a normal serum concentration of oestradiol (E2), the percentage of non-protein-bound or free E2 is abnormally high in breast cancer patients. Since it is the free E2 which is considered to be biologically active, confirmation of this finding would be most relevant to the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Using Hammond's centrifugal ultrafiltration dialysis method we have measured free E2 in heparinized plasma from 68 premenopausal women (a) at high familial risk of breast cancer (n = 18), (b) with benign breast disease (n = 17), (c) cured of T1N0M0 breast cancer at least 6 months previously (n = 17) and (d) normal controls matched for age, parity and Quetelet index (n = 16). Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was measured as [3H]-dihydrotestosterone binding capacity. Free E2 and SHBG were also measured in the serum of (e) postmenopausal patients having breast cancer (n = 38) and (f) matched control cancer patients (n = 67). We confirmed a very good inverse correlation between log free E2 per cent and log SHBG (P less than 0.0001). The regression lines for groups (a)-(d) were not statistically different. The regression lines for groups (e) and (f) were identical and ran nearly parallel to those for groups (a)-(d) though somewhat lower. This small difference may be ascribed to menopausal status. Therefore, we found no difference in free E2 percentage, calculated free E2 concentration or SHBG between premenopausal women at risk, women with benign breast disease, patients cured for early breast cancer or having breast cancer and matched controls. However, postmenopausal breast cancer patients had a significantly higher total serum E2 concentration and, by consequence a higher calculated free E2 concentration compared to the carefully matched control group. PMID:4038881

  4. Sex-Dependent Expression of Caveolin 1 in Response to Sex Steroid Hormones Is Closely Associated with Development of Obesity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Rajib; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung Sook; Yun, Jong Won

    2014-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a conserved group of structural membrane proteins that form special cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich compartments, especially in adipocytes. Recently, it has been reported that CAV1 is an important target protein in sex hormone-dependent regulation of various metabolic pathways, particularly in cancer and diabetes. To clarify distinct roles of CAV1 in sex-dependent obesity development, we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD) and sex steroid hormones on CAV1 expression in adipose tissues of male and female rats. Results of animal experiments revealed that estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2) and androgen (dihydrotestosterone, DHT) had opposite effects on body weight gain as well as on the regulation of CAV1, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in adipose tissues. Furthermore, sex hormone receptors and aromatase were differentially expressed in a sex-dependent manner in response to E2 and DHT treatments. In vivo data were confirmed using 3T3-L1 and HIB1B cell lines, where Cav1 knock down stimulated lipogenesis but suppressed sex hormone receptor signaling proteins. Most importantly, co-immunoprecipitation enabled the identification of previously unrecognized CAV1-interacting mitochondrial or lipid oxidative pathway proteins in adipose tissues. Taken together, current data showed that CAV1 may play important preventive role in the development of obesity, with more prominent effects in females, and proved to be an important target protein for the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue metabolism by manipulating sex hormone receptors and mitochondrial oxidative pathways. Therefore, we can report, for the first time, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of sex steroid hormones in the sex-dimorphic regulation of CAV1. PMID:24608114

  5. Sex-dependent expression of caveolin 1 in response to sex steroid hormones is closely associated with development of obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Rajib; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung Sook; Yun, Jong Won

    2014-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a conserved group of structural membrane proteins that form special cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich compartments, especially in adipocytes. Recently, it has been reported that CAV1 is an important target protein in sex hormone-dependent regulation of various metabolic pathways, particularly in cancer and diabetes. To clarify distinct roles of CAV1 in sex-dependent obesity development, we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD) and sex steroid hormones on CAV1 expression in adipose tissues of male and female rats. Results of animal experiments revealed that estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2) and androgen (dihydrotestosterone, DHT) had opposite effects on body weight gain as well as on the regulation of CAV1, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in adipose tissues. Furthermore, sex hormone receptors and aromatase were differentially expressed in a sex-dependent manner in response to E2 and DHT treatments. In vivo data were confirmed using 3T3-L1 and HIB1B cell lines, where Cav1 knock down stimulated lipogenesis but suppressed sex hormone receptor signaling proteins. Most importantly, co-immunoprecipitation enabled the identification of previously unrecognized CAV1-interacting mitochondrial or lipid oxidative pathway proteins in adipose tissues. Taken together, current data showed that CAV1 may play important preventive role in the development of obesity, with more prominent effects in females, and proved to be an important target protein for the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue metabolism by manipulating sex hormone receptors and mitochondrial oxidative pathways. Therefore, we can report, for the first time, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of sex steroid hormones in the sex-dimorphic regulation of CAV1.

  6. More than hormones: sex differences in cardiovascular parameters after sleep loss in rats.

    PubMed

    Matos, Gabriela; Tenório, Neuli M; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; Campos, Ruy R; Cintra, Fátima; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2013-07-01

    Although the influence of sex on sleep pattern and cardiovascular parameters is well known, knowledge regarding the effects of sleep loss on heart responses in both sexes is scarce. The present study investigated the effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and chronic sleep restriction (SR) on cardiovascular parameters and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels in male and female rats. Both groups were randomly assigned to PSD for 96 h, SR for 21 days or home-cage control. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), baroreflex sensitivity (bradycardia and tachycardia responses) and ACTH levels were evaluated. The results showed that PSD induced a significant increase in HR and ACTH levels in both sexes, although male rats presented higher levels of ACTH hormone compared to females. In addition to sex-specific responses, PSD decreased the tachycardia only in male rats. SR, induced a significant increase in MAP and decrease in bradycardia in both sexes. Male rats were more affected by sleep deprivation protocols than females for MAP, bradycardia response, and ACTH levels. The results showed that the effects of sleep loss on cardiovascular parameters are associated with the protocol of sleep deprivation and that sex can modulate these effects. We suggested this experimental model as a suitable tool for further investigations of the relationship between cardiovascular parameters and sleep.

  7. Divergence in Sex Steroid Hormone Signaling between Sympatric Species of Japanese Threespine Stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Jun; Kawagishi, Yui; Mori, Seiichi; Peichel, Catherine L.; Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado; Kusakabe, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Sex steroids mediate the expression of sexually dimorphic or sex-specific traits that are important both for mate choice within species and for behavioral isolation between species. We investigated divergence in sex steroid signaling between two sympatric species of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus): the Japan Sea form and the Pacific Ocean form. These sympatric forms diverge in both male display traits and female mate choice behaviors, which together contribute to asymmetric behavioral isolation in sympatry. Here, we found that plasma levels of testosterone and 17β-estradiol differed between spawning females of the two sympatric forms. Transcript levels of follicle-stimulating hormone-β (FSHβ) gene were also higher in the pituitary gland of spawning Japan Sea females than in the pituitary gland of spawning Pacific Ocean females. By contrast, none of the sex steroids examined were significantly different between nesting males of the two forms. However, combining the plasma sex steroid data with testis transcriptome data suggested that the efficiency of the conversion of testosterone into 11-ketotestosterone has likely diverged between forms. Within forms, plasma testosterone levels in males were significantly correlated with male body size, a trait important for female mate choice in the two sympatric species. These results demonstrate that substantial divergence in sex steroid signaling can occur between incipient sympatric species. We suggest that investigation of the genetic and ecological mechanisms underlying divergence in hormonal signaling between incipient sympatric species will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of speciation in animals. PMID:22216225

  8. Sex differences and hormonal effects on gut microbiota composition in mice

    PubMed Central

    Org, Elin; Mehrabian, Margarete; Parks, Brian W.; Shipkova, Petia; Liu, Xiaoqin; Drake, Thomas A.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously reported quantitation of gut microbiota in a panel of 89 different inbred strains of mice, and we now examine the question of sex differences in microbiota composition. When the total population of 689 mice was examined together, several taxa exhibited significant differences in abundance between sexes but a larger number of differences were observed at the single strain level, suggesting that sex differences can be obscured by host genetics and environmental factors. We also examined a subset of mice on chow and high fat diets and observed sex-by-diet interactions. We further investigated the sex differences using gonadectomized and hormone treated mice from 3 different inbred strains. Principal coordinate analysis with unweighted UniFrac distances revealed very clear effects of gonadectomy and hormone replacement on microbiota composition in all 3 strains. Moreover, bile acid analyses showed gender-specific differences as well as effects of gonodectomy, providing one possible mechanism mediating sex differences in microbiota composition. PMID:27355107

  9. Associations of vitamin D status and vitamin D-related polymorphisms with sex hormones in older men.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, R; van Schoor, N M; Sohl, E; Zillikens, M C; Oosterwerff, M M; Schaap, L; Lips, P; de Jongh, R T

    2016-11-01

    Evidence regarding relationships of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with sex hormones and gonadotropin concentrations remains inconsistent. Polymorphisms in vitamin D-related genes may underly these relationships. Our aim was to examine the relationship of vitamin D status and polymorphisms in vitamin D-related genes with sex hormone and gonadotropin levels. We analysed data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, an ongoing population-based cohort study of older Dutch individuals (65-89 years). We included data of men with measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (n=643) and determination of vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms (n=459). 25(OH)D concentrations were classified into four categories: <25, 25-50, 50-75 and >75nmol/L. Outcome measures were total testosterone, calculated bioavailable and free fraction testosterone, SHBG, estradiol, LH and FSH concentrations. Hypogonadism was defined as a total testosterone level <8.0nmol/L. Serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with total and bioavailable testosterone levels. After adjustments for confounders, men with serum 25(OH)D less than 25 (n=56), 25-50 (n=199) and 50-75nmol/L (n=240) had lower total testosterone levels compared to men with serum 25(OH)D higher than 75nmol/L (n=148) (β (95% confidence interval): -2.1 (-3.7 to -0.4nmol/L), -0.8 (-1.9 to 0.4nmol/L) and -1.4 (-2.4 to -0.3nmol/L), respectively). For bioavailable testosterone the association was significant only for men with serum 25(OH)D less than 25nmol/L (-0.8 (-1.4 to -0.1nmol/L)) compared to men with serum 25(OH)D >75nmol/L. Serum 25(OH)D was not related to SHBG, estradiol or gonadotropin levels. Hypogonadism (n=29) was not associated with lower serum 25(OH)D. No significant differences were found in hormone levels between the different genotypes of the vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms. Also, the polymorphisms did not modify the relationships of serum 25(OH)D with sex hormones or gonadotropins. Vitamin D status is

  10. Association of Obesity with Onset of Puberty and Sex Hormones in Chinese Girls: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Lingling; Liu, Jihong; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Junxiu; Bai, Yinglong; Jia, Lihong; Yao, Xingjia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls. Methods Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean) were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years) were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups. Results Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years) than normal girls (9.2 years) and lean girls (9.3 years). The prevalence (%) of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9–21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8–60.1). None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5%) and lean girls (8.1%). The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05). Conclusions Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls. PMID:26247479

  11. Association of Obesity with Onset of Puberty and Sex Hormones in Chinese Girls: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lingling; Liu, Jihong; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Junxiu; Bai, Yinglong; Jia, Lihong; Yao, Xingjia

    2015-01-01

    To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls. Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean) were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years) were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups. Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years) than normal girls (9.2 years) and lean girls (9.3 years). The prevalence (%) of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8-60.1). None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5%) and lean girls (8.1%). The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05). Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls.

  12. Benefits and risks of sex hormone replacement in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Seelig, Mildred S; Altura, Burton M; Altura, Bella T

    2004-10-01

    Because cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is far less common in young women than in men, but increases in prevalence in the postmenopausal years to that of men, estrogen repletion therapy (ERT) or combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT), has been widely used to protect against development of both CVD and osteoporosis, and possibly to delay or prevent cognitive loss or Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test the validity of favorable findings in many small-scale studies, and in clinical practice, a large-scale trial: the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was undertaken by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), a trial that was prematurely ended because of increased CVD complications, despite some lessening of hip fractures. This paper suggests that the customary high intake of calcium (Ca)-advised to protect against osteoporosis, and the marginal magnesium (Mg) intake in the USA, might well be contributory to the adverse CV effects, that were all thromboembolic in nature. The procoagulant effect of estrogen is intensified by Ca; Mg-which counteracts many steps in the coagulation cascade and inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion-is commonly consumed in sub-optimal amounts. The high American dietary Ca/Mg ratio might also be contributory to the WHI failure to confirm ERT's favorable mental effects. Discussed are mechanisms by which Mg enhances estrogen's central nervous system protective effects. Mg's improvement of cerebral blood flow, which improves brain metabolism, can also enhance removal of the beta amyloid peptide, accumulation of which is implicated in AD.

  13. PCB concentrations of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.

  14. A Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Circulating Sex Hormone–Binding Globulin Reveals Multiple Loci Implicated in Sex Steroid Hormone Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lunetta, Kathryn L.; He, Chunyan; Fornage, Myriam; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mangino, Massimo; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Chen, Brian; Eriksson, Joel; Garcia, Melissa; Liu, Yong Mei; Koster, Annemarie; Lohman, Kurt; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Prescott, Jennifer; Stolk, Lisette; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Wood, Andrew R.; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Ruokonen, Aimo; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Bandinelli, Stefania; Biffar, Reiner; Brabant, Georg; Cox, David G.; Chen, Yuhui; Cummings, Steven; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gunter, Marc J.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Martikainen, Hannu; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Illig, Thomas; Jansson, John-Olov; Johnson, Andrew D.; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus; Kettunen, Johannes; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kraft, Peter; Liu, Jingmin; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Maggio, Marcello; Markus, Marcello R. P.; Mellström, Dan; Miljkovic, Iva; Mirel, Daniel; Nelson, Sarah; Morin Papunen, Laure; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Prokopenko, Inga; Raffel, Leslie; Reincke, Martin; Reiner, Alex P.; Rexrode, Kathryn; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Siscovick, David; Soranzo, Nicole; Stöckl, Doris; Tworoger, Shelley; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Gils, Carla H.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Zhai, Guangju; Bhasin, Shalender; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Chanock, Stephen J.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Harris, Tamara B.; Hunter, David J.; Kähönen, Mika; Liu, Simin; Ouyang, Pamela; Spector, Tim D.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Viikari, Jorma; Wallaschofski, Henri; McCarthy, Mark I.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Murray, Anna; Franks, Steve; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; de Jong, Frank H.; Raitakari, Olli; Teumer, Alexander; Ohlsson, Claes; Murabito, Joanne M.; Perry, John R. B.

    2012-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs) associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8×10−106), PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4×10−11), GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2×10−16), ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4×10−09), JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1×10−35), SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9×10−08), NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3×10−12), ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5×10−14), TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1×10−14), LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3×10−07), BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7×10−08), and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5×10−06). These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5×10−08, women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003). Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG

  15. Hormonal control of sex and color change in the stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, J R; Liley, N R

    1991-01-01

    The stoplight parrotfish, Sparisoma viride, changes sex from female to male. In most cases, sex change is accompanied by dramatic change in coloration, from the female-like "initial phase" coloration to "terminal phase" coloration that is associated with males. However, some males do not change color at the same time they change sex, becoming female-mimic males (termed initial phase males). Using radioimmunoassays validated here for use with plasma from S. viride, we examined the hormonal profile of stoplight parrotfish undergoing sex change. As predicted, females were characterized by undetectable levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), moderate levels of testosterone, and high levels of 17 beta-estradiol (E2). Fish that were found histologically to be undergoing sex change had elevated levels of 11KT and decreased levels of E2. Testosterone appeared to be unaffected. Males had the highest levels of 11KT and testosterone and low levels of E2. Because initial phase males eventually change color, we were able to take blood samples from males (sex confirmed histologically) before, during, or after color change. Thus, we also examined the hormonal correlates of color phase change. Initial phase males, like females, had undetectable levels of 11KT, moderate levels of testosterone, and significantly higher levels of E2 than either terminal phase males or males with transitional coloration. During color transition, 11KT levels rose sharply and levels of E2 declined. Males with terminal phase coloration had the highest levels of 11KT and testosterone and low levels of E2. Finally, administration of 11KT induced precocious sex change and color change in functional adult females. These findings suggest that 11KT plays a key role in instigating natural sex and color change, but that once sex change is complete, 11KT is not necessary for spermatogenesis or spawning behavior.

  16. The relationship between plasma steroid hormone concentrations and the reproductive cycle in the Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus oreganus.

    PubMed

    Lind, Craig M; Husak, Jerry F; Eikenaar, Cas; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2010-05-01

    We describe the reproductive cycle of Northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) by quantifying steroid hormone concentrations and observing reproductive behaviors in free-ranging individuals. Additionally, we examined reproductive tissues from museum specimens. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations were quantified for both male and female snakes throughout the active season (March-October). We measured testosterone (T), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and corticosterone (B) concentrations in both sexes and 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in females only. We observed reproductive behaviors (e.g., consortship, courtship, and copulation) in the field and measured testis and follicle size in male and female snakes from museum collections to relate steroid hormone concentrations to the timing of reproductive events. Our study revealed that C. oreganus in central California exhibits a bimodal pattern of breeding, with most mating behavior occurring in the spring and some incidences of mating behavior observed in late summer/fall. Each breeding period corresponded with elevated androgen (T or DHT) levels in males. Testes were regressed in the spring when the majority of reproductive behavior was observed in this population, and they reached peak volume in August and September during spermatogenesis. Although we did not detect seasonal variation in female hormone concentrations, some females had high E2 in the spring and fall, coincident with mating and with increased follicle size (indicating vitellogenesis) in museum specimens. Females with high E2 concentrations also had high T and DHT concentrations. Corticosterone concentrations in males and females were not related either to time of year or to concentrations of any other hormones quantified. Progesterone concentrations in females also did not vary seasonally, but this likely reflected sampling bias as females tended to be underground, and thus unobtainable, in summer months when P would be

  17. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas

    PubMed Central

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (−5~6 MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P < 0.05) and performance (P < 0.05). However, heart rate and SJFT index (P < 0.05) increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05). PMID:26075039

  18. Hostility-aggressiveness, sensation seeking, and sex hormones in men: re-exploring their relationship.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Anton; Torrubia, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between sex hormones and aggressiveness, hostility and sensation seeking we studied 30 healthy males. Using a standardised technique of radioimmunoassay, we obtained blood values of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and the free androgen index (FAI). Personality was evaluated by the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and the Sensation-Seeking Scale, form V. The results showed a lack of significant correlations between the measures of aggressiveness-hostility and hormones. Nevertheless, Spearman and Pearson correlations between Sensation Seeking and testosterone were positive and significant after controlling for age. Considerably higher correlations were obtained after controlling for LH and SHBG. A group of subjects with high scores in a factor made up of Experience Seeking, Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility obtained significantly higher scores on TT and FAI. Subjects with high scores in a factor made up of Assault, Indirect Aggression and Verbal Aggression obtained significantly higher scores in SHBG and TT. These findings support Zuckerman's personality model for the sensation-seeking trait.

  19. The impact of sex hormone changes on bone mineral deficit in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Doumouchtsis, Konstantinos K; Perrea, Despoina N; Doumouchtsis, Stergios K

    2009-01-01

    In chronic renal failure several factors affect bone homeostasis leading to the development of renal osteodystrophy. Common calcitropic hormone derangements in renal failure play a central role in bone structure and mineral defects, which in turn accompany osteodystrophy frequently resulting in low bone mineral density (BMD) values. However, patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) suffer from several comorbidities, which may partly account for renal bone disease lesions. Hypogonadism in particular accompanies chronic renal failure frequently and exerts an additive effect on bone loss potential. Sex hormones contribute to the equilibrium of osteotropic hormones and cytokines, exerting a protective action on bone tissue. Estrogens have a regulatory effect on bone metabolism in women with renal failure as well. Hypogonadal ESRD women experience a higher bone turnover and more significant bone mass decrements than ESRD women with relatively normal hormone profile and menstrual habits. Female hemodialysis patients have lower BMD values than male patients on average, probably because of menstrual cycle irregularities. However, hypogonadal ESRD men may also experience bone mineral deficits and the severity of hypogonadism may correlate to their bone mineral status. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) appears to reverse bone mineral loss to some extent in both sexes. In conclusion hypogonadism in renal failure contributes to the bone structure and mineral defects as well as the low-energy fracture risk, reflected in BMD measurements. HRT in ESRD patients should therefore not be overlooked in these patients in the face of their significant comorbidities.

  20. Research into Specific Modulators of Vascular Sex Hormone Receptors in the Management of Postmenopausal Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Graciliano R A; Barros, Yaskara V R; Wells, Amanda K; Khalil, Raouf A

    2009-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in men and postmenopausal women than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of female sex hormones. Studies on the vasculature have identified estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and a novel estrogen binding membrane protein GPR30, that mediate genomic and/or non-genomic effects. Estrogen promotes endothelium-dependent relaxation by inducing the production/activity of nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and hyperpolarizing factor, and inhibits the mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle contraction including [Ca(2+)](i), protein kinase C, Rho kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Additional effects of estrogen on the cytoskeleton, matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory factors contribute to vascular remodeling. However, the experimental evidence did not translate into vascular benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), and the HERS, HERS-II and WHI clinical trials demonstrated adverse cardiovascular events. The discrepancy has been partly related to delayed MHT and potential changes in the vascular ER amount, integrity, affinity, and downstream signaling pathways due to the subjects' age and preexisting CVD. The adverse vascular effects of MHT also highlighted the need of specific modulators of vascular sex hormone receptors. The effectiveness of MHT can be improved by delineating the differences in phramcokinetics and pharmacodynamics of natural, synthetic, and conjugated equine estrogens. Estriol, "hormone bioidenticals" and phytoestrogens are potential estradiol substitutes. The benefits of low dose MHT, and transdermal or vaginal estrogens over oral preparations are being evaluated. Specific ER modulators (SERMs) and ER agonists are being developed to maximize the effects on vascular ERs. Also, the effects of estrogen are being examined in the context of the whole body hormonal environment and the levels of progesterone and androgens. Thus, the experimental vascular benefits of estrogen can be translated to

  1. Research into Specific Modulators of Vascular Sex Hormone Receptors in the Management of Postmenopausal Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Graciliano R. A.; Barros, Yaskara V. R.; Wells, Amanda K.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in men and postmenopausal women than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of female sex hormones. Studies on the vasculature have identified estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and a novel estrogen binding membrane protein GPR30, that mediate genomic and/or non-genomic effects. Estrogen promotes endothelium-dependent relaxation by inducing the production/activity of nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and hyperpolarizing factor, and inhibits the mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle contraction including [Ca2+]i, protein kinase C, Rho kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Additional effects of estrogen on the cytoskeleton, matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory factors contribute to vascular remodeling. However, the experimental evidence did not translate into vascular benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), and the HERS, HERS-II and WHI clinical trials demonstrated adverse cardiovascular events. The discrepancy has been partly related to delayed MHT and potential changes in the vascular ER amount, integrity, affinity, and downstream signaling pathways due to the subjects' age and preexisting CVD. The adverse vascular effects of MHT also highlighted the need of specific modulators of vascular sex hormone receptors. The effectiveness of MHT can be improved by delineating the differences in phramcokinetics and pharmacodynamics of natural, synthetic, and conjugated equine estrogens. Estriol, “hormone bioidenticals” and phytoestrogens are potential estradiol substitutes. The benefits of low dose MHT, and transdermal or vaginal estrogens over oral preparations are being evaluated. Specific ER modulators (SERMs) and ER agonists are being developed to maximize the effects on vascular ERs. Also, the effects of estrogen are being examined in the context of the whole body hormonal environment and the levels of progesterone and androgens. Thus, the experimental vascular benefits of estrogen can be translated to

  2. Sex differences, hormones, and fMRI stress response circuitry deficits in psychoses.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Jill M; Lancaster, Katie; Longenecker, Julia M; Abbs, Brandon; Holsen, Laura M; Cherkerzian, Sara; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nicolas; Tsuang, Ming T; Buka, Stephen L; Seidman, Larry J; Klibanski, Anne

    2015-06-30

    Response to stress is dysregulated in psychosis (PSY). fMRI studies showed hyperactivity in hypothalamus (HYPO), hippocampus (HIPP), amygdala (AMYG), anterior cingulate (ACC), orbital and medial prefrontal (OFC; mPFC) cortices, with some studies reporting sex differences. We predicted abnormal steroid hormone levels in PSY would be associated with sex differences in hyperactivity in HYPO, AMYG, and HIPP, and hypoactivity in PFC and ACC, with more severe deficits in men. We studied 32 PSY cases (50.0% women) and 39 controls (43.6% women) using a novel visual stress challenge while collecting blood. PSY males showed BOLD hyperactivity across all hypothesized regions, including HYPO and ACC by FWE-correction. Females showed hyperactivity in HIPP and AMYG and hypoactivity in OFC and mPFC, the latter FWE-corrected. Interaction of group by sex was significant in mPFC (F = 7.00, p = 0.01), with PSY females exhibiting the lowest activity. Male hyperactivity in HYPO and ACC was significantly associated with hypercortisolemia post-stress challenge, and mPFC with low androgens. Steroid hormones and neural activity were dissociated in PSY women. Findings suggest disruptions in neural circuitry-hormone associations in response to stress are sex-dependent in psychosis, particularly in prefrontal cortex.

  3. Sex difference in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations of walleyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Trombka, Autumn W.; Rediske, Richard R.; Jude, David J.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations were determined for mature male and mature female walleyes (Sander vitreus) sampled from the Saginaw Bay population during 2007. PBDE concentrations in prey fish caught in the Saginaw River, the primary tributary to Saginaw Bay, and in Saginaw Bay during 2005 and 2007 also were determined. Mature male and mature female walleyes averaged 70.3 ng/g and 24.8 ng/g, respectively, in ΣPBDE, which was equal to the sum of concentrations of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154). This sex difference was likely due to males spending more time in the Saginaw River system than females. Prey fish captured in the Saginaw River were roughly ten times higher in ΣPBDE than those caught in Saginaw Bay. BDE-47 was the predominant congener in both walleyes and prey fish, and this congener contributed about 50%, on average, to ΣPBDE. Congener profiles differed significantly between the two sexes of walleyes. In contrast, congener profiles of the prey fish did not differ significantly between the river-caught fish and the bay-caught fish. One plausible explanation for these congener profile results was that net trophic transfer efficiencies of PBDEs to walleyes from their prey were similar for all congeners except BDE-28, and that diet composition differed between the two sexes of walleyes.

  4. Association Between Endogenous Sex Hormones and Liver Fat in a Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Mariana; Zeb, Irfan; Nasir, Khurram; Tracy, Russell P; Budoff, Matthew J; Ouyang, Pamela; Vaidya, Dhananjay

    2015-09-01

    Levels of circulating of sex hormones are associated with glucose metabolism and adiposity, but little is known about their association with ectopic fat. We aimed to characterize the association between circulating sex hormones and liver fat. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis by using data from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to assess the association of the circulating levels of bioavailable testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with fatty liver. Fatty liver was defined as a reduction of ≤40 Hounsfield units, measured by computed tomography, in 2835 postmenopausal women and 2899 men (45-84 years old; white, black, Hispanic, or Chinese) at 6 centers in the United States. Women in the highest tertile of bioavailable testosterone were significantly more likely to have fatty liver than women in the lowest tertile (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.92). We found an even greater difference for level of estradiol (odds ratio, 2.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-4.39) after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, waist-to-hip ratio, hypertension, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, insulin sensitivity, and hormone replacement therapy use. Men in the highest tertile of estradiol level were significantly more likely to have fatty liver than men in the lowest tertile (odds ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence level, 1.29-3.40). Men in the highest tertile of SHBG were less likely to have fatty liver than those in the lowest tertile (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.77). Other associations between hormone levels and fatty liver were not statistically significant. On the basis of a cross-sectional study, postmenopausal women with high levels of bioavailable testosterone are at greater risk for fatty liver. In men, higher levels of SHBG are associated with reduced risk for fatty liver. Higher levels of estradiol are associated with fatty liver in both sexes. This pattern

  5. In silico identification of anthropogenic chemicals as ligands of zebrafish sex hormone binding globulin

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsteinson, Nels; Ban, Fuqiang; Santos-Filho, Osvaldo; Tabaei, Seyed M.H.; Miguel-Queralt, Solange; Underhill, Caroline; Cherkasov, Artem Hammond, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic compounds with the capacity to interact with the steroid-binding site of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) pose health risks to humans and other vertebrates including fish. Building on studies of human SHBG, we have applied in silico drug discovery methods to identify potential binders for SHBG in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model aquatic organism. Computational methods, including; homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, virtual screening, and 3D QSAR analysis, successfully identified 6 non-steroidal substances from the ZINC chemical database that bind to zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) with low-micromolar to nanomolar affinities, as determined by a competitive ligand-binding assay. We also screened 80,000 commercial substances listed by the European Chemicals Bureau and Environment Canada, and 6 non-steroidal hits from this in silico screen were tested experimentally for zfSHBG binding. All 6 of these compounds displaced the [{sup 3}H]5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone used as labeled ligand in the zfSHBG screening assay when tested at a 33 {mu}M concentration, and 3 of them (hexestrol, 4-tert-octylcatechol, and dihydrobenzo(a)pyren-7(8H)-one) bind to zfSHBG in the micromolar range. The study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale in silico screening of anthropogenic compounds that may disrupt or highjack functionally important protein:ligand interactions. Such studies could increase the awareness of hazards posed by existing commercial chemicals at relatively low cost.

  6. High prevalence rate of pituitary incidentaloma: is it associated with the age-related decline of the sex hormones levels?

    PubMed

    Kastelan, Darko; Korsic, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    Incidental pituitary adenoma is the common finding during brain imaging. According to multistep model of pituitary tumourigenesis genetic alterations provide the initiating event that transforms cells while hormones play a role in promoting cell proliferation. Development of pituitary adenoma in a case of excessive hypophysiotrophic hormones production or reduced feedback suppression by target gland hormones emphasizes the importance of hormonal stimulation in pituitary tumourigenesis. Pituitary hyperplasia has been reported in pregnancy, hypothyroidism and conditions such as CRH or GHRH hypersecretion. Moreover, recent study reported one case of gonadotroph macroadenoma and two cases of gonadotroph cells hyperplasia in patients with Klinefelter syndrome probably due to protracted stimulation of gonadotroph cells because of lack of androgen feedback. Significant changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis occurred with aging. In females, after menopause, estradiol level decreases by 35-fold and estrone level by 20-fold that results in increased gonadotropins levels. Similarly, FSH, but not LH, level is increased with advancing age in men, too, although the age-related difference in the level is less in comparison with women. Regarding these data, we hypothesised that high prevalence rate of pituitary incidentaloma in the elderly is associated with age-related decline in sex hormones levels and subsequent lack of feedback suppression leading to permanent gonadotrophs stimulation which is the crucial step in the pituitary tumour development. According to previously mentioned multistep model of pituitary tumourigenesis, incidentaloma will develop only in persons with already present intrinsic pituitary cell defects. However, further studies have to answer the questions of whether the incidence of pituitary tumours is more frequent in elderly, whether women with late onset menopause or those taking long-term hormone replacement therapy have lower rate of

  7. Increases in Sex Hormones during Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor α Therapy in Adolescents with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    DeBoer, Mark D; Thayu, Meena; Griffin, Lindsay M; Baldassano, Robert N; Denson, Lee A; Zemel, Babette S; Denburg, Michelle R; Agard, Hannah E; Herskovitz, Rita; Long, Jin; Leonard, Mary B

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate children with Crohn's disease for inverse relationships between systemic inflammatory cytokines and sex hormone regulation in the context of anti-tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) therapy. An observational study design was used to assess sex hormone and gonadotropin levels at the time of initiation of anti-TNF-α therapy and 10 weeks and 12 months later in 72 adolescents (Tanner stage 2-5) with Crohn's disease. Mixed-model linear regression was used to evaluate relationships between hormone levels, systemic inflammation, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry whole-body fat mass Z scores over the study interval. Sex hormone Z scores increased significantly during the 10-week induction interval: testosterone Z scores in male patients increased from a median of -0.36 to 0.40 (P < .05) and estradiol Z scores in females increased from -0.35 to -0.02 (P < .01). In mixed model regression, the pediatric Crohn's disease activity index score, cytokine levels, and measures of inflammation were significantly and negatively associated with sex hormone Z scores and with luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, adjusted for sex and Tanner stage. Sex hormone and gonadotropin levels were not associated with body mass index or fat mass Z-scores. Crohn's disease is associated with delayed maturation, and initiation of anti-TNF-α therapy was associated with significant and rapid increases in sex hormone and gonadotropin levels, in association with improvements in disease activity and measures of inflammation. These data are consistent with preclinical studies of the effects of inflammation on sex hormone regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum pituitary and sex steroid hormone levels in the etiology of prostatic cancer--a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Andersson, S O; Adami, H O; Bergström, R; Wide, L

    1993-07-01

    The hypothesis that serum concentrations of pituitary hormones, sex steroid hormones, or sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) affect the occurrence of prostatic cancer was tested in a consecutive sample of 93 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated cancer and in 98 population controls of similar ages without the disease. Cases did not differ significantly from controls regarding serum levels of luteinising hormone (LH) or follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Remarkably close agreement was found for mean values of total testosterone (15.8 nmol l-1 in cases and 16.0 in controls), and free testosterone (0.295 and 0.293 nmol l-1, respectively), with corresponding odds ratios for the highest vs lowest tertile of 1.0 (95% confidence interval 0.5-1.9) for testosterone and 1.2 (95% confidence interval 0.6-2.4) for free testosterone. Similar close agreement between cases and controls was found for serum concentrations of estradiol, androstenedione and SHBG, although the mean estradiol level was non-significantly (P = 0.30) lower among cases. Changes secondary to the disease were unlikely to have affected the results materially, since only LH and FSH were associated with stage of disease and this relationship was weak. Our findings suggest that further analyses of serum hormone levels at the time of diagnosis are unlikely to improve our understanding of the etiology of prostatic cancer.

  9. Effect modification of obesity on associations between endogenous steroid sex hormones and arterial calcification in women at midlife.

    PubMed

    El Khoudary, Samar R; Wildman, Rachel P; Matthews, Karen; Powell, Lynda; Hollenberg, Steven M; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether obesity modifies the effects of endogenous steroid sex hormones on arterial calcification in women at midlife. Associations between estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and free androgen index and the presence and extent of coronary and aortic calcification were evaluated in 187 obese (body mass index, ≥30 kg/m) and 281 nonobese (body mass index, <30 kg/m) women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Logistic and linear regressions were used as appropriate. Prevalence rates of coronary and aortic calcification were significantly higher among obese compared with nonobese women (P < 0.001, for both). In multivariable analyses, steroid sex hormones were not associated with the presence of coronary calcification. However, for the extent of coronary calcification, significant interactions were found between obesity and both sex hormone-binding globulin (P < 0.0001) and free androgen index (P = 0.008). In nonobese women, higher sex hormone-binding globulin (P = 0.0006) and lower free androgen index (P = 0.01) were associated with a greater extent of coronary calcification, whereas lower sex hormone-binding globulin was associated with greater extent of coronary calcification in obese women (P = 0.05). For aortic calcification outcomes, higher sex hormone-binding globulin was associated with the presence of aortic calcification among nonobese women (odds ratio, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.16-2.32, for each 1-SD greater sex hormone-binding globulin). Associations between endogenous steroid sex hormones and arterial calcification vary by obesity status among perimenopausal women. Further research is needed to better understand the possible mechanisms of these associations.

  10. Polymorphisms in genes involved in sex hormone metabolism, estrogen plus progestin hormone therapy use, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Diergaarde, Brenda; Potter, John D.; Jupe, Eldon R.; Manjeshwar, Sharmila; Shimasaki, Craig D.; Pugh, Thomas W.; DeFreese, Daniele C.; Gramling, Bobby A.; Evans, Ilonka; White, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Hormone therapy, estrogen plus progestin (E+P) particularly, is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Functionally relevant polymorphisms in genes involved in sex hormone metabolism may alter exposure to exogenous sex hormones and affect risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. We evaluated associations of common polymorphisms in genes involved in estrogen and/or progesterone metabolism, E+P use, and their interactions with breast cancer risk in a case-control study of postmenopausal women (324 cases; 651 controls) nested within the VITAL cohort. None of the polymorphisms studied was, by itself, statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk. E+P use was significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk (≥10 years versus never, odds ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.3–2.8; Ptrend: 0.0002). Statistically significant interactions between CYP1A1 Ile462Val (Pinteraction: 0.04), CYP1A1 MspI (Pinteraction: 0.003), CYP1B1 Val432Leu (Pinteraction: 0.007), CYP1B1 Asn453Ser (Pinteraction: 0.04) and PGR Val660Leu (Pinteraction: 0.01), and E+P use were observed. The increased risk of breast cancer associated with E+P use was greater among women with at least one rare allele of the CYP1A1 Ile462Val, CYP1A1 MspI, CYP1B1 Asn453Ser and PGR Val660Leu polymorphisms than among women homozygous for the common allele of these polymorphisms. Risk of breast cancer increased little with increasing years of E+P use among women with at least one CYP1B1 Val432 allele; a large increase in risk was seen among women homozygous for CYP1B1 Leu432. Our results support the hypothesis that specific polymorphisms in genes involved in sex hormone metabolism may modify the effect of E+P use on breast cancer risk. PMID:18628428

  11. Calcium and its regulating hormones in patients with graves disease: sex differences and relation to postoperative tetany.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, H; Noguchi, S; Murakami, T; Uchino, S; Watanabe, S; Ohshima, A; Kawamoto, H; Toda, M; Yamashita, H

    2000-12-01

    To find out why female sex is the most important risk factor for tetany, as calcium and bone metabolism may differ between the sexes. Prospective study. Thyroid centre, Japan. 45 men (mean age 35 years, SD 13) and 178 women (mean age 33 years, SD 12) with Graves disease treated by subtotal thyroidectomy. Measurement of serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium, electrolytes, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 (OH) 2D). Mean values of these substances, together with reductions in serum calcium concentration, relative youth, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, large goitre, and increased serum TSH binding inhibitory globulin concentration. Women had significantly lower calcium concentrations than men (mean (SD) 2.37 (0.13) compared with 2.43 (0.07), p = 0.003). Serum calcium concentrations correlated significantly with concentrations of 25 (OH) D (p < 0.001). 121 of the women (68%) compared with 13 (29%) of men had vitamin D deficiency as defined as 25 (OH) D < 25 nmol/l (p < 0.05). 15 patients (8%) developed tetany postoperatively compared with I man (2%, p = 0.2). Women with Graves disease are more susceptible to calcium and vitamin D deficiency than men, which may account for the higher incidence of postoperative tetany among women with the disease.

  12. Serum vitamin D and sex hormones levels in men and women: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Di; Ouyang, Pamela; de Boer, Ian H; Lutsey, Pamela L; Farag, Youssef M K; Guallar, Eliseo; Siscovick, David S; Post, Wendy S; Kalyani, Rita R; Billups, Kevin L; Michos, Erin D

    2017-02-01

    25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency has been associated with low testosterone levels in men, but there are conflicting reports of its associations with sex hormones in women. Less is known about whether these associations are independent of adiposity and lifestyle factors, and whether they differ by race/ethnicity. To examine associations of 25(OH)D concentrations with sex hormone levels. Cross-sectional analysis of 3017 men and 2929 women in a multi-ethnic cohort. Testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and free testosterone. The mean (SD) levels of 25(OH)D in men and women were 25.7(10.4) and 26.1(12.0)ng/ml, respectively. In men, after adjusting for demographic and lifestyle variables, a 10ng/ml [25nmol/L] decrease in 25(OH)D was associated with an average difference of -0.70nmol/L (95%CI -1.36, -0.05) in SHBG and 0.02 percent (0.01, 0.04) in free testosterone, but was not associated with low total testosterone level (<10.41nmol/L). In women, a 10ng/ml decrease in 25(OH)D levels was associated with an average difference of -0.01nmol/L (-0.01, -0.00) for estradiol, -8.29nmol/L (-10.13, -6.45) for SHBG, 0.06 percent (0.04, 0.07) for free testosterone, and 0.40nmol/L (0.19, 0.62) for DHEA. There was no significant interaction by race/ethnicity. Lower 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with lower SHBG levels and higher free testosterone levels in both men and women, and lower estradiol and higher DHEA levels in women, independent of adiposity and lifestyle. We observed no significant association of 25(OH)D with total testosterone in men. Future studies are needed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation influences sex hormone levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Senescence and steroid hormone receptor reactivities in accessory sex glands of elderly rats (Sprague-Dawley) following exogenous hormonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Cândido, Eduardo Marcelo; Fávaro, Wagner José; Montico, Fabio; Hetzl, Amanda Cia; Cagnon, Valéria Helena Alves

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the stromal and epithelial distribution of AR, ERα and ERβ reactivities in the different accessory sex glands of elderly rats and during strong hormonal changes. Ten month old male rats were divided into six senile groups and submitted to treatment: Senile/Control group (SC); Senile/Testosterone group (ST): Senile/Estrogen group (SE); Castrated group (CA); Castrated/Testosterone group (CT); Castrated/Estrogen group (CE). After a 30-day treatment, the prostatic ventral lobe (VL), dorsal lobe (DL) and coagulating gland (CG) samples were processed for immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting. The results showed that AR immunoreactivity was characterized in the epithelium of VL and DL in senile/control rats and senile rats submitted to exogenous hormonal therapy. AR reactivity in the coagulating gland was verified predominantly in the stromal cells in the different experimental groups. ERα reactivity occurred predominantly in the stromal compartment in all accessory sex glands. In the DL and CG, ERα immunoreactivities were intense in the groups which received testosterone (ST) and estrogen (SE). ERβ immunoreactivity in the CG was verified in the stromal compartment in the different experimental groups, showing a positive response to both increased testosterone and estrogen levels. ERβ reactivity, in the DL, was intensified in the stroma of senile rats with higher serum testosterone levels, and in senile rats with increased serum estrogen levels, especially in the glandular epithelium. Thus, the results revealed different distribution pattern of steroid hormone receptors in each one of the prostatic lobes in senescence, especially in the prostate dorsal lobe and coagulating gland, which is a fundamental factor due to the fact that major prostatic diseases occur in a later period of life.

  14. Relevance of stress and female sex hormones for emotion and cognition.

    PubMed

    ter Horst, J P; de Kloet, E R; Schächinger, H; Oitzl, M S

    2012-07-01

    There are clear sex differences in incidence and onset of stress-related and other psychiatric disorders in humans. Yet, rodent models for psychiatric disorders are predominantly based on male animals. The strongest argument for not using female rodents is their estrous cycle and the fluctuating