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Sample records for sex hormone concentrations

  1. Analgesic use and sex steroid hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Margaret A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Missmer, Stacey A.; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Prior epidemiologic studies suggest that regular use of analgesics may decrease risk of breast and ovarian cancer. We explored possible hormone-mediated mechanisms for these associations by examining the relationship between use of aspirin, non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and acetaminophen and sex steroid hormone concentrations among 740 postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study. All women reported their analgesic use in 1988 or 1990 and provided a blood sample in 1989-90. We calculated adjusted geometric mean estrogen and androgen levels for each category of analgesic use, and calculated the p-value for trend with increasing frequency of use. There was no association between days of use per month of aspirin, non-aspirin NSAIDs, or acetaminophen in 1990 and hormone levels (all p-trend≥0.09). However, we observed significant inverse trends between the estimated number of aspirin tablets per month in 1988 and concentrations of estrone (p-trend=0.04) and estrone sulfate (p-trend=0.03). In analyses of total (aspirin and non-aspirin) NSAID use in 1990, women who used NSAIDs at least 15 days per month had significantly lower levels of estradiol compared to women with no NSAID use (p-trend=0.03). Frequency of use of all analgesics (aspirin, non-aspirin NSAIDs, and acetaminophen) in 1990 was inversely associated with concentrations of estradiol (p-trend=0.001), free estradiol (p-trend=0.01), estrone sulfate (p-trend=0.03), and the ratio of estradiol to testosterone (p-trend=0.04). Among postmenopausal women, regular users of aspirin and other analgesics may have lower estrogen levels than non-users, which could contribute to a decreased risk of breast or ovarian cancer among analgesic users. PMID:20332258

  2. SEX-STEROID AND THYROID HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED AND REFERENCE LAKES IN FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-...

  3. Analgesic Use in Relation to Sex Hormone and Prolactin Concentrations in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Scott R.; Fortner, Renée T.; Gates, Margaret A.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Hankinson, Susan E.; Tworoger, Shelley S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Common analgesics (aspirin, non-aspirin NSAIDs, and acetaminophen) may be associated with hormone-related cancers, possibly via effects on sex hormone and prolactin concentrations. Methods: Between 1996–1999, 29,611 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII) provided blood samples; 18,521 provided samples timed in the early follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, the remainder provided untimed samples. We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between analgesic use and plasma sex hormone and prolactin concentrations among 2,034 premenopausal women, 32 to 54 years old, who served as controls in nested case-control studies, or participated in a within person hormone reproducibility study in the NHSII; this included 1700 timed and 334 untimed samples. Estrogens and progesterone were measured in timed samples; androgens and prolactin were measured in timed and untimed samples. Results: In multivariable models, non-aspirin NSAIDs were positively associated with follicular free estradiol (13.5% higher, use ≥4 days/week vs. non-users (p=0.04; ptrend=0.11)); results for follicular total estradiol were similar (13.2% higher, p=0.06; ptrend=0.11). Acetaminophen use was inversely associated with prolactin (11.8% lower, use 2 days/week vs. non-users, p=0.01, ptrend=0.04). Acetaminophen was also inversely associated with free testosterone (7.1% lower, use 2 days/week vs. non-users, p=0.04; ptrend=0.04). No other associations were observed with the other hormones, or with aspirin use. Conclusions There were no clear patterns between analgesic use and sex hormones in premenopausal women. Acetaminophen use may be modestly associated with prolactin and free testosterone. Our results do not support that analgesic use influences cancer risk through alterations in premenopausal circulating sex hormones or prolactin. PMID:23515936

  4. The impact of sex hormone concentrations on decision-making in females and males

    PubMed Central

    Derntl, Birgit; Pintzinger, Nina; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Schöpf, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Human decision-making has been frequently studied and sex differences have been reported. Interestingly, previous results of hormone concentration on decision-making are somewhat inconsistent, regarding the impact of menstrual cycle phase in women or the influence of testosterone concentration on decision-making in women and men. However, the influence of the female sex hormone concentration (estradiol, progesterone) and the impact of oral contraceptive intake have rarely been examined and data regarding the effect of daytime variations of male testosterone are lacking. Moreover if personality factors such as sensation seeking, impulsivity, and anxiety influence decision-making, sex-specific effects, act as modulators is unclear. In the present study 71 women and 45 men were enrolled. All participants performed an evaluated decision-making task measuring risk-taking behavior on the basis of contingencies (Haegler et al., 2010), which can be carried out several times without a learning effect. Saliva samples were collected to obtain estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone levels. Additionally, all participants completed questionnaires measuring various personality factors. Data analysis revealed no sex differences in decision-making and no significant impact of testosterone concentration on behavioral performance in women or men. However, a significant negative correlation between progesterone concentration of women in the luteal phase and their performance in the risk-averse condition was obtained. Interestingly, a significant correlation between trait anxiety and decision-making occurred in females and males. Despite similar risky decision-making of women and men and no influence of testosterone concentration, menstrual cycle phase showed an effect on risk taking in women. In contrary to other studies, our findings provide rather subtle evidence for hormonal influences in decision-making, which may be primarily explained by task factors. PMID:25414632

  5. Serum sex hormone concentrations in insulin dependent diabetic women with and without amenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Djursing, H; Hagen, C; Nyboe Andersen, A; Svenstrup, B; Bennett, P; Mølsted Pedersen, L

    1985-08-01

    Abnormal steroid secretion may contribute to anovulation in insulin dependent diabetic patients with amenorrhoea. We have measured serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and free and bound oestrogen and androgen levels in 17 such patients. As controls we included 17 patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and normal menstrual cycles, 21 regularly menstruating normal women (both sampled during early follicular phase), and 23 non-diabetic patients with amenorrhoea. The diabetic patients with normal cycles had significantly higher serum concentrations of delta 4-androstenedione and testosterone than the normal women (P less than 0.01). The amenorrhoeic diabetics in contrast had significantly lower serum concentrations of SHBG, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and free and total oestradiol-17 beta than either group of menstruating women (P less than 0.05), and significantly lower concentrations of delta 4-androstenedione (P less than 0.01), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (P less than 0.01), testosterone (P less than 0.01), and oestrone (P less than 0.05), than the cycling diabetics. The two amenorrhoeic groups had similar free and bound sex hormone concentrations except that delta 4-androstenedione levels were significantly lower in the diabetics (P less than 0.01). We conclude that the low sex hormone levels in diabetic women with amenorrhea may be due to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in view of the impaired LH secretion found in these patients and that excess androgen secretion seems not to be of aetiological importance in amenorrhea related to diabetes mellitus. The decreased steroid levels in amenorrheic diabetics is due to their suppressed ovarian function while the increased androgen levels in diabetics with regular cycles are probably of ovarian origin.

  6. CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF THYROID HORMONE IN BELUGA WHALES (DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS): INFLUENCE OF AGE, SEX, AND SEASON.

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Allender, Matthew C; Giovanelli, Richard P; Summers, Sandra D; Spoon, Tracey R; St Leger, Judy A; Goertz, Caroline E C; Dunn, J Lawrence; Romano, Tracy A; Hobbs, Roderick C; Tuttle, Allison D

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play a critical physiologic role in regulating protein synthesis, growth, and metabolism. To date, because no published compilation of baseline values for thyroid hormones in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) exists, assessment of thyroid hormone concentrations in this species has been underused in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to document the concentrations of total thyroxine (tT4) and total triiodothyronine (tT3) in healthy aquarium-maintained and free-ranging beluga whales and to determine the influence of age, sex, and season on the thyroid hormone concentrations. Archived serum samples were collected from healthy aquarium-maintained (n=43) and free-ranging (n=39) belugas, and serum tT4 and tT3 were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay. The mean tT4 concentration in aquarium-maintained belugas was 5.67±1.43 μg/dl and the mean tT3 concentration was 70.72±2.37 ng/dl. Sex comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained males had significantly greater tT4 and tT3 (9.70±4.48 μg/dl and 92.65±30.55 ng/dl, respectively) than females (7.18±2.82 μg/dl and 77.95±20.37 ng/dl) (P=0.004 and P=0.013). Age comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained whales aged 1-5 yr had the highest concentrations of tT4 and tT3 (8.17±0.17 μg/dl and 105.46±1.98 ng/dl, respectively) (P=0.002 and P<0.001). tT4 concentrations differed significantly between seasons, with concentrations in winter (4.59±1.09 μg/dl) being significantly decreased compared with spring (P=0.009), summer (P<0.0001), and fall (P<0.0001) concentrations. There was a significant difference in tT4 and tT3 concentrations between aquarium-maintained whales (5.67±1.43 μg/dl and 70.72±15.57 ng/dl, respectively) and free-ranging whales (11.71±3.36 μg/dl and 103.38±26.45 ng/dl) (P<0.0001 and P<0.001). Clinicians should consider biologic and environmental influences (age, sex, and season) for a more accurate interpretation of thyroid hormone concentrations in belugas

  7. CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF THYROID HORMONE IN BELUGA WHALES (DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS): INFLUENCE OF AGE, SEX, AND SEASON.

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Allender, Matthew C; Giovanelli, Richard P; Summers, Sandra D; Spoon, Tracey R; St Leger, Judy A; Goertz, Caroline E C; Dunn, J Lawrence; Romano, Tracy A; Hobbs, Roderick C; Tuttle, Allison D

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play a critical physiologic role in regulating protein synthesis, growth, and metabolism. To date, because no published compilation of baseline values for thyroid hormones in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) exists, assessment of thyroid hormone concentrations in this species has been underused in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to document the concentrations of total thyroxine (tT4) and total triiodothyronine (tT3) in healthy aquarium-maintained and free-ranging beluga whales and to determine the influence of age, sex, and season on the thyroid hormone concentrations. Archived serum samples were collected from healthy aquarium-maintained (n=43) and free-ranging (n=39) belugas, and serum tT4 and tT3 were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay. The mean tT4 concentration in aquarium-maintained belugas was 5.67±1.43 μg/dl and the mean tT3 concentration was 70.72±2.37 ng/dl. Sex comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained males had significantly greater tT4 and tT3 (9.70±4.48 μg/dl and 92.65±30.55 ng/dl, respectively) than females (7.18±2.82 μg/dl and 77.95±20.37 ng/dl) (P=0.004 and P=0.013). Age comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained whales aged 1-5 yr had the highest concentrations of tT4 and tT3 (8.17±0.17 μg/dl and 105.46±1.98 ng/dl, respectively) (P=0.002 and P<0.001). tT4 concentrations differed significantly between seasons, with concentrations in winter (4.59±1.09 μg/dl) being significantly decreased compared with spring (P=0.009), summer (P<0.0001), and fall (P<0.0001) concentrations. There was a significant difference in tT4 and tT3 concentrations between aquarium-maintained whales (5.67±1.43 μg/dl and 70.72±15.57 ng/dl, respectively) and free-ranging whales (11.71±3.36 μg/dl and 103.38±26.45 ng/dl) (P<0.0001 and P<0.001). Clinicians should consider biologic and environmental influences (age, sex, and season) for a more accurate interpretation of thyroid hormone concentrations in belugas

  8. Serum sex hormone and gonadotropin concentrations in premenopausal women with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Grinsted, L; Heltberg, A; Hagen, C; Djursing, H

    1989-10-01

    Dysfunctions within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis occur frequently among women with multiple sclerosis (MS) and may induce menstrual disturbances and subsequent infertility. We have measured serum concentrations of prolactin. gonadotropins and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) as well as free and bound oestrogen and androgen levels in 14 women of fertile age with MS. These women all displayed regular cycles without having experienced fertility problems. As controls 14 normal women with regular periods and ideal body weight of 91% (range 80-101) were included. Serum from both groups was sampled during the early follicular phase. The MS-patients had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher concentrations of prolactin, LH, FSH, total and free testosterone (P less than 0.01) and a significantly lower serum concentration of oestrone sulphate (P less than 0.01). The abnormal hormone concentrations were not related to clinical status of the disease. We propose that the increased androgen levels are of ovarian origin as adrenal androgens were normal. The reason for the slight increase of prolactin and the marked increase of gonadotropins in women with MS is speculative. As oestradiol levels, however, were within normal range, we assume that a peripheral resistance to gonadotropins combined with an abnormal central regulation causes the increased pituitary secretion.

  9. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  10. Sex Hormones and Tendon.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood. The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet, in active young female athletes, physiological high concentration of estrogen may enhance the risk of injuries due to reduced fibrillar crosslinking and enhanced joint laxity. In men, testosterone can enhance tendon stiffness due to an enhanced tendon collagen turnover and collagen content, but testosterone has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens. PMID:27535256

  11. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and concentrations of circulating sex hormones in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is used as a marker of prenatal sex hormone exposure. The objective of this study was to examine whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones and SHBG measured in adulthood was associated with 2D:4D. Methods This analysis was based on a random sample from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. The sample consisted of of 1036 men and 620 post-menopausal women aged between 39 and 70 at the time of blood draw. Concentrations of circulating sex hormones were measured from plasma collected at baseline (1990-1994), while digit length was measured from hand photocopies taken during a recent follow-up (2003-2009). The outcome measures were circulating concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenediol glucoronide for men only and oestrone sulphate for women only. Free testosterone and oestradiol were estimated using standard formulae derived empirically. Predicted geometric mean hormone concentrations (for tertiles of 2D:4D) and conditional correlation coefficients (for continuous 2D:4D) were obtained using mixed effects linear regression models. Results No strong associations were observed between 2D:4D measures and circulating concentrations of hormones for men or women. For males, right 2D:4D was weakly inversely associated with circulating testosterone (predicted geometric mean testosterone was 15.9 and 15.0 nmol/L for the lowest and highest tertiles of male right 2D:4D respectively (P-trend = 0.04). There was a similar weak association between male right 2D:4D and the ratio of testosterone to oestradiol. These associations were not evident in analyses of continuous 2D:4D. Conclusions There were no strong associations between any adult circulating concentration of sex hormone or SHGB and 2D:4D. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence indicating that 2D:4D is unrelated to adult sex hormone concentrations

  12. Concentrations of Sex Hormones in Umbilical-Cord Blood: Their Relations to Sex and Birth Order of Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccoby, Eleanor E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that concentrations of testosterone were significantly greater in the umbilical blood of newborn males than females. In both sexes, firstborns had significantly more progesterone and estrogens than later borns, and among males, firstborns had higher concentrations of testosterone. Temporal spacing of childbirths had greater effects…

  13. Sex-steroid and thyroid hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from contaminated and reference lakes in Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grain, D.A.; Guillette, L.J.; Pickford, D.B.; Percival, H.F.; Woodward, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-171?? (E2), testosterone (T), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) in juvenile alligators (60-140 cm total length) from two contaminated lakes and one reference lake in Florida. First, the data were analyzed by comparing hormone concentrations among males and females from the different lakes. Whereas there were no differences in plasma E2 concentrations among animals of the three lakes, male alligators from the contaminated lakes (Lake Apopka and Lake Okeechobee) had significantly lower plasma T concentrations compared 10 males from the reference take (Lake Woodruff). Concentrations of thyroid hormones also differed in animals of the three lakes, with T4 concentrations being elevated in Lake Okeechobee males compared to Lake Woodruff males. Second, the relationship between body size and hormone concentration was examined using regression analysis. Most notably for steroid hormones, no clear relationship was detected between E2 and total length in Apopka females (r2 0.09, p = 0.54) or between T and total length in Apopka males (r2 = 0.007, p = 0.75). Females from Apopka (r2 = 0.318, p = 0.09) and Okeechobee (r2 = 0.222, p = 0.09) exhibited weak correlations between T3 and total length. Males from Apopka (r2 = 0.015, p = 0.66) and Okeechobee (r2 = 0.128, p = 0.19) showed no correlation between T4 and total length. These results indicate: some of the previously reported abnormalities in steroid hormones of hatchling alligators persist, at least, through the juvenile years; steroid and thyroid hormones are related to body size in juvenile alligators from the reference lake, whereas alligators living in lakes Apopka and Okeechobee experience alterations in circulating thyroid and steroid

  14. Thyroid hormone concentrations in relation to age, sex, pregnancy, and perinatal loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    West, Kristi L; Ramer, Jan; Brown, Janine L; Sweeney, Jay; Hanahoe, Erin M; Reidarson, Tom; Proudfoot, Jeffry; Bergfelt, Don R

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones in relation to age, sex, pregnancy status, and perinatal loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) under human care. A total of 373 blood samples were collected from 60 individual dolphins housed at nine aquariums/oceanariums. Serum concentrations of total and free thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were analyzed with commercial RIA kits validated for use with dolphins. While the effect of age was indicated by higher (P<0.0001) concentrations of total and free T4 and T3 in juveniles than adults, the effect of sex on thyroid hormones was inconclusive. The effect of pregnancy was indicated by higher (P<0.035) total and free T4 and T3 during early pregnancy compared to non-pregnancy. For both successful and unsuccessful pregnancy outcomes, maternal concentrations of thyroid hormones were highest during early, intermediate during mid, and lowest during late pregnancy (P<0.07 to P<0.0001). Compared to live and thriving births, concentrations of total and free T4 and total T3 were lower (P<0.08 to P<0.001) in dolphins with perinatal loss. Lower concentrations ranged from 10% to 14% during early, 11% to 18% during mid, and 23% to 37% during late pregnancy. In conclusion, the effects of age, reproductive status and stage of pregnancy on thyroid hormone concentrations are necessary factors to take into account when assessing thyroid gland function. Since perinatal loss may be associated with hypothyroidism in dolphins, analysis of serum T4 and T3 should be considered for those dolphins that have a history of pregnancy loss.

  15. Thyroid hormone concentrations in relation to age, sex, pregnancy, and perinatal loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    West, Kristi L; Ramer, Jan; Brown, Janine L; Sweeney, Jay; Hanahoe, Erin M; Reidarson, Tom; Proudfoot, Jeffry; Bergfelt, Don R

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones in relation to age, sex, pregnancy status, and perinatal loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) under human care. A total of 373 blood samples were collected from 60 individual dolphins housed at nine aquariums/oceanariums. Serum concentrations of total and free thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were analyzed with commercial RIA kits validated for use with dolphins. While the effect of age was indicated by higher (P<0.0001) concentrations of total and free T4 and T3 in juveniles than adults, the effect of sex on thyroid hormones was inconclusive. The effect of pregnancy was indicated by higher (P<0.035) total and free T4 and T3 during early pregnancy compared to non-pregnancy. For both successful and unsuccessful pregnancy outcomes, maternal concentrations of thyroid hormones were highest during early, intermediate during mid, and lowest during late pregnancy (P<0.07 to P<0.0001). Compared to live and thriving births, concentrations of total and free T4 and total T3 were lower (P<0.08 to P<0.001) in dolphins with perinatal loss. Lower concentrations ranged from 10% to 14% during early, 11% to 18% during mid, and 23% to 37% during late pregnancy. In conclusion, the effects of age, reproductive status and stage of pregnancy on thyroid hormone concentrations are necessary factors to take into account when assessing thyroid gland function. Since perinatal loss may be associated with hypothyroidism in dolphins, analysis of serum T4 and T3 should be considered for those dolphins that have a history of pregnancy loss. PMID:24321177

  16. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (<3 ng/mL) in adult females during the spawning period may indicate reproductive impairment. In reproductive males, spring increases in KT and T concentrations were associated with spawning; concentrations of E2 (<0.48 ng/mL) and VTG (<0.001 mg/mL) were low in males throughout the study. In addition, the E2 : KT ratio and T were the best metrics by which to distinguish female from male adult razorback suckers throughout the year. These metrics of reproductive health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points

  17. Effects of prenatal treatment with antiandrogens on luteinizing hormone secretion and sex steroid concentrations in adult spotted hyenas, Crocuta crocuta.

    PubMed

    Place, Ned J; Holekamp, Kay E; Sisk, Cheryl L; Weldele, Mary L; Coscia, Elizabeth M; Drea, Christine M; Glickman, Stephen E

    2002-11-01

    Prenatal androgen treatment can alter LH secretion in female offspring, often with adverse effects on ovulatory function. However, female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), renowned for their highly masculinized genitalia, are naturally exposed to high androgen levels in utero. To determine whether LH secretion in spotted hyenas is affected by prenatal androgens, we treated pregnant hyenas with antiandrogens (flutamide and finasteride). Later, adult offspring of the antiandrogen-treated (AA) mothers underwent a GnRH challenge to identify sex differences in the LH response and to assess the effects of prenatal antiandrogen treatment. We further considered the effects of blocking prenatal androgens on plasma sex steroid concentrations. To account for potential differences in the reproductive state of females, we suppressed endogenous hormone levels with a long-acting GnRH agonist (GnRHa) and then measured plasma androgens after an hCG challenge. Plasma concentrations of LH were sexually dimorphic in spotted hyenas, with females displaying higher levels than males. Prenatal antiandrogen treatment also significantly altered the LH response to GnRH. Plasma estradiol concentration was higher in AA-females, whereas testosterone and androstenedione levels tended to be lower. This trend toward lower androgen levels disappeared after GnRHa suppression and hCG challenge. In males, prenatal antiandrogen treatment had long-lasting effects on circulating androgens: AA-males had lower T levels than control males. The sex differences and effects of prenatal antiandrogens on LH secretion suggest that the anterior pituitary gland of the female spotted hyena is partially masculinized by the high androgen levels that normally occur during development, without adverse effects on ovulatory function.

  18. Sex Hormones and Immune Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Aruna; Sekhon, Harmandeep Kaur; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2014-01-01

    The functioning of the immune system of the body is regulated by many factors. The abnormal regulation of the immune system may result in some pathological conditions. Sex hormones of reproductive system are one of the major factors that regulate immune system due to the presence of hormone receptors on immune cells. The interaction of sex hormones and immune cells through the receptors on these cells effect the release of cytokines which determines the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of different types of immunocytes and as a result the outcome of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. The different regulations of sex hormones in both sexes result in immune dimorphism. In this review article the mechanism of regulation of immune system in different sexes and its impact are discussed. PMID:25478584

  19. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  20. Developmental abnormalities of the gonad and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators from contaminated and control lakes in Florida.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, L J; Gross, T S; Masson, G R; Matter, J M; Percival, H F; Woodward, A R

    1994-01-01

    The reproductive development of alligators from a contaminated and a control lake in central Florida was examined. Lake Apopka is adjacent to an EPA Superfund site, listed due to an extensive spill of dicofol and DDT or its metabolites. These compounds can act as estrogens. Contaminants in the lake also have been derived from extensive agricultural activities around the lake that continue today and a sewage treatment facility associated with the city of Winter Garden, Florida. We examined the hypothesis that an estrogenic contaminant has caused the current failure in recruitment of alligators on Lake Apopka. Supporting data include the following: At 6 months of age, female alligators from Lake Apopka had plasma estradiol-17 beta concentrations almost two times greater than normal females from the control lake, Lake Woodruff. The Apopka females exhibited abnormal ovarian morphology with large numbers of polyovular follicles and polynuclear oocytes. Male juvenile alligators had significantly depressed plasma testosterone concentrations comparable to levels observed in normal Lake Woodruff females but more than three times lower than normal Lake Woodruff males. Additionally, males from Lake Apopka had poorly organized testes and abnormally small phalli. The differences between lakes and sexes in plasma hormone concentrations of juvenile alligators remain even after stimulation with luteinizing hormone. Our data suggest that the gonads of juveniles from Lake Apopka have been permanently modified in ovo, so that normal steroidogenesis is not possible, and thus normal sexual maturation is unlikely. Images p680-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 4. C Figure 4. D Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C PMID:7895709

  1. Influence of reproductive status, sex hormones and temperature on plasma IGF-I concentrations in sunshine bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Davis, Kenneth B; McEntire, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations in male and female sunshine bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis) were determined in March, early April, and late April in outdoor ponds at a commercial farm. Female fish were always larger than male fish; however, plasma IGF-I concentrations tended to be higher in male fish and increased as pond temperature and feeding increased in both sexes. Gonadal development was greatest in both sexes in March and declined to a regressed state by the end of April and the same pattern of change occurred with plasma estrogen and testosterone. Growth and IGF-I concentrations in sunshine bass fed estrogen, methyl testosterone, or a control diet were also determined. Growth was reduced in fish fed both sex hormones. Fish fed the control diet had the highest IGF-I levels, androgen-fed fish had intermediate levels, and estrogen-fed fish had the lowest IGF-I concentrations after 4 weeks on the diet. Plasma IGF-I concentrations appeared to respond to increasing temperature in the ponds, and were inversely related to gonadal development and sex hormones. Exogenous sex hormones resulted in a decrease in plasma IGF-I, feeding activity and growth.

  2. The orexigenic effect of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is influenced by sex and stage of the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Santollo, Jessica; Eckel, Lisa A

    2008-03-18

    Recently, it was shown that the orexigenic effect of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is attenuated by estradiol treatment in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. This suggests that female rats may be less responsive than male rats to the behavioral effects of MCH. To investigate this hypothesis, the effects of lateral ventricular infusions of MCH on food intake, water intake, meal patterns, and running wheel activity were examined in male and female rats. To further characterize the impact of estradiol on MCH-induced food intake, female rats were OVX and tested with and without 17-beta-estradiol benzoate (EB) replacement. In support of our hypothesis, food and water intakes following MCH treatment were greater in male rats, relative to female rats. Specifically, the orexigenic effect of MCH was maximal in male rats and minimal in EB-treated OVX rats. In both sexes, the orexigenic effect of MCH was mediated by a selective increase in meal size, which was attenuated in EB-treated OVX rats. MCH-induced a short-term (2 h) decrease in wheel running that, unlike its effects on ingestive behavior, was similar in males and females. Thus, estradiol decreases some, but not all, of the behavioral effects of MCH. To examine the influence of endogenous estradiol, food intake was monitored following MCH treatment in ovarian-intact, cycling rats. As predicted by our findings in OVX rats, the orexigenic effect of MCH was attenuated in estrous rats, relative to diestrous rats. We conclude that the female rat's reduced sensitivity to the orexigenic effect of MCH may contribute to sex- and estrous cycle-related differences in food intake. PMID:18191424

  3. Sex hormone-related and growth hormone-related alopecias.

    PubMed

    Schmeitzel, L P

    1990-11-01

    Canine endocrine dermatoses are characterized by bilateral symmetrical alopecia. Although growth hormone-related and sex hormone-related dermatoses are less common than hypothyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism, they are important causes of hormonal skin disease. Several new syndromes associated with growth and sex hormones recently have been described.

  4. Antiepileptic drugs, sex hormones, and PCOS.

    PubMed

    Verrotti, Alberto; D'Egidio, Claudia; Mohn, Angelika; Coppola, Giangennaro; Parisi, Pasquale; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2011-02-01

    Reproductive endocrine dysfunction in women with epilepsy is an important issue, and in recent years there is growing evidence to support the effect on sex hormones of both epilepsy per se and various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Focal epileptic discharges from the temporal lobe may have a direct influence on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thereby altering the release of sex steroid hormones. The role of laterality and severity of epilepsy is still conflicting. The use of the liver enzyme-inducing AEDs--such as phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine--can increase serum sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations, leading to diminished bioactivity of testosterone (T) and estradiol. Valproic acid, an enzyme inhibitor, has been associated with the occurrence of reproductive endocrine disorders characterized by high serum T, free androgen index, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations, and with polycystic changes in ovaries and menstrual disorders. A better understanding of the effects of AEDs on sex hormones is key to selecting the appropriate AEDs and is crucial for reproductive health in female patients.

  5. Effect of Food Deprivation on Formalin-Induced Nociceptive Behaviors and Beta-Endorphin and Sex Hormones Concentration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarookhani, Mohammad-Reza; Ghasemi-Dashkhasan, Elmira; Heidari-Oranjaghi, Nima; Azhdari-Zarmehri, Hassan; Erami, Elaheh; Hosseini, Sedighe-Sadat

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study examined the possible role of endogenous opioidergic system in effect of food deprivation on formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors in male and female rats. Also, we investigated the effect of food deprivation on the plasma level of beta-endorphin and sex hormones. Methods: Food was withdrawn 48 h prior to performing the formalin test, but water continued to be available ad libitum. The formalin was injected into hind plantar paw. Results: There is significant difference between male and female control rats during phase 2B. Following 48-h food deprivation, both male and female rats exhibited enhanced nociceptive behavior in response to formalin. Food deprivation for 12 and 24 h increased and for 48 h decreased beta-endorphin level in male and female rats. Food deprivation for 24 h decreased testosterone level in male, while it had no significant effect on female rats and food deprivation for 48 h decreased testosterone level in both sexes. Food deprivation for 24 h increased estradiol level in female and that for 48 h had no significant effect on male and female rats. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the existence of food deprivation for 48 h causes enhancement of nociception in the formalin test in male and female rats that has correlation with decrease in plasma beta-endorphin and testosterone levels. PMID:24518552

  6. Influence of adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge and external factors (age, sex, and body region) on hair cortisol concentration in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Terwissen, C V; Mastromonaco, G F; Murray, D L

    2013-12-01

    Land use changes are a significant factor influencing the decline of felid populations. However, additional research is needed to better understand how these factors influence populations in the wild. Hormone analysis can provide valuable information on the basic physiology and overall health of an animal, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are generally used for hair hormone analysis but must first be validated for the substrate of choice and species of interest. To date, hormone assays from hair have not been validated for Felidae, despite that the method holds considerable promise for non-invasive sampling of free-ranging animals. We sought to: (1) evaluate whether increased adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) during the period of hair growth results in elevated hair cortisol; (2) validate the enzyme immunoassay used; and (3) identify any variations in hair cortisol between age, sex and body regions, using Canada lynx. We quantified hair cortisol concentrations in captive animals through an ACTH challenge and collected samples from legally harvested lynx to compare variability between body regions. An EIA was validated for the analysis of hair cortisol. Lynx (n=3) had a qualitative increase in hair cortisol concentration following an ACTH challenge in captive animals (20 IU/kg of body weight weekly for 5 weeks), thereby supporting the use of an EIA to quantify cortisol values in hair. Based on our analysis of sampled lynx pelts, we found that hair cortisol did not vary between age and sex, but varied within the foot/leg region to a greater extent than between individuals. We recommend that future studies identify a standardized location for hair cortisol sampling.

  7. Sex steroids and growth hormone interactions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Guerra, Borja; Díaz, Mario; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos

    2016-04-01

    GH and sex hormones are critical regulators of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism, and sexual dimorphism. Deficiencies in GH- or sex hormone-dependent signaling and the influence of sex hormones on GH biology may have a dramatic impact on liver physiology during somatic development and in adulthood. Effects of sex hormones on the liver may be direct, through hepatic receptors, or indirect by modulating endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions of GH. Sex hormones can modulate GH actions by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and peripherally, by modulating GH signaling pathways. The endocrine and/or metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to sex hormone-related compounds and their influence on the GH-liver axis are largely unknown. A better understanding of these interactions in physiological and pathological states will contribute to preserve health and to improve clinical management of patients with growth, developmental, and metabolic disorders.

  8. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLASMA SEX STEROID CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

  9. Sex hormones and brain aging.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Sergio; Melcangi, Roberto C; Doncarlos, Lydia L; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Azcoitia, Iñigo

    2004-01-01

    Sex steroids exert pleiotropic effects in the nervous system, preserving neural function and promoting neuronal survival. Therefore, the age-related decrease in sex steroids may have a negative impact on neural function. Progesterone, testosterone and estradiol prevent neuronal loss in the central nervous system in different experimental animal models of neurodegeneration. Furthermore, progesterone and its reduced derivatives dihydroprogesterone and tetrahydroprogesterone reduce aging-associated morphological abnormalities of myelin and aging-associated myelin fiber loss in rat peripheral nerves. However, the results from hormone replacement studies in humans are thus far inconclusive. A possible alternative to hormonal replacement therapy is to increase local steroidogenesis by neural tissues, which express enzymes for steroid synthesis and metabolism. Proteins involved in the intramitochondrial trafficking of cholesterol, the first step in steroidogenesis, such as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, are up-regulated in the nervous system after injury. Furthermore, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression is increased in the brain of 24-month-old rats compared with young adult rats. This suggests that brain steroidogenesis may be modified in adaptation to neurodegenerative conditions and to the brain aging process. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that local formation of estradiol in the brain, by the enzyme aromatase, is neuroprotective. Therefore, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and aromatase are attractive pharmacological targets to promote neuroprotection in the aged brain. PMID:15582278

  10. Human sexuality, sex hormones, and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Morris, George L; Vanderkolk, Colleen

    2005-12-01

    The function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), including the production of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prolactin, and the concentrations and metabolism of its end products, such as estrogen, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone, appear to be modified in many people with epilepsy. Effects of the disorder itself and effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) both appear to contribute to these hormonal alterations, which may be associated with sexual dysfunction. Focal epileptic discharges from the temporal lobe may affect HPA function, as is suggested by the normalization of androgen levels seen in men with temporal lobe epilepsy who become seizure-free after surgery. Hepatic enzyme-inducing AEDs such as carbamazepine and phenytoin may be most clearly linked to altered metabolism of sex steroid hormones, but valproic acid, an enzyme inhibitor, has also been implicated in the causation of reproductive endocrine abnormalities. Polycystic ovaries and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are widely believed to be common in women with epilepsy, but the actual prevalence and the pathogenesis of PCOS in this population are disputed. Hormonal changes and sexual dysfunction need to be addressed in any comprehensive approach to epilepsy management, as well as any comprehensive epilepsy research program. Avoidance of enzyme-inducing AEDs and achievement of freedom from seizures as the goal of treatment are strongly recommended.

  11. Sex Hormones and Macronutrient Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Comitato, Raffaella; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Arganini, Claudia; Virgili, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females are determined by a different set of genes and by a different reactivity to environmental stimuli, including the diet, in general. These differences are further emphasized and driven by the exposure to a different hormone flux throughout the life. These differences have not been taken into appropriate consideration by the scientific community. Nutritional sciences are not immune from this “bias” and when nutritional needs are concerned, females are considered only when pregnant, lactating or when their hormonal profile is returning back to “normal,” i.e., to the male-like profile. The authors highlight some of the most evident differences in aspects of biology that are associated with nutrition. This review presents and describes available data addressing differences and similarities of the “reference man” vs. the “reference woman” in term of metabolic activity and nutritional needs. According to this assumption, available evidences of sex-associated differences of specific biochemical pathways involved in substrate metabolism are reported and discussed. The modulation by sexual hormones affecting glucose, amino acid and protein metabolism and the metabolization of nutritional fats and the distribution of fat depots, is considered targeting a tentative starting up background for a gender concerned nutritional science. PMID:24915409

  12. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and cortisol concentrations are associated with overreaching during strenuous military training.

    PubMed

    Tanskanen, Minna M; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Uusitalo, Arja L; Huovinen, Jukka; Nissilä, Juuso; Kinnunen, Hannu; Atalay, Mustafa; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2011-03-01

    The purpose was (a) to study the effect of an 8-week Finnish military basic training period (BT) on physical fitness, body composition, mood state, and serum biochemical parameters among new conscripts; (b) to determine the incidence of overreaching (OR); and (c) to evaluate whether initial levels or training responses differ between OR and noOR subjects. Fifty-seven males (19.7 ± 0.3 years) were evaluated before and during BT. Overreaching subjects had to fulfill 3 of 5 criteria: decreased aerobic physical fitness (VO2max), increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in 45-minute submaximal test at 70% of VO2max or sick absence from these tests, increased somatic or emotional symptoms of OR, and high incidence of sick absence from daily service. VO2max improved during the first 4 weeks of BT. During the second half of BT, a stagnation of increase in VO2max was observed, basal serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) increased, and insulin-like growth factor-1 and cortisol decreased. Furthermore, submaximal exercise-induced increases in cortisol, maximum heart rate, and postexercise increase in blood lactate were blunted. Of 57 subjects, 33% were classified as OR. They had higher basal SHBG before and after 4 and 7 weeks of training and higher basal serum cortisol at the end of BT than noOR subjects. In addition, in contrast to noOR, OR subjects exhibited no increase in basal testosterone/cortisol ratio but a decrease in maximal La/RPE ratio during BT. As one-third of the conscripts were overreached, training after BT should involve recovery training to prevent overtraining syndrome from developing. The results confirm that serum SHBG, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol and maximal La/RPE ratios could be useful tools to indicate whether training is too strenuous.

  13. Effects of intraperitoneal insulin versus subcutaneous insulin administration on sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Boering, M; Logtenberg, S J J; Groenier, K H; Wolffenbuttel, B H R; Gans, R O B; Kleefstra, N; Bilo, H J G

    2016-01-01

    Aims Elevated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), probably due to low portal insulin concentrations. We aimed to investigate whether the route of insulin administration, continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII), or subcutaneous (SC), influences SHBG concentrations among T1DM patients. Methods Post hoc analysis of SHBG in samples derived from a randomized, open-labeled crossover trial was carried out in 20 T1DM patients: 50% males, mean age 43 (±13) years, diabetes duration 23 (±11) years, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 8.7 (±1.1) (72 (±12) mmol/mol). As secondary outcomes, testosterone, 17-β-estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were analyzed. Results Estimated mean change in SHBG was −10.3nmol/L (95% CI: −17.4, −3.2) during CIPII and 3.7nmol/L (95% CI: −12.0, 4.6) during SC insulin treatment. Taking the effect of treatment order into account, the difference in SHBG between therapies was −6.6nmol/L (95% CI: −17.5, 4.3); −12.7nmol/L (95% CI: −25.1, −0.4) for males and −1.7nmol/L (95% CI: −24.6, 21.1) for females, respectively. Among males, SHBG and testosterone concentrations changed significantly during CIPII; −15.8nmol/L (95% CI: −24.2, −7.5) and −8.3nmol/L (95% CI: −14.4, −2.2), respectively. The difference between CIPII and SC insulin treatment was also significant for change in FSH 1.2U/L (95% CI: 0.1, 2.2) among males. Conclusions SHBG concentrations decreased significantly during CIPII treatment. Moreover, the difference in change between CIPII and SC insulin therapy was significant for SHBG and FSH among males. These findings support the hypothesis that portal insulin administration influences circulating SHBG and sex steroids. PMID:27287189

  14. Sex hormone adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, M

    2000-11-01

    RA is an autoimmune rheumatic disorder resulting from the combination of several predisposing factors, including the relation between epitopes of possible triggering agents and histocompatibility epitopes, the status of the stress response system, and the sex hormone status. Estrogens are implicated as enhancers of humoral immunity, and androgens and progesterone are natural immune suppressors. Sex hormone concentrations have been evaluated in RA patients before glucocorticoid therapy and have frequently been found to be altered, especially in premenopausal women and male patients. In particular, low levels of gonadal and adrenal androgens (testosterone and DHT, DHEA and DHEAS) and a reduced androgen:estrogen ratio have been detected in body fluids (i.e., blood, synovial fluid, smears, saliva) of male and female RA patients. These observations support a possible pathogenic role for the decreased levels of the immune-suppressive androgens. Exposure to environmental estrogens (estrogenic xenobiotics), genetic polymorphisms of genes coding for hormone metabolic enzymes or receptors, and gonadal disturbances related to stress system activation (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis) and physiologic hormonal perturbations such as during aging, the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, the postpartum period, and menopause may interfere with the androgen:estrogen ratio. Sex hormones might exert their immune-modulating effects, at least in RA synovitis, because synovial macrophages, monocytes, and lymphocytes possess functional androgen and estrogen receptors and may metabolize gonadal hormones. The molecular basis for sex hormone adjuvant therapy in RA is thus experimentally substantiated. By considering the well-demonstrated immune-suppressive activities exerted by androgens, male hormones and their derivatives seem to be the most promising therapeutic approach. Recent studies have shown positive effects of androgen replacement therapy at least in male RA patients

  15. [Neuroendocrine effect of sex hormones].

    PubMed

    Babichev, V N

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides a generalization of data and the results of own experiments on influence ovarian steroids on the hypothalamus and other brain areas related to reproduction. Ovarian hormones have widespread effects throughout the brain: on catecholaminergic neurons and serotonergic pathways and the basal forebrain cholinergic system, as well as the hipocampus, spinal cord, nigrostriatal and mesolimbic system, in addition to glial cells and blood-brain barrier. The widespread influences of these various neuronal systems ovarian steroids have measurable effects on mood and affect as well as on cognition, with implications for dementia. There are developmentally programmed sex differenced in hippocampal structure that may help to explain differences in the strategies which male and female rats use to solve spatial navigation problems. The multiple sites and mechanisms of estrogen action in brain underlie a variety of importants effects on cognitive and other brain functions--coordination of movement, pain, affective state, as well as possible protection in Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen withdrawal after natural or surgical menopause can lead to a host of changes in brain function and behavior.

  16. Low sex-hormone-binding globulin concentration as independent risk factor for development of NIDDM. 12-yr follow-up of population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, G; Lundberg, P A; Lapidus, L; Lundgren, H; Bengtsson, C; Björntorp, P

    1991-01-01

    Serum sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) concentrations were evaluated as risk factors for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), myocardial infarction, stroke, and premature death in a prospective study of 1462 randomly selected women, aged 38-60 yr, over 12 yr of observation. In multivariate analysis, taking only age into consideration as a confounding factor, low initial concentration of SHBG was significantly correlated to the incidence of NIDDM and stroke, and high initial concentration of CBG was correlated to the incidence of NIDDM. There were also significant correlations between SHBG and CBG concentrations on one hand and possible risk factors for the end points studied, such as serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, body mass, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, smoking habits, and systolic blood pressure, on the other. When these possible confounders, in addition to age, were taken into consideration in multivariate analyses, only the inverse significant correlation between SHBG and NIDDM remained. The increased incidence of diabetes was confined to the lowest quintile of SHBG values, where it was 5-fold higher than in the remaining group. This incidence was further increased to 8- and 11-fold in the lowest 10 and 5% of the values, respectively. We conclude that SHBG is a uniquely strong independent risk factor for the development of NIDDM in women.

  17. [Sex Specificity in Age-Related Thyroid Hormone Responsiveness].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for assessment of the thyroid hormone action is the TSH level. Although age and sex are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to the free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and sex-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. In this lecture, molecular aspects of resistance to thyroid hormone are initially overviewed. After presentation of the evidence that the TSH-thyroid hormone axis is evolutionarily modified, and that negative feedback mechanisms may start to play roles in homeostatic regulation at the time of delivery, the rationale of age-dependent thyroid hormone resistance is introduced. To assess the age- and sex-dependent resistance to thyroid hormone, the index is provided by the formula based on the relationship between thyroid hormone and TSH levels. The index is calculated by the results of thyroid function tests obtained from the two individual clinical groups. From the results, there were negative relationships between the free T3 resistance index and age in males of both groups, while there were no apparent relationships in females. These findings indicate that there is a male-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Furthermore, the specific features of the response may not be affected by environmental factors such as the presence of disorders or medical treatments. PMID:27192800

  18. A portion of heifers attaining “early puberty” do not display estrus, are anovulatory and have altered sex hormone binding globulin concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows with excess androstenedione (High A4) in the follicular fluid of dominant follicles attain puberty earlier than their low androstenedione counterparts. Furthermore, High A4 cows are anovulatory (chronic or sporadic) and have lower Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) compared to Low A4 ovulator...

  19. ``Sex Hormones'' in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-11-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term “sex hormone” is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called “sex hormones” are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found that: (1) all the texts employed the term “sex hormone”; (2) in all texts estrogen is characterized as restricted to females and testosterone is characterized as restricted to males; and (3) in all texts testosterone and estrogen are discussed as exclusively involved in sex-related physiological roles. We conclude that (1) contemporary science textbooks preserve sex-dualistic models of steroid hormones (one sex, one “sex hormone”) that were rejected by medical science in the early 20th century and (2) use of the term “sex hormone” is associated with misconceptions regarding the presence and functions of steroid hormones in male and female bodies.

  20. Health of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in pesticide-sprayed apple orchards in Ontario, Canada. II. Sex and thyroid hormone concentrations and testes development.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C A; Van Der Kraak, G J; Ng, P; Smits, J E; Hontela, A

    1998-12-25

    To investigate the effects of pesticides on wild birds, sex (17beta-estradiol; testosterone) and thyroid (triiodothyronine (T3) hormone concentrations, body mass, and testes mass were measured and the development of testes was evaluated in wild tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in four sprayed apple orchards and three nonsprayed sites in southern Ontario, Canada, in 1995-1996. In orchards, birds were exposed to asmany as 11 individual spray events and five sprays of mixtures of chemicals. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, lead, and arsenic concentrations were low and not variable among sites except p,p'-DDE concentrations, which ranged from 0.36 to 2.23 microg/g wet weight in eggs. These persistent compounds were not correlated with any endocrine response measured in tree swallows. In 16-d-old male tree swallow chicks, body mass and concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (estradiol), testosterone, and T3 in plasma showed no significant differences between sprayed and nonsprayed groups and among sites within those groups. However, T3 concentrations were slightly elevated in the sprayed group compared to the nonsprayed group, and there was a significant and positive correlation between T3 and the number of mixtures of sprays applied during egg incubation through chick rearing. In 16-d-old female chicks, there were no significant differences among spray treatments or sites and no correlations with spray exposure for testosterone, estradiol, or T3 in plasma. Body mass was correlated positively with T3 and negatively with estradiol but showed no differences among spray exposure groups or sites. Histology of testes of 16-d-old male chicks indicated there were no significant differences among sprayed and nonsprayed birds in testes mass, area, or diameter, or the presence of Leydig cells in the interstitium, the distribution of the Sertoli cells, or the occurrence of heterophils in the testicular interstitium. For the percentage of spermatogonia present on

  1. Effects of androstenedione-herbal supplementation on serum sex hormone concentrations in 30- to 59-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Brown, G A; Vukovich, M D; Martini, E R; Kohut, M L; Franke, W D; Jackson, D A; King, D S

    2001-09-01

    The effectiveness of a nutritional supplement designed to enhance serum testosterone concentrations and prevent the formation of dihydrotestosterone and estrogens from the ingested androgens was investigated in healthy 30- to 59-year old men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume DION (300 mg androstenedione, 150 mg dehydroepiandrosterone, 540 mg saw palmetto, 300 mg indole-3-carbinol, 625 mg chrysin, and 750 mg Tribulus terrestris per day; n = 28) or placebo (n = 27) for 28 days. Serum free testosterone, total testosterone, androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and lipid concentrations were measured before and throughout the 4-week supplementation period. Serum concentrations of total testosterone and PSA were unchanged by supplementation. DION increased (p < 0.05) serum androstenedione (342%), free testosterone (38%), dihydrotestosterone (71%), and estradiol (103%) concentrations. Serum HDL-C concentrations were reduced by 5.0 mg/dL in DION (p < 0.05). Increases in serum free testosterone (r2 = 0.01), androstenedione (r2 = 0.01), dihydrotestosterone (r2 = 0.03), or estradiol (r2 = 0.07) concentrations in DION were not related to age. While the ingestion of androstenedione combined with herbal products increased serum free testosterone concentrations in older men, these herbal products did not prevent the conversion of ingested androstenedione to estradiol and dihydrotestosterone.

  2. Sex hormones and the dry eye.

    PubMed

    Truong, Susan; Cole, Nerida; Stapleton, Fiona; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2014-07-01

    The greater prevalence of dry eye in women compared to men suggests that sex hormones may have a role in this condition. This review aims to present evidence for how sex hormones may affect the ocular structures involved in the production, regulation and maintenance of the normal tear film. It is hypothesised that hormone changes alter the homeostasis of the ocular surface and contribute to dry eye. Androgens impact on the structure and function of the meibomian and lacrimal glands and therefore androgen deficiency is, at least in part, associated with the aetiology of dry eye. In contrast, reports of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on these ocular structures and on the conjunctiva are contradictory and the mechanisms of action of these female-specific sex hormones in the eye are not well understood. The uncertainty of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on dry eye symptoms is reflected in the controversial relationship between hormone replacement therapy and the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Current understanding of sex hormone influences on the immune system suggests that oestrogen may modulate a cascade of inflammatory events, which underlie dry eye.

  3. Sex hormones and brain dopamine functions.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Zarate, Ramon; Cruz, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M; Espinosa, Pedro; Ramirez, Victor D

    2014-01-01

    Sex hormones exert differential effects on a variety of sensitive tissues like the reproductive tract, gonads, liver, bone and adipose tissue, among others. In the brain, sex hormones act as neuroactive steroids regulating the function of neuroendocrine diencephalic structures like the hypothalamus. In addition, steroids can exert physiological effects upon cortical, limbic and midbrain structures, influencing different behaviors such as memory, learning, mood and reward. In the last three decades, the role of sex hormones on monoamine neurotransmitters in extra-hypothalamic areas related to motivated behaviors, learning and locomotion has been the focus of much research. The purpose of this thematic issue is to present the state of art concerning the effects of sex hormones on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic midbrain areas involved in neurobiological and pathological processes, such as addiction to drugs of abuse. We also discuss evidence of how neonatal exposure to sex hormones or endocrine disrupting chemicals can produce long-term changes on the neurochemical regulation of dopaminergic neurons in the limbic and midbrain areas. PMID:25540983

  4. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. ); Gutai, J.P. ); Powell, J.G. )

    1989-06-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  5. Sex hormone replacement in disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Wiebke; Bertelloni, Silvano

    2014-01-01

    People with disorders of sex development (DSD) may have impaired sex steroid production or their gonads removed before, during or after adolescence, thus requiring hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to induce puberty and/or maintain secondary sexual characteristics, to optimize bone health, and to promote physical and social well-being. Oestrogens are usually used for this purpose in persons reared as females (eventually combined with progestins if a uterus is present) and androgens in those reared as males. An alternative therapy for women with ascertained complete androgen insensitivity syndrome could be testosterone, because this is the main sex steroid hormone secreted by their gonads, but this approach remains to be better explored. Few sound evidence-based data are available to guide HRT administration at puberty and in adulthood in individuals with DSD, but recent data and new formulations may give better perspectives for the future.

  6. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  7. Epilepsy, sex hormones, and antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Mattson, R H; Cramer, J A

    1985-01-01

    Many factors associated with hormone function have an impact on the course of epilepsy. Patients with epilepsy may have disturbances in sexual function such as anovulatory cycles in women and decreased libido and potency in men. Data indicate seizures, especially those arising in the limbic system, may influence the hypothalamic pituitary axis. Antiepileptic drugs also influence sexual function through direct brain effects as well as through induced changes in pharmacokinetics of the sex steroid hormones. Pregnancy has been reported to be a time of increased seizures; however, this has often been associated with low drug levels, for reasons that include inadequate drug dose, possible changes in pharmacokinetics, and noncompliance. Some evidence suggests that hormones affect seizure frequency. Changes in seizures during the menstrual cycle (catamenial epilepsy) have been found in some women: seizures were fewer during the luteal phase but increased when progesterone levels declined. Some improvement in seizure frequency has been shown in pilot studies using medroxyprogesterone acetate, a synthetic progesterone. Current concepts of the interrelationship among epilepsy, sex hormones, and antiepileptic drugs are discussed.

  8. Expression of the androgen receptor in the testes and the concentrations of gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones in male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, J; Leska, A; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-04-01

    Androgens, including testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4), are essential for puberty, fertility and sexual functions. The biological activity of those hormones is mediated via the androgen receptor (AR). The regulation of androgen action in birds is poorly understood. Therefore, the present study analysed mRNA and protein expression of AR in the testes, plasma concentrations of the luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), T, A4 and oestradiol (E2), as well as the levels of T, A4 and E2 in testicular homogenates of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. Plasma concentrations of LH and FSH, as well as plasma and testicular levels of T and A4 began to increase at 20weeks of age. The lowest plasma levels of E2 were noted at 20weeks relative to other growth stages. The 20th week of life seems to be the key phase in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys. The AR protein was found in the nuclei of testicular cells in all examined growth stages. Higher expression of AR protein in the testes beginning at 20weeks of age was accompanied by high plasma concentrations of LH and high plasma and testicular levels of androgens. This relationship seems to be necessary to regulate male sexual function.

  9. Expression of the androgen receptor in the testes and the concentrations of gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones in male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, J; Leska, A; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-04-01

    Androgens, including testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4), are essential for puberty, fertility and sexual functions. The biological activity of those hormones is mediated via the androgen receptor (AR). The regulation of androgen action in birds is poorly understood. Therefore, the present study analysed mRNA and protein expression of AR in the testes, plasma concentrations of the luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), T, A4 and oestradiol (E2), as well as the levels of T, A4 and E2 in testicular homogenates of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. Plasma concentrations of LH and FSH, as well as plasma and testicular levels of T and A4 began to increase at 20weeks of age. The lowest plasma levels of E2 were noted at 20weeks relative to other growth stages. The 20th week of life seems to be the key phase in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys. The AR protein was found in the nuclei of testicular cells in all examined growth stages. Higher expression of AR protein in the testes beginning at 20weeks of age was accompanied by high plasma concentrations of LH and high plasma and testicular levels of androgens. This relationship seems to be necessary to regulate male sexual function. PMID:25072891

  10. Age-related changes in the concentrations of cytosol receptors for sex steroid hormones in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland of the rat.

    PubMed

    Haji, M; Kato, K I; Nawata, H; Ibayashi, H

    1981-01-12

    Estrogen and androgen receptors were measured in cytosols from hypothalamus, pituitary and uterus or prostate of rats at 3 stages in life, from 90 to 650 days old in females and from 90 to 550 days old in males. Saturation analysis of cytosol 17 beta-estradiol receptors in females demonstrated a significant age-associated reduction in maximum binding capacity in hypothalamus and uterus already at 300-330 days of life, but there was no significant change in pituitary gland. However, there was no difference in binding affinity, steroid specificity, sedimentation coefficient, chemical nature and heat lability of cytosol 17 beta-estradiol binding of these tissues among the 3 age groups. In males, each receptor for 17 beta-estradiol, testosterone and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone was isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation from hypothalamic, pituitary and prostate cytosols. These receptors showed the same sedimentation coefficient of 8-9S in all age groups. Androgen binding by cytosols already decreased at 300-330 days of life, but estrogen binding was lower at 500-550 days of life than in younger adults. The increase in the serum luteinizing hormone level after gonadectomy was significantly depressed with aging in both females and males. These findings suggested that the age-associated reduction in cytosol sex steroid hormone receptors was ascribable to changes of numbers of binding sites. These age-related changes may be concerned with feedback system dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in aged rats.

  11. Sex hormones in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Roger Lyrio; da Silva, Fabrício Bragança; Ribeiro, Rogério Faustino; Stefanon, Ivanita

    2014-05-01

    Gender-associated differences in the development of cardiovascular diseases have been described in humans and animals. These differences could explain the low incidence of cardiovascular disease in women in the reproductive period, such as stroke, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. The cardiovascular protection observed in females has been attributed to the beneficial effects of estrogen on endothelial function. Besides estrogen, sex hormones are able to modulate blood pressure by acting on important systems as cardiovascular, renal, and neural. They can have complementary or antagonistic actions. For example, testosterone can raise blood pressure by stimulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, whereas estrogen alone or combined with progesterone has been associated with decreased blood pressure. The effects of testosterone in the development of cardiovascular disease are contradictory. Although some researchers suggest a positive effect, others indicate negative actions of testosterone. Estrogens physiologically stimulate the release of endothelium-derived vasodilator factors and inhibit the renin-angiotensin system. Although the cardioprotective effects of estrogen are widely appreciated, little is known about the effects of progesterone, which is commonly used in hormone replacement therapy. Progesterone has both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive effects in the vasculature, depending on the location of the vessel and the level of exposure. Nevertheless, the mechanisms through which sex hormones modulate blood pressure have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the characterization of those could lead to a better understanding of hypertension in women and men and perhaps to improved forms of therapy.

  12. Interactive effects of culture and sex hormones on the sex role self-concept

    PubMed Central

    Pletzer, Belinda; Petasis, Ourania; Ortner, Tuulia M.; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e., a person's masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European). Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant's masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity. PMID:26236181

  13. Interactive effects of culture and sex hormones on the sex role self-concept.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Belinda; Petasis, Ourania; Ortner, Tuulia M; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e., a person's masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European). Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant's masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity.

  14. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Ghisleni, Carmen; Bollmann, Steffen; Biason-Lauber, Anna; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Michels, Lars; Hersberger, Martin; Suckling, John; Klaver, Peter; O'Gorman, Ruth L

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women). Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  15. Sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin, and vertebral fractures in older men.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Schousboe, John T; Harrison, Stephanie L; Ensrud, Kristine E; Black, Dennis; Cauley, Jane A; Cummings, Steven R; LeBlanc, Erin S; Laughlin, Gail A; Nielson, Carrie M; Broughton, Augusta; Kado, Deborah M; Hoffman, Andrew R; Jamal, Sophie A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Orwoll, Eric S

    2016-03-01

    The association between sex hormones and sex hormone binding globin (SHBG) with vertebral fractures in men is not well studied. In these analyses, we determined whether sex hormones and SHBG were associated with greater likelihood of vertebral fractures in a prospective cohort study of community dwelling older men. We included data from participants in MrOS who had been randomly selected for hormone measurement (N=1463, including 1054 with follow-up data 4.6years later). Major outcomes included prevalent vertebral fracture (semi-quantitative grade≥2, N=140, 9.6%) and new or worsening vertebral fracture (change in SQ grade≥1, N=55, 5.2%). Odds ratios per SD decrease in sex hormones and per SD increase in SHBG were estimated with logistic regression adjusted for potentially confounding factors, including age, bone mineral density, and other sex hormones. Higher SHBG was associated with a greater likelihood of prevalent vertebral fractures (OR: 1.38 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.72). Total estradiol analyzed as a continuous variable was not associated with prevalent vertebral fractures (OR per SD decrease: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.10). Men with total estradiol values ≤17pg/ml had a borderline higher likelihood of prevalent fracture than men with higher values (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.99, 2.16). There was no association between total testosterone and prevalent fracture. In longitudinal analyses, SHBG (OR: 1.42 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.95) was associated with new or worsening vertebral fracture, but there was no association with total estradiol or total testosterone. In conclusion, higher SHBG (but not testosterone or estradiol) is an independent risk factor for vertebral fractures in older men. PMID:26778261

  16. Sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin, and vertebral fractures in older men.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Schousboe, John T; Harrison, Stephanie L; Ensrud, Kristine E; Black, Dennis; Cauley, Jane A; Cummings, Steven R; LeBlanc, Erin S; Laughlin, Gail A; Nielson, Carrie M; Broughton, Augusta; Kado, Deborah M; Hoffman, Andrew R; Jamal, Sophie A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Orwoll, Eric S

    2016-03-01

    The association between sex hormones and sex hormone binding globin (SHBG) with vertebral fractures in men is not well studied. In these analyses, we determined whether sex hormones and SHBG were associated with greater likelihood of vertebral fractures in a prospective cohort study of community dwelling older men. We included data from participants in MrOS who had been randomly selected for hormone measurement (N=1463, including 1054 with follow-up data 4.6years later). Major outcomes included prevalent vertebral fracture (semi-quantitative grade≥2, N=140, 9.6%) and new or worsening vertebral fracture (change in SQ grade≥1, N=55, 5.2%). Odds ratios per SD decrease in sex hormones and per SD increase in SHBG were estimated with logistic regression adjusted for potentially confounding factors, including age, bone mineral density, and other sex hormones. Higher SHBG was associated with a greater likelihood of prevalent vertebral fractures (OR: 1.38 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.72). Total estradiol analyzed as a continuous variable was not associated with prevalent vertebral fractures (OR per SD decrease: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.10). Men with total estradiol values ≤17pg/ml had a borderline higher likelihood of prevalent fracture than men with higher values (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.99, 2.16). There was no association between total testosterone and prevalent fracture. In longitudinal analyses, SHBG (OR: 1.42 per SD increase, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.95) was associated with new or worsening vertebral fracture, but there was no association with total estradiol or total testosterone. In conclusion, higher SHBG (but not testosterone or estradiol) is an independent risk factor for vertebral fractures in older men.

  17. [Hormone replacement therapy--growth hormone, melatonin, DHEA and sex hormones].

    PubMed

    Fukai, Shiho; Akishita, Masahiro

    2009-07-01

    The ability to maintain active and independent living as long as possible is crucial for the healthy longevity. Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with aging are growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), melatonin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormones and thyroid hormones. These hormonal changes are associated with changes in body composition, visceral obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. With the prolongation of life expectancy, both men and women today live the latter third life with endocrine deficiencies. Hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing or delaying some aspects of aging.

  18. Gender, sex hormones and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Austin, Eric D; Lahm, Tim; West, James; Tofovic, Stevan P; Johansen, Anne Katrine; Maclean, Margaret R; Alzoubi, Abdallah; Oka, Masahiko

    2013-04-01

    Most subtypes of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are characterized by a greater susceptibility to disease among females, although females with PAH appear to live longer after diagnosis. While this "estrogen paradoxȍ of enhanced female survival despite increased female susceptibility remains a mystery, recent progress has begun to shed light upon the interplay of sex hormones, the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension, and the right ventricular response to stress. For example, emerging data in humans and experimental models suggest that estrogens or differential sex hormone metabolism may modify disease risk among susceptible subjects, and that estrogens may interact with additional local factors such as serotonin to enhance the potentially damaging chronic effects of estrogens on the pulmonary vasculature. Regardless, it remains unclear why not all estrogenic compounds behave equally, nor why estrogens appear to be protective in certain settings but detrimental in others. The contribution of androgens and other compounds, such as dehydroepiandrosterone, to pathogenesis and possibly treatment must be considered as well. In this review, we will discuss the recent understandings on how estrogens, estrogen metabolism, dehydroepiandrosterone, and additional susceptibility factors may all contribute to the pathogenesis or potentially to the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, by evaluating current human, cell-based, and experimental model data.

  19. Gender, sex hormones and pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Eric D.; Lahm, Tim; West, James; Tofovic, Stevan P.; Johansen, Anne Katrine; MacLean, Margaret R.; Alzoubi, Abdallah; Oka, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Most subtypes of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are characterized by a greater susceptibility to disease among females, although females with PAH appear to live longer after diagnosis. While this “estrogen paradoxȍ of enhanced female survival despite increased female susceptibility remains a mystery, recent progress has begun to shed light upon the interplay of sex hormones, the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension, and the right ventricular response to stress. For example, emerging data in humans and experimental models suggest that estrogens or differential sex hormone metabolism may modify disease risk among susceptible subjects, and that estrogens may interact with additional local factors such as serotonin to enhance the potentially damaging chronic effects of estrogens on the pulmonary vasculature. Regardless, it remains unclear why not all estrogenic compounds behave equally, nor why estrogens appear to be protective in certain settings but detrimental in others. The contribution of androgens and other compounds, such as dehydroepiandrosterone, to pathogenesis and possibly treatment must be considered as well. In this review, we will discuss the recent understandings on how estrogens, estrogen metabolism, dehydroepiandrosterone, and additional susceptibility factors may all contribute to the pathogenesis or potentially to the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, by evaluating current human, cell-based, and experimental model data. PMID:24015330

  20. Patterns of sex steroid hormones in nipple aspirate fluid during the menstrual cycle and after menopause in relation to serum concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chatterton, Robert T; Khan, Seema A; Heinz, Richard; Ivancic, David; Lee, Oukseub

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that progesterone concentrations in serum and nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) are significantly correlated in premenopausal women, but estradiol concentrations are not. We therefore sought to ascertain the patterns of both steroids in NAF throughout the menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal women. Simultaneous samples of blood and NAF were obtained from 40 premenopausal and 16 postmenopausal women. Premenopausal samples were backdated from the following menstrual period. Steroids were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography before quantification by immunoassays. Serum steroids and NAF progesterone followed the expected pattern across the menstrual cycle, with a midcycle peak of estradiol and a midluteal peak of progesterone. However, the estradiol peak in NAF occurred about a week after the serum peak in the midluteal phase, when serum estradiol had declined to less than half the value at midcycle. NAF estrone was also elevated at the midluteal phase. Potential estrogen precursors androstenedione, estrone sulfate, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate declined in NAF from midcycle to the midluteal phase as NAF estradiol was increasing. Progesterone concentrations were significantly lower in NAF in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women, but estrogen concentrations were not. This is the first description of the temporal relationships of sex steroids in NAF and serum relative to the menstrual cycle. These results provide insights into the lack of correlation of NAF and breast tissue estrogens with serum estrogens, and generate new hypotheses. PMID:20056648

  1. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-01-01

    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity.

  2. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-01-01

    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity. PMID:25776460

  3. Sex hormones and HCV: an unresolved mystery.

    PubMed

    Mekky, Radwa Y; Abdelaziz, Ahmed I

    2013-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females advocate the ultimate need for gender-specific medicine. The variation in response to viral infection as well as therapy among different genders makes it very intriguing to reveal the responsible factors for causing this discrepancy. HCV is one of the most noxious infectious diseases, however the impact of gender on the response to HCV has received negligible attention in the literature. The controversial studies concerning the effect of gender on the outcome of interferon-based therapy urge a need to judge the gender discrepancy in host factors responsible for both interferon release and action. The main aim of this review is to disentangle the interplay between sex hormones and several viral and host factors responsible for viral clearance in an attempt to clarify the role of gender in modulating the response to HCV as well as interferon-based therapy.

  4. Glucose transporters in sex steroid hormone related cancer.

    PubMed

    Nualart, Francisco; Los Angeles García, Maríade; Medina, Rodolfo A; Owen, Gareth I

    2009-10-01

    Cancer cells, as with most mammalian cells, depend on a continuous supply of glucose; not only as a precursor of glycoproteins, triglycerides and glycogen, but also as an important source of energy. This review concentrates on GLUT transporter expression in both normal and cancerous classical sex-steroid hormone tissues (i.e. breast, uterus, ovary, testis and prostate, among others). Given the importance of estrogen, progesterone and androgens in carcinogenesis, as well as in survival and propagation of these cancers, this review also highlights the current literature on hormone regulation of glucose transporters and on the role of hypoxia in their expression. Given the recent explosion of information on the newer GLUT6-12 family members, a brief overview on their function and general expression has been included. Finally, an insight into the use of glucose transporters as markers of cancer progression and clinical outcome is also discussed.

  5. Environmental hormones and their impacts on sex differentiation in fathead minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff from lands fertilized with animal manure from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a source of hormones to surface water. To test the hypothesis that juvenile fathead minnows exposed to sex steroids singly and in a “typical” CAFO mixture while undergoing sex...

  6. Sex hormones adjust "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

    PubMed

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Desrochers, Alexandra Bisson; Bourdon, Olivier; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress hormone functions are presumed to depend on sex hormones. And yet, surprisingly few psychoneuroendocrine studies actually assess within-sex variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone when investigating sex-specific activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this methodological study of 204 healthy adults (60 men), we assessed whether cortisol profiles would differ between the sexes when unadjusted or adjusted for basal sex hormones among both sexes. Reactive cortisol was sampled using 6 saliva samples measured every 10-min as part of the Trier Social Stress Test that generally activates cortisol among men more than women. Diurnal cortisol was sampled over two days at (1) awakening, (2) 30-min thereafter, (3) 1400 h, (4) 1600 h, and (5) bedtime. Sex hormones were collected at baseline before the psychosocial stressor and on two occasions during diurnal cortisol assessment. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance controlled for key covariates in analyses unadjusted or adjusted for sex hormones. Results revealed that men had higher reactive cortisol than women in unadjusted analysis, but this sex difference was attenuated when adjusting for sex hormones. While diurnal cortisol showed no sex differences in unadjusted models, adjusting for sex hormones revealed that women have higher morning cortisol. Correlations using area under the curve formulae revealed intriguing sex-specific associations with progesterone in men and testosterone in women that we propose have implications for social and affective neuroscience. In summary, our results reveal that adjusting for sex hormones alters "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

  7. Role of sex-hormone-binding globulin and free sex steroid hormones in hyperandrogenic anovulation.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, M; Asai, M; Masahashi, T; Narita, O; Tomoda, Y; Matsui, N

    1986-11-01

    To clarify the mechanism of hyperandrogenic anovulation, the binding capacity of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG-BC), the levels of free steroid hormones, and the levels of basal serum testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and gonadotropins were determined in 42 hyperandrogenic anovulatory women. The mean levels of basal T (0.74 +/- 0.04 ng/ml, p less than 0.001), free T (3.07 +/- 0.51 ng/dl, p less than 0.01) and free E2 (2.26 +/- 0.27 pg/ml, p less than 0.05), basal luteinizing hormone (LH) (33.4 +/- 2.7 mIU/ml, p less than 0.001), responsiveness of LH (180.7 +/- 21.5 mIU/ml, p less than 0.001) after luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) administration, and the basal LH/basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio (3.42 +/- 0.25, p less than 0.001) in the patients were significantly higher, the SHBG-BC level (1.76 +/- 0.33 micrograms DHT bound/dl, p less than 0.05) significantly reduced, and basal levels of E2 (38.0 +/- 3.2 pg/ml) and E1 (110 +/- 13 pg/ml) unchanged compared to the controls. These findings suggest that increased T in hyperandrogenic anovulatory women results in decreased SHBG-BC and increased free T and E2 which might be the cause of inappropriate gonadotropin secretion followed by chronic anovulation. PMID:2947958

  8. Sex hormones alter sex ratios in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis: Determining sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal.

    PubMed

    Phuge, S K; Gramapurohit, N P

    2015-09-01

    In amphibians, although genetic factors are involved in sex determination, gonadal sex differentiation can be modified by exogenous steroid hormones suggesting a possible role of sex steroids in regulating the process. We studied the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) and estradiol-17β (E2) on gonadal differentiation and sex ratio at metamorphosis in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis with undifferentiated type of gonadal differentiation. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the optimum dose and sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal. Our results clearly indicate the importance of sex hormones in controlling gonadal differentiation of E. cyanophlyctis. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L TP throughout larval period resulted in the development of 100% males at metamorphosis at all concentrations. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with 40μg/L TP during ovarian and testicular differentiation resulted in the development of 90% males, 10% intersexes and 100% males respectively. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L E2 throughout larval period likewise produced 100% females at all concentrations. Furthermore, exposure to 40μg/L E2 during ovarian and testicular differentiation produced 95% females, 5% intersexes and 91% females, 9% intersexes respectively. Both TP and E2 were also effective in advancing the stages of gonadal development. Present study shows the effectiveness of both T and E2 in inducing complete sex reversal in E. cyanophlyctis. Generally, exposure to E2 increased the larval period resulting in significantly larger females than control group while the larval period of control and TP treated groups was comparable.

  9. Sex hormone-binding globulin regulation of androgen bioactivity in vivo: validation of the free hormone hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Blokland, Marco; Jardí, Ferran; Antonio, Leen; Dubois, Vanessa; Khalil, Rougin; Sterk, Saskia S.; Gielen, Evelien; Decallonne, Brigitte; Carmeliet, Geert; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Fiers, Tom; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the high-affinity binding protein for androgens and estrogens. According to the free hormone hypothesis, SHBG modulates the bioactivity of sex steroids by limiting their diffusion into target tissues. Still, the in vivo physiological role of circulating SHBG remains unclear, especially since mice and rats lack circulating SHBG post-natally. To test the free hormone hypothesis in vivo, we examined total and free sex steroid concentrations and bioactivity on target organs in mice expressing a human SHBG transgene. SHBG increased total androgen and estrogen concentrations via hypothalamic-pituitary feedback regulation and prolonged ligand half-life. Despite markedly raised total sex steroid concentrations, free testosterone was unaffected while sex steroid bioactivity on male and female reproductive organs was attenuated. This occurred via a ligand-dependent, genotype-independent mechanism according to in vitro seminal vesicle organ cultures. These results provide compelling support for the determination of free or bioavailable sex steroid concentrations in medicine, and clarify important comparative differences between translational mouse models and human endocrinology. PMID:27748448

  10. Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE) study

    PubMed Central

    Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Peeters, Petra HM; Schuit, Albertine J

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s) underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physical activity and breast cancer risk, we designed the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE) study. Purpose of SHAPE study is to examine the effects of a 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise programme on endogenous hormone levels associated with breast cancer among sedentary postmenopausal women and whether the amount of total body fat or abdominal fat mediates the effects. Methods/Design In the SHAPE study, 189 sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 50–69 years, are randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consists of an 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and strenght training exercise programme. Partcipants allocated to the control group are requested to retain their habitual exercise pattern. Primary study parameters measured at baseline, at four months and at 12 months are: serum concentrations of endogenous estrogens, endogenous androgens, sex hormone binding globuline and insuline. Other study parameters include: amount of total and abdominal fat, weight, BMI, body fat distribution, physical fitness, blood pressure and lifestyle factors. Discussion This study will contribute to the body of evidence relating physical activity and breast cancer risk and will provide insight into possible mechanisms through which physical activity might be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Trial registration NCT00359060 PMID:17767724

  11. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anthony H.; Marczylo, Timothy H.; Willets, Jonathon M.; Konje, Justin C.

    2013-01-01

    The “endocannabinoid system (ECS)” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed. PMID:24369462

  12. Interactions between Age, Sex, and Hormones in Experimental Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fudong; McCullough, Louise D.

    2012-01-01

    Age, sex, and gonadal hormones have profound effects on ischemic stroke outcomes, although how these factors impact basic stroke pathophysiology remains unclear. There is a plethora of inconsistent data reported throughout the literature, primarily due to differences in the species examined, the timing and methods used to evaluate injury, the models used, and confusion regarding differences in stroke incidence as seen in clinical populations versus effects on acute neuroprotection or neurorepair in experimental stroke models. Sex and gonadal hormone exposure have considerable independent impact on stroke outcome, but these factors also interact with each other, and the contribution of each differs throughout the lifespan. The contribution of sex and hormones to experimental stroke will be the focus of this review. Recent advances and our current understanding of age, sex, and hormone interactions in ischemic stroke with a focus on inflammation will be discussed. PMID:23068990

  13. Sex Hormones and Modulation of Immunity against Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Heidi; Lezama-Davila, Claudio; Alexander, James; Satoskar, Abhay R.

    2009-01-01

    Sex-associated hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and progesterone have all been shown to modulate immune responses, which can result in differential disease outcomes between males and females, as well as between pregnant and nonpregnant females. Most parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis, usually result in more severe disease in males compared with females. This review highlights our current knowledge concerning the role of sex hormones in modulating leishmaniasis in both clinical settings and experimental disease models. PMID:19212130

  14. Epilepsy, sex hormones and antiepileptic drugs in female patients.

    PubMed

    Verrotti, Alberto; D'Egidio, Claudia; Coppola, Giangennaro; Parisi, Pasquale; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Women with epilepsy have a higher incidence of reproductive endocrine disorders than the general female population. These alterations include polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperandrogenemia, infertility, hypothalamic amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Reproductive dysfunction is attributed both to epilepsy itself and to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Focal epileptic discharges from the temporal lobe may have a direct influence on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thus altering the release of sex steroid hormones, including the production of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone and prolactin. AEDs may modulate hormone release from the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and they may alter the metabolism of sex hormones and their binding proteins. Hepatic enzyme-inducing AEDs, such as carbamazepine and phenytoin, may be most clearly linked to altered metabolism of sex steroid hormones, but valproic acid, an enzyme inhibitor, has also been associated with a frequent occurrence of polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperandrogenism in women with epilepsy. Therefore, treatment of epilepsy and selection of AEDs are important for reproductive health in female patients. The aim of the present review is to critically evaluate the recently published data concerning the interactions between sex hormones, epilepsy and AEDs.

  15. Exogenously treated mammalian sex hormones affect inorganic constituents of plants.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Serkan; Dumlupinar, Rahmi

    2011-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to reveal the changes in inorganic constituents of plants exposed to mammalian sex hormones (MSH). Chickpea leaves were sprayed with 10(-4), 10(-6), 10(-9), 10(-12), and 10(-15) M concentrations of progesterone, β-estradiol, and androsterone at 7th day after sowing. The plants were harvested at the end of 18 days after treatment of MSH solutions and the inorganic components determined using a wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy technique. At all of the concentrations tested, MSH significantly increased the contents of K, S, Na, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, P, Cu, and Ni. Interestingly, only Mn and Cl contents decreased. The maximum changes in the inorganic composition were recorded at 10(-6) M for plants treated with progesterone and 10(-9) M for plants treated with β-estradiol and androsterone.

  16. Responses of sex steroid hormones to different intensities of exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji; Kanao, Yoji; Saito, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute exercise elevates sex steroid hormone concentrations in rodents and that sprint exercise increases circulating testosterone in healthy young men. However, the effect of different exercise intensities on sex steroid hormone responses at different levels of physical fitness is still unclear. In this study, we compared circulating sex steroid hormone responses at different exercise intensities in athletes and non-athletes. Eight male endurance athletes and 11 non-athletes performed two 15 min sessions of submaximal exercise at 40 and 70% peak oxygen uptake (V̇(O2peak)), respectively, and exercised at 90% V̇(O2peak) until exhaustion. Venous blood samples were collected during the last minute of each submaximal exercise session and immediately after exhaustion. Acute exercise at 40, 70 and 90% V̇(O2peak) induced significant increases in serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and free testosterone concentrations in non-athletes. On the contrary, only 90% V̇O2 peak exercise led to an increase in serum DHEA and free testosterone concentrations in athletes. Serum 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations increased with 90% V̇(O2peak) exercise in both athletes and non-athletes. Additionally, serum estradiol concentrations were significantly increased at moderate and high exercise intensities in both athletes and non-athletes. These results indicate that in endurance athletes, serum sex steroid hormone concentrations, especially serum DHEA and 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations, increased only with high-intensity exercise, suggesting that different responses of sex steroid hormone secretion are induced by different exercise intensities in individuals with low and high levels of physical fitness. In athletes, therefore, high-intensity exercise may be required to increase circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations.

  17. Male sex hormones and systemic inflammation in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Butchart, Joe; Birch, Brian; Bassily, Ramy; Wolfe, Laura; Holmes, Clive

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the levels of sex hormones in men with Alzheimer disease (AD) differ from men without AD. Therefore, male sex hormones have been postulated as risk modifiers in AD, possibly through immunomodulatory effects on known inflammatory AD risk factors, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). We conducted a cross-sectional study of sex hormones and TNF-α levels in 94 community-dwelling men with AD. Comparisons were made with normal values derived from the literature. Men with AD had lower free testosterone levels than non-AD men (1-sample t test: age <80, P=0.0002; age ≥80, P<0.0001), and higher luteinizing hormone (LH) levels (Wilcoxon signed rank test: age <80, P=0.001; age ≥80, P<0.0001). Within the cohort of men with AD, there was a positive correlation between LH and TNF-α (Spearman r=0.25, P=0.019), and this remained significant after correcting for age (partial r=0.21, P=0.05). These data support the hypothesis that sex hormones and the immune system influence each other in AD. Furthermore, modulatory effects between LH and TNF-α may provide a mechanism for an effect of male sex hormones on AD risk.

  18. Hormonal and behavioral determinants of the secondary sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Martin, J F

    1995-01-01

    The timing of insemination relative to ovulation and the frequency of insemination appear prominently in analyses of variations in human secondary sex ratios. Explanations invoking these variables are shown to be inadequate. A new synthetic model of sex determination is proposed in which the sex of offspring is powerfully determined by the state of the cervical mucus. The cervical state is then shown to be a function of hormonal factors endogenous to the female in interaction with the effects of previous inseminations.

  19. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-03-14

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of "microgenderome" related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder.

  20. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of “microgenderome” related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder. PMID:24627581

  1. Hormone replacement in disorders of sex development: Current thinking.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Jacqueline; Zacharin, Margaret

    2015-06-01

    Congenital disruptions of sex hormone production lead to wide-ranging developmental and physiological effects in individuals who have atypical chromosomal, gonadal or anatomic sex. Aberrant developmental sex hormone exposure causes disorders of genital anatomy, attainment of secondary sexual characteristics and has long-term effects on metabolism, fertility and psychological functioning. Principles in the management of disorders of sex development (DSD) aim to improve physiological health and long-term outcome, as well as development of male or female sexual anatomy. Concerns raised by DSD patient advocacy groups about beneficence and autonomy with respect to prescribed hormone treatments and avoidance of unnecessary genital and gonadal surgery have demanded greater informed consent and attention to long-term outcome. Hormone treatment is influenced by underlying clinical diagnosis and by factors such as sex of rearing and gender identity of the affected individual. We describe diagnostic criteria for different DSDs, clinical considerations in management protocols, together with current concepts and detailed practical hormone treatments for male and female individuals with DSD. Gender identity issues requiring multidisciplinary consensus, ethical consideration and informed consent or assent from the young person are also addressed.

  2. Sex hormones and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Regulation, implications, and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Rand; Wainwright, Steven R; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-04-01

    Neurogenesis within the adult hippocampus is modulated by endogenous and exogenous factors. Here, we review the role of sex hormones in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in males and females. The review is framed around the potential functional implications of sex hormone regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, with a focus on cognitive function and mood regulation, which may be related to sex differences in incidence and severity of dementia and depression. We present findings from preclinical studies of endogenous fluctuations in sex hormones relating to reproductive function and ageing, and from studies of exogenous hormone manipulations. In addition, we discuss the modulating roles of sex, age, and reproductive history on the relationship between sex hormones and neurogenesis. Because sex hormones have diverse targets in the central nervous system, we overview potential mechanisms through which sex hormones may influence hippocampal neurogenesis. Lastly, we advocate for a more systematic consideration of sex and sex hormones in studying the functional implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  3. Sex hormones in postmenopausal women receiving low-dose hormone therapy: the effect of BMI.

    PubMed

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Armeni, Eleni; Rizos, Demetrios; Deligeoroglou, Eythimios; Kofinakos, Panagiotis; Kaparos, George; Alexandrou, Andreas; Creatsa, Maria; Logothetis, Emmanuel; Kouskouni, Evangelia

    2011-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of BMI on the change in circulating sex hormone in postmenopausal women during 6 months of oral continuous combined low-dose hormone therapy (HT). Fifty postmenopausal women were allocated to receive daily one tablet containing combination of 17β-estradiol (1 mg)/norethindrone acetate (0.5 mg) for 6 months. Serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), free estrogen index (FEI), Δ4-androstendione (Δ4A), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were assessed at baseline and at the end of 6 months. Mean absolute values and percent changes from baseline were compared between lean and overweight women. Mean FSH decreased and mean 17β-estradiol increased significantly in both groups (FSH lean: 82.3 ± 26.7 decreased to 45.0 ± 17.0 mIU/ml, P = 0.0001; FSH overweight: 85.5 ± 22.1 decreased to 52.3 ± 23.8 mIU/ml, P = 0.003; P between groups = 0.661; E2 lean: 23.24 ± 12.55 increased to 53.62 ± 28.29 pg/ml, P = 0.006; E2 overweight: 24.17 ± 10.88 increased to 68.36 ± 53.99 pg/ml, P = 0.0001; P between groups = 0.619). Lean individuals had statistically significant higher increments of FAI and specifically FEI compared to overweight (FEI lean; 0.14 ± 0.09 increased to 0.29 ± 0.14, P = 0.009; overweight 0.23 ± 0.18 increased to 0.52 ± 0.40, P = 0.126; P between groups = 0.034). Although BMI does not affect total 17β-estradiol changes, free sex steroid concentrations increase more steeply in lean compared to overweight women receiving oral low-dose HT.

  4. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications.

    PubMed

    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K

    2013-11-01

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress.

  5. Effect of Sex and Prior Exposure to a Cafeteria Diet on the Distribution of Sex Hormones between Plasma and Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Romero, María del Mar; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that steroid hormones are carried in the blood free and/or bound to plasma proteins. We investigated whether blood cells were also able to bind/carry sex-related hormones: estrone, estradiol, DHEA and testosterone. Wistar male and female rats were fed a cafeteria diet for 30 days, which induced overweight. The rats were fed the standard rat diet for 15 additional days to minimize the immediate effects of excess ingested energy. Controls were always kept on standard diet. After the rats were killed, their blood was used for 1) measuring plasma hormone levels, 2) determining the binding of labeled hormones to washed red blood cells (RBC), 3) incubating whole blood with labeled hormones and determining the distribution of label between plasma and packed cells, discounting the trapped plasma volume, 4) determining free plasma hormone using labeled hormones, both through membrane ultrafiltration and dextran-charcoal removal. The results were computed individually for each rat. Cells retained up to 32% estrone, and down to 10% of testosterone, with marked differences due to sex and diet (the latter only for estrogens, not for DHEA and testosterone). Sex and diet also affected the concentrations of all hormones, with no significant diet effects for estradiol and DHEA, but with considerable interaction between both factors. Binding to RBC was non-specific for all hormones. Estrogen distribution in plasma compartments was affected by sex and diet. In conclusion: a) there is a large non-specific RBC-carried compartment for estrone, estradiol, DHEA and testosterone deeply affected by sex; b) Prior exposure to a cafeteria (hyperlipidic) diet induced hormone distribution changes, affected by sex, which hint at sex-related structural differences in RBC membranes; c) We postulate that the RBC compartment may contribute to maintain free (i.e., fully active) sex hormone levels in a way similar to plasma proteins non-specific binding. PMID:22479617

  6. Sex Hormone Effects on Body Fluid Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Stachenfeld, Nina S.

    2010-01-01

    In young women, estradiol and progesterone primarily control reproduction, but they also affect fluid regulation. Estradiol lowers the operating point for osmoregulation of arginine vasopressin and thirst and increases plasma volume. Although total body water and sodium content are only mildly affected, data presented in this article suggest that reproductive hormones alter homeostatic set points for body fluid and tonicity. PMID:18580296

  7. Sex differences in adolescent depression: do sex hormones determine vulnerability?

    PubMed

    Naninck, E F G; Lucassen, P J; Bakker, J

    2011-05-01

    Depression is one of the most common, costly and severe psychopathologies worldwide. Its incidence, however, differs significantly between the sexes, and depression rates in women are twice those of men. Interestingly, this sex difference emerges during adolescence. Although the adolescent period is characterised by major physical and behavioural transformations, it is unclear why the incidence of depression increases so dramatically in girls during this otherwise generally healthy developmental period. Although psychological and environmental factors are also involved, we discuss the neuroendocrinological factors determining adolescent vulnerability to depression. In particular, we address the role of sex steroids in mood regulation, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis maturation and sexual differentiation of the brain, with a focus on hippocampal plasticity.

  8. Sex hormones in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma tissue.

    PubMed

    Kumagami, H

    1993-01-01

    Five cases of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma were studied in terms of the presence of progesterone, estradiol, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone in the juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma tissue using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Progesterone and estradiol were positive in all cases. Testosterone was positive in 2 of the 5 patients. Dihydrotestosterone was positive in 3 of the 5 patients. Hormone in the juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma tissue seems to change by the activity of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

  9. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

  10. Sex bias in paediatric autoimmune disease - Not just about sex hormones?

    PubMed

    Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel C; Munro, Jane E; Ellis, Justine A

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune diseases affect up to 10% of the world's population, and approximately 80% of those affected are female. The majority of autoimmune diseases occur more commonly in females, although some are more frequent in males, while others show no bias by sex. The mechanisms leading to sex biased disease prevalence are not well understood. However, for adult-onset autoimmune disease, at least some of the cause is usually ascribed to sex hormones. This is because levels of sex hormones are one of the most obvious physiological differences between adult males and females, and their impact on immune system function is well recognised. While for paediatric-onset autoimmune diseases a sex bias is not as common, there are several such diseases for which one sex predominates. For example, the oligoarticular subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) occurs in approximately three times more girls than boys, with a peak age of onset well before the onset of puberty, and at a time when levels of androgen and oestrogen are low and not strikingly different between the sexes. Here, we review potential explanations for autoimmune disease sex bias with a particular focus on paediatric autoimmune disease, and biological mechanisms outside of sex hormone differences.

  11. Variation in serum biomarkers with sex and female hormonal status: implications for clinical tests

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Jordan M.; Cooper, Jason D.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Few serum biomarker tests are implemented in clinical practice and recent reports raise concerns about poor reproducibility of biomarker studies. Here, we investigated the potential role of sex and female hormonal status in this widespread irreproducibility. We examined 171 serum proteins and small molecules measured in 1,676 participants from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Concentrations of 96 molecules varied with sex and 66 molecules varied between oral contraceptive pill users, postmenopausal females, and females in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (FDR-adjusted p-value <0.05). Simulations of biomarker studies yielded up to 40% false discoveries when patient and control groups were not matched for sex and up to 41% false discoveries when premenopausal females were not matched for oral contraceptive pill use. High accuracy (over 90%) classification tools were developed to label samples with sex and female hormonal status where this information was not collected. PMID:27240929

  12. SEX DIFFERENCES AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE INFLUENCES ON HUMAN ODOR PERCEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398

  13. New insights into the role of sex steroid hormones in pregnancy: possible therapeutic approach by sex steroid hormones for the treatment of both preeclampsia and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, S; Mizutani, E

    2015-03-01

    Fetal peptide hormones are essential for the development of fetus, which increase in accordance with pregnancy term. Concentration of these hormones within the feto-placental unit is normally higher than that of maternal circulation. Since these hormones are biologically active, the leakage of these hormones into the maternal circulation is regulated by degradation activity by placental aminopeptidases, in order to maintain the balance between carriage of pregnancy and onset of labor.Because the concentration of these hormones, being regulated by the amount of endogenous production and by physiological degradation by enzymes in the blood and tissue, the balance between production and degradation is a definitive element for maintaining normal gestation and term delivery.The changes of the balance between fetal angiotensin II (A-II) and vasopressin (AVP) andA-II and AVP degrading enzymes, between aminopeptidase A (APA) and placental leucine aminopeptidase( P-LAP) - in the placenta and maternal blood due to fetal stress such as hypoxia - are the provable causes of preeclampsia or preterm labor.Induction of APA and P-LAP by estradiol benzoate (E2) and progesterone (P) from placenta has been demonstrated. They are involved in the regulation of fetal peptide hormones via placental aminopeptidases in homeostasis of pregnancy.Recently it was shown that both APA and P-LAP could be potentially safe and effective drugs for preeclampsia and preterm labor. The authors' proposed sex steroid treatment with dose increasing manner by gestational week (sex steroid treatment) for severe preeclampsia and preterm labor could be candidates replacing conventional treatments. In light of lacking safe and effective medication, the proposed sex steroid treatment is worthwhile for the prospective controlled studies for the treatment of both preeclampsia and preterm labor.

  14. Yolk steroid hormones and sex determination in reptiles with TSD.

    PubMed

    Elf, P K

    2003-07-01

    In reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), the temperature at which the eggs are incubated determines the sex of the offspring. The molecular switch responsible for determining sex in these species has not yet been elucidated. We have examined the dynamics of yolk steroid hormones during embryonic development in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, and the alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and have found that yolk estradiol (E(2)) responds differentially to incubation temperature in both of these reptiles. Based upon recently reported roles for E(2) in modulation of steroidogenic factor 1, a transcription factor known to be significant in the sex differentiation process, we hypothesize that yolk E(2) is a link between temperature and the gene expression pathway responsible for sex determination and differentiation in at least some of these species. Here we review the evidence that supports our hypothesis. PMID:12849957

  15. Sex differences in yolk hormones depend on maternal social status in Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Wendt; Eising, Corine M; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2002-01-01

    Maternal hormones are known to be present in avian eggs and can have beneficial effects on chick development. Recently, differences in avian yolk steroid concentrations between the sexes have been demonstrated, and in this context steroids have been proposed to be part of the avian sex-determining mechanism. In our study, we show that it is very unlikely that androgen concentrations alone are the decisive part of the sex-determining mechanism. We found that sex-specific differences in the yolk hormones strongly depend on the social rank of the mother. First, dominant females, but not subdominant females, allocated significantly more testosterone to male eggs than to female eggs. Second, subordinate females increased the testosterone concentrations of female eggs. This pattern of yolk hormone deposition can be functionally explained. In polygynous species such as the chicken, reproductive success is more variable in males than in females. Parental investment in sons or daughters is therefore expected to occur in direct relation to parental rearing capacities. We found that the social status of a hen was indeed negatively correlated with her maternal capacities (for example, body mass, egg mass). Differential androgen deposition might thus provide a mechanism for adaptive maternal investment depending on both the sex of the egg and the social status of the mother. PMID:12427318

  16. The influence of sex hormones on acne.

    PubMed

    Förström, L

    1980-01-01

    The sebaceous glands are stimulated by androgens produced in the skin itself. This explains why elevated androgen levels are seldom found in blood and urine from patients with acne. The most potent androgen is dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is formed in the target cells, i.e. in the sebaceous glands, by a 5 alpha-reduction of testosterone. DHT is then bound to a specific receptor protein and translocated into the cell nucleus. In young persons genetically predisposed to acne a temporarily increased local DHT-formation has been postulated. In women androstenedione appears to be the major pre-hormone for DHT-formation. Adrenal androgens may account for prepubertal acne. Estrogens and progesterone influence acne only in high, unphysiological doses. Therapeutically we are waiting for a safe effective anti-androgen for topical use. PMID:6258368

  17. Genes and sex hormones interaction in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Romano, Emilia; Cosentino, Livia; Laviola, Giovanni; De Filippis, Bianca

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence, age of onset and symptomatology of many neurodevelopmental disorders strongly differ between genders. This review examines sex biases in human neurodevelopmental disorders and in validated animal models. A focus is made on disorders of well-established genetic origin, such as Rett syndrome, CDKL5-associated disorders, Fragile X and Down syndrome. Autism is also addressed, given its paradigmatic role as a sex-biased neurodevelopmental disorder. Reviewed literature confirms that a complex interaction between genetic factors and sex hormones may underlie the differential susceptibility of genders and may impact the severity of symptoms in most of the analyzed neurodevelopmental disorders. Even though further studies addressing the advantages and disadvantages conferred by biological sex in this class of disorders are needed to disentangle the underlying mechanisms, present findings suggest that modulation of sex steroid-related pathways may represent an innovative approach for these diseases. Much effort is now expected to unravel the potential therapeutic efficacy of drugs targeting sex hormones-related signaling pathways in neurodevelopmental disorders of well-established genetic origin.

  18. Sex differences in ischemic stroke sensitivity are influenced by gonadal hormones, not by sex chromosome complement.

    PubMed

    Manwani, Bharti; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Benashski, Sharon E; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; Xu, Yan; Arnold, Arthur P; McCullough, Louise D

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown sex differences in ischemic stroke. The four core genotype (FCG) mouse model, in which the testes determining gene, Sry, has been moved from Y chromosome to an autosome, was used to dissociate the effects of sex hormones from sex chromosome in ischemic stroke outcome. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in gonad intact FCG mice revealed that gonadal males (XXM and XYM) had significantly higher infarct volumes as compared with gonadal females (XXF and XYF). Serum testosterone levels were equivalent in adult XXM and XYM, as was serum estrogen in XXF and XYF mice. To remove the effects of gonadal hormones, gonadectomized FCG mice were subjected to MCAO. Gonadectomy significantly increased infarct volumes in females, while no change was seen in gonadectomized males, indicating that estrogen loss increases ischemic sensitivity. Estradiol supplementation in gonadectomized FCG mice rescued this phenotype. Interestingly, FCG male mice were less sensitive to effects of hormones. This may be due to enhanced expression of the transgene Sry in brains of FCG male mice. Sex differences in ischemic stroke sensitivity appear to be shaped by organizational and activational effects of sex hormones, rather than sex chromosomal complement.

  19. Effects of Anesthetic Agent Propofol on Postoperative Sex Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H.; Ku, S.-Y.; Kim, H. C.; Suh, C. S.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, Y. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have found anesthetic agents including propofol in ovarian follicular fluid. However, little is known about the effect of anesthetic agents on ovarian function. We aimed to investigate whether there were differences in the postoperative levels of sex hormones when propofol was used as the anesthetic agent. Methods: A retrospective review was done of 80 patients who underwent ovarian surgery, with 72 infertile women serving as controls. Patients were included in the study if their serum estradiol (E2) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were measured during their first postoperative menstrual cycle. Results: Patients were grouped according to the use or non-use of propofol as follows: propofol group (n = 39) and non-propofol group (n = 41). The control group did not undergo surgery. Postoperative E2 levels did not differ between the three groups, but FSH levels were significantly higher in the patients who had undergone surgery compared to controls (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analysis of E2 and FSH levels in the propofol and non-propofol groups did not show any significant differences. Conclusions: The use of propofol did not result in any differences compared to other anesthetic agents in terms of postoperative sex hormone levels after gynecologic surgery. The type of anesthetic agent does not seem to affect the postoperative levels of female sex hormones. PMID:27134297

  20. Sex steroid hormones and circulating IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Mathur, R S; Goust, J M; Williamson, H O; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The possible influence of sex steroid hormones on circulating IgE levels in general and IgE anti-Candida antibodies in particular was studied by quantification of plasma levels of progesterone, estradiol and IgE (total and anti-Candida-specific) in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and during pregnancy. IgE levels during the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, although the mean values for the luteal phase were slightly lower. This trend was apparent in daily samples from two normal females during one menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, when the levels of circulating sex steroids were high, IgE levels were only slightly higher than in the follicular and luteal phases. In men and in gonadal dysgenetics, circulating progesterone levels were similar to those of women during the follicular phase (i.e., lower than in the luteal phase or in pregnancy), but the IgE levels were not different. The apparently low levels of IgE during the luteal phase may therefore be due to physiological factors other than fluctuations in the sex steroid hormones. From the present studies, it is apparent that sex steroid hormones have little or no effect on humoral IgE levels, in marked contrast to previously described correlations for other immunoglobulins, especially anti-Candida antibodies. PMID:606452

  1. Sex Hormones and Cognition: Neuroendocrine Influences on Memory and Learning.

    PubMed

    Hamson, Dwayne K; Roes, Meighen M; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-06-13

    Sex differences in neurological disease exist in incidence, severity, progression, and symptoms and may ultimately influence treatment. Cognitive disturbances are frequent in neuropsychiatric disease with men showing greater cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, but women showing more severe dementia and cognitive decline with Alzheimer's disease. Although there are no overall differences in intelligence between the sexes, men, and women demonstrate slight but consistent differences in a number of cognitive domains. These include a male advantage, on average, in some types of spatial abilities and a female advantage on some measures of verbal fluency and memory. Sex differences in traits or behaviors generally indicate the involvement of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens. We review the literature on whether adult levels of testosterone and estradiol influence spatial ability in both males and females from rodent models to humans. We also include information on estrogens and their ability to modulate verbal memory in men and women. Estrone and progestins are common components of hormone therapies, and we also review the existing literature concerning their effects on cognition. We also review the sex differences in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex as they relate to cognitive performance in both rodents and humans. There has been greater recognition in the scientific literature that it is important to study both sexes and also to analyze study findings with sex as a variable. Only by examining these sex differences can we progress to finding treatments that will improve the cognitive health of both men and women. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1295-1337, 2016.

  2. Sex Hormones and Cognition: Neuroendocrine Influences on Memory and Learning.

    PubMed

    Hamson, Dwayne K; Roes, Meighen M; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in neurological disease exist in incidence, severity, progression, and symptoms and may ultimately influence treatment. Cognitive disturbances are frequent in neuropsychiatric disease with men showing greater cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, but women showing more severe dementia and cognitive decline with Alzheimer's disease. Although there are no overall differences in intelligence between the sexes, men, and women demonstrate slight but consistent differences in a number of cognitive domains. These include a male advantage, on average, in some types of spatial abilities and a female advantage on some measures of verbal fluency and memory. Sex differences in traits or behaviors generally indicate the involvement of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens. We review the literature on whether adult levels of testosterone and estradiol influence spatial ability in both males and females from rodent models to humans. We also include information on estrogens and their ability to modulate verbal memory in men and women. Estrone and progestins are common components of hormone therapies, and we also review the existing literature concerning their effects on cognition. We also review the sex differences in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex as they relate to cognitive performance in both rodents and humans. There has been greater recognition in the scientific literature that it is important to study both sexes and also to analyze study findings with sex as a variable. Only by examining these sex differences can we progress to finding treatments that will improve the cognitive health of both men and women. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1295-1337, 2016. PMID:27347894

  3. Sex Hormones in Allergic Conjunctivitis: Altered Levels of Circulating Androgens and Estrogens in Children and Adolescents with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Sacchetti, Marta; Lambiase, Alessandro; Moretti, Costanzo; Bonini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. Methods. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG) were evaluated. Results. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P = 0.007 and P = 0.028, resp.) and SHBG (P = 0.01 and P = 0.002, resp.) when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P = 0.007). Conclusions and Relevance. VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC. PMID:25756057

  4. Sex disparity in colonic adenomagenesis involves promotion by male hormones, not protection by female hormones

    PubMed Central

    Amos-Landgraf, James M.; Heijmans, Jarom; Wielenga, Mattheus C. B.; Dunkin, Elisa; Krentz, Kathy J.; Clipson, Linda; Ederveen, Antwan G.; Groothuis, Patrick G.; Mosselman, Sietse; Muncan, Vanesa; Hommes, Daniel W.; Shedlovsky, Alexandra; Dove, William F.; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2014-01-01

    It recently has been recognized that men develop colonic adenomas and carcinomas at an earlier age and at a higher rate than women. In the ApcPirc/+ (Pirc) rat model of early colonic cancer, this sex susceptibility was recapitulated, with male Pirc rats developing twice as many adenomas as females. Analysis of large datasets revealed that the ApcMin/+ mouse also shows enhanced male susceptibility to adenomagenesis, but only in the colon. In addition, WT mice treated with injections of the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) showed increased numbers of colonic adenomas in males. The mechanism underlying these observations was investigated by manipulation of hormonal status. The preponderance of colonic adenomas in the Pirc rat model allowed a statistically significant investigation in vivo of the mechanism of sex hormone action on the development of colonic adenomas. Females depleted of endogenous hormones by ovariectomy did not exhibit a change in prevalence of adenomas, nor was any effect observed with replacement of one or a combination of female hormones. In contrast, depletion of male hormones by orchidectomy (castration) markedly protected the Pirc rat from adenoma development, whereas supplementation with testosterone reversed that effect. These observations were recapitulated in the AOM mouse model. Androgen receptor was undetectable in the colon or adenomas, making it likely that testosterone acts indirectly on the tumor lineage. Our findings suggest that indirect tumor-promoting effects of testosterone likely explain the disparity between the sexes in the development of colonic adenomas. PMID:25368192

  5. Female circulating sex hormones and hippocampal sympathetic ingrowth.

    PubMed

    Harrell, L E; Peagler, A; Parsons, D S; Litersky, J; Barlow, T S

    1993-05-31

    Following cholinergic denervation of the hippocampal formation, via medial septal (MS) lesions, sympathetic fibers, originating from the superior cervical ganglia, growth into the hippocampus. Previous studies have demonstrated a sexually dimorphic effect of this neuronal rearrangement on recovery of a spatial-learning task, with this rearrangement being detrimental in male but protective in female rats. Circulating male sex hormones were found to interact with this effect in male animals. In this study we assessed the role of circulating female sex hormones on the behavioral and biochemical effects of hippocampal sympathetic ingrowth (HSI). For the behavioral studies female rats underwent either sham ovariectomy (sham OVARX) or OVARX and were taught a standard radial-8-arm maze task. Following attainment of criterion, animals underwent one of three surgical procedures: sham surgery; MS lesions+sham ganglionectomy (MS); HSI group; MS lesions+ganglionectomy (MSGx). As in our previous study, animals with HSI (i.e. MS group) were found to recover learning faster (in fact, these animals did not differ from controls) than animals with MS lesions without HSI. Gonadal status did not affect this behavioral recovery. For the biochemical studies hippocampal norepinephrine (NE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were measured in animals sham OVARX and OVARX, 8-12 weeks after the neurosurgical procedure. MS lesions (i.e. MSGx; MS) were found to reduce ChAT activity, regardless of circulating sex hormones. In controls NE levels were similar between OVARX and sham OVARX. NE levels were markedly elevated in the OVARX MS group compared to all other groups including sham OVARX. In the MSGx groups, NE levels were reduced compared to controls, while comparisons between these groups revealed a significant reduction in NE levels in the OVARX MSGx group compared to sham OVARX MSGx group. These studies suggest that female circulating sex hormones interact with brain injury in a very

  6. Sexually dimorphic actions of glucocorticoids: beyond chromosomes and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Matthew; Ramamoorthy, Sivapriya; Cidlowski, John A

    2014-05-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a well-documented phenomenon that is observed at all levels of the animal kingdom. Historically, sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) have been implicated as key players in a wide array of pathologies displaying sexual dimorphism in their etiology and progression. While these hormones clearly contribute to sexually dimorphic diseases, other factors may be involved in this phenomenon as well. In particular, the stress hormone cortisol exerts differential effects in both males and females. The underlying molecular basis for the sexually dimorphic actions of glucocorticoids is unknown but clearly important to understand, since synthetic glucocorticoids are the most widely prescribed medication for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases and hematological cancers in humans. PMID:24739020

  7. Effects of sex steroid hormones, thyroid hormone levels, and insulin regulation on thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Changsheng, Chen; Jiangfang, Fu; Bin, Gao; Nanyan, Zhang; Xiaomiao, Li; Deqiang, Li; Ying, Xing; Wensong, Zai; Qiuhe, Ji

    2010-12-01

    Our study is to determine the expression of thyroid hormone, sex hormone, insulin, and C-peptide in Chinese male patients with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP). This study covered 102 patients with hyperthyroidism from Xijing Hospital. According to whether occurrence of TPP or not, patients were divided into two groups (those that were hyperthyroid with and without TPP) that were, matched with age, blood pressure, urea, and creatinine. We found the body mass index (BMI) in patients with TPP was higher than that in pure hyperthyroidism patients. The levels of the total thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) were significantly lower in patients with TPP compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients, while serum testosterone levels were higher compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients. Moreover, after glucose administration, the concentration of insulin at 60, 120, and 180 min were significantly higher in patients with TPP than those in pure hyperthyroidism patients. The insulin area under the curve (AUC) was significantly increased in patients with TPP compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients. The levels of thyroid hormone, sex hormone, and insulin were different in Chinese male patients with TPP compared to those with only hyperthyroidism.

  8. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Cytoskeletal proteins are necessary to form neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines, as well as to regulate the diverse functions in astrocytes. The expression pattern of proteins, such as actin, microtubule-associated protein 2, Tau, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, changes in a tissue-specific manner in the brain, particularly when variations in sex hormone levels occur during the estrous or menstrual cycles or pregnancy. Here, we review the changes in structure and organization of neurons and glial cells that require the participation of cytoskeletal proteins whose expression and activity are regulated by estradiol and progesterone. PMID:26635640

  9. Risk Preferences and Prenatal Exposure to Sex Hormones for Ladinos

    PubMed Central

    Aycinena, Diego; Baltaduonis, Rimvydas; Rentschler, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D), which is negatively (positively) correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen). We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups. PMID:25084091

  10. Risk preferences and prenatal exposure to sex hormones for ladinos.

    PubMed

    Aycinena, Diego; Baltaduonis, Rimvydas; Rentschler, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D), which is negatively (positively) correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen). We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups. PMID:25084091

  11. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Cytoskeletal proteins are necessary to form neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines, as well as to regulate the diverse functions in astrocytes. The expression pattern of proteins, such as actin, microtubule-associated protein 2, Tau, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, changes in a tissue-specific manner in the brain, particularly when variations in sex hormone levels occur during the estrous or menstrual cycles or pregnancy. Here, we review the changes in structure and organization of neurons and glial cells that require the participation of cytoskeletal proteins whose expression and activity are regulated by estradiol and progesterone. PMID:26635640

  12. Menopause and sarcopenia: A potential role for sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Messier, Virginie; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Barbat-Artigas, Sébastien; Elisha, Belinda; Karelis, Antony D; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2011-04-01

    Menopause is associated with a decline in estrogen levels, which could lead to an increase in visceral adiposity as well as a decrease in bone density, muscle mass and muscle strength. This decline in muscle mass, known as sarcopenia, is frequently observed in postmenopausal women. Potential causes of sarcopenia include age-related changes in the hormonal status, low levels of physical activity, reduced protein intake and increased oxidative stress. However, the role of sex hormones, specifically estrogens, on the onset of sarcopenia is controversial. Preventing sarcopenia and preserving muscle strength are highly relevant in order to prevent functional impairment and physical disability. To date, resistance training has been shown to be effective in attenuating age-related muscle loss and strength. However, results on the effect of hormonal supplementation to treat or prevent sarcopenia are contradictory. Further research is needed to identify other potential mechanisms of sarcopenia as well as effective interventions for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. Therefore, the purpose of this review will be to examine the role of sex hormonal status in the development of sarcopenia. We will also overview the physical as well as metabolic consequences of sarcopenia and the efficiency of different interventions for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. PMID:21353405

  13. The Effect of Camphor on Sex Hormones Levels in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahabi, Sima; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Akbar Moghadamnia, Ali; Barghi, Effat; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Golsorkhtabar Amiri, Masoumeh; Maliji, Ghorban; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Abdi Boora, Maryam; Ghazinejad, Neda; Shamsai, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    In some traditional therapies, it has been claimed that camphor (a crystalline ketone obtained from cinnamomum camphora) would be a suppressor of sexual behaviors and sex hormones. This study evaluated the effects of camphor on sex hormones, like luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone. In this experimental study, 56 male rats were divided into 5 groups, including control (n=12), sham (n=11) and three treatment groups (n=11) in three different doses. The sham groups received daily intra peritoneal (IP) injections of the vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 30 days. Three treatment groups received different daily IP injections of the camphor (1, 2 and 5 mg/Kg) for 30 days and the control groups didn’t received anything. Serums were used for assaying LH, FSH and testosterone. The level of LH significantly increased in all doses of camphor among the treatment groups as compared to the control (p<0.05), but camphor in doses 2 and 5 mg/Kg significantly reduced the FSH level as compared to control group (p<0.05). No significant changes were seen in testosterone levels. Camphor increased level of LH, decreased level of FSH, whereas it failed to change level of testosterone. The claim of inhibitory effect of camphor on sexual activity could not be confirmed by this study. More investigations in this field are suggested. PMID:24567939

  14. How do sex hormones modify arrhythmogenesis in long QT syndrome? Sex hormone effects on arrhythmogenic substrate and triggered activity.

    PubMed

    Odening, Katja E; Koren, Gideon

    2014-11-01

    Gender differences in cardiac repolarization and the arrhythmogenic risk of patients with inherited and acquired long QT syndromes are well appreciated clinically. Enhancing our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these differences is critical to improve our therapeutic strategies for preventing sudden cardiac death in such patients. This review summarizes the effects of sex hormones on the expression and function of ion channels that control cardiac cell excitation and repolarization as well as key proteins that regulate Ca(2+) dynamics at the cellular level. Moreover, it examines the role of sex hormones in modifying the dynamic spatiotemporal (regional and transmural) heterogeneities in action potential duration (eg, the arrhythmogenic substrate) and the susceptibility to (sympathetic) triggered activity at the tissue, organ, and whole animal levels. Finally, it explores the implications of these effects on the management of patients with LQTS.

  15. Sex differences in abdominal aortic aneurysm: the role of sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Makrygiannis, Georgios; Courtois, Audrey; Drion, Pierre; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Sakalihasan, Natzi

    2014-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex multifactorial disease with genetic and environmental components. AAA is more common in men, whereas women have a greater risk of rupture and more frequently have concomitant thoracic aortic aneurysms. Moreover, women are diagnosed with AAA about 10 years later and seem to be protected by female sex hormones. In this MEDLINE-based review of literature, we examined human and animal in vivo and in vitro studies to further deepen our understanding of the sexual dimorphism of AAA. We focus on the role of sex hormones during the formation and growth of AAA. Endogenous estrogens and exogenous 17β-estradiol were found to exert favorable actions protecting from AAA in animal models, whereas exogenous hormone replacement therapy in humans had inconclusive results. Androgens, known to have detrimental effects in the vasculature, in sufficient levels maintain the integrity of the aortic wall through their anabolic actions and act differentially in men and women, whereas lower levels of testosterone have been associated with AAA in humans. In conclusion, sex differences remain an important area of AAA research, but further studies especially in humans are needed. Furthermore, differential molecular mechanisms of sex hormones constitute a potential therapeutic target for AAA.

  16. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  17. Sex steroids modulate luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone secretion in a cholinergic cell line from the basal forebrain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Morales, J R; López-Coviella, I; Hernández-Jiménez, J G; Reyes, R; Bello, A R; Hernández, G; Blusztajn, J K; Alonso, R

    2001-01-01

    The function of a particular neuronal population is in part determined by its neurotransmitter phenotype. We have found that a neuronal-derived septal cell line (SN56), known for its cholinergic properties, also synthesizes and releases luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. In addition, these cells express the messenger RNAs encoding estrogen and progesterone receptors. The activation of these receptors by their respective ligands cooperatively modulates the depolarization-induced release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in these cells. We have also found that a number of septal neurons in postnatal (1-week-old) mice are immunoreactive to both choline acetyltransferase and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. These results indicate that both neurotransmitters, acetylcholine and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, may co-exist in septal neurons of the CNS and that they could be modulated by gonadal hormones, and suggest that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone could be involved in some of the actions of sex steroids on cholinergic neurotransmission.

  18. Disorders of sex development expose transcriptional autonomy of genetic sex and androgen-programmed hormonal sex in human blood leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Bebermeier, Jan-Hendrik; Werner, Ralf; Demeter, Janos; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Cario, Gunnar; Appari, Mahesh; Siebert, Reiner; Riepe, Felix; Brooks, James D; Hiort, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Background Gender appears to be determined by independent programs controlled by the sex-chromosomes and by androgen-dependent programming during embryonic development. To enable experimental dissection of these components in the human, we performed genome-wide profiling of the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with rare defined "disorders of sex development" (DSD, e.g., 46, XY-females due to defective androgen biosynthesis) compared to normal 46, XY-males and 46, XX-females. Results A discrete set of transcripts was directly correlated with XY or XX genotypes in all individuals independent of male or female phenotype of the external genitalia. However, a significantly larger gene set in the PBMC only reflected the degree of external genital masculinization independent of the sex chromosomes and independent of concurrent post-natal sex steroid hormone levels. Consequently, the architecture of the transcriptional PBMC-"sexes" was either male, female or even "intersex" with a discordant alignment of the DSD individuals' genetic and hormonal sex signatures. Conclusion A significant fraction of gene expression differences between males and females in the human appears to have its roots in early embryogenesis and is not only caused by sex chromosomes but also by long-term sex-specific hormonal programming due to presence or absence of androgen during the time of external genital masculinization. Genetic sex and the androgen milieu during embryonic development might therefore independently modulate functional traits, phenotype and diseases associated with male or female gender as well as with DSD conditions. PMID:19570224

  19. Organizational actions of sex hormones on sexual partner preference.

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, E; Mansukhani, V; Thompson, R; Yang, S

    1997-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in copulatory behavior results from organizational actions of sex steroids (permanent effects of sex steroids occurring during early development). Reproductive success depends not only on copulatory behavior, but also on mate choice, which is often sexually dimorphic as well. The clearest example is sexual partner preference: the preference of males for female sexual partners and females for males. Are organizational hormone actions responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preference? The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) is a potentially valuable species for addressing this question, because the birds form life-long socially monogamous pair bonds. In one experiment, both early estrogen treatment (injection with estradiol benzoate-EB-for the first 2 weeks posthatch) and unisex housing during juvenile development independently resulted in a preference for females over males in two-choice tests, and only females that experienced both EB treatment and unisex living were more likely than controls to pair with other females in colony tests. In a second experiment, females injected with an estrogen synthesis inhibitor for the first week posthatch preferred to spend time near females instead of males in two-choice tests, unlike control females. These experiments suggest that sexual partner preference may result from organizational hormone actions in this pair-bonding species. Possible neural mechanisms or sites that could underly hormonal organization of sexual partner preference in birds and mammals include the anterior hypothalamic/preoptic area, the corticomedial amygdala, and its avian homologue nucleus taeniae of the archistriatum, the septum, and peripheral sensory processes.

  20. [Diurnal dynamics of thyroid and sex steroid hormones in the blood of yearlings of the resident form of Black Sea trout Salmo trutta labrax].

    PubMed

    Ganzha, E V; Pavlov, E D; Kostin, V V; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal dynamics of the content of thyroid and sex steroid hormones is investigated in the blood of the resident form of Black Sea trout in summer. The maximums and minimums of concentration of the investigated hormones do not coincide over 24 h, except for the decrease in the level of T3 and testosterone before dawn. The dynamics of the investigated hormones is controlled to a high extent by the sex of fish in the morning and in the daytime.

  1. Sex Hormones and Their Receptors Regulate Liver Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2015-01-01

    The liver is one of the most essential organs involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Hepatic steatosis, a major manifestation of metabolic syndrome, is associated with imbalance between lipid formation and breakdown, glucose production and catabolism, and cholesterol synthesis and secretion. Epidemiological studies show sex difference in the prevalence in fatty liver disease and suggest that sex hormones may play vital roles in regulating hepatic steatosis. In this review, we summarize current literature and discuss the role of estrogens and androgens and the mechanisms through which estrogen receptors and androgen receptors regulate lipid and glucose metabolism in the liver. In females, estradiol regulates liver metabolism via estrogen receptors by decreasing lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid uptake, while enhancing lipolysis, cholesterol secretion, and glucose catabolism. In males, testosterone works via androgen receptors to increase insulin receptor expression and glycogen synthesis, decrease glucose uptake and lipogenesis, and promote cholesterol storage in the liver. These recent integrated concepts suggest that sex hormone receptors could be potential promising targets for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. PMID:26491440

  2. Sex hormones and glucocorticoids: interactions with the immune system.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, J A

    1999-06-22

    Gender and sex hormones exert powerful effects in the susceptibility and progression of numerous human and experimental autoimmune diseases. This has been attributed to direct immunological effects of sex hormones that impact a clear gender dimorphism on the immune system. Globally, estrogens depress T cell-dependent immune function and diseases, but enhance antibody production and aggravate B cell-dependent diseases. Androgens suppress both T-cell and B-cell immune responses and virtually always result in the suppression of disease expression. Defects in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Glucocorticoid response to stress, including immune challenge, is strongly inhibited by androgens and enhanced by estrogens. Complex three-way interactions between these systems appear to be involved in gender dimorphism of the immune system. This paper reviews the mechanisms involved in interactions between sex steroids and the HPA axis, addresses the possibility of similar interactions on immunocompetent cells, and explores an integrated perspective of the impact of these interplays on the immune system.

  3. Sex hormones have pervasive effects on thymic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dumont-Lagacé, Maude; St-Pierre, Charles; Perreault, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate at the systems-level, the effect of sex hormones on thymic epithelial cells (TECs). To this end, we sequenced the transcriptome of cortical and medullary TECs (cTECs and mTECs) from three groups of 6 month-old mice: males, females and males castrated at four weeks of age. In parallel, we analyzed variations in the size of TEC subsets in those three groups between 1 and 12 months of age. We report that sex hormones have pervasive effects on the transcriptome of TECs. These effects were exquisitely TEC-subset specific. Sexual dimorphism was particularly conspicuous in cTECs. Male cTECs displayed low proliferation rates that correlated with low expression of Foxn1 and its main targets. Furthermore, male cTECs expressed relatively low levels of genes instrumental in thymocyte expansion (e.g., Dll4) and positive selection (Psmb11 and Ctsl). Nevertheless, cTECs were more abundant in males than females. Accumulation of cTECs in males correlated with differential expression of genes regulating cell survival in cTECs and cell differentiation in mTECs. The sexual dimorphism of TECs highlighted here may be mechanistically linked to the well-recognized sex differences in susceptibility to infections and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26250469

  4. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie; Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Halldin, Krister; Åkesson, Agneta

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  5. Interactions between preparations containing female sex hormones and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Jawna, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of premenopausal women use contraception whereas postmenopausal women use hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This long-term hormone therapy poses a high risk of interactions with dietary supplements. Taking estrogens at the same time as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), biologically-active compounds of glycine soja, Ginkgo biloba or Pimpinella anisum, may distort the final effect of the hormone agent. On the other hand, estrogen therapy coupled with melatonin or retinol supplementation may lead to an increased level of dietary supplements in the serum as studies have proved a concomitant beneficial effect of HRT and vitamin E supplementation on lipid profiles. In turn, taking preparations containing St John's wort during hormone therapy may lead to a reduction in hormone concentrations in serum and debilitation of the pharmacological effect. It results from the inductive effect of the biologically-active compounds of St John's wort on the metabolism of hormones as a result of the enhanced activity of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4. PMID:25166453

  6. Nipple Aspirate Fluid Hormone Concentrations and Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Chatterton, Robert T; Heinz, Richard E; Fought, Angela J; Ivancic, David; Shappell, Claire; Allu, Subhashini; Gapstur, Susan; Scholtens, Denise M; Gann, Peter H; Khan, Seema A

    2016-04-01

    Prior reports identify higher serum concentrations of estrogens and androgens as risk factors for breast cancer, but steroids in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) may be more related to risk. Incident breast cancer cases and mammography controls were recruited. Sex steroids were measured in NAF from the unaffected breasts of cases and one breast of controls. Menopausal status and menstrual cycle phase were determined. NAF steroids were purified by HPLC and quantified by immunoassays. Conditional logistic regression models were used to examine associations between NAF hormones and case-control status. NAF samples from 160 cases and 157 controls were evaluable for hormones. Except for progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the NAF and serum concentrations were not significantly correlated. NAF estradiol and estrone were not different between cases and controls. Higher NAF (but not serum) DHEA concentrations were associated with cases, particularly among estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases (NAF odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02, 1.36). NAF DHEA was highly correlated with NAF estradiol and estrone but not with androstenedione or testosterone. Higher progesterone concentrations in both NAF and serum were associated with a lower risk of ER-negative cancer (NAF OR = 0.69, 95 % CI 0.51, 0.92). However, this finding may be explained by case-control imbalance in the number of luteal phase subjects (2 cases and 19 controls). The significantly higher concentration of DHEA in NAF of cases and its correlation with NAF estradiol indicates a potentially important role of this steroid in breast cancer risk; however, the negative association of progesterone with risk is tentative. PMID:26902826

  7. Sex hormone receptors in the hypothalamus and their role in sexual differentiation of the male rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Shishkina, I.V.; Babichev, V.N.; Ozol', L.Yu.

    1986-09-01

    In this investigation, changes in the level of receptors for sex hormones in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats were studied on the first through fifth days of postnatal life, and the results obtained were compared with the levels of luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in the peripheral blood in order to discover any correlation between these parameters. 2,4,6,7,-/sup 3/H-estradiol-17..beta.. and 1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H-testosterone were used as labeled hormones. The values of the association constant and concentration of specific binding sites for estradiol and testosterone in hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of male rats during neonatal development is shown. It is found that in male rats on the first day after birth, receptors for estradiol and testosterone are present and they enable the action both of the testicular hormone and that of estradiol to be realized.

  8. Serum sex hormone levels in different severity of male adult obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in East Asians.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia-Qi; Chen, Xiong; Xiao, Ying; Zhang, Rui; Niu, Xun; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a serious health issue, which can impact the hormone secretion. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between serum sex hormone concentrations and different severity degree of OSAHS, and to evaluate the influence of OSAHS on sex hormone levels. We enrolled 116 subjects who were subjected to polysomnography (PSG). They were divided into three groups: control group (n=10) [apnea hypopnea index (AHI) <5/h], mild-moderate OSAHS group (n=15) (5≤AHI<30/h), and severe OSAHS group (n=91) (AHI≥30/h). The patients in OSAHS group were subdivided into obesity and non-obesity subgroups. The parameters such as AHI, body mass index (BMI), lowest oxygen saturation (LSaO2), and mean oxygen saturation (MSaO2) were recorded. Serum levels of testosterone, polactin, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined in the morning immediately after waking up. Mean levels of hormones were compared among groups. The correlation between hormone levels and sleep-breathing parameters was analyzed. No significant differences in serum sex hormone levels were found among control, mild-moderate OSAHS, and severe OSAHS groups (P>0.05). There was no correlation between AHI and sex hormone levels (P>0.05). Testosterone was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (P<0.05). These results suggested that BMI might have a direct effect on testosterone level, and it might be an important factor affecting testosterone level in male OSAHS patients, and there may be no correlation between severity of OSAHS and sex hormones levels. PMID:26223926

  9. Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Banu; Winters, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a circulating glycoprotein that transports testosterone and other steroids in the blood. Interest in SHBG has escalated in recent years because of its inverse association with obesity and insulin resistance, and because many studies have linked lower circulating levels of SHBG to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, and early puberty. The purpose of this review is to summarize molecular, clinical, endocrine, and epidemiological findings to illustrate how measurement of plasma SHBG may be useful in clinical medicine in children. PMID:26761949

  10. Overexpression of Anti-Müllerian Hormone Disrupts Gonadal Sex Differentiation, Blocks Sex Hormone Synthesis, and Supports Cell Autonomous Sex Development in the Chicken.

    PubMed

    Lambeth, Luke S; Morris, Kirsten; Ayers, Katie L; Wise, Terry G; O'Neil, Terri; Wilson, Susanne; Cao, Yu; Sinclair, Andrew H; Cutting, Andrew D; Doran, Timothy J; Smith, Craig A

    2016-03-01

    The primary role of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during mammalian development is the regression of Müllerian ducts in males. This highly conserved function is retained in birds and is supported by the high levels of AMH expression in developing testes. Mammalian AMH expression is regulated by a combination of transcription factors, the most important being Sry-type high-mobility-group box transcription factor-9 (SOX9). In the chicken embryo, however, AMH mRNA expression precedes that of SOX9, leading to the view that AMH may play a more central role in avian testicular development. To define its role in chicken gonadal development, AMH was overexpressed using the RCASBP viral vector. AMH caused the gonads of both sexes to develop as small and undeveloped structures at both embryonic and adult stages. Molecular analysis revealed that although female gonads developed testis-like cords, gonads lacked Sertoli cells and were incapable of steroidogenesis. A similar gonadal phenotype was also observed in males, with a complete loss of both Sertoli cells, disrupted SOX9 expression and gonadal steroidogenesis. At sexual maturity both sexes showed a female external phenotype but retained sexually dimorphic body weights that matched their genetic sexes. These data suggest that AMH does not operate as an early testis activator in the chicken but can affect downstream events, such as sex steroid hormone production. In addition, this study provides a unique opportunity to assess chicken sexual development in an environment of sex hormone deficiency, demonstrating the importance of both hormonal signaling and direct cell autonomous factors for somatic sex identity in birds. PMID:26809122

  11. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments

    PubMed Central

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead animals, either intentionally or incidentally caught, or from stranded individuals. However, morphological data, when used alone, do not provide accurate demographic information in sexually monomorphic marine vertebrate species (e.g. sharks, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans). Hormone determination is an accurate and non-destructive method that provides indirect information about sex, reproductive condition and sexual maturity of free-ranging individuals. Correlations between sex steroid concentrations and biochemical parameters, gonadal development and state, reproductive behaviour and secondary external features have been already demonstrated in many species. Different non-lethal approaches (e.g. surgical and mark–recapture procedures), with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages when applied on free-ranging organisms, have been proposed to asses sex, growth and reproductive condition. Hormone determination from blood samples will generate valuable additional demographic information needed for stock assessment and biological conservation. PMID:27293619

  12. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments.

    PubMed

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead animals, either intentionally or incidentally caught, or from stranded individuals. However, morphological data, when used alone, do not provide accurate demographic information in sexually monomorphic marine vertebrate species (e.g. sharks, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans). Hormone determination is an accurate and non-destructive method that provides indirect information about sex, reproductive condition and sexual maturity of free-ranging individuals. Correlations between sex steroid concentrations and biochemical parameters, gonadal development and state, reproductive behaviour and secondary external features have been already demonstrated in many species. Different non-lethal approaches (e.g. surgical and mark-recapture procedures), with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages when applied on free-ranging organisms, have been proposed to asses sex, growth and reproductive condition. Hormone determination from blood samples will generate valuable additional demographic information needed for stock assessment and biological conservation.

  13. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments.

    PubMed

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead animals, either intentionally or incidentally caught, or from stranded individuals. However, morphological data, when used alone, do not provide accurate demographic information in sexually monomorphic marine vertebrate species (e.g. sharks, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans). Hormone determination is an accurate and non-destructive method that provides indirect information about sex, reproductive condition and sexual maturity of free-ranging individuals. Correlations between sex steroid concentrations and biochemical parameters, gonadal development and state, reproductive behaviour and secondary external features have been already demonstrated in many species. Different non-lethal approaches (e.g. surgical and mark-recapture procedures), with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages when applied on free-ranging organisms, have been proposed to asses sex, growth and reproductive condition. Hormone determination from blood samples will generate valuable additional demographic information needed for stock assessment and biological conservation. PMID:27293619

  14. Animal models of absence epilepsies: What do they model and do sex and sex hormones matter?

    PubMed Central

    van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz; Gallagher, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, there is a paucity of studies on sex differences in seizure frequency and semiology in patients diagnosed with any absence epilepsy syndrome. Moreover, it is unknown if there are sex differences in the prevalence or expression of atypical absence epilepsy syndromes. Surprisingly, most studies of animal models of absence epilepsy either did not investigate sex differences, or failed to find sex-dependent effects. However, various rodent models for atypical syndromes such as the AY9944 model (prepubertal females show a higher incidence than prepubertal males), BN model also with a higher prevalence in males and the Gabra1 deletion mouse in the C57BL/6J strain offer unique possibilities for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in sex differences. Although the mechanistic bases for the sex differences in humans or these three models are not yet known, studies of the effects of sex hormones on seizures have offered some possibilities. The sex hormones progesterone, estradiol and testosterone exert diametrically opposite effects in genetic absence epilepsy and pharmacologically-evoked convulsive types of epilepsy models. In addition, acute pharmacological effects of progesterone on absence seizures during proestrus are opposite to those seen during pregnancy. 17β-Estradiol has anti-absence seizure effects, but it is only active in atypical absence models. It is speculated that the pro-absence action of progesterone, and perhaps also the delayed pro-absence action of testosterone, are mediated through the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and its structural and functional homolog, androstanediol. These two steroids increase extrasynaptic thalamic tonic GABAergic inhibition

  15. Animal models of absence epilepsies: what do they model and do sex and sex hormones matter?

    PubMed

    van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz; Gallagher, Martin J

    2014-12-01

    While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, there is a paucity of studies on sex differences in seizure frequency and semiology in patients diagnosed with any absence epilepsy syndrome. Moreover, it is unknown if there are sex differences in the prevalence or expression of atypical absence epilepsy syndromes. Surprisingly, most studies of animal models of absence epilepsy either did not investigate sex differences, or failed to find sex-dependent effects. However, various rodent models for atypical syndromes such as the AY9944 model (prepubertal females show a higher incidence than prepubertal males), BN model (also with a higher prevalence in males) and the Gabra1 deletion mouse in the C57BL/6J strain offer unique possibilities for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in sex differences. Although the mechanistic bases for the sex differences in humans or these three models are not yet known, studies of the effects of sex hormones on seizures have offered some possibilities. The sex hormones progesterone, estradiol and testosterone exert diametrically opposite effects in genetic absence epilepsy and pharmacologically-evoked convulsive types of epilepsy models. In addition, acute pharmacological effects of progesterone on absence seizures during proestrus are opposite to those seen during pregnancy. 17β-Estradiol has anti-absence seizure effects, but it is only active in atypical absence models. It is speculated that the pro-absence action of progesterone, and perhaps also the delayed pro-absence action of testosterone, are mediated through the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and its structural and functional homolog, androstanediol. These two steroids increase extrasynaptic thalamic tonic GABAergic

  16. Retrospective evaluation of sex hormones and steroid hormone intermediates in dogs with alopecia.

    PubMed

    Frank, Linda A; Hnilica, Keith A; Rohrbach, Barton W; Oliver, Jack W

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are specific steroid hormone aberrations associated with suspect endocrine alopecias in dogs in whom hypothyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been excluded. Steroid hormone panels submitted to the UTCVM endocrinology laboratory over a 7.5-year period (783 samples) from dogs with alopecia were reviewed. During this period, 276 dogs met the criteria for inclusion and were comprised of 54 different breeds. Approximately 73% of dogs had at least one baseline or post-ACTH stimulation steroid hormone intermediate greater than the normal range. The most frequent hormone elevation noted was for progesterone (57.6% of samples). When compared with normal dogs, oestradiol was significantly greater in Keeshond dogs and progesterone was significantly greater in Pomeranian and Siberian Husky dogs. Not all individual dogs had hormone abnormalities. Chow Chow, Samoyed and Malamute dogs had the greatest percentage of normal steroid hormone intermediates of the dogs in this study. Baseline cortisol concentrations were significantly correlated with progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione. Results of this study suggest that the pathomechanism of the alopecia, at least for some breeds, may not relate to steroid hormone intermediates and emphasizes the need for breed specific normals.

  17. Associations of Testosterone and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin with Adipose Tissue Hormones in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Rachel P.; Wang, Dan; Fernandez, Ivonne; Mancuso, Peter; Santoro, Nanette; Scherer, Philipp E.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regulators of adipose tissue hormones remain incompletely understood, but may include sex hormones. As adipose tissue hormones have been shown to contribute to numerous metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, understanding their regulation in midlife women is of clinical importance. Therefore, we assessed the associations between testosterone (T) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with leptin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and the soluble form of the leptin receptor (sOB-R) in healthy midlife women. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 1,881 midlife women (average age 52.6 (±2.7) years) attending the sixth Annual follow-up visit of the multiethnic Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Results T was weakly negatively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = −0.12 and r = −0.10, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and positively associated with leptin (r = 0.17; P < 0.001). SHBG was more strongly and positively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = 0.29 and r = 0.24, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and more strongly and negatively associated with leptin (r = −0.27; P < 0.001). Adjustment for fat mass, insulin resistance, or waist circumference only partially diminished associations with HMW adiponectin and sOB-R, but attenuated associations with leptin. In conclusion, in these midlife women, lower SHBG values, and to a lesser extent, higher T levels, were associated with lower, or less favorable, levels of adiponectin and sOB-R, independent of fat mass. Conclusions These data suggest that variation in these adipose hormones resulting from lower SHBG levels, and possibly, though less likely, greater androgenicity, may contribute to susceptibility for metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes during midlife in women. PMID:23592672

  18. Association of serum inorganic phosphate with sex steroid hormones and vitamin D in a nationally representative sample of men.

    PubMed

    Wulaningsih, W; Van Hemelrijck, M; Michaelsson, K; Kanarek, N; Nelson, W G; Ix, J H; Platz, E A; Rohrmann, S

    2014-11-01

    Defects in bone regulatory pathways have been linked to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. In men, a link between bone metabolism and gonadal hormones has been suggested. However, to date, there is lack of evidence on the association between serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) and sex steroid hormones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between Pi, sex steroid hormones and a known Pi metabolic regulator, vitamin D, in men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). From NHANES III, we selected 1412 men aged 20+ who participated in the morning session of Phase I (1988-1991) with serum measurements of Pi, sex hormones, and vitamin D. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate crude and geometric mean Pi by total and estimated free testosterone and estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (AAG), and vitamin D. Similar analyses were performed while stratifying by race/ethnicity and vitamin D levels. We found a lack of statistically significant difference in geometric means of Pi across quintiles of concentrations of sex hormones, indicating a tight regulation of Pi. However, Pi levels were inversely associated with calculated free testosterone in non-Hispanic black men, with geometric mean levels of Pi of 1.16 and 1.02 ng/mL for those in the lowest and highest quintiles of free testosterone, respectively (p-trend < 0.05). A similar but weaker pattern was seen between total testosterone and Pi. An inverse association was also seen between AAG and Pi in men with vitamin D concentration below the median (<24.2 ng/mL). No associations were observed among men with vitamin D levels at or above the median. Our findings suggest a weak link among sex hormones, vitamin D, and Pi in men. The observed effects of race/ethnicity and vitamin D indicate a complex association involving various regulators of Pi homeostasis.

  19. Immunoreactivity for sex steroid hormone receptors in pulmonary hamartomas.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Rosai, Juan; Viale, Giuseppe

    2006-07-01

    Sex steroid hormone [ie, estrogen (ER), progesterone (PgR), and androgen (AR)] receptors have been identified previously in normal salivary glands and, more variably, in salivary gland and salivary gland-type tumors. No data are available, however, on their expression in pulmonary hamartoma, a benign biphasic tumor consisting of reactive epithelial cells and neoplastic fibromyxoid stroma, cartilage and fat, which shares some morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genotypic features to pleomorphic adenoma of major salivary glands. Thirty pulmonary hamartomas (15 in male patients and 15 in age-matched female patients), were evaluated for ER, PgR, and AR immunoreactivity, and also for mesenchymal, epithelial, and myoepithelial markers, in the fibromyxoid, epithelial, and chondroid components. ER immunoreactivity was encountered in 90% of hamartomas, PgRs in 90%, and ARs in 53% (P<0.001), but not in normal lung tissues. ARs were confined to males (P<0.001), with a marginal prevalence in the fibromyxoid component (P=0.067). PgRs and ERs were instead present in both sex, with the former being restricted to the fibromyxoid stromal component (P<0.001) and the latter preferentially located in epithelial cells (P=0.107). In most cases, fibromyxoid stroma and spindle cells surrounding the chondroid foci displayed simultaneous immunoreactivity for ERs, PgRs, and ARs, along with immunoreactivity for vimentin, S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acid protein, smooth muscle actin, and calponin but lack of staining for cytokeratins. This profile is consistent with an incomplete myoepithelial differentiation of the receptor-expressing mesenchymal cells. In conclusion, sex steroid hormone receptor expression is a nonrandom event in pulmonary hamartoma, and may be related to the development and growth of this tumor.

  20. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies. PMID:27433022

  1. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies.

  2. Human sex hormones stimulate the growth and maturation of Coccidioides immitis.

    PubMed Central

    Drutz, D J; Huppert, M; Sun, S H; McGuire, W L

    1981-01-01

    Because men and pregnant women show increased susceptibility to extrapulmonary dissemination of coccidioidomycosis, studies were conducted to determine the direct effect of human sex hormones and related compounds on the growth and maturation of Coccidioides immitis in vitro. 17 beta-Estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone were highly stimulatory for the parasitic phase of C. immitis growth whereas cholesterol, ergosterol, and 17 alpha-estradiol (a physiologically inactive stereoisomer of 17 beta-estradiol) lacked such effects. Rates of spherule maturation and endospore release were accelerated, in a dose-dependent fashion, by concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol occurring in normal women, with the most striking effects seen at levels encountered in advanced pregnancy. A stimulatory effect of 17 beta-estradiol on the saprobic phase of fungal growth was also detected. The nonsteroidal "antiestrogens" tamoxifen and nafoxidine had either stimulatory or inhibitory effects, depending on fungal strain and experimental conditions. Diverse strains of Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida sp, and Petriellidium boydii were unaffected by hormones that had distinct effects on C. immitis. These studies suggest that direct stimulation of C. immitis by human sex hormones may help to account for sex- and pregnancy-related predisposition to dissemination of coccidioidomycosis. Images PMID:7251153

  3. Sex hormone influence on human infants' sound characteristics: melody in spontaneous crying.

    PubMed

    Wermke, Kathleen; Hain, Johannes; Oehler, Klaus; Wermke, Peter; Hesse, Volker

    2014-05-01

    The specific impact of sex hormones on brain development and acoustic communication is known from animal models. Sex steroid hormones secreted during early development play an essential role in hemispheric organization and the functional lateralization of the brain, e.g. language. In animals, these hormones are well-known regulators of vocal motor behaviour. Here, the association between melody properties of infants' sounds and serum concentrations of sex steroids was investigated. Spontaneous crying was sampled in 18 healthy infants, averaging two samples taken at four and eight weeks, respectively. Blood samples were taken within a day of the crying samples. The fundamental frequency contour (melody) was analysed quantitatively and the infants' frequency modulation skills expressed by a melody complexity index (MCI). These skills provide prosodic primitives for later language. A hierarchical, multiple regression approach revealed a significant, robust relationship between the individual MCIs and the unbound, bioactive fraction of oestradiol at four weeks as well as with the four-to-eight-week difference in androstenedione. No robust relationship was found between the MCI and testosterone. Our findings suggest that oestradiol may have effects on the development and function of the auditory-vocal system in human infants that are as powerful as those in vocal-learning animals.

  4. Sex hormone influence on human infants' sound characteristics: melody in spontaneous crying

    PubMed Central

    Wermke, Kathleen; Hain, Johannes; Oehler, Klaus; Wermke, Peter; Hesse, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The specific impact of sex hormones on brain development and acoustic communication is known from animal models. Sex steroid hormones secreted during early development play an essential role in hemispheric organization and the functional lateralization of the brain, e.g. language. In animals, these hormones are well-known regulators of vocal motor behaviour. Here, the association between melody properties of infants' sounds and serum concentrations of sex steroids was investigated. Spontaneous crying was sampled in 18 healthy infants, averaging two samples taken at four and eight weeks, respectively. Blood samples were taken within a day of the crying samples. The fundamental frequency contour (melody) was analysed quantitatively and the infants' frequency modulation skills expressed by a melody complexity index (MCI). These skills provide prosodic primitives for later language. A hierarchical, multiple regression approach revealed a significant, robust relationship between the individual MCIs and the unbound, bioactive fraction of oestradiol at four weeks as well as with the four-to-eight-week difference in androstenedione. No robust relationship was found between the MCI and testosterone. Our findings suggest that oestradiol may have effects on the development and function of the auditory–vocal system in human infants that are as powerful as those in vocal-learning animals. PMID:24806423

  5. Cardiovascular Fat, Menopause, and Sex Hormones in Women: The SWAN Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Kelly J.; Janssen, Imke; Hanley, Carrie; Budoff, Matthew J.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Powell, Lynda H.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cardiovascular risk increases in women after menopause. Mounting evidence demonstrates a role of cardiovascular fat (CF) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but no research has examined CF in relation to sex hormones or menopausal status in women. Objective: The objective was to determine the relationship between CF depots, menopausal status, and endogenous sex hormones. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were used. Setting: The setting included the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart and Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study. Participants: A total of 456 women (mean age, 50.75 y); 62% premenopausal/early perimenopausal, and 38% late peri-/postmenopausal. Intervention: Menopausal status, endogenous sex hormones measured simultaneously with CF volumes, and circulating estradiol available 4.80 years (median) before CF measures. Main Outcome Measures: Volumes of CF (epicardial adipose tissue [EAT], paracardial adipose tissue [PAT], total heart adipose tissue [TAT = EAT + PAT], and aortic perivascular adipose tissue [PVAT]). Results: In final models, late peri-/postmenopausal women had 9.88% more EAT, 20.72% more PAT, and 11.69% more TAT volumes than pre-/early perimenopausal women (P < .05). PVAT was not associated with menopausal status. In final models, lower estradiol concentrations were associated with greater volumes of PAT and TAT (P < .05). Women with the greatest reduction in estradiol since baseline had greater volumes of PAT compared to women with the least reduction (P = .02). Conclusions: Late peri-/postmenopausal women have greater volumes of heart fat compared with pre-/early perimenopausal women independent of age, obesity, and other covariates. Endogenous sex hormones are associated with CF. Perhaps CF plays a role in the higher risk of coronary heart disease reported in women after menopause. PMID:26176800

  6. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

    1983-01-01

    Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

  7. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenmai, A.K.; Nielsen, F.K.; Pedersen, M.; Hadrup, N.; Trier, X.; Christensen, J.H.; Vinggaard, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17β-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ► Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ► Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ► Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited

  8. Regulatory roles of sex hormones in cutaneous biology and immunology.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Naoko; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2005-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed that sex hormones manifest a variety of biological and immunological effects in the skin. Pregnancy, menstruation and the menopause modulate the natural course of psoriasis, indicating a female hormone-induced regulation of skin inflammation. Estrogen in vitro down-regulates the production of the neutrophil, type 1 T cell and macrophage-attracting chemokines, CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL5, by keratinocytes, and suppresses IL-12 production and antigen-presenting capacity while enhancing anti-inflammatory IL-10 production by dendritic cells. These data indicate that estrogen may attenuate inflammation in psoriatic lesions. Estrogen, alone or together with progesterone, prevents or reverses skin atrophy, dryness and wrinkles associated with chronological or photo-aging. Estrogen and progesterone stimulate proliferation of keratinocytes while estrogen suppresses apoptosis and thus prevents epidermal atrophy. Estrogen also enhances collagen synthesis, and estrogen and progesterone suppress collagenolysis by reducing matrix metalloproteinase activity in fibroblasts, thereby maintaining skin thickness. Estrogen maintains skin moisture by increasing acid mucopolysaccharide or hyaluronic acid levels in the dermis. Progesterone increases sebum secretion. Estrogen accelerates cutaneous wound healing stimulating NGF production in macrophages, GM-CSF production in keratinocytes and bFGF and TGF-beta1 production in fibroblasts, leading to the enhancement of wound re-innervation, re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation. In contrast, androgens prolong inflammation, reduce deposition of extracellular matrix in wounds, and reduce the rate of wound healing. Estrogen enhances VEGF production in macrophages, an effect that is antagonized by androgens and which may be related to the development of granuloma pyogenicum during pregnancy. These regulatory effects of sex steroids may be manipulated as therapeutic or prophylactic measures in psoriasis, aging

  9. Conservative Christianity, partnership, hormones, and sex in late life.

    PubMed

    Das, Aniruddha; Nairn, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Using nationally representative data from the 2005-2006 U.S. National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, this study queried relationship, sexual, and sex hormone patterns among married evangelical women and men aged 57-85, relative to those in other religions. Results suggested that despite potentially more unequal gender roles, evangelical older women may have better marital quality, perhaps due to the recent transformation of their male counterparts into authoritative, yet-supportive, "soft patriarchs." Correspondingly, these women, especially those with greater subjective religiosity or more support from a spouse, reported consistently better sexual outcomes than their counterparts in other religions. In addition, they also had lower estradiol, whether due to psychobiological effects of their better relationships or self-selection of those with differential hormone levels into particular partnership patterns. While older men in these communities also experienced more satisfactory marriages, and had lower androgens (testosterone, DHEA), their relational assets were less uniformly matched by better sexual outcomes, perhaps reflecting a gender disparity in the linkage between these factors.

  10. Embryonic sex steroid hormones accumulate in the eggshell of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shohei; Saito, Yoshimichi; Osawa, Akihisa; Katsumata, Etsuko; Karaki, Isuke; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-12-01

    Steroids hormones such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) are involved in gonadal differentiation of oviparous animals with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), and are greatly distributed. This hypothesizes that these embryonic steroid hormones probably accumulate in the eggshell throughout blood or/and chorioallantoic fluid in sea turtle species with TSD, producing females at higher temperature. To demonstrate this hypothesis, concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma from the hatchling loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and in their eggshells were measured by radioimmunoassay. In the present study we propose that both concentrations of E2 and T in the blood plasma are correlated with amounts of these sex steroids in the eggshell. Moreover, contents of E2 in the eggshell showed a significant positive correlation with mean incubation temperatures during a thermosensitive period in the experimental nests, whereas T contents in the eggshell did not. Taken together, these findings indicated that embryonic E2 and T that accumulated in the eggshell can be extracted and measured. Furthermore, the present study suggested that contents of E2 in the eggshell may differ between male and female, and monitoring of these steroids is a useful method to identify the sex of loggerhead sea turtle hatchling.

  11. Fecal bacteria and sex hormones in soil and runoff from cropped watersheds amended with poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Michael B; Endale, Dinku M; Schomberg, Harry H; Sharpe, Ronald R

    2006-04-01

    The application of poultry litter to agricultural fields can provide plant nutrients for crops and forage production, but fecal bacteria and the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone are components of litter that can be detrimental to the environment. Our objective was to determine if applications of poultry litter to small watersheds would contribute to the load of fecal bacteria and sex hormones to soil and runoff. We, therefore, investigated the fate and transport of fecal bacteria, estradiol and testosterone from surface applied poultry litter to four small watersheds. Poultry litter was applied to meet the nitrogen requirements of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) in 2000 and grain sorghum [Sorgham bicolor (L.) Moench] in 2001. Neither Salmonella nor Campylobacter were detected in the litter but the fecal indicator bacteria were. The average load of total coliforms,Escherichia coli, and fecal enterococci applied with the litter was 12.2, 11.9, and 12.7 log10 cells ha(−1), respectively. The average load of estradiol and testosterone was 3.1 and 0.09 mg ha(-1), respectively.Runoff events first occurred seven months after the first litter application in 2000, and three weeks after the second application in 2001.Only for the 25 July 2001 runoff event three weeks after the second litter application, were the concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli,and fecal enterococci in runoff greater than background concentrations which were on average 5.2, 1.1, and 2.9 log10 MPN 100 ml(−1),respectively [corrected]. Average background levels of total coliforms, fecal enterococci,and E. coli in surface soil were 8.2, 7.9, and 3.5 log (10) cells kg(−1) soil. At the rate of litter application the concentrations of estradiol and testosterone in the litter did not appear to impact the background levels in the soil and runoff. Because concentrations of sex hormones in litter from other broiler operations are known to be greater than in the litter we applied, further

  12. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurski, Robert S.; Schulze, Aga

    Numerous studies, particularly those of H. Dolk in the 1930's, established by means of bio-assay, that more growth hormone diffused from the lower, than from the upper side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot. Now, using an isotope dilution assay, with 4,5,6,7 tetradeutero indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the method of determination, we have confirmed Dolk's finding and established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is, in fact, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physico-chemical demonstration that there is more free IAA on the lower sides of a geo-stimulated plant shoot. We have also shown that free IAA occurs primarily in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, whereas IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. Now, using an especially sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay we have found that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the non-vascular tissue. Currently, efforts are directed to developing isotope dilution assays, with picogram sensitivity, to determine how this asymmetry of IAA distribution is attained so as to better understand how the plant perceives the geo-stimulus.

  13. Impact of Sex Hormone Metabolism on the Vascular Effects of Menopausal Hormone Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Durr-e-Nayab; Roach, Emir C.; Beauregard, Katie G.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in pre-menopausal women (Pre-MW) compared to men of the same age or post-menopausal women (Post-MW), suggesting cardiovascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen receptors (ERs) have been identified in the vasculature, and experimental studies have demonstrated vasodilator effects of estrogen/ER on the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and extracellular matrix. Several natural and synthetic estrogenic preparations have been developed for relief of menopausal vasomotor symptoms. However, whether menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is beneficial in postmenopausal CVD remains controversial. Despite reports of vascular benefits of MHT from observational and experimental studies, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), have suggested that, contrary to expectations, MHT may increase the risk of CVD. These discrepancies could be due to age-related changes in sex hormone synthesis and metabolism, which would influence the effective dose of MHT and the sex hormone environment in Post-MW. Age-related changes in the vascular ER subtype, structure, expression, distribution, and post-ER signaling pathways in the endothelium and VSM, along with factors related to the design of RCTs, preexisting CVD condition, and structural changes in the blood vessels architecture have also been suggested as possible causes of MHT failure in CVD. Careful examination of these factors should help in identifying the causes of the changes in the vascular effects of estrogen with age. The sex hormone metabolic pathways, the active versus inactive estrogen metabolites, and their effects on vascular function, the mitochondria, the inflammatory process and angiogenesis should be further examined. Also, the genomic and non-genomic effects of estrogenic compounds should be viewed as integrated rather than discrete

  14. Sex hormones and the immune system--Part 2. Animal data.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S A; Talal, N

    1990-04-01

    Sex hormones have physiological and pathological (autoimmune conditions) effects on the immune system. Studies in experimental animal models of human autoimmune diseases have clearly shown that sex hormones regulate the expression, severity and course of autoimmune diseases. Sex hormones affect the function of T, B and NK cells, and macrophages. Precisely how sex hormones affect lymphocytes is a highly complex question. Sex hormones can modulate the immune system, perhaps directly (e.g. thymic reticular tissue), or indirectly via host and many oestrogen target tissues, including the central nervous system hypothalamic-pituitary axis (the neuroendocrine tissues). The effects of sex hormones on the immune system (immunosuppression or immunopotentiation) may vary, even with the same hormone. For example, oestrogen can increase IgA levels in the uterus, but decrease IgA levels in the vagina or have no effect in lacrimal tissues (Sullivan, 1989). Therefore the effects of sex hormones on the immune system cannot be generalized but must be evaluated independently. Some of the reasons for variability in results have been reviewed in detail elsewhere (Steinberg et al, 1979; Ansar Ahmed et al, 1985b). These include, dose of hormones, age and sex-hormonal status of animals, route and time of administration, the immunocompetence of the host, stress, the metabolism of hormones (e.g. metabolism of testosterone to oestrogen) resulting in alteration of biological activity, and differential response to various antigens. The initial encounter of sex hormones with the type of target cells, the variability of secondary messengers and gene activation events are other important considerations. The effects of sex hormones on the immune system to modulate immune responses are unequivocal. The burgeoning advances in cellular immunology, endocrinology and molecular biology, should provide a better understanding of: (1) the interactions of hormones with the immune system; (2) how hormones

  15. Effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in rats.

    PubMed

    Egwurugwu, J N; Ifedi, C U; Uchefuna, R C; Ezeokafor, E N; Alagwu, E A

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in male albino wistar rats. Forty rats weighing between 150- 210g, grouped into 5 of 8 rats each, were used for the research that lasted for six weeks. Group I, the control group, received normal rat chow and water ad libitum. The four test groups II-V, received 20g, 40g, 60g and 80g of zinc sulphate mixed with their rat chow respectively in addition to water for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and assayed for Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Prolactin (PL), testosterone (T), progesterone and oestradiol. Semen was also analysed for sperm motility, sperm count and morphology. Results showed statistically significant decrease in serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (p< 0.05) in groups II and IV with mean values of 0.10±0.00 and 1.20±0.00 respectively when compared with the control (1.10±0.10). The results also revealed statistically significant increase in the serum levels of testosterone in groups II, III and IV with mean values of 3.60±1.40, 4.5±0.30 and 0.80±0.70 respectively when compared with the control with a value of 0.35±0.15. The increase in testosterone levels were dose dependent as there were consistent increment in groups II and III after which the levels decreased with increasing zinc concentrations. There was statistically significant dose dependent decrease in sperm motility and morphology in the test groups compared with the control (p<0.05). In conclusion, zinc sulphate has some significant positive effects on male sex hormones and sperm quality at doses within physiological levels but harmful at higher doses.

  16. Genetic effects on serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in men: a Korean twin and family study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study to evaluate the role of genetics in determining the individual difference in total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Study participants comprised 730 Korean men consisting of 142 pairs of monozygotic twins, 191 pairs of siblings, and 259 father-offspring pairs from 270 families who participated in the Healthy Twin study. Serum concentration of total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, and free testosterone and bioavailable testosterone were calculated using Vermeulen's method. Quantitative genetic analysis based on a variance decomposition model showed that the heritability of total testosterone, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were 0.56, 0.45, 0.44, and 0.69, respectively after accounting for age and body mass index. Proportions of variance explained by age and body mass index varied across different traits, from 8% for total testosterone to 31% for sex hormone-binding globulin. Bivariate analysis showed a high degree of additive genetic correlation (ρG = 0.67) and a moderate degree of individual-specific environmental correlation (ρE = 0.42) between total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. The findings confirmed the important role of genetics in determining the individually different levels of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin during adulthood in Korean men as found in non-Asian populations, which may suggest that common biologic control for determining testosterone level directly or indirectly through binding protein are largely shared among different populations. PMID:26486061

  17. Evidence for the presence of sex steroid hormones in Zhikong scallop, Chlamys farreri.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bing-Hui; An, Li-Hui; Chang, Hong; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-09-01

    To obtain evidence of the presence of sex steroid hormones in mollusks, hormone variation in the gonads of the Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri was analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. These were found, as expected, with concentrations of estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T) in the testes ranging from not detected (ND) to 0.07 ± 0.10, ND to 3.10 ± 2.00, and ND to 2.67 ± 1.55 ng/g wet weight, respectively. In the ovaries, these hormones ranged from ND to 2.45 ± 1.22, ND to 27.90 ± 4.23, and ND to 2.38 ± 1.56 ng/g ww, respectively. The levels of T in males and E2 in females followed a trend similar to the gonadal-somatic index over the course of the reproductive period. In addition, the gene expression of vitellogenin and calmodulin-2 showed similar patterns to T and E2, while the estrogen receptors and calmodulin-1 did not. These results indicate that sex steroids are present in the scallop and that they may regulate endocrine functions during the reproductive process.

  18. Effect of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Batool; Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Enayati, Ehsan; Maleki, Maryam; Rezaeei, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioid consumption has been widely increasing across the globe; how- ever, it can cause adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid, can reduce sex hor- mones and fertility. Withania somnifera (WS) is a traditional herb used to improve sexual activities. This study strives to investigate the effect of WS on sex hormones and gonado- tropins in addicted male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, forty-eight male National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i. Control group, ii. WS-treated control group, iii. Addicted group, and iv. WS-treated addicted group. Wa- ter-soluble morphine was given to rats for 21 days to induce addiction, concurrently the treated groups (2 and 4) also received WS plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%). At the end of the treatment, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of the rats’ sera were deter- mined in all the groups. Results Except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropin and sex hormone levels. Whereas WS caused a considerable increase in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group. Conclusion WS increased sex hormones and gonadotropins-especially testosterone, es- trogen, and luteinizing hormone-in the addicted male rats and even increased the proges- terone level, a stimulant of most sex hormones in addicted male rats. PMID:27441058

  19. The different role of sex hormones on female cardiovascular physiology and function: not only oestrogens.

    PubMed

    Salerni, Sara; Di Francescomarino, Samanta; Cadeddu, Christian; Acquistapace, Flavio; Maffei, Silvia; Gallina, Sabina

    2015-06-01

    Human response to different physiologic stimuli and cardiovascular (CV) adaptation to various pathologies seem to be gender specific. Sex-steroid hormones have been postulated as the major contributors towards these sex-related differences. This review will discuss current evidence on gender differences in CV function and remodelling, and will present the different role of the principal sex-steroid hormones on female heart. Starting from a review of sex hormones synthesis, receptors and CV signalling, we will summarize the current knowledge concerning the role of sex hormones on the regulation of our daily activities throughout the life, via the modulation of autonomic nervous system, excitation-contraction coupling pathway and ion channels activity. Many unresolved questions remain even if oestrogen effects on myocardial remodelling and function have been extensively studied. So this work will focus attention also on the controversial and complex relationship existing between androgens, progesterone and female heart.

  20. Sex hormones and breast cancer risk and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Folkerd, Elizabeth; Dowsett, Mitch

    2013-08-01

    The study of large prospective collections of plasma samples from women prior to the development of breast cancer has firmly established certain sex steroids as being significantly associated with risk. The strongest associations have been found in postmenopausal women in whom the within person variability of most hormones is markedly reduced but some positive associations have also been seen in premenopausal women. Plasma estrogens show the strongest correlations with risk and these are strengthened by measurement or calculation of the proportion of estradiol that circulates free of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), consistent with this being the most active fraction. The relationships have been reported to potentially explain virtually all of the association of breast cancer with body mass index in postmenopausal women; this is likely to be due to non-ovarian estrogen synthesis being prominent in subcutaneous fat. These strong relationships have led to plasma and urine estrogen levels being used as intermediate end-points in the search for genes that affect breast cancer risk via their role in steroid disposition. Plasma androgen levels also show a relationship with breast cancer risk that is weakened but not eliminated by 'correction' for estrogen levels. This has been argued to be evidence of the local production of estrogens being important in the etiology of breast cancer. Given that plasma steroid levels do not correlate closely with mammographic density, which is strongly associated with risk, the opportunity exists to combine the two factors in assessing breast cancer risk but the low availability of suitable estrogen assays is a major impediment to this. In established breast cancer, plasma estrogens have been found to correlate with gene expression of estrogen dependent genes and the expression of these varies across the menstrual cycle of premenopausal women. There is infrequently a need for routine measurement of plasma estrogen levels but it has

  1. Finding a Needle in a Haystack: the Advantages of Liquid Chromatography--Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in Determination of Sex Hormones in Children.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, Shira; Ben-Dor, Anat

    2016-06-01

    Determination of steroid sex hormones concentrations in children is very important for diagnosis of a wide range of pubertal, adrenal and sex development disorders. The majority of hormone measurements are carried out using traditional immunoassays, due to their technical simplicity, cost and availability of commercial reagents. But, due to limited specificity and sensitivity, traditional immunoassays often fail to determine low concentration analytes such as sex hormones in pediatric blood. In the last decade, the LC-MS/MS assay has risen as a new player in the analytic diagnostic field. The assay has proven appropriate for detection of very low hormones concentrations in blood, is quite easy to perform and can detect multiple steroids from a single sample. For the routine determination of an individual or panel of steroids, LC-MS/MS is now the recommended method for most diagnostic laboratories.

  2. Gender-related differences in irritable bowel syndrome: potential mechanisms of sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Meleine, Mathieu; Matricon, Julien

    2014-06-14

    According to epidemiological studies, twice as many women as men are affected by irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in western countries, suggesting a role for sex hormones in IBS pathophysiology. Despite growing evidence about the implications of sex hormones in IBS symptom modulation, data on mechanisms by which they influence disease development are sparse. This review aims to determine the state of knowledge about the role of sex hormones in sensorimotor dysfunctions and to address the possible interplay of sex hormones with common risk factors associated with IBS. The scientific bibliography was searched using the following keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, sex, gender, ovarian hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, symptoms, pain, sensitivity, motility, permeability, stress, immune system, brain activity, spinal, supraspinal, imaging. Ovarian hormones variations along the menstrual cycle affect sensorimotor gastrointestinal function in both healthy and IBS populations. They can modulate pain processing by interacting with neuromodulator systems and the emotional system responsible for visceral pain perception. These hormones can also modulate the susceptibility to stress, which is a pivotal factor in IBS occurrence and symptom severity. For instance, estrogen-dependent hyper-responsiveness to stress can promote immune activation or impairments of gut barrier function. In conclusion, whereas it is important to keep in mind that ovarian hormones cannot be considered as a causal factor of IBS, they arguably modulate IBS onset and symptomatology. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited and studies assessing the link between IBS symptoms and ovarian hormone levels are needed to improve our knowledge of the disease evolution with regard to gender. Further studies assessing the role of male hormones are also needed to understand fully the role of sex hormones in IBS. Finally, investigation of brain-gut interactions is critical

  3. Gender-related differences in irritable bowel syndrome: Potential mechanisms of sex hormones

    PubMed Central

    Meleine, Mathieu; Matricon, Julien

    2014-01-01

    According to epidemiological studies, twice as many women as men are affected by irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in western countries, suggesting a role for sex hormones in IBS pathophysiology. Despite growing evidence about the implications of sex hormones in IBS symptom modulation, data on mechanisms by which they influence disease development are sparse. This review aims to determine the state of knowledge about the role of sex hormones in sensorimotor dysfunctions and to address the possible interplay of sex hormones with common risk factors associated with IBS. The scientific bibliography was searched using the following keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, sex, gender, ovarian hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, symptoms, pain, sensitivity, motility, permeability, stress, immune system, brain activity, spinal, supraspinal, imaging. Ovarian hormones variations along the menstrual cycle affect sensorimotor gastrointestinal function in both healthy and IBS populations. They can modulate pain processing by interacting with neuromodulator systems and the emotional system responsible for visceral pain perception. These hormones can also modulate the susceptibility to stress, which is a pivotal factor in IBS occurrence and symptom severity. For instance, estrogen-dependent hyper-responsiveness to stress can promote immune activation or impairments of gut barrier function. In conclusion, whereas it is important to keep in mind that ovarian hormones cannot be considered as a causal factor of IBS, they arguably modulate IBS onset and symptomatology. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited and studies assessing the link between IBS symptoms and ovarian hormone levels are needed to improve our knowledge of the disease evolution with regard to gender. Further studies assessing the role of male hormones are also needed to understand fully the role of sex hormones in IBS. Finally, investigation of brain-gut interactions is critical

  4. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  5. Vitamin D metabolism, sex hormones, and male reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The spectrum of vitamin D (VD)-mediated effects has expanded in recent years, and VD is now recognized as a versatile signaling molecule rather than being solely a regulator of bone health and calcium homeostasis. One of the recently identified target areas of VD is male reproductive function. The VD receptor (VDR) and the VD metabolizing enzyme expression studies documented the presence of this system in the testes, mature spermatozoa, and ejaculatory tract, suggesting that both systemic and local VD metabolism may influence male reproductive function. However, it is still debated which cell is the main VD target in the testis and to what extent VD is important for sex hormone production and function of spermatozoa. This review summarizes descriptive studies on testicular VD metabolism and spatial distribution of VDR and the VD metabolizing enzymes in the mammalian testes and discusses mechanistic and association studies conducted in animals and humans. The reviewed evidence suggests some effects of VD on estrogen and testosterone biosynthesis and implicates involvement of both systemic and local VD metabolism in the regulation of male fertility potential.

  6. Environmental hormones and their impacts on sex differentiation in fathead minnows.

    PubMed

    Leet, Jessica K; Sassman, Stephen; Amberg, Jon J; Olmstead, Allen W; Lee, Linda S; Ankley, Gerald T; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2015-01-01

    Runoff from lands fertilized with animal manure from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a source of hormones to surface water. In this study we tested the hypothesis that larval fathead minnows exposed to sex steroids singly or in a "typical" CAFO mixture during sex differentiation would respond with changes in the expression of a set of target genes, leading to gonadal abnormalities later in life. In the first experiment, a static daily-renewal system was used to expose larvae during the period of 10-20 days post-hatch (dph) to either 5 ng/L 17β-trenbolone (17β-TRB) or 5 ng/L 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). In a second experiment, fish were exposed from 0 to 45 dph in a flow-through system to a CAFO mixture composed of steroids and degradates (2-16 ng/L), atrazine and degradates (15-250 ng/L), and nitrate (3-11 mg/L). In the single hormone experiment, expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis (cyp19a, cyp17, and star) was decreased in females. In contrast, no differences in gene expression were observed in fish exposed to the CAFO mixture. However, the majority (84%) of treated males had testes containing an ovarian cavity, indicative of feminization, compared to 0% in the control males. Overall, our results show that: (1) changes in gene expression after single hormone exposures are sex-specific, with females more responsive than males; and (2) phenotypic alterations in testicular development can be elicited by a simulated "CAFO" mixture when fathead minnows are exposed during the first 45 days of development. More research is needed to further discern the complex response of fish to steroid mixtures, especially those associated with runoff from land-applied CAFO waste. PMID:25671225

  7. Gonadal suppressive and cross-sex hormone therapy for gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine P; Madison, Christina M; Milne, Nikki M

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with gender dysphoria experience distress associated with incongruence between their biologic sex and their identified gender. Gender dysphoric natal males receive treatment with antiandrogens and estrogens to become feminized (transsexual females), whereas natal females with gender dysphoria receive treatment with androgens to become masculinized (transsexual males). Because of the permanence associated with cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT), adolescents diagnosed with gender dysphoria receive gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to suppress puberty. High rates of depression and suicide are linked to social marginalization and barriers to care. Behavior, emotional problems, depressive symptoms, and global functioning improve in adolescents receiving puberty suppression therapy. Gender dysphoria, psychological symptoms, quality of life, and sexual function improve in adults who receive CSHT. Within the first 6 months of CSHT, changes in transsexual females include breast growth, decreased testicular volume, and decreased spontaneous erections, and changes in transsexual males include cessation of menses, breast atrophy, clitoral enlargement, and voice deepening. Both transsexual females and males experience changes in body fat redistribution, muscle mass, and hair growth. Desired effects from CSHT can take between 3 and 5 years; however, effects that occur during puberty, such as voice deepening and skeletal structure changes, cannot be reversed with CSHT. Decreased sexual desire is a greater concern in transsexual females than in transsexual males, with testosterone concentrations linked to sexual desire in both. Regarding CSHT safety, bone mineral density is preserved with adequate hormone supplementation, but long-term fracture risk has not been studied. The transition away from high-dose traditional regimens is tied to a lower risk of venous thromboembolism and cardiovascular disease, but data quality is poor. Breast cancer has been reported in

  8. Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Monkeys after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Mukku, V. R.; Dotsenko, R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Bigbee, A. J.; Helwig, D.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12.5 day spaceflight on the endocrine status of Rhesus monkeys. Male monkeys (three to four years old; 4 kg) were adapted to chair restraint and trained for 20 months. Blood samples were obtained from four control (C) and two flight (F) monkeys preflight (PF), post-flight (Recovery-R; days 0, 3, 11, and 17), and before and after a mission length simulation (S). Cortisol, T4, T3, testosterone (T), and IGF-1 were measured by RIA (radioimmunassay). Growth hormone (GH) was measured by an in vitro bioassay. Cortisol (16-34 ug/dl), T4 (3.9-7.4 ug/dl), and T (0.2-0.4 mg/ml) did not differ between F and C or between PF, R, and S samples. The low T values reflect the immaturity of the animals. In F, T3 fell from C levels of 208 +/- 4 ng/dl to 44 on R+0 and 150 on R+3, then returned to C. F showed a 55% decrease in GH at R+0 and decreases of 93, 89, and 80%, respectively, at R+3, 11, and 17. IGF-1 decreased from PF levels of 675 ng/ml to 365 (R+0) and 243 (R+3), but returned to C at R+11. GH and IGF-1 levels before and after S did not differ from each other or from C. The cause of the transitory decrease in T3 is unknown. The suppressed GH levels for 17 days after flight may reflect reduced proprioceptive input during flight. The faster recovery of IGF-1 suggests that factors other than reduced GH secretion are involved.

  9. CHALLENGES IN BIODEGRADATION OF TRACE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS-GASOLINE OXYGENATES AND SEX HORMONES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in analytical methods have led to the identification of several classes of organic chemicals that are associated with adverse environmental impacts. Two such classes of organic chemicals, gasoline oxygenates and sex hormones, are used to illustrate challenges associated ...

  10. Gender-specific inhibition of Ca2+ entry mechanisms of arterial vasoconstriction by sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Crews, J K; Khalil, R A

    1999-09-01

    1. The clinical observation that hypertension is more common in males and postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women suggests vascular protective effects of female sex hormones, including hormone-mediated inhibition of vascular tone. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the Ca2+ mobilization mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle contraction are modified by gender and sex hormones. 2. Active stress and [45Ca2+] influx were measured in de-endothelialized aortic strips isolated from intact and gonadectomized male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. In normal Krebs' (2.5 mmol/L Ca2+), both phenylephrine (Phe; 10(-5) mol/L) and membrane depolarization by 96 mmol/L KCl increased active stress to 15.5 +/- 1.3 x 10(3) and 14.8 +/- 1.2 x 10(3) N/m2, respectively, and Ca2+ influx to 28.4 +/- 1.4 and 32.3 +/- 1.5 mumol/kg per min, respectively, in intact males. The Phe- and KCl-induced stress and Ca2+ influx were significantly reduced in intact females. Gonadectomy was associated with no significant changes in the Phe- and KCl-induced stress and Ca2+ influx in males, but was associated with significant enhancement in females. In Ca(2+)-free (2 mmol/L EGTA) Krebs', stimulation of intracellular Ca2+ release by Phe or caffeine (25 mmol/L) caused a transient contraction that was not significantly different in all groups of rats. 3. Exogenous application of 17 beta-oestradiol, progesterone or testosterone to aortic strips caused concentration-dependent inhibition of Phe- and KCl-stimulated contractions and Ca2+ influx. 17 beta-Oestradiol was the most effective hormone and its relative potency was intact males, castrated males and ovariectomized females > intact females. 4. Thus, vascular reactivity and Ca2+ entry in aortic smooth muscle are reduced in the presence and enhanced in the absence of female gonads. Both male and female sex hormones cause vascular relaxation, mainly by inhibiting Ca2+ entry, with oestrogen being the most effective, particularly in

  11. Neural Activation During Mental Rotation in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: The Influence of Sex Hormones and Sex Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    van Hemmen, Judy; Veltman, Dick J; Hoekzema, Elseline; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B; Bakker, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Sex hormones, androgens in particular, are hypothesized to play a key role in the sexual differentiation of the human brain. However, possible direct effects of the sex chromosomes, that is, XX or XY, have not been well studied in humans. Individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who have a 46,XY karyotype but a female phenotype due to a complete androgen resistance, enable us to study the separate effects of gonadal hormones versus sex chromosomes on neural sex differences. Therefore, in the present study, we compared 46,XY men (n = 30) and 46,XX women (n = 29) to 46,XY individuals with CAIS (n = 21) on a mental rotation task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Previously reported sex differences in neural activation during mental rotation were replicated in the control groups, with control men showing more activation in the inferior parietal lobe than control women. Individuals with CAIS showed a female-like neural activation pattern in the parietal lobe, indicating feminization of the brain in CAIS. Furthermore, this first neuroimaging study in individuals with CAIS provides evidence that sex differences in regional brain function during mental rotation are most likely not directly driven by genetic sex, but rather reflect gonadal hormone exposure.

  12. Sleep regulation and sex hormones exposure in men and women across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lord, C; Sekerovic, Z; Carrier, J

    2014-10-01

    This review aims to discuss how endogenous and exogenous testosterone exposures in men and estrogens/progesterone exposures in women interact with sleep regulation. In young men, testosterone secretion peaks during sleep and is linked to sleep architecture. Animal and human studies support the notion that sleep loss suppresses testosterone secretion. Testosterone levels decline slowly throughout the aging process, but relatively few studies investigate its impact on age-related sleep modifications. Results suggest that poorer sleep quality is associated with lower testosterone concentrations and that sleep loss may have a more prominent effect on testosterone levels in older individuals. In women, sex steroid levels are characterized by a marked monthly cycle and reproductive milestones such as pregnancy and menopause. Animal models indicate that estrogens and progesterone influence sleep. Most studies do not show any clear effects of the menstrual cycle on sleep, but sample sizes are too low, and research designs often inhibit definitive conclusions. The effects of hormonal contraceptives on sleep are currently unknown. Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with increased sleep disturbances, but their relation to the hormonal milieu still needs to be determined. Finally, studies suggest that menopausal transition and the hormonal changes associated with it are linked to lower subjective sleep quality, but results concerning objective sleep measures are less conclusive. More research is necessary to unravel the effects of vasomotor symptoms on sleep. Hormone therapy seems to induce positive effects on sleep, but key concerns are still unresolved, including the long-term effects and efficacy of different hormonal regimens.

  13. Sex hormones modulate circulating antioxidant enzymes: Impact of estrogen therapy☆

    PubMed Central

    Bellanti, Francesco; Matteo, Maria; Rollo, Tiziana; De Rosario, Filomena; Greco, Pantaleo; Vendemiale, Gianluigi; Serviddio, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Objective Ovarian senescence affects many tissues and produces a variety of symptoms and signs. We hypothesized that estrogens may also influence circulating redox balance by regulating activity of the cellular antioxidative enzyme system. We aimed to explore the impact of surgical estrogen deprivation and replacement (ERT) on the glutathione balance and antioxidant enzymes expression in fertile women. Study design Nineteen healthy premenopausal women who underwent total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were evaluated at baseline, 30 days after surgery without ERT and 30 days after ERT. Redox balance was determined by measuring blood reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, as well as the GSSG/GSH ratio. Antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring serum estrogen (E2) levels and mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results Serum E2 significantly lowered after surgery, and increased in 12 out of 19 patients after 30 days of ERT (Responders). In such patients, an increase in oxidative stress was observed after surgery that resolved after ERT. Oxidative stress was sustained by reduction in the mRNA expression of both SOD and GSH-Px, that recovered after 30 days of therapy in responders. CAT and GST mRNA expression were not modified by surgery and replacement therapy. Conclusions Menopause is associated with significant change in antioxidant gene expression that in turn affects circulating redox state. Estrogens replacement therapy is able to prevent and counteract such modifications by acting as regulators of key antioxidant gene expression. These findings suggest that antioxidant genes are, almost in part, under the control of sex hormones, and that pathophysiology of the difference in gender disease may depend on the redox biology. PMID:24024169

  14. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  15. Sex hormones modulate the immune response to Plasmodium berghei ANKA in CBA/Ca mice.

    PubMed

    Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mosqueda-Romo, Néstor Aarón; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; Morales-Rodríguez, Ana Laura; Buendía-González, Fidel Orlando; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility to malaria differs between females and males, and this sexual dimorphism may have important implications for the effects of vaccines and drugs. However, little is known about the mechanisms mediating these sexual differences. Because the main differences between sexes are dictated by sex hormones, we studied the effect of gonadal steroids on immune responses to malaria in CBA/Ca mice. We decreased sex hormones levels by gonadectomy and evaluated the splenic index and the cells involved in the immune response, including T cells (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and NK(+)), B cells and macrophages (Mac-3(+)) in the spleens of female and male mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. In addition, we measured antibody and cytokine levels in blood. Gonadectomy increased T(+) and B(+) splenic cells in both sexes but increased Mac-3(+) cells only in male mice. By contrast, gonadectomy decreased the NK(+) cell population only in male mice. In general, female mice developed higher antibody levels than males. Contrary to our expectations, gonadectomy increased the synthesis of IgG1, IgG2b, IgG3, and total IgG in female mice, indicating negative regulation of antibody production by female sex hormones. Gonadectomy increased the synthesis of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) only in female mice, suggesting that female sex hormones have anti-inflammatory properties. This work demonstrates that the levels of sex hormones affect the immune response and should be considered when designing malaria vaccines.

  16. Effect of dietary protein levels on sex hormones in growing male rats kept under constant darkness.

    PubMed

    Hanai, Miho; Esashi, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of dietary protein levels on the gonadal development and sex hormones in male rats kept under constant darkness as a model of disturbed daily rhythm. Four-week-old male rats (Fischer 344 strain) were kept under constant darkness or normal lighting (12-h light/dark cycle). Two kinds of experimental diet were prepared, one with low dietary protein levels (9% casein) and one with normal levels (18% casein). Harper mineral mixture and Panvitan were used as mineral and vitamin sources, respectively. After 4 weeks, gonadal weight, serum testosterone, and other hormone contents were evaluated. The gonadal weight in the constant darkness groups (D-groups) was lower than that in the normal lighting groups (N-groups). Although the low-protein diet in the D-groups significantly reduced gonadal weight, the normal-protein diet mitigated the reduction of gonadal weight in rats kept under constant darkness. Serum testosterone and androstenedione concentrations were lower in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet. There were no effects of lighting condition or protein levels on serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH), or progesterone concentrations. These results indicate that the suppression of gonadal development in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet was caused by low testosterone, which we attribute to the inhibition of synthesized androstenedione, a precursor of testosterone. The present study showed that constant darkness and the low- protein diet inhibited the synthetic pathway from progesterone to androstenedione.

  17. Effect of dietary protein levels on sex hormones in growing male rats kept under constant darkness.

    PubMed

    Hanai, Miho; Esashi, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of dietary protein levels on the gonadal development and sex hormones in male rats kept under constant darkness as a model of disturbed daily rhythm. Four-week-old male rats (Fischer 344 strain) were kept under constant darkness or normal lighting (12-h light/dark cycle). Two kinds of experimental diet were prepared, one with low dietary protein levels (9% casein) and one with normal levels (18% casein). Harper mineral mixture and Panvitan were used as mineral and vitamin sources, respectively. After 4 weeks, gonadal weight, serum testosterone, and other hormone contents were evaluated. The gonadal weight in the constant darkness groups (D-groups) was lower than that in the normal lighting groups (N-groups). Although the low-protein diet in the D-groups significantly reduced gonadal weight, the normal-protein diet mitigated the reduction of gonadal weight in rats kept under constant darkness. Serum testosterone and androstenedione concentrations were lower in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet. There were no effects of lighting condition or protein levels on serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH), or progesterone concentrations. These results indicate that the suppression of gonadal development in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet was caused by low testosterone, which we attribute to the inhibition of synthesized androstenedione, a precursor of testosterone. The present study showed that constant darkness and the low- protein diet inhibited the synthetic pathway from progesterone to androstenedione. PMID:23095819

  18. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors.

  19. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

  20. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  1. Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.; Monroe, Scott E.; Burnett, David A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in females. These findings suggested that sex differences in lipoprotein could reflect a sex steroid influence on the availability of fatty acids for hepatocellular triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present studies, sex steroid effects on hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization and FABP concentration were investigated directly. Hepatocytes from immature (30-d-old) rats exhibited no sex differences in [14C]oleate utilization. With maturation, total [14C]oleate utilization and triglyceride biosynthesis increased moderately in female cells and decreased markedly in male cells; the profound sex differences in adults were maximal by age 60 d. Fatty acid oxidation was little affected. Rats were castrated at age 30 d, and received estradiol, testosterone, or no hormone until age 60 d, when hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization was studied. Castration virtually eliminated maturational changes and blunted the sex differences in adults. Estradiol or testosterone largely reproduced the appropriate adult pattern of [14C]oleate utilization regardless of the genotypic sex of the treated animal. In immature females and males, total cytosolic FABP concentrations were similar. In 60-d-old animals, there was a striking correlation among all groups (females, males, castrates, and hormone-treated) between mean cytosolic FABP concentration on the one hand, and mean total [14C]oleate utilization (r = 0.91) and incorporation into triglycerides (r = 0.94) on the other. In 30-d-old animals rates of [14C

  2. Effects of Sex Hormones on Ocular Surface Epithelia: Lessons Learned From Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Macchi, Ilaria; Massaro-Giordano, Giacomina; Cozzupoli, Grazia Maria; Lambiase, Alessandro; Bonini, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality in women of reproductive age. Although its clinical consequences have been known for a long time to extend beyond the reproductive system, with type-2 diabetes and obesity being the most common, the involvement of the ocular surface in PCOS has been described only more recently. The ocular surface is a morphofunctional unit comprising eyelid margin, tear film, cornea, and conjunctiva. Increasing evidence indicates that these structures are under a sex hormone control and relevant diseases such as ocular allergy and dry eye are often caused by alterations in circulating or local steroid hormones levels. Novel treatments targeting sex hormone receptors on ocular surface epithelial cells are also being developed. In this review we aim to describe the current knowledge on the effects of sex hormones at the ocular surface, with a special focus on the effects of androgen imbalance in PCOS.

  3. Effects of Sex Hormones on Ocular Surface Epithelia: Lessons Learned From Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Macchi, Ilaria; Massaro-Giordano, Giacomina; Cozzupoli, Grazia Maria; Lambiase, Alessandro; Bonini, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality in women of reproductive age. Although its clinical consequences have been known for a long time to extend beyond the reproductive system, with type-2 diabetes and obesity being the most common, the involvement of the ocular surface in PCOS has been described only more recently. The ocular surface is a morphofunctional unit comprising eyelid margin, tear film, cornea, and conjunctiva. Increasing evidence indicates that these structures are under a sex hormone control and relevant diseases such as ocular allergy and dry eye are often caused by alterations in circulating or local steroid hormones levels. Novel treatments targeting sex hormone receptors on ocular surface epithelial cells are also being developed. In this review we aim to describe the current knowledge on the effects of sex hormones at the ocular surface, with a special focus on the effects of androgen imbalance in PCOS. PMID:26491950

  4. Dysregulation of male sex hormones in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    El-Serafi, A T; Osama, S; El-Zalat, H; EL-Deen, I M

    2016-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection is a serious problem all over the world and has a special importance in Egypt, where the prevalence of infection is 14.7% of population. In males, HCV is associated with sexual dysfunction and changes in the semen parameters. This study aimed at estimation of a panel of the most important related hormones in the serum of patients and illustration of their correlation to the routine laboratory investigations. The four studied hormones showed alteration in the patients in comparison with the controls. While androstenedione, prolactin and testosterone were significantly increased in patients, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was decreased. These changes in the hormones were not related to the liver functions, pathological grade or even viral load. We hypothesised a model of how HCV can induce these hormonal changes and recommended to add these hormones to the follow-up panel of male patients with HCV.

  5. In vitro effects of sex hormones in human meibomian gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Antje; Abrar, Daniel B; Hampel, Ulrike; Schicht, Martin; Paulsen, Friedrich; Garreis, Fabian

    2016-10-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is considered the most common cause of dry eye disease (DED). Sex hormones seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of MGD although their involvement is not completely understood. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the effect of dihydrotestosteron (DHT) and estradiol (β-Est) on an immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cell line (HMGEC). Protein expression of sex hormone receptors in HMGEC was investigated by western blot. Ultrastructural morphology, Sudan III lipid staining, cell proliferation as well as vitality assays were performed. Furthermore, expression of MGD-associated markers for keratinization (hornerin, involucrin and CK6), proliferation (CK5 and CK14) and lipid synthesis (fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase) were analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Western blot revealed presence of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors α and -β (ERα, ERβ) and progesterone receptor (PR) in HMGEC. PR, ERα and ERβ expression was significantly induced under cultivation with serum, whereas sex hormones stimulation showed no further effect on protein expression of PR, ERα and ERβ. Our results showed no impact of MGD-associated sex hormones to cellular morphology and lipid accumulation in HMGEC. Cell proliferation was slightly induced through application of sex hormones and supplementation of calcium. However, both sex hormones and calcium altered gene expression of MGD-associated markers. Especially keratinization genes hornerin (HRNR) and cornulin (COR) were induced after application of sex hormones and calcium in serum-free cultivated HMGEC. This may promote keratinization processes that are associated with MGD. Further investigations are necessary to analyze the (hyper)keratinization processes that occur during MGD and using HMGEC as an in vitro model.

  6. Effect of sex steroid hormones on the number of serotonergic neurons in rat dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kunimura, Yuyu; Iwata, Kinuyo; Iijima, Norio; Kobayashi, Makito; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2015-05-01

    Disorders caused by the malfunction of the serotonergic system in the central nervous system show sex-specific prevalence. Many studies have reported a relationship between sex steroid hormones and the brain serotonergic system; however, the interaction between sex steroid hormones and the number of brain neurons expressing serotonin has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we determined whether sex steroid hormones altered the number of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) of adult rat brains. Animals were divided into five groups: ovariectomized (OVX), OVX+low estradiol (E2), OVX+high E2, castrated males, and intact males. Antibodies against 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph), an enzyme for 5-HT synthesis, were used as markers of 5-HT neurons, and the number of 5-HT-immunoreactive (ir) or Tph-ir cells was counted. We detected no significant differences in the number of 5-HT-ir or Tph-ir cells in the DR among the five groups. By contrast, the intensity of 5-HT-ir showed significant sex differences in specific subregions of the DR independent of sex steroid levels, suggesting that the manipulation of sex steroid hormones after maturation does not affect the number and intensive immunostaining of serotonergic neurons in rat brain. Our results suggest that, the sexual dimorphism observed in the serotonergic system is due to factors such as 5-HT synthesis, transportation, and degradation but not to the number of serotonergic neurons.

  7. Dynamics of yolk steroid hormones during development in a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    PubMed

    Elf, P K; Lang, J W; Fivizzani, A J

    2002-06-01

    Many oviparous reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD); i.e., the temperature at which the egg is incubated determines the sex of the offspring. In TSD reptiles, yolk steroids not only may influence sex determination, but also may mediate hormonal effects on subsequent growth and behavior, as in some avian species. We investigated changes in the levels of estradiol (E(2)) and testosterone (T) during development in yolks of snapping turtle eggs, examined how incubation temperature affects hormone levels, and determined how hormones in turtle eggs are influenced by individual females (=clutch effects). Results indicate significant decreases in both hormones (>50% decline) by the end of the sex-determining period, when two-thirds of the development is complete. The declines in both E(2) and T were significantly affected by incubation temperature, but in different ways. Eggs incubated at female-producing temperatures maintained high levels, those incubated at male-producing temperatures had low E(2) values, and eggs incubated at pivotal temperatures had intermediate levels of E(2). At all three temperatures, T values underwent significant but approximately equal declines, except during the developmental stages just after the sex-determining period, when T levels decreased more at the male-producing temperature than at either of the other two temperatures. Initially, there were significant clutch effects in both hormones, but such differences, attributable to individual females, were maintained only for E(2) later in development. Here we report for the first time that incubation temperature significantly affects the hormonal environment of the developing embryo of a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination. Based on this and related findings, we propose that yolk sex steroids influence sexual differentiation in these TSD species and play a role in sex determination at pivotal temperatures.

  8. Dynamics of yolk steroid hormones during development in a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    PubMed

    Elf, P K; Lang, J W; Fivizzani, A J

    2002-06-01

    Many oviparous reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD); i.e., the temperature at which the egg is incubated determines the sex of the offspring. In TSD reptiles, yolk steroids not only may influence sex determination, but also may mediate hormonal effects on subsequent growth and behavior, as in some avian species. We investigated changes in the levels of estradiol (E(2)) and testosterone (T) during development in yolks of snapping turtle eggs, examined how incubation temperature affects hormone levels, and determined how hormones in turtle eggs are influenced by individual females (=clutch effects). Results indicate significant decreases in both hormones (>50% decline) by the end of the sex-determining period, when two-thirds of the development is complete. The declines in both E(2) and T were significantly affected by incubation temperature, but in different ways. Eggs incubated at female-producing temperatures maintained high levels, those incubated at male-producing temperatures had low E(2) values, and eggs incubated at pivotal temperatures had intermediate levels of E(2). At all three temperatures, T values underwent significant but approximately equal declines, except during the developmental stages just after the sex-determining period, when T levels decreased more at the male-producing temperature than at either of the other two temperatures. Initially, there were significant clutch effects in both hormones, but such differences, attributable to individual females, were maintained only for E(2) later in development. Here we report for the first time that incubation temperature significantly affects the hormonal environment of the developing embryo of a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination. Based on this and related findings, we propose that yolk sex steroids influence sexual differentiation in these TSD species and play a role in sex determination at pivotal temperatures. PMID:12161199

  9. Sex effect on polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in fish: a synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate in fish primarily via food intake, and therefore, PCBs serve as a chemical tracer for food consumption. Sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish have been attributed to the following three mechanisms: (i) females losing a substantial portion of their PCB body burden during spawning and consequently their PCB concentration is considerably reduced immediately after spawning; (ii) sex differences in habitat utilization leading to sex differences in the PCB concentrations of the prey; and (iii) sex differences in gross growth efficiency, which is defined as growth divided by the amount of food consumption needed to achieve that growth. Based on my analyses and synthesis, mechanisms (i) and (ii) operate in relatively few fish populations, but can lead to mature males having PCB concentrations two to three times higher than mature female PCB concentrations. In contrast, mechanism (iii) operates in all fish populations, but typically, mechanism (iii) results in relatively modest sex differences, with mature males only between 15 and 35% higher in PCB concentration than mature females. In summary, the study of sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish has led to insights into fish behaviour and fish physiology.

  10. Sex difference in irritable bowel syndrome: do gonadal hormones play a role?

    PubMed

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette

    2010-01-01

    Sex and gender effects in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported in epidemiological, physiological, and clinical treatment studies. The potential role of gonadal hormones is discussed based on the female predominance in IBS and the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status. Several different models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function, including changes in GI symptoms during the menstrual cycle and differences in symptom expression in pre- and post-menopausal women as well as changes during pregnancy, hormonal treatment, or after ovariectomy. Gonadal hormones, in particular estrogens, can significantly modulate various clinical manifestations of IBS, including alterations in GI motility and visceral hypersensitivity. Additionally, sex differences in the stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system are considered to be contributing factors in the pathogenesis of functional bowel disorders. The modulatory effects of estrogens on visceral pain may result from interactions with numerous neurotransmitters at different levels of the brain-gut axis, with a pivotal role of estrogens' interactions with the serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling systems. Estrogens can also modulate neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress via the brain-gut axis. Sex differences in the biological actions, pharmacokinetics, and treatment efficacy of serotonergic medications clearly suggest sex differences in pain pathways that have to be taken into consideration in therapeutic interventions.

  11. Sexually dimorphic expression of pituitary glycoprotein hormones in a sex-changing fish (Pseudolabrus sieboldi).

    PubMed

    Ohta, Kohei; Mine, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is involved in gonadal sex change in socially controlled sex-changing fish. However, the specific secretion profiles of pituitary gonadotropins (GtHs) in this type of fish are not known. To address this fundamental question, we demonstrated that the diurnal secretion patterns of GtHs differ distinctly between males and females in a socially controlled sex-changing fish. We analyzed the pituitary mRNA levels of glycoprotein hormone subunits (i.e., the common alpha-subunit and specific beta-subunits follicle-stimulating hormone beta, luteinizing hormone beta, and thyroid-stimulating hormone beta) in the wrasse Pseudolabrus sieboldi, which is a model fish that exhibits accurate diurnal rhythms of gametogenesis in both males and females. Northern blots clearly showed that each subunit gene exhibits a diurnal rhythm of expression in the pituitary and that the expression patterns differ distinctly between the sexes. Our results suggest that oogenesis and spermatogenesis in this hermaphroditic fish are regulated differentially through the distinct secretion patterns of pituitary glycoprotein hormones. This study also provides direct evidence of the sexual plasticity of pituitary GtH secretion in a socially controlled sex-changing fish.

  12. Gonadal suppressive and cross-sex hormone therapy for gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine P; Madison, Christina M; Milne, Nikki M

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with gender dysphoria experience distress associated with incongruence between their biologic sex and their identified gender. Gender dysphoric natal males receive treatment with antiandrogens and estrogens to become feminized (transsexual females), whereas natal females with gender dysphoria receive treatment with androgens to become masculinized (transsexual males). Because of the permanence associated with cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT), adolescents diagnosed with gender dysphoria receive gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to suppress puberty. High rates of depression and suicide are linked to social marginalization and barriers to care. Behavior, emotional problems, depressive symptoms, and global functioning improve in adolescents receiving puberty suppression therapy. Gender dysphoria, psychological symptoms, quality of life, and sexual function improve in adults who receive CSHT. Within the first 6 months of CSHT, changes in transsexual females include breast growth, decreased testicular volume, and decreased spontaneous erections, and changes in transsexual males include cessation of menses, breast atrophy, clitoral enlargement, and voice deepening. Both transsexual females and males experience changes in body fat redistribution, muscle mass, and hair growth. Desired effects from CSHT can take between 3 and 5 years; however, effects that occur during puberty, such as voice deepening and skeletal structure changes, cannot be reversed with CSHT. Decreased sexual desire is a greater concern in transsexual females than in transsexual males, with testosterone concentrations linked to sexual desire in both. Regarding CSHT safety, bone mineral density is preserved with adequate hormone supplementation, but long-term fracture risk has not been studied. The transition away from high-dose traditional regimens is tied to a lower risk of venous thromboembolism and cardiovascular disease, but data quality is poor. Breast cancer has been reported in

  13. Longitudinal monitoring of sex steroid hormones in excrement of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, Abigail; Buck, C Loren; Atkinson, Shannon; Hollmén, Tuula

    2014-03-01

    From the 1970s to the 1990s, the breeding population of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) in western Alaska declined by 96%, which led to the listing of this species as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1993. Since then, the population has stabilized, but has not recovered to pre-decline numbers. While little is known about reproductive endocrinology in spectacled eiders, in other avian species, estrogen and testosterone are known to initiate and modulate various reproductive processes including yolk protein synthesis, reproductive behaviors and secondary sex characteristics. Measurement of the metabolites of estrogen and testosterone (EM and TM, respectively) in excrement reflect circulating hormone concentrations and provide a non-invasive method to monitor reproductive physiology. We measured concentrations of excreted EM in captive females and TM in males to (1) determine the efficacy of commercially available radioimmunoassay kits to detect EM and TM, (2) describe annual profiles of EM and TM concentrations, and (3) define the reproductive season of captive spectacled eiders using endocrine status. Excrement samples were collected from captive female and male spectacled eiders three times per week throughout 1 year. Female EM and male TM levels were quantified using radioimmunoassay. Mean female EM profile exhibited values exceeding the threshold for "peak" values (EM>193.3 ng/g) from mid-February to early July, and again in September. Additionally, the highest average concentrations of EM were seen in March, May and September. Elevated TM concentrations occurred in mid March, mid May and late June. These data suggest that levels of excreted sex steroids reflect patterns predicted by breeding landmarks in the annual cycle and will assist in field monitoring and captive breeding programs for spectacled eiders.

  14. Do sex hormones play a role in ankylosing spondylitis?

    PubMed

    Masi, A T

    1992-02-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has a striking disease marker, i.e., HLA-B27, indicating the major genetic predisposition; however, expression of disease is also strongly influenced by age- and sex-related factors. Sex steroids studies suggest greater androgenicity in AS than normal control persons. Therapeutic interventions that normalize such sex steroid status have shown clinical improvements in males and females. Muscle histopathology in AS shows frequent changes early in disease consistent with neuropathic and myopathic mechanisms of a noninflammatory nature. Accepting the available, aggregate data, one may infer that sex steroid imbalance in persons susceptible to AS may target axial and proximal muscle tissues, resulting in relative functional hypertonicity. Such phenomenon, developing in preteen and younger adult ages, may contribute to peripheral and axial manifestations of enthesopathy in this disease by complex and currently unknown mechanisms.

  15. Do sex hormones play a role in ankylosing spondylitis?

    PubMed

    Masi, A T

    1992-02-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has a striking disease marker, i.e., HLA-B27, indicating the major genetic predisposition; however, expression of disease is also strongly influenced by age- and sex-related factors. Sex steroids studies suggest greater androgenicity in AS than normal control persons. Therapeutic interventions that normalize such sex steroid status have shown clinical improvements in males and females. Muscle histopathology in AS shows frequent changes early in disease consistent with neuropathic and myopathic mechanisms of a noninflammatory nature. Accepting the available, aggregate data, one may infer that sex steroid imbalance in persons susceptible to AS may target axial and proximal muscle tissues, resulting in relative functional hypertonicity. Such phenomenon, developing in preteen and younger adult ages, may contribute to peripheral and axial manifestations of enthesopathy in this disease by complex and currently unknown mechanisms. PMID:1561401

  16. Impact of Sex and Gonadal Hormones on Cocaine and Food Reinforcement Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Kerstetter, Kerry A.; Kippin, Tod E.

    2012-01-01

    Men and women express sexually dimorphic patterns of cocaine abuse, such that women progress faster from initially trying cocaine to becoming dependent upon the drug and display a greater incidence of relapse. Sex differences in response to cocaine are also seen in the laboratory in both humans and animal models. In this review, animal models of cocaine abuse that have reported sex differences in appetitive reinforcement are discussed. In both human and animal studies, sex differences in the subjective and behavioral effects of cocaine are often related to the female reproductive cycle and ovarian hormones. As a comparison, food reinforcement studies have shown the opposite profile of sex differences and the impact of sex steroids on food intake and response rate. In contrast, limited attention has been given to “choice” models in rodents of either sex, however, our recent studies have indicated a role of sex and estrogen in cocaine choice over food with intact females, and OVX females treated with estrogen, choosing cocaine significantly more than males. Interestingly, estrous cycle phase does not seem to impact cocaine choice as it does response rate in single-reinforcer studies, suggesting that genomic rather than neurosteroid effects of estrogen modulate sex differences in this model. Future studies should more fully explore the impact of sex hormones on concurrent reinforcement and discrete choice models of addiction. PMID:22545233

  17. How do sex hormones modify arrhythmogenesis in long-QT syndrome? – Sex hormone effects on arrhythmogenic substrate and triggered activity

    PubMed Central

    Odening, Katja E.; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in cardiac repolarization and the arrhythmogenic risk of patients with inherited and acquired long-QT syndromes are well appreciated clinically. Enhancing our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these differences is critical to improve our therapeutic strategies for preventing sudden cardiac death in such patients. This review summarizes the effects of sex hormones on the expression and function of ion channels that control cardiac cell excitation and repolarization as well as key proteins that regulate Ca2+ dynamics at the cellular level. Moreover, it examines the role of sex hormones in modifying the dynamic spatiotemporal (regional and transmural) heterogeneities in action potential duration (e.g., the arrhythmogenic substrate) and the susceptibility to (sympathetic) triggered activity at the tissue, organ, and whole-animal levels. Finally, it explores the implications of these effects on the management of LQTS patients. PMID:24954242

  18. Neonatal sex hormones have 'organizational' effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of male rats.

    PubMed

    McCormick, C M; Furey, B F; Child, M; Sawyer, M J; Donohue, S M

    1998-02-10

    Sex hormones have activational effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adulthood: For example, corticosterone release is influenced by gonadal status. These experiments investigated whether sex hormones have organizational effects on the HPA axis of male rats: Do sex hormones have relatively permanent effects on its development? In adults, both neonatal (neoGDX) and adult gonadectomy (adult GDX) resulted in elevated corticosterone (CORT) levels in response to stress compared to intact rats. Five days of testosterone propionate (TP) replacement was not as effective at attenuating CORT levels in neoGDX rats as in adult GDX rats. Neonatal GDX elevated corticosterone binding globulin (CBG) levels, whereas adult GDX was without effect. In Experiment 2 the effects of neonatal gonadectomy and neonatal treatment with either TP, estradiol benzoate (EB), or oil vehicle was examined. Despite 14 days of hormone replacement, neoGDX showed elevated CORT levels in response to stress compared to all other groups. A single neonatal dose of TP or EB in neoGDX rats eliminated the increased responsiveness. Neonatal TP and EB were without effect in sham-operated rats. Plasma CBG levels were elevated in neoGDX groups regardless of neonatal hormone treatment. Corticosteroid receptor binding levels were examined in various brain areas and the pituitary in two groups most different in their androgen experience: NeoGDX and shams that did not receive treatments as adults. NeoGDX had lower levels of glucocorticoid receptor, and higher levels of mineralocorticoid receptor binding in the pituitary. No other receptor differences were found. These experiments suggest that neonatal sex hormones influence the sensitivity of the HPA axis to sex hormones in adulthood and, thus, that they have organizational effects in addition to activational effects on HPA function.

  19. Comparison of sex hormonal and metabolic profiles between omnivores and vegetarians in pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Karelis, Antony D; Fex, Annie; Filion, Marie-Eve; Adlercreutz, Herman; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the sex hormonal and metabolic profiles in vegetarians and compare these with the profiles in omnivores. The design of the present study was cross-sectional. The study sample of pre- and post-menopausal women included forty-one omnivores and twenty-one vegetarians. Thereafter we determined: (1) plasma sex hormones, (2) fasting insulin, NEFA as well as apo-A and apo-B, (3) BMI, (4) a dietary profile (3 d dietary records), (5) physical activity and (6) total faecal excretion per 72 h and total urinary excretion per 72 h. Vegetarians showed higher levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), apo-A, total faecal excretion per 72 h and total fibre intake as well as lower levels of apo-B, free oestradiol, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) and BMI. Interestingly, after controlling for BMI, significant differences between groups still persisted except for apo-B. Moreover, stepwise regression analysis showed that total fibre intake explained 15.2 % of the variation in SHBG in our cohort, which accounted for the greatest source of unique variance. Results of the present study indicate that pre- and post-menopausal vegetarians present higher concentrations of SHBG, which could be explained, in part, by higher levels of fibre intake. This may explain, at least in part, the lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

  20. When hormone defects cannot explain it: malformative disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Grinspon, Romina P; Rey, Rodolfo A

    2014-12-01

    The birth of a baby with malformations of the genitalia urges medical action. Even in cases where the condition is not life-threatening, the identification of the external genitalia as male or female is emotionally essential for the family, and genital malformations represent one of the most stressful situations around a newborn. The female or male configuration of the genitalia normally evolves during fetal life according to the genetic, gonadal, and hormonal sex. Disorders of sex development occur when male hormone (androgens and anti-Müllerian hormone) secretion or action is insufficient in the 46,XY fetus or when there is an androgen excess in the 46,XX fetus. However, sex hormone defects during fetal development cannot explain all congenital malformations of the reproductive tract. This review is focused on those congenital conditions in which gonadal function and sex hormone target organ sensitivity are normal and, therefore, not responsible for the genital malformation. Furthermore, because the reproductive and urinary systems share many common pathways in embryo-fetal development, conditions associating urogenital malformations are discussed.

  1. Effects of male sex hormones on gender identity, sexual behavior, and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan-shan; Cai, Li-qun

    2006-04-01

    Androgens, the male sex hormones, play an essential role in male sexual differentiation and development. However, the influence of these sex hormones extends beyond their roles in sexual differentiation and development. In many animal species, sex hormones have been shown to be essential for sexual differentiation of the brain during development and for maintaining sexually dimorphic behavior throughout life. The principals of sex determination in humans have been demonstrated to be similar to other mammals. However, the hormonal influence on sexual dimorphic differences in the nervous system in humans, sex differences in behaviors, and its correlations with those of other mammals is still an emerging field. In this review, the roles of androgens in gender and cognitive function are discussed with the emphasis on subjects with androgen action defects including complete androgen insensitivity due to androgen receptor mutations and 5alpha-reductase-2 deficiency syndromes due to 5alpha-reductase-2 gene mutations. The issue of the complex interaction of nature versus nurture is addressed. PMID:16706106

  2. Should cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects vary with ethnic group?

    PubMed Central

    Gooren, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people have been developed, but no attention has been paid to the specifics of ethnic groups. South East (SE) Asian male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual people may be able to transition to the female sex with lower doses of estrogens/progestins than Caucasians thus reducing health risks. Female-to-male (FtoM) may virilize less profoundly with standard doses of androgens, but this is probably sufficient to pass acceptably as men in view of the less pronounced sex differences in physique in Asians compared with Caucasians. It is timely that studies in Asians are conducted to get a better insight into their specific needs and risks of cross-sex hormone treatment. PMID:25038187

  3. Gestational urinary bisphenol A and maternal and newborn thyroid hormone concentrations: The HOME Study

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Megan E.; Webster, Glenys M.; Vuong, Ann M.; Thomas Zoeller, R.; Chen, Aimin; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Braun, Joseph M.

    2015-04-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor used in consumer products, may perturb thyroid function. Prenatal BPA exposure may have sex-specific effects on thyroid hormones (THs). Our objectives were to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy were associated with THs in maternal or cord serum, and whether these associations differed by newborn sex or maternal iodine status. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at 16 and 26 weeks gestation among pregnant women in the HOME Study (2003–2006, Cincinnati, Ohio). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free and total thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) were measured in maternal serum at 16 weeks (n=181) and cord serum at delivery (n=249). Associations between BPA concentrations and maternal or cord serum TH levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Mean maternal urinary BPA was not associated with cord THs in all newborns, but a 10-fold increase in mean BPA was associated with lower cord TSH in girls (percent change=−36.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −58.4, −1.7%), but not boys (7.8%; 95% CI: −28.5, 62.7%; p-for-effect modification=0.09). We observed no significant associations between 16-week BPA and THs in maternal or cord serum, but 26-week maternal BPA was inversely associated with TSH in girls (−42.9%; 95% CI: −59.9, −18.5%), but not boys (7.6%; 95% CI: −17.3, 40.2%; p-for-effect modification=0.005) at birth. The inverse BPA–TSH relation among girls was stronger, but less precise, among iodine deficient versus sufficient mothers. Prenatal BPA exposure may reduce TSH among newborn girls, particularly when exposure occurs later in gestation. - Highlights: • Examined associations of BPA with thyroid hormones in pregnant women and newborns. • Assessed effect modification of BPA–thyroid hormone associations by newborn sex. • Greater BPA related to decreased thyroid stimulating hormone in girls' cord serum. • Results may

  4. Mercury concentrations of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Francis, James T.; Braunscheidel, Jeffrey J.; Bohr, Joseph R.; Geiger, Matthew J.; Knottnerus, G. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Patterns in relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes across many species of fish may reveal clues for important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes, and may also be useful in developing fish consumption advisories and efficient designs for programs meant to monitor contaminant levels in fish. We determined skin-off fillet and whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 28 adult female and 26 adult male bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) from Squaw Lake, Oakland County, Michigan (MI), USA. Bioenergetics modeling was used to quantify the effect of growth dilution on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. On average, skin-off fillet and whole-fish Hg concentrations were 25.4% higher and 26.6% higher, respectively, in females compared with males. Thus, the relative difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes for skin-off fillets was nearly identical to that for whole fish. However, mean skin-off fillet Hg concentration (363 ng/g) was 2.3 times greater than mean whole-fish Hg concentration (155 ng/g). Males grew substantially faster than females, and bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for females having 14.4% higher Hg concentrations than males. Our findings should be useful in revising fish consumption advisories.

  5. Steroid hormones, receptors, and perceptual and cognitive sex differences in the visual system.

    PubMed

    Handa, Robert J; McGivern, Robert F

    2015-02-01

    The actions of gonadal steroid hormones induce morphological sex differences in many tissues in the body, including brain. These occur either during development to organize tissues in a sex-specific pattern and/or in adulthood to activate specific cellular pathways. Cellular and morphological changes in the brain, induced by androgens and estrogens, underlie behavioral sex differences in both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviors, including visual perception. A growing body of evidence indicates that some sex differences related to visual perception arise as the result of the organizational actions of gonadal steroid hormones on cerebral cortical pathways involved in visual processing of objects and movement. This review addresses the influence of gonadal steroids on structural, biochemical and morphological changes in tissues in the brain and body. These effects are extended to consider how gonadal hormone effects may contribute to cognitive sex differences across species that are related to processing within the dorsal and ventral visual streams for motion and objects, respectively. Lastly, this review considers the question of how cognitive sex differences related to processing of movement and objects in humans may be reflective of two types of cognitive style that are only superficially related to gender.

  6. Sex hormones and biogenic amine turnover of sex offenders in relation to their temperament and character dimensions.

    PubMed

    Giotakos, Orestis; Markianos, Manolis; Vaidakis, Nikos; Christodoulou, George N

    2004-07-15

    Relationships between Cloninger's temperament and character dimensions and plasma sex hormone levels and biogenic amine turnover were studied in male prison inmates convicted of rape (n=61) or child molestation (n=24) and normal male controls (n=25). The participants completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which includes the temperament dimensions Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Persistence as well as the character dimensions Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness and Self-Transcendence. Plasma levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone were estimated in plasma samples and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in urine samples. Both sex offender groups had higher Novelty, Seeking and lower Reward Dependence, Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness scores compared with the controls. Plasma levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were significantly higher in rapists than in controls. Novelty Seeking scores were positively correlated with LH levels in rapists, and with testosterone levels in child molesters. Harm Avoidance scores were negatively correlated with 5-HIAA levels in rapists and with HVA levels in child molesters. In rapists, the calculated free androgen index showed a negative correlation with 5-HIAA. For the sex offender sample as a whole, the subgroup with high testosterone levels had higher Harm Avoidance scores, the subgroup with low HVA levels had lower Cooperativeness scores, and the subgroups with high 5HIAA or MHPG levels had lower Persistence scores. The results indicate that Novelty Seeking behavior in the group of rapists is associated with a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In addition, low serotonin turnover and low dopamine turnover seem to be associated with a passive-avoidant behavioral style in rapists and child molesters

  7. Sex specificity of hormone synthesis in Mucor mucedo.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, M

    1975-01-01

    Sex specificity is observed in mating types of the fungus Oucor mucedo with respect to the production of 4-hydroxy methltrisporates (plus mating type) and trisporins (minus mating type), and in the conversion of these metabolites to trisporic acids by the mating partner. These compounds induce zygophores on the opposite mating type only.

  8. Effects of sex hormones on the metabolism of tryptophan to niacin and to serotonin in male rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, K; Toda, S

    1997-07-01

    It is known that deaths attributable to pellagra, which is considered to be a disease caused by the disturbance of tryptophan metabolism, have been approximately two-fold higher in women than in men. We investigated the effects of the administration of female and male sex hormones on the contents of tryptophan and such metabolites as serotonin, nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide, N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, and N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, and on the conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin in male rats. Feeding a diet containing estrone or testosterone had no effect on the concentrations of tryptophan and serotonin in the blood and brain, or on the concentration of 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid in the brain. On the contrary, feeding a diet containing estrone caused to a decrease in the urinary excretion of nicotinamide, N1-methylnicotinamide, N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, and N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, and of the conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin when compared with the control rats. Feeding a diet containing testosterone had no effect on any parameter. We postulate from these findings that the cause of higher pellagra deaths in women than in men is attributable to the decrease in the formation of niacin from tryptophan, but not in the formation of serotonin by the female hormone. It seems likely that female sex hormones inhibit the synthesis of niacin from tryptophan, and that women, especially during pregnancy, will be more at risk to pellagra than are men.

  9. Sex steroids, growth hormone, leptin and the pubertal growth spurt.

    PubMed

    Rogol, Alan D

    2010-01-01

    A normal rate for the linear growth of a child or adolescent is a strong statement for the good general health of that child. Normal growth during childhood is primarily dependent on adequate nutrition, an adequate psychosocial environment, the absence of disease and adequate amounts thyroid hormone and growth hormone (and its downstream product, IGF-1). At adolescence there is the reawakening of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its interaction with the GH/IGF-1 axis to subserve the pubertal growth spurt. The fat tissue-derived hormone, leptin and its receptor are likely involved in at least two aspects of pubertal development - sexual development itself and the alterations in body composition including the regional distribution of fat and bone mineralization. During the prepubertal years the male female differences in body composition are quite modest, but change remarkably during pubertal development with boys showing a relative decrement in fat percentage and girls a marked increase in concert with rising levels of circulating leptin. The boys show a much greater increase in lean body tissue and the relative proportions of water, muscle and bone. These may be observed as the differential growth of the shoulders and hips. The net effect of these pubertal changes is that the young adult woman has approximately 25% body fat in the 'gynoid' distribution while the male has much more muscle, especially in the shoulders and upper body but only approximately 13% body fat.

  10. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the

  11. Stroke sensitivity in the aged: sex chromosome complement vs. gonadal hormones

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Louise D.; Mirza, Mehwish A.; Xu, Yan; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Steffens, Eleanor B.; Ritzel, Rodney; Liu, Fudong

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease. Elderly women not only have higher stroke incidence than age-matched men, but also have poorer recovery and higher morbidity and mortality after stroke. In older, post-menopausal women, gonadal hormone levels are similar to that of men. This suggests that tissue damage and functional outcomes are influenced by biologic sex (XX vs. XY) rather than the hormonal milieu at older ages. We employed the Four Core Genotype (FCG) mouse model to study the contribution of sex chromosome complement and gonadal hormones to stroke sensitivity in aged mice in which the testis determining gene (Sry) is removed from the Y chromosome, allowing for the generation of XX males and XY females. XXF, XXM, XYF, XYM and XYwt aged mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). XXF and XXM mice had significantly larger infarct volumes than XYF and XYM cohorts respectively. There was no significant difference in hormone levels among aged FCG mice. XXF/XXM mice also had more robust microglial activation and higher serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than XYF/XYM cohort respectively. We concluded that the sex chromosome complement contributes to ischemic sensitivity in aged animals and leads to sex differences in innate immune responses. PMID:27405096

  12. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males.

    PubMed

    Kresovich, Jacob K; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999-2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males.

  13. Stroke sensitivity in the aged: sex chromosome complement vs. gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Louise D; Mirza, Mehwish A; Xu, Yan; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Steffens, Eleanor B; Ritzel, Rodney; Liu, Fudong

    2016-07-01

    Stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease. Elderly women not only have higher stroke incidence than age-matched men, but also have poorer recovery and higher morbidity and mortality after stroke. In older, post-menopausal women, gonadal hormone levels are similar to that of men. This suggests that tissue damage and functional outcomes are influenced by biologic sex (XX vs. XY) rather than the hormonal milieu at older ages. We employed the Four Core Genotype (FCG) mouse model to study the contribution of sex chromosome complement and gonadal hormones to stroke sensitivity in aged mice in which the testis determining gene (Sry) is removed from the Y chromosome, allowing for the generation of XX males and XY females. XXF, XXM, XYF, XYM and XYwt aged mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). XXF and XXM mice had significantly larger infarct volumes than XYF and XYM cohorts respectively. There was no significant difference in hormone levels among aged FCG mice. XXF/XXM mice also had more robust microglial activation and higher serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than XYF/XYM cohort respectively. We concluded that the sex chromosome complement contributes to ischemic sensitivity in aged animals and leads to sex differences in innate immune responses. PMID:27405096

  14. Sex Hormones' Regulation of Rodent Physical Activity: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2008-01-01

    There is a large body of emerging literature suggesting that physical activity is regulated to a varying extent by biological factors. Available animal data strongly suggests that there is a differential regulation of physical activity by sex and that the majority of this differential regulation is mediated by estrogen/testosterone pathways with females in many animal species having higher daily activity levels than males. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the mechanisms by which estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone affect the regulation of physical daily activity. This review lays the foundation for future investigations in humans as well as discussions about relative disease risk mediated by differential biological regulation of physical activity by sex. PMID:18449357

  15. Sex, Stress, and Mood Disorders: At the Intersection of Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Guasti, A.; Fiedler, J. L.; Herrera, L.; Handa, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The risk for neuropsychiatric illnesses has a strong sex bias, and for major depressive disorder (MDD), females show a more than 2-fold greater risk compared to males. Such mood disorders are commonly associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, sex differences in the incidence of MDD may be related with the levels of gonadal steroid hormone in adulthood or during early development as well as with the sex differences in HPA axis function. In rodents, organizational and activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones have been described for the regulation of HPA axis function and, if consistent with humans, this may underlie the increased risk of mood disorders in women. Other developmental factors, such as prenatal stress and prenatal overexposure to glucocorticoids can also impact behaviors and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adulthood and these effects are also reported to occur with sex differences. Similarly, in humans, the clinical benefits of antidepressants are associated with the normalization of the dysregulated HPA axis, and genetic polymorphisms have been found in some genes involved in controlling the stress response. This review examines some potential factors contributing to the sex difference in the risk of affective disorders with a focus on adrenal and gonadal hormones as potential modulators. Genetic and environmental factors that contribute to individual risk for affective disorders are also described. Ultimately, future treatment strategies for depression should consider all of these biological elements in their design. PMID:22581646

  16. The influence of sex hormones on seizures in dogs and humans.

    PubMed

    Van Meervenne, Sofie A E; Volk, Holger A; Matiasek, Kaspar; Van Ham, Luc M L

    2014-07-01

    Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disorder in both humans and dogs. The effect of sex hormones on seizures is well documented in human medicine. Catamenial epilepsy is defined as an increase in frequency and severity of seizures during certain periods of the menstrual cycle. Oestradiol increases seizure activity and progesterone is believed to exhibit a protective effect. The role of androgens is controversial and there is a lack of research focusing on androgens and epilepsy. Indeed, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on epilepsy in dogs. Sterilisation is believed to improve seizure control, but no systematic research has been conducted in this field. This review provides an overview of the current literature on the influence of sex hormones on seizures in humans. The literature on idiopathic epilepsy in dogs was assessed to identify potential risk factors related to sex and sterilisation status. In general, there appears to be an over-representation of male dogs with idiopathic epilepsy but no explanation for this difference in prevalence between sexes has been reported. In addition, no reliable conclusions can be drawn on the effect of sterilisation due to the lack of focused research and robust scientific evidence.

  17. Effect of gender and sex hormones on immune responses following shock.

    PubMed

    Angele, M K; Schwacha, M G; Ayala, A; Chaudry, I H

    2000-08-01

    Several clinical and experimental studies show a gender dimorphism of the immune and organ responsiveness in the susceptibility to and morbidity from shock, trauma, and sepsis. In this respect, cell-mediated immune responses are depressed in males after trauma-hemorrhage, whereas they are unchanged or enhanced in females. Sex hormones contribute to this gender-specific immune response after adverse circulatory conditions. Specifically, studies indicate that androgens are responsible for the immunodepression after trauma-hemorrhage in males. In contrast, female sex steroids seem to exhibit immunoprotective properties after trauma and severe blood loss, because administration of estrogen prevents the androgen-induced immunodepression in castrated male mice. Nonetheless, the precise underlying mechanisms for these immunomodulatory effects of sex steroids after shock remain unknown. Although testosterone depletion, testosterone receptor antagonism, or estrogen treatment has been shown to prevent the depression of immune functions after trauma-hemorrhage, it remains to be established whether differences in the testosterone-estradiol ratio are responsible for the immune dysfunction. Furthermore, sex hormone receptors have been identified on various immune cells, suggesting direct effects. Thus, the immunomodulatory properties of sex hormones after trauma-hemorrhage might represent novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of immunodepression in trauma patients.

  18. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Sex Hormone Levels among Postmenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Mather, Kieren J.; Laughlin, Gail A.; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Randolph, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Sex hormones may differ by race/ethnicity in postmenopausal women. Whether racial/ethnic differences also exist among those who are overweight and glucose intolerant is not clear. Objectives: The objective of the study was to compare sex hormones by race/ethnicity [non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, African-American (AA)] in overweight, glucose-intolerant, postmenopausal women. Design: This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Participants: Participants included postmenopausal glucose-intolerant women participating in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Interventions: Interventions included intensive lifestyle modification (consisting of diet and physical activity) or metformin 850 mg twice a day vs. placebo. Main Outcome Measures: Baseline levels and 1-yr intervention-related changes in SHBG, total and bioavailable estradiol (E2), total and bioavailable testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured. Results: At baseline, among women not using estrogen (n = 370), NHW had higher total and bioavailable E2 and testosterone levels than Hispanics independent of age, type of menopause, waist circumference, alcohol intake, and current smoking. NHW also had higher levels of bioavailable E2 and lower levels of SHBG than AA. At baseline, among estrogen users (n = 310), NHW had higher total and bioavailable E2 than Hispanics and higher levels of SHBG than AA after adjustment. At 1 yr, among women not using estrogen, NHW had larger declines in total E2 and bioavailable E2 levels than AA after adjustment for the above covariates, changes in waist circumference, and randomization arm. At 1 yr, among estrogen users, sex hormone changes did not differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: Among postmenopausal women, there were significant race/ethnicity differences in baseline sex hormones and changes in sex hormones. PMID:22879633

  19. Sex differences in anxiety disorders: Interactions between fear, stress, and gonadal hormones.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account.

  20. Reporter sex and newspaper coverage of the adverse health effects of hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David E; Signorielli, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Women have used hormone therapy (HT) to relieve menopausal symptoms for decades. Major studies published in JAMA in July 2002 demonstrated adverse health effects from hormone therapy, and the National Institutes of Health halted the Women's Health Initiative clinical trial several years early. We conducted a content analysis of 10 U.S. newspapers in July and August 2002 to examine the role of reporter sex on news coverage on HT. We found substantial sex differences in reporting about HT. Female reporters were much more likely than male reporters to include a self-help frame (66.7% vs. 30.8%, p = 0.002). Female reporters were also much more likely to use women in the public as sources in HT-related articles (33.9% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.039). Reporter sex may play a role in the selection and content of health news articles. PMID:17613459

  1. Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, calculated free testosterone, and oestradiol in male vegans and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Key, T J; Roe, L; Thorogood, M; Moore, J W; Clark, G M; Wang, D Y

    1990-07-01

    Total testosterone (T), total oestradiol (E2) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations were measured in plasma samples from fifty-one male vegans and fifty-seven omnivores of similar age. Free T concentration was estimated by calculation. In comparison with the omnivores, the vegans had 7% higher total T (P = 0.250), 23% higher SHBG (P = 0.001), 3% lower free T (P = 0.580), and 11% higher E2 (P = 0.194). In a subset of eighteen vegans and twenty-two omnivores for whom 4 d diet records were available, there were statistically significant correlations between T and polyunsaturated fatty acids (r 0.37), SHBG and fat (r 0.43 for total fat, 0.46 for saturated fatty acids and 0.33 for polyunsaturated fatty acids), and SHBG and alcohol (r-0.39). It is concluded that a vegan diet causes a substantial increase in SHBG but has little effect on total or free T or on E2.

  2. Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Stapanian, Martin A.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In eight species of fish, we observed that males exceeded females in whole-fish PCB concentration by 17 to 43%. Based on results from hypothesis testing, we concluded that these sex differences were most likely primarily driven by a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from higher resting metabolic rate (or standard metabolic rate (SMR)) and higher swimming activity, in males compared with females. A higher rate of energy expenditure led to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, resulted in a higher rate of PCB accumulation. For two fish species, the growth dilution effect also made a substantial contribution to the sex difference in PCB concentrations, although the higher energy expenditure rate for males was still the primary driver. Hg concentration data were available for five of the eight species. For four of these five species, the ratio of PCB concentration in males to PCB concentration in females was substantially greater than the ratio of Hg concentration in males to Hg concentration in females. In sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a very primitive fish, the two ratios were nearly identical. The most plausible explanation for this pattern was that certain androgens, such as testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, enhanced Hg-elimination rate in males. In contrast, long-term elimination of PCBs is negligible for both sexes. According to this explanation, males ingest Hg at a higher rate than females, but also eliminate Hg at a higher rate than females, in fish species other than sea lamprey. Male sea lamprey do not possess either of the above-specified androgens. These apparent sex differences in SMRs, activities, and Hg-elimination rates in teleost fishes may also apply, to some degree, to higher

  3. Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Rediske, Richard R; Krabbenhoft, David P; Stapanian, Martin A; Chernyak, Sergei M; O'Keefe, James P

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In eight species of fish, we observed that males exceeded females in whole-fish PCB concentration by 17 to 43 %. Based on results from hypothesis testing, we concluded that these sex differences were most likely primarily driven by a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from higher resting metabolic rate (or standard metabolic rate (SMR)) and higher swimming activity, in males compared with females. A higher rate of energy expenditure led to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, resulted in a higher rate of PCB accumulation. For two fish species, the growth dilution effect also made a substantial contribution to the sex difference in PCB concentrations, although the higher energy expenditure rate for males was still the primary driver. Hg concentration data were available for five of the eight species. For four of these five species, the ratio of PCB concentration in males to PCB concentration in females was substantially greater than the ratio of Hg concentration in males to Hg concentration in females. In sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a very primitive fish, the two ratios were nearly identical. The most plausible explanation for this pattern was that certain androgens, such as testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, enhanced Hg-elimination rate in males. In contrast, long-term elimination of PCBs is negligible for both sexes. According to this explanation, males not only ingest Hg at a higher rate than females but also eliminate Hg at a higher rate than females, in fish species other than sea lamprey. Male sea lamprey do not possess either of the above-specified androgens. These apparent sex differences in SMRs, activities, and Hg-elimination rates in teleost fishes may also apply, to some degree, to

  4. Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Rediske, Richard R; Krabbenhoft, David P; Stapanian, Martin A; Chernyak, Sergei M; O'Keefe, James P

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In eight species of fish, we observed that males exceeded females in whole-fish PCB concentration by 17 to 43 %. Based on results from hypothesis testing, we concluded that these sex differences were most likely primarily driven by a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from higher resting metabolic rate (or standard metabolic rate (SMR)) and higher swimming activity, in males compared with females. A higher rate of energy expenditure led to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, resulted in a higher rate of PCB accumulation. For two fish species, the growth dilution effect also made a substantial contribution to the sex difference in PCB concentrations, although the higher energy expenditure rate for males was still the primary driver. Hg concentration data were available for five of the eight species. For four of these five species, the ratio of PCB concentration in males to PCB concentration in females was substantially greater than the ratio of Hg concentration in males to Hg concentration in females. In sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a very primitive fish, the two ratios were nearly identical. The most plausible explanation for this pattern was that certain androgens, such as testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, enhanced Hg-elimination rate in males. In contrast, long-term elimination of PCBs is negligible for both sexes. According to this explanation, males not only ingest Hg at a higher rate than females but also eliminate Hg at a higher rate than females, in fish species other than sea lamprey. Male sea lamprey do not possess either of the above-specified androgens. These apparent sex differences in SMRs, activities, and Hg-elimination rates in teleost fishes may also apply, to some degree, to

  5. The influence of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones in adolescents with attention to oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Lane, J R; Connor, J D

    1994-12-01

    The endogenous sex hormones produce dispositional changes in the developing child as well as imparting unique male and female dispositional patterns. Age-related changes have been observed for digoxin disposition and caffeine and theophylline metabolism. These age-related dispositional changes have led to age-dependent dosing recommendations. Studies with caffeine and antipyrine indicate that this change in drug disposition occurs over a short period of time, is seen earlier in girls than in boys, and is related to pubertal (Tanner) stage and the "growth spurt". Significant changes in endogenous sex hormone concentrations occur during the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy, leading to alterations in drug binding, distribution, and clearance. Oral contraceptives (OCs) inhibit the metabolism of certain drugs resulting in toxicity or lack of efficacy. Rifampin induces the OC metabolism, resulting in decreased clinical effectiveness. Most studies did not examine these kinetic and dynamic interactions between adult and adolescent users. It is estimated that there are over 45 anabolic steroid compounds available for abuse by athletes, and their use is increasing among male and female adolescents. Although the adolescent is at increased risk of developing adverse effects from these agents, a systematic evaluation of the long-term effects of anabolic steroid abuse has not been undertaken in this population. Further research is needed regarding the influence of endogenous and exogenous hormones on adolescent drug kinetics and dynamics. Because of their frequency of use among adolescents, OCs and anabolic steroids require particular emphasis.

  6. Sex differences and hormonal effects on gut microbiota composition in mice

    PubMed Central

    Org, Elin; Mehrabian, Margarete; Parks, Brian W.; Shipkova, Petia; Liu, Xiaoqin; Drake, Thomas A.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously reported quantitation of gut microbiota in a panel of 89 different inbred strains of mice, and we now examine the question of sex differences in microbiota composition. When the total population of 689 mice was examined together, several taxa exhibited significant differences in abundance between sexes but a larger number of differences were observed at the single strain level, suggesting that sex differences can be obscured by host genetics and environmental factors. We also examined a subset of mice on chow and high fat diets and observed sex-by-diet interactions. We further investigated the sex differences using gonadectomized and hormone treated mice from 3 different inbred strains. Principal coordinate analysis with unweighted UniFrac distances revealed very clear effects of gonadectomy and hormone replacement on microbiota composition in all 3 strains. Moreover, bile acid analyses showed gender-specific differences as well as effects of gonodectomy, providing one possible mechanism mediating sex differences in microbiota composition. PMID:27355107

  7. Alteration of serum sex hormonal profile in male gasoline filling station workers in respect to their polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1.

    PubMed

    Saadat, Mostafa; Bahaoddini, Samaneh; Saadat, Iraj

    2013-03-01

    Alterations in offspring sex ratio at birth and level of serum testosterone in filling-station workers have been reported. To determine the association of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) polymorphism with serum levels of total testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) of male filling-station workers, the present study was carried out on 114 gasoline workers and 100 age- and sex-matched controls with no occupational exposure to gasoline. We have found no significant difference between the workers and controls for levels of sex hormones in the presence of active GSTM1 genotype. Among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype, there was significant difference between exposed and unexposed subjects for the concentration of testosterone (t=4.37, df=97, P<0.001). To investigate whether one null genotype could be compensated by an active genotype for the other isoenzyme, the mean concentrations of sex hormones was compared between the exposed and control groups with respect to their combinations of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes. The exposed group having either "null GSTM1/positive GSTT1" (t=2.76, df=72, P=0.007) or "null GSTM1/null GSTT1" (t=4.91, df=23, P<0.001) combinations had a lower testosterone compared with the controls. It seems that GSTM1 polymorphism has more effect on serum testosterone compared to the GSTT1 polymorphism, in exposed workers.

  8. Effects of Cross-Sex Hormone Treatment on Transgender Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Bhakri, Vipra; Kubicek, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe weight, body mass index, blood pressure, lipids, and hormone levels in transgender women and men presenting for initiation of cross-sex hormone therapy at a community clinic in the United States. Methods Twenty three transgender women (persons assigned male at birth who identify as women and want to use estrogen to develop female secondary sex characteristics) and 34 transgender men (persons assigned female at birth who identify as women and want to use testosterone to develop male secondary sex characteristics) presenting for initiation of hormone therapy at a community health center were enrolled. Body mass index, blood pressure, lipids, and sex hormone levels were measured at baseline and 6 months. Persistence of menses at 6 months in transgender men was recorded. Results Sixteen transgender women and 31 transgender men completed the study. Baseline and 6 month median blood pressures and lipid values were within a normal clinical range. Median systolic blood pressure in transgender women dropped from baseline 130.5 mmHg (IQR 11.5) to 120.5 mmHg (IQR 15.5) at 6 months (p=.006). Testosterone levels remained elevated in 33% and estradiol levels were supratherapeutic in 19% of transgender women at 6 months. Median body mass index for transgender men was 29.1 kg/m2 (IQR 11.2) at baseline and (30.0 kg/m2 (IQR 11.4) at 6 months (p=.024). Six month total testosterone levels were subtherapeutic in 32% and estradiol levels remained elevated in 71% of transgender men. Conclusions In transgender women, estrogen therapy, with or without anti-androgen therapy, was associated with lower blood pressure. In transgender men, testosterone therapy was associated with increased body mass index. The study had insufficient power to detect other associations. Monitoring of hormone levels to guide therapy appears to be useful. PMID:25730222

  9. Sex differences and ovarian hormones in animal models of drug dependence.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Anker, Justin J

    2010-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the presence of sex differences in many aspects of drug abuse. Most studies reveal that females exceed males during the initiation, escalation, extinction, and reinstatement (relapse) of drug-seeking behavior, but males are more sensitive than females to the aversive effects of drugs such as drug withdrawal. Findings from human and animal research indicate that circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones account for these sex differences. Estrogen (E) facilitates drug-seeking behavior, while progesterone (P) and its metabolite, allopregnanalone (ALLO), counteract the effects of E and reduce drug seeking. Estrogen and P influence other behaviors that are affiliated with drug abuse such as drug-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference. The enhanced vulnerability to drug seeking in females vs. males is also additive with the other risk factors for drug abuse (e.g., adolescence, sweet preference, novelty reactivity, and impulsivity). Finally, treatment studies using behavioral or pharmacological interventions, including P and ALLO, also indicate that females show greater treatment effectiveness during several phases of the addiction process. The neurobiological basis of sex differences in drug abuse appears to be genetic and involves the influence of ovarian hormones and their metabolites, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, dopamine (DA), and gamma-hydroxy-butyric acid (GABA). Overall, sex and hormonal status along with other biological risk factors account for a continuum of addiction-prone and -resistant animal models that are valuable for studying drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies.

  10. Hostility-aggressiveness, sensation seeking, and sex hormones in men: re-exploring their relationship.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Anton; Torrubia, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between sex hormones and aggressiveness, hostility and sensation seeking we studied 30 healthy males. Using a standardised technique of radioimmunoassay, we obtained blood values of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and the free androgen index (FAI). Personality was evaluated by the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and the Sensation-Seeking Scale, form V. The results showed a lack of significant correlations between the measures of aggressiveness-hostility and hormones. Nevertheless, Spearman and Pearson correlations between Sensation Seeking and testosterone were positive and significant after controlling for age. Considerably higher correlations were obtained after controlling for LH and SHBG. A group of subjects with high scores in a factor made up of Experience Seeking, Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility obtained significantly higher scores on TT and FAI. Subjects with high scores in a factor made up of Assault, Indirect Aggression and Verbal Aggression obtained significantly higher scores in SHBG and TT. These findings support Zuckerman's personality model for the sensation-seeking trait.

  11. Research into Specific Modulators of Vascular Sex Hormone Receptors in the Management of Postmenopausal Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Graciliano R. A.; Barros, Yaskara V. R.; Wells, Amanda K.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in men and postmenopausal women than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of female sex hormones. Studies on the vasculature have identified estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and a novel estrogen binding membrane protein GPR30, that mediate genomic and/or non-genomic effects. Estrogen promotes endothelium-dependent relaxation by inducing the production/activity of nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and hyperpolarizing factor, and inhibits the mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle contraction including [Ca2+]i, protein kinase C, Rho kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Additional effects of estrogen on the cytoskeleton, matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory factors contribute to vascular remodeling. However, the experimental evidence did not translate into vascular benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), and the HERS, HERS-II and WHI clinical trials demonstrated adverse cardiovascular events. The discrepancy has been partly related to delayed MHT and potential changes in the vascular ER amount, integrity, affinity, and downstream signaling pathways due to the subjects' age and preexisting CVD. The adverse vascular effects of MHT also highlighted the need of specific modulators of vascular sex hormone receptors. The effectiveness of MHT can be improved by delineating the differences in phramcokinetics and pharmacodynamics of natural, synthetic, and conjugated equine estrogens. Estriol, “hormone bioidenticals” and phytoestrogens are potential estradiol substitutes. The benefits of low dose MHT, and transdermal or vaginal estrogens over oral preparations are being evaluated. Specific ER modulators (SERMs) and ER agonists are being developed to maximize the effects on vascular ERs. Also, the effects of estrogen are being examined in the context of the whole body hormonal environment and the levels of progesterone and androgens. Thus, the experimental vascular benefits of estrogen can be translated to

  12. The effects of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) on testosterone transport into the cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, C J; Jones, R E; Plymate, S R

    1992-07-01

    The movement of testosterone (T) from blood across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is thought to reflect the combined effects of T's lipid solubility and the presence of circulating binding proteins for T such as albumin or sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Since the adult rat lacks a circulating specific high affinity sex steroid binding protein, examination of the disappearance from serum and uptake into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of [3H]T before and after SHBG or albumin infusion should provide insight into the function of these two proteins with respect T transport. Three groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were cannulated at the femoral vein and cisterna magna. In a control group (n = 8), [3H]T was given as an intravenous bolus beginning at time zero; multiple serum and CSF collections were assayed for counts per min (cpm) during the subsequent 45 min. Data from these animals were then compared to those seen in animals that received either purified human SHBG (hSHBG) (n = 7) or human albumin (hALB) (n = 6) 10 min prior to the [3H]T infusion. High performance liquid chromatography was used to monitor the metabolic fate of the steroid infusate at the end of each study period. Infusion of hSHBG increased serum concentrations from undetectable to 93.8 nM/l (mean +/- SEM, n = 6). Administration of hALB significantly increased (25.0 +/- 1.2 g/l at baseline, 33.4 +/- 1.6 g/l post-infusion, mean +/- SEM, P less than 0.03, n = 5) the circulating albumin concentration. Comparison of data from each group of animals demonstrated that (1) following an i.v. injection of radiolabeled T, the initial decline in serum [3H]T was significantly reduced (P less than 0.03) in the presence of hSHBG, (2) hALB did not affect the movement of [3H]T out of serum, (3) the time to peak appearance of [3H]T in the CSF was significantly delayed (P less than 0.02) by the presence of circulating hSHBG, and (4) the net quantity of [3H]T found in the cSF under steady-state conditions was not

  13. Effect Modification of Obesity on Associations between Endogenous Steroid Sex Hormones and Arterial Calcification in Women at Midlife

    PubMed Central

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wildman, Rachel P.; Matthews, Karen; Powell, Lynda; Hollenberg, Steven M.; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether obesity modify the effects of endogenous steroid sex hormones on arterial calcification in women at midlife. Methods Associations between estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and free androgen index and the presence and extent of coronary and aortic calcification were evaluated in 187 obese (body mass index ≥30) and 281 non-obese (body mass index <30) women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Logistic and linear regressions were used as appropriate. Results Prevalence rates of coronary and aortic calcification were significantly higher among obese compared to non-obese (P <0.001, for both). In multivariable analyses, steroid sex hormones were not associated with presence of coronary calcification. However, for extent of coronary calcification, significant interactions were found between obesity and both sex hormone binding globulin (P<0.0001) and free androgen index (P=0.008). In non-obese women, higher sex hormone binding globulin (P=0.0006) and lower free androgen index (P=0.01) were associated with greater extent of coronary calcification while lower sex hormone binding globulin was associated with greater extent of coronary calcification in obese women (P=0.05). For aortic calcification outcomes, higher sex hormone binding globulin was associated with presence of aortic calcification among non-obese (OR:1.64, 95%CI:1.16, 2.32, for each 1-SD greater sex hormone binding globulin). Conclusions Associations between endogenous steroid sex hormones and arterial calcification vary by obesity status among perimenopausal women. Further research is needed to better understand the possible mechanisms. PMID:21471825

  14. High prevalence rate of pituitary incidentaloma: is it associated with the age-related decline of the sex hormones levels?

    PubMed

    Kastelan, Darko; Korsic, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    Incidental pituitary adenoma is the common finding during brain imaging. According to multistep model of pituitary tumourigenesis genetic alterations provide the initiating event that transforms cells while hormones play a role in promoting cell proliferation. Development of pituitary adenoma in a case of excessive hypophysiotrophic hormones production or reduced feedback suppression by target gland hormones emphasizes the importance of hormonal stimulation in pituitary tumourigenesis. Pituitary hyperplasia has been reported in pregnancy, hypothyroidism and conditions such as CRH or GHRH hypersecretion. Moreover, recent study reported one case of gonadotroph macroadenoma and two cases of gonadotroph cells hyperplasia in patients with Klinefelter syndrome probably due to protracted stimulation of gonadotroph cells because of lack of androgen feedback. Significant changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis occurred with aging. In females, after menopause, estradiol level decreases by 35-fold and estrone level by 20-fold that results in increased gonadotropins levels. Similarly, FSH, but not LH, level is increased with advancing age in men, too, although the age-related difference in the level is less in comparison with women. Regarding these data, we hypothesised that high prevalence rate of pituitary incidentaloma in the elderly is associated with age-related decline in sex hormones levels and subsequent lack of feedback suppression leading to permanent gonadotrophs stimulation which is the crucial step in the pituitary tumour development. According to previously mentioned multistep model of pituitary tumourigenesis, incidentaloma will develop only in persons with already present intrinsic pituitary cell defects. However, further studies have to answer the questions of whether the incidence of pituitary tumours is more frequent in elderly, whether women with late onset menopause or those taking long-term hormone replacement therapy have lower rate of

  15. In silico identification of anthropogenic chemicals as ligands of zebrafish sex hormone binding globulin

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsteinson, Nels; Ban, Fuqiang; Santos-Filho, Osvaldo; Tabaei, Seyed M.H.; Miguel-Queralt, Solange; Underhill, Caroline; Cherkasov, Artem Hammond, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic compounds with the capacity to interact with the steroid-binding site of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) pose health risks to humans and other vertebrates including fish. Building on studies of human SHBG, we have applied in silico drug discovery methods to identify potential binders for SHBG in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model aquatic organism. Computational methods, including; homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, virtual screening, and 3D QSAR analysis, successfully identified 6 non-steroidal substances from the ZINC chemical database that bind to zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) with low-micromolar to nanomolar affinities, as determined by a competitive ligand-binding assay. We also screened 80,000 commercial substances listed by the European Chemicals Bureau and Environment Canada, and 6 non-steroidal hits from this in silico screen were tested experimentally for zfSHBG binding. All 6 of these compounds displaced the [{sup 3}H]5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone used as labeled ligand in the zfSHBG screening assay when tested at a 33 {mu}M concentration, and 3 of them (hexestrol, 4-tert-octylcatechol, and dihydrobenzo(a)pyren-7(8H)-one) bind to zfSHBG in the micromolar range. The study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale in silico screening of anthropogenic compounds that may disrupt or highjack functionally important protein:ligand interactions. Such studies could increase the awareness of hazards posed by existing commercial chemicals at relatively low cost.

  16. Are hormonal contraceptive users more likely to misreport unprotected sex? Evidence from a biomarker validation study in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Sandra I.; Ralph, Lauren J.; Padian, Nancy S.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed biomarker validation data of unprotected sex from women in Zimbabwe to determine whether condom and sexual behavior misreporting differs between users of different contraceptive methods. Self-reported sexual behavior was compared with the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal fluid, a biomarker of semen exposure. Of the 195 women who were PSA positive, 94 (48%) reported no sex or only condom-protected sex. Hormonal contraceptive users misreported sexual behavior less than women using non-hormonal methods (45% vs. 67%, P=0.03). This misclassification pattern could have implications on the elevated risk of HIV infection associated with hormonal contraception in some studies. PMID:24619603

  17. Are hormonal contraceptive users more likely to misreport unprotected sex? Evidence from a biomarker validation study in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Sandra I; Ralph, Lauren J; Padian, Nancy S; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed biomarker validation data of unprotected sex from women in Zimbabwe to determine whether condom and sexual behavior misreporting differs between users of different contraceptive methods. Self-reported sexual behavior was compared with the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal fluid, a biomarker of semen exposure. Of the 195 women who were PSA positive, 94 (48 %) reported no sex or only condom-protected sex. Hormonal contraceptive users misreported sexual behavior less than women using non-hormonal methods (45 vs. 67 %, P = 0.03). This misclassification pattern could have implications on the elevated risk of HIV infection associated with hormonal contraception in some studies. PMID:24619603

  18. Melanin-concentrating hormone: from fish skin to skinny mammals.

    PubMed

    Pissios, Pavlos; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2003-07-01

    In recent years, the key role of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in regulating mammalian energy balance has been confirmed through several lines of evidence. When administered exogenously, MCH leads to a rapid and robust feeding response and chronic infusions result in the development of mild obesity. At the physiological level, it is known that MCH expression changes in states of altered energy balance, such as fasting and obesity. Genetic studies with mice have shown that ablation of either the gene for prepro-MCH or the gene encoding the MCH receptor leads to a lean phenotype. Finally, the administration of MCH antagonists appears to inhibit both feeding and the development of diet-induced obesity. The aim of this article is to review the recent data on MCH and MCH receptors in light of their emerging roles in energy homeostasis.

  19. Assessment of the effects of sex and sex hormones on spatial cognition in adult rats using the Barnes maze

    PubMed Central

    Locklear, MN; Kritzer, MF

    2014-01-01

    Although sex differences and hormone effects on spatial cognition are observed in humans and animals, consensus has not been reached regarding exact impact on spatial working or reference memory. Recent studies in rats suggest that stress and/or reward, which are often different in tasks used to assess spatial cognition, can contribute to the inconsistencies in the literature. To minimize the impact of these sex- and sex hormone-sensitive factors, we used the Barnes maze to compare spatial working memory, spatial reference memory and spatial learning strategy in adult male, female, gonadectomized (GDX) male, and GDX male rats supplemented with 17β-estradiol (E) or testosterone propionate (TP). Rats received four acquisition trials, four trials 24 h later, and a single retention trial one week after. Males and females acquired the task during the first four trials and retained the task thereafter. In contrast, GDX rats took longer to acquire the task and showed retention deficits at 1 week. All deficits were attenuated similarly by TP and E. Assessment of search patterns also showed that strategies in the males transitioned from random to spatially focused and eventually direct approaches to the goal. However, this transition was faster in control and GDX-TP than in GDX and GDX-E rats. In contrast, the females almost invariantly followed the maze edge in thigmotactic, serial searches. Thus, while Barnes maze reveals activational, in part estrogenic effects on spatial cognition in males, its amenability to animals' use of multiple strategies may limit its ability to resolve mnemonic differences across sex. PMID:24937438

  20. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the

  1. Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.P.; Bhojwani, A.

    1986-07-01

    In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones (estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)) can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 Ci Na2V CrO4), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones.

  2. Gestational urinary bisphenol A and maternal and newborn thyroid hormone concentrations: the HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Megan E.; Webster, Glenys M.; Vuong, Ann M.; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Chen, Aimin; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Braun, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor used in consumer products, may perturb thyroid function. Prenatal BPA exposure may have sex-specific effects on thyroid hormones (THs). Our objectives were to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy were associated with THs in maternal or cord serum, and whether these associations differed by newborn sex or maternal iodine status. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at 16 and 26 weeks gestation among pregnant women in the HOME Study (2003–2006, Cincinnati, Ohio). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were measured in maternal serum at 16 weeks (n=181) and cord serum at delivery (n=249). Associations between BPA concentrations and maternal or cord serum TH levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Mean maternal urinary BPA was not associated with cord THs in all newborns, but a 10-fold increase in mean BPA was associated with lower cord TSH in girls (percent change= −36.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −58.4, −1.7%), but not boys (7.8%; 95% CI: −28.5, 62.7%; p-for-effect modification=0.09). We observed no significant associations between 16-week BPA and THs in maternal or cord serum, but 26-week maternal BPA was inversely associated with TSH in girls (−42.9%; 95% CI: −59.9, −18.5%), but not boys (7.6%; 95% CI: −17.3, 40.2%; p-for-effect modification=0.005) at birth. The inverse BPA-TSH relation among girls was stronger, but less precise, among iodine deficient versus sufficient mothers. Prenatal BPA exposure may reduce TSH among newborn girls, particularly when exposure occurs later in gestation. PMID:25794847

  3. Effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum sex hormones in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Tomi, Hironori; Kaneko, Izuru; Shen, Manzhen; Soni, Madhu G; Yoshino, Gen

    2008-06-01

    (-) Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), an active ingredient extracted from the Garcinia cambogia fruit rind, has been commonly used as a dietary supplement for weight management. Given the controversy over HCA related testicular toxicity in animal studies, we investigated changes in serum sex hormones levels as an extension of our previous double-blind placebo-controlled trial in human subjects, in which 44 participants received either G. cambogia extract (1667.3 mg/day equivalent to 1000 mg HCA/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Compared to the placebo group, administration of the extract did not significantly alter the serum testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. Similarly, hematology, serum triacylglycerol and serum clinical pathology parameters did not reveal any significant adverse effects. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that ingestion of G. cambogia extract at dose levels commonly recommended for human use does not affect serum sex hormone levels and blood parameters. PMID:18316163

  4. Prenatal and peripubertal phthalates and bisphenol A in relation to sex hormones and puberty in boys.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kelly K; Peterson, Karen E; Lee, Joyce M; Mercado-García, Adriana; Blank-Goldenberg, Clara; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Meeker, John D

    2014-08-01

    Phthalates and BPA are known endocrine disruptors and exposure in pregnant mothers and children is ubiquitous. We explored the relationship of prenatal and childhood exposures with pubertal onset and sex hormones in boys (ages 8-14). Phthalate metabolites and BPA were measured in maternal 3rd trimester or childhood urine. Sex hormones DHEAS, estradiol, inhibin B, SHBG, and total testosterone were measured in serum. Adrenarche and puberty were assessed by pediatrician. Prenatal exposure to some phthalates was associated with decreased DHEAS and inhibin B levels, and with increased SHBG. Prenatal exposure to most phthalates and BPA was associated with greatly reduced odds of adrenarche (odds ratios [OR]=0.12-0.65) and slightly reduced odds of puberty (OR=0.50-0.98). Childhood exposure was not associated with adrenarche or puberty, but some phthalates and BPA were associated with increased SHBG levels and decreased total and free testosterone levels.

  5. Review: Effect study of sex hormone in the multiple sclerosis of common neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yanyan; Xu, Dayong; Yang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Aizhen; Zhou, Xinhua; Guo, Baozhi

    2015-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of most common neurological disorders, mainly affecting women. The central nervous system (CNS) of this autoimmune disease is characterized by intermittent or chronic damage to the myelin sheaths (demyelination), local inflammation and axonal degeneration. During the early relapsing/remitting stages of MS, myelin can regenerate. However, as the disease progresses, both amount and activity of regenerated axons becomes insufficient, leading to impaired axon conduction, neurodegeneration and the worsening symptoms. Epidemiological study found that distinct symptom alleviation of diseases at a certain periods would be shown in women during pregnancy. The following basic researches indicated that sex hormones especially progesterone can significantly reduce the disease severity, moreover, the protective effect of sex hormone on the nervous system has become the research focus. PMID:26431667

  6. Role of neuroinflammation and sex hormones in war-related PTSD.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Cristhian; Barreto, George E; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Echeverria, Valentina

    2016-10-15

    The susceptibility to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is greatly influenced by both innate and environmental risk factors. One of these factors is gender, with women showing higher incidence of trauma-related mental health disorders than their male counterparts. The evidence so far links these differences in susceptibility or resilience to trauma to the neuroprotective actions of sex hormones in reducing neuroinflammation after severe stress exposure. In this review, we discuss the impact of war-related trauma on the incidence of PTSD in civilian and military populations as well as differences associated to gender in the incidence and recovery from PTSD. In addition, the mutually influencing role of inflammation, genetic, and sex hormones in modulating the consequences derived from exposure to traumatic events are discussed in light of current evidence. PMID:27216917

  7. Role of neuroinflammation and sex hormones in war-related PTSD.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Cristhian; Barreto, George E; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Echeverria, Valentina

    2016-10-15

    The susceptibility to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is greatly influenced by both innate and environmental risk factors. One of these factors is gender, with women showing higher incidence of trauma-related mental health disorders than their male counterparts. The evidence so far links these differences in susceptibility or resilience to trauma to the neuroprotective actions of sex hormones in reducing neuroinflammation after severe stress exposure. In this review, we discuss the impact of war-related trauma on the incidence of PTSD in civilian and military populations as well as differences associated to gender in the incidence and recovery from PTSD. In addition, the mutually influencing role of inflammation, genetic, and sex hormones in modulating the consequences derived from exposure to traumatic events are discussed in light of current evidence.

  8. [Effects of sex hormone on the dilatation of urinary tubule and acidophil body in NON mice].

    PubMed

    Sahata, H; Suzuki, S; Ago, A; Mifune, H; Sakamoto, H

    1994-10-01

    The influences of sex hormones on the dilatation of the urinary tubules and acidophil bodies were histologically investigated in NON (Non-Obese Non-diabetic) mice. Although the dilatation of the proximal tubules and acidophil bodies in NON mice were observed only in female but not in male, a slight dilatation and a few bodies were also observed in castrated male NON mice. Moreover, in ovariectomized female NON mice the dilatation and bodies were less compared with intact female NON mice. Estradiol administration induced prominent dilatation and numerous acidophil bodies, while the administration of testosterone showed a complete preventive effect. Therefore, it is suggested that the dilatation of the tubules and the acidophil bodies can be profoundly influenced by sex hormones. PMID:7805803

  9. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas

    PubMed Central

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (−5~6 MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P < 0.05) and performance (P < 0.05). However, heart rate and SJFT index (P < 0.05) increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05). PMID:26075039

  10. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas.

    PubMed

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (-5~6 MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P < 0.05) and performance (P < 0.05). However, heart rate and SJFT index (P < 0.05) increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05).

  11. Sex, stress and the brain: interactive actions of hormones on the developing and adult brain.

    PubMed

    McEwen, B S

    2014-12-01

    The brain is a target of steroid hormone actions that affect brain architecture, molecular and neurochemical processes, behavior and neuroprotection via both genomic and non-genomic actions. Estrogens have such effects throughout the brain and this article provides an historical and current view of how this new view has come about and how it has affected the study of sex differences, as well as other areas of neuroscience, including the effects of stress on the brain.

  12. Optical properties of two types of sex hormones of the cyclopentenephenanthrene series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshalkin, Yu. P.; Artyukhov, V. Ya.; Pomogaev, V. A.

    2003-09-01

    The spectral and luminescent characteristics of estradiol and testosterone—two basic sex hormones of the cyclopentenephenanthrene series—are calculated by employing quantum-chemical methods. The results of calculations are in good agreement with experimental data. It is shown that fluorescence observed in estrogens is associated with the occurrence of the lowest ππ state, while the absence of fluorescence in androgens is attributed to the existence of the lowest nπ state, from which fluorescence is forbidden.

  13. PCB concentrations of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.

  14. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Pavón, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.). Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF), castrated M (CasM), OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T), and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2) groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes.

  15. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Zúñiga-Muñoz, Alejandra; Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Pavón, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.). Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF), castrated M (CasM), OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T), and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2) groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27630756

  16. The dermatoglyphic characteristics of transsexuals: is there evidence for an organizing effect of sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Slabbekoorn, D; van Goozen, S H; Sanders, G; Gooren, L J; Cohen-Kettenis, P T

    2000-05-01

    It has been proposed that gender identity and sexual orientation are influenced by the prenatal sex steroid milieu. Human dermatoglyphics and brain asymmetry have also been ascribed to prenatal hormone levels. This study investigated dermatoglyphics (total ridge count and finger ridge asymmetry) in 184 male-to-female transsexuals and 110 female-to-male transsexuals. In a subgroup, the relationship between dermatoglyphic asymmetry and spatial ability was tested. All investigations included controls. For all subjects hand preference and sexual orientation were noted. We hypothesized that the dermatoglyphics of male-to-female transsexuals would show similarities with control women and those of female-to-male transsexuals with control men. Our results showed a trend for a sex difference in total ridge count (P<.1) between genetic males and females, but no difference in directional asymmetry was found. Contrary to our expectations, the total ridge count and finger ridge asymmetry of transsexuals were similar to their genetic sex controls. Additionally, directional asymmetry was neither related to sexual orientation, nor to different aspects of spatial ability. In conclusion, we were unable to demonstrate that our chosen dermatoglyphic variables, total ridge count and finger ridge asymmetry are related to gender identity and sexual orientation in adult transsexuals. Hence, we found no support for a prenatal hormonal influence on these characteristics, at least insofar as dermatoglyphics may be regarded as a biological marker of organizing hormonal effects.

  17. The effects of prenatal sex steroid hormones on sexual differentiation of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Karaismailoğlu, Serkan; Erdem, Ayşen

    2013-01-01

    Most of the anatomical, physiological and neurochemical gender-related differences in the brain occur prenatally. The sexual differences in the brain are affected by sex steroid hormones, which play important roles in the differentiation of neuroendocrine system and behavior. Testosterone, estrogen and dihydrotestosterone are the main steroid hormones responsible for the organization and sexual differentiation of brain structures during early development. The structural and behavioral differences in the female and male brains are observed in many animal species; however, these differences are variable between species. Animal and human (in vivo imaging and postmortem) studies on sex differences in the brain have shown many differences in the local distribution of the cortex, the gray-white matter ratio, corpus callosum, anterior commissure, hypothalamus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, limbic system and neurotransmitter systems. This review aims to evaluate the anatomical, physiological and neurochemical differences in the female and male brains and to assess the effect of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones on the developing brain. PMID:24592097

  18. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Pavón, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.). Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF), castrated M (CasM), OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T), and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2) groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27630756

  19. Sex and stress hormone influences on the expression and activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Carbone, D L; Handa, R J

    2013-06-01

    The neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is recognized as a key component in the regulation of CNS ontogeny, homeostasis and adult neuroplasticity. The importance of BDNF in CNS development and function is well documented by numerous reports from animal studies linking abnormal BDNF signaling to metabolic disturbances and anxiety or depressive-like behavior. Despite the diverse roles for BDNF in nearly all aspects of CNS physiology, the regulation of BDNF expression, as well as our understanding of the signaling mechanisms associated with this neurotrophin, remains incomplete. However, links between sex hormones such as estradiol and testosterone, as well as endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs), have emerged as important mediators of BDNF expression and function. Examples of such regulation include brain region-specific induction of Bdnf mRNA in response to estradiol. Additional studies have also documented regulation of the expression of the high-affinity BDNF receptor Tropomyosin-Related Kinase B by estradiol, thus implicating sex steroids not only in the regulation of BDNF expression, but also in mechanisms of signaling associated with it. In addition to gonadal steroids, further evidence also suggests functional interaction between BDNF and GCs, such as in the regulation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and other important neuropeptides. In this review, we provide an overview of the roles played by selected sex or stress hormones in the regulation of BDNF expression and signaling in the CNS. PMID:23211562

  20. The impact of sirolimus on sex hormones in male adolescent kidney recipients.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Teresa M; Schoenemen, Heather; Goebel, Jens

    2012-05-01

    While it is known that sirolimus affects sex hormones in adult kidney transplant patients, there is a scarcity of data on its effects on sex hormone levels in adolescent kidney recipients. The objective of this study is to describe the impact of sirolimus on the sex hormones in this patient population. This is a retrospective review of male adolescent renal transplant patients transitioned to sirolimus. Baseline and subsequent annual testosterone levels were collected. Linear regression was undertaken to determine the predictors of testosterone levels. Four African Americans and 11 Caucasians, median age of 15 yr (11-18) in 2008, were included. Mean time post-transplant was 81 ± 37 months. Mean testosterone values were the following: 336 ± 135 ng/dL (n = 8) at baseline, 349 ± 130 ng/dL (n = 15) one yr later, and 360 ± 132 ng/dL (n = 13) two yr later (normal range for adult males: 350-970 ng/dL). Seven (47%) patients experienced a decrease in testosterone levels. Time on sirolimus was associated with decreased testosterone (r = 0.643, p = 0.010). Testosterone levels in pubertal male kidney transplant recipients on sirolimus may be suppressed, especially if they have been treated with sirolimus for several years. These data need to be confirmed in a larger study.

  1. Sex difference in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations of walleyes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Trombka, Autumn W.; Rediske, Richard R.; Jude, David J.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations were determined for mature male and mature female walleyes (Sander vitreus) sampled from the Saginaw Bay population during 2007. PBDE concentrations in prey fish caught in the Saginaw River, the primary tributary to Saginaw Bay, and in Saginaw Bay during 2005 and 2007 also were determined. Mature male and mature female walleyes averaged 70.3 ng/g and 24.8 ng/g, respectively, in ΣPBDE, which was equal to the sum of concentrations of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154). This sex difference was likely due to males spending more time in the Saginaw River system than females. Prey fish captured in the Saginaw River were roughly ten times higher in ΣPBDE than those caught in Saginaw Bay. BDE-47 was the predominant congener in both walleyes and prey fish, and this congener contributed about 50%, on average, to ΣPBDE. Congener profiles differed significantly between the two sexes of walleyes. In contrast, congener profiles of the prey fish did not differ significantly between the river-caught fish and the bay-caught fish. One plausible explanation for these congener profile results was that net trophic transfer efficiencies of PBDEs to walleyes from their prey were similar for all congeners except BDE-28, and that diet composition differed between the two sexes of walleyes.

  2. Effects of sex hormones, forskolin, and nicotine on choline acetyltransferase activity in human isolated placenta.

    PubMed

    Wessler, Ignaz; Schwarze, Sören; Brockerhoff, Peter; Bittinger, Fernando; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Kilbinger, Heinz

    2003-04-01

    The activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was investigated in the human placenta before and after long-term incubation (24 h) to test the effects of sex hormones, nicotine and forskolin. ChAT activity differed considerably between the amnion (0.03 micromol/mg protein/h) and the villus (0.56). After long-term incubation, ChAT activity persisted in the latter but declined in the amnion. Neither sex hormones (beta-estradiol, testosterone, progesterone; 10 or 100 nM each) nor follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone (FSH/LH; 8.4 U/ml each) modified ChAT activity. Also nicotine (1 nM-100 microM) did not affect ChAT activity. Forskolin, an activitor of adenylyl cyclase, reduced ChAT activity in the villus but not in amnion. The present model offers the possibility to investigate ChAT regulation in intact tissue under long-term incubation. The risks of maternal smoking during pregnancy cannot be attributed to an effect of nicotine on placental ChAT activity. Differences in the regulation of ChAT appear to exist between neuronal and nonneuronal cells.

  3. Remodeling of Kv4.3 potassium channel gene expression under the control of sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Song, M; Helguera, G; Eghbali, M; Zhu, N; Zarei, M M; Olcese, R; Toro, L; Stefani, E

    2001-08-24

    Kv4.3 channels are important molecular components of transient K(+) currents (Ito currents) in brain and heart. They are involved in setting the frequency of neuronal firing and heart pacing. Altered Kv4.3 channel expression has been demonstrated under pathological conditions like heart failure indicating their critical role in heart function. Thyroid hormone studies suggest that their expression in the heart may be hormonally regulated. To explore the possibility that sex hormones control Kv4.3 expression, we investigated whether its expression changes in the pregnant uterus. This organ represents a unique model to study Ito currents, because it possesses this type of K(+) current and undergoes dramatic changes in function and excitability during pregnancy. We cloned Kv4.3 channel from myometrium and found that its protein and transcript expression is greatly diminished during pregnancy. Experiments in ovariectomized rats demonstrate that estrogen is one mechanism responsible for the dramatic reduction in Kv4.3 expression and function prior to parturition. Furthermore, the reduction of plasma membrane Kv4.3 protein is accompanied by a perinuclear localization suggesting that cell trafficking is also controlled by sex hormones. Thus, estrogen remodels the expression of Kv4.3 in myometrium by directly diminishing its transcription and, indirectly, by altering Kv4.3 delivery to the plasma membrane. PMID:11427525

  4. Contribution of sex hormones to gender differences in schizophrenia: A review.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Tricia L; Ravindran, Arun V

    2015-12-01

    Female patients with schizophrenia tend to have a more benign course and better outcomes than males. One proposed explanation is the differential influence of male and female sex hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS). Such benefit may be mediated by their effects on neurotransmitters and neuroprotection. Besides altered estrogen and DHEA/DHEAS levels in female patients, data is equivocal on hormonal differences between patients and controls. However, several reports note a mostly negative correlation between estrogen levels and symptom severity in both genders, and a positive correlation between estrogen levels and neurocognition but mainly in females. Adjunctive estrogen appears to improve symptoms in both genders. Progesterone levels have inconsistent links to symptom severity in both genders, and correlate positively with neurocognition but only in males. Estrogen-progesterone combination shows preliminary benefits as augmentation for both symptoms and neurocognition in females. Testosterone levels correlate inversely with negative symptoms in males and have inconsistent associations with neurocognition in both genders. Testosterone augmentation reduced negative symptoms in male patients in a pilot investigation, but has not been evaluated for neurocognition in either gender. DHEA/DHEAS have mixed results for their association with, and clinical utility for, symptoms and neurocognition in both genders. Overall, data on the impact of sex hormones on clinical course or as treatment for schizophrenia is limited, but estrogen has most evidence for positive influence and clinical benefit. The possibly greater tolerability and broader impact of these hormones versus existing medications support further exploration of their use.

  5. Cutaneous microvascular response during local cold exposure - the effect of female sex hormones and cold perception.

    PubMed

    Cankar, Ksenija; Music, Mark; Finderle, Zare

    2016-11-01

    It is generally known that differences exist between males and females with regard to sensitivity to cold. Similar differences even among females in different hormonal balance might influence microvascular response during cold provocation testing. The aim of the present study was to measure sex hormone levels, cold and cold pain perception thresholds and compare them to cutaneous laser-Doppler flux response during local cooling in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. In the luteal phase a more pronounced decrease in laser-Doppler flux was observed compared to follicular phase during local cooling at 15°C (significant difference by Dunnett's test, p<0.05). In addition, statistically significant correlations between progesterone level and laser-Doppler flux response to local cooling were observed during the follicular (R=-0.552, p=0.0174) and during the luteal phases (R=0.520, p=0.0271). In contrast, the correlation between estradiol level and laser-Doppler flux response was observed only in the follicular phase (R=-0.506, p=0.0324). Our results show that individual sensitivity to cold influences cutaneous microvascular response to local cooling; that microvascular reactivity is more pronounced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle; and that reactivity correlates with hormone levels. The effect of specific sex hormone levels is related to the cold-provocation temperature. PMID:27430896

  6. Electro-mechanical dysfunction in long QT syndrome: Role for arrhythmogenic risk prediction and modulation by sex and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Lang, C N; Menza, M; Jochem, S; Franke, G; Perez Feliz, S; Brunner, M; Koren, G; Zehender, M; Bugger, H; Jung, B A; Foell, D; Bode, C; Odening, K E

    2016-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a congenital arrhythmogenic channelopathy characterized by impaired cardiac repolarization. Increasing evidence supports the notion that LQTS is not purely an "electrical" disease but rather an "electro-mechanical" disease with regionally heterogeneously impaired electrical and mechanical cardiac function. In the first part, this article reviews current knowledge on electro-mechanical (dys)function in LQTS, clinical consequences of the observed electro-mechanical dysfunction, and potential underlying mechanisms. Since several novel imaging techniques - Strain Echocardiography (SE) and Magnetic Resonance Tissue Phase Mapping (TPM) - are applied in clinical and experimental settings to assess the (regional) mechanical function, advantages of these non-invasive techniques and their feasibility in the clinical routine are particularly highlighted. The second part provides novel insights into sex differences and sex hormone effects on electro-mechanical cardiac function in a transgenic LQT2 rabbit model. Here we demonstrate that female LQT2 rabbits exhibit a prolonged time to diastolic peak - as marker for contraction duration and early relaxation - compared to males. Chronic estradiol-treatment enhances these differences in time to diastolic peak even more and additionally increases the risk for ventricular arrhythmia. Importantly, time to diastolic peak is particularly prolonged in rabbits exhibiting ventricular arrhythmia - regardless of hormone treatment - contrasting with a lack of differences in QT duration between symptomatic and asymptomatic LQT2 rabbits. This indicates the potential added value of the assessment of mechanical dysfunction in future risk stratification of LQTS patients.

  7. Electro-mechanical dysfunction in long QT syndrome: Role for arrhythmogenic risk prediction and modulation by sex and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Lang, C N; Menza, M; Jochem, S; Franke, G; Perez Feliz, S; Brunner, M; Koren, G; Zehender, M; Bugger, H; Jung, B A; Foell, D; Bode, C; Odening, K E

    2016-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a congenital arrhythmogenic channelopathy characterized by impaired cardiac repolarization. Increasing evidence supports the notion that LQTS is not purely an "electrical" disease but rather an "electro-mechanical" disease with regionally heterogeneously impaired electrical and mechanical cardiac function. In the first part, this article reviews current knowledge on electro-mechanical (dys)function in LQTS, clinical consequences of the observed electro-mechanical dysfunction, and potential underlying mechanisms. Since several novel imaging techniques - Strain Echocardiography (SE) and Magnetic Resonance Tissue Phase Mapping (TPM) - are applied in clinical and experimental settings to assess the (regional) mechanical function, advantages of these non-invasive techniques and their feasibility in the clinical routine are particularly highlighted. The second part provides novel insights into sex differences and sex hormone effects on electro-mechanical cardiac function in a transgenic LQT2 rabbit model. Here we demonstrate that female LQT2 rabbits exhibit a prolonged time to diastolic peak - as marker for contraction duration and early relaxation - compared to males. Chronic estradiol-treatment enhances these differences in time to diastolic peak even more and additionally increases the risk for ventricular arrhythmia. Importantly, time to diastolic peak is particularly prolonged in rabbits exhibiting ventricular arrhythmia - regardless of hormone treatment - contrasting with a lack of differences in QT duration between symptomatic and asymptomatic LQT2 rabbits. This indicates the potential added value of the assessment of mechanical dysfunction in future risk stratification of LQTS patients. PMID:26718598

  8. Sex steroid hormones regulate constitutive expression of Cyp2e1 in female mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    CYP2E1 is of paramount toxicological significance because it metabolically activates a large number of low-molecular-weight toxicants and carcinogens. In this context, factors that interfere with Cyp2e1 regulation may critically affect xenobiotic toxicity and carcinogenicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of female steroid hormones in the regulation of CYP2E1, as estrogens and progesterone are the bases of contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy in menopausal women. Interestingly, a fluctuation in the hepatic expression pattern of Cyp2e1 was revealed in the different phases of the estrous cycle of female mice, with higher Cyp2e1 expression at estrus (E) and lower at methestrus (ME), highly correlated with that in plasma gonadal hormone levels. Depletion of sex steroids by ovariectomy repressed Cyp2e1 expression to levels similar to those detected in males and cyclic females at ME. Hormonal supplementation brought Cyp2e1 expression back to levels detected at E. The role of progesterone appeared to be more prominent than that of 17β-estradiol. Progesterone-induced Cyp2e1 upregulation could be attributed to inactivation of the insulin/PI3K/Akt/FOXO1 signaling pathway. Tamoxifen, an anti-estrogen, repressed Cyp2e1 expression potentially via activation of the PI3K/Akt/FOXO1 and GH/STAT5b-linked pathways. The sex steroid hormone-related changes in hepatic Cyp2e1 expression were highly correlated with those observed in Hnf-1α, β-catenin, and Srebp-1c. In conclusion, female steroid hormones are clearly involved in the regulation of CYP2E1, thus affecting the metabolism of a plethora of toxicants and carcinogenic agents, conditions that may trigger several pathologies or exacerbate the outcomes of various pathophysiological states. PMID:23548611

  9. Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and Sex Steroids Among Premenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Stentz, Frankie B.; Murphy, Mary Beth; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Kitabchi, Abbas E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: It is unknown whether intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) or metformin changes sex steroids among premenopausal women without a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Objectives: We examined 1-year intervention impact on sex steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione [A4]) and SHBG and differences by race/ethnicity. Participants: A subgroup of Diabetes Prevention Program participants who were premenopausal, not using estrogen, without a history of PCOS or irregular menses, and who reported non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, or African-American race/ethnicity (n = 301). Interventions: Randomization arms were 1) ILS with the goals of weight reduction of 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, 2) metformin 850 mg twice a day, or 3) placebo. Results: Neither intervention changed sex steroids compared to placebo. ILS, but not metformin, increased median SHBG by 3.1 nmol/L (∼11%) compared to decreases of 1.1 nmol/L in the placebo arm (P < .05). This comparison remained significant after adjustment for changes in covariates including waist circumference. However, associations with glucose were not significant. Median baseline A4 was lower in Hispanics compared to NHWs (5.7 nmol/L vs 6.5 nmol/L, P < .05) and increases in A4 were greater in Hispanics compared to NHWs (3.0 nmol/ vs 1.2 nmol/L, P < .05), and these differences did not differ significantly by intervention arm. No other racial/ethnic differences were significant. Conclusions: Among premenopausal glucose-intolerant women, no intervention changed sex steroids. ILS increased SHBG, although associations with glucose were not significant. SHBG and sex steroids were similar by race/ethnicity, with the possible exception of lower baseline A4 levels in Hispanics compared to NHWs. PMID:23709655

  10. Effects of 17 α-methyltestosterone on transcriptome, gonadal histology and sex steroid hormones in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Yanping; Yuan, Cong; Chen, Shu; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-09-01

    The 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is known for its interference effects on the endocrine system. Aiming to investigate the transcriptome profiling of gonads induced by MT and to understand the molecular mechanism by which MT causes adverse effects in fish, transcriptome profiling of gonads, gonadal histology and the sex steroid hormones in response to MT were analyzed in Gobiocypris rarus. Eight libraries, 4 from the ovary and 4 from the testis, were constructed and sequenced and then a total number of clean reads per sample ranging from 7.03 to 9.99 million were obtained. In females, a total of 191 transcripts were differentially regulated by MT, consisting of 102 up-regulated transcripts and 89 down-regulated transcripts. In males, 268 differentially expressed genes with 108 up-regulated and 160 down-regulated were detected upon MT exposure. Testosterone serves as the major sex steroid hormone content in G. rarus of both sexes. The concentrations of 17β-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were significantly increased in females and decreased in males after MT exposure. Interestingly, MT caused a decreased number of vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary and spermatozoa in the testis. After MT exposure, four differentially expressed genes (ndufa4, slc1a3a, caskin-2 and rpt3) were found in G. rarus of both sexes. Overall, we suggest that MT seemed to affect genes involved in pathways related to physiological processes in the gonads of G. rarus. These processes include the electron transfer of Complex IV, endothelial cell activation, axon growth and guidance, and proteasome assembly and glutamate transport metabolic.

  11. Effects of 17 α-methyltestosterone on transcriptome, gonadal histology and sex steroid hormones in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Yanping; Yuan, Cong; Chen, Shu; Wang, Zaizhao

    2015-09-01

    The 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is known for its interference effects on the endocrine system. Aiming to investigate the transcriptome profiling of gonads induced by MT and to understand the molecular mechanism by which MT causes adverse effects in fish, transcriptome profiling of gonads, gonadal histology and the sex steroid hormones in response to MT were analyzed in Gobiocypris rarus. Eight libraries, 4 from the ovary and 4 from the testis, were constructed and sequenced and then a total number of clean reads per sample ranging from 7.03 to 9.99 million were obtained. In females, a total of 191 transcripts were differentially regulated by MT, consisting of 102 up-regulated transcripts and 89 down-regulated transcripts. In males, 268 differentially expressed genes with 108 up-regulated and 160 down-regulated were detected upon MT exposure. Testosterone serves as the major sex steroid hormone content in G. rarus of both sexes. The concentrations of 17β-estradiol, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were significantly increased in females and decreased in males after MT exposure. Interestingly, MT caused a decreased number of vitellogenic oocytes in the ovary and spermatozoa in the testis. After MT exposure, four differentially expressed genes (ndufa4, slc1a3a, caskin-2 and rpt3) were found in G. rarus of both sexes. Overall, we suggest that MT seemed to affect genes involved in pathways related to physiological processes in the gonads of G. rarus. These processes include the electron transfer of Complex IV, endothelial cell activation, axon growth and guidance, and proteasome assembly and glutamate transport metabolic. PMID:26070167

  12. Effects of portal vein ligation on sex hormone metabolism in male rats: relationship to lowered hepatic cytochrome P450 levels.

    PubMed

    Farrell, G C; Koltai, A; Zaluzny, L; Murray, M

    1986-02-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P450 levels in male rats fall after portal vein ligation, a procedure that produces total hepatic bypass of portal blood. The present study was undertaken to examine whether changes in sex hormone metabolism could account for these lowered cytochrome P450 levels. Portal vein ligation resulted in testicular atrophy and low serum testosterone concentrations. Serum luteinizing hormone levels were also reduced, suggesting that testicular atrophy was secondary to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Serum estrone and estradiol concentrations were significantly increased after portal vein ligation, while the magnitude and delayed onset of increases in urinary total estrogen excretion suggested that this was due largely to increased estrogen production. In male rats, both castration (at 12 wk) and exogenous estrogen administration resulted in changes in hepatic cytochrome P450 levels and ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity that were qualitatively similar to those seen after portal vein ligation. In female and castrated male rats, however, cytochrome P450 was not affected by portal vein ligation. Testosterone supplementation corrected the changes of cytochrome P450 levels in castrated male rats but did not have this effect in portal vein-ligated male rats. It is concluded that changes in sex hormone metabolism do occur after portal vein ligation and may contribute to alterations in cytochrome P450 and drug-metabolizing enzyme activity. Decreased levels of serum testosterone, however, do not alone account for the changes in hepatic drug metabolism in this model, and suppression of a hypothalamic-pituitary factor appears to be important.

  13. Relationships of sex steroid hormone levels in benign and cancerous breast tissue and blood: A critical appraisal of current science.

    PubMed

    Stanczyk, Frank Z; Mathews, Brett W; Sherman, Mark E

    2015-07-01

    A systematic review of the literature on sex steroid measurement in breast tissue identified only 19 articles meeting the following criteria: menopausal status given; steroids measured in tissue homogenates by conventional RIA with a purification step or by mass spectrometry; and values reported per g tissue or per g protein. Twelve articles were analyzed in detail for: ratios of sex steroid hormone levels in cancerous or benign tissues to blood levels, stratified by menopausal status; ratios between the different hormone levels within tissues or within blood; and difference in these ratios between tissue and blood compartments. Estrogen and androgen concentrations varied greatly in benign and cancerous tissues and in blood between individuals. Postmenopausal, but not premenopausal, estradiol concentrations were significantly higher in cancerous compared to benign breast tissue. The estradiol/estrone ratio was lowest in premenopausal benign tissue, and substantially higher in premenopausal cancerous tissue and postmenopausal benign and cancerous tissues. Estradiol and estrone levels were considerably higher in tissue than in plasma in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Androgen levels were generally higher in the benign than the cancerous tissue, and tissue androgen levels were higher than in plasma, suggesting in situ aromatization of androgens to estrogens in breast cancer tissue. Limited available data on levels of hydroxylated estrogens in breast tissue compared to corresponding levels in plasma or urine were reviewed, but due to the paucity of studies no conclusions can presently be drawn regarding the relationship of the 2-hydroxyestrone:16α-hydroxyestrone ratio to breast cancer risk and genotoxic effects of 4-hydroxylated estrogens. Finally, data on hormone levels in breast adipose tissue were analyzed; high levels of androstenedione and testosterone and significant estrone and estradiol levels in breast adipocytes from postmenopausal breast

  14. [Regulation of the differentiation and proliferation of smooth muscle cells by the sex hormones].

    PubMed

    Guiochon-Mantel, A

    2000-06-01

    Steroids effects are mediated by their receptors. These proteins define the large family of steroid hormone receptors, characterized by the presence of 3 functional domains: a transactivation domain, a DNA-binding domain and a ligand-binding domain. Receptor activation induces the modulation of transcription of specific genes, and as a consequence, the modulation of production of specific proteins. Sex steroid receptors are located in the nucleus. This nuclear localization is in fact a dynamic situation, resulting from a continuous shuttling of the receptor between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The recent discovery that an additional estrogen receptor is present in various tissues has advanced our understanding of the mechanism underlying estrogen signalling. Non genomic effects of steroids have also been described. Sex steroids inhibit proliferation of smooth muscle cells. On the contrary, they stimulate proliferation of tumoral muscle cells. The mechanisms of sex steroid effects on cellular proliferation are complex, and may involve transcriptional or non transcriptional phenomena. PMID:10939122

  15. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P

    2015-09-01

    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake.

  16. Time required for sex change in teleost fishes: Hormonal dynamics shaped by selection.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi

    2016-10-21

    Bidirectional sex change is observed in many teleost fish. When social conditions change, the sex transition may take place over a period of several days to a few months. To understand temporal differences for sex change in either direction, I propose a simple mathematical model for the hormone-enzyme dynamics. Aromatase (P450arom) catalyses the synthesis of estradiol from testosterone. I assume that a change in social conditions for individuals affects the rates of production and degradation of P450arom. I then consider the evolution of parameters in the dynamics. Optimal parameter values are those that minimize total fitness cost, defined as the sum of fitness losses due to delay in being a functional male or female, and the cost of accelerated degradation of P450arom in changing from female to male sex. The model predicts that, in haremic species, sex change promotes a faster degradation of P450arom, resulting in a faster female-to-male transition than male-to-female transition. In contrast, in monogamous species, or with a small number of females, there is no benefit in a faster degradation of P450arom when changing to male, resulting in approximately equal timespans for sex change in either direction. PMID:27422138

  17. [Simultaneous determination of eleven sex hormones in antler velvet health products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunmei; Wang, Mingtai; Mu, Jun; Lu, Lijun; Zhou, Xiao

    2011-06-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 11 sex hormones in antler velvet health products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed. The sex hormones in antler velvet were enriched and purified by solid phase extraction and derivatized with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBA). A DB-5 column (30 m x 0.25 mm, 0.25 microm) with nonlinear gradient program was used in GC separation. The sex hormones were determined in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method realized the complete separation of 11 sex hormones. The limits of detection of this method were from 1.0 to 5.0 microg/kg for the 11 sex hormones. The correlation coefficients were between 0.991 6 and 0.999 9. The recoveries were in the range of 67.4% - 99.1% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.6% - 13%. This method is accurate and reliable for the determination of the sex hormones in antler velvet health products.

  18. Sex Steroid Hormones Matter for Learning and Memory: Estrogenic Regulation of Hippocampal Function Inmale and Female Rodents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…

  19. The Role of Sex Hormone Replacement Therapy on Self-Perceived Competence in Adolescents with Delayed Puberty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Jacqueline; Kulin, Howard E.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan J.; Liben, Lyye S.; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Demers, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined role of sex steroids in development of self-perceived competence among adolescents receiving hormone therapy for delayed puberty. Found that hormone treatments had a significant positive effect for both males and females in perceived job competence. Significant positive effects were also obtained for perceptions of romantic appeal and…

  20. Explaining sex differences in dental caries prevalence: saliva, hormones, and "life-history" etiologies.

    PubMed

    Lukacs, John R; Largaespada, Leah L

    2006-01-01

    When dental caries rates are reported by sex, females are typically found to exhibit higher prevalence rates than males. This finding is generally true for diverse cultures with different subsistence systems and for a wide range of chronological periods. Exceptions exist, but are not common. In this paper, we present new data for sex differences in dental caries rates among the Guanches (Tenerife, Canary Islands), summarize results of meta-analyses of dental caries prevalence, and emphasize new research that stresses the critical role of female hormones and life-history events in the etiology of dental caries. Among the Guanches, corrected tooth-count caries rates for females (8.8%, 158/1,790) are approximately twice the frequency of caries among males (4.5%, 68/1,498). Higher caries prevalence among females is often explained by one of three factors: 1) earlier eruption of teeth in girls, hence longer exposure of girls' teeth to the cariogenic oral environment, 2) easier access to food supplies by women and frequent snacking during food preparation, and 3) pregnancy. Anthropologists tend to favor explanations involving behavior, including sexual division of labor and women's domestic role in food production. By contrast, the causal pathways through which pregnancy contributes to poorer oral health and higher caries rates are deemphasized or discounted. This paper presents recent research on physiological changes associated with fluctuating hormone levels during individual life histories, and the impact these changes have on the oral health of women. The biochemical composition of saliva and overall saliva flow rate are modified in several important ways by hormonal fluctuations during events such as puberty, menstruation, and pregnancy, making the oral environment significantly more cariogenic for women than for men. These results suggest that hormonal fluctuations can have a dramatic effect on the oral health of women, and constitute an important causal factor in

  1. Sex differences, hormones, and fMRI stress response circuitry deficits in psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Jill M.; Lancaster, Katie; Longenecker, Julia M.; Abbs, Brandon; Holsen, Laura M.; Cherkerzian, Sara; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nicolas; Tsuang, Ming T.; Buka, Stephen L.; Seidman, Larry J.; Klibanski, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Psychosis involves dysregulation of response to stress, particularly to negative valence stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of psychosis have shown hyperactivity in hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices. Sex differences in these deficits may be associated with steroid hormone pathway abnormalities, i.e., dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal and -gondal axes. We predicted abnormal steroid hormone levels in psychosis cases would be associated with hyperactivity in hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus, and hypoactivity in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices in a sex-dependent way, with more severe deficits in men than women with psychosis. We studied 32 psychosis cases (50.0% women) and 39 controls (43.6% women) using a novel visual stress challenge while collecting blood throughout functional magnetic resonance imaging procedures. Males with psychosis showed hyperactivity across all hypothesized regions, including the hypothalamus and anterior cingulate cortex by family-wise corrected significance. Females showed hyperactivity in the hippocampus and amygdala and hypoactivity in orbital and medial prefrontal cortices, the latter by family-wise correction. Interaction of case status by sex was significant in the medial prefrontal cortex and, marginally so, in the left orbitofrontal cortex, with female cases (vs. healthy females and males) exhibiting the lowest activity. Male and female cases compared with their healthy counterparts were hypercortisolemic, which was associated with hyperactivity in prefrontal cortices in male cases and hypoactivity in female cases. This was further associated, respectively, with low bioavailable testosterone in male cases and low estradiol in female cases. Findings suggest disruptions in neural-hormone associations in response to stress are sex-dependent in psychosis, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. PMID

  2. Diverse Roles for Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Reproduction1

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Geoffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) transports androgens and estrogens in blood and regulates their access to target tissues. Hepatic production of SHBG fluctuates throughout the life cycle and is influenced primarily by metabolic and hormonal factors. Genetic differences also contribute to interindividual variations in plasma SHBG levels. In addition to controlling the plasma distribution, metabolic clearance, and bioavailability of sex steroids, SHBG accumulates in the extravascular compartments of some tissues and in the cytoplasm of specific epithelial cells, where it exerts novel effects on androgen and estrogen action. In mammals, the gene-encoding SHBG is expressed primarily in the liver but also at low levels in other tissues, including the testis. In subprimate species, Shbg expression in Sertoli cells is under the control of follicle-stimulating hormone and produces the androgen-binding protein that influences androgen actions in the seminiferous tubules and epididymis. In humans, the SHBG gene is not expressed in Sertoli cells, but its expression in germ cells produces an SHBG isoform that accumulates in the acrosome. In fish, Shbg is produced by the liver but has a unique function in the gill as a portal for natural steroids and xenobiotics, including synthetic steroids. However, salmon have retained a second, poorly conserved Shbg gene that is expressed only in ovary, muscle, and gill and that likely exerts specialized functions in these tissues. The present review compares the production and functions of SHBG in different species and its diverse effects on reproduction. PMID:21613632

  3. Influence of modified transdermal hormone replacement therapy on the concentrations of hormones, growth factors, and bone mineral density in women with osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Stanosz, Staniaław; Zochowska, Ewa; Safranow, Krzysztof; Sieja, Krzysztof; Stanosz, Małgorzta

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic and therapeutic action of estrogens depends on their type, dosage, form, route of administration, and treatment-free interval during the therapeutic cycle. Hormone therapy is generally subclassified into 2 forms that differ in the type of hormones. In hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), estrogens and progesterone components do not differ in chemical structure and molecular mass from those naturally produced by the female organism. In hormonal supplementary therapy (HST), the estrogen and progestagen components do differ from the natural hormones in structure and mass. The aim of the study was to compare 2 kinds of hormonal therapy in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. These forms of therapy are modified transdermal HRT and orally given HST. The objective of this study was the estimation of sex hormone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), prolactin (PRL), osteocalcin, and procollagen concentration in serum as well as the degree of mineralization of the lumbar spine in women in the early postmenopausal period with osteopenia under different kinds of hormonal therapy. The study was conducted in 75 women with an average age of 52.4 +/- 3.5 years and with primary osteopenia, in the early postmenopausal period, who were randomly assigned to 3 groups depending on the form and route of administration of therapy: Group I (n = 25, control) was receiving placebo in the form of patches. Group II (n = 25) was treated with modified transdermal HRT. This group obtained micronized 17beta-estradiol at increasing-decreasing doses and progesterone in the second phase of the therapeutic cycle. Group III (n = 25) was receiving orally given HST and obtained Cyclo-Menorette (Wyeth, Munster, Germany). The therapeutic cycle in each group lasted 21 days, followed by a 7-day medication-free interval. Estradiol concentration in serum was increased 5-fold and estrone (E(1)) was increased about 11-fold in the group of women receiving orally given HST (P < .0001

  4. Race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mahesh J; Batch, Bryan C; Svetkey, Laura P; Bain, James R; Turer, Christy Boling; Haynes, Carol; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Shah, Svati H

    2013-12-01

    In overweight/obese individuals, cardiometabolic risk factors differ by race and sex categories. Small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormone levels might also differ across these categories and contribute to risk factor heterogeneity. To explore this possibility, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of fasting plasma levels of 69 small-molecule metabolites and 13 metabolic hormones in 500 overweight/obese adults who participated in the Weight Loss Maintenance trial. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used for reduction of metabolite data. Race and sex-stratified comparisons of metabolite factors and metabolic hormones were performed. African Americans represented 37.4% of the study participants, and females 63.0%. Of thirteen metabolite factors identified, three differed by race and sex: levels of factor 3 (branched-chain amino acids and related metabolites, p<0.0001), factor 6 (long-chain acylcarnitines, p<0.01), and factor 2 (medium-chain dicarboxylated acylcarnitines, p<0.0001) were higher in males vs. females; factor 6 levels were higher in Caucasians vs. African Americans (p<0.0001). Significant differences were also observed in hormones regulating body weight homeostasis. Among overweight/obese adults, there are significant race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones; these differences may contribute to risk factor heterogeneity across race and sex subgroups and should be considered in future investigations with circulating metabolites and metabolic hormones.

  5. Energetic challenges unmask the role of ovarian hormones in orchestrating ingestive and sex behaviors.

    PubMed

    Klingerman, Candice M; Krishnamoorthy, Kaila; Patel, Kevin; Spiro, Andrew B; Struby, Chris; Patel, Anand; Schneider, Jill E

    2010-09-01

    Effects of ovarian hormones on sex and ingestive behavior are well studied, and yet, their role in diverting attention from food to sex has not been examined directly, possibly because these functions are masked under conditions of excessive food abundance typical of the laboratory. Female Syrian hamsters were either fed ad libitum or food-restricted to 75% of their ad libitum intake for 8days and then tested every day of the estrous cycle for their preference for males versus food, food hoarding and food intake in an apparatus designed to mimic aspects of their natural habitat. The food-restricted, but not the fed females, varied significantly over the estrous cycle in appetitive behaviors, which included their preference for males versus food and in the amount of food hoarded, with low food hoarding and high male preference on the night of ovulation. In contrast, there were no significant differences between restricted and ad libitum-fed females in the consummatory behaviors, namely, food intake or lordosis duration. In ovariectomized females, estradiol plus progesterone treatment delayed food restriction-stimulated hoarding and hastened feeding-inhibited hoarding without affecting food intake or lordosis duration. In summary, energy restriction and the presence of males unmasked an effect that was obscured in the normal laboratory conditions characterized by isolation and an over abundance of readily available food. These results are consistent with the idea that ovarian hormones orchestrate appetites for food and sex to optimize reproductive success under fluctuating energetic conditions.

  6. Stressor-specific effects of sex on HPA axis hormones and activation of stress-related neurocircuitry.

    PubMed

    Babb, Jessica A; Masini, Cher V; Day, Heidi E W; Campeau, Serge

    2013-11-01

    Experiencing stress can be physically and psychologically debilitating to an organism. Women have a higher prevalence of some stress-related mental illnesses, the reasons for which are unknown. These experiments explore differential HPA axis hormone release in male and female rats following acute stress. Female rats had a similar threshold of HPA axis hormone release following low intensity noise stress as male rats. Sex did not affect the acute release, or the return of HPA axis hormones to baseline following moderate intensity noise stress. Sensitive indices of auditory functioning obtained by modulation of the acoustic startle reflex by weak pre-pulses did not reveal any sexual dimorphism. Furthermore, male and female rats exhibited similar c-fos mRNA expression in the brain following noise stress, including several sex-influenced stress-related regions. The HPA axis response to noise stress was not affected by stage of estrous cycle, and ovariectomy significantly increased hormone release. Direct comparison of HPA axis hormone release to two different stressors in the same animals revealed that although female rats exhibit robustly higher HPA axis hormone release after restraint stress, the same effect was not observed following moderate and high intensity loud noise stress. Finally, the differential effect of sex on HPA axis responses to noise and restraint stress cannot readily be explained by differential social cues or general pain processing. These studies suggest the effect of sex on acute stress-induced HPA axis hormone activity is highly dependent on the type of stressor.

  7. Investigation of the role of sex hormones in alcoholics' visuospatial deficits.

    PubMed

    Errico, A L; Parsons, O A; Kling, O R; King, A C

    1992-05-01

    This study investigated whether an alcohol-related disturbance in the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis was a factor in alcoholics' visuospatial impairment. One month detoxified male alcoholics (n = 58) performed significantly poorer than peer controls (n = 30) on a battery of visuospatial and verbal tests. Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone were obtained at three times during cognitive testing. Previously reported correlations in healthy young male adults between visuospatial performance with testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone concentrations were replicated in control subjects. These correlations were not significant in the alcoholics. The results suggest that chronic alcoholism may disrupt the normal relationships between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and cognitive functioning.

  8. Genome-wide association study with 1000 genomes imputation identifies signals for nine sex hormone-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Katherine S; Campbell, Purdey J; Chew, Shelby; Lim, Ee Mun; Hadlow, Narelle; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A; Brown, Suzanne J; Feenstra, Bjarke; Joseph, John; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Zheng, Hou Feng; Richards, J Brent; Murray, Anna; Spector, Tim D; Wilson, Scott G; Perry, John R B

    2016-02-01

    Genetic factors contribute strongly to sex hormone levels, yet knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms remains incomplete. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified only a small number of loci associated with sex hormone levels, with several reproductive hormones yet to be assessed. The aim of the study was to identify novel genetic variants contributing to the regulation of sex hormones. We performed GWAS using genotypes imputed from the 1000 Genomes reference panel. The study used genotype and phenotype data from a UK twin register. We included 2913 individuals (up to 294 males) from the Twins UK study, excluding individuals receiving hormone treatment. Phenotypes were standardised for age, sex, BMI, stage of menstrual cycle and menopausal status. We tested 7,879,351 autosomal SNPs for association with levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), oestradiol, free androgen index (FAI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Eight independent genetic variants reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), with minor allele frequencies of 1.3-23.9%. Novel signals included variants for progesterone (P=7.68 × 10(-12)), oestradiol (P=1.63 × 10(-8)) and FAI (P=1.50 × 10(-8)). A genetic variant near the FSHB gene was identified which influenced both FSH (P=1.74 × 10(-8)) and LH (P=3.94 × 10(-9)) levels. A separate locus on chromosome 7 was associated with both DHEAS (P=1.82 × 10(-14)) and progesterone (P=6.09 × 10(-14)). This study highlights loci that are relevant to reproductive function and suggests overlap in the genetic basis of hormone regulation.

  9. Sex hormone binding globulin and corticosteroid binding globulin as major effectors of steroid action.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Jack D; Jirikowski, Gustav F

    2014-03-01

    Contrary to the long-held postulate of steroid-hormone binding globulin action, these protein carriers of steroids are major players in steroid actions in the body. This manuscript will focus on our work with sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and demonstrate how they are actively involved in the uptake, intracellular transport, and possibly release of steroids from cells. This manuscript will also discuss our own findings that the steroid estradiol is taken up into the cell, as demonstrated by uptake of fluorescence labeled estradiol into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and into the cytoplasm where it may have multiple actions that do not seem to involve the cell nucleus. This manuscript will focus mainly on events in two compartments of the cell, the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm.

  10. Is a sex-determining gene(s) necessary for sex-determination in amphibians? Steroid hormones may be the key factor.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians have 2 genetic sex-determining systems, one with male (XX/XY) and one with female (ZZ/ZW) heterogamety. While the ancestral state of sex-determination is thought to be female heterogamety, male and female heterogametic types were probably once interchangeable. The Japanese frog Rana rugosa has both XX/XY and ZZ/ZW systems within a single species in certain local populations. However, steroid hormones can alter the phenotypic sex epigenetically. In R. rugosa, steroidogenic enzyme expression starts before sex-determination in the indifferent gonad, and these enzymes become active in both male and female tadpoles. Androgens are produced in the indifferent gonad of male tadpoles at high levels, whereas estrogens are synthesized in females. In this regard, the observed enhanced expression of the hormone-metabolizing genes, CYP19 in the female gonad and CYP17 in males, may be crucial for sex-determination. Moreover, with FSH known to increase estrogen synthesis in the vertebrate ovary, observed upregulation of FSH receptor (FSHR) expression in the indifferent gonad of female tadpoles is intriguing. These data suggest that steroid hormones could be crucial for sex-determination in R. rugosa, with the consequence that upregulation of CYP19 and FSHR expression is necessary for female and CYP17 for male sex-determination.

  11. Melanin-Concentrating Hormone: A New Sleep Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Torterolo, Pablo; Lagos, Patricia; Monti, Jaime M.

    2011-01-01

    Neurons containing the neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) are mainly located in the lateral hypothalamus and the incerto-hypothalamic area, and have widespread projections throughout the brain. While the biological functions of this neuropeptide are exerted in humans through two metabotropic receptors, the MCHR1 and MCHR2, only the MCHR1 is present in rodents. Recently, it has been shown that the MCHergic system is involved in the control of sleep. We can summarize the experimental findings as follows: (1) The areas related to the control of sleep and wakefulness have a high density of MCHergic fibers and receptors. (2) MCHergic neurons are active during sleep, especially during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. (3) MCH knockout mice have less REM sleep, notably under conditions of negative energy balance. Animals with genetically inactivated MCHR1 also exhibit altered vigilance state architecture and sleep homeostasis. (4) Systemically administered MCHR1 antagonists reduce sleep. (5) Intraventricular microinjection of MCH increases both slow wave sleep (SWS) and REM sleep; however, the increment in REM sleep is more pronounced. (6) Microinjection of MCH into the dorsal raphe nucleus increases REM sleep time. REM seep is inhibited by immunoneutralization of MCH within this nucleus. (7) Microinjection of MCH in the nucleus pontis oralis of the cat enhances REM sleep time and reduces REM sleep latency. All these data strongly suggest that MCH has a potent role in the promotion of sleep. Although both SWS and REM sleep are facilitated by MCH, REM sleep seems to be more sensitive to MCH modulation. PMID:21516258

  12. Association of Sex Hormones, Aging and Atrial Fibrillation in Men: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Jared W.; Moser, Carlee B.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Wang, Na; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Coviello, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous sex hormones have been related to cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. We hypothesized that sex hormones are related to atrial fibrillation (AF) in a community-based cohort of middle-aged to older men. Methods and Results We examined testosterone, estradiol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S]) in relation to incident AF in men participating in the Framingham Heart Study. We assessed the 10-year risk of AF in multivariable-adjusted hazard models. The cohort consisted of 1251 men (age 68.0±8.2), of whom 275 developed incident AF. We identified a significant interaction between age and testosterone, and therefore stratified men into age 55–69 (n=786), 70–79 (n=351), and ≥80 (n=114). In men 55–69 each 1-standard deviation (SD) decrease in testosterone was associated with hazard ratio (HR) 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 1.59) for incident AF. The association between testosterone and 10-year incident AF in men 70–79 did not reach statistical significance. In men ≥80 years a 1-SD decrease in testosterone was associated with HR 3.53 (95% CI, 1.96 to 6.37) for AF risk. Estradiol was associated with incident AF (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.26). DHEA-S had a borderline association with risk of AF that was not statistically significant (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.28). Conclusions Testosterone and estradiol are associated with incident AF in a cohort of older men. Testosterone deficiency in men ≥80 is strongly associated with AF risk. The clinical and electrophysiologic mechanisms underlying the associations between sex hormones and AF in older men merit continued investigation. PMID:24610804

  13. Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: Sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Carl D. Wright, Linnzi K.M.; Garcia, Gregory E.; Lee, Robyn B.; Lumley, Lucille A.

    2015-09-15

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are highly toxic compounds that cause a cascade of symptoms and death, if exposed casualties are left untreated. Numerous rodent models have investigated the toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity of CWNAs, but most are limited to male subjects. Given the profound physiological effects of circulating gonadal hormones in female rodents, it is possible that the daily cyclical fluctuations of these hormones affect females' sensitivity to the lethal effects of CWNAs, and previous reports that included female subjects did not control for the stage of the hormonal cycle. The aim of the current study was to determine the 24-hour median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of the CWNA sarin in male, ovariectomized (OVEX) female, and female rats during different stages of the estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, and estrus). Additionally, baseline activity levels of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and carboxylesterase were measured to determine differences among the groups. Results indicated that females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} of sarin compared to OVEX and estrous females. Although some sex differences were observed in the activity levels of plasma esterases, they were not consistent and likely not large enough to significantly affect the LD{sub 50}s. These results suggest that hormonal cyclicity can influence the outcome of CWNA-related studies using female rodents, and that this variability can be minimized by controlling for the stage of the cycle. Additional research is necessary to determine the precise mechanism of the observed differences because it is unlikely to be solely explained by plasma esterase activity. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of sarin was determined in female rats throughout the stages of the estrous cycle. • Females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} compared to estrous or ovariectomized females. • No sex differences were observed between male and female rats

  14. Contribution of sex hormones to gender differences in schizophrenia: A review.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Tricia L; Ravindran, Arun V

    2015-12-01

    Female patients with schizophrenia tend to have a more benign course and better outcomes than males. One proposed explanation is the differential influence of male and female sex hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS). Such benefit may be mediated by their effects on neurotransmitters and neuroprotection. Besides altered estrogen and DHEA/DHEAS levels in female patients, data is equivocal on hormonal differences between patients and controls. However, several reports note a mostly negative correlation between estrogen levels and symptom severity in both genders, and a positive correlation between estrogen levels and neurocognition but mainly in females. Adjunctive estrogen appears to improve symptoms in both genders. Progesterone levels have inconsistent links to symptom severity in both genders, and correlate positively with neurocognition but only in males. Estrogen-progesterone combination shows preliminary benefits as augmentation for both symptoms and neurocognition in females. Testosterone levels correlate inversely with negative symptoms in males and have inconsistent associations with neurocognition in both genders. Testosterone augmentation reduced negative symptoms in male patients in a pilot investigation, but has not been evaluated for neurocognition in either gender. DHEA/DHEAS have mixed results for their association with, and clinical utility for, symptoms and neurocognition in both genders. Overall, data on the impact of sex hormones on clinical course or as treatment for schizophrenia is limited, but estrogen has most evidence for positive influence and clinical benefit. The possibly greater tolerability and broader impact of these hormones versus existing medications support further exploration of their use. PMID:26321672

  15. Age- and sex-associated plasma proteomic changes in growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Berryman, Darlene E; Jara, Adam; Kopchick, John J

    2012-08-01

    Growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted (GHR-/-) mice are dwarf, insulin sensitive, and long lived despite being obese. In order to identify characteristics associated with their increased longevity, we studied age-related plasma proteomic changes in these mice. Male and female GHR-/- mice and their littermate controls were followed longitudinally at 8, 16, and 24 months of ages for plasma proteomic analysis. Relative to control littermates, GHR-/- mice had increased levels of apolipoprotein A-4 and retinol-binding protein-4 and decreased levels of apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, and mannose-binding protein-C. Female GHR-/- mice showed decreased inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Additionally, sex differences were found in specific isoforms of apolipoprotein E, RBP-4, haptoglobin, albumin, and hemoglobin subunit beta. In conclusion, we find plasma proteomic changes in GHR-/- mice that favor a longer life span as well as sex differences indicative of an improved health span in female mice. PMID:22156438

  16. Sex hormone-binding globulin response to human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in children with cryptorchidism, anorchia, male pseudohermaphroditism, and micropenis.

    PubMed

    Belgorosky, A; Rivarola, M A

    1982-04-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin serum concentrations (SHBG) were measured before and after a 5-day hCG stimulation test in 11 prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism, 6 with anorchia, 5 with male pseudohermaphroditism, and 5 with micropenis. Cryptorchid boys had decreased SHBG levels after hCG, by 55 +/- 17% (mean +/- SE) of the basal concentration. Patients with anorchia, who did not show an elevation in serum androgens, did not have decreased SHBG concentrations. Four of the 5 patients with male pseudohermaphroditism had an adequate elevation of serum androgens, did not have decreased SHBG concentrations. Four of the 5 patients with male pseudohermaphroditism had an adequate elevation of serum androgens after hCG, but in only 3 of them did SHBG decrease. None of the 5 patients with micropenis had decreased serum SHBG levels despite normal increments in serum androgens. The administration of a long-acting preparation of testosterone to sexually infantile subjects produce a similar decrease in the SHBG concentration. This change in SHBG concentration after hCG or testosterone in prepubertal boys could be used as a convenient test of biological response to androgens.

  17. Thyroid hormone concentrations in captive and free-ranging West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, R M; MacKenzie, D S; Worthy, G A

    2000-12-01

    Because thyroid hormones play a critical role in the regulation of metabolism, the low metabolic rates reported for manatees suggest that thyroid hormone concentrations in these animals may also be reduced. However, thyroid hormone concentrations have yet to be examined in manatees. The effects of captivity, diet and water salinity on plasma total triiodothyronine (tT(3)), total thyroxine (tT(4)) and free thyroxine (fT(4)) concentrations were assessed in adult West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus). Free-ranging manatees exhibited significantly greater tT(4) and fT(4) concentrations than captive adults, regardless of diet, indicating that some aspect of a captive existence results in reduced T(4) concentrations. To determine whether this reduction might be related to feeding, captive adults fed on a mixed vegetable diet were switched to a strictly sea grass diet, resulting in decreased food consumption and a decrease in body mass. However, tT(4) and fT(4) concentrations were significantly elevated over initial values for 19 days. This may indicate that during periods of reduced food consumption manatees activate thyroid-hormone-promoted lipolysis to meet water and energetic requirements. Alterations in water salinity for captive animals did not induce significant changes in thyroid hormone concentrations. In spite of lower metabolic rates, thyroid hormone concentrations in captive manatees were comparable with those for other terrestrial and marine mammals, suggesting that the low metabolic rate in manatees is not attributable to reduced circulating thyroid hormone concentrations.

  18. Effects of sex, menstrual cycle phase, and endogenous hormones on cognition in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Leah H.; Carter, C. Sue; Drogos, Lauren L.; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Sweeney, John A.; Maki, Pauline M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In women with schizophrenia, cognition has been shown to be enhanced following administration of hormone therapy or oxytocin. We examined how natural hormonal changes across the menstrual cycle influence cognition in women with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that female patients would perform better on “female-dominant” tasks (verbal memory/fluency) and worse on “male-dominant” tasks (visuospatial) during the early follicular phase (low estradiol and progesterone) compared to midluteal phase (high estradiol and progesterone) in relation to estradiol but not progesterone. Methods Fifty-four women (23 with schizophrenia) completed cognitive assessments and provided blood for sex steroid assays and oxytocin at early follicular (Days 2–4) and midluteal (Days 20–22) phases. Men were included to verify the expected pattern of sex differences on cognitive tests. Results Expected sex differences were observed on “female-dominant” and “male-dominant” tasks (p<0.001), but the magnitude of those differences did not differ between patients and controls (p=0.44). Cognitive performance did not change across the menstrual cycle on “female-dominant” or “male-dominant” tasks in either group. Estradiol and progesterone levels were unrelated to cognitive performance. Oxytocin levels did not change across the menstrual cycle but were positively related to performance on “female-dominant” tasks in female patients only (p<0.05). Conclusions Sex differences in cognitive function are preserved in schizophrenia. Oxytocin levels do not change across the cycle, but relate to enhanced performance on female dominant tests in women. Physiological levels of oxytocin may thus have a more powerful benefit in some cognitive domains than estrogens in schizophrenia. PMID:25990704

  19. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-10-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

  20. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption in Conjunction with Sex Hormone Deficiency on Ca/P Ratio in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lodi, Karina Bortolin; Marchini, Adriana Mathias Pereira da Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Rode, Sigmar de Mello; Marchini, Leonardo; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of sex hormones and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that have been related to alterations in the pattern of bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible alterations in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio in the femur of rats subjected to sex hormone deficiency and/or alcohol consumption. Methods. Female and male Wistar rats (n = 108) were divided into ovariectomized (Ovx), orchiectomized (Orx), or sham-operated groups and subdivided according to diet: alcoholic diet (20% alcohol solution), isocaloric diet, and ad libitum diet. The diets were administered for 8 weeks. The Ca/P ratio in the femur was analyzed by energy dispersive micro-X-ray spectrometer (μEDX). Results. Consumption of alcohol reduced the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. The isocaloric diet reduced the Ca/P ratio in females. In groups with the ad libitum diet, the deficiency of sex hormones did not change the Ca/P ratio in females or males. However, the combination of sex hormone deficiency and alcoholic diet presented the lowest values for the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. Conclusions. There was a reduced Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats that consumed alcohol, which was exacerbated when combined with a deficiency of sex hormones. PMID:27073396

  1. Serum Spot 14 concentration is negatively associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chi, Yu-Chao; Han, Der-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spot 14 (S14) is a protein involved in fatty acid synthesis and was shown to be induced by thyroid hormone in rat liver. However, the presence of S14 in human serum and its relations with thyroid function status have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum S14 concentrations in patients with hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism and to evaluate the associations between serum S14 and free thyroxine (fT4) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. We set up an immunoassay for human serum S14 concentrations and compared its levels between hyperthyroid and euthyroid subjects. Twenty-six hyperthyroid patients and 29 euthyroid individuals were recruited. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of S14 and fT4, TSH, or quartile of TSH. The hyperthyroid patients had significantly higher serum S14 levels than the euthyroid subjects (median [Q1, Q3]: 975 [669, 1612] ng/mL vs 436 [347, 638] ng/mL, P < 0.001). In univariate linear regression, the log-transformed S14 level (logS14) was positively associated with fT4 but negatively associated with creatinine (Cre), total cholesterol (T-C), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and TSH. The positive associations between logS14 and fT4 and the negative associations between logS14 and Cre, TG, T-C, or TSH remained significant after adjustment with sex and age. These associations were prominent in females but not in males. The logS14 levels were negatively associated with the TSH levels grouped by quartile (ß = −0.3020, P < 0.001). The association between logS14 and TSH quartile persisted after adjustment with sex and age (ß = −0.2828, P = 0.001). In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, only TSH grouped by quartile remained significantly associated with logS14 level. We developed an ELISA to measure serum S14 levels in human. Female patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum S14 levels

  2. Reference Ranges and Association of Age and Lifestyle Characteristics with Testosterone, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, and Luteinizing Hormone among 1166 Western Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xubo; Wang, Ruifeng; Yu, Na; Shi, Yongjun; Li, Honggang; Xiong, Chengliang; Li, Yan; Zhou, Yuanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Decreased total testosterone (TT) is the recommended metric to identify age-related hypogonadism. However, average TT and the extent to which it varies by age, can vary substantially among different populations. Population-specific reference ranges are needed to understand normal versus abnormal TT levels. Therefore, the goal for this study was to describe androgen concentrations and their correlates among Western Chinese men. We completed a population-based, cross-sectional study including 227 young adults (YA) (20–39 years) and 939 older adults (OA) (40–89 years). We measured TT, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone secreting index (TSI), and calculated free testosterone (cFT). Reference ranges for this population were determined using average YA concentrations. Multivariable regression models were used to predict hormone concentrations adjusting for age, waist-to-height ratio (WHR), marital status, education, occupation, smoking, alcohol, blood glucose, and blood pressure. Among OA, 3.8% had low TT, 15.2% had low cFT, 26.3% had low TSI, 21.6% had high SHBG, and 6.1% had high LH. Average cFT was significantly lower in OA (0.30 nmol/L; standard deviation (SD): 0.09) versus YA (0.37; SD: 0.11) but TT was not different in OA (16.82 nmol/L; SD: 4.80) versus YA (16.88; SD: 5.29). In adjusted models increasing age was significantly associated with increased SHBG or LH, and decreased cFT or TSI; however, TT was not significantly associated with age (β = 0.02 nmol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.01, 0.04). Higher WHR was associated with significantly decreased TT, SHBG, TSI, and LH. The only variable significantly related to cFT was age (β = -0.0033; 95% CI:-0.0037, -0.0028); suggesting that cFT measurements would not be confounded by other lifestyle factors. In conclusion, cFT, but not TT, varies with age in this population, suggesting cFT may be a better potential marker for age-related androgen deficiency than TT among

  3. Do sex hormones influence emotional modulation of pain and nociception in healthy women?

    PubMed

    Rhudy, Jamie L; Bartley, Emily J; Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L; Kuhn, Bethany L; Martin, Satin L; Delventura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L

    2013-12-01

    Sex hormones may contribute to inter- and intra-individual differences in pain by influencing emotional modulation of pain and nociception. To study this, a well-validated picture-viewing paradigm was used to assess emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR; physiologic measure of nociception) during mid-follicular, ovulatory, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in healthy normally cycling women (n=40). Salivary estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone were assessed at each testing session. Emotional modulation of pain/NFR did not differ across menstrual phases, but low estradiol was associated with weaker emotional modulation of NFR (during all phases) and emotional modulation of pain (ovulatory and late-luteal phases). Given evidence that a failure to emotionally modulate pain might be a risk factor for chronic pain, low estradiol may promote chronic pain via this mechanism. However, future research is needed to extend these findings to women with disturbances of pain, emotion, and/or sex hormones.

  4. Sex hormones establish a reserve pool of adult muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Han, Gi-Chan; Seo, Ji-Yun; Park, Inkuk; Park, Wookjin; Jeong, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Su Hyeon; Bae, Sung-Hwan; Seong, Jinwoo; Yum, Min-Kyu; Hann, Sang-Hyeon; Kwon, Young-Guen; Seo, Daekwan; Choi, Man Ho; Kong, Young-Yun

    2016-09-01

    Quiescent satellite cells, known as adult muscle stem cells, possess a remarkable ability to regenerate skeletal muscle following injury throughout life. Although they mainly originate from multipotent stem/progenitor cells of the somite, the mechanism underlying the establishment of quiescent satellite cell populations is unknown. Here, we show that sex hormones induce Mind bomb 1 (Mib1) expression in myofibres at puberty, which activates Notch signalling in cycling juvenile satellite cells and causes them to be converted into adult quiescent satellite cells. Myofibres lacking Mib1 fail to send Notch signals to juvenile satellite cells, leading to impaired cell cycle exit and depletion. Our findings reveal that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis drives Mib1 expression in the myofibre niche. Moreover, the same axis regulates the re-establishment of quiescent satellite cell populations following injury. Our data show that sex hormones establish adult quiescent satellite cell populations by regulating the myofibre niche at puberty and re-establish them during regeneration.

  5. Endogenous sex hormone levels in older adult men with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Barrett-Connor, E; Khaw, K T; Yen, S S

    1990-11-01

    In a Southern California population-based cohort of 985 men aged 40-79 years in 1972-1974, 110 men with diabetes had significantly lower mean levels of endogenous plasma testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin than did 875 nondiabetic men. Mean androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol levels did not differ significantly by diabetic status. The testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin differences were reduced but not eliminated after adjustment for age and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2). Twenty-one percent of diabetic men compared with 13% of nondiabetic men had testosterone levels below a categorically defined normal level of 3,500 pg/ml. Testosterone was inversely related to degree of glycemia in the whole cohort. Throughout the whole range of plasma glucose, there was a stepwise decrease in mean testosterone levels per categorical increase in fasting plasma glucose, apparent in both diabetics and nondiabetics. The clinical and physiologic implications of the reduced testosterone levels in diabetic men merit further investigation. PMID:2239904

  6. Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) Expression in Ovarian Carcinomas and Its Clinicopathological Associations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruixia; Ma, Yuanyuan; Holm, Ruth; Trope, Claes G.; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2013-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is known as a carrier protein. It is classically thought to be mainly synthesized in the liver and then secreted into the circulating system, where it binds to sex steroids with a high affinity and modulates the bio-availability of the hormones. Other organs known to produce SHBG include brain, uterus, testis, prostate, breast and ovary, and the local expressed SHBG may play an important role in tumor development. However, SHBG expression status and its clinicopathological significance in ovarian cancer cells are not reported yet. In our present study, we examined and found the variable SHBG expression in four ovarian cancer cell lines (OV-90, OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and ES-2) by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. We then extended our study to 248 ovarian carcinoma samples, which were collected at The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital with complete clinical information, and discovered that SHBG was variably expressed in these ovarian carcinomas. Higher level of SHBG expression was significantly associated with more aggressive histological subtype (p = 0.022), higher FIGO stage (p = 0.018) and higher histological grade (grade of differentiation, p = 0.020), although association between SHBG expression and OS/PFS was not observed. Our results demonstrate that ovarian cancer cells produce SHBG and higher SHBG expression in ovarian carcinoma is associated with unfavorable clinicopathological features. PMID:24386165

  7. Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity: The Role of Sex Hormones in Gonadectomized Male and Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Moslemi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background. Gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity may be sex hormones related. The effects of sex hormones on GM induced nephrotoxicity in gonadectomized rats were investigated. Methods. Ovariectomized rats received 0.25, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg/week of estradiol (ES) alone or accompanied with 10 mg/kg/week of progesterone (Pro) for two weeks followed by GM (100 mg/kg/day) for 9 days. Castrated rats were also treated with 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/week of testosterone (TS) for two weeks and then received GM. In addition, a single castrated group received 0.25 mg/kg/week of ES plus GM. Results. GM increased the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS) (P < 0.05). TS had no effect on the serum levels of BUN and Cr and KTDS, while low dose of ES intensified these parameters in male (P < 0.05). ES (0.5 mg/kg) without Pro ameliorated KTDS in female (P < 0.05) while ES (1 mg/kg) with or without Pro exacerbated the BUN values and Cr values, KTDS, and body weight loss (P < 0.05). Conclusion. ES (0.5 mg/kg) without Pro ameliorated kidney damage induced by GM in female while neither TS nor ES had beneficial effect on nephrotoxicity induced by GM in male, although ES aggravated it. PMID:27213082

  8. Sex hormones establish a reserve pool of adult muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Han, Gi-Chan; Seo, Ji-Yun; Park, Inkuk; Park, Wookjin; Jeong, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Su Hyeon; Bae, Sung-Hwan; Seong, Jinwoo; Yum, Min-Kyu; Hann, Sang-Hyeon; Kwon, Young-Guen; Seo, Daekwan; Choi, Man Ho; Kong, Young-Yun

    2016-09-01

    Quiescent satellite cells, known as adult muscle stem cells, possess a remarkable ability to regenerate skeletal muscle following injury throughout life. Although they mainly originate from multipotent stem/progenitor cells of the somite, the mechanism underlying the establishment of quiescent satellite cell populations is unknown. Here, we show that sex hormones induce Mind bomb 1 (Mib1) expression in myofibres at puberty, which activates Notch signalling in cycling juvenile satellite cells and causes them to be converted into adult quiescent satellite cells. Myofibres lacking Mib1 fail to send Notch signals to juvenile satellite cells, leading to impaired cell cycle exit and depletion. Our findings reveal that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis drives Mib1 expression in the myofibre niche. Moreover, the same axis regulates the re-establishment of quiescent satellite cell populations following injury. Our data show that sex hormones establish adult quiescent satellite cell populations by regulating the myofibre niche at puberty and re-establish them during regeneration. PMID:27548913

  9. The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals' mental health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rosalia; Colizzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sex hormonal treatment represents a main aspect of gender dysphoria health care pathway. However, it is still debated whether this intervention translates into a better mental well-being for the individual and which mechanisms may underlie this association. Although sex reassignment surgery has been the subject of extensive investigation, few studies have specifically focused on hormonal treatment in recent years. Here, we systematically review all studies examining the effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health and well-being in gender dysphoria. Research tends to support the evidence that hormone therapy reduces symptoms of anxiety and dissociation, lowering perceived and social distress and improving quality of life and self-esteem in both male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Instead, compared to female-to-male individuals, hormone-treated male-to-female individuals seem to benefit more in terms of a reduction in their body uneasiness and personality-related psychopathology and an amelioration of their emotional functioning. Less consistent findings support an association between hormonal treatment and other mental health-related dimensions. In particular, depression, global psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning difficulties appear to reduce only in some studies, while others do not suggest any improvement in these domains. Results from longitudinal studies support more consistently the association between hormonal treatment and improved mental health. On the contrary, a number of cross-sectional studies do not support this evidence. This review provides possible biological explanation vs psychological explanation (direct effect vs indirect effect) for the hormonal treatment-induced better mental well-being. In conclusion, this review indicates that gender dysphoria-related mental distress may benefit from hormonal treatment intervention, suggesting a transient reaction to the nonsatisfaction connected to the incongruent body

  10. The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals' mental health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rosalia; Colizzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sex hormonal treatment represents a main aspect of gender dysphoria health care pathway. However, it is still debated whether this intervention translates into a better mental well-being for the individual and which mechanisms may underlie this association. Although sex reassignment surgery has been the subject of extensive investigation, few studies have specifically focused on hormonal treatment in recent years. Here, we systematically review all studies examining the effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health and well-being in gender dysphoria. Research tends to support the evidence that hormone therapy reduces symptoms of anxiety and dissociation, lowering perceived and social distress and improving quality of life and self-esteem in both male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Instead, compared to female-to-male individuals, hormone-treated male-to-female individuals seem to benefit more in terms of a reduction in their body uneasiness and personality-related psychopathology and an amelioration of their emotional functioning. Less consistent findings support an association between hormonal treatment and other mental health-related dimensions. In particular, depression, global psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning difficulties appear to reduce only in some studies, while others do not suggest any improvement in these domains. Results from longitudinal studies support more consistently the association between hormonal treatment and improved mental health. On the contrary, a number of cross-sectional studies do not support this evidence. This review provides possible biological explanation vs psychological explanation (direct effect vs indirect effect) for the hormonal treatment-induced better mental well-being. In conclusion, this review indicates that gender dysphoria-related mental distress may benefit from hormonal treatment intervention, suggesting a transient reaction to the nonsatisfaction connected to the incongruent body

  11. The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals’ mental health: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Rosalia; Colizzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sex hormonal treatment represents a main aspect of gender dysphoria health care pathway. However, it is still debated whether this intervention translates into a better mental well-being for the individual and which mechanisms may underlie this association. Although sex reassignment surgery has been the subject of extensive investigation, few studies have specifically focused on hormonal treatment in recent years. Here, we systematically review all studies examining the effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health and well-being in gender dysphoria. Research tends to support the evidence that hormone therapy reduces symptoms of anxiety and dissociation, lowering perceived and social distress and improving quality of life and self-esteem in both male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Instead, compared to female-to-male individuals, hormone-treated male-to-female individuals seem to benefit more in terms of a reduction in their body uneasiness and personality-related psychopathology and an amelioration of their emotional functioning. Less consistent findings support an association between hormonal treatment and other mental health-related dimensions. In particular, depression, global psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning difficulties appear to reduce only in some studies, while others do not suggest any improvement in these domains. Results from longitudinal studies support more consistently the association between hormonal treatment and improved mental health. On the contrary, a number of cross-sectional studies do not support this evidence. This review provides possible biological explanation vs psychological explanation (direct effect vs indirect effect) for the hormonal treatment-induced better mental well-being. In conclusion, this review indicates that gender dysphoria-related mental distress may benefit from hormonal treatment intervention, suggesting a transient reaction to the nonsatisfaction connected to the incongruent body

  12. Endogenous Sex Hormones Impact the Progression of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Women during the Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wildman, Rachel P.; Matthews, Karen; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether endogenous sex hormones (estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) are longitudinally associated with progression of atherosclerosis among women at midlife. Methods 249 Pre- or early peri-menopausal women (42–57 years) from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) were followed for up to 9 years (median=3.7 years) and had up to 5 repeated measures of common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and adventitial diameter (AD). Linear mixed models were used for statistical analysis. Final models included age at baseline, time since baseline, cycle day of blood draw, race, income, SBP, BMI, insulin resistance index, lipids, C-reactive protein and co-morbidity. Results In final models for IMT, each one log unit decrease in SHBG was associated with a 0.005 mm/year increase in IMT progression (P=0.003). E2, T, and FSH were not associated with level or progression of IMT. For AD, each one log unit decrease in E2 was associated with a 0.012 mm/year increase in AD progression (P=0.04) and each one log unit increase in FSH was associated with a 0.016 mm/year increase in AD progression (P=0.003). T and SHBG were not associated with progression or level of AD. Conclusions Independent of SBP, BMI, lipids and other covariates, lower E2 and SHBG, and higher FSH were associated with increased subclinical atherosclerosis progression in women at midlife. PMID:22981430

  13. Thyroid Hormones Are Associated With Cognitive Function: Moderation by Sex, Race, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, H. A.; Kitner-Triolo, M. H.; Kaufman, J. S.; Evans, M. K.; Zonderman, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Recent evidence indicates that thyroid hormones may be closely linked to cognition among adults. Objective: We investigated associations between thyroid hormones and cognitive performance, while testing effect modification by sex, race, and elevated depressive symptoms (EDS). Design: This cross-sectional study used extensive data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Setting: The study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, from 2004 to 2009. Participants: Participants were U.S. adults aged 30 to 64 years. The sample size ranged from 1275 to 1346. Main Outcome Measures: Outcomes included 13 cognitive test scores spanning domains of learning/memory, language/verbal, attention, visuo-spatial/visuo-construction, psychomotor speed, executive function, and mental status. Results: Within reference ranges and after Bonferroni correction, elevated free thyroxine (fT4) was associated with better performance on tests of visuo-spatial/visuo-construction ability (overall, women, and African Americans) and learning/memory (women and African Americans), whereas a higher total thyroxine (tT4) level was associated with better performance in the domain of psychomotor speed (individuals without EDS) and higher levels of both fT4 and tT4 were linked to better language/verbal test performance among men. In contrast, higher T3(% uptake) was related to better performance on tests of visuo-spatial/visuo-construction ability and psychomotor speed among whites. When the above reference range was compared within the overall population and after Bonferroni correction, a within reference range fT4 was linked to better performance on visuo-spatial/visuo-constrution ability and psychomotor speed, whereas a below normal range TSH level (compared with the reference range) was linked to better performance in domains of psychomotor speed and attention. Conclusions: Thyroid hormones and cognition are closely linked differentially by sex

  14. Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers.

    PubMed

    Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Ferrer, Miguel D; Sureda, Antoni; Tauler, Pedro; Martínez, Elisa; Bibiloni, Maria M; Micol, Vicente; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2011-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage but also supplemented with Lippia citriodora extract (PLX) containing 20 mg/100 ml verbascoside. After the intervention all subjects participated in a swimming session for 30 min maintaining the intensity at about 75-80% of their individual best performance time for a 50-m swim. In lymphocytes, the superoxide dismutase activity increased after exercise, with a higher increase in the PLX group. Swimming increased the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the PLX group. Purified glutathione reductase activity increased after an in vitro incubation with PLX. No effects were observed on the lymphocyte levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyls, but exercise increased the percentage of high-damaged lymphocytes 2.8 times in the placebo group and 1.5 times in the PLX group. PLX decreased the levels of 17-β-estradiol and testosterone and increased the levels of the sex hormone binding globulin. In conclusion, supplementation with phytoestrogens enhances the glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in erythrocytes and the superoxide dismutase activity in lymphocytes in response to exercise. PLX also shows direct antioxidant properties, by increasing glutathione reductase enzyme activity in vitro. Supplementation with phytoestrogens also decreases the plasma steroid hormone levels, pointing towards a possible agonistic effect of verbascoside in the hypothalamic regulation of estradiol synthesis.

  15. Relationships between concentrations of selected organohalogen contaminants and thyroid hormones and vitamins A, E and D in Faroese pilot whales.

    PubMed

    Hoydal, Katrin S; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Borrell, Asunción; Wasik, Andrzej; Letcher, Robert J; Dam, Maria; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2016-07-01

    Pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Faroe Islands, North-East Atlantic, have high body concentrations of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs). The aim of the present study was to examine if and to what extent blood plasma and liver concentrations of several groups of these OHCs are related to concentrations of relevant nutritional and hormonal biomarkers in pilot whales. Thyroid hormones (THs: total and free thyroxine and total and free triiodothyronine) and vitamin A (retinol), D (25-hydroxyvitamin D3) and E (α-tocopherol) were analysed in plasma (n=27) and vitamin A (total vitamin A, retinol and retinyl palmitate) and E (α- and γ-tocopherol) were analysed in liver (n=37) of Faroe Island pilot whales. Correlative relationships between the biomarkers and OHC concentrations previously analysed in the same tissues in these individuals were studied. The TH concentrations in plasma were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults. Vitamin D concentrations in plasma and α- and γ-tocopherol in liver were higher in adults than in juveniles. Multivariate statistical modelling showed that the age and sex influenced the relationship between biomarkers and OHCs. Some significant positive relationships were found between OHCs and thyroid hormone concentrations in the youngest juveniles (p<0.05). In plasma of juvenile whales α-tocopherol was also positively correlated with all the OHCs (p<0.05). Only few significant correlations were found between single OHCs and retinol and vitamin D in plasma within the age groups. There were significant negative relationships between hepatic PBDE concentrations and retinol (BDE-47) and γ-tocopherol (BDE-49, -47, -100, -99, -153) in liver. The relationships between OHCs and THs or vitamins suggest that in pilot whales OHCs seem to have minor effects on TH and vitamin concentrations.

  16. Relationships between concentrations of selected organohalogen contaminants and thyroid hormones and vitamins A, E and D in Faroese pilot whales.

    PubMed

    Hoydal, Katrin S; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Borrell, Asunción; Wasik, Andrzej; Letcher, Robert J; Dam, Maria; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2016-07-01

    Pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Faroe Islands, North-East Atlantic, have high body concentrations of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs). The aim of the present study was to examine if and to what extent blood plasma and liver concentrations of several groups of these OHCs are related to concentrations of relevant nutritional and hormonal biomarkers in pilot whales. Thyroid hormones (THs: total and free thyroxine and total and free triiodothyronine) and vitamin A (retinol), D (25-hydroxyvitamin D3) and E (α-tocopherol) were analysed in plasma (n=27) and vitamin A (total vitamin A, retinol and retinyl palmitate) and E (α- and γ-tocopherol) were analysed in liver (n=37) of Faroe Island pilot whales. Correlative relationships between the biomarkers and OHC concentrations previously analysed in the same tissues in these individuals were studied. The TH concentrations in plasma were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults. Vitamin D concentrations in plasma and α- and γ-tocopherol in liver were higher in adults than in juveniles. Multivariate statistical modelling showed that the age and sex influenced the relationship between biomarkers and OHCs. Some significant positive relationships were found between OHCs and thyroid hormone concentrations in the youngest juveniles (p<0.05). In plasma of juvenile whales α-tocopherol was also positively correlated with all the OHCs (p<0.05). Only few significant correlations were found between single OHCs and retinol and vitamin D in plasma within the age groups. There were significant negative relationships between hepatic PBDE concentrations and retinol (BDE-47) and γ-tocopherol (BDE-49, -47, -100, -99, -153) in liver. The relationships between OHCs and THs or vitamins suggest that in pilot whales OHCs seem to have minor effects on TH and vitamin concentrations. PMID:27131793

  17. Presence and concentration of 17 hormones in human placenta processed for encapsulation and consumption.

    PubMed

    Young, Sharon M; Gryder, Laura K; Zava, David; Kimball, David W; Benyshek, Daniel C

    2016-07-01

    Human maternal placentophagy is a rare but growing practice in several industrialized countries among postpartum mothers seeking a variety of purported health benefits attributed to the practice. These postpartum mothers typically consume their placenta as a processed, encapsulated supplement. To determine whether free (unconjugated) steroid hormones and melatonin in placenta can survive the encapsulation process (namely steaming and dehydration), we analyzed 28 placenta samples processed for encapsulation using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to evaluate the concentration of 17 hormones. The results revealed detectable concentrations for 16 of the hormones analyzed, some in concentrations that could conceivably yield physiological effects. PMID:27324105

  18. Correspondence between Gonadal Steroid Hormone Concentrations and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Assessed by Clinicians, Adolescents, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…

  19. Thyroid metabolism in the recessive sex-linked dwarf female chicken. 1. Age related changes in thyroid hormone synthesis and circulating thyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Grandhi, R R; Brown, R G

    1975-03-01

    Age related changes in the levels of circulating thyroid hormones as well as the type of hormones synthesized in the thyroid glands from normal and sex-linked recessive dwarf, female chickens were studied. The impact of the presence of the dwarf gene on the parameters measured was minimal but significant alterations in the types of hormones produced in the thyroid gland with increasing age were observed. As the birds approached sexual maturity, the synthesis of triiodothyronine increased sharply such that the ratio of triiodothyronine (T3): tetraiodothyronine (T4) was approximately 15:1. This was in contrast to the T3:T4 ratio of younger birds which was approximately 0.7:1.0. This shift in hormone synthesis was reflected in relatively more circulating T3 in laying hens when compared with younger birds. It was also noted that four week old dwarf birds had higher circulating T3 values than those found for the normals.

  20. Adrenal steroid hormone concentrations in dogs with hair cycle arrest (Alopecia X) before and during treatment with melatonin and mitotane.

    PubMed

    Frank, Linda A; Hnilica, Keith A; Oliver, Jack W

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate intermediate adrenal steroid hormones (ISH) in neutered dogs with hair cycle arrest (Alopecia X) during treatment with melatonin, and to see if hair re-growth is associated with sex hormone concentrations within the normal ranges. Twenty-nine neutered, euthyroid, and normo-cortisolemic dogs were enrolled in the study (23 Pomeranians, three keeshonds, two miniature poodles, and one Siberian husky). Coat assessment and an ACTH stimulation test were performed pre-treatment and approximately every 4 months for a year post treatment. Melatonin was administered initially at 3-6 mg, every 12 h. Based on clinical progression, each dog was continued on the current dose of melatonin, given an increased dose of melatonin or changed to mitotane. Partial to complete hair re-growth occurred in 14/23 Pomeranians, and partial re-growth in 3/3 keeshond and 1/2 poodle dogs. A Siberian husky dog failed to re-grow hair. Fifteen dogs had partial hair re-growth at the first re-evaluation. Melatonin dosage was increased in eight dogs but only one had improved hair re-growth. On mitotane treatment, partial to complete hair re-growth was seen in 4/6 dogs and no re-growth in 2/6 dogs. No significant decrease in sex hormone concentrations were seen during melatonin or mitotane treatment. Concentrations of ISH in dogs with hair re-growth did not differ significantly from pre-treatment values. At the completion of the study, androstenedione, progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were still above reference ranges in 21, 64 and 36%, respectively, of dogs with partial to complete hair re-growth. In conclusion, 62% of dogs had partial to complete hair re-growth. However, not all dogs with hair re-growth had concentrations of ISH within the normal range.

  1. Serum sex hormone and growth arrest-specific protein 6 levels in male patients with coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui; Li, Yan; Dai, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of low serum testosterone levels in men with cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl, the ligand of which is growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6), is expressed in the vasculature, and serum GAS6 levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular events. Testosterone regulates GAS6 gene transcription directly, which inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells and provides a mechanistic insight into the cardioprotective action of androgens. This study was designed to determine the correlation between serum GAS6 and testosterone levels in male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We recruited 225 patients with CHD and 102 apparently healthy controls. Serum concentrations of GAS6 and soluble Axl were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, testosterone, estradiol, and other routine biochemical markers were also measured. Testosterone decreased from 432.69 ± 14.40 to 300.76 ± 6.23 ng dl−1 (P < 0.001) and GAS6 decreased from 16.20 ± 0.31 to 12.51 ± 0.19 ng ml−1 (P < 0.001) in patients with CHD, compared with control subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum testosterone and GAS6 levels were positively associated in male patients with CHD. Alterations in GAS6 levels may influence the development of CHD. Downregulation of GAS6/Axl signaling in the presence of low sex hormone levels during disease progression is a potential mechanism by which GAS6 affects CHD. This study provides novel results regarding the influence of sex hormones on serum GAS6 levels in patients with CHD. PMID:26924277

  2. Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Carl D.; Wright, Linnzi K.M.; Garcia, Gregory E.; Lee, Robyn B.; Lumley, Lucille A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are highly toxic compounds that cause a cascade of symptoms and death, if exposed casualties are left untreated. Numerous rodent models have investigated the toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity of CWNAs, but most are limited to male subjects. Given the profound physiological effects of circulating gonadal hormones in female rodents, it is possible that the daily cyclical fluctuations of these hormones affect females’ sensitivity to the lethal effects of CWNAs, and previous reports that included female subjects did not control for the stage of the hormonal cycle. The aim of the current study was to determine the 24-hour median lethal dose (LD50) of the CWNA sarin in male, ovariectomized (OVEX) female, and female rats during different stages of the estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, and estrus). Additionally, baseline activity levels of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and carboxylesterase were measured to determine differences among the groups. Results indicated that females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD50 of sarin compared to OVEX and estrous females. Although some sex differences were observed in the activity levels of plasma esterases, they were not consistent and likely not large enough to significantly affect the LD50s. These results suggest that hormonal cyclicity can influence the outcome of CWNA-related studies using female rodents, and that this variability can be minimized by controlling for the stage of the cycle. Additional research is necessary to determine the precise mechanism of the observed differences because it is unlikely to be solely explained by plasma esterase activity. PMID:26079828

  3. Can exposure to prenatal sex hormones (2D:4D) predict cognitive reflection?

    PubMed

    Bosch-Domènech, Antoni; Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Espín, Antonio M

    2014-05-01

    The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) is a test introduced by Frederick (2005). The task is designed to measure the tendency to override an intuitive response that is incorrect and to engage in further reflection that leads to the correct response. The consistent sex differences in CRT performance may suggest a role for prenatal sex hormones. A now widely studied putative marker for relative prenatal testosterone is the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D). This paper tests to what extent 2D:4D, as a proxy for the prenatal ratio of testosterone/estrogens, can predict CRT scores in a sample of 623 students. After controlling for sex, we observe that a lower 2D:4D (reflecting a relative higher exposure to testosterone) is significantly associated with a higher number of correct answers. The result holds for both hands' 2D:4Ds. In addition, the effect appears to be stronger for females than for males. We also control for patience and math proficiency, which are significantly related to performance in the CRT. But the effect of 2D:4D on performance in CRT is not reduced with these controls, implying that these variables are not mediating the relationship between digit ratio and CRT.

  4. The effects of sex and hormonal status on the physiological response to acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Kajantie, Eero; Phillips, David I W

    2006-02-01

    Whether one is male or female is one of the most important determinants of human health. While males are more susceptible to cardiovascular and infectious disease, they are outnumbered by women for many autoimmune disorders, fibromyalgia and chronic pain. Recently, individual differences in the physiological response to stress have emerged as a potentially important risk factor for these disorders. This raises the possibility that sex differences in prevalence of disease could at least in part be explained by sex differences in the nature of the physiological response to stress. In a psychophysiological laboratory, the autonomic nervous system response can be provoked by many different stressors including physical, mental and psychosocial tasks, while the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) response seems to be more specific to a psychosocial challenge incorporating ego involvement. The responses of both systems to different psychosocial challenges have been subject to extensive research, although in respect of sex differences the HPAA response has probably been more systematically studied. In this review, we focus on sex differences in HPAA and autonomic nervous system responses to acute psychosocial stress. Although some differences are dependent on the stressor used, the responses of both systems show marked and consistent differences according to sex, with the phase of the menstrual cycle, menopausal status and pregnancy having marked effects. Between puberty and menopause, adult women usually show lower HPAA and autonomic responses than men of same age. However, the HPAA response is higher in the luteal phase, when for example post stress free cortisol levels approach those of men. After menopause, there is an increase in sympathoadrenal responsiveness, which is attenuated during oral hormone replacement therapy, with most evidence suggesting that HPAA activity shows the same trends. Interestingly, pregnancy is associated with an attenuated response of

  5. Glucocorticosteroid concentrations in feces and hair of captive caribou and reindeer following adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge.

    PubMed

    Ashley, N T; Barboza, P S; Macbeth, B J; Janz, D M; Cattet, M R L; Booth, R K; Wasser, S K

    2011-07-01

    Climate change and industrial development are contributing to synchronous declines in Rangifer populations across the Arctic. Chronic stress has been implicated as a proximate factor associated with decline in free-ranging populations, but its role in Rangifer is unspecified. Analysis of glucocorticosteroid (GC) concentration in feces, and more recently in hair, is a non-invasive method for monitoring stress in wildlife. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) released from the pituitary gland stimulates GC release from the adrenals and can be administered to reflect adrenal activation. In this study, we assessed concentrations of GC metabolites in feces and cortisol in hair of Alaskan caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and reindeer (R. t. tarandus) following ACTH treatment. We predicted that ACTH challenge would increase concentrations of fecal GCs, but not hair cortisol because steroid deposited into the hair shaft occurs over an extended period of time (months) and is likely insensitive to acute adrenal stimulation. Adult caribou (n=10; mean age, 6.5 years old) exhibited a peak increase in fecal GCs 8h following a 2 IU/kg dose of ACTH compared to pre-injection concentrations. In contrast, sub-adult reindeer (n=10, 0.8 years old) elicited a diminished response to the same dose. Quadrupling the dose (8 IU/kg) prolonged the fecal GC response in female reindeer, but male reindeer were unresponsive. Hair cortisol was unaffected by a single ACTH challenge. Further investigation is required to ascertain whether subspecific differences in adrenal sensitivity are attributed to age or sex differences, or historical selective pressures from semi-domestication and/or sedentary life cycle in reindeer.

  6. Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism by measurement of plasma thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, K D; Virdi, N K; Rayner, P H; Green, A

    1985-01-01

    Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism was introduced in the City of Birmingham in 1980 by measuring concentrations of both thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroxine in plasma. Over two years 30 108 babies were tested. Thirty one babies were recalled because of thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations greater than 40 mU/l, of whom 12 were treated with replacement thyroxine. Six babies were found to have low thyroxine concentrations because of reduced thyroxine binding globulin and five raised thyroxine values because of increased thyroxine binding globulin. As a result of this study screening was continued with measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone only as the primary test for congenital hypothyroidism, the thyroxine value being measured only when the concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone exceeded 20 mU/l. PMID:3926078

  7. Influence of Triazine Herbicide Exposure on Guppies (Poecilia sphenops) Aromatase Activities, Altered Sex Steroid Concentration and Vitellogenin Induction.

    PubMed

    Vasanth, S; Arul, G; Karthikeyeni, S; Kumar, T S V; Vignesh, V; Manimegalai, M; Bupesh, G; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide is one the most toxic and sustaining pollutants in aquatic environment. It is detectable in surface water and in underground sources of drinking water. Many studies indicate that atrazine might be a potent endocrine disrupting xenobiotic. There are limited studies have revealed that the effects of atrazine on sex steroids hormones, vitellogenin and induction of aromatase, gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. In this study, juvenile Poecilia sphenops fish was exposed to three different (0.83, 1.25 and 2.5 ppm) concentration of atrazine for 100 d. Changes in plasma and gonadal content and concentrations of sex steroids and vitellogenin protein in poecilia sphenops under laboratory conditions were assessed. The low level of the atrazine show estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a shortage of testosterone induction. Present study suggests that low induction of plasma vitellogenin and aromatase in male fish become suitable biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic chemicals. PMID:26009647

  8. Influence of Triazine Herbicide Exposure on Guppies (Poecilia sphenops) Aromatase Activities, Altered Sex Steroid Concentration and Vitellogenin Induction

    PubMed Central

    Vasanth, S.; Arul, G.; Karthikeyeni, S.; Kumar, T. S. V.; Vignesh, V.; Manimegalai, M.; Bupesh, G.; Thirumurugan, R.; Subramanian, P.

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide is one the most toxic and sustaining pollutants in aquatic environment. It is detectable in surface water and in underground sources of drinking water. Many studies indicate that atrazine might be a potent endocrine disrupting xenobiotic. There are limited studies have revealed that the effects of atrazine on sex steroids hormones, vitellogenin and induction of aromatase, gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. In this study, juvenile Poecilia sphenops fish was exposed to three different (0.83, 1.25 and 2.5 ppm) concentration of atrazine for 100 d. Changes in plasma and gonadal content and concentrations of sex steroids and vitellogenin protein in poecilia sphenops under laboratory conditions were assessed. The low level of the atrazine show estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a shortage of testosterone induction. Present study suggests that low induction of plasma vitellogenin and aromatase in male fish become suitable biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic chemicals. PMID:26009647

  9. Influence of Triazine Herbicide Exposure on Guppies (Poecilia sphenops) Aromatase Activities, Altered Sex Steroid Concentration and Vitellogenin Induction.

    PubMed

    Vasanth, S; Arul, G; Karthikeyeni, S; Kumar, T S V; Vignesh, V; Manimegalai, M; Bupesh, G; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide is one the most toxic and sustaining pollutants in aquatic environment. It is detectable in surface water and in underground sources of drinking water. Many studies indicate that atrazine might be a potent endocrine disrupting xenobiotic. There are limited studies have revealed that the effects of atrazine on sex steroids hormones, vitellogenin and induction of aromatase, gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. In this study, juvenile Poecilia sphenops fish was exposed to three different (0.83, 1.25 and 2.5 ppm) concentration of atrazine for 100 d. Changes in plasma and gonadal content and concentrations of sex steroids and vitellogenin protein in poecilia sphenops under laboratory conditions were assessed. The low level of the atrazine show estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a shortage of testosterone induction. Present study suggests that low induction of plasma vitellogenin and aromatase in male fish become suitable biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic chemicals.

  10. Building a better hormone therapy? How understanding the rapid effects of sex steroid hormones could lead to new therapeutics for age-related memory decline.

    PubMed

    Frick, Karyn M

    2012-02-01

    A wealth of data collected in recent decades has demonstrated that ovarian sex-steroid hormones, particularly 17β-estradiol (E2), are important trophic factors that regulate the function of cognitive regions of the brain such as the hippocampus. The loss of hormone cycling at menopause is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in women, and the onset of memory decline in animal models. However, hormone therapy is not currently recommended to prevent or treat cognitive decline, in part because of its detrimental side effects. In this article, it is proposed that investigations of the rapid effects of E2 on hippocampal function be used to further the design of new drugs that mimic the beneficial effects of E2 on memory without the side effects of current therapies. A conceptual model is presented for elucidating the molecular and biochemical mechanisms through which sex-steroid hormones modulate memory, and a specific hypothesis is proposed to account for the rapid memory-enhancing effects of E2. Empirical support for this hypothesis is discussed as a means of stimulating the consideration of new directions for the development of hormone-based therapies to preserve memory function in menopausal women.

  11. Sex steroid hormones do not enhance the direct stimulatory effect of kisspetin-10 on the secretion of growth hormone from bovine anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Ezzat Ahmed, Ahmed; Saito, Hayato; Sawada, Tatsuru; Yaegashi, Tomoyoshi; Jin, Jin; Sawai, Ken; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Hashizume, Tsutomu

    2011-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to clarify the effect of kisspeptin10 (Kp10) on the secretion of growth hormone (GH) from bovine anterior pituitary (AP) cells, and evaluate the ability of sex steroid hormones to enhance the sensitivity of somatotrophic cells to Kp10. AP cells prepared from 8-11-month-old castrated calves were incubated for 12 h with estradiol (E(2), 10(-8) mol/L),progesterone (P(4), 10(-8) mol/L), testosterone (T, 10(-8) mol/L), or vehicle only (control), and then for 2 h with Kp10. The amount of GH released in the medium was measured by a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Kp10 (10(-6) or 10(-5) mol/L) significantly stimulated the secretion of GH from the AP cells regardless of steroid treatments (P < 0.05), and E(2), P(4), and T had no effect on this response. The GH-releasing response to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH, 10(-8) mol/L) was significantly greater than that to Kp10 (P < 0.05). The present results suggest that Kp10 directly stimulates the release of GH from somatotrophic cells and sex steroid hormones do not enhance the sensitivity of these cells to Kp10. Furthermore, they suggest that the GH-releasing effect of Kp10 is less potent than that of GHRH.

  12. Building a better hormone therapy?: How understanding the rapid effects of sex steroid hormones could lead to new therapeutics for age-related memory decline

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of data collected in recent decades has demonstrated that ovarian sex-steroid hormones, particularly 17β-estradiol (E2), are important trophic factors that regulate the function of cognitive regions of the brain such as the hippocampus. The loss of hormone cycling at menopause is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in women, and the onset of memory decline in animal models. However, hormone therapy is not currently recommended to prevent or treat cognitive decline, in part because of its detrimental side effects. In this article, it is proposed that investigations of the rapid effects of E2 on hippocampal function be used to further the design of new drugs that mimic the beneficial effects of E2 on memory without the side effects of current therapies. A conceptual model is presented for elucidating the molecular and biochemical mechanisms through which sex-steroid hormones modulate memory, and a specific hypothesis is proposed to account for the rapid memory-enhancing effects of E2. Empirical support for this hypothesis is discussed as a means of stimulating the consideration of new directions for the development of hormone-based therapies to preserve memory function in menopausal women. PMID:22289043

  13. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  14. Developmental effects of Arochlor 1242 in American kestrels and associated hormone concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, J.B.; Henry, P.F.P.; Rattner, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, diverse field and experimental studies have been brought together to suggest that abnormal sexual and reproductive development in wildlife might be caused by the endocrine-like activity of pollutants acting on embryos. For example, hormonal and gonadal anomalies in juvenile alligators from Florida are associated with exposure to DDT and dicofol, experimental work on laboratory rodents has identified estrogenic and androgenic properties of several pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, and injection of gull eggs with metabolites of DDT produces intersex gonads in the male hatchlings. Very little evidence is available for birds that demonstrates a deficit in reproductive capability by this mechanism. Our breeding and egg-injection studies are investigating the potential of Aroclor 1242 and hydroxylated PCB congener 30, both with known estrogenic activity, to alter the course of embryonic development of reproductive structures and to affect later reproductive function in American kestrels. Findings from young birds whose parents were exposed indicated that gonadal morphology appeared consistent with the genetic sex of exposed birds; testes of exposed birds showed no difference in size or symmetry when compared to controls. Histological preparations showed very little intersexuality of male testes; females had ovaries that were indistinguishable from controls. Female hatchlings tended to show increased androgen and decreased estrogen in their serum with greater dose of Aroclor; females hatchlings that resulted from injected eggs showed an opposite trend. Analyses in progress include LHRH and catecholamine concentrations in the brain.

  15. Aggression, impulsivity, plasma sex hormones, and biogenic amine turnover in a forensic population of rapists.

    PubMed

    Giotakos, Orestis; Markianos, Manolis; Vaidakis, Nikos; Christodoulou, George N

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess androgen plasma levels and biogenic amine metabolites in a sex-offender group as well as to investigate the relationship between the biological findings and the impulsive, aggressive, and suicidal profile of the offenders. Fifty-seven males convicted for rape and 25 normal males comprised the study sample. We found that although both testosterone levels and aggression-impulsivity scores were higher in the group of rapists, testosterone levels were not associated with the aggression and impulsivity scores. Nevertheless, aggression-impulsivity scores were clearly associated with luteinizing hormone levels. This association may indicate a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, possibly the result of a reduced serotonergic activity.

  16. Contrasting effects of opposite- versus same-sex housing on hormones, behavior and neurogenesis in a eusocial mammal.

    PubMed

    Peragine, Deane E; Yousuf, Yusef; Fu, Yi; Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Ginzberg, Keren; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-05-01

    Competitive interactions can have striking and enduring effects on behavior, but the mechanisms underlying this experience-induced plasticity are unclear, particularly in females. Naked mole-rat (NMR) colonies are characterized by the strictest social and reproductive hierarchy among mammals, and represent an ideal system for studies of social competition. In large matriarchal colonies, breeding is monopolized by one female and 1-3 males, with other colony members being socially subordinate and reproductively suppressed. To date, competition for breeding status has been examined in-colony, with female, but not male, aggression observed following the death/removal of established queens. To determine whether this sex difference extends to colony-founding contexts, and clarify neural and endocrine mechanisms underlying behavioral change in females competing for status, we examined neurogenesis and steroid hormone concentrations in colony-housed subordinates, and NMRs given the opportunity to transition status via pair-housing. To this end, Ki-67 and doublecortin immunoreactivity were compared in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) of colony-housed subordinates, and subordinates housed with a same-sex (SS) or opposite-sex (OS) conspecific. Results suggest that OS pairing in eusocial mammals promotes cooperation and enhances hippocampal plasticity, while SS pairing is stressful, resulting in enhanced HPA activation and muted hippocampal neurogenesis relative to OS pairs. Data further indicate that competition for status is confined to females, with female-female housing exerting contrasting effects on hippocampal and amygdalar neurogenesis. These findings advance understanding of social stress effects on neuroplasticity and behavior, and highlight the importance of including female-dominated species in research on aggression and intrasexual competition. PMID:27018426

  17. Hypospadias and variants in genes related to sex hormone biosynthesis and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, S L; Witte, J S; Ma, C; Lammer, E J; Shaw, G M

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether variants in genes related to sex hormone biosynthesis and metabolism were associated with hypospadias in humans. We examined 332 relatively common tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in 20 genes. Analyses included 633 cases (84 mild, 322 moderate, 212 severe and 15 undetermined severity) and 855 population-based non-malformed male controls born in California from 1990 to 2003. We used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each SNP. Several of the 332 studied SNPs had p < 0.01: one in CYP3A4, four in HSD17B3, one in HSD3B1, two in STARD3, 10 in SRD5A2 and seven in STS. In addition, haplotype analyses gave several associations with p < 0.01. For HSD17B3, 14-SNP and 5-SNP blocks had ORs of 1.5 (95% CI 1.1, 2.0, p < 0.001) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.6, 4.8, p < 0.001) respectively. For SRD5A2, 9-SNP, 3-SNP and 8-SNP blocks had ORs of 1.7 (95% CI 1.3, 2.2, p < 0.001), 1.4 (95% CI 1.1, 1.8, p = 0.008) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.2, 1.9, p = 0.002) respectively. Our study indicates that several genes that contribute to sex hormone biosynthesis and metabolism are associated with hypospadias risk.

  18. Relationship between sex hormones and cognitive performance in men with substance use*

    PubMed Central

    Zilbermint, Mihail F.; Wisniewski, Amy B.; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Selnes, Ola A.; Dobs, Adrian S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hypogonadism is common with opiate-like drug use and may contribute to cognitive abnormalities. With the increasing epidemic of HIV and substance use (SU) worldwide, it is important to understand the impact of these conditions on cognition, which may affect quality of life and possibly decrease adherence to treatment. We hypothesized that men with SU, by virtue of hypogonadism secondary to HIV and/or SU, may demonstrate impaired cognition. METHODS We recruited men aged 18-50 from a population of low income, innercity individuals. Details of HIV and SU status, serum blood levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT) and estradiol (E2) were assessed. All subjects were administered ten neuropsychological tests. RESULTS Our sample consisted of 68 men (mean age: 43.2 years (SD 5.8), African Americans: 86.6%). The recruited population was primarily from low socioeconomic status and unemployed. The mean level of TT was 553.9 ng/dL (SD 262.0), the mean level of FT was 69.5 pg/mL (SD 34.8), mean E2 was 3.2 pg/mL (SD 4.4). We found that 30.9% were hypogonadal and it was associated with higher SU. RESULTS We observed some relationships between sex hormones and cognitive domains, however, after adjustment for age, drug use category, education, depression, HIV, there was no statistically significant correlation between cognitive performance and sex hormone levels. CONCLUSIONS In this cross-sectional study of men with a high prevalence of SU and hypogonadism, endogenous levels of TT, FT or E2 were not related to cognitive performance. Other factors need to be identified which may contribute to poor cognitive function in the setting of SU. PMID:23021515

  19. Sex Determination in Bees. IV. Genetic Control of Juvenile Hormone Production in MELIPONA QUADRIFASCIATA (Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Akahira, Yukio; Camargo, Conceição A.

    1975-01-01

    Cell number and volume of corpora allata was determined for 8 phases of development, the first prepupal stage to adults 30 days old, in the social Apidae Melipona quadrifasciata. In the second prepupal stage a strong correlation was found between cell number and body weight ( r=0.651**), and cell number and corpora allata volume in prepupal stage (r=0.535*), which indicates that juvenile hormone has a definite role in caste determination in Melipona. The distribution of the volume of corpus allatum suggest a 3:1 segregation between bees with high volume of corpora allata against low and medium volume. This implies that genes xa and xb code for an enzyme that directly participates in juvenile hormone production. It was also concluded that the number of cells in the second prepupal stage is more important than the weight of the prepupa for caste determination. A scheme summarizing the genic control of sex and caste determination in Melipona bees in the prepupal phase is given. PMID:1213273

  20. Sex hormone influence on hepatitis in young male A/JCr mice infected with Helicobacter hepaticus.

    PubMed

    Theve, Elizabeth J; Feng, Yan; Taghizadeh, Koli; Cormier, Kathleen S; Bell, David R; Fox, James G; Rogers, Arlin B

    2008-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), the leading cause of human hepatocellular carcinoma, is especially virulent in males infected at an early age. Likewise, the murine liver carcinogen Helicobacter hepaticus is most pathogenic in male mice infected before puberty. We used this model to investigate the influence of male sex hormone signaling on infectious hepatitis. Male A/JCr mice were infected with H. hepaticus or vehicle at 4 weeks and randomized into surgical and pharmacologic treatment groups. Interruption of androgen pathways was confirmed by hormone measurements, histopathology, and liver gene and Cyp4a protein expression. Castrated males and those receiving the competitive androgen receptor antagonist flutamide had significantly less severe hepatitis as determined by histologic activity index than intact controls at 4 months. Importantly, the powerful androgen receptor agonist dihydrotestosterone did not promote hepatitis. No effect on hepatitis was evident in males treated with the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor dutasteride, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist bezafibrate, or the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flufenamic acid. Consistent with previous observations of hepatitis-associated liver-gender disruption, transcriptional alterations involved both feminine (cytochrome P450 4a14) and masculine (cytochrome P450 4a12 and trefoil factor 3) genes, as well gender-neutral (H19 fetal liver mRNA, lipocalin 2, and ubiquitin D) genes. Hepatitis was associated with increased unsaturated C(18) long-chain fatty acids (oleic acid and linoleic acid) relative to saturated stearic acid. Our results indicate that certain forms of androgen interruption can inhibit H. hepaticus-induced hepatitis in young male mice, whereas androgen receptor agonism does not worsen disease. This raises the possibility of targeted hormonal therapy in young male patients with childhood-acquired HBV.

  1. Cross-cultural variation in women's preferences for cues to sex- and stress-hormones in the male face

    PubMed Central

    Moore, F. R.; Coetzee, V.; Contreras-Garduño, J.; Debruine, L. M.; Kleisner, K.; Krams, I.; Marcinkowska, U.; Nord, A.; Perrett, D. I.; Rantala, M. J.; Schaum, N.; Suzuki, T. N.

    2013-01-01

    Women in the UK prefer the faces of men with low levels of the stress hormone cortisol, and the relationship is moderated by the sex hormone testosterone. In a Latvian sample, however, women's preferences were not affected by cortisol, and the interaction with testosterone differed from that of the UK. To further explore cross-cultural variation in preferences for facial cues to sex- and stress-hormones, we tested the preferences of women from 13 countries for facial composites constructed to differ in combinations of the hormones. We found significant relationships between a measure of societal development (the United Nations human development index 2011) and preferences for cues to testosterone in the face, and the interaction between preferences for cues to testosterone and cortisol. We also found a significant relationship between preferences for cues to testosterone and a societal-level measure of parasite stress. We conclude that societal-level ecological factors influence the relative value of traits revealed by combinations of sex- and stress-hormones. PMID:23536442

  2. Sex hormone modulation of proinflammatory cytokine and CRP expression in macrophages from older men and postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation plays a central role in the development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD). The sex hormones estrogen and testosterone have been shown to modify the inflammatory response by influencing cytokine expression in human macrophage cells obtained from younger individuals. The eff...

  3. DETERMINATION OF SEX HORMONES AND NONYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES IN THE AQUEOUS MATRIXES OF TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two analytical methods were developed and refined for the detection and quantitation of two groups of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the liquid matrixes of two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. The targeted compounds are seven sex hormones (estradiol, ...

  4. Effect of the Combined Extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi on Sex Hormone Functional Levels in Osteoporosis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xue; Nian, HongLei; Yang, XinWei; Shi, HaoTian; Wang, XiuJuan

    2015-01-01

    The combination of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi has been used to treat osteoporosis for almost 50 years by Professor Shizeng Li, a famous doctor of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, it is unclear whether the combination of the effective constituents of the two herbs may have a protective influence on the skeleton. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the combination extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi on rat model of osteoporosis induced by retinoic acid by gavage. With administrations of the combination extracts of the two herbs (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day) via oral gavage for 3 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD), femur histomorphometry, some sex hormones, and sex hormone receptors were measured. Results showed that the combined extracts could increase BMD, affect bone histomorphometry, coordinate the sex hormones at the level of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, and increase the protein and mRNA expressions of sex hormone receptors. The findings suggested that the combination extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi might be beneficial as an alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25648166

  5. Toxic effects of Mn2O3 nanoparticles on rat testis and sex hormone

    PubMed Central

    Negahdary, Masoud; Arefian, Zahra; Dastjerdi, Hajar Akbari; Ajdary, Marziyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: The safety of Mn2O3 nanoparticles (which are extensively used in industries) on male reproductive system is not known. Hence, we investigated the effects of Mn2O3 nanoparticles on male reproductive system. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 Wistar adult male rats were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 rats each. Three groups received Mn2O3 solution in concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 ppm orally for 14 days; the control group received equal volume of saline solution. Blood samples and testicles were collected for analysis. Results: Significant reduction in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, spermatogonial cells, primary spermatocyte, spermatid and Leydig cell was observed in the Mn2O3 nanoparticles treated groups compared with controls. Conclusion: Mn2O3 nanoparticles significantly reduce FSH, LH, and testosterone levels resulting in a significant reduction in testicular cytology. PMID:26283824

  6. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  7. Effects of perinatal exposure to low-dose cadmium on thyroid hormone-related and sex hormone receptor gene expressions in brain of offspring.

    PubMed

    Ishitobi, Hiromi; Mori, Kohki; Yoshida, Katsumi; Watanabe, Chiho

    2007-07-01

    Perinatal cadmium (Cd) exposure has been shown to alter behaviors and reduce learning ability of offspring. A few studies have shown that Cd reduced serum thyroid hormones (THs), which are important for brain development during the perinatal period. Brain specific genes, neurogranin (RC3) and myelin basic protein (BMP), are known to be regulated by TH through TH receptors (TR). It has been suggested that RC3 may play roles in memory and learning. In addition, Cd has been suggested to have estrogen-like activity. To evaluate the effects of perinatal low-dose exposure to Cd on thyroid hormone-related gene (RC3, TR-beta1, MBP, RAR-beta) and sex hormone receptor gene (ER-alpha, ER-beta and PgR) expressions in the brain and on behaviors of offspring, mice were administered with 10ppm Cd (from gestational day 1 to postnatal day 10) and/or 0.025% methimazole (MMI; anti-thyroid drug) (from gestational day 12 to postnatal day 10) in drinking water. Also, 0.1% MMI was administered as a positive control (high MMI group). RC3 mRNA expression was reduced in the female brain of combined exposure and high MMI groups and was negatively correlated with the activity in the open-field. ER-alpha, ER-beta and PgR mRNA expressions were decreased in male and female Cd, and female Cd+MMI groups, respectively; among these changes the reduced expression of PgR was opposite to estrogenic action. These results suggested that perinatal exposure to Cd disrupted the gene expressions of sex hormone receptors, which could not be considered to be a result of estrogenic action. Our study indicates that alteration in the gene expressions of RC3 and sex hormone receptors in the brain induced by perinatal Cd and MMI exposure might be one mechanism of developmental toxicity of Cd. PMID:17408746

  8. Significant role of female sex hormones in cardiac myofilament activation in angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Sulaksana; Woranush, Warunya; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas

    2014-07-01

    Ovariectomy leads to suppression of cardiac myofilament activation in healthy rats implicating the physiological essence of female sex hormones on myocardial contraction. However, the possible function of these hormones during pathologically induced myofilament adaptation is not known. In this study, sham-operated and ovariectomized female rats were chronically exposed to angiotensin II (AII), which has been shown to cause myocardial adaptation. In the shams, AII induced cardiac adaptation by increasing myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. Interestingly, this hypersensitivity was further enhanced in AII-infused ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomy increased the phosphorylation levels of cardiac tropomyosin, which may underlie the mechanism of hypersensitivity. On the other hand, AII infusion did not alter maximal tension that was suppressed after ovariectomy. This finding coincided with a comparable increase in β-isoform of myosin heavy chains in both ovariectomized groups. Together, it is conceivable that female sex hormones serve as predominant factors that regulate cardiac myofilament activation. Furthermore, they may prevent stress-induced myofilament maladaptation.

  9. Effects of age and sex on hormonal responses to weightlessness simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larochelle, F.; Leach, C.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of horizontal bedrest on the excretion of catecholamines, aldosterone, and cortisol by human subjects grouped by age and sex are examined. The responses are assessed by assays of 24-hr urine samples collected throughout the studies. In 36-45-yr-olds, the excretion of epinephrine increases, whereas it decreases in the 46-55- and 56-65-yr-old groups. Norepinephrine excretion decreases (5-27%) in all groups during bedrest. Aldosterone excretion increases in the younger two groups of both males (19 and 6%) and females (47 and 9%). A slight decrease is observed in 56-65-yr-old males (6%), whereas excretion in females is unchanged. Cortisol excretion increases in the youngest groups of both men (12%) and women (13%) but decreases in the 56-65-yr-old groups (6 and 5%). For the two groups of intermediate age (46-55 yr), excretion in females decreases (15%), whereas in males it increases (19%). It is believed that hormone measurements may be of value in explaining variation in stress tolerance due to age and/or sex during space flight.

  10. [Role of sex hormones in realizing the monoamine effect on the luliberin content in the hypothalamus].

    PubMed

    Babichev, V N; Samsonova, V M; Markarian, R L

    1982-05-01

    Drastic decrease in the level of sex hormone in the blood of castrated male rats lessened the content of LH-RH in the arcuate nuclei and median eminence of the hypothalamus. Obviously, this area is the place affected by androgens within the system of the negative feedback mechanism. Intraventricular noradrenaline had a stimulating effect on the synthesis and secretion of LH-RH in both intact and castrated animals. Meanwhile in the absence of sex steroids that action was less powerful. Dopamine stimulated the release of LH-RH from the terminals of the median eminence in all the groups of the animals. In intact animals, serotonin had no effect on the content of LH-RH, while in the castrated animals, it produced an inhibitory action on the synthesis and secretion of LH-RH. The results indicate that the intensity and the line of the effects of monoamines under study may depend to a certain extent on the animals endocrine status. The effects of monoamines on LH-RH neurones is steroid-dependent.

  11. Metabolic profiling of cholesterol and sex steroid hormones to monitor urological diseases.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ju-Yeun; Choi, Man Ho; Kim, Jayoung

    2016-10-01

    Cholesterol and sex steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens play a critical role in the development and progression of urological diseases such as prostate cancer. This disease remains the most commonly diagnosed malignant tumor in men and is the leading cause of death from different cancers. Attempts to understand the role of cholesterol and steroid metabolism in urological diseases have been ongoing for many years, but despite this, our mechanistic and translational understanding remains elusive. In order to further evaluate the problem, we have taken an interest in metabolomics; a discipline dedicated to the systematic study of biologically active metabolites in cells, tissues, hair and biofluids. Recently, we provided evidence that a quantitative measurement of cholesterol and sex steroid metabolites can be successfully achieved using hair of human and mouse models. The overall goal of this short review article is to introduce current metabolomic technologies for the quantitative biomarker assay development and also to provide new insight into understanding the underlying mechanisms that trigger the pathological condition. Furthermore, this review will place a particular emphasis on how to prepare biospecimens (e.g., hair fiber), quantify molecular profiles and assess their clinical significance in various urological diseases. PMID:27580660

  12. Sex hormone-binding globulin: not only a transport protein. What news is around the corner?

    PubMed

    Fortunati, N

    1999-03-01

    The plasma Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) transports androgens and estradiol in the blood and regulates their bioavailable fraction and access to target cells. The recent advances in the knowledge of its structure and gene expression, and notabily the demonstration of a specific receptor (SHBG-R) located on membranes of sex steroid responsive cells, gave support to the thesis that SHBG has much more sophisticated functions at cell site. In particular, the receptor-mediated action of SHBG, which uses as a second messenger cAMP, has been linked to the effects of androgens and estradiol. It is conceivable that the SHBG/SHBG-R system works as an additional control mechanism which inhibits or amplifies the effects of DHT and estradiol in cells. In the prostate, it has been suggested that the estradiol-activated SHBG/SHBG-R complex cross-talks with the androgen receptor, and is able to activate AR even in the absence of DHT. Of great interest, for its potential clinical applications, is the observation that in estrogen-dependent breast cancer SHBG, through SHBG-R, cAMP and PKA, specifically inhibits the estradiol-induction of cell proliferation. This anti-proliferative, anti-estrogenic effect of human SHBG has not only increased and continues to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the biology of breast cancer, but could also be exploited as a future therapeutic strategy in the managing of estrogen-dependent tumours.

  13. Metabolic profiling of cholesterol and sex steroid hormones to monitor urological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ju-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol and sex steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens play a critical role in the development and progression of urological diseases such as prostate cancer. This disease remains the most commonly diagnosed malignant tumor in men and is the leading cause of death from different cancers. Attempts to understand the role of cholesterol and steroid metabolism in urological diseases have been ongoing for many years, but despite this, our mechanistic and translational understanding remains elusive. In order to further evaluate the problem, we have taken an interest in metabolomics; a discipline dedicated to the systematic study of biologically active metabolites in cells, tissues, hair and biofluids. Recently, we provided evidence that a quantitative measurement of cholesterol and sex steroid metabolites can be successfully achieved using hair of human and mouse models. The overall goal of this short review article is to introduce current metabolomic technologies for the quantitative biomarker assay development and also to provide new insight into understanding the underlying mechanisms that trigger the pathological condition. Furthermore, this review will place a particular emphasis on how to prepare biospecimens (e.g., hair fiber), quantify molecular profiles and assess their clinical significance in various urological diseases. PMID:27580660

  14. Effect of ovariectomy and sex hormone replacement on glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes in rat hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hambali, Z; Ngah, W Z; Wahid, S A; Kadir, K A

    1995-01-01

    The effects of ovariectomy and hormone replacement in control and carcinogen treated female rats were investigated by measuring whole blood and liver glutathione (WGSH, HGSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRx) and histological evaluation. Hepatocarcinogenesis was induced by diethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene. In control rats not receiving carcinogen, ovariectomy significantly increased the GST and GRx activities. Replacement with either estrogen or progesterone reduced the GST activities to below intact female values whereas replacement of both hormones together brought the GST activities to that of intact females. GRx activities were brought to intact female values by replacement with estrogen or progesterone, either singly or in combination. Neither ovariectomy nor sex hormone/s replacement influenced the levels of WGSH, HGSH and GPx activities. Carcinogen administration to intact rats increased all the parameters measured. Ovariectomized rats treated with carcinogen showed lower GPx and GRx activities at 2 mths. However, replacement with either progesterone or combined estrogen and progesterone increased GPx and GRx activities to original values. On the other hand GST and GPx activities in ovariectomized rats which had carcinogen treatment were lower than intact rats after 5 mths. Replacement with hormones either singly or both brought GST and GPx activities up to intact rat levels receiving carcinogen. The levels of WGSH, HGSH and GRx activities (5 mths) in carcinogen treated rats were not influenced by ovariectomy and/or hormone/s replacement. The results from this study suggested that ovariectomy reduced the severity of hepatocarcinogenesis which was restored by sex hormone/s replacement.

  15. Sex steroid induced apoptosis as a rational strategy to treat anti-hormone resistant breast and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Jordan, V Craig; Fan, Ping; Abderrahman, Balkees; Maximov, Philipp Y; Hawsawi, Yousef M; Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Pokharel, Niranjana

    2016-05-01

    The combined incidence and the extended disease course of breast and prostate cancer is a major challenge for health care systems. The solution for society requires an economically viable treatment strategy to maintain individuals disease free and productive, so as to avoid the fracture of the family unit. Forty years ago, translational research using the antiestrogen tamoxifen was targeted to estrogen receptor (ER) positive micrometastatic tumor cells and established the long-term antihormone adjuvant treatment strategy used universally today. The antihormone strategy was the accepted structure of cancer biology. Sex steroid deprivation therapy remains the orthodox strategy for the treatment of both breast and prostate cancer. Despite major initial therapeutic success, the strategies of long term anti-hormone therapies with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors (AI) or antiandrogens or abiraterone for breast and prostate cancer, respectively, eventually lead to a significant proportion of anti-hormone resistant or stimulated tumor growth. Remarkably, a general principle of anti-hormone resistance has emerged for both breast and prostate cancer based primarily on clinical and supportive laboratory data. Paradoxically, anti-hormone resistant cell populations emerge and grow but are vulnerable to the cytotoxicity of estrogen or androgen-induced apoptosis for both breast and prostate cancer, respectively. These consistent anticancer actions of sex steroids appear to recapitulate the more complex mechanism of bone remodeling in elderly men and women during sex steroid deprivation. Estrogen is the key hormone in both sexes because in men androgen is first converted to estrogen. Estrogen regulates and triggers apoptosis in osteoclasts that develop during estrogen deprivation and destroy bone to cause osteoporosis. Sex steroid deprived breast and prostate cancer has recruited a streamlined natural apoptotic program from the human genome, but this is suppressed in the

  16. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  17. [Abdominal pregnancy: hormon concentrations during the postpartal period with placenta remaining intra-abdominal (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gethmann, U; Mönkemeier, D

    1977-07-01

    It is reported of an abdominal pregnancy at term. The placenta was left in situ because of the high risk of intraabdominal bleedings. Thereby it was possible to measure hormon concentrations of the fetoplacental unit without the fetal compartment. Within 10 days after delivery we determined the plasma levels of estradiol-17 beta, estriol, progesterone, HCS, alpha1fetoprotein, and the excretion of the total estrogens in the urines. There was near the same decrease of hormon concentrations in the post partal time comparable with that of a normal pregnancy. Only the HCS concentrations didn't change in the first 9 days after delivery.

  18. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-09-22

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodological flaw because incubation probably affects yolk steroid concentrations. Therefore, we investigated sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of unincubated avian eggs. We withdrew yolk for steroid analysis from fresh, unincubated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs by biopsy, and then incubated those eggs for 10 days, after which we harvested the embryonic material for genetic sexing and the incubated yolk for further steroid analysis. We found no sex differences in fresh Japanese quail eggs; however, sex differences were apparent in yolk steroids by day 10 of incubation, when female eggs had significantly more oestrogen in relation to androgen than male eggs. Concentrations of all yolk androgens decreased dramatically between laying and day 10 of incubation, whereas oestradiol (E2) concentrations increased marginally. Thus, yolk concentrations of androgens and E2 do not appear critical for avian sex determination.

  19. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-09-22

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodological flaw because incubation probably affects yolk steroid concentrations. Therefore, we investigated sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of unincubated avian eggs. We withdrew yolk for steroid analysis from fresh, unincubated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs by biopsy, and then incubated those eggs for 10 days, after which we harvested the embryonic material for genetic sexing and the incubated yolk for further steroid analysis. We found no sex differences in fresh Japanese quail eggs; however, sex differences were apparent in yolk steroids by day 10 of incubation, when female eggs had significantly more oestrogen in relation to androgen than male eggs. Concentrations of all yolk androgens decreased dramatically between laying and day 10 of incubation, whereas oestradiol (E2) concentrations increased marginally. Thus, yolk concentrations of androgens and E2 do not appear critical for avian sex determination. PMID:17148197

  20. Hepatic Long Intergenic Noncoding RNAs: High Promoter Conservation and Dynamic, Sex-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation by Growth Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Melia, Tisha; Hao, Pengying; Yilmaz, Feyza

    2015-01-01

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are increasingly recognized as key chromatin regulators, yet few studies have characterized lincRNAs in a single tissue under diverse conditions. Here, we analyzed 45 mouse liver RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data sets collected under diverse conditions to systematically characterize 4,961 liver lincRNAs, 59% of them novel, with regard to gene structures, species conservation, chromatin accessibility, transcription factor binding, and epigenetic states. To investigate the potential for functionality, we focused on the responses of the liver lincRNAs to growth hormone stimulation, which imparts clinically relevant sex differences to hepatic metabolism and liver disease susceptibility. Sex-biased expression characterized 247 liver lincRNAs, with many being nuclear RNA enriched and regulated by growth hormone. The sex-biased lincRNA genes are enriched for nearby and correspondingly sex-biased accessible chromatin regions, as well as sex-biased binding sites for growth hormone-regulated transcriptional activators (STAT5, hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 [HNF6], FOXA1, and FOXA2) and transcriptional repressors (CUX2 and BCL6). Repression of female-specific lincRNAs in male liver, but not that of male-specific lincRNAs in female liver, was associated with enrichment of H3K27me3-associated inactive states and poised (bivalent) enhancer states. Strikingly, we found that liver-specific lincRNA gene promoters are more highly species conserved and have a significantly higher frequency of proximal binding by liver transcription factors than liver-specific protein-coding gene promoters. Orthologs for many liver lincRNAs were identified in one or more supraprimates, including two rat lincRNAs showing the same growth hormone-regulated, sex-biased expression as their mouse counterparts. This integrative analysis of liver lincRNA chromatin states, transcription factor occupancy, and growth hormone regulation provides novel insights into the

  1. Changes in sex and non-sex hormones and distribution of erythrocyte antigens in reproductive age women with tumors of body of uterus in Adjara.

    PubMed

    Nakashidze, I; Kotrikadze, N; Diasamidze, A; Nagervadze, M; Ramishvili, L

    2013-04-01

    The aim the research was to study the hormonal state of reproductive age women with tumors of body of uterus. The quantitative changes of sex steroid hormones: progesterone (P), estradiol (E), testosterone (T), gonadotropine -Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were investigated. Distribution of ABO blood group antigens and Rh-Hr systems genetic variants in the blood of women living in Adjara Region was also studied. For study was used reproductive age women's blood with benign (fibromioma) and malignant (endometrial cancer) tumors of body of uterus (the middle age was 20-45 years). The determination of hormones was made by the enzymatic analysis method (ELAIZA). For the research of blood groups, were used the immunoserologic methods. The study have revealed that in blood of reproductive age women with benign and malignant tumors of body of uterus, level of estradiol was increased while levels of progesterone and testosterone were sharply reduced. Amount of Follicle-stimulating hormone and Luteinizing hormone were also increased. It's significant that, both hormones were sharply increased in case of cancer of body of uterus, in comparison with control group and benign tumor. According to distribution of ABO blood group phenotypes - O (I) phenotypic group of ABO system has its highest frequency in blood of women with cancer of body of uterus. Cancer of body of uterus is associated with O (I) phenotypic groups; benign tumor of body of uterus - with A(II) and AB(IV) phenotypic groups. Women with cc and EE genetic variants of Rh-Hr system have sensitivity to the development of benign and malignant tumors of body of uterus; women with ee genetic variant have lower sensitivity towards body of uterus cancer and sharply expressed sensitivity to uterus benign tumors. In women with malignant tumors of body of uterus the frequency of distribution of Rh-Hr system CC genetic variant was sharply reduced. PMID:23676481

  2. Role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal motility in pregnant and non-pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Juliana Fernandes; Americo, Madileine Francely; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Corá, Luciana Aparecida; Calabresi, Marcos Felipe Freitas; Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; Damasceno, Debora Cristina; Miranda, Jose Ricardo Arruda

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To correlate gastric contractility, gastrointestinal transit, and hormone levels in non-pregnant (estrous cycle) and pregnant rats using noninvasive techniques. METHODS: Female rats (n = 23) were randomly divided into (1) non-pregnant, (contractility, n = 6; transit, n = 6); and (2) pregnant (contractility, n = 5; transit, n = 6). In each estrous cycle phase or at 0, 7, 14, and 20 d after the confirmation of pregnancy, gastrointestinal transit was recorded by AC biosusceptometry (ACB), and gastric contractility was recorded by ACB and electromyography. After each recording, blood samples were obtained for progesterone and estradiol determination. RESULTS: In the estrous cycle, despite fluctuations of sex hormone levels, no significant changes in gastrointestinal motility were observed. Days 7 and 14 of pregnancy were characterized by significant changes in the frequency of contractions (3.90 ± 0.42 cpm and 3.60 ± 0.36 cpm vs 4.33 ± 0.25 cpm) and gastric emptying (168 ± 17 min and 165 ± 15 min vs 113 ± 15 min) compared with day 0. On these same days, progesterone levels significantly increased compared with control (54.23 ± 15.14 ng/mL and 129.96 ± 30.52 ng/mL vs 13.25 ± 6.31 ng/mL). On day 14, we observed the highest level of progesterone and the lowest level of estradiol compared with day 0 (44.3 ± 15.18 pg/mL vs 24.96 ± 5.96 pg/mL). CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal motility was unaffected by the estrous cycle. In our data, high progesterone and low estradiol levels can be associated with decreased contraction frequency and slow gastric emptying. PMID:27433089

  3. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Barber, Sarah J; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V; Mather, Mara

    2015-12-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: (1) immediate handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, (2) residual handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip 15min prior to encoding, or (3) no handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10min after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal interacts

  4. Seasonal and sex-related variations in serum steroid hormone levels in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the north-west of Spain.

    PubMed

    Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2013-12-01

    Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-β-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account.

  5. A review of the physical and metabolic effects of cross-sex hormonal therapy in the treatment of gender dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Seal, Leighton J

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the effect that cross-gender sex steroid therapy has on metabolic and hormonal parameters. There is an emphasis on those changes that result in significant clinical effects such as the positive effects of the development of secondary sexual characteristics and negative effects such as haemostatic effects and thromboembolism in transwomen or dyslipidaemia in transmen. There is also a description of the current hormonal regimens used at the largest UK gender identity clinic. The overall safety of these treatments in the context of long-term outcome data is reviewed. PMID:25933804

  6. Acute effects of ethanol on sex hormones in non-alcoholic men and women.

    PubMed

    Ellingboe, J

    1987-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption has long been known to interfere with reproductive function and sexual behavior, but specific effects of acute alcohol ingestion on sex hormones have been studied only recently. An attempt is made in this review to summarize and explain conflicting results from studies of the acute effects of alcohol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, with healthy non-alcoholic men and women as subjects. In men, moderate to high doses of ethanol have been reported to suppress plasma testosterone. Although some clinical studies have not supported this observation, considerable evidence documents direct alcohol inhibition of testosterone biosynthesis in the testis. After alcohol ingestion, plasma LH remains unchanged or increases, probably because of reduced androgen negative feedback. In analogous studies with women during the late follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, alcohol does not decrease plasma estradiol or alter LH levels. Furthermore, it has been reported that plasma levels of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone increase during alcohol treatment in the midluteal phase, while gonadotropins tend to decrease. Alcohol has no effect on LH secretion in post-menopausal women. Because reports on the acute effects of alcohol in men have not been consistent, it remains to be determined if acute alcohol effects in men and women are really different. In men, provocative tests of gonadotropin response to LHRH stimulation were normal during periods of intoxication and hangover, indicating that ethanol has no significant direct effect on LH secretion at the pituitary level. It seems more likely that alcohol changes plasma levels of sex steroids by altering hepatic, gonadal, and possibly adrenal metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Age-Specific Serum Anti-Mullerian Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone Concentrations in Infertile Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Raeissi, Alireza; Torki, Alireza; Moradi, Ali; Mousavipoor, Seyed Mehdi; Pirani, Masoud Doosti

    2015-01-01

    Background Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted by the granulosa cells of growing follicles during the primary to large antral follicle stages. Abnormal levels of AMH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) may indicate a woman’s diminished ability or inability to conceive. Our aim is to investigate the changes in serum AMH and FSH concentrations at different age groups and its correlation with ovarian reserves in infertile women. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed serum AMH and FSH levels from 197 infertile women and 176 healthy controls, whose mean ages were 19-47 years. Sample collection was performed by random sampling and analyzed with SPSS version 16 software. Results There were significantly lower mean serum AMH levels among infertile women compared to the control group. The mean AMH serum levels from different ages of infertile and control group (fertile women) decreased with increasing age. However, this reduction was greater in the infertile group. The mean FSH serum levels of infertile women were significantly higher than the control group. Mean serum FSH levels consistently increased with increasing age in infertile women; however mean luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were not consistent. Conclusion We have observed increased FSH levels and decreased AMH levels with increasing age in women from 19 to 47 years of age. Assessments of AMH and FSH levels in combination with female age can help in predicting ovarian reserve in infertile women. PMID:25918589

  8. Effects of monochromatic light sources on sex hormone levels in serum and on semen quality of ganders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shen-Chang; Zhuang, Zi-Xuan; Lin, Min-Jung; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Lin, Tsung-Yi; Jea, Yu-Shine; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Light is an essential external factor influencing various physiological processes, including reproductive performance, in birds. Although several attempts have been made to understand the effect of light on poultry production, the effect of light of a particular wavelength (color) on the reproductive function in geese remains unclear. This study evaluated the effect of various monochromatic light sources on the levels of sex hormone and on semen quality of ganders. Of 30 male White Roman geese in their third reproductive season (average age=3 years), 27 were divided into three groups receiving monochromatic white or red or blue lights. The birds were kept in an environmentally controlled house with a lighting photoperiod of 7L:17D for six weeks as the adaptation period. The photoperiod was subsequently changed to 9L:15D and maintained for 24 weeks. Three ganders at the beginning of the study and three from each group at the end of the adjusting period and the 20th and 30th week of the study period were sacrificed, and their testes and blood samples were collected for determining the sex hormone levels. Semen samples were collected for determining semen quality parameters, including the semen collection index, sperm concentration, semen volume, sperm motility, sperm viability, sperm morphology, and semen quality factor. The results showed that the testosterone and estradiol levels remained unchanged in all three groups at all time points. The ratio of testosterone to estradiol of ganders exposed to white light was significantly higher than that of ganders exposed to red light at the 30th week (P<0.05). Semen collection index and sperm viability of ganders exposed to blue light were significantly the lowest (P<0.05). Moreover, sperm motility, sperm viability, and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa of ganders in white light were the highest (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that artificial illumination with white light may

  9. Effects of microgravity on growth hormone concentration and distribution in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Aga; Jensen, Philip; Desrosiers, Mark; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    On earth, gravity affects the distribution of the plant growth hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), in a manner such that the plant grows into a normal vertical orientation (shoots up, roots down). How the plant controls the amount and distribution of IAA is only partially understood and is currently under investigation in this laboratory. The question to be answered in the flight experiment concerns the effect of gravity on the concentration, turn over, and distribution of the growth hormone. The answer to this question will aid in understanding the mechanism by which plants control the amount and distribution of growth hormone. Such knowledge of a plant's hormonal metabolism may aid in the growth of plants in space and will lead to agronomic advances.

  10. Bone density parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women.

    PubMed Central

    Khaw, K. T.; Sneyd, M. J.; Compston, J.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between bone density and indices of calcium metabolism including parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women. DESIGN--A cross sectional study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--138 women volunteers aged 45-65 with no known osteoporosis and unselected for disease status recruited for a dietary assessment study from the community using general practice registers. Volunteer rate was 20%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Bone mineral density measured with dual energy x ray absorptiometry. RESULTS--Bone density at the lumbar spine and neck and trochanteric regions of the femur was inversely related to serum intact parathyroid hormone concentrations and positively related to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. These associations were independent of possible confounding factors, including age, body mass index, cigarette smoking habit, menopausal status, and use of diuretics and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. These associations were apparent throughout the whole distribution of bone density and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations within the normal range, suggesting a physiological relation. CONCLUSIONS--The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations influence bone density in middle aged women. Findings from this study together with other work suggest that the role of vitamin D in osteoporosis should not be neglected. The associations with parathyroid hormone also indicate plausible biological mechanisms. The roughly 5-10% difference in bone density between top and bottom tertiles of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, though not large in magnitude, may have considerable public health implications in terms of prevention of osteoporosis and its sequelae, fractures. PMID:1392857

  11. Relative influence of prey mercury concentration, prey energy density and predator sex on sport fish mercury concentrations.

    PubMed

    Stacy, W L; Lepak, J M

    2012-10-15

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs has created a human health concern for anglers who consume fish. Variability in sport fish Hg concentration adds to the uncertainty of the amount of fish an angler can safely consume, so predicting where variability arises is useful. We evaluated the relative influence of diet (prey Hg concentration and energy density) and sex on sport fish Hg concentrations using a bioenergetics approach. Our results indicated that sport fish diets (prey Hg concentration followed by energy density) were the most important factors for determining sport fish Hg concentration followed by sex. Although physiological and behavioral differences based on sex may lead to differences in gross growth efficiency, resulting in different Hg concentrations in male and female sport fish, evaluating the relative importance of these differences will require sex-specific parameterization of bioenergetics models. Our results support previous findings that knowledge of sport fish diets (prey Hg concentration followed by energy density) and sex could aid in the prediction of sport fish Hg concentrations. Thus, basic knowledge of system-specific food web structure could provide valuable information for developing sport fish consumption advisories to better protect anglers and their families from Hg contamination. PMID:22922134

  12. Partial ablation of uropygial gland effects on growth hormone concentration and digestive system histometrical aspect of akar putra chicken.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Hasan S A; Lokman, I H; Zuki, A B Z; Kassim, A B

    2016-04-01

    Partial ablation of the uropygial gland is being used in the poultry industry as a new way to enhance body performance of chickens. However, limited data are available estimating the efficacy of partial uropygialectomy (PU) to improve body organ activity. The present study evaluated the effect of partial ablation of the uropygial gland on the serum growth hormone concentration level and digestive system histology of 120 Akar Putra chickens in 5 trials with 3 replicates per trial. The experimental treatments consisted of a control treatment T1; partial ablation of the uropygial gland was applied in the T2, T3, T4, and T5 treatments at 3, 4, 5, and 6 wk of age, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. All treatment groups were provided the same diet. Venous blood samples were collected on wk 7, 10, and 12 to assay the levels of growth hormone concentration. On the last d of the experiment, 4 birds per replicate were randomly isolated and euthanized to perform the necropsy. Digestive system organs' cross sections were measured by a computerized image analyzer after being stained with haematoxylin and eosin. In comparison with the control group, surgical removal of the uropygial gland, especially at wk 3, had a greater (P<0.01) effect on the total duodenum, jejunum, and ilium wall thickness. In addition, effects (P<0.05) were observed on the wall thickness of males' cecum and colon. Moreover, the wall layers of the esophagus, proventriculus, gizzard, and rectum were not affected by the treatment. However, removing the uropygial gland showed significant impact (P<0.05) in males' growth hormone concentration level at wk 7 and (P<0.01) effects at wk 12 in both sexes. This study provides a novel and economic alternative to enhance the body performance of poultry in general and Akar Putra chickens particularly. PMID:26908881

  13. Partial ablation of uropygial gland effects on growth hormone concentration and digestive system histometrical aspect of akar putra chicken.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Hasan S A; Lokman, I H; Zuki, A B Z; Kassim, A B

    2016-04-01

    Partial ablation of the uropygial gland is being used in the poultry industry as a new way to enhance body performance of chickens. However, limited data are available estimating the efficacy of partial uropygialectomy (PU) to improve body organ activity. The present study evaluated the effect of partial ablation of the uropygial gland on the serum growth hormone concentration level and digestive system histology of 120 Akar Putra chickens in 5 trials with 3 replicates per trial. The experimental treatments consisted of a control treatment T1; partial ablation of the uropygial gland was applied in the T2, T3, T4, and T5 treatments at 3, 4, 5, and 6 wk of age, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. All treatment groups were provided the same diet. Venous blood samples were collected on wk 7, 10, and 12 to assay the levels of growth hormone concentration. On the last d of the experiment, 4 birds per replicate were randomly isolated and euthanized to perform the necropsy. Digestive system organs' cross sections were measured by a computerized image analyzer after being stained with haematoxylin and eosin. In comparison with the control group, surgical removal of the uropygial gland, especially at wk 3, had a greater (P<0.01) effect on the total duodenum, jejunum, and ilium wall thickness. In addition, effects (P<0.05) were observed on the wall thickness of males' cecum and colon. Moreover, the wall layers of the esophagus, proventriculus, gizzard, and rectum were not affected by the treatment. However, removing the uropygial gland showed significant impact (P<0.05) in males' growth hormone concentration level at wk 7 and (P<0.01) effects at wk 12 in both sexes. This study provides a novel and economic alternative to enhance the body performance of poultry in general and Akar Putra chickens particularly.

  14. Asymmetry of cerebral gray and white matter and structural volumes in relation to sex hormones and chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Savic, Ivanka

    2014-01-01

    Whilst many studies show sex differences in cerebral asymmetry, their mechanisms are still unknown. This report describes the potential impact of sex hormones and sex chromosomes by comparing MR data from 39 male and 47 female controls and 33 men with an extra X-chromosome (47,XXY). Methods: Regional asymmetry in gray and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV) was calculated using voxel based moprhometry (SPM5), by contrasting the unflipped and flipped individual GMV and WMV images. In addition, structural volumes were calculated for the thalamus, caudate, putamen, amygdala, and hippocampus, using the FreeSurfer software. Effects of plasma testosterone and estrogen on the GMV and WMV, as well on the right/left ratios of the subcortical volumes were tested by multi-regression analysis. Results: All three groups showed a leftward asymmetry in the motor cortex and the planum temporale, and a rightward asymmetry of the middle occipital cortex. Both asymmetries were more pronounced in 46,XY males than 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and were positively correlated with testosterone levels. There was also a rightward asymmetry of the vermis and leftward GMV asymmetry in the cerebellar hemispheres in all groups. Notably, cerebellar asymmetries were larger in 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, but were not related to sex hormone levels. No asymmetry differences between 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and no overall effects of brain size were detected. Conclusion: The asymmetry in the planum temporale area and the occipital cortex seem related to processes associated with testosterone, whereas the observed cerebellar asymmetries suggest a link with X-chromosome escapee genes. Sex differences in cerebral asymmetry are moderated by sex hormones and X-chromosome genes, in a regionally differentiated manner. PMID:25505869

  15. Separate effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function revealed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and spatial navigation assessment of the Four Core Genotype mouse model.

    PubMed

    Corre, Christina; Friedel, Miriam; Vousden, Dulcie A; Metcalf, Ariane; Spring, Shoshana; Qiu, Lily R; Lerch, Jason P; Palmert, Mark R

    2016-03-01

    Males and females exhibit several differences in brain structure and function. To examine the basis for these sex differences, we investigated the influences of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function in mice. We used the Four Core Genotype (4CG) mice, which can generate both male and female mice with XX or XY sex chromosome complement, allowing the decoupling of sex chromosomes from hormonal milieu. To examine whole brain structure, high-resolution ex vivo MRI was performed, and to assess differences in cognitive function, mice were trained on a radial arm maze. Voxel-wise and volumetric analyses of MRI data uncovered a striking independence of hormonal versus chromosomal influences in 30 sexually dimorphic brain regions. For example, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the parieto-temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex displayed steroid-dependence while the cerebellar cortex, corpus callosum, and olfactory bulbs were influenced by sex chromosomes. Spatial learning and memory demonstrated strict hormone-dependency with no apparent influence of sex chromosomes. Understanding the influences of chromosomes and hormones on brain structure and function is important for understanding sex differences in brain structure and function, an endeavor that has eventual implications for understanding sex biases observed in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders.

  16. Urinary hormone metabolites identify sex and imply unexpected winter breeding in an endangered, subterranean-nesting frog.

    PubMed

    Germano, J M; Molinia, F C; Bishop, P J; Bell, B D; Cree, A

    2012-02-01

    Urinary hormone analysis has proved accurate for identifying sex and breeding periods in dimorphic amphibians with known reproductive cycles. We examined whether these techniques could provide this much needed information for a monomorphic anuran with an unconfirmed mating season in the wild. We analysed urinary estrone conjugate, testosterone, and progesterone metabolites to infer the time of breeding and to identify sex in the endangered Maud Island frog, Leiopelma pakeka. Testosterone metabolites in males and estrone and progesterone metabolites in females were at their peak during winter for both wild and captive frogs. These urinary metabolite patterns were consistent with the high proportion of females exhibiting enlarged ovarian follicles in winter months. Sex identification based on urinary estrone metabolite levels was 94% correct in this monomorphic species, in which the sexes overlap in snout-to-vent length (SVL) for over half of their adult size range and in which no other sexually dimorphic trait is known. The seasonal profiles imply unexpected winter or early spring breeding in L. pakeka. Overall, these results demonstrate use of urinary hormone metabolites for reproductive monitoring and sex identification in one of the world's most threatened and evolutionarily distinct amphibians.

  17. Prognostic Value of Sex-Hormone Receptor Expression in Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Woo; Lee, Sang Don; Chung, Moon Kee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We investigated sex-hormone receptor expression as predicting factor of recurrence and progression in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Materials and Methods We retrospectively evaluated tumor specimens from patients treated for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder at our institution between January 2006 and January 2011. Performing immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal androgen receptor antibody and monoclonal estrogen receptor-beta antibody on paraffin-embedded tissue sections, we assessed the relationship of immunohistochemistry results and prognostic factors such as recurrence and progression. Results A total of 169 patients with bladder cancer were evaluated in this study. Sixty-threepatients had expressed androgen receptors and 52 patients had estrogen receptor beta. On univariable analysis, androgen receptor expression was significant lower in recurrence rates (p=0.001), and estrogen receptor beta expression was significant higher in progression rates (p=0.004). On multivariable analysis, significant association was found between androgen receptor expression and lower recurrence rates (hazard ratio=0.500; 95% confidence interval, 0.294 to 0.852; p=0.011), but estrogen receptor beta expression was not significantly associated with progression rates. Conclusion We concluded that the possibility of recurrence was low when the androgen receptor was expressed in the bladder cancer specimen and it could be the predicting factor of the stage, number of tumors, carcinoma in situ lesion and recurrence. PMID:25048477

  18. Plasma variation of corticosteroid-binding globulin and sex hormone-binding globulin.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J G; Möpert, B; Shand, B I; Doogue, M P; Soule, S G; Frampton, C M; Elder, P A

    2006-04-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) circulate in plasma and bind their cognate ligands with high affinity, offering a steroid delivery system to target tissues by a variety of mechanisms. Analysis of these steroid-binding proteins is gaining importance in the clinical setting, although more information is warranted on their diurnal and biological variation. This study shows that plasma SHBG (in normal subjects) exhibits little diurnal or biological variation over the 30 day period studied, in contrast to CBG, where plasma levels peak in the early afternoon. This leads to attenuation of the diurnal free cortisol level rhythm compared to total cortisol. We also show that plasma CBG is significantly lower in male subjects with the metabolic syndrome compared to age-matched lean counterparts, and may therefore act as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance. The consequence of lower levels of CBG in these obese male subjects is reflected by higher levels of circulating free cortisol, potentially offering a more favourable environment for adipogenesis.

  19. Expression of female sex hormone receptors in human middle-ear cholesteatomas.

    PubMed

    Raynov, Alexander Markov; Choung, Yun-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Park, Keehyun

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the eventual presence of progesterone receptor (PGR) and oestrogen receptor (EGR) in human middle-ear cholesteatoma (MECh) tissues and to compare their expression between male and female patients. An immunohistochemical technique was employed for detection of PGR- and EGR-specific immunoreactivity in MECh samples using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections. The positive results were verified with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The morphological study revealed stable expression of PGR in suprabasal layers of all cholesteatoma samples. Weaker immunoreactivity for PGR was demonstrated in external auditory canal skin (EACS) samples in comparison with MECh, while PGR-specific staining was not observed in retroauricular skin (RAS) samples. EGR was detected only at mRNA levels. Stronger expression of EGR PCR products was disclosed in female cholesteatoma samples, while PGR mRNA was predominantly detected in male cholesteatoma specimens. Our preliminary experimental results give us ground to assume that female sex hormones may stimulate proliferation and affect differentiation of MECh keratinocytes.

  20. Sex Hormones Enhance Gingival Inflammation without Affecting IL-1β and TNF-α in Periodontally Healthy Women during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Chen, Shao-Wu; Su, Wei-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ying; Ouyang, Shu-Yuan; Cao, Ya-Ting; Jiang, Shao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Hormones (progesterone and estradiol) change greatly during pregnancy; however, the mechanism of hormonal changes on gingival inflammation is still unclear. This study is to evaluate the effects of hormonal changes during pregnancy on gingival inflammation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). 30 periodontally healthy pregnant women were evaluated in the first, second, and third trimesters. 20 periodontally healthy nonpregnant women were evaluated twice (once per subsequent month). Clinical parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding index (BI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment level (CAL), and plaque index (PLI) were recorded. GCF levels of IL-1β and TNF-α and serum levels of progesterone and estradiol were measured. From the data, despite low PLI, BI and GI increased significantly during pregnancy; however, no significant changes in PLI, CAL, IL-1β, or TNF-α GCF levels were observed. Although IL-1β, not TNF-α, was higher in pregnant group than in nonpregnant group, they showed no correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. GI and BI showed significant positive correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. This study suggests that sex hormone increase during pregnancy might have an effect on inflammatory status of gingiva, independent of IL-1β and TNF-α in GCF. PMID:27034591

  1. Expression of Sex Steroid Hormone Receptors in Vagal Motor Neurons Innervating the Trachea and Esophagus in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Ichi Matsuda, Ken; Bando, Hideki; Takanami, Keiko; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Hisa, Yasuo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The medullary vagal motor nuclei, the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), innervate the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. We conducted immunohistochemical analysis of expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα), in relation to innervation of the trachea and esophagus via vagal motor nuclei in mice. AR and ERα were expressed in the rostral NA and in part of the DMV. Tracing experiments using cholera toxin B subunit demonstrated that neurons of vagal motor nuclei that innervate the trachea and esophagus express AR and ERα. There was no difference in expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between trachea- and esophagus-innervating neurons. These results suggest that sex steroid hormones may act on vagal motor nuclei via their receptors, thereby regulating functions of the trachea and esophagus. PMID:27006520

  2. Sex difference in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Stapanian, M.A.; Rediske, R.R.; O’Keefe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 25 female and 25 male burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie. Bioenergetics modeling was used to investigate whether the sex difference in growth rate resulted in a difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) between the sexes. For ages 6–13 years, male burbot averaged 28 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. The sex difference in PCB concentrations widened for ages 14–17 years, with male burbot having, on average, 71 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. Bioenergetics modeling results showed that the faster growth rate exhibited by female burbot did not lead to greater GGE in female individuals of the younger burbot and that the faster growth by female fish led to female GGE being only 2 % greater than male GGE in older burbot. Although our bioenergetics modeling could not explain the observed sex difference in PCB concentrations, we concluded that a sex difference in GGE was the most plausible explanation for the sex difference in PCB concentrations of burbot ages 6–13 years. Not only are male fish likely to be more active than female fish, but the resting metabolic rate of male fish may be greater than that of female fish. We also concluded that the widening of the sex difference in PCB concentrations for the older burbot may be due to many of the older male burbot spending a substantial amount of time in the vicinity of mouths of rivers contaminated with PCBs.

  3. Implantation: mutual activity of sex steroid hormones and the immune system guarantee the maternal-embryo interaction.

    PubMed

    Gnainsky, Yulia; Dekel, Nava; Granot, Irit

    2014-09-01

    Implantation is strictly dependent on the mutual interaction between a receptive endometrium and the blastocyst. Hence, synchronization between blastocyst development and the acquisition of endometrial receptivity is a prerequisite for the success of this process. This review depicts the cellular and molecular events that coordinate these complex activities. Specifically, the involvement of the sex steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, as well as components of the immune system, such as cytokines and specific blood cells, is elaborated. PMID:24959815

  4. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Maleki, Maryam; Ahmad Abadi, Mohammad Esmail

    2013-01-01

    Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug, reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This study investigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent to show its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats into four groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersoluble morphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after which the treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%) orally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of all rats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH) level than the control group (p<0.027). LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addicted group (p<0.031). The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lower than the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosterone level (p<0.001). The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002) lower in the addicted group than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference between the treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048). The treated control group had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002). Overall, except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins and sexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05) in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a

  5. Using Cox cluster processes to model latent pulse location patterns in hormone concentration data.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Nichole E; Grunwald, Gary K; Johnson, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Many hormones, including stress hormones, are intermittently secreted as pulses. The pulsatile location process, describing times when pulses occur, is a regulator of the entire stress system. Characterizing the pulse location process is particularly difficult because the pulse locations are latent; only hormone concentration at sampled times is observed. In addition, for stress hormones the process may change both over the day and relative to common external stimuli. This potentially results in clustering in pulse locations across subjects. Current approaches to characterizing the pulse location process do not capture subject-to-subject clustering in locations. Here we show how a Bayesian Cox cluster process may be adapted as a model of the pulse location process. We show that this novel model of pulse locations is capable of detecting circadian rhythms in pulse locations, clustering of pulse locations between subjects, and identifying exogenous controllers of pulse events. We integrate our pulse location process into a model of hormone concentration, the observed data. A spatial birth-and-death Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used for estimation. We exhibit the strengths of this model on simulated data and adrenocorticotropic and cortisol data collected to study the stress axis in depressed and non-depressed women. PMID:26553914

  6. Plasma cortisol and thyroid hormone concentrations in pre-weaning Australian fur seal pups.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S; Arnould, J P Y; Mashburn, K L

    2011-06-01

    The hormonal factors that influence development from birth to weaning in otariid seals is still largely unknown. In the present study, a suite of thyroid hormones and cortisol were measured in Australian fur seal pups in order to determine baseline concentrations as well as to describe their endocrinology over this critical developmental period. A cross-section of newborn pups from a breeding colony located on Kanowna Island, Australia were sampled at six different times over the course of the 10 month lactation period. Sample times were designed to correspond to periods of heightened physiological change during pre-weaning development: post-natal, pre-molt, the initiation of molt, mid-molt, period of peak milk intake and weaning. Results indicate that the greatest hormonal changes were associated with the post-natal stage and molt, with molt showing the greatest changes, as has been reported for several species of pinnipeds. Two forms of thyroid hormones analyzed (Total T(4), and Free T(3)), increased with the initiation of the molt, and Free T(3) exhibited a second increase that was associated with the period of peak milk intake. The T(3):T(4) ratio was significantly lower during the initiation of molt than either pre- or mid-molt. The study was able to describe physiological change during the first year of life in Australian fur seals as well as document basal concentrations of thyroid hormones and cortisol in pups of this species.

  7. Concentrations and mass loadings of hormones, alkylphenols, and alkylphenol ethoxylates in healthcare facility wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Nagarnaik, P M; Mills, M A; Boulanger, B

    2010-02-01

    Healthcare facility wastewaters are an anticipated source of known endocrine disrupting chemicals to the environment. In this study, the composition and magnitude of eight steroid hormones, octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP), 16 nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), and 10 octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEOs) in wastewater from a(n) hospital, nursing facility, assisted living facility, and independent living facility are presented. Steroid hormone concentrations were variable for each sampling location, ranging from a non-detectable concentration of 17beta-ethynylestradiol in all samples to 127ngL(-1) androstenedione in the hospital's wastewater composite. OP and NP were not detected in any site's samples. However, NPEOs were found at each sampling location with a maximum combined concentration of 260microgL(-1) for NPEOs with a chain length between 3 and 18 units in the assisted living facility composite sample. OPEOs were only found in the hospital and nursing facilities samples with a maximum combined OPEO concentration of 13microgL(-1) for OPEOs with a chain length between 2 and 12 units in hospital wastewater. The total mass loading of hormones to the municipal sewer system from each facility ranged from 2.5mgd(-1) at the assisted living facility to 138mgd(-1) at the hospital. The total mass loading of the alklyphenol ethoxylates (NPEO+OPEO) is considerably higher than the estimated hormone mass loadings, ranging from 1.8gd(-1) at the independent living facility to 54gd(-1) at the hospital facility. PMID:20079514

  8. Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is involved in the regulation of growth hormone in Cichlasoma dimerus (Cichlidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Pérez Sirkin, D I; Cánepa, M M; Fossati, M; Fernandino, J I; Delgadin, T; Canosa, L F; Somoza, G M; Vissio, P G

    2012-03-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the main pituitary hormone involved in somatic growth. In fish, the neuroendocrine control of GH is multifactorial due to the interaction of multiple inhibitors and stimulators. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic peptide involved in skin color regulation of fish. In addition, MCH has been related to the regulation of food intake in both mammals and fish. There is only one report presenting evidences on the GH release stimulation by MCH in mammals in experiments in vitro, but there are no data on non-mammals. In the present work, we report for the first time the sequence of MCH and GH cDNA in Cichlasoma dimerus, a freshwater South American cichlid fish. We detected contacts between MCH fibers and GH cells in the proximal pars distalis region of the pituitary gland by double label confocal immunofluorescence indicating a possible functional relationship. Besides, we found that MCH increased GH transcript levels and stimulated GH release in pituitary cultures. Additionally, C. dimerus exposed to a white background had a greater number of MCH neurons with a larger nuclear area and higher levels of MCH transcript than those fish exposed to a black background. Furthermore, fish reared for 3 months in a white background showed a greater body weight and total length compared to those from black background suggesting that MCH might be related to somatic growth in C. dimerus. Our results report for the first time, that MCH is involved in the regulation of the synthesis and release of GH in vitro in C. dimerus, and probably in the fish growth rate.

  9. HPA function in adolescence: role of sex hormones in its regulation and the enduring consequences of exposure to stressors.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Mathews, Iva Z

    2007-02-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the physiological systems involved in coping with stressors. There are functional shifts in the HPA axis and its regulation by sex hormones over the lifespan that allow the animal to meet the challenges of the internal and external environment that are specific to each stage of development. Sex differences in HPA function emerge over adolescence, a phenomenon reflecting the concomitant initiation of regulatory effects of sex hormones. The focus of this review is recent research on differences between adolescents and adults in HPA function and the enduring effects of exposure to stressors in adolescence. During adolescence, HPA function is characterized by a prolonged activation in response to stressors compared to adulthood, which may render ongoing development of the brain vulnerable. Although research has been scarce, there is a growing evidence that exposure to stressors in adolescence may alter behavioural responses to drugs and cognitive performance in adulthood. However, the effects reported appear to be stressor-specific and sex-specific. Such research may contribute toward understanding the increased risk for drug abuse and psychopathology that occurs over adolescence in people.

  10. Endocrine care of transpeople part I. A review of cross-sex hormonal treatments, outcomes and adverse effects in transmen.

    PubMed

    Meriggiola, Maria Cristina; Gava, Giulia

    2015-11-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) is characterized by discomfort with the assigned or birth gender and the urge to live as a member of the desired sex. The goal of medical and surgical treatment is to improve the well-being and quality of life of transpeople. The acquisition of phenotypic features of the desired gender requires the use of cross-sex hormonal therapy (CHT). Adult transmen are treated with testosterone to induce virilization. In adolescents with severe and persistent GD, consideration can be given to arresting puberty at Tanner Stage II and if dysphoria persists, CHT is generally started after 16 years of age. Currently available short- and long-term safety studies suggest that CHT is reasonably safe in transmen. Monitoring of transmen should be more frequent during the first year of cross-sex hormone administration reducing to once or twice per year thereafter. Long-term monitoring after sex reassignment surgery (SRS) includes annual check-ups as are carried out for natal hypogonadal men. In elderly transmen, special attention should be paid to haematocrit in particular. Screening for breast and cervical cancer should be continued in transmen not undergoing SRS.

  11. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sex hormones in chronic stress and obesity: pathophysiological and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Renato

    2012-08-01

    Obesity, particularly the abdominal phenotype, has been ascribed to an individual maladaptation to chronic environmental stress exposure mediated by a dysregulation of related neuroendocrine axes. Alterations in the control and action of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis play a major role in this context, with the participation of the sympathetic nervous system. The ability to adapt to chronic stress may differ according to sex, with specific pathophysiological events leading to the development of stress-related chronic diseases. This seems to be influenced by the regulatory effects of sex hormones, particularly androgens. Stress may also disrupt the control of feeding, with some differences according to sex. Finally, the amount of experimental data in both animals and humans may help to shed more light on specific phenotypes of obesity, strictly related to the chronic exposure to stress. This challenge may potentially imply a different pathophysiological perspective and, possibly, a specific treatment.

  12. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M. . E-mail: louisg@mail.nih.gov

    2007-01-15

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio.

  13. Cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender men (Toms) and Transgender Women (Kathoeys) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gooren, Louis J; Sungkaew, Tanapong; Giltay, Erik J; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    There exists limited understanding of cross-sex hormone use and mental well-being among transgender women and, particularly, among transgender men. Moreover, most studies of transgender people have taken place in the Global North and often in the context of HIV. This exploratory study compared 60 transgender men (toms) with 60 transgender women (kathoeys) regarding their use of cross-sex hormones, mental well-being and acceptance by their family. Participants also completed a dispositional optimism scale (the Life Orientation Test Revised), the Social Functioning Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey 36 assessing their profile of functional health and mental well-being. Cross-sex hormones were used by 35% of toms and 73% of kathoeys and were largely unsupervised by health-related personnel. There were no differences in functional health and mental well-being among toms and kathoeys. However, toms currently using cross-sex hormones scored on average poorer on bodily pain and mental health, compared to non-users. Furthermore, compared to non-users, cross-sex hormone users were about eight times and five times more likely to be associated with poor parental acceptance among toms and kathoeys, respectively. This study was the first to compare cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender women and transgender men in Southeast Asia. PMID:25270637

  14. Cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender men (Toms) and Transgender Women (Kathoeys) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gooren, Louis J; Sungkaew, Tanapong; Giltay, Erik J; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    There exists limited understanding of cross-sex hormone use and mental well-being among transgender women and, particularly, among transgender men. Moreover, most studies of transgender people have taken place in the Global North and often in the context of HIV. This exploratory study compared 60 transgender men (toms) with 60 transgender women (kathoeys) regarding their use of cross-sex hormones, mental well-being and acceptance by their family. Participants also completed a dispositional optimism scale (the Life Orientation Test Revised), the Social Functioning Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey 36 assessing their profile of functional health and mental well-being. Cross-sex hormones were used by 35% of toms and 73% of kathoeys and were largely unsupervised by health-related personnel. There were no differences in functional health and mental well-being among toms and kathoeys. However, toms currently using cross-sex hormones scored on average poorer on bodily pain and mental health, compared to non-users. Furthermore, compared to non-users, cross-sex hormone users were about eight times and five times more likely to be associated with poor parental acceptance among toms and kathoeys, respectively. This study was the first to compare cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender women and transgender men in Southeast Asia.

  15. Endocrine Disruption: Computational Perspectives on Human Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Phthalate Plasticizers

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Ishfaq A.; Turki, Rola F.; Abuzenadah, Adel M.; Damanhouri, Ghazi A.; Beg, Mohd A.

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are a class of high volume production chemicals used as plasticizers for household and industrial use. Several members of this chemical family have endocrine disrupting activity. Owing to ubiquitous environmental distribution and exposure of human population at all stages of life, phthalate contamination is a continuous global public health problem. Clinical and experimental studies have indicated that several phthalates are associated with adverse effects on development and function of human and animal systems especially the reproductive system and exposures during pregnancy and early childhood are by far of utmost concern. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a plasma carrier protein that binds androgens and estrogens and represents a potential target for phthalate endocrine disruptor function in the body. In the present study, the binding mechanism of the nine phthalates i.e. DMP, DBP, DIBP, BBP, DNHP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP, DIDP with human SHBG was delineated by molecular docking simulation. Docking complexes of the nine phthalates displayed interactions with 15–31 amino acid residues of SHBG and a commonality of 55–95% interacting residues between natural ligand of SHBG, dihydrotestosterone, and the nine phthalate compounds was observed. The binding affinity values were more negative for long chain phthalates DEHP, DNOP, DINP, and DIDP compared to short chain phthalates such as DMP and DBP. The Dock score and Glide score values were also higher for long chain phthalates compared to short chain phthalates. Hence, overlapping of interacting amino acid residues between phthalate compounds and natural ligand, dihydrotestosterone, suggested potential disrupting activity of phthalates in the endocrine homeostasis function of SHBG, with long chain phthalates expected to be more potent than the short chain phthalates. PMID:26963243

  16. The information encoded by the sex steroid hormones testosterone and estrogen: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Zahavi, Amotz; Perel, Marina

    2011-07-01

    It is suggested that the sex steroid hormones testosterone and estrogen (SSH) provide receptor cells with reliable information on protein synthesis and on the level of oxidative metabolism in the cells of the gonads. The SSH are derived from the oxidation of cholesterol. This oxidation is a side reaction of the oxidative processes in the mitochondria that generate most of the energy to the organism. The amount of SSH that is synthesized is correlated to the partial pressure of oxygen at the synthesizing cells. The amount of free SSH that a cell can hold is checked by the damage that free steroids may cause. This damage is prevented by proteins that bind with SSH. As a result, SSH levels are correlated also with the ability of the SSH synthesizing cell to produce proteins that bind with them. A cell can only synthesize SSH in relation to the oxidative processes within it and to its ability to produce the binding proteins necessary to prevent the damage caused by SSH. As a result, the information conveyed by SSH is reliable. We examine the specific damage caused by testosterone and estrogen, and suggest why each of them is best suited for its function. Although both SSH can provide similar information on the metabolism in the cells that synthesize them, there are secondary reasons why testosterone and estrogen were selected to serve particular functions. Testosterone improves the efficiency of the proton pump at the mitochondria in producing ATP, but increases oxidative damage. Estrogen on the other hand decreases oxygen damage but also decreases the efficiency of the proton pump. These differences between the two SSH may explain why females use estrogen to inform the body about the activity of the cells in their gonads while males do it by testosterone. The increased oxidative damage may also explain why in males the testosterone that reaches the brain is turned into estrogen. We also suggest why fish use 11-keto testosterone and why insects do not use these two

  17. Characterization of the oligosaccharides of plasma sex hormone binding globulin from noncirrhotic alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Valladares, L; Erices, A; Lioi, X; Iturriaga, H

    2000-05-01

    In previous reports we have demonstrated high plasma levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in asymptomatic alcoholic men. In the present work the physicochemical properties of SHBG from plasma of noncirrhotic alcoholic patients have been further compared with SHBG of control subjects. Steroid binding to SHBG was similar for the two groups: alcoholic men, K(d) of 0.62 +/- 0.07 nM and control individuals, K(d) of 0.70 +/- 0.10 nM. The structure of oligosaccharides attached to SHBG from controls and alcoholic men were determined by using serial chromatography. Our data indicated that 7% of SHBG of control individuals was not retarded by the Con-A column, whereas approximately 30% of SHBG of alcoholic men eluted in the void volume of Con A. Approximately 46% of SHBG of alcoholics applied to Con A, possessed biantennary complex oligosaccharides, as indicated by the fact that it could be eluted with methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside and by its retention on wheat germ agglutinin; in contrast, when SHBG from control men was analyzed, approximately 51% was eluted with methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside. Approximately 9% of the biantennary complex oligosaccharides on SHBG of control men and none of those on SHBG from alcoholic men were fucosylated on the chitobiose core, as determined by chromatography on Lenn culinaris lectin. Galactosylated oligosaccharides were also present on the SHBG fraction as indicated by its interaction with Ricinus communis-I. Approximately 24% of SHBG of alcoholic men and 39% of those on SHBG from control individuals applied to Con-A were retained and could be eluted with methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside. Evidence based on the binding on mannoside-eluted SHBG to Con-A, wheat germ agglutinin, and R. communis-I indicated that at least the SHBG in this fraction, from alcoholics or controls, contained two glycosylation sites and that the sites were differentially glycosylated.

  18. Endocrine Disruption: Computational Perspectives on Human Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Phthalate Plasticizers.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Ishfaq A; Turki, Rola F; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Beg, Mohd A

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are a class of high volume production chemicals used as plasticizers for household and industrial use. Several members of this chemical family have endocrine disrupting activity. Owing to ubiquitous environmental distribution and exposure of human population at all stages of life, phthalate contamination is a continuous global public health problem. Clinical and experimental studies have indicated that several phthalates are associated with adverse effects on development and function of human and animal systems especially the reproductive system and exposures during pregnancy and early childhood are by far of utmost concern. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a plasma carrier protein that binds androgens and estrogens and represents a potential target for phthalate endocrine disruptor function in the body. In the present study, the binding mechanism of the nine phthalates i.e. DMP, DBP, DIBP, BBP, DNHP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP, DIDP with human SHBG was delineated by molecular docking simulation. Docking complexes of the nine phthalates displayed interactions with 15-31 amino acid residues of SHBG and a commonality of 55-95% interacting residues between natural ligand of SHBG, dihydrotestosterone, and the nine phthalate compounds was observed. The binding affinity values were more negative for long chain phthalates DEHP, DNOP, DINP, and DIDP compared to short chain phthalates such as DMP and DBP. The Dock score and Glide score values were also higher for long chain phthalates compared to short chain phthalates. Hence, overlapping of interacting amino acid residues between phthalate compounds and natural ligand, dihydrotestosterone, suggested potential disrupting activity of phthalates in the endocrine homeostasis function of SHBG, with long chain phthalates expected to be more potent than the short chain phthalates. PMID:26963243

  19. Endogenous Sex Hormone Changes in Postmenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Shengchun; Laughlin, Gail A.; Golden, Sherita H.; Mather, Kieren J.; Nan, Bin; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Randolph, John F.; Labrie, Fernand; Buschur, Elizabeth; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Context: Whether endogenous sex hormones (ESH) [SHBG, estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)] are altered by intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) or metformin and whether such changes affect glucose levels among dysglycemic postmenopausal women is unclear. Objectives: Our objective was to examine intervention impact on ESH and associations with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h glucose changes among postmenopausal glucose-intolerant women. Design: We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Participants: Participants included postmenopausal, overweight, glucose-intolerant women not using exogenous estrogen (n = 382) who participated in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Interventions: Interventions included ILS with the goals of weight reduction of at least 7% of initial weight and 150 min/wk of moderate intensity exercise or metformin or placebo administered 850 mg twice a day. Main Outcome Measures: Intervention-related changes in ESH and associations of changes in ESH and glucose levels were evaluated. Results: ILS significantly increased SHBG and decreased DHEA before and after adjustment for changes in waist circumference and fasting insulin. ILS did not alter estradiol or testosterone. Metformin did not change any ESH. ILS-induced increases in SHBG and declines in DHEA were associated with decreases in FPG and 2-h glucose, and declines in estradiol were associated with decreases in FPG, before and after adjustment for age, FSH, race/ethnicity, changes in waist circumference, and 1/fasting insulin. Conclusions: Among postmenopausal glucose-intolerant women not using estrogen, ILS increased SHBG levels and lowered DHEA levels. These changes were associated with lower glucose independent of adiposity and insulin. Metformin effects upon ESH were not significant. PMID:22689695

  20. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurmeet K. S.; Balzer, Ben W. R.; Kelly, Patrick J.; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine I.; Handelsman, David J.; Steinbeck, Katharine S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development. Methods A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female) was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and LH by immunoassay. Results A high proportion (92%) of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage. Conclusion We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth. PMID:26599397

  1. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Marta C.; Jiménez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665

  2. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development.

    PubMed

    Romano, Marta C; Jiménez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations.

  3. Role of emotional processing in depressive responses to sex-hormone manipulation: a pharmacological fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, S; Madsen, K H; Pinborg, A; Heede, M; Knudsen, G M; Siebner, H R; Frokjaer, V G

    2015-01-01

    Sex-hormone fluctuations may increase risk for developing depressive symptoms and alter emotional processing as supported by observations in menopausal and pre- to postpartum transition. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we used blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate if sex-steroid hormone manipulation with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) influences emotional processing. Fifty-six healthy women were investigated twice: at baseline (follicular phase of menstrual cycle) and 16 ± 3 days post intervention. At both sessions, fMRI-scans during exposure to faces expressing fear, anger, happiness or no emotion, depressive symptom scores and estradiol levels were acquired. The fMRI analyses focused on regions of interest for emotional processing. As expected, GnRHa initially increased and subsequently reduced estradiol to menopausal levels, which was accompanied by an increase in subclinical depressive symptoms relative to placebo. Women who displayed larger GnRHa-induced increase in depressive symptoms had a larger increase in both negative and positive emotion-elicited activity in the anterior insula. When considering the post-GnRHa scan only, depressive responses were associated with emotion-elicited activity in the anterior insula and amygdala. The effect on regional activity in anterior insula was not associated with the estradiol net decline, only by the GnRHa-induced changes in mood. Our data implicate enhanced insula recruitment during emotional processing in the emergence of depressive symptoms following sex-hormone fluctuations. This may correspond to the emotional hypersensitivity frequently experienced by women postpartum. PMID:26624927

  4. Role of emotional processing in depressive responses to sex-hormone manipulation: a pharmacological fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, S; Madsen, K H; Pinborg, A; Heede, M; Knudsen, G M; Siebner, H R; Frokjaer, V G

    2015-01-01

    Sex-hormone fluctuations may increase risk for developing depressive symptoms and alter emotional processing as supported by observations in menopausal and pre- to postpartum transition. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we used blood−oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate if sex-steroid hormone manipulation with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) influences emotional processing. Fifty-six healthy women were investigated twice: at baseline (follicular phase of menstrual cycle) and 16±3 days post intervention. At both sessions, fMRI-scans during exposure to faces expressing fear, anger, happiness or no emotion, depressive symptom scores and estradiol levels were acquired. The fMRI analyses focused on regions of interest for emotional processing. As expected, GnRHa initially increased and subsequently reduced estradiol to menopausal levels, which was accompanied by an increase in subclinical depressive symptoms relative to placebo. Women who displayed larger GnRHa-induced increase in depressive symptoms had a larger increase in both negative and positive emotion-elicited activity in the anterior insula. When considering the post-GnRHa scan only, depressive responses were associated with emotion-elicited activity in the anterior insula and amygdala. The effect on regional activity in anterior insula was not associated with the estradiol net decline, only by the GnRHa-induced changes in mood. Our data implicate enhanced insula recruitment during emotional processing in the emergence of depressive symptoms following sex-hormone fluctuations. This may correspond to the emotional hypersensitivity frequently experienced by women postpartum. PMID:26624927

  5. Types of hormone therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone ... Menopause symptoms include: Hot flashes Night sweats Sleep problems Vaginal dryness Anxiety Moodiness Less interest in sex ...

  6. Effect of training on blood volume and plasma hormone concentrations in the elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. F.; Convertino, V. A.; Wood, C. E.; Graves, J. E.; Lowenthal, D. T.; Pollock, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of 6 months of endurance training on resting plasma (PV) and blood volume (BV), and resting hormone and electrolyte concentrations in the elderly. Thirty-eight elderly men and women (ages 60-82 yr) were assigned to endurance exercise training (N = 29) or to control (N = 9) groups. Resting plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, vasopressin, aldosterone, norepinephrine, epinephrine, sodium, potassium, and protein were measured at the start (T1) and end (T2) of 26 wk of training. PV measurement was performed using the Evan's blue dye technique. Endurance training consisted of uphill treadmill walking or stairclimbing exercise 3 times.wk-1, 30-45 min.d-1, at 75-84% of maximal heart rate reserve. The exercise group increased VO2max by 11.2% (P < or = 0.05) and increased resting PV and BV by 11.2% and 12.7% (P < or = 0.05), respectively. Hormone and electrolyte levels in the exercise group remained unchanged; all variables were unchanged in the control group. These results are similar to findings in younger individuals. Because plasma hormone concentrations were maintained despite a chronically elevated BV, endurance training in healthy, elderly subjects may be associated with a resetting of volume receptors.

  7. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-10-15

    . - Highlights: • Currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting (ED) potential in vitro. • ED effects can be mediated via sex hormone receptors and/or the aromatase enzyme. • Additive mixture effects on androgen receptor transactivity were observed.

  8. Increased Nutrient Sensitivity and Plasma Concentrations of Enteral Hormones during Duodenal Nutrient Infusion in Functional Dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Camilleri, Michael; Burton, Duane D.; Thieke, Shannon L.; Feuerhak, Kelly J.; Basu, Ananda; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Functional dyspepsia is predominantly attributed to gastric sensorimotor dysfunctions. The contribution of intestinal chemosensitivity to symptoms is not understood. We evaluated symptoms and plasma hormones during enteral nutrient infusion and the association with impaired glucose tolerance and quality-of-life (QOL) scores in functional dyspepsia vs health. Design Enteral hormonal responses and symptoms were measured during isocaloric and isovolumic dextrose and lipid infusions into the duodenum in 30 patients with functional dyspepsia (n=27) or nausea and vomiting (n=3) and 35 healthy controls. Infusions were administered in randomized order over 120 minutes each, with a 120-minute washout. Cholecystokinin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, glucagonlike peptide 1 (GLP1), and peptide YY were measured during infusions. Results Moderate or more severe symptoms during lipid (4 controls vs 14 patients) and dextrose (1 control vs 12 patients) infusions were more prevalent in patients than controls (P≤.01), associated with higher dyspepsia symptom score (P=.01), worse QOL (P=.01), and greater plasma hormone concentrations (eg, GLP1 during lipid infusion). Moderate or more severe symptoms during enteral infusion explained 18%, and depression score explained 21%, of interpatient variation in QOL. Eight patients had impaired glucose tolerance, associated with greater plasma GLP1 and peptide YY concentrations during dextrose and lipid infusions, respectively. Conclusions Increased sensitivity to enteral dextrose and lipid infusions was associated with greater plasma enteral hormone concentrations, more severe daily symptoms, and worse QOL in functional dyspepsia. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that enteral hormones mediate increased intestinal sensitivity to nutrients in functional dyspepsia. PMID:25403365

  9. Effects of Glutamate and Aspartate on Serum Antioxidative Enzyme, Sex Hormones, and Genital Inflammation in Boars Challenged with Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Hengjia; Lu, Lu; Deng, Jinpin; Fan, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Background. Oxidative stress is associated with infertility. This study was conducted to determine the effects of glutamate and aspartate on serum antioxidative enzymes, sex hormones, and genital inflammation in boars suffering from oxidative stress. Methods. Boars were randomly divided into 4 groups: the nonchallenged control (CON) and H2O2-challenged control (BD) groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 2% alanine; the other two groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2% glutamate (GLU) or 2% aspartate (ASP). The BD, GLU, and ASP groups were injected with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on day 15. The CON group was injected with 0.9% sodium chloride solution on the same day. Results. Dietary aspartate decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in serum (P < 0.05) compared with the BD group. Additionally, aspartate maintained serum luteinizing hormone (LH) at a relatively stable level. Moreover, glutamate and aspartate increased transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in the epididymis and testis (P < 0.05) compared with the BD group. Conclusion. Both glutamate and aspartate promoted genital mRNA expressions of anti-inflammatory factors after oxidative stress. Aspartate more effectively decreased serum MDA and prevented fluctuations in serum sex hormones after H2O2 challenge than did glutamate. PMID:27777497

  10. Comparison of predicted and measured concentrations of selected pharmaceuticals, fragrances and hormones in Spanish sewage.

    PubMed

    Carballa, Marta; Omil, Francisco; Lema, Juan M

    2008-07-01

    A review of consumption and excretion rates of 17 pharmaceuticals, two musk fragrances and two hormones by the Spanish population in 2003 was performed. For that purpose, three different models were used: (i) extrapolation of the per capita use in Europe to the number of inhabitants of Spain for musk fragrances; (ii) annual prescription items multiplied by the average daily dose for pharmaceuticals and; (iii) excretion rates of different groups of population for hormones. This information enabled the prediction of the expected concentrations (PEC) entering sewage treatment plants (STPs), which were subsequently compared with the measured environmental concentrations (MEC) in raw sewage. Annual drugs consumption in Spain ranges from few kilograms (Oxazepam and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol) to several hundred of tons (Ibuprofen). The quantities of musks used accounts for 110-450 kg d(-1) and the total amount of hormones excreted daily reaches almost 1 kg d(-1). 12 out of 21 selected substances were predicted to be present in raw sewage influent at concentrations greater than 100 ng l(-1) and these predicted concentrations fitted with the measured values for half of them (Carbamazepine, Diazepam, Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Diclofenac, Sulfamethoxazole, Roxithromycin, Erythromycin and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol).

  11. Sexual Dimorphisms of Adrenal Steroids, Sex Hormones, and Immunological Biomarkers and Possible Risk Factors for Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Alfonse T.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Jorgenson, Laura C.; Smith, Jennifer M.; Aldag, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity and immunological biomarkers are believed to be interrelated with sex hormones and other neuroendocrine factors. Sexual dimorphism mechanisms may be operating in certain rheumatic and inflammatory diseases which occur more frequently in women than men, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Less data have been available on altered interrelations of the combined neuroendocrine and immune (NEI) systems as risk factors for development of certain diseases. In this study, serological interrelations of NEI biomarkers are analyzed before symptomatic onset of RA (pre-RA) versus control (CN) subjects, stratified by sex. Sexual dimorphism was found in serum levels of acute serum amyloid A (ASAA), soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Rα), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1). Multiple steroidal and hormonal (neuroendocrine) factors also showed highly (p < 0.001) significant sexual dimorphism in their assayed values, but less for cortisol (p = 0.012), and not for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (p = 0.176). After stratification by sex and risk of developing RA, differential NEI correlational patterns were observed in the interplay of the NEI systems between the pre-RA and CN groups, which deserve further investigation. PMID:26693225

  12. Role of Sex Hormones in the Development and Progression of Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Montella, Maurizio; D'Arena, Giovanni; Crispo, Anna; Capunzo, Mario; Nocerino, Flavia; Grimaldi, Maria; Barbieri, Antonio; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; Tecce, Mario Felice; Amore, Alfonso; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Giudice, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in developed countries. Epidemiological reports indicate that the incidence of HBV-related HCC is higher in males and postmenopausal females than other females. Increasing evidence suggests that sex hormones such as androgens and estrogens play an important role in the progression of an HBV infection and in the development of HBV-related HCC. While androgen is supposed to stimulate the androgen signaling pathway and cooperate to the increased transcription and replication of HBV genes, estrogen may play a protecting role against the progression of HBV infections and in the development of HBV-related HCC through decreasing HBV RNA transcription and inflammatory cytokines levels. Additionally, sex hormones can also affect HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis by inducing epigenetic changes such as the regulation of mRNA levels by microRNAs (miRNAs), DNA methylation, and histone modification in liver tissue. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying the gender disparity in HBV-related HCC with the aim of improving the understanding of key factors underneath the sex disparity often observed in HBV infections. Furthermore, the review will propose more effective prevention strategies and treatments of HBV-derived diseases. PMID:26491442

  13. Sexual Dimorphisms of Adrenal Steroids, Sex Hormones, and Immunological Biomarkers and Possible Risk Factors for Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Masi, Alfonse T; Rehman, Azeem A; Jorgenson, Laura C; Smith, Jennifer M; Aldag, Jean C

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity and immunological biomarkers are believed to be interrelated with sex hormones and other neuroendocrine factors. Sexual dimorphism mechanisms may be operating in certain rheumatic and inflammatory diseases which occur more frequently in women than men, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Less data have been available on altered interrelations of the combined neuroendocrine and immune (NEI) systems as risk factors for development of certain diseases. In this study, serological interrelations of NEI biomarkers are analyzed before symptomatic onset of RA (pre-RA) versus control (CN) subjects, stratified by sex. Sexual dimorphism was found in serum levels of acute serum amyloid A (ASAA), soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Rα), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1). Multiple steroidal and hormonal (neuroendocrine) factors also showed highly (p < 0.001) significant sexual dimorphism in their assayed values, but less for cortisol (p = 0.012), and not for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (p = 0.176). After stratification by sex and risk of developing RA, differential NEI correlational patterns were observed in the interplay of the NEI systems between the pre-RA and CN groups, which deserve further investigation. PMID:26693225

  14. Role of Sex Hormones in the Development and Progression of Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Montella, Maurizio; D'Arena, Giovanni; Crispo, Anna; Capunzo, Mario; Nocerino, Flavia; Grimaldi, Maria; Barbieri, Antonio; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; Tecce, Mario Felice; Amore, Alfonso; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Giudice, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in developed countries. Epidemiological reports indicate that the incidence of HBV-related HCC is higher in males and postmenopausal females than other females. Increasing evidence suggests that sex hormones such as androgens and estrogens play an important role in the progression of an HBV infection and in the development of HBV-related HCC. While androgen is supposed to stimulate the androgen signaling pathway and cooperate to the increased transcription and replication of HBV genes, estrogen may play a protecting role against the progression of HBV infections and in the development of HBV-related HCC through decreasing HBV RNA transcription and inflammatory cytokines levels. Additionally, sex hormones can also affect HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis by inducing epigenetic changes such as the regulation of mRNA levels by microRNAs (miRNAs), DNA methylation, and histone modification in liver tissue. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying the gender disparity in HBV-related HCC with the aim of improving the understanding of key factors underneath the sex disparity often observed in HBV infections. Furthermore, the review will propose more effective prevention strategies and treatments of HBV-derived diseases. PMID:26491442

  15. Replacement therapy with DHEA plus corticosteroids in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases--substitutes of adrenal and sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Straub, R H; Schölmerich, J; Zietz, B

    2000-01-01

    shifts in steroidogenesis which have been demonstrated in chronic inflammatory diseases. It was repeatedly demonstrated that the serum level of the sulphated form of DHEA (DHEAS) was significantly lower in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. Since DHEAS is the pool for peripheral sex steroids, such as testosterone and 17 beta-estradiol, lack of this hormone leads to a significant sex hormone deficiency in the periphery. This overview will demonstrate mechanisms why DHEAS is reduced in chronic inflammatory diseases. The importance of DHEAS deficiency will be demonstrated with respect to osteoporosis. As a consequence, we suggest a combined therapy with corticosteroids plus DHEA in chronic inflammatory diseases.

  16. The Influence of Sex Hormones on Functional Cerebral Asymmetries in Postmenopausal Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ulrike; Erdmann, Gisela

    2008-01-01

    Studies investigating changes in functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs) with hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle in young women have led to controversial hypotheses about an influence of estrogen (E) and/or progesterone (P) on FCAs. Based on methodical, but also on principal problems in deriving conclusions about hormone effects from…

  17. ["Prostatic" kallikreins, sex hormones and insulin-like growth factors: complex of male and female regulatory elements in health and carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Zezerov, E G; Severin, E S

    1999-01-01

    Publications (up to the year 1997) on the interactions of "prostatic" kallikreins (prostatic specific antigen-PSA, etc.), sex hormones, insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and proteins binding them (IGFBP) in physiological processes (ageing, menstrual cycle, pregnancy) and oncogenesis (prostatic and mammary cancer) are reviewed. The concentrations of PSA, IGF, and IGFBP in organs and liquid media of men and women are presented. A concept of similarity in the mechanisms of interactions of sex hormones (dihydrotestosterone in men and progesterone in women), PSA, IGFBP, and IGF during activation of anabolic and proliferative processes in health and carcinogenesis is presented as a scheme. The diagnostic and prognostic value of PSA as a cancer marker should not be confined to male tumors (prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia). Our data permits us to regard PSA as an oncofetal marker for men and women, indicating normal and neoplastic proliferative processes in the prostatic, mammary, salivary, and other glands and in the lungs and endometrium. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of PSA in breast cancer is shown. The traditional name "PSA" does not reflect its physiological and pathogenetic role as a member of the kallikrein family with chymotrypsin-like activity. PSA is not absolutely specific towards the producer organ and sex. Its relative specificity for the prostate is undoubted, because the content of PSA in prostatic tissue and seminal plasma is 10(6)-10(8) times higher than in the serum and other organs of men and women. Therefore, although the terms "prostatic, "specific", and "antigen" now became trivial and it is difficult to refuse from them, they can be used only in quotation marks.

  18. Low concentrations of dihydrotestosterone induce female-to-male sex reversal in the frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Lou, Qin-Qin; Chen, Xiao-Ran; Qin, Zhan-Fen; Wie, Wu-Ji

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that some amphibian species can be sex-reversed by high concentrations of androgens. Little attention has focused on the effects of androgenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on amphibians. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of lower concentrations of the androgenic EDC 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on gonadal differentiation and development in Pelophylax nigromaculatus, a true frog distributed widely in East Asia. Tadpoles at Gosner stage 24/25 were exposed to nominal concentrations of 40 ng/L, 400 ng/L, and 4000 ng/L DHT to complete metamorphosis. In all DHT treatment groups, males and ambiguous sexes were identified based on gonadal morphology, whereas no females were found; thus, all treatment groups exhibited male-skewed ratios compared with the control group. Gonadal histological examination revealed that ambiguous sexes displayed overall testicular structure with certain ovarian characteristics, demonstrating that DHT-induced sex-ambiguous gonads were incomplete ovary-to-testis reversals (IOTTRs). The expression levels of some ovary-biased genes in the IOTTRs were significantly higher than in the control testes but lower than in the control ovaries. These results show that low concentrations of DHT induced complete or incomplete female-to-male sex reversal in P. nigromaculatus, and incomplete sex reversal retained certain ovarian characteristics not only at gonadal morphological and histological levels but also at the molecular level. They present study highlights potential risks of DHT and other androgenic EDCs for P. nigromaculatus. PMID:26226837

  19. Low concentrations of dihydrotestosterone induce female-to-male sex reversal in the frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Lou, Qin-Qin; Chen, Xiao-Ran; Qin, Zhan-Fen; Wie, Wu-Ji

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that some amphibian species can be sex-reversed by high concentrations of androgens. Little attention has focused on the effects of androgenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on amphibians. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of lower concentrations of the androgenic EDC 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on gonadal differentiation and development in Pelophylax nigromaculatus, a true frog distributed widely in East Asia. Tadpoles at Gosner stage 24/25 were exposed to nominal concentrations of 40 ng/L, 400 ng/L, and 4000 ng/L DHT to complete metamorphosis. In all DHT treatment groups, males and ambiguous sexes were identified based on gonadal morphology, whereas no females were found; thus, all treatment groups exhibited male-skewed ratios compared with the control group. Gonadal histological examination revealed that ambiguous sexes displayed overall testicular structure with certain ovarian characteristics, demonstrating that DHT-induced sex-ambiguous gonads were incomplete ovary-to-testis reversals (IOTTRs). The expression levels of some ovary-biased genes in the IOTTRs were significantly higher than in the control testes but lower than in the control ovaries. These results show that low concentrations of DHT induced complete or incomplete female-to-male sex reversal in P. nigromaculatus, and incomplete sex reversal retained certain ovarian characteristics not only at gonadal morphological and histological levels but also at the molecular level. They present study highlights potential risks of DHT and other androgenic EDCs for P. nigromaculatus.

  20. Cross-sex hormone treatment in male-to-female transsexual persons reduces serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    PubMed

    Fuss, Johannes; Hellweg, Rainer; Van Caenegem, Eva; Briken, Peer; Stalla, Günter K; T'Sjoen, Guy; Auer, Matthias K

    2015-01-01

    Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are reduced in male-to-female transsexual persons (MtF) compared to male controls. It was hypothesized before that this might reflect either an involvement of BDNF in a biomechanism of transsexualism or to be the result of persistent social stress due to the condition. Here, we demonstrate that 12 month of cross-sex hormone treatment reduces serum BDNF levels in male-to-female transsexual persons independent of anthropometric measures. Participants were acquired through the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). Reduced serum BDNF in MtF thus seems to be a result of hormonal treatment rather than a consequence or risk factor of transsexualism.

  1. Sex steroid hormones matter for learning and memory: estrogenic regulation of hippocampal function in male and female rodents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes the effects of E2 on hippocampal spinogenesis, neurogenesis, physiology, and memory, with particular attention paid to the effects of E2 in male rodents. The estrogen receptors, cell-signaling pathways, and epigenetic processes necessary for E2 to enhance memory in female rodents are also discussed in detail. Finally, practical considerations for working with female rodents are described for those investigators thinking of adding females to their experimental designs. PMID:26286657

  2. A comparison of fasting plasma insulin and growth hormone concentrations in marasmic, kwashiorkor, marasmic-kwashiorkor and underweight children.

    PubMed

    Robinson, H; Picou, D

    1977-05-01

    Fasting plasma insulin and growth hormone concentrations were measured in 24 marasmic, 11 kwashiorkor, 16 marasmic-kwashiorkor, and 4 underweight children. Hormone measurements were made by a special modification of the Hales and Randle double antibody immunoassay with increased sensitivity in the concentration range 0-25 micronU/ml. Fasting plasma insulin was low in marasmus, kwashiorkor, and marasmic-kwashiorkor children, and increased to normal levels after recovery. Fasting plasma growth hormone was elevated in all groups during malnutrition and was significantly decreased to normal levels after recovery. There were no significant differences in plasma insulin or growth hormone levels between the different clinical types of severe protein energy malnutrition. These hormonal changes in severe protein energy malnutrition are of complex and not fully understood etiology. However, recovered children appear to have a hormonal pattern similar to that described in normal control infants and children.

  3. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor- and acetylcholine-mediated relaxation: essential contribution of female sex hormones and chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Pessôa, Bruno Sevá; Slump, Denise E; Ibrahimi, Khatera; Grefhorst, Aldo; van Veghel, Richard; Garrelds, Ingrid M; Roks, Anton J M; Kushner, Steven A; Danser, A H Jan; van Esch, Joep H M

    2015-08-01

    Angiotensin-induced vasodilation, involving type 2 receptor (AT2R)-induced generation of nitric oxide (NO; by endothelial NO synthase) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors, may be limited to women. To distinguish the contribution of female sex hormones and chromosomes to AT2R function and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated vasodilation, we made use of the four-core genotype model, where the testis-determining Sry gene has been deleted (Y(-)) from the Y chromosome, allowing XY(-) mice to develop a female gonadal phenotype. Simultaneously, by incorporating the Sry gene onto an autosome, XY(-)Sry and XXSry transgenic mice develop into gonadal male mice. Four-core genotype mice underwent a sham or gonadectomy (GDX) operation, and after 8 weeks, iliac arteries were collected to assess vascular function. XY(-)Sry male mice responded more strongly to angiotensin than XX female mice, and the AT2R antagonist PD123319 revealed that this was because of a dilator AT2R-mediated effect occurring exclusively in XX female mice. The latter could not be demonstrated in XXSry male and XY(-) female mice nor in XX female mice after GDX, suggesting that it depends on both sex hormones and chromosomes. Indeed, treating C57bl/6 GDX male mice with estrogen could not restore angiotensin-mediated, AT2R-dependent relaxation. To block acetylcholine-induced relaxation of iliac arteries obtained from four-core genotype XX mice, both endothelial NO synthase and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor inhibition were required, whereas in four-core genotype XY animals, endothelial NO synthase inhibition alone was sufficient. These findings were independent of gonadal sex and unaltered after GDX. In conclusion, AT2R-induced relaxation requires both estrogen and the XX chromosome sex complement, whereas only the latter is required for endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors. PMID:26056343

  4. Organophosphorus insecticide induced decrease in plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in white-footed mice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Michael, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    Oral intubation of 50 and 100 mg/kg acephate inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by 45% and 56%, and reduced basal luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration by 29% and 25% after 4 h in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis). Dietary exposure to 25, 100, and 400 ppm acephate for 5 days substantially inhibited brain AChE activity, but did not affect plasma LH concentration. These preliminary findings suggest that acute exposure to organophosphorus insecticides may affect LH secretion and possibly reproductive function.

  5. Semen quality and sex hormones among mild steel and stainless steel welders: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bonde, J P

    1990-08-01

    Welding may be detrimental to the male reproductive system. To test this hypothesis, semen quality was examined in 35 stainless steel welders, 46 mild steel welders, and 54 non-welding metal workers and electricians. These figures represent a participation rate of 37.1% in welders and 36.7% in non-welding subjects. The mean exposure to welding fume particulates was 1.3 mg/m3 (SD 0.8) in stainless steel welders using tungsten inert gas, 3.2 mg/m3 (SD 1.0) in low exposed mild steel welders using manual metal arc or metal active gas (n = 31), and 4.7 mg/m3 (SD 2.1) in high exposed mild steel welders (n = 15). The semen quality of each participant was defined in terms of the mean values of the particular semen parameters in three semen samples delivered at monthly intervals in a period with occupational exposure in a steady state. The sperm concentration was not reduced in either mild steel or stainless steel welders. The sperm count per ejaculate, the proportion of normal sperm forms, the degree of sperm motility, and the linear penetration rate of the sperm were significantly decreased and the sperm concentration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was non-significantly increased in mild steel welders. A dose response relation between exposure to welding fumes and these semen parameters (sperm count excepted) was found. Semen quality decreased and FSH concentrations increased with increasing exposure. Significant deteriorations in some semen parameters were also observed in stainless steel welders. An analysis of information from questionnaires obtained from the whole population including subjects who declined to participate indicated an underestimation of effects due to selection bias. Potential confounding was treated by restriction and statistical analysis. The results support the hypothesis that mild steel welding and to a lesser extent stainless steel welding with tungsten inert gas is associated with reduced semen quality at exposure in the range of the

  6. Semen quality and sex hormones among mild steel and stainless steel welders: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, J P

    1990-01-01

    Welding may be detrimental to the male reproductive system. To test this hypothesis, semen quality was examined in 35 stainless steel welders, 46 mild steel welders, and 54 non-welding metal workers and electricians. These figures represent a participation rate of 37.1% in welders and 36.7% in non-welding subjects. The mean exposure to welding fume particulates was 1.3 mg/m3 (SD 0.8) in stainless steel welders using tungsten inert gas, 3.2 mg/m3 (SD 1.0) in low exposed mild steel welders using manual metal arc or metal active gas (n = 31), and 4.7 mg/m3 (SD 2.1) in high exposed mild steel welders (n = 15). The semen quality of each participant was defined in terms of the mean values of the particular semen parameters in three semen samples delivered at monthly intervals in a period with occupational exposure in a steady state. The sperm concentration was not reduced in either mild steel or stainless steel welders. The sperm count per ejaculate, the proportion of normal sperm forms, the degree of sperm motility, and the linear penetration rate of the sperm were significantly decreased and the sperm concentration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was non-significantly increased in mild steel welders. A dose response relation between exposure to welding fumes and these semen parameters (sperm count excepted) was found. Semen quality decreased and FSH concentrations increased with increasing exposure. Significant deteriorations in some semen parameters were also observed in stainless steel welders. An analysis of information from questionnaires obtained from the whole population including subjects who declined to participate indicated an underestimation of effects due to selection bias. Potential confounding was treated by restriction and statistical analysis. The results support the hypothesis that mild steel welding and to a lesser extent stainless steel welding with tungsten inert gas is associated with reduced semen quality at exposure in the range of the

  7. Pentachlorophenol disrupts steroid hormone metabolism at concentrations that reduce survival and fecundity of Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, L.G.; LeBlanc, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    Alterations in steroid metabolism by environmental endocrine disrupters can significantly affect steroid hormone-dependent processes such as growth and reproduction. Exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been shown to elicit a variety of endocrine-related adverse effects. The present study was undertaken to establish whether concentrations of PCP that adversely affect survival, growth, or reproduction of Daphnia magna during chronic exposure also elicit changes in steroid hormone metabolism. Survival and/or reproduction of daphnids was significantly reduced from exposure to 1.0, 0.50 and 0.25 mg/L PCP. Following chronic exposure to PCP, daphnids were incubated with [{sup 14}C]testosterone and the testosterone metabolites eliminated were identified and quantified. The rate of testosterone hydroxyl-metabolite elimination was not significantly different from controls. However, elimination of two of the glucose-conjugated metabolites of testosterone decreased in a PCP concentration-dependent manner. Adult daphnids were next exposed to these concentrations of PCP for only 48 hours and effects on steroid metabolism assessed. As observed following chronic exposure, PCP had no effect on the elimination of hydroxyl-metabolites. However, elimination of glucose and sulfate conjugates of testosterone were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that, (1) PCP alters steroid biotransformation activities at concentrations that affect survival and reproduction, and (2) effects on steroid metabolism can be detected following short-term exposure to PCP. Thus, this biochemical parameter may serve as a biomarker of chronic toxicity associated with PCP.

  8. Serum Dioxin Concentrations and Thyroid Hormone Levels in the Seveso Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Chevrier, Jonathan; Warner, Marcella; Gunier, Robert B.; Brambilla, Paolo; Eskenazi, Brenda; Mocarelli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental contaminant. Although experimental evidence suggests that TCDD alters thyroid hormone levels in rodents, human data are inconsistent. In 1976, a trichlorophenol plant exploded in Seveso, Italy. Women living in highly exposed areas were followed through the Seveso Women's Health Study. TCDD concentrations were measured in 1976 (n = 981) and 1996 (n = 260), and levels of total thyroxine, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone were measured in 1996 (n = 909) and 2008 (n = 724). We used conditional multiple linear regression and marginal structural models with inverse-probability-of-treatment weights to evaluate associations and causal effects. TCDD concentration in 1976 was inversely associated with total thyroxine level in 1996 but not in 2008. Associations were stronger among women who had been exposed before menarche. Among these women, associations between total thyroxine and concurrent 1996 TCDD were slightly weaker than those with 1976 TCDD. A model including both 1976 and 1996 measurements strengthened the relationship between 1976 TCDD and total thyroxine but drove the association with 1996 TCDD to the null. TCDD exposure was not associated with levels of other thyroid hormones. TCDD exposure, particularly exposure before menarche, may have enduring impacts on women's total thyroxine levels. Initial exposure appears to be more influential than remaining body burden. PMID:25096280

  9. Sex steroid levels, oocyte maturation and spawning performance in Waigieu seaperch (Psammoperca waigiensis) exposed to thyroxin, human chorionic gonadotropin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone and carp pituitary extract.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hung Quoc; Nguyen, Anh Tuong; Nguyen, Mao Dinh; Arukwe, Augustine

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the sex steroid hormone levels, oocyte maturation and spawning performance in Waigieu seaperch (Psammoperca waigiensis) exposed to different doses (0, (control), 0.05, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg fish) of thyroxin (T(4)) both through diet (continuously) and injection (single injection). In addition, we also studied plasma steroid hormone levels and spawning performances in female fish injected with a single dose of D-Ala(6), Pro(9)-Net-mGnRH (LHRHa: 50 microg/kg), human chronic gonadotropin (HCG: 1,500 IU/kg) and carp pituitary extract (CPE: 10 mg/kg). In all experiments, samples were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after exposure. T4 exposure via dietary route produced differential and enhanced effects, compared with when the compound was injected to the broodstock. A significant association between exposure to dietary T4, elevated plasma steroid hormone levels, maturation-, spawning-, fertilization- and hatching rate, egg diameter, embryogenesis and larval growth were observed. Interestingly, we observed that broodstock groups fed with T4 doses spawned 20 days earlier than the control group. Thus, we propose that these differences may be attributed to higher systemic availability of T4 due to dietary exposure that is easily transferable to eggs and embryos, as opposed to injection that require absorption to increase bioavailability. Furthermore, our results show that LHRHa, CPE and HCG produced significant increase in spawning rate, but significantly reduced fertilization- and hatching rates. Waigieu seaperch is a new candidate for marine aquaculture in Vietnam and relatively little is known about the reproductive biology and endocrinology of this species. Therefore, the present study forms an integral basis for understanding the reproductive endocrinology of a tropical marine finfish with increasing aquaculture prospects and may also contribute in the development of sustainable aquaculture of this species in a developing

  10. Rainfall and tillage effects on transport of fecal bacteria and sex hormones 17beta-estradiol and testosterone from broiler litter applications to a Georgia Piedmont Ultisol.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Michael B; Truman, Clint C; Siragusa, Gregory; Line, Eric; Bailey, J Stan; Frye, Jonathan; Endale, Dinku M; Franklin, Dorcas H; Schomberg, Harry H; Fisher, Dwight S; Sharpe, Ronald R

    2008-09-15

    Poultry litter provides nutrients for crop and pasture production; however, it also contains fecal bacteria, sex hormones (17beta-estradiol and testosterone) and antibiotic residues that may contaminate surface waters. Our objective was to quantify transport of fecal bacteria, estradiol, testosterone and antibiotic residues from a Cecil sandy loam managed since 1991 under no-till (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) to which either poultry litter (PL) or conventional fertilizer (CF) was applied based on the nitrogen needs of corn (Zea mays L) in the Southern Piedmont of NE Georgia. Simulated rainfall was applied for 60 min to 2 by 3-m field plots at a constant rate in 2004 and variable rate in 2005. Runoff was continuously measured and subsamples taken for determining flow-weighted concentrations of fecal bacteria, hormones, and antibiotic residues. Neither Salmonella, nor Campylobacter, nor antimicrobial residues were detected in litter, soil, or runoff. Differences in soil concentrations of fecal bacteria before and after rainfall simulations were observed only for Escherichia coli in the constant rainfall intensity experiment. Differences in flow-weighted concentrations were observed only for testosterone in both constant and variable intensity rainfall experiments, and were greatest for treatments that received poultry litter. Total loads of E. coli and fecal enterococci, were largest for both tillage treatments receiving poultry litter for the variable rainfall intensity. Load of testosterone was greatest for no-till plots receiving poultry litter under variable rainfall intensity. Poultry litter application rates commensurate for corn appeared to enhance only soil concentrations of E. coli, and runoff concentrations of testosterone above background levels.

  11. Serum concentrations of p, p'-DDE, HCB, PCBs and reproductive hormones among men of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kelly K; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Meeker, John D

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with changes in reproductive hormone levels, however most groups studied have been highly exposed. We investigated the association of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and p, p'-DDE with serum sex hormones in 341 adult men from a US infertility clinic with exposure levels consistent with those observed in the general population. In crude regression models we observed several negative associations of PCBs and HCB with steroid hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and total and free testosterone. After adjustment for lipids, age and BMI, nearly all significant associations were attenuated. A negative relationship remained between PCB 118 and SHBG (p<0.01), and relationships of dioxin-like PCBs with SHBG and total testosterone, and between PCB 118 and total testosterone, were suggestive. These results suggest a minimal relationship between PCB exposures at low background levels similar to those observed in the general population of the US and circulating reproductive hormones.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, C P; Johnson, N S; Binder, T R; Rediske, R R; O'Keefe, J P

    2013-11-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native. PMID:23864162

  13. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  14. Subchronic effects of cadmium on the gonads, expressions of steroid hormones and sex-related genes in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongju; Shan, Dan; Zhong, Huan; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Wenzhi; Cao, Jinling; Guo, Zhongbao; Xiao, Jun; He, Fulin; Huang, Yifan; Li, Jian; Huang, Heming; Xu, Pao

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem which affects fish health and aquaculture. In the present study, we examined the bioaccumulation of Cd in the gonads of tilapia via dissolved and dietary routes. We evaluated the subchronic effects of Cd on the histology of gonads, steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. In addition, we also studied maternal transfer of Cd. Our results indicated that Cd was accumulated significantly in both ovary and testis from both exposure routes. Histopathological analysis showed that Cd induced ovary and testis injuries. Estradiol levels were significantly increased in dissolved Cd exposed female fish. In addition, the Cd exposure displayed different effects on gene expressions in gonads. In females, the estrogen receptor (ERα) was stimulated in dissolved Cd-exposed fish at 70.32 and 143.78 μg/L for 30 days and in fish at 143.78 μg/L for 60 days. Vitellogenin expression was significantly down-regulated in the ovary of dissolved Cd-exposed fish. In testis, GR expression was elevated after 60 days of dissolved Cd and dietary exposure. Furthermore, Cd level was significantly higher in the eggs than that in the fry. Our results demonstrated that both dissolved and dietary Cd exposures affected gonad development by altering steroid hormone levels and sex-related gene expressions in tilapia. PMID:26471182

  15. Hedonic sensitivity to low-dose ketamine is modulated by gonadal hormones in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Saland, Samantha K; Schoepfer, Kristin J; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2016-02-18

    We recently reported a greater sensitivity of female rats to rapid antidepressant-like effects of ketamine compared to male rats, and that ovarian-derived estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) are essential for this response. However, to what extent testosterone may also contribute, and whether duration of response to ketamine is modulated in a sex- and hormone-dependent manner remains unclear. To explore this, we systematically investigated the influence of testosterone, estradiol and progesterone on initiation and maintenance of hedonic response to low-dose ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) in intact and gonadectomized male and female rats. Ketamine induced a sustained increase in sucrose preference of female, but not male, rats in an E2P4-dependent manner. Whereas testosterone failed to alter male treatment response, concurrent administration of P4 alone in intact males enhanced hedonic response low-dose ketamine. Treatment responsiveness in female rats only was associated with greater hippocampal BDNF levels, but not activation of key downstream signaling effectors. We provide novel evidence supporting activational roles for ovarian-, but not testicular-, derived hormones in mediating hedonic sensitivity to low-dose ketamine in female and male rats, respectively. Organizational differences may, in part, account for the persistence of sex differences following gonadectomy and selective involvement of BDNF in treatment response.

  16. Hedonic sensitivity to low-dose ketamine is modulated by gonadal hormones in a sex-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Saland, Samantha K.; Schoepfer, Kristin J.; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported a greater sensitivity of female rats to rapid antidepressant-like effects of ketamine compared to male rats, and that ovarian-derived estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) are essential for this response. However, to what extent testosterone may also contribute, and whether duration of response to ketamine is modulated in a sex- and hormone-dependent manner remains unclear. To explore this, we systematically investigated the influence of testosterone, estradiol and progesterone on initiation and maintenance of hedonic response to low-dose ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) in intact and gonadectomized male and female rats. Ketamine induced a sustained increase in sucrose preference of female, but not male, rats in an E2P4-dependent manner. Whereas testosterone failed to alter male treatment response, concurrent administration of P4 alone in intact males enhanced hedonic response low-dose ketamine. Treatment responsiveness in female rats only was associated with greater hippocampal BDNF levels, but not activation of key downstream signaling effectors. We provide novel evidence supporting activational roles for ovarian-, but not testicular-, derived hormones in mediating hedonic sensitivity to low-dose ketamine in female and male rats, respectively. Organizational differences may, in part, account for the persistence of sex differences following gonadectomy and selective involvement of BDNF in treatment response. PMID:26888470

  17. The role of sex hormones and the tissue environment in immune protection against HIV in the female reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Wira, Charles R; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Shen, Zheng; Patel, Mickey; Fahey, John V

    2014-08-01

    Despite extensive studies of the mucosal immune system in the female reproductive tract (FRT) and its regulation by sex hormones, relatively little attention has been paid to the tissue environment in the FRT that regulates immune cell function. Consisting of secretions from epithelial cells (EC), stromal fibroblasts, and immune cells in tissues from the upper (Fallopian tubes, uterus, and endocervix) and lower (ectocervix and vagina) tracts, each tissue compartment is unique and precisely regulates immune cells to optimize conditions for successful pregnancy and protection against sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Our goal in this review is to focus on the mucosal (tissue) environment in the upper and lower FRT. Specifically, this review will identify the contributions of EC and fibroblasts to the tissue environment and examine the impact of this environment on HIV-target cells. Much remains to be learned about the complex interactions with the tissue environment at different sites in the FRT and the ways in which they are regulated by sex hormones and chemical contraceptives. Awareness of the involvement of the tissue environment in determining immune cell function and HIV acquisition is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that lead to HIV prevention, acquisition, and the development of new therapeutic modalities of immune protection.

  18. Correlation between steroid sex hormones, egg laying capacity and cercarial shedding in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails after treatment with Haplophyllum tuberculatum.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Maha Z; Metwally, Nadia S; Hamed, Manal A; Mohamed, Azza M

    2012-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is considered the second most pre-valiant worldwide parasitic disease ranked next to malaria. It has significant economic and public health consequences in many developing countries. Several ways have been practiced in order to bring the disease under an adequate control through the breakage of the life cycle of the parasite. Snail control could be regarded as a rapid and efficient of reducing or eliminating transmission and remains among the methods of choice for schistosomiasis control. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (family Rutaceae) as a plant molluscicide. The mortality rate of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were monitored after treatment with three extracts of the plant aerial parts; petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. Chloroform extract that recorded the most potent effect was further evaluated through measuring the toxicity pattern against B. alexandrina snails, egg laying capacity, cercarial shedding, phenol oxidase enzyme and the levels of steroid sex hormones. Histopathological examination of hepatopancreas and ovotestis of treated snails were also done for result confirmation. Treatment of snails by chloroform extract recorded reduction in egg laying capacity, decrease in cercarial shedding, diminution in phenol oxidase enzyme, disturbance in steroid sex hormones and sever alternation of the histopathological picture of snails tissue. In conclusion, H. tuberculatum recorded molluscicidal potency against B. alexandrina snails. Further studies are needed for its environmental applications. PMID:22771439

  19. Serum angiotensinogen concentration in relation to gonadal hormones, body size, and genotype in growing young people.

    PubMed

    Pratt, J H; Ambrosius, W T; Tewksbury, D A; Wagner, M A; Zhou, L; Hanna, M P

    1998-11-01

    Multiple factors are thought to influence the level of circulating angiotensinogen (AGT). We showed previously that the serum AGT concentration was significantly related to body mass index (BMI) in a cohort of young people. In the present study, we studied whether levels of the gonadal hormones estradiol and testosterone might also predict the AGT level and might contribute to the BMI effect, since both the production of these hormones and BMI increase with age. In boys (n=127; mean+/-SD age, 14.7+/-1.9 years) and girls (n=104; age, 14.8+/-1.9 years) studied as a single group, we found a significant association of AGT level with level of estradiol (P=0.015) after adjustment for haplotype, age, race, testosterone concentration, and BMI. In girls studied alone, the level of AGT showed a significantly positive relation to level of testosterone (P=0.043), possibly a result of peripheral conversion of testosterone to estradiol, after adjustment for haplotype, age, race, estradiol concentration, and BMI. In boys, on the other hand, the level of testosterone was inversely related to AGT concentration (P=0.019), again after making adjustments for the other variables. Finally, in pairs of subjects matched for BMI, age, race, and gender where 1 member of each pair had either 1 or 2 copies of an AGT gene haplotype (T235 and -1074t) and the other member had no copy, the level of AGT was higher in the carrier of a haplotype in 24 of the 34 pairs (P<0.001). In conclusion, gonadal hormones are an additional influence on the circulating level of AGT in growing young people. In addition, with matching for BMI and other covariates, there is a strong association of AGT genotype with the serum level of AGT, emphasizing the importance of AGT gene expression as a determinant of the circulating level of AGT. PMID:9822447

  20. Low concentrations of bisphenol a suppress thyroid hormone receptor transcription through a nongenomic mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo; Tang, Yuan; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Yuan, Ye; Zhao, Bao-Quan; Chao, Xi-Juan; Zhu, Ben-Zhan

    2012-02-15

    Bisphenol (BPA) is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Various rodent and in vitro studies have shown that thyroid hormone (TH) function can be impaired by BPA. However, it is still unknown if low concentrations of BPA can suppress the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) transcription. The present study aims to investigate the possible suppressing effects of low concentrations of BPA on TR transcription and the involved mechanism(s) in CV-1 cells derived from cercopithecus aethiops monkey kidneys. Using gene reporter assays, BPA at concentrations as low as 10{sup −9} M suppresses TR or steroid receptor coactivator-1(SRC-1)-enhanced TR transcription, but not reducing TR/SRC-1 interaction in mammalian two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down studies. It has been further shown that both nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) are recruited to the TR-β1 by BPA in the presence of physiologic concentrations of T3 or T4. However, the overexpression of β3 integrin or c-Src significantly reduces BPA-induced recruitment of N-CoR/SMRT to TR or suppression of TR transcription. Furthermore, BPA inhibits the T3/T4-mediated interassociation of the β3 integrin/c-Src/MAPK/TR-β1 pathways by the co-immunoprecipitation. These results indicate that low concentrations of BPA suppress the TR transcription by disrupting physiologic concentrations of T3/T4-mediated β3 integrin/c-Src/MAPK/TR-β1 pathways, followed by recruiting N-CoR/SMRT to TR-β1, providing a novel insight regarding the TH disruption effects of low concentration BPA. -- Highlights: ► Environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA suppress TR transcription. ► BPA recruits the N-CoR/SMRT to TR under the physiologic concentrations of T3/T4. ► BPA disrupts T3/T4-mediated β3 integrin/c-Src/MAPK/TR-β1 pathways.

  1. Factors associated with serum levels of estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin among premenopausal Japanese women.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, C; Kaneda, N; Kabuto, M; Shimizu, H

    1997-01-01

    We measured serum levels of estradiol (E(2)) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) among 50 healthy premenopausal Japanese women in 1994 in Gifu, Japan, to investigate the relationships between potential risk factors for breast cancer and hormone levels. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we collected data on body size, physical activity, and previous disease history, as well as menstrual and reproductive histories of the woman and her mother. Blood samples were drawn from each subject on the 11th and 22nd days of her menstrual cycle. Higher serum E(2) levels were observed for women with shorter menstrual cycles. Age as well as cycle length were included in the regression models to determine the associations between hormone levels and study variables. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to SHBG level measured at the 11th day of the cycle, after adjusting for age and cycle length (r = -0.33; p = 0. 03). Women born in spring/summer had higher levels of E(2) on the 22nd day (p = 0.07) and higher levels of SHBG on both the 11th and 22nd days of the cycle (p = 0.01 and p = 0.06, respectively) than those born in other seasons. Physical activity at 13-15 years of age was inversely related to E(2) level on the 11th day of the cycle after controlling for age, cycle length, BMI, and birth month (r = -0.35; p = 0.04). PMID:9300929

  2. Maternal exposure to exogenous sex hormones in relation to birth weight of offspring.

    PubMed

    Polednak, A P; Janerich, D T; Glebatis, D M

    1983-04-01

    Birth weight was analyzed among singleton live births (N = 665) in Upstate New York in 1974 to women who used oral contraceptives (OC) in comparison to live births to women who used no contraceptives (N = 716), within 11 months prior to last menstrual period (LMP). In addition, birth weight was examined among live births to women who received hormone support therapy (N = 97) and hormone pregnancy tests (N = 75) during pregnancy. There was no evidence for a reduction in mean birth weight, or an increase in frequency of lower weights, among births to OC users, including those who stopped using OC within 2 months of LMP. Generally similar findings held within three maternal age groups (less than 25, 25-29, and 30-39 years). There was no evidence for a reduction in birth weight among offspring of women who received hormone pregnancy tests. Mean birth weight was relatively low among male and female births to women who received hormone therapy for "threatened abortion," but this may reflect the selection of women for such treatment rather than an effect of exogenous hormones on fetal growth.

  3. Development of a sensitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay for melanin-concentrating hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, A.N.; Baumann, J.B.; Girard, J. ); Baker, B.I.; Kishida, M. )

    1989-01-01

    A two-step solid-phase radioimmunoassay for melanin-