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Sample records for sex pheromone traps

  1. Dispenser and trap design affect the effectiveness of sex pheromone on trap capture of dogwood borer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

  2. Sex pheromone components of fall cankerworm moth,Alsophila pometaria : Synthesis and field trapping.

    PubMed

    Wong, J W; Palaniswamy, P; Underhill, E W; Steck, W F; Chisholm, M D

    1984-11-01

    (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-Nonadecatetraene and (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene, sex pheromone components ofAlsophila pometaria, were synthesized by stereoselective Wittig reactions and found to be spectroscopically and chromatographically identical to isolated natural material. Flight-tunnel bioassays and field-trapping experiments confirmed that the two tetraenes together with (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene are sex pheromone components. While traps baited with either tetraene individually captured conspecific males in field-trapping experiments, addition of the triene, which captured no males by itself, to either tetraene resulted in synergistic responses.

  3. Sex pheromone dispenser type and trap design affect capture of dogwood borer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

  4. Sex pheromone dispenser type and trap design affect capture of dogwood borer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijun; Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher; Walgenbach, James F

    2013-03-01

    Using a ternary sex pheromone blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate: (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl acetate: (Z,E)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate], we tested the effect of dispenser type and trap design for capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in apple orchards in West Virginia, Virginia, and North Carolina. Wing-style sticky traps baited with polyethylene vial pheromone dispensers captured more male DWB over the first 2 months than traps baited with rubber septum pheromone dispensers. However, catches in vial-baited traps decreased considerably after the first 2 months, possibly due to the antagonistic effect of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy acetophenone that diffused from the polyethylene vials. By contrast, traps baited with rubber septum dispensers captured DWB males for at least 6 months; over the last four months of the flight season, catches in traps baited with a rubber septum were greater than those in traps baited with a vial dispenser. Therefore, the rubber septum dispenser is recommended for season-long monitoring of DWB. A release-rate study, using laboratory and field-aged dispensers, demonstrated that desorption of DWB sex pheromone from polyethylene vial or rubber septum dispensers followed first order kinetics, with half-lives of 1.6 and 10.7 months, respectively. Several trap designs, including wing-and delta-style sticky traps, and white and green "bucket-style" traps, baited with rubber septum dispensers were compared in commercial apple orchards for catch of DWB. Bucket traps caught more moths when moth populations were high, because the sticky surfaces of the 1C and delta traps likely became saturated. However, among the commercially available traps tested, no particular design gave consistently higher catches. Further work is needed to explore capture mechanisms and maintenance needs of different trap types.

  5. Factors influencing capture of invasive sea lamprey in traps baited with a synthesized sex pheromone component

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Bravener, Gale; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is emerging as a model organism for understanding how pheromones can be used for manipulating vertebrate behavior in an integrated pest management program. In a previous study, a synthetic sex pheromone component 7α,12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) was applied to sea lamprey traps in eight streams at a final in-stream concentration of 10−12 M. Application of 3kPZS increased sea lamprey catch, but where and when 3kPZS had the greatest impact was not determined. Here, by applying 3kPZS to additional streams, we determined that overall increases in yearly exploitation rate (proportion of sea lampreys that were marked, released, and subsequently recaptured) were highest (20–40 %) in wide streams (~40 m) with low adult sea lamprey abundance (<1000). Wide streams with low adult abundance may be representative of low-attraction systems for adult sea lamprey and, in the absence of other attractants (larval odor, sex pheromone), sea lamprey may have been more responsive to a partial sex pheromone blend emitted from traps. Furthermore, we found that the largest and most consistent responses to 3kPZS were during nights early in the trapping season, when water temperatures were increasing. This may have occurred because, during periods of increasing water temperatures, sea lamprey become more active and males at large may not have begun to release sex pheromone. In general, our results are consistent with those for pheromones of invertebrates, which are most effective when pest density is low and when pheromone competition is low.

  6. Factors Influencing Capture of Invasive Sea Lamprey in Traps Baited With a Synthesized Sex Pheromone Component.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas S; Siefkes, Michael J; Wagner, C Michael; Bravener, Gale; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2015-10-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is emerging as a model organism for understanding how pheromones can be used for manipulating vertebrate behavior in an integrated pest management program. In a previous study, a synthetic sex pheromone component 7α,12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) was applied to sea lamprey traps in eight streams at a final in-stream concentration of 10(-12) M. Application of 3kPZS increased sea lamprey catch, but where and when 3kPZS had the greatest impact was not determined. Here, by applying 3kPZS to additional streams, we determined that overall increases in yearly exploitation rate (proportion of sea lampreys that were marked, released, and subsequently recaptured) were highest (20-40%) in wide streams (~40 m) with low adult sea lamprey abundance (<1000). Wide streams with low adult abundance may be representative of low-attraction systems for adult sea lamprey and, in the absence of other attractants (larval odor, sex pheromone), sea lamprey may have been more responsive to a partial sex pheromone blend emitted from traps. Furthermore, we found that the largest and most consistent responses to 3kPZS were during nights early in the trapping season, when water temperatures were increasing. This may have occurred because, during periods of increasing water temperatures, sea lamprey become more active and males at large may not have begun to release sex pheromone. In general, our results are consistent with those for pheromones of invertebrates, which are most effective when pest density is low and when pheromone competition is low.

  7. Comparison of sex pheromone traps for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Vitullo, Justin; Wang, Shifa; Zhang, Aijun; Mannion, Catharine; Bergh, J Christopher

    2007-04-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a highly polyphagous pest that invaded Florida in 2002 and has recently been reported from several locations in Louisiana. Although identification of its sex pheromone in 2004 improved monitoring capabilities tremendously, the effectiveness and efficiency of different pheromone trap designs for capturing males has not been evaluated. We deployed green Delta, Pherocon IlB, Pherocon V, Jackson, and Storgard Thinline traps in Homestead, FL, and compared the number of male M. hirsutus captured per trap, the number captured per unit of trapping surface area, the amount of extraneous material captured, and the time taken to count trapped mealybugs. Pheromone-baited traps with larger trapping surfaces (green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V) captured more males per trap than those with smaller surfaces (Jackson and Storgard Thinline), and fewest males were captured by Storgard Thinline traps. However, Jackson traps captured as many or more males per square centimeter of trapping surface as those with larger surfaces, and the time required to count males in Jackson traps was significantly less than in green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V traps. Although all trap designs accumulated some debris and nontarget insects, it was rated as light to moderate for all designs. Based on our measures of effectiveness and efficiency, the Jackson trap is most suitable for monitoring M. hirsutus populations. Additionally, unlike the other traps evaluated, which must be replaced entirely or inspected in the field and then redeployed, only the sticky liners of Jackson traps require replacement, enhancing the efficiency of trap servicing.

  8. Factors Influencing Male Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Capture Rates in Sex Pheromone-Baited Traps on Canola in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Miluch, C E; Dosdall, L M; Evenden, M L

    2014-12-01

    Optimization of male moth trapping rates in sex pheromone-baited traps plays a key role in managing Plutella xylostella (L.). We investigated various ways to increase the attractiveness of pheromone-baited traps to P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems in AB, Canada. Factors tested included pheromone blend and dose, addition of a green leaf volatile to the pheromone at different times during the season, lure type, trap color, and height. The industry standard dose of 100 μg of pheromone (four-component blend) per lure (ConTech Enterprises Inc., Delta, British Columbia [BC], Canada) captured the most moths in the two lure types tested. Traps baited with pheromone released from gray rubber septa captured more males than those baited with red rubber septa. Traps baited with lures in which Z11-16: Ac is the main component attracted significantly more moths than those in which Z11-16: Ald is the main component. The addition of the green leaf volatile, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, to pheromone at a range of doses, did not increase moth capture at any point during the canola growing season. Unpainted white traps captured significantly more male moths than pheromone-baited traps that were painted yellow. Trap height had no significant effect on moth capture. Recommendations for monitoring P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems of western Canada include using a pheromone blend with Z11-16: Ac as the main component released from gray rubber septa at a dose of 100 μg.

  9. A sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) sex pheromone mixture increases trap catch relative to a single synthesized component in specific environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Tix, John A.; Hlina, Benjamin L.; Wagner, C. Michael; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10 % increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  10. A Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Sex Pheromone Mixture Increases Trap Catch Relative to a Single Synthesized Component in Specific Environments.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas S; Tix, John A; Hlina, Benjamin L; Wagner, C Michael; Siefkes, Michael J; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-03-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10% increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  11. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with passive interception traps in sex pheromone-treated apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L

    2000-12-01

    Male and female codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were monitored with passive interception traps (PI-traps) in apple orchards treated with sex pheromone dispensers. The proportion of mated females recaptured by PI-traps was significantly higher than the proportion released after the release of both sexes into a codling moth-infested orchard. However, no significant difference occurred between the proportion of mated females recaptured and released when only females were released into uninfested orchards. Replicated nine-tree apple plots situated either on the edge or in the center ofpheromone-treated apple orchards were monitored with PI-traps during first moth flight in 1995 and during both flights in 1996. Moths caught on PI-traps were predominately males. The first male moths were captured 7-10 d before females during the first flight in both years. Initial capture of virgin and mated females on PI-traps coincided in 1995. Mated females were captured 14 d after the first virgin females in 1996. The mean proportion of females that were mated ranged from 32 to 55% during the first flight and 85 to 92% during the second flight. Moth catch and fruit injury were significantly higher in the edge versus the center plots. The numbers of total and female moths caught with PI-traps were significantly correlated with fruit injury for each generation. The percentage of female moths caught on PI-traps that were mated was 32% lower and the mean oocyte load of all females was 42% higher in a pheromone-treated apple orchard than in the untreated crabapple grove monitored during May and June 1997.

  12. Optimum timing of insecticide applications against diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in cole crops using threshold catches in sex pheromone traps.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V; Guerrero, A

    2001-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata), cauliflower (B oleracea var botrytis) and knol khol (B oleracea gongylodes) crops at two different locations in Karnataka State (India) to optimize the timing of insecticide applications to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, using sex pheromone traps. Our results indicate that applications of cartap hydrochloride as insecticide during a 12-24 h period after the pheromone traps had caught on average 8, 12 and 16 males per trap per night in cabbage, cauliflower and knol khol, respectively, were significantly more effective than regular insecticide sprays at 7, 9, 12 or 15 days after transplantation. This was demonstrated by estimation of the mean number of eggs and larvae per plant, the percentage of holes produced, as well as the marketable yield of the three crops at each location. A good correlation between the immature stages, infestation level, the estimated crop yield and the number of moths caught in pheromone traps was also found, indicating the usefulness of pheromone-based monitoring traps to predict population densities of the pest.

  13. Sex ratio and female sexual status of the coconut pest, Oryctes monoceros (Coleoptera: Dynastidae), differ in feeding galleries and pheromone-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Allou, K; Morin, J-P; Kouassi, P; Hala N'klo, F; Rochat, D

    2008-12-01

    Oryctes monoceros is a serious coconut pest, causing up to 40% damage in tropical Africa. Synthetic aggregation pheromone, ethyl 4-methyloctanoate, has been used to lure adults to traps. Traps with pheromone plus decaying palm material captured a high proportion of males. This raises the question whether individuals, which damage palms are receptive to the pheromone. We studied the sex ratio of the insects feeding on coconuts and those attracted to pheromone traps. Sixty two percent of adults from feeding galleries on living coconut palms were females. Pheromone with rotting palm material lured 43% females. To investigate the reasons for this difference, we compared the reproductive system of females lured to the odour traps or feeding in coconut galleries, or present in old rotting stems. Ninety six percent of the females trapped by pheromone had mated, and were sexually mature. In the galleries on living palms, 46% of females were immature, and 24% had not mated. In old rotting stems where eggs are laid and larvae develop, a mixture of 52% mated and 48% virgin females was found. Therefore, the pheromone together with the odour of rotting coconut stems signals a reproduction site to beetles, particularly mature females. In practice, the pheromone-baited traps will help in reducing the dissemination of gravid females, but will not affect directly the numbers of immature ones attacking palms. Our results show that when using pheromones for monitoring or controlling insects, the physiological status of the insects may have unexpected effects on the outcome.

  14. Sex pheromone chemistry and field trapping studies of the elm spanworm Ennomos subsignaria (Hübner) (Lepidoptera:Geometridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryall, Krista; Silk, Peter J.; Wu, Junping; Mayo, Peter; Lemay, Matthew A.; Magee, David

    2010-08-01

    The elm spanworm, Ennomos subsignaria (Hübner), occurs throughout Canada and the eastern United States and can be a destructive forest pest on a wide range of deciduous trees. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) analysis of pheromone gland extracts, in combination with chemical synthesis and field trapping studies have identified (2 S, 3 R)-2-(( Z)-oct-2'-enyl)-3-nonyl oxirane (hereafter Z6-9 S, 10 R-epoxy-19:H) as the female-produced sex pheromone. Significantly more male moths were captured between 1-100 μg loadings of this compound on red rubber septa in sticky traps compared to blank (unbaited) traps; catches then declined at higher dosages (500-1000 μg). The other isomeric enantiomer, (2 R, 3 S)-2-[( Z)-oct-2'-enyl]-3-nonyl oxirane ( Z6-9 R, 10 S-epoxy-19:H), at a 10-μg dosage did not elicit trap capture. The likely precursor to the active epoxide, ( Z, Z)-6, 9-nonadecadiene (( Z, Z)-6, 9-19:H), identified in virgin female sex pheromone glands, did not elicit trap capture either, and inhibited trap capture when combined with the active epoxide. Racemic 2-((Z)-oct-2'-enyl)-3-nonyl oxirane showed no significant difference in trap capture compared with Z6-9 S, 10 R-epoxy-19:H, indicating that the opposite enantiomer was not antagonistic. The addition of the EAD-active diene epoxide enantiomers (2 S, 3 R)-2-[( Z, Z)-octa-2', 5'-dienyl]-3-nonyl oxirane or (2 R, 3 S)-2-[( Z, Z)-octa-2', 5'-dienyl]-3-nonyl oxirane in admixture with Z6-9 S, 10 R-epoxy-19:H (at 10% of the latter) did not enhance or decrease trap capture compared to Z6-9 S, 10 R-epoxy-19:H oxirane alone, so they are not likely pheromone components. This pheromone, impregnated in rubber septa at less than 100-μg dosage, can now be used as a trap bait to develop detection and monitoring strategies for this insect.

  15. Sex pheromone chemistry and field trapping studies of the elm spanworm Ennomos subsignaria (Hübner) (Lepidoptera:Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Ryall, Krista; Silk, Peter J; Wu, Junping; Mayo, Peter; Lemay, Matthew A; MaGee, David

    2010-08-01

    The elm spanworm, Ennomos subsignaria (Hübner), occurs throughout Canada and the eastern United States and can be a destructive forest pest on a wide range of deciduous trees. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) analysis of pheromone gland extracts, in combination with chemical synthesis and field trapping studies have identified (2S, 3R)-2-((Z)-oct-2'-enyl)-3-nonyl oxirane (hereafter Z6-9S, 10R-epoxy-19:H) as the female-produced sex pheromone. Significantly more male moths were captured between 1-100 microg loadings of this compound on red rubber septa in sticky traps compared to blank (unbaited) traps; catches then declined at higher dosages (500-1000 microg). The other isomeric enantiomer, (2R, 3S)-2-[(Z)-oct-2'-enyl]-3-nonyl oxirane (Z6-9R, 10S-epoxy-19:H), at a 10-microg dosage did not elicit trap capture. The likely precursor to the active epoxide, (Z, Z)-6, 9-nonadecadiene ((Z, Z)-6, 9-19:H), identified in virgin female sex pheromone glands, did not elicit trap capture either, and inhibited trap capture when combined with the active epoxide. Racemic 2-((Z)-oct-2'-enyl)-3-nonyl oxirane showed no significant difference in trap capture compared with Z6-9S, 10R-epoxy-19:H, indicating that the opposite enantiomer was not antagonistic. The addition of the EAD-active diene epoxide enantiomers (2S, 3R)-2-[(Z, Z)-octa-2', 5'-dienyl]-3-nonyl oxirane or (2R, 3S)-2-[(Z, Z)-octa-2', 5'-dienyl]-3-nonyl oxirane in admixture with Z6-9S, 10R-epoxy-19:H (at 10% of the latter) did not enhance or decrease trap capture compared to Z6-9S, 10R-epoxy-19:H oxirane alone, so they are not likely pheromone components. This pheromone, impregnated in rubber septa at less than 100-microg dosage, can now be used as a trap bait to develop detection and monitoring strategies for this insect.

  16. Sex Pheromone of Anastrepha striata.

    PubMed

    Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Malo, Edi A; Rojas, Julio C

    2015-05-01

    The guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata, is a pest of several cultivated species of Myrtaceae in the American tropics and subtropics. During calling, A. striata males release numerous volatiles. This study was conducted to identify which of the male volatiles function as the A. striata sex pheromone and to investigate the effects of age and time of day on the emission of pheromone components. Analysis of the volatiles from males collected by solid phase microextraction using gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) showed that three volatile compounds elicited repeatable responses from the antennae of females. The EAD-active compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry as ethyl hexanoate, linalool, and ethyl octanoate. In two-choice tests using Multilure traps placed in field cages, traps baited with live males, ethyl hexanoate, or the three-component blend captured more females than unbaited traps. However, there was no difference in catches when traps baited with live males were compared against traps baited with ethyl hexanoate. Although traps baited with the three-component blend caught more females than traps baited with live males, the difference was not significant. Analyses of pheromonal components released by A. striata males 8 to 26 days old showed that there was an effect of age on pheromone production and also a significant effect of time of day on pheromone emission. Release of the volatile compounds occurred from 14.00 to 18.00 hr, although traces of linalool were detected from 08.00 hr. Peak emission of pheromone compounds occurred at 14.00 hr.

  17. Determining circadian response of adult male Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to synthetic sex attractant pheromone through time-segregated trapping with a new clockwork timing trap.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Douglass E; Harris, Marvin K

    2009-12-01

    Mate finding is a key lifecycle event for the pecan nut casebearer, Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig, as it is for virtually all Lepidoptera, many of which rely on long-range, species-specific sex pheromones, regulated largely by circadian clocks. Adult male moths were trapped at discrete time intervals during the first two seasonal flights for 6 yr to determine times of peak activity associated with male response to pheromones. From 1997 to 2002, the Harris-Coble automated clockwork timing trap was used for hourly time-segregated sampling. Analysis of variance with linear contrasts determined that circadian response of A. nuxvorella males to pecan nut casebearer pheromone began at approximately 2100 hours, the first hour of total darkness, lasting for 6-7 h. It peaked from midnight to 0400 hours and ended at the onset of morning twilight, approximately 0500 hours. The hours of peak activity are hours of minimal bat predation. The study shows that pecan nut casebearer males become responsive to pheromone several hours before females start calling and remain responsive for at least 1 h after they stop. The extended response period conforms to studies of other polygamous Lepidoptera in which a selective advantage is conferred on early responding males in scramble competition for available females.

  18. The optimal sex pheromone release rate for trapping the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the field

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Runzhi

    2016-01-01

    For successful pest management, codlemone (E, E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol) is widely used to monitor codling moth. The pheromone release rate is essential for the lure’s attractiveness. The optimal sex pheromone release rate (V0) for trapping codling moth was evaluated during 2013–2014. The overwinter generation V0 was 6.7–33.4 μg wk−1, and moth catches (MCs) were 0.82 ± 0.11 adults/trap/week; MCs for lower (V1) and higher (V2) release rates were 52.4% and 46.3%, respectively, of that for V0. The first generation V0 was 18.4–29.6 μg wk−1, with MCs of 1.45 ± 0.29 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 34.5% and 31.7%, respectively, of those for V0. Combining across generations, the final V0 was 18.4–29.6 μg wk−1, with MCs of 1.07 ± 0.06 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 51.4% and 41.1%, respectively, of that for V0. Overwinter generation emergence was relatively concentrated, requiring a wider V0. Maintaining the release rate at 18.4–29.6 μg wk−1 could optimize the lure’s efficacy; this resulted in the capture of nearly 1.9 and 2.4 times more moths than V1 and V2, respectively. The results also indicate that a dispenser pheromone release rate of 200–300 times that of the female moth can perfectly outcompetes females in the field. PMID:26879373

  19. The optimal sex pheromone release rate for trapping the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Runzhi

    2016-02-16

    For successful pest management, codlemone (E, E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol) is widely used to monitor codling moth. The pheromone release rate is essential for the lure's attractiveness. The optimal sex pheromone release rate (V0) for trapping codling moth was evaluated during 2013-2014. The overwinter generation V0 was 6.7-33.4 μg wk(-1), and moth catches (MCs) were 0.82 ± 0.11 adults/trap/week; MCs for lower (V1) and higher (V2) release rates were 52.4% and 46.3%, respectively, of that for V0. The first generation V0 was 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1), with MCs of 1.45 ± 0.29 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 34.5% and 31.7%, respectively, of those for V0. Combining across generations, the final V0 was 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1), with MCs of 1.07 ± 0.06 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 51.4% and 41.1%, respectively, of that for V0. Overwinter generation emergence was relatively concentrated, requiring a wider V0. Maintaining the release rate at 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1) could optimize the lure's efficacy; this resulted in the capture of nearly 1.9 and 2.4 times more moths than V1 and V2, respectively. The results also indicate that a dispenser pheromone release rate of 200-300 times that of the female moth can perfectly outcompetes females in the field.

  20. Electroantennogram Responses and Field Trapping of Asian Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) with Blattellaquinone, Sex Pheromone of the German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Matos, Yvonne K; Schal, Coby

    2015-08-01

    The Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai Mizukubo, first introduced to Florida in 1986, has been spreading throughout the southeastern United States. Populations can reach extremely high densities and cause damage to crops as well as become a nuisance in residential settings. Because the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is its closest extant relative, we characterized the B. asahinai male response to blattellaquinone, the sex pheromone of the German cockroach, in an effort to develop monitoring tools for B. asahinai. Electroantennogram (EAG) analysis was conducted on B. asahinai and B. germanica males and females, and revealed that the antennae of males of both species responded significantly more to blattellaquinone than females, and in both males and females absolute EAG responses of B. asahinai were greater than in B. germanica males and females, respectively. However, normalized male EAG response curves and ED50 values (effective dose to elicit 50% of maximal response) did not differ significantly between the two species. Results of field trapping experiments demonstrated that male B. asahinai were more attracted to blattellaquinone than any other life stage, and 10 μg of blattellaquinone attracted the most males. These results suggest that blattellaquinone or a similar compound might be a component of the sex pheromone of B. asahinai females.

  1. The Active Space of Mexican Rice Borer Pheromone Traps.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Blake E; Beuzelin, Julien M; Allison, Jeremy D; Reagan, Thomas E

    2016-09-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., rice, Oryza sativa L., and other graminaceous crops in the United States. Traps baited with the synthetic female sex pheromone of E. loftini are used for monitoring and management of this invasive pest. However, the active space, or radius of attraction, of these traps is not known. Two field experiments examined the effect of intertrap distance on trap captures with hexagonal arrays of traps deployed in rice stubble habitat in Texas (2011) and Louisiana (2013). Trap capture increased with increasing intertrap distance. Trap interference occurred at intertrap distances ≤50 m in the 2011 experiment. Results from the experiment conducted in 2013 indicate that trap interference occurs at intertrap distances of 50 m, but not at distances ≥100 m. These results suggest that under field conditions, E. loftini pheromone traps attract males from distances of 50-100 m. The active space of pheromone traps also was examined under controlled wind conditions by direct observation of male response to detection of the female sex pheromone. Eoreuma loftini males responded to the pheromone blend by becoming active, fanning their wings, and rapidly walking in circles. The mean distance from the pheromone source at which males responded was 47.6 m. This work provides the first documentation of active space for traps baited with female sex pheromone for a crambid species, and these data will improve pheromone trap deployment strategies for E. loftini monitoring and management.

  2. Sex and Aggregation-Sex Pheromones of Cerambycid Beetles: Basic Science and Practical Applications.

    PubMed

    Hanks, Lawrence M; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2016-07-01

    Research since 2004 has shown that the use of volatile attractants and pheromones is widespread in the large beetle family Cerambycidae, with pheromones now identified from more than 100 species, and likely pheromones for many more. The pheromones identified to date from species in the subfamilies Cerambycinae, Spondylidinae, and Lamiinae are all male-produced aggregation-sex pheromones that attract both sexes, whereas all known examples for species in the subfamilies Prioninae and Lepturinae are female-produced sex pheromones that attract only males. Here, we summarize the chemistry of the known pheromones, and the optimal methods for their collection, analysis, and synthesis. Attraction of cerambycids to host plant volatiles, interactions between their pheromones and host plant volatiles, and the implications of pheromone chemistry for invasion biology are discussed. We also describe optimized traps, lures, and operational parameters for practical applications of the pheromones in detection, sampling, and management of cerambycids.

  3. The joy of sex pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Diaz, Carolina; Benton, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Sex pheromones provide an important means of communication to unite individuals for successful reproduction. Although sex pheromones are highly diverse across animals, these signals fulfil common fundamental roles in enabling identification of a mating partner of the opposite sex, the appropriate species and of optimal fecundity. In this review, we synthesize both classic and recent investigations on sex pheromones in a range of species, spanning nematode worms, insects and mammals. These studies reveal comparable strategies in how these chemical signals are produced, detected and processed in the brain to regulate sexual behaviours. Elucidation of sex pheromone communication mechanisms both defines outstanding models to understand the molecular and neuronal basis of chemosensory behaviours, and reveals how similar evolutionary selection pressures yield convergent solutions in distinct animal nervous systems. EMBO reports advance online publication 13 September 2013; doi:10.1038/embor.2013.140 PMID:24030282

  4. The joy of sex pheromones.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Diaz, Carolina; Benton, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Sex pheromones provide an important means of communication to unite individuals for successful reproduction. Although sex pheromones are highly diverse across animals, these signals fulfil common fundamental roles in enabling identification of a mating partner of the opposite sex, the appropriate species and of optimal fecundity. In this review, we synthesize both classic and recent investigations on sex pheromones in a range of species, spanning nematode worms, insects and mammals. These studies reveal comparable strategies in how these chemical signals are produced, detected and processed in the brain to regulate sexual behaviours. Elucidation of sex pheromone communication mechanisms both defines outstanding models to understand the molecular and neuronal basis of chemosensory behaviours, and reveals how similar evolutionary selection pressures yield convergent solutions in distinct animal nervous systems.

  5. Field optimization of the sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae): evaluation of lure types, trap height, male flight distances, and number of traps needed per avocado orchard for detection.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, M S; Millar, J G; Hoddle, C D; Zou, Y; McElfresh, J S; Lesch, S M

    2011-04-01

    The sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer was evaluated in commercial avocado orchards in Guatemala to determine operational parameters, such as optimal lure type, trap height, trap density and estimates of the distances that male moths fly. Of four pheromone dispensers tested, gray and white rubber septa were of equal efficacy, whereas 1-ml low-density polyethylene vials and 2×3-cm polyethylene ziplock bags were least efficacious. The height at which wing traps were hung did not significantly affect the number of adult male S. catenifer captured. For monitoring S. catenifer, these data suggest that the pheromone should be dispensed from gray rubber septa in wing traps hung inside the tree canopy at 1.75 m, a height convenient for trap placement and monitoring. Mark-recapture studies of male S. catenifer indicated that, on average, males flew 67 m in one night. However, it is likely that this is an underestimate of the distance that male moths are capable of flying in a single night. Probabilistic modeling of S. catenifer capture data from different numbers of pheromone traps deployed in seven commercial avocado orchards of varying sizes and infestation levels suggested that 10-13 randomly deployed traps per orchard for a 7-day period are needed to detect at least one male S. catenifer with 90% confidence. These data provide sufficient information to develop effective protocols for using the S. catenifer pheromone to detect and monitor this pest in countries with endemic populations that are exporting fresh avocados, and for quarantine detection and incursion monitoring in countries receiving avocado imports from high risk areas.

  6. Pheromone trap for the eastern tent caterpillar moth.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Kenneth F; McLaughlin, John; Stamper, Shelby; Rucker, Charlene; Webster, Francis X; Czokajlo, Darek; Kirsch, Philipp

    2007-10-01

    The discovery that the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum (F.) causes mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), and thus has the potential to continue to result in major economic losses to the equine industry of Kentucky, has resulted in an intensive effort to identify practical means to monitor and control this defoliator, including these experiments to optimize a sex pheromone trap for this pest. A pheromone-baited delta trap with a large opening, such as InterceptST Delta, was more effective than other tested traps. Orange delta traps caught more moths than other tested colors. ETC males are caught at all tested heights within the tree canopy. For monitoring flights, setting traps at 1.5 m would allow easy counting of moths. A 9:1 blend of (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (ETC-Ald) and (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienol (ETC-OH) was most effective in capturing males. Increasing loading doses of a 3:1 blend (Ald:OH) resulted in the capture of increasing numbers of moths, but a 9:1 blend was more effective than 3:1 blend even at a nine-fold lower loading rate. Pheromone-impregnated white septa caught more moths than gray septa at the same loading dose. The advantages and limitations of using pheromone traps for monitoring M. americanum are discussed.

  7. Efficacy of pheromone trapping of the sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Brentidae): based on dose, septum age, attractive radius, and mass trapping.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Wu, Shaohui; Mendi, Robert C; Miller, Ross H

    2014-06-01

    Pheromone dose, effective trapping distance, and longevity of the rubber septa loaded with sex pheromone of Cylas formicarius (F.) (Coleoptera: Brentidae) were evaluated for their impact on the efficacy of mass trapping of the insect in sweet potato fields in Guam in 2012-2013. The number of adults caught at different distances (10-100 m) was significantly different. Catches declined with increasing release distance from the trap in both downwind and upwind directions. While the maximum radius of attraction of pheromone-baited trap for C. formicarius in the field was 80 m, the effective distance for recapturing marked adults in the pheromone-baited Unitraps was 60 m. Pheromone lures were able to capture adults of C. formicarius after being stored in the laboratory for up to 98 d. The number of catches per trap per week was highest when lures were 0-14- and 15-28-d-old, and longer storage of septa led to a progressive reduction of catches. Pheromone traps baited with 100-μg lures captured significantly more adults compared with those loaded with 10-μg lures. In addition, effectiveness of pheromone trapping on damage to sweet potato was tested at two locations. Number of trapped adults, damage level at different times after trap installation, and yield production were evaluated. The number of C. formicarius adults collected in traps at both locations fluctuated dramatically among sampling dates and peaked on 13 September 2013, after which time the number of captures noticeably declined. This decrease was correlated to the increasing age and depletion of the pheromone lures. Pheromone traps significantly reduced feeding damage caused by weevils (<1 feeding hole per root in treatment; up to 38 feeding holes per root in the control) at both locations. Being consistent with damage levels, sweet potato yields in fields with traps were higher than those in untreated controls. We conclude that pheromone-baited traps are effective in reducing damage due to C. formicarius.

  8. Influence of climatic conditions on the distribution, abundance and activity of Agriotes lineatus L. adults in sex pheromone traps in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozina, Antonela; Čačija, Maja; Igrc Barčić, Jasminka; Bažok, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this work were: (i) to determine the distribution and abundance of Agriotes lineatus, (ii) correlate the abundance with the prevailing climatic conditions to establish how temperature and rainfall are influencing the dominance, and (iii) to determine the activity characteristics of the adults. Investigations were conducted in 17 fields grouped in four regions characterized by different climatic conditions. Using sex pheromone traps the most important Agriotes species ( A. lineatus L., A. sputator L., A. obscurus L., A. brevis Cand. and A. ustulatus Schall.) were collected. The monitoring period for A. brevis, A. sputator, A. lineatus and A. obscurus was from the 18th to the 32nd, and for A. ustulatus from the 23rd to the 32nd week of the year. A total of 61,247 individuals Agriotes were captured, of which 24,916 individuals were A. lineatus. Abundance and dominance of A. lineatus were significantly higher in the region of Zagreb compared to other regions. Moving east, rainfall decreased and temperatures increased and associated with that the abundance and dominance indices were lower. It was determined that the abundance of A. lineatus was negatively correlated with average air temperature ( r = -0.5201; p < 0.0001). Compared to earlier data from the region of Zagreb the dominance index decreased. This might be a result of climate change as established average yearly temperature in these regions increased for 1.04 °C compared to the average data for the period 1961-1990. Other potentially damaging Agriotes species ( A. brevis and A. ustulatus) were also present in high abundances in some micro-regions.

  9. Influence of climatic conditions on the distribution, abundance and activity of Agriotes lineatus L. adults in sex pheromone traps in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kozina, Antonela; Čačija, Maja; Igrc Barčić, Jasminka; Bažok, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this work were: (i) to determine the distribution and abundance of Agriotes lineatus, (ii) correlate the abundance with the prevailing climatic conditions to establish how temperature and rainfall are influencing the dominance, and (iii) to determine the activity characteristics of the adults. Investigations were conducted in 17 fields grouped in four regions characterized by different climatic conditions. Using sex pheromone traps the most important Agriotes species (A. lineatus L., A. sputator L., A. obscurus L., A. brevis Cand. and A. ustulatus Schall.) were collected. The monitoring period for A. brevis, A. sputator, A. lineatus and A. obscurus was from the 18th to the 32nd, and for A. ustulatus from the 23rd to the 32nd week of the year. A total of 61,247 individuals Agriotes were captured, of which 24,916 individuals were A. lineatus. Abundance and dominance of A. lineatus were significantly higher in the region of Zagreb compared to other regions. Moving east, rainfall decreased and temperatures increased and associated with that the abundance and dominance indices were lower. It was determined that the abundance of A. lineatus was negatively correlated with average air temperature (r = -0.5201; p < 0.0001). Compared to earlier data from the region of Zagreb the dominance index decreased. This might be a result of climate change as established average yearly temperature in these regions increased for 1.04 °C compared to the average data for the period 1961-1990. Other potentially damaging Agriotes species (A. brevis and A. ustulatus) were also present in high abundances in some micro-regions.

  10. A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

  11. A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

  12. (Z)-7-tricosene and monounsaturated ketones as sex pheromone components of the Australian guava moth Coscinoptycha improbana: identification, field trapping, and phenology.

    PubMed

    Gibb, A R; Suckling, D M; Morris, B D; Dawson, T E; Bunn, B; Comeskey, D; Dymock, J J

    2006-01-01

    Pheromone gland extracts of the Australian guava moth Coscinoptycha improbana (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), contained four compounds that elicited responses from male moth antennae in gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analyses. These were identified by GC-mass spectrometry as (Z)-7-tricosene (Z7-23Hy), (Z)-7-octadecen-11-one (Z7-11-one-18Hy), (Z)-7-nonadecen-11-one (Z7-11-one-19Hy), and (Z)-7-tricosen-11-one (Z7-11-one-23Hy) at a ratio of 65:23.5:1.5:10, respectively. Z7-23Hy, Z7-11-one-18Hy, and Z7-11-one-23Hy have not previously been reported as lepidopteran sex pheromone components. Z7-11-one-18Hy was active as a single component, and was synergized by Z7-11-one-23Hy but not Z7-11-one-19Hy, although the latter compound was weakly attractive as a single component. Addition of Z7-23Hy further increased attraction. The amount of the major pheromone component, Z7-11-one-18Hy in female pheromone gland extracts was estimated to be 16.4 ng/female (N = 8). Phenological data gathered over a 12-mo period in 2002 and 2003 using the binary blend indicated that moths are active throughout the year. The pheromone has already been employed to monitor the spread of C. improbana in New Zealand and detect its presence in Queensland, Australia.

  13. Sex pheromone of South American tortricid moth Argyrotaenia sphaleropa.

    PubMed

    Nunez, S; De, Vlieger J J; Rodriquez, J J; Persoons, C J; Scatoni, I

    2002-02-01

    By means of electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the sex pheromone of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa was identified as a mixture of (Z)-11-tetradecenal, (Z)-11,13-tetradecadienal, (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, and (Z)-11,13-tetradecadienyl acetate in the ratio of 1:4:10:40. Best trap catches were obtained with mixtures of (Z)-11-tetradecenal and (Z)-11,13-tetradecadienal in the ratio of 1:4 to 1:9.

  14. Plant Volatiles Increase Sex Pheromone Attraction of Holotrichia parallela (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea).

    PubMed

    Ju, Qian; Guo, Xiao-Qiang; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Xiao-Jing; Jiang, Xiang-Guo; Ni, Wan-Li; Qu, Ming-Jing

    2017-03-01

    Holotrichia parallela (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) is a notorious pest of many crops. To improve the effectiveness of its female-produced sex pheromone (L-isoleucine methyl ester:(R)-(-)-linalool = 6:1), 14 plant volatiles, including dodecanoic acid, dodecanal, farnesol, α-farnesene, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, α-pinene, ocimene, methyl benzoate, and benzaldehyde, were individually evaluated using electroantennography and olfactometer assays. (E)-2-Hexenyl acetate and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were found to elicit the strongest responses in both males and females. Further testing of these two compounds in mixtures with the sex pheromone indicated that (E)-2-hexenyl acetate had a stronger synergistic effect than (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Field evaluations showed that mixtures of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and the sex pheromone resulted in significantly higher catches than the sex pheromone alone. Using a 5:1 mixture of the sex pheromone and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, the maximum number of females per trap per day was 14, showing a synergistic effect of a factor of four. For males, a 3:1 mixture of the sex pheromone and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate yielded a maximum number of 310 individuals per trap per day, equivalent to a synergistic effect of 175%. These results may provide the basis for the development of efficient pest management systems against H. parallela using plant volatiles and insect sex pheromones.

  15. Evolution of Moth Sex Pheromone Desaturases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Moth sex pheromone communication has evolved to make use of complex blends of relatively simple long-chain fatty acid precursors. Species specificity is derived from the unique stereochemistry of double bonds introduced into exact locations along the hydrocarbon backbone of fatty acids, which are r...

  16. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by use of the male sex pheromone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    The suppression of sea lamprey populations, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), was modeled using four different applications of the male sex pheromone: (1) pheromone-baited traps that remove females from the spawning population, (2) pheromone-baited decoys that exhaust females before they are able to spawn, (3) pheromone-enhanced sterile males that increase the proportion of non-fertile matings, and (4) camouflaging of the pheromone emitted by calling males to make it difficult for females to find a mate. The models indicated that thousands of traps or hundreds of thousands of decoys would be required to suppress a population of 100,000 animals. The potential efficacy of pheromone camouflages is largely unknown, and additional research is required to estimate how much pheromone is needed to camouflage the pheromone plumes of calling males. Pheromone-enhanced sterile males appear to be a promising application in the Great Lakes. Using this technique for three generations each of ca. 7 years duration could reduce sea lamprey populations by 90% for Lakes Huron and Ontario and by 98% for Lake Michigan, based on current trapping operations that capture 20 to 30% of the population each year.

  17. Sex pheromone of the cranberry blossom worm, Epiglaea apiata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijun; Polavarapu, Sridhar

    2003-09-01

    The cranberry blossom worm, Epiglaea apiata (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of cranberries in New Jersey. The female sex pheromone of this moth was identified as a blend of (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate (Z9-16:Ac), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), and tetradecyl acetate (14:Ac) by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ratio of the components in extracts of the female pheromone gland was determined to be 65:2:33 of the Z9-16:Ac, Z9-14:Ac, and 14:Ac, respectively. The double bond positions of the pheromone components were confirmed by dimethyl disulfide derivatization. In addition to the above three components, a mixture of C4-C10 aliphatic acids was present in both gland extracts and effluvia collections, and the acids elicited significant EAD responses from male moth antennae. However, addition of the C4-C10 aliphatic acids to the pheromone blend did not significantly increase trap captures. Three-hundred- and 1000-microg doses of a synthetic blend containing Z9-16:Ac, Z9-14:Ac, and 14:Ac (65:2:33), on a rubber septum were more attractive to males than lower doses.

  18. Monitoring Pseudococcus calceolariae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Fruit Crops Using Pheromone-Baited Traps.

    PubMed

    Flores, M Fernanda; Romero, Alda; Oyarzun, M Soledad; Bergmann, Jan; Zaviezo, Tania

    2015-10-01

    The citrophilus mealybug, Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), is an important pest of fruit crops in many regions of the world. Recently, its sex pheromone has been identified and synthesized. We carried out field experiments with the goal of developing monitoring protocols for P. calceolariae using pheromone-baited traps. Traps checked hourly for 24 hours showed a distinct diel pattern of male flight, between 18:00 and 21:00 h. The presence of unnatural stereoisomers did not affect trap captures, with isomeric mixtures capturing similar amounts of males as the biological active isomer. Dose of isomeric mixture pheromone (0-100 µg) had a nonlinear effect on male captures, with 10, 30, and 50 µg capturing similar amounts. The effective range of pheromone traps was determined by placing traps at different distances (15, 40, and 80 m) from an infested blueberry field, loaded with 0, 1 and 25 µg of the pheromone. For all distances, 25 µg dose captured more males, and was highly attractive up to 40 m. There was a significant effect of lure age on male captures (0-150 d), with similar amount of males captured up to 90-day-old lure, and lower captures in the 150-day-old lure compared with fresh ones. We found significant positive correlations between P. calceolariae males caught in pheromone traps with female abundance and fruit infestation at harvest. Our results show the usefulness of P. calceolariae pheromones for monitoring at field level and provide information for the design of monitoring protocols.

  19. Behavioral activity of optical isomers of 5,9-dimethylheptadecane, the sex pheromone ofLeucoptera scitella L. (Lepidoptera: Lyonetidae).

    PubMed

    Tóth, M; Helmchen, G; Leikauf, U; Sziráki, G; Szöcs, G

    1989-05-01

    Among the pure stereoisomers of 5,9-dimethylheptadecane, a previously identified sex pheromone component ofLeucoptera scitella L., only theS,S isomer yielded trap captures in the field. The addition of the other stereoisomers had no effect on cathes. The addition of low percentages of racemic 5,9-dimethylhexadecane, a previously identified minor component in the sex pheromone, did not influence trap catches or alter behavior of males approaching an attractant source in the field.

  20. [Biosynthesis and endocrine regulation of sex pheromones in moth].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Lin, Xin-da; Du, Yong-jun

    2015-10-01

    The crucial importance of sex pheromones in driving mating behaviors in moths has been well demonstrated in the process of sexual communication between individuals that produce and recognize species specific pheromones. Sex-pheromone molecules from different moth species are chemically characteristic, showing different terminal functional groups, various carbon chain lengths, different position and configuration of double bond system. This review summarized information on the biosynthetic pathways and enzymes involved in producing pheromone molecules in different moths. Then we listed the components and their ratios in the sex pheromones of 15 moth species belonging to different subfamilies in Noctuidae. We also discussed the various viewpoints regarding how sex pheromones with specific ratios are produced. In the discussion we attempted to classify the pheromone molecules based on their producers, characteristics of their functional groups and carbon chain lengths. In particular, composition and ratio variations of pheromones in closely related species or within a species were compared, and the possible molecular mechanisms for these variations and their evolutionary significance were discussed. Finally, we reviewed the endocrine regulation and signal transduction pathways, in which the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) is involved. Comparing the biosynthetic pathways of sex pheromones among different species, this article aimed to reveal the common principles in pheromone biosynthesis among moth species and the characteristic features associated with the evolutionary course of individual species. Subsequently, some future research directions were proposed.

  1. Sex in the night: fatty acid-derived sex pheromones and corresponding membrane pheromone receptors in insects.

    PubMed

    Koutroumpa, Fotini A; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2014-12-01

    The moth sex pheromone communication is one of the most striking examples of chemical communication in the animal kingdom. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of pheromone biosynthesis in the female pheromone gland and of pheromone reception in the male antennae not only defines new concepts in signalling research but also opens new perspectives for insect control. In this mini-review, we use the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis as a guideline to illustrate the recent advances gained in the understanding of moth sex pheromone communication.

  2. Controlled release of insect sex pheromones from paraffin wax and emulsions.

    PubMed

    Atterholt, C A; Delwiche, M J; Rice, R E; Krochta, J M

    1999-02-22

    Paraffin wax and aqueous paraffin emulsions can be used as controlled release carriers for insect sex pheromones for mating disruption of orchard pests. Paraffin can be applied at ambient temperature as an aqueous emulsion, adheres to tree bark or foliage, releases pheromone for an extended period of time, and will slowly erode from bark and biodegrade in soil. Pheromone emulsions can be applied with simple spray equipment. Pheromone release-rates from paraffin were measured in laboratory flow-cell experiments. Pheromone was trapped from an air stream with an adsorbent, eluted periodically, and quantified by gas chromatography. Pheromone release from paraffin was partition-controlled, providing a constant (zero-order) release rate. A typical paraffin emulsion consisted of 30% paraffin, 4% pheromone, 4% soy oil, 1% vitamin E, 2% emulsifier, and the balance water. Soy oil and vitamin E acted as volatility suppressants. A constant release of oriental fruit moth pheromone from paraffin emulsions was observed in the laboratory for more than 100 days at 27 degreesC, with release-rates ranging from 0.4 to 2 mg/day, depending on the concentration and surface area of the dried emulsion. The use of paraffin emulsions is a viable method for direct application of insect pheromones for mating disruption. Sprayable formulations can be designed to release insect pheromones to the environment at a rate necessary for insect control by mating disruption. At temperatures below 38 degreesC, zero-order release was observed. At 38 degreesC and higher, pheromone oxidation occurred. A partition-controlled release mechanism was supported by a zero-order pheromone release-rate, low air/wax partition coefficients, and pheromone solubility in paraffin.

  3. Sex pheromones in mate assessment: analysis of nutrient cost of sex pheromone production by females of the moth Heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G

    2015-04-15

    It has been postulated that sex pheromones, in addition to their role in mate recognition and/or finding, may also serve a role in assessment of mate quality. For this, a sex pheromone must give honest information about a signaler's quality, with honesty ensured by a direct metabolic or indirect fitness cost to the signaler. Using a stable isotope tracer-tracee method, we characterized the nutrient pools that fuel sex pheromone production in females of the moth Heliothis virescens, as well as the relative importance of larval- and adult-acquired nutrients to this process. Females used three pools for de novo biosynthesis of sex pheromone, hemolymph trehalose, glycogen (via trehalose) and fat, and produced ca. 25% of pheromone directly from stored (previously synthesized) precursor fatty acids. Pheromone was produced roughly equally from carbohydrate and fat. Adult feeding was very important for pheromone biosynthesis, with a maximum of 65% of de novo biosynthesized pheromone produced from a single adult feed (carbohydrate). Although these nutrient pools are shared with other reproductive physiologies, notably oocyte production, it is unlikely that pheromone production imposes a significant metabolic cost on females, because (i) the amount of nutrients used for pheromone production is negligible compared with that available, (ii) the hemolymph trehalose pool is readily replaceable throughout the adult life, and (iii) in mated females, carbohydrate shortages result in reduced allocation to pheromone.

  4. Development and optimization of methods for using sex pheromone for monitoring the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards.

    PubMed

    Millar, Jocelyn G; Daane, Kent M; McElfresh, J Steven; Moreira, Jardel A; Malakar-Kuenen, Raksha; Guillén, Marta; Bentley, Walt J

    2002-08-01

    The sex pheromone of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus Signoret has been identified as a single component, lavandulyl senecioate. Racemic lavandulyl senecioate was as attractive to male mealybugs as the insect-produced (S)-enantiomer, indicating that the unnatural enantiomer is not inhibitory. Lavandulol, which also was found in extracts from virgin females, antagonized attraction of males at higher doses. Rubber septum lures loaded with 10- to 1,000-microg doses of the pheromone were equally attractive, and lures loaded with 100 microg of racemic pheromone remained attractive for at least 12 wk under field conditions. Delta traps were more effective than double-sided sticky cards and minimized captures of nontarget insects. Pheromone-baited traps had an effective range of at least 50 m. Comparison of visual sampling methods and sampling of males with pheromone-baited traps revealed that trap catches were significantly correlated with the results from visual sampling methods, and with economic damage.

  5. Sex pheromone of the dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijun; Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher; Walgenbach, James F

    2005-10-01

    The sex pheromone of female dogwood borers (DWB) Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was determined to be an 88:6:6 ternary blend of (Z,Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (Z,Z-3,13-ODDA), (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl acetate (E,Z-2,13-ODDA), and (Z,E)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (Z,E-3,13-ODDA) by gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major sex pheromone component, Z,Z-3,13-ODDA, was attractive as a single component. A blend of Z,Z-3,13-ODDA with 1-3% of E,Z-2,13-ODDA (binary blend) was more attractive than the single component. A third component, Z,E-3,13-ODDA, was sometimes observed in GC-EAD analyses, and enhanced attraction to the binary blend in some field bioassays. Lures containing 1 mg of binary and ternary blends attracted 18 and 28 times more male DWB moths, respectively, than caged virgin females in field trials. Attraction was strongly antagonized by addition of as little as 0.5% of E,Z-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (E,Z-3,13-ODDA). In a period of 12 wk in 2004, more than 60,000 males were captured in sticky traps baited with synthetic pheromone blends in six apple orchards in Virginia, West Virginia, and North Carolina. Lure longevity trials showed that approximately 76% of the pheromone remained in rubber septum lures after 12 wk in the field.

  6. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis to experimental chicken sheds treated with insecticide

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current strategies for controlling American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) have been unable to prevent the spread of the disease across Brazil. With no effective vaccine and culling of infected dogs an unpopular and unsuccessful alternative, new tools are urgently needed to manage populations of the sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae). Here, we test two potential strategies for improving L. longipalpis control using the synthetic sand fly pheromone (±)-9-methylgermacrene-B: the first in conjunction with spraying of animal houses with insecticide, the second using coloured sticky traps. Results Addition of synthetic pheromone resulted in greater numbers of male and female sand flies being caught and killed at experimental chicken sheds sprayed with insecticide, compared to pheromone-less controls. Furthermore, a ten-fold increase in the amount of sex pheromone released from test sheds increased the number of females attracted and subsequently killed. Treating sheds with insecticide alone resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of males attracted to sheds (compared to pre-spraying levels), and a near significant decrease in numbers of females. However, this effect was reversed through addition of synthetic pheromone at the time of insecticide spraying, leading to an increase in number of flies attracted post-treatment. In field trials of commercially available different coloured sticky traps, yellow traps caught more males than blue traps when placed in chicken sheds. In addition, yellow traps fitted with 10 pheromone lures caught significantly more males than pheromone-less controls. However, while female sand flies showed a preference for both blue and yellow pheromone traps sticky traps over white traps in the laboratory, neither colour caught significant numbers of females in chicken sheds, either with or without pheromone. Conclusions We conclude that synthetic pheromone could currently be most effectively

  7. Unusual pheromone chemistry in the navel orangeworm: novel sex attractants and a behavioral antagonist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, W. S.; Parra-Pedrazzoli, A. L.; Kaissling, K.-E.; Morgan, T. I.; Zalom, F. G.; Pesak, D. J.; Dundulis, E. A.; Burks, C. S.; Higbee, B. S.

    2005-03-01

    Using molecular- and sensory physiology-based approaches, three novel natural products, a simple ester, and a behavioral antagonist have been identified from the pheromone gland of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). In addition to the previously identified (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadienal, the pheromone blend is composed of (Z,Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,12,15-tricosapentaene, (Z,Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,12,15-pentacosapentaene, ethyl palmitate, ethyl-(Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadienoate, and (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate. The C23 and C25 pentaenes are not only novel sex pheromones, but also new natural products. In field tests, catches of A. transitella males in traps baited with the full mixture of pheromones were as high as those in traps with virgin females, whereas control and traps baited only with the previously known constituent did not capture any moths at all. The navel orangeworm sex pheromone is also an attractant for the meal moth, Pyralis farinalis L. (Pyralidae), but (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate is a behavioral antagonist. The new pheromone blend may be highly effective in mating disruption and monitoring programs.

  8. Mating Disruption of a Carpenter Moth, Cossus insularis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) in Apple Orchards with Synthetic Sex Pheromone, and Registration of the Pheromone as an Agrochemical.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Hirotsuna; Takabe, Masanori; Nakamuta, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Mating disruption of the carpenter moth, Cossus insularis (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), with a synthetic version of its sex pheromone, a mixture of (E)-3-tetradecenyl acetate and (Z)-3-tetradecenyl acetate, was tested for three successive years in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards. Pheromone trap catches, percentage mating of tethered females and females enclosed with males in a mating cage, and tree damage were measured in both the pheromone-treated and untreated control orchards. The attraction of male moths to pheromone traps at heights of 1.5, 3, and 5 m was strongly disrupted when the pheromone dispensers were placed at 1.5 m height. Mating of tethered females placed at 1 m was completely inhibited, and the mating of tethered females at a height of 3 m was significantly reduced by the treatment in comparison to matings in an untreated control orchard. Similarly, mating of pairs of moths enclosed in mating cages was significantly reduced by the synthetic pheromone treatment in comparison to controls. The percentage of damaged trees in the pheromone-treated orchard also decreased significantly over the course of the experiment. These results suggest that mating disruption with the synthetic sex pheromone appears promising for reducing damage caused by C. insularis in apple orchards in Japan, and a commercial mating disruption product has been developed and registered.

  9. Field tests of syntheticManduca sexta sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Tumlinson, J H; Mitchell, E R; Doolittle, R E; Jackson, D M

    1994-03-01

    In field experiments traps were baited with live females or with a two-, four-, or eight-component blend of the 16-carbon aldehydes previously identified as components of the sex pheromone emitted by femaleManduca sexta moths. The blends were formulated on rubber septa. Traps baited with a blend of all eight aldehydes captured moreM. sexta males than any other treatment. Septa loaded with 600 μg of the eight-component blend were attractive to males for about seven days in the field. Septa loaded with the eight-component blend and stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for a year released the conjugated diene and triene aldehydes at the same rate as freshly prepared septa and were equally attractive in the field.

  10. How varying pest and trap densities affect Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) capture in pheromone traps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an important insect pest in food processing facilities. Pheromone trapping is frequently used to monitor red flour beetle populations in structures; however, the optimal trap density and the relationship between trap ...

  11. Optimization of Pheromone Traps for Coryphodema tristis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    PubMed

    Bouwer, Marc Clement; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael John; Allison, Jeremy Dean; Rohwer, Egmont Richard

    2017-08-01

    The Coryphodema tristis (Drury) is an important pest of Eucalyptus nitens (Deane and Maiden) plantations in South Africa. The gregarious larvae of this pest cause damage by feeding on the tree sapwood, and adults emerge in spring each year. The aim of this study was to optimize pheromone traps for operational use in management programs. This was achieved by investigating different pheromone blend combinations and trap types for efficacy under field conditions. Our results confirm that the cross vane bucket funnel trap baited with a 95:2.5:2.5 volumetric blend of Z9-14:OAc, Z9-14:OH, and 14Ac was superior to similarly baited standard bucket funnel and delta traps. We also estimated the release rate and ratios of the pheromone compounds loaded into an artificial permeation dispenser through solid-phase microextraction sampling. Results showed that the released blend of pheromone compounds mirrored the dispensed ratios relatively accurately and that release rates are affected by temperature. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Pheromone detection by a pheromone emitter: a small sex pheromone-specific processing system in the female American cockroach.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Masazumi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    Many animals depend on pheromone communication for successful mating. Sex pheromone in insects is usually released by females to attract males. In American cockroaches, the largest glomerulus (B-glomerulus) in the male antennal lobe (first-order olfactory center) processes the major component of sex pheromone. Using intracellular recordings combined with fine neuroanatomical techniques, we provide evidence that the female homolog of the male B-glomerulus also acts as a sex pheromone-specific detector. Whereas ordinary glomeruli that process normal environmental odors are innervated by single projection neurons (PNs), the B-glomerulus in both sexes is innervated by multiple PNs, one of which possesses a thicker axon, termed here B-PN. Both soma size and axon diameter were smaller on B-PNs from females compared with B-PNs from males. The female B-PNs also produce fewer terminal arborizations in the protocerebrum than male B-PNs. Termination fields in the lateral protocerebrum of the female B-PN are mostly segregated from those formed by other uniglomerular PNs innervating ordinary glomeruli. Female B-PN activity was greatest in response to sex pheromone but lower than that in the male B-PN. This specific detection system suggests that sex pheromone affects the behavior and/or endocrine system of female cockroaches.

  13. Development of a combined sex pheromone-based monitoring system for Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasoicampidae) and Choristoneura conflictana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Brad C; Roland, Jens; Evenden, Maya L

    2009-04-01

    Sympatric insect species that do not share sex pheromone components but have a common host and overlapping adult flight periods are potential targets for the development of a combined sex pheromone-based monitoring tool. A system using a single synthetic pheromone blend in a single lure to bait a single trap to monitor two pests simultaneously represents a novel approach. In this study, a combined pheromone-based monitoring system was developed for two lepidopterous defoliators of trembling aspen Populus tremuloides Michenaux in western Canada, Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasoicampidae) and Choristoneura conflictana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Efficacy and longevity of a lure containing both species' pheromones were tested. Immature stages of each species were sampled to evaluate the ability of pheromone traps baited with the combined lure to predict population density. The combined lure was as attractive to M. disstria and C. conflictana males as were traps baited with each species' pheromone alone. Lure age had no effect on attraction of male C. conflictana to the combined lure but had a negative effect on attraction of M. disstria. The number of male moths captured in traps baited with the combined lure was related to immature counts for both species. Pupal counts of M. disstria and larval counts of C. conflictana provided the best relationships with male captures. The combined lure does not attract M. disstria males in direct proportion to population density, because trap catch was comparatively low at high-density M. disstria sites.

  14. Isolation, identification and field tests of the sex pheromone of the carambola fruit borer, Eucosma notanthes.

    PubMed

    Hung, C C; Hwang, J S; Hung, M D; Yen, Y P; Hou, R F

    2001-09-01

    Two components, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate (Z8-12:Ac) and (Z)-8-dodecenol (Z8-12:OH), were isolated from sex pheromone glands of the carambola fruit borer, Eucosma notanthes, and were identified by GC, and GC-MS, chemical derivatization, and comparison of retention times. The ratio of the alcohol to acetate in the sex pheromone extracts was 2.7. However, synthetic mixtures (1 mg) in ratios ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 were more effective than other blends in trapping male moths in field tests.

  15. Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.

    PubMed

    Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

    2013-10-01

    A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of the Aggregation-sex Pheromone Produced by Male Monochamus saltuarius, a Major Insect Vector of the Pine Wood Nematode.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Rim; Lee, Sung-Chan; Lee, Dong Ha; Choi, Won-Sil; Jung, Chan-Sik; Jeon, Jae-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Park, Il-Kwon

    2017-07-08

    In this study, we isolated and identified an aggregation-sex pheromone from Monochamus saltuarius, the major insect vector of the pine wood nematode in Korea. Adult males of M. saltuarius produce 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol, which is known as an aggregation-sex pheromone in other Monochamus species. We performed field experiments to determine the attractiveness of the pheromone and other synergists. More M. saltuarius adult beetles were attracted to traps baited with the pheromone than to unbaited traps. Ethanol and (-)-α-pinene interacted synergistically with the pheromone. Traps baited with the pheromone + (-)-α-pinene +ethanol were more attractive to M. saltuarius adults than traps baited with the pheromone, (-)-α-pinene, or ethanol alone. Ipsenol, ipsdienol, and limonene were also identified as synergists of the aggregation-sex pheromone for M. saltuarius adults. In field experiments, the proportion of females was much higher in the beetles caught in traps than among the beetles emerging from naturally-infested logs in the laboratory. Our results suggest that a combination of aggregation-sex pheromone and synergists could be very effective for monitoring and managing M. saltuarius.

  17. Monitoring and Detecting the Cigarette Beetle (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) Using Ultraviolet (LED) Direct and Reflected Lights and/or Pheromone Traps in a Laboratory and a Storehouse.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Takahisa; Yokoi, Tomoyuki; Fuchikawa, Taro; Korehisa, Nobuyoshi; Kamura, Toru; Nanba, Kana; Ryouji, Shinsuke; Kamioka, Nagisa; Hironaka, Mantaro; Osada, Midori; Hariyama, Takahiko; Sasaki, Rikiya; Shinoda, Kazutaka

    2016-10-19

    The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.), is an important stored-product pest worldwide because it damages dry foods. Detection and removal of the female L. serricorne will help to facilitate the control of the insect by removal of the egg-laying populations. In this manuscript, we examined the responses by L. serricorne to direct and reflected light in transparent cube (50 m(3)) set in a chamber (200 m(3)) and a stored facility with both direct and reflected UV-LED lights. The study also examined the responses by the beetles to light in the presence or absence of pheromone in traps that are placed at different heights. Reflected light attracted more beetles than the direct light in the experimental chamber, but the direct light traps attracted more beetles than the reflected light traps in the storehouse. Pheromone traps attracted only males; UV-LED traps attracted both sexes. The UV-LED traps with a pheromone, i.e., combined trap, attracted more males than UV-LED light traps without a pheromone, whereas the attraction of UV-LED traps with and without the pheromone was similar in females. The results suggest that UV-LED light trap combined with a sex pheromone is the best solution for monitoring and controlling L. serricorne.

  18. Identification of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takuya; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Sex pheromones of nocturnal hawk moths have been identified previously, but not those of diurnal hawk moths. Here, we report laboratory analyses and field testing of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis (Bremer 1861) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Sex pheromone glands were removed and extracted in hexane during peak calling activity of virgin female moths. Analysis of gland extracts by gas chromatography (GC) with electroantennographic detection revealed three components that elicited responses from male moth antennae. These components were identified, based on their mass spectra and retention indices on two GC columns, as (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (10E, 12Z)- and (10E,12E)-10,12-hexadecadienals with a ratio of 45:20:35. In a field experiment, traps baited with the three-component synthetic blend, but none of the single- or two-component blends, caught male moths. All three pheromone components have been identified previously in pheromones of other Lepidoptera, including Sphingid moths, and thus the ternary blend is probably responsible for the species specificity of the pheromone of this moth.

  19. Sex attractant pheromone of the red-shouldered stink bug Thyanta pallidovirens: a pheromone blend with multiple redundant components.

    PubMed

    McBrien, H L; Millar, J G; Rice, R E; McElfresh, J S; Cullen, E; Zalom, F G

    2002-09-01

    The male-produced sex pheromone of the red-shouldered stink bug, Thyanta pallidovirens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) consists of a blend of methyl (E2,Z4,Z6)-decatrienoate (E2,Z4,Z6-10:COOMe), and the sesquiterpenes (+)-alpha-curcumene, (-)-zingiberene, and (-)-beta-sesquiphellandrene. In laboratory bioassays, sexually mature males attracted sexually mature females but not males, and females did not attract either sex. Extracts of volatiles collected from sexually mature males contained compounds not present in extracts from females or sexually immature males, and male-produced extract was attractive to females. Biological activity was lost when the extract was fractionated, indicating that the pheromone consisted of at least two components having different chemical properties. Individually, pheromone components were not attractive to females, but E2,Z4,Z6-10:COOMe in combination with at least one of the three male-produced sesquiterpenes was attractive. The presence of more than one sesquiterpene in the blend did not increase attraction, indicating redundancy in the pheromone signal. Male extract was as attractive as a blend reconstructed from synthesized compounds, indicating all biologically active components had been identified. In bioassays conducted at dusk in a 1- x 1- x 1-m screen field cage, females were attracted to synthetic pheromone lures. In field trials, adult female T pallidovirens were attracted to pheromone-baited traps in relatively low numbers. The profile of volatiles released by sexually mature males of a congeneric species, Thyanta accerra custator McAtee, was remarkably similar to that of male T. pallidovirens, with the exception that the former species produced (E)-2-decenal, a compound that was not found in T. pallidovirens extracts.

  20. Sex pheromone components of Indian gypsy moth, Lymantria obfuscata.

    PubMed

    Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W; Hahn, Roger; Khaskin, Grigori; Ramaseshiah, Gujjandadu; Singh, Balbir; Hehar, Gagandeep K; Gries, Gerhard

    2007-09-01

    The Indian gypsy moth, Lymantria obfuscata (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), has been recognized as a distinct species since 1865 but closely resembles a diminutive form of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. We tested the hypothesis that the sex pheromones of L. obfuscata and L. dispar are similar. In laboratory mate acceptance studies, very few male L. dispar made copulatory attempts when paired with female L. obfuscata, suggesting that female L. obfuscata emit one or more pheromone components antagonistic to male L. dispar. In coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of pheromone gland extract of female L. obfuscata, (Z)-2-methyloctadec-7-ene (2Me-7Z-18Hy) and (7R,8S)-cis-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane [(+)-disparlure] were most abundant and elicited the strongest responses from male L. obfuscata antennae. In field experiments near Solan (Himachal Pradesh, India), 2Me-7Z-18Hy and (+)-disparlure in combination attracted more male L. obfuscata than did either component alone. This two-component sex pheromone contrasts with the single-component sex pheromone [(+)-disparlure] of L. dispar. The contrasting composition of the lymantriid communities inhabited by L. obfuscata and L. dispar may explain why 2Me-7Z-18Hy is a pheromone component in L. obfuscata and a pheromone antagonist in L. dispar and why (-)-disparlure reduces pheromonal attraction of male L. dispar but not male L. obfuscata.

  1. CaptureS and host strains of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) males in traps baited with different commerical pheromone blends

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sex pheromone traps baited with four different commercial lures that contained two, three, or four components were used to capture male fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)] in Alabama, Georgia, Florida, and Texas from 2006 – 2009. A subset of the moths collected was analyzed for thei...

  2. Reidentification of Sex Pheromones of Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua Prout (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunqiu; Zhang, Longwa; Guo, Feng; Long, Yanhua; Wang, Yun; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-02-01

    Tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua Prout (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an important defoliator of the tree crop Camellia sinensis L. in China. The sex pheromones of E. obliqua have not been identified, but have potential importance relative to the biological control of this predator. In this study, the female sex pheromones of E. obliqua were identified and evaluated for use in the monitoring and mass trapping of this pest. The sex pheromone extracts were subjected to gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified chemicals were synthesized and applied to wind-tunnel tests and field experiments. (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene and 6,7-epoxy-(Z,Z)-3,9-octadecadiene were determined to be the primary sex pheromones produced by the female E. obliqua; the latter elicits the strongest electroantennogram responses from male E. obliqua antennae. However, males did not respond to single components in the wind-tunnel tests. The results of a field-trapping experiment indicated that a 4:6 v/v blend of (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene and 6,7-epoxy-(Z,Z)-3,9-octadecadiene was highly effective in attracting male moths.

  3. A tale of two trapping methods: Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in pheromone and light traps in Australian cotton production systems.

    PubMed

    Baker, G H; Tann, C R; Fitt, G P

    2011-02-01

    Pheromone and light traps have often been used in ecological studies of two major noctuid pests of agriculture in Australia, Helicoverpa armigera and H. punctigera. However, results from these two methods have rarely been compared directly. We set pheromone and light traps adjacent to or amongst cotton and various other crops for 10-11 years in the Namoi Valley, in northern New South Wales, Australia. Catches in pheromone traps suggested a major peak in (male) numbers of H. punctigera in early spring, with relatively few moths caught later in the summer cropping season. In contrast, (male) H. armigera were most abundant in late summer. Similar trends were apparent for catches of both male and female H. armigera in light traps, but both sexes of H. punctigera were mostly caught in mid-summer. For both species, males were more commonly caught than females. These catch patterns differed from some previous reports. At least three generations of both species were apparent in the catches. There was some evidence that the abundance of later generations could be predicted from the size of earlier generations; but, unlike previous authors, we found no positive relationships between local winter rainfall and subsequent catches of moths, nor did we find persuasive evidence of correlations between autumn and winter rainfall in central Australia and the abundance of subsequent 1st generation H. punctigera moths. Female H. punctigera were consistently more mature (gravid) and more frequently mated than those of H. armigera. Overall, our results highlight the variability in trap catches of these two species and question the use of trap catches and weather as predictors of future abundance in cropping regions.

  4. Pheromone-based trapping of West Indian sugarcane weevil in a sugarcane plantation.

    PubMed

    Oehlschlager, Allan C; Gonzalez, Lilliana; Gomez, Manuel; Rodriguez, Carlos; Andrade, Romano

    2002-08-01

    Attraction of Metamasius hemipterus (Oliver) to gallon and bamboo traps baited with insecticide-treated sugarcane, the male-produced pheromone, 4-methyl-5-nonanol, and 2-methyl-4-heptanol is more efficient if ethyl acetate is added. The optimal traps are ground-level gallon traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane, pheromone, and ethyl acetate. Capture rates of ground-level gallon traps are doubled by placing an insecticide-laced pad under the trap, but significantly decreased by placing the trap on a stick above ground. The efficiency of ground-level gallon traps is the same as ground level ramp traps. Mass-trapping M. hemipterus in newly planted sugarcane using ground level bamboo traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone over six months revealed populations were low for the first two months, became maximum at five months, and declined thereafter. Capture rates of traps bordering newly planted and mature sugarcane were not significantly different from capture rates of traps in the interior of the plots. Capture rates of bamboo traps containing only insecticide-laced sugarcane and deployed at 30 traps/ha averaged 6 weevils/trap/week compared with 66 weevils/trap/week for traps additionally containing pheromone lures and deployed at 5 traps/ha. Capture rates for bamboo traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone and deployed at 10 and 15 traps/ha were 43 and 38 weevils/trap/week, respectively. Total captures were higher in those plots with a higher density of insecticide-laden sugarcane and pheromone baited traps, and the differences were approximately proportional to trap density in the range of 5-15 traps/ha. Capture rates of traps containing insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone were always higher than of traps containing only insecticide-laced sugarcane, but in the first two months after planting the differences were much greater than in months 3-6 after planting.

  5. Unraveling the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) signal transduction cascade that regulates sex pheromone production in moths

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies over the past three decades have demonstrated that female moths usually produce sex pheromones as multi-component blends in which the ratios of the individual components are precisely controlled, making it possible to generate species-specific pheromone blends. Most moth pheromone component...

  6. Identification of the sex pheromone of the spruce seed moth, Cydia strobilella L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Svensson, Glenn P; Rosenberg, Olle; Bengtsson, Marie; Jirle, Erling V; Löfstedt, Christer

    2010-03-01

    The spruce seed moth, Cydia strobilella L., is a serious pest on cones of spruce (Picea spp.) in the Holarctic region. Previous studies from different parts of its area of distribution have reported conflicting results on the composition of its sex pheromone. By gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection, coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, and field trials, the sex pheromone of Swedish populations of the species was identified as (8E,10E)-dodecadienyl acetate and (8E,10Z)-dodecadienyl acetate. About 0.5 pg of each pheromone component was extracted per female. The most attractive blend of EE- and EZ-isomers was about 6:4, respectively, and 0.3 microg of the blend per rubber septum was the most attractive dosage for field trapping. Monounsaturated components previously reported as sex pheromone components/attractants for C. strobilella, (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate in Canadian populations and (Z)-8-dodecenol in Polish and Dutch populations, did not attract any C. strobilella in this study. Large numbers of C. jungiella Clerck were trapped by using (8E,10Z)-dodecadienyl acetate alone, whereas (Z)-8-dodecenol attracted Pammene splendidulana Guenée and P. rhediella Clerck.

  7. Contact sex pheromone components of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Satoshi; Shimomura, Kenji; Honda, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Izuru; Ohsawa, Kanju

    2007-05-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, is a major pest of stored pulses. Females of this species produce a contact sex pheromone that elicits copulation behavior in males. Pheromone was extracted from filter-paper shelters taken from cages that housed females. Crude ether extract stimulated copulation in male C. maculatus. Initial fractionation showed behavioral activity in acidic and neutral fractions. Furthermore, bioassay-guided fractionation and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of active fractions revealed that the active components of the acidic fraction were 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid and nonanedioic acid. These components along with the hydrocarbon fraction, a mixture of C(27)-C(35) straight chain and methyl branched hydrocarbons, had a synergistic effect on the behavior of males. Glass dummies treated with an authentic pheromone blend induced copulation behavior in males. The potential roles of the contact sex pheromone of C. maculatus are discussed.

  8. The highly efficient sex-inducing pheromone system of Volvox.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, A; Godl, K; Wenzl, S; Sumper, M

    1998-05-01

    The green alga Volvox is one of the simplest multicellular organisms and is capable of both asexual and sexual reproduction. Sexual development is initiated by a glycoprotein pheromone that acts at a concentration below 10(-16) M. The extracellular matrix (ECM) appears to play a key role in signal amplification: several ECM proteins contain a domain with homology to the sex-inducing pheromone.

  9. Sex pheromone of browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhea (L.): synthesis and field deployment.

    PubMed

    Khrimian, Ashot; Lance, David R; Schwarz, Meier; Leonhardt, Barbara A; Mastro, Victor C

    2008-04-09

    The browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhea (L.), is native to Eurasia, where periodic outbreaks result in defoliation of forest, shade, and ornamental trees. In addition to the damage caused by defoliation, human contact with larval urticating hairs often results in severe dermatitis. Hence, tools for monitoring and controlling the moth populations are desirable. The female-produced sex pheromone of the browntail moth was identified previously, but the synthesis had not been published. This paper reports the synthesis of the pheromone of the browntail moth, (7Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosatetraenyl isobutyrate, using in a key step a Wittig olefination of (6Z)-13-(tetrahydo-2H-pyran-2-yloxy)tridecenal. Field trapping studies were conducted with rubber septa and string formulations of the pheromone and included dose-response, pheromone purity, and dispenser-aging trials. It was found that traps baited with 250 microg of pheromone of 91-94% isomeric purity (main impurity presumably being the 13E isomer) on rubber septa are suitable for monitoring moth populations during the entire flight season.

  10. Pheromone binding proteins enhance the sensitivity of olfactory receptors to sex pheromones in Chilo suppressalis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hetan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ting; Pelosi, Paolo; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2015-08-27

    Sexual communication in moths offers a simplified scenario to model and investigate insect sensory perception. Both PBPs (pheromone-binding proteins) and PRs (pheromone receptors) are involved in the detection of sex pheromones, but the interplay between them still remains largely unknown. In this study, we have measured the binding affinities of the four recombinant PBPs of Chilo suppressalis (CsupPBPs) to pheromone components and analogs and characterized the six PRs using the Xenopus oocytes expression system. Interestingly, when the responses of PRs were recorded in the presence of PBPs, we measured in several combinations a dramatic increase in signals as well as in sensitivity of such combined systems. Furthermore, the discrimination ability of appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs was improved compared with the performance of PBPs or PRs alone. Besides further supporting a role of PBPs in the pheromone detection and discrimination, our data shows for the first time that appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs improved the discrimination ability of PBPs or PRs alone. The variety of responses measured with different pairing of PBPs and PRs indicates the complexity of the olfaction system, which, even for the relatively simple task of detecting sex pheromones, utilises a highly sophisticated combinatorial approach.

  11. Pheromone binding proteins enhance the sensitivity of olfactory receptors to sex pheromones in Chilo suppressalis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hetan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ting; Pelosi, Paolo; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Sexual communication in moths offers a simplified scenario to model and investigate insect sensory perception. Both PBPs (pheromone-binding proteins) and PRs (pheromone receptors) are involved in the detection of sex pheromones, but the interplay between them still remains largely unknown. In this study, we have measured the binding affinities of the four recombinant PBPs of Chilo suppressalis (CsupPBPs) to pheromone components and analogs and characterized the six PRs using the Xenopus oocytes expression system. Interestingly, when the responses of PRs were recorded in the presence of PBPs, we measured in several combinations a dramatic increase in signals as well as in sensitivity of such combined systems. Furthermore, the discrimination ability of appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs was improved compared with the performance of PBPs or PRs alone. Besides further supporting a role of PBPs in the pheromone detection and discrimination, our data shows for the first time that appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs improved the discrimination ability of PBPs or PRs alone. The variety of responses measured with different pairing of PBPs and PRs indicates the complexity of the olfaction system, which, even for the relatively simple task of detecting sex pheromones, utilises a highly sophisticated combinatorial approach. PMID:26310773

  12. Application of Pheromone Traps for Managing Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in the Southern Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Allen E; Giles, K L; Royer, T A; Elliott, N C; Bradford, N

    2017-06-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say, is an important pest of winter wheat in the Southern Great Plains of the United States. As larvae feed behind the leaf sheath, infestations often go undetected until crop damage is evident, and there are no remedial actions that can prevent economic loss once a field is infested. The recent discovery of the sex-attractant pheromone of the Hessian fly provides an opportunity to use pheromone traps to detect and monitor adult activity and potentially better manage this pest. Adult male Hessian fly activity was monitored during 4 yr at six locations from northcentral Oklahoma, 36° N latitude, south to central Texas, 31° N latitude. In Oklahoma, trap captures were low in the fall, no flies were captured during the winter, and the largest number of flies was captured in the spring. However, in southcentral Texas, adults were captured throughout the fall, winter, and in the spring when trap captures were again the greatest. The relationship between trap captures and density of Hessian fly larvae per tiller was investigated during the fall and spring. Although large numbers of adults (>100 per trap per day) were often captured, economic infestation of larvae rarely developed. Results identify optimum times for field sampling to determine immature Hessian fly infestations in wheat in Oklahoma and Texas. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Efforts to identify the sex pheromone of the potato psyllid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cooperators on this project previously identified a sex pheromone of a psyllid pest of pears, the first such identification for any psyllid. We now have evidence that female potato psyllids also emit a sex attractant. Attractiveness of females in olfactometer assays depends upon female mating stat...

  14. Identification of sex pheromone components of blueberry spanworm Itame argillacearia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    De Silva, E C A; Silk, P J; Mayo, P; Hillier, N K; Magee, D; Cutler, G C

    2013-09-01

    Blueberry spanworm, Itame argillacearia (Packard), is an important defoliator of lowbush (syn. 'wild') blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton, in north-eastern North America. The goal of the present study was to identify the female I. argillacearia sex pheromone, which could be used in traps for monitoring or mass-trapping this pest. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and electroantennogram (EAG) recordings of sex pheromone gland extracts, in combination with chemical synthesis, a Y-tube olfactometer study and field experiments confirmed (2R,3S)-2-ethyl-3-((Z,Z)-tridecadi-2,5-enyl) oxirane (hereafter (Z,Z)-(3R,4S)-3,4-epoxy-6,9-heptadecadiene) and (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-heptadecatriene as female-produced sex pheromone components. (Z,Z)-(3R,4S)-3,4-Epoxy-6,9-heptadecadiene elicited a response from male I. argillacearia antennae during EAG recording, and in the Y-tube olfactometer tests males did not discriminate between a live female and (Z,Z)-(3R,4S)-3,4-epoxy-6,9-heptadecadiene. Field-trapping experiments showed that a blend of (Z,Z)-(3R,4S)-3,4-epoxy-6,9-heptadecadiene and (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-heptadecatriene was more attractive to male moths than (Z,Z)-(3R,4S)-3,4-epoxy-6,9-heptadecadiene alone.

  15. Sex pheromone of orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Regine; Gries, G.; Khaskin, Grigori; King, Skip; Olfert, Owen; Kaminski, Lori-Ann; Lamb, Robert; Bennett, Robb

    Pheromone extract of the female orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (SM) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, DB-23 or SP-1000. These analyses revealed a single, EAD-active candidate pheromone which was identified as 2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate. In experiments in wheat fields in Saskatchewan, traps baited with (2S,7S)-2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate attracted significant numbers of male SM. The presence of other stereoisomers did not adversely affect trap captures. Facile synthesis of stereoisomeric 2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate will facilitate the development of pheromone-based monitoring or even control of SM populations.

  16. Improved monitoring of female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with pear ester plus acetic acid in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan

    2010-08-01

    The performance of clear delta traps baited with 3.0 mg of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and 5.0 ml of acetic acid in separate lures was compared with orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing 3.0 mg of both pear ester and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen). Residual analyses and field tests demonstrated that both the pear ester and acetic acid lures were effective for at least 8 wk. The two trap-lure combinations caught a similar number of total moths in an orchard treated with sex pheromone dispensers during short-term trials in 2008. However, the mean catch of female moths was significantly higher and male moths significantly lower in clear traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid versus orange traps baited with pear ester and codlemone. Season-long studies were conducted with these two trap-lure combinations in orchards treated with (n = 6) and without (n = 7) sex pheromone dispensers during 2009. The two trap-lure combinations caught similar numbers of moths in dispenser-treated orchards. In contrast, total catch was significantly higher (>2-fold) in the orange compared with the clear traps in untreated orchards. The clear caught >6-fold more females than the orange trap in both types of orchards. These studies suggest that deploying clear delta traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid can be an effective monitoring tool for female codling moth and an alternative to codlemone-baited traps in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

  17. A field evaluation of the effect of temperature on the release of disparlure from a pheromone-baited trapping system used to monitor the gypsy moth (Lepidotera: Lymantriidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traps baited with disparlure, the synthetic form of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), sex pheromone are used to detect newly founded populations and estimate population density across the United States. Consequently, the lures used in trapping devices are exposed to field conditions with varyin...

  18. Field evaluation of effect of temperature on release of Disparlure from a pheromone-baited trapping system used to monitor gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Treesearch

    Patrick C. Tobin; Aijun Zhang; Ksenia Onufrieva; Donna Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Traps baited with disparlure, the synthetic form of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), sex pheromone are used to detect newly founded populations and estimate population density across the United States. The lures used in trapping devices are exposed to field conditions with varying climates, which can affect the rate...

  19. The use of the sex pheromone as an evolutionary solution to food source selection in caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Poivet, Erwan; Rharrabe, Kacem; Monsempes, Christelle; Glaser, Nicolas; Rochat, Didier; Renou, Michel; Marion-Poll, Frédéric; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Sex pheromones are released by adults of a species to elicit a sexual interaction with the other sex of the same species. Here we report an unexpected effect of a moth sex pheromone on the caterpillars of the same species. We demonstrate that larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis are attracted by the moth sex pheromone and that this phenomenon is independent of sex determination. In addition, we show that the olfactory sensilla carried by the caterpillar antennae are sensitive to the pheromone and that the caterpillar sensilla express pheromone-binding proteins that are used by adult antennae to bind pheromone components. Finally, we demonstrate that the larvae are preferentially attracted to a food source when it contains the sex pheromone main component. A possible interpretation of these results is that the sex pheromone is used to promote food search in caterpillars, opening potential new routes for insect pest management.

  20. Molecular markers for identification of Hessian fly males caught on pheromone traps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pheromone traps have been widely used to monitor insect populations in nature. However, pheromone traps for the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), one of the most destructive insect pests of wheat, have been used only in recent years. Because Hessian fly male adults are small and fragile, it is d...

  1. Predicting infestation levels of the nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using pheromone traps

    Treesearch

    Christopher Asaro; C. Wayne Berisford

    2001-01-01

    There is considerable interest in using pheromone trap catches of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Conistock), to estimate or predict population density and damage. At six sites in the Georgia Piedmont, adult tip moths were monitored through one or more years using pheromone traps while population density and damage for each tip...

  2. Monitoring western spruce budworm with pheromone- baited sticky traps to predict subsequent defoliation

    Treesearch

    Christine G. Niwa; David L. Overhulser

    2015-01-01

    A detailed procedure is described for monitoring western spruce budworm with pheromone-baited sticky traps and interpreting the results to predict defoliation the following year. Information provided includes timing of the survey, how to obtain traps and baits, how many traps are needed, trap assembly, field placement of traps, and how to evaluate the catches.

  3. Novel sex cells and evidence for sex pheromones in diatoms.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shinya; Beakes, Gordon; Idei, Masahiko; Nagumo, Tamotsu; Mann, David G

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms belong to the stramenopiles, one of the largest groups of eukaryotes, which are primarily characterized by a presence of an anterior flagellum with tubular mastigonemes and usually a second, smooth flagellum. Based on cell wall morphology, diatoms have historically been divided into centrics and pennates, of which only the former have flagella and only on the sperm. Molecular phylogenies show the pennates to have evolved from among the centrics. However, the timing of flagellum loss--whether before the evolution of the pennate lineage or after--is unknown, because sexual reproduction has been so little studied in the 'araphid' basal pennate lineages, to which Pseudostaurosira belongs. Sexual reproduction of an araphid pennate, Pseudostaurosira trainorii, was studied with light microscopy (including time lapse observations and immunofluorescence staining observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy) and SEM. We show that the species produces motile male gametes. Motility is mostly associated with the extrusion and retrieval of microtubule-based 'threads', which are structures hitherto unknown in stramenopiles, their number varying from one to three per cell. We also report experimental evidence for sex pheromones that reciprocally stimulate sexualization of compatible clones and orientate motility of the male gametes after an initial 'random walk'. The threads superficially resemble flagella, in that both are produced by male gametes and contain microtubules. However, one striking difference is that threads cannot beat or undulate and have no motility of their own, and they do not bear mastigonemes. Threads are sticky and catch and draw objects, including eggs. The motility conferred by the threads is probably crucial for sexual reproduction of P. trainorii, because this diatom is non-motile in its vegetative stage but obligately outbreeding. Our pheromone experiments are the first studies in which gametogenesis has been induced in diatoms by cell

  4. Novel Sex Cells and Evidence for Sex Pheromones in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinya; Beakes, Gordon; Idei, Masahiko; Nagumo, Tamotsu; Mann, David G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Diatoms belong to the stramenopiles, one of the largest groups of eukaryotes, which are primarily characterized by a presence of an anterior flagellum with tubular mastigonemes and usually a second, smooth flagellum. Based on cell wall morphology, diatoms have historically been divided into centrics and pennates, of which only the former have flagella and only on the sperm. Molecular phylogenies show the pennates to have evolved from among the centrics. However, the timing of flagellum loss – whether before the evolution of the pennate lineage or after – is unknown, because sexual reproduction has been so little studied in the ‘araphid’ basal pennate lineages, to which Pseudostaurosira belongs. Methods/Principal Finding Sexual reproduction of an araphid pennate, Pseudostaurosira trainorii, was studied with light microscopy (including time lapse observations and immunofluorescence staining observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy) and SEM. We show that the species produces motile male gametes. Motility is mostly associated with the extrusion and retrieval of microtubule-based ‘threads’, which are structures hitherto unknown in stramenopiles, their number varying from one to three per cell. We also report experimental evidence for sex pheromones that reciprocally stimulate sexualization of compatible clones and orientate motility of the male gametes after an initial ‘random walk’. Conclusions/Significance The threads superficially resemble flagella, in that both are produced by male gametes and contain microtubules. However, one striking difference is that threads cannot beat or undulate and have no motility of their own, and they do not bear mastigonemes. Threads are sticky and catch and draw objects, including eggs. The motility conferred by the threads is probably crucial for sexual reproduction of P. trainorii, because this diatom is non-motile in its vegetative stage but obligately outbreeding. Our pheromone experiments are

  5. Regulatory Role of PBAN in Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis of Heliothine Moths

    PubMed Central

    Jurenka, Russell; Rafaeli, Ada

    2011-01-01

    Both males and females of heliothine moths utilize sex-pheromones during the mating process. Females produce and release a sex pheromone for the long–range attraction of males for mating. Production of sex pheromone in females is controlled by the peptide hormone (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide, PBAN). This review will highlight what is known about the role PBAN plays in controlling pheromone production in female moths. Male moths produce compounds associated with a hairpencil structure associated with the aedaegus that are used as short-range aphrodisiacs during the mating process. We will discuss the role that PBAN plays in regulating male production of hairpencil pheromones. PMID:22654810

  6. Phenotypic plasticity in sex pheromone production in Bicyclus anynana butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Dion, Emilie; Monteiro, Antónia; Yew, Joanne Y.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity refers to the environmental control of phenotypes. Cues experienced during development (developmental plasticity) or during adulthood (acclimatization) can both affect adult phenotypes. Phenotypic plasticity has been described in many traits but examples of developmental plasticity in physiological traits, in particular, remain scarce. We examined developmental plasticity and acclimatization in pheromone production in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana in response to rearing temperature. B. anynana lives in the African tropics where warm rearing temperatures of the wet season produce active males that court and females that choose, whereas cooler temperatures of the dry season lead to choosy less active males and courting females. We hypothesized that if male pheromone production is costly, it should be reduced in the dry season form. After describing the ultrastructure of pheromone producing cells, we showed that dry season males produced significantly less sex pheromones than wet season males, partly due to acclimatization and partly due to developmental plasticity. Variation in levels of one of the compounds is associated with differential regulation of a pheromone biosynthetic enzyme gene. This plasticity might be an adaptation to minimize pheromone production costs during the stressful dry season. PMID:27966579

  7. Phenotypic plasticity in sex pheromone production in Bicyclus anynana butterflies.

    PubMed

    Dion, Emilie; Monteiro, Antónia; Yew, Joanne Y

    2016-12-14

    Phenotypic plasticity refers to the environmental control of phenotypes. Cues experienced during development (developmental plasticity) or during adulthood (acclimatization) can both affect adult phenotypes. Phenotypic plasticity has been described in many traits but examples of developmental plasticity in physiological traits, in particular, remain scarce. We examined developmental plasticity and acclimatization in pheromone production in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana in response to rearing temperature. B. anynana lives in the African tropics where warm rearing temperatures of the wet season produce active males that court and females that choose, whereas cooler temperatures of the dry season lead to choosy less active males and courting females. We hypothesized that if male pheromone production is costly, it should be reduced in the dry season form. After describing the ultrastructure of pheromone producing cells, we showed that dry season males produced significantly less sex pheromones than wet season males, partly due to acclimatization and partly due to developmental plasticity. Variation in levels of one of the compounds is associated with differential regulation of a pheromone biosynthetic enzyme gene. This plasticity might be an adaptation to minimize pheromone production costs during the stressful dry season.

  8. Synthesis and field evaluation of the sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae).

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hoddle, Christina D; Zou, Yunfan; McElfresh, J Steven

    2009-08-01

    Field trials of the sex pheromone of an important and potentially invasive pest of avocados, Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae), Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), were carried out in commercial avocado orchards in Guatemala. The results indicated that the pheromone consists of a single component, (9Z)-9,13-tetradecadien-1-ynal; blends of this compound with a range of ratios of the corresponding alcohol and acetate, or with (6Z,9Z)-tricosadiene, which was present in pheromone gland extracts, were equally or less attractive to male moths than the single component. A range of doses from 10 microg to 1 mg were equally attractive, and lures remained attractive for periods of several weeks. Male moth flight activity peaked between 0230 and 0430 hours. Overall, trap catches were relatively low, similar to what was reported for the congeneric Stenoma cecropia Meyrick, suggesting that this species may use other signals in addition to pheromones during mate location. Nevertheless, the pheromone will be useful for detection of S. catenifer, particularly in areas where there is a risk of the moth invading and establishing due to increased commerce in fresh avocados, and for certifying export orchards as being free of S. catenifer.

  9. Origin and diversification of a salamander sex pheromone system.

    PubMed

    Janssenswillen, Sunita; Vandebergh, Wim; Treer, Dag; Willaert, Bert; Maex, Margo; Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Bossuyt, Franky

    2015-02-01

    Sex pheromones form an important facet of reproductive strategies in many organisms throughout the Animal Kingdom. One of the oldest known sex pheromones in vertebrates are proteins of the Sodefrin Precursor-like Factor (SPF) system, which already had a courtship function in early salamanders. The subsequent evolution of salamanders is characterized by a diversification in courtship and reproduction, but little is known on how the SPF pheromone system diversified in relation to changing courtship strategies. Here, we combined transcriptomic, genomic, and phylogenetic analyses to investigate the evolution of the SPF pheromone system in nine salamandrid species with distinct courtship displays. First, we show that SPF originated from vertebrate three-finger proteins and diversified through multiple gene duplications in salamanders, while remaining a single copy in frogs. Next, we demonstrate that tail-fanning newts have retained a high phylogenetic diversity of SPFs, whereas loss of tail-fanning has been associated with a reduced importance or loss of SPF expression in the cloacal region. Finally, we show that the attractant decapeptide sodefrin is cleaved from larger SPF precursors that originated by a 62 bp insertion and consequent frameshift in an ancestral Cynops lineage. This led to the birth of a new decapeptide that rapidly evolved a pheromone function independently from uncleaved proteins.

  10. Attraction of Cerambycid Beetles to Their Aggregation-Sex Pheromones Is Influenced by Volatiles From Host Plants of Their Larvae.

    PubMed

    Wong, J C H; Zou, Y; Millar, J G; Hanks, L M

    2017-06-01

    Here, we describe a field experiment that tested for attraction of cerambycid beetles to odors from angiosperm hosts, and whether plant volatiles also serve to enhance attraction of beetles to their aggregation-sex pheromones. Traps were baited with a blend of synthesized chemicals that are common pheromone components of species in the subfamilies Cerambycinae and Lamiinae. The source of plant volatiles was chipped wood from trees of three angiosperm species, as well as from one nonhost, gymnosperm species. Bioassays were conducted in wooded areas of east-central Illinois. Traps were baited with the pheromone blend alone, the blend + wood chips from one tree species, wood chips alone, or a solvent control lure. Seven species of cerambycids were significantly attracted to the pheromone blend, with or without wood chips. In two cases, wood chips from angiosperms appeared to enhance attraction to pheromones, whereas they inhibited attraction in another three cases. Pine chips did not strongly influence attraction of any species. Overall, our results suggest that host plant volatiles from wood chips may improve trap catch with synthesized pheromones for some cerambycid species, but the effect is not general, necessitating case-by-case testing to determine how individual target species are affected. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Sex Pheromone Investigation of Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attraction of virgin females to odor of calling males was demonstrated. This sex pheromone mediated attraction occurred during the latter half of a 13-h photophase but not during the first half of the day. Two major components of emissions of calling males, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) and 2,5-dihyd...

  12. Response of Ips confusus to synthetic sex pheromones in nature.

    PubMed

    Wood, D L; Browne, L E; Bedard, W D; Tilden, P E; Silverstein, R M; Rodin, J O

    1968-03-22

    The first flight response of bark beetles to synthetic sex pheromones under natural conditions is reported. Two insect species predaceous on this bark beetle also responded. The synthetic compounds delivered in an airstream from a substrate of Carbowax 20M on Chromosorb A appear to elicit the same response as the natural attractant from male-infested bolts of ponderosa pine elicits.

  13. Physico-chemical properties of the female sex pheromone of Heterodera schachtii (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    PubMed

    Aumann, J; Dietsche, E; Rutencrantz, S; Ladehoff, H

    1998-11-01

    Several physico-chemical properties of the female sex pheromone of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii were elucidated. At least one component of the pheromone can be extracted from aqueous solutions with diethyl ether. However, the pheromone has a higher solubility in water, as most of the pheromone activity remained in the water fraction. Ion exchange chromatography revealed that the pheromone or at least one of its components is positively charged, whereas another pheromone component may be negatively charged. Fractional distillation of pheromone extracts showed that it is, indeed, composed of at least two components. These components may interact additively rather than synergistically.

  14. Evaluation of pheromone-baited traps for Winter Moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We tested different pheromone-baited traps for surveying winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. populations in eastern North America. We compared male catch at Pherocon® 1C sticky traps with various large capacity traps and showed that Universal moth traps with white bottoms caught more winter moths th...

  15. A plant factory for moth pheromone production

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

  16. A plant factory for moth pheromone production.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-02-25

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste.

  17. Populations of the gall midge Dasineura oxycoccana on cranberry and blueberry produce and respond to different sex pheromones.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Sheila M; Gries, Regine; Khaskin, Grigori; Peach, Daniel A H; Iwanski, Jessika; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    We identified and field-tested the sex pheromones of Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) midges collected from cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton, and from highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., commonly named cranberry tipworm (CTW) and blueberry gall midge (BGM), respectively. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of pheromone gland extract from the ovipositor of calling CTW females revealed one component (<10 pg per ovipositor/pheromone gland) that elicited antennal responses from CTW males. Stepwise identification was based on its mass spectrum in a concentrated sample with 300 pheromone gland equivalents, retention indices (RI) on three GC columns (DB-5, DB-23, and DB 210), RI inter-column differentials, and RIs and double bond positions of other midge pheromones. These analyses indicated that (8Z)-2,14-diacetoxy-8-heptadecene (2,14-8Z-17) was the candidate pheromone of the CTW. GC-EAD analysis of pheromone gland extract from calling BGM females revealed two components that elicited antennal responses from BGM males. Retention times on the three GC columns were consistent with 2,14-8Z-17 and 2,14-17, indicating that these were candidate pheromone components of the BGM. The four stereoisomers of 2,14-8Z-17 were stereoselectively synthesized and field-tested in cranberry. Delta-type traps baited with SS-2,14-8Z-17 captured significantly more CTW males than did traps baited with any other single stereoisomer or with all four stereoisomers combined. In blueberry, delta-type traps baited with RR-2,14-8Z-17 captured significantly more BGM males than did traps baited with any other single stereoisomer or with all four stereoisomers combined. Subsequent field experiments demonstrated that RR-2,14-17 is the major pheromone component of BGM, and that RR-2,14-8Z-17 is a pheromone component that does not enhance attractiveness of RR-2,14-17. The BGM pheromone RR-2,14-17 has no antagonistic effect on

  18. Molecular and neural mechanisms of sex pheromone reception and processing in the silkmoth Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Namiki, Shigehiro; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    Male moths locate their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. One striking feature of sex pheromone recognition in males is the high degree of specificity and sensitivity at all levels, from the primary sensory processes to behavior. The silkmoth Bombyx mori is an excellent model insect in which to decipher the underlying mechanisms of sex pheromone recognition due to its simple sex pheromone communication system, where a single pheromone component, bombykol, elicits the full sexual behavior of male moths. Various technical advancements that cover all levels of analysis from molecular to behavioral also allow the systematic analysis of pheromone recognition mechanisms. Sex pheromone signals are detected by pheromone receptors expressed in olfactory receptor neurons in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea on male antennae. The signals are transmitted to the first olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), and then are processed further in the higher centers (mushroom body and lateral protocerebrum) to elicit orientation behavior toward females. In recent years, significant progress has been made elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the detection of sex pheromones. In addition, extensive studies of the AL and higher centers have provided insights into the neural basis of pheromone processing in the silkmoth brain. This review describes these latest advances, and discusses what these advances have revealed about the mechanisms underlying the specific and sensitive recognition of sex pheromones in the silkmoth. PMID:24744736

  19. A novel assembly pheromone trap for tick control in dog kennels.

    PubMed

    Anish, R K; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Ramanathan, Giriprasath; Sivagnanam, Uma Tirichurapalli; Sreekumar, C; Leela, V

    2017-02-15

    A novel ecofriendly sticky tick trap device for the control of dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus using gold nanoparticle assembly pheromone complex as a bait was developed. Assembly pheromones comprising of guanine, xanthine and adenine in the ratio of 25:1:1 was encapsulated in gold nanoparticle. The response of the different stages of unfed R. sanguineus ticks was evaluated using petridish bioassay. Statistical analysis was done using chi-square test. Petridish bioassay with unfed stages of R. sanguineus revealed that 100% of the larvae, nymph and adults were attracted to assembly pheromone nanogold complex within 24h. Of the 952 ticks trapped, ticks of different stages trapped in total by the baited sticky trap device, 543 (57%) were engorged and 409 (43%) were unfed ticks. The study revealed that assembly pheromone baited traps has the potential to control tick infestations in dog kennels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Production, identification, and field evaluation of sex pheromone from calling females in Diaphania angustalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Tao; Liu, Zhitao; Wang, Cai; Zhang, Shengnan; Shi, Xianhui; Sun, Zhaohui; Chen, Xiaoyang; Jia, Caijuan; Wang, Changlu; He, Yurong; Wen, Xiujun

    2017-09-12

    Insect sex pheromones play a crucial role in the mate finding and calling behavior of Lepidoptera pests. Currently, little is known about the chemical ecology of Diaphania angustalis Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a severe and important defoliator attacking the medicinal plant, Alstonia scholaris. In the present study, the pheromone components of D. angustalis females were investigated using electrophysiological and behavioral methods. Distilled hexane extracts of female pheromone glands were analyzed through electroantennogram (EAG) and gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC-EAD), and the active compounds were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Production peak of female sex pheromone occurred on the third day of age at 5 h into the scotophase with the EAG test, and the hexane extracts were attractive to males in the wind tunnel test. GC-EAD analysis of virgin males to gland extracts that were subsequently evaluated showed two active compounds, (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal (E10E12-16:Ald) and (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadien-1-ol (E10E12-16:OH), based on comparison of retention time and mass spectrum, with suitable synthetic compounds. Under laboratory conditions, the blend of E10E12-16:Ald and E10E12-16:OH in a ratio of 9:1 elicited a stronger EAG response than other treatments or a single component. In the field, more male moths were captured by traps baited with the mixture of E10E2-16:Ald and E10E2-16:OH in a ratio of 9:1, whereas a mixture of 8:1 and 10:1 also caught males. Accordingly, E10E2-16:Ald and E10E2-16:OH were regarded as the major sex pheromone components in D. angustalis females.

  1. Monitoring and mass-trapping methodologies using pheromones: the lesser date moth Batrachedra amydraula.

    PubMed

    Levi-Zada, A; Sadowsky, A; Dobrinin, S; Ticuchinski, T; David, M; Fefer, D; Dunkelblum, E; Byers, J A

    2017-05-11

    The lesser date moth (LDM) Batrachedra amydraula is a significant pest of date palm fruits. Previously, detection and monitoring of the pest was inaccurate due to high costs of sampling with lifting machines. We report a practical system for detection and monitoring of LDM based on pheromone traps and relevant models. Dose-response experiments with LDM pheromone traps indicated a 1 mg lure is optimal for monitoring. Delta traps with adhesive covering their entire inner surface gave the highest captures while trap colour was unimportant. Sampling pheromone traps throughout the night indicated male flight began at 1:00-2:00 and reached a peak 2 h before sunrise. Monitoring traps exposed all year long in Israel revealed three generations with different abundance. Trapping transects in a date plantation indicated interference from a monitoring trap became minimal at distances >27 m away. Inter-trap distances closer than this may lower efficiency of monitoring and mass trapping in control programs. Our estimate of the circular effective attraction radius (EARc) of a 1 mg delta trap for LDM (3.43 m) shows this bait is among the most attractive compared with baits for other insects. We developed encounter-rate equations with the pheromone trap EARc to model the interplay between population levels, trap density and captures that are useful for detection of invasive LDM and its control by mass trapping. The integrated methodologies are applicable to many pest species.

  2. Sex Attractant Pheromone of the Luna Moth, Actias luna (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Millar, Jocelyn G; Haynes, Kenneth F; Dossey, Aaron T; McElfresh, J Steven; Allison, Jeremy D

    2016-09-01

    Giant silk moths (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) typically are not well represented as larvae or adults in community level inventories of Lepidoptera, and as a result, little is known about their population dynamics. Furthermore, in recent years, many species of silk moths appear to have experienced population declines. Volatile sex pheromones are powerful sampling tools that can be used in operational conservation and monitoring programs for insects. Here, we describe the identification of the sex attractant pheromone of a giant silk moth, the luna moth Actias luna. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analyses of extracts from pheromone glands of female luna moths supported the identification of (6E,11Z)-6,11-octadecadienal (E6,Z11-18:Ald), (6E)-6-octadecenal (E6-18:Ald), and (11Z)-11-octadecenal (Z11-18:Ald) as the compounds in extracts that elicited responses from antennae of male moths. These identifications were confirmed by synthesis, followed by testing of blends of the synthetic compounds in field trials in Ontario, Canada, and Kentucky, USA. Male moths were attracted to synthetic E6,Z11-18:Ald as a single component. Attraction appeared to be enhanced by addition of E6-18:Ald but not Z11-18:Ald, suggesting that the luna moth pheromone consists of a blend of E6,Z11-18:Ald and E6-18:Ald.

  3. Total Synthesis, Stereochemical Assignment, and Field-Testing of the Sex Pheromone of the Strepsipteran Xenos peckii.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Huimin; Hrabar, Michael; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Britton, Robert

    2016-04-25

    The sex pheromone of the endoparasitoid insect Xenos peckii (Strepsiptera: Xenidae) was recently identified as (7E,11E)-3,5,9,11-tetramethyl-7,11-tridecadienal. Herein we report the asymmetric synthesis of three candidate stereostructures for this pheromone using a synthetic strategy that relies on an sp(3) -sp(2) Suzuki-Miyaura coupling to construct the correctly configured C7-alkene function. Comparison of (1) H NMR spectra derived from the candidate stereostructures to that of the natural sex pheromone indicated a relative configuration of (3R*,5S*,9R*). Chiral gas chromatographic (GC) analyses of these compounds supported an assignment of (3R,5S,9R) for the natural product. Furthermore, in a 16-replicate field experiment, traps baited with the synthetic (3R,5S,9R)-enantiomer alone or in combination with the (3S,5R,9S)-enantiomer captured 23 and 18 X. peckii males, respectively (mean±SE: 1.4±0.33 and 1.1±0.39), whereas traps baited with the synthetic (3S,5R,9S)-enantiomer or a solvent control yielded no captures of males. These strong field trapping data, in combination with spectroscopic and chiral GC data, unambiguously demonstrate that (3R,5S,9R,7E,11E)-3,5,9,11-tetramethyl-7,11-tridecadienal is the X. peckii sex pheromone.

  4. Management of Cosmopolites sordidus and Metamasius hemipterus in banana by pheromone-based mass trapping.

    PubMed

    Alpizar, D; Fallas, M; Oehlschlager, A C; Gonzalez, L M

    2012-03-01

    Mass trapping Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using a pheromone-baited pitfall trap and Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using a pheromone-sugarcane-baited open gallon trap was conducted in commercial banana. Four traps for each insect per hectare were placed in each of two 5-hectare plots of banana. Two additional 5-hectare plots were designated as controls and treated according to the plantation protocol. Capture rates of C. sordidus and M. hemipterus declined by >75 % over 10-12 months. In the banana growing region studied, corm damage was due primarily to C. sordidus, while only a minor amount of damage was attributable to M. hemipterus. Corm damage reduction in trapping plots was, thus, attributed primarily to C. sordidus trapping. In trapping plots, corm damage decreased by 61-64 % during the experiment. Banana bunch weights increased 23 % relative to control plots after 11-12 months of trapping. Fruit diameter did not vary between bunches harvested from trapping plots vs. control plots. Plant vigor, however, as determined by stem circumference at one meter above ground increased in plots with traps compared to control plots. Trapping for C. sordidus in two plantations of over 200 hectares each, reduced corm damage 62-86 % relative to pre-trapping levels. Insecticide control measures in place when the experiment commenced resulted in about 20-30 % corm damage, while use of pheromone trapping to manage C. sordidus lowered corm damage to 10 % or less. It is estimated that the increase in value of increased yield obtained in this trial (23 %) is about $4,240 USD per year per hectare, while the cost of pheromone trapping is approximately $185 USD per year per hectare. The trapping program becomes revenue neutral if bunch weights increase by an average of 1 % per year of trapping. Approximately 10 % of all plantation area in Costa Rica use the pheromone trapping system described here. The system also is used in Martinique

  5. Identification of a sex pheromone produced by sternal glands in females of the caddisfly Molanna angustata curtis.

    PubMed

    Löfstedt, Christer; Bergmann, Jan; Francke, Wittko; Jirle, Erling; Hansson, Bill S; Ivanov, Vladimir D

    2008-02-01

    In the caddisfly Molanna angustata, females produce a sex pheromone in glands with openings on the fifth sternite. Gas chromatographic analyses of pheromone gland extracts with electroantennographic detection revealed four major compounds that stimulated male antennae. These compounds were identified by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and enantioselective gas chromatography as heptan-2-one, (S)-heptan-2-ol, nonan-2-one, and (S)-nonan-2-ol in the approximate ratio of 1:1:4:10, respectively. Field tests showed that the mixture of the two alcohols was attractive to males whereas addition of the corresponding ketones reduced trap catches. The sex pheromone of M. angustata, a species in the family Molannidae within the suborder Integripalpia, is similar to the pheromones or pheromone-like compounds previously reported from six other trichopteran families, including members of the basal suborder Annulipalpia. This suggests that minimal evolutionary change of the pheromone chemistry has taken place within the leptoceroid branch of integripalpian Trichoptera compared to the ancestral character state.

  6. (R)-Desmolactone is a sex pheromone or sex attractant for the endangered valley elderberry longhorn beetle Desmocerus californicus dimorphus and several congeners (Cerambycidae: Lepturinae).

    PubMed

    Ray, Ann M; Arnold, Richard A; Swift, Ian; Schapker, Philip A; McCann, Sean; Marshall, Christopher J; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2014-01-01

    We report here that (4R,9Z)-hexadec-9-en-4-olide [(R)-desmolactone] is a sex attractant or sex pheromone for multiple species and subspecies in the cerambycid genus Desmocerus. This compound was previously identified as a female-produced sex attractant pheromone of Desmocerus californicus californicus. Headspace volatiles from female Desmocerus aureipennis aureipennis contained (R)-desmolactone, and the antennae of adult males of two species responded strongly to synthetic (R)-desmolactone in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses. In field bioassays in California, Oregon, and British Columbia, traps baited with synthetic (R)-desmolactone captured males of several Desmocerus species and subspecies. Only male beetles were captured, indicating that this compound acts as a sex-specific attractant, rather than as a signal for aggregation. In targeted field bioassays, males of the US federally threatened subspecies Desmocerus californicus dimorphus responded to the synthetic attractant in a dose dependent manner. Our results represent the first example of a "generic" sex pheromone used by multiple species in the subfamily Lepturinae, and demonstrate that pheromone-baited traps may be a sensitive and efficient method of monitoring the threatened species Desmocerus californicus dimorphus, commonly known as the valley elderberry longhorn beetle.

  7. (R)-Desmolactone Is a Sex Pheromone or Sex Attractant for the Endangered Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle Desmocerus californicus dimorphus and Several Congeners (Cerambycidae: Lepturinae)

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Ann M.; Arnold, Richard A.; Swift, Ian; Schapker, Philip A.; McCann, Sean; Marshall, Christopher J.; McElfresh, J. Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G.

    2014-01-01

    We report here that (4R,9Z)-hexadec-9-en-4-olide [(R)-desmolactone] is a sex attractant or sex pheromone for multiple species and subspecies in the cerambycid genus Desmocerus. This compound was previously identified as a female-produced sex attractant pheromone of Desmocerus californicus californicus. Headspace volatiles from female Desmocerus aureipennis aureipennis contained (R)-desmolactone, and the antennae of adult males of two species responded strongly to synthetic (R)-desmolactone in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses. In field bioassays in California, Oregon, and British Columbia, traps baited with synthetic (R)-desmolactone captured males of several Desmocerus species and subspecies. Only male beetles were captured, indicating that this compound acts as a sex-specific attractant, rather than as a signal for aggregation. In targeted field bioassays, males of the US federally threatened subspecies Desmocerus californicus dimorphus responded to the synthetic attractant in a dose dependent manner. Our results represent the first example of a “generic” sex pheromone used by multiple species in the subfamily Lepturinae, and demonstrate that pheromone-baited traps may be a sensitive and efficient method of monitoring the threatened species Desmocerus californicus dimorphus, commonly known as the valley elderberry longhorn beetle. PMID:25521293

  8. Management strategy evaluation of pheromone-baited trapping techniques to improve management of invasive sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Heather; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Johnson, Nicholas; Wagner, Michael C.; Szymanski, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We applied a management strategy evaluation (MSE) model to examine the potential cost-effectiveness of using pheromone-baited trapping along with conventional lampricide treatment to manage invasive sea lamprey. Four pheromone-baited trapping strategies were modeled: (1) stream activation wherein pheromone was applied to existing traps to achieve 10−12 mol/L in-stream concentration, (2) stream activation plus two additional traps downstream with pheromone applied at 2.5 mg/hr (reverse-intercept approach), (3) trap activation wherein pheromone was applied at 10 mg/hr to existing traps, and (4) trap activation and reverse-intercept approach. Each new strategy was applied, with remaining funds applied to conventional lampricide control. Simulating deployment of these hybrid strategies on fourteen Lake Michigan streams resulted in increases of 17 and 11% (strategies 1 and 2) and decreases of 4 and 7% (strategies 3 and 4) of the lakewide mean abundance of adult sea lamprey relative to status quo. MSE revealed performance targets for trap efficacy to guide additional research because results indicate that combining lampricides and high efficacy trapping technologies can reduce sea lamprey abundance on average without increasing control costs.

  9. Attraction of acorn-infesting Cydia latiferreana (lepidoptera:tortricidae) to pheromone-baited traps

    Treesearch

    J.W. Peacock; S.L. Wright; J.R. Galford

    1988-01-01

    Males of acorn-infesting Cydia latiferreana are attracted to an equilibrium mixture of the four isomers of 8, I10-dodecadien-1-ol acetate, the virgin female-produced pheromone. Trap height relative to the height of trees in which traps are placed seems to be a significant factor influencing moth catches at attractant-baited traps. In an oak woodlot...

  10. Female Sex Pheromone of the Cone Moth, Dioryctria mendacella: Investigation of Synergism between Type I and Type II Pheromone Components.

    PubMed

    Hall, David R; Farman, Dudley; Domínguez, Juan C; Pajares, Juan A

    2017-05-01

    Polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (Type II pheromone components) have been reported to be synergists for unsaturated acetates, alcohols or aldehydes (Type I components) in the sex pheromones of several species of Lepidoptera. However, there is some debate over whether the active components are the hydrocarbons themselves or more volatile degradation products. Extracts of pheromone glands of adult females of the cone moth, Dioryctria mendacella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), contain (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate (ZE9,11-14:Ac) and at least ten times as much (Z,Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,12,15-pentacosapentaene (ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H). The former elicits a strong electroantennogram response from males while no response could be recorded to the latter. In field trapping tests, both compounds were individually unattractive to male D. mendacella moths, but blends of the two compounds containing at least a 10:1 ratio of ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H : ZE9,11-14:Ac were highly attractive. The relatively involatile hydrocarbon was shown to be released from the dispensers used and no significant degradation could be detected. Furthermore, blends of ZE9,11-14:Ac and analogs of ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H with fewer carbons and/or double bonds that might be expected to produce similar degradation products to ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H were unattractive. This indicated a specific response to the hydrocarbon itself, further substantiated by the observation that related hydrocarbons did not interfere with the activity of ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H. Thus a three-step conversion of fish oil was used to produce a blend of unsaturated hydrocarbons containing ZZZZZ3,6,9,12,15-25:H as the major component, albeit only 30% of the total, and a blend of this material with ZE9,11-14:Ac was as attractive to male D. mendacella moths as blends with an equivalent amount of the purified material. This mixture of unsaturated hydrocarbons is much cheaper to produce than the pure pentaene, and may be useful in lures for other species

  11. European corn borer sex pheromone : Inhibition and elicitation of behavioral response by analogs.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, M; Klun, J A; Uebel, E C

    1990-05-01

    The male sexual behavior-stimulating and inhibiting properties of a series of analogs of the European corn borer sex pheromone were determined in a flight tunnel. The structural requirements for inhibition of pheromonal response were far less restrictive than those for elicitation of that response. Analogs that by themselves elicited upwind flight response from males at a low dose were generally less inhibitory to male response than many of the analogs that had no pheromonal activity. These findings suggest that many pheromone analogs bind to pheromone receptors without provoking behavioral response and possibly undergo slower degradation on the antenna than pheromonally active compounds. The disparity of response to analogs by two pheromonal types of the European corn borer indicates that the pheromone receptor and pheromone catabolic systems are biochemically very different in the two types.

  12. The Sex Attractant Pheromone of Male Brown Rats: Identification and Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Takács, Stephen; Gries, Regine; Zhai, Huimin; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-05-10

    Trapping brown rats is challenging because they avoid newly placed traps in their habitat. Herein, we report the identification of the sex pheromone produced by male brown rats and its effect on trap captures of wild female brown rats. Collecting urine- and feces-soiled bedding material of laboratory-kept rats and comparing the soiled-bedding odorants of juvenile and adult males, as well as of adult males and females, we found nine compounds that were specific to, or most prevalent in, the odor profiles of sexually mature adult males. When we added a synthetic blend of six of these compounds (2-heptanone, 4-heptanone, 3-ethyl-2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, 4-nonanone) to one of two paired food-baited trap boxes, these boxes attracted significantly more laboratory-strain female rats in laboratory experiments, and captured ten times more wild female rats in a field experiment than the corresponding control boxes. Our data show that the pheromone facilitates captures of wild female brown rats.

  13. Identification, Synthesis, and Field Tests of the Sex Pheromone of Margarodes prieskaensis (Jakubski).

    PubMed

    Burger, Barend V; de Klerk, C André; Morr, Michael; Burger, Wilhelmina J G

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report the identification and synthesis of the sex pheromone of female Margarodes prieskaensis (Jakubski), and the attractiveness of the synthetic pheromone to males in field trapping tests. Volatile organic compounds were collected from virgin females using a sample enrichment probe (SEP). Analyses by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed the presence of only two constituents. By scaling up the SEP, sufficient of the major constituent was collected for (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses and ancillary NMR techniques. The sex attractant was identified as (2R,4R,6R,8R)-2,4,6,8-tetramethylundecan-1-ol. The enantiomerically pure compound was synthesized from octadecyl (2R,4R,6R,8R)-2,4,6,8-tetramethylundecanoate, a minor component of the uropygial (preen) gland secretion of the domestic goose, Anser domesticus. Field trapping experiments, carried out in vineyards in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa, showed that the synthetic compound was as attractive to winged males of M. prieskaensis as virgin females. The second compound detected was identified as the corresponding acetate, but addition of this did not affect the attractiveness of the major component. We believe this to be the first identification of a sex attractant of the Margarodidae.

  14. Sex Pheromones and Reproductive Isolation in Five Mirid Species

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang Yeol; Kim, Se-Jin; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Taek-Jun; Ahn, Seung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Mate location in many mirid bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae) is mediated by female-released sex pheromones. To elucidate the potential role of the pheromones in prezygotic reproductive isolation between sympatric species, we investigated differences in the pheromone systems of five mirid species, Apolygus lucorum, Apolygus spinolae, Orthops campestris, Stenotus rubrovittatus and Taylorilygus apicalis. GC/MS analyses of metathoracic scent gland extracts of virgin females showed that all five species produced mixtures of hexyl butyrate, (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, but in quite different ratios. (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate was the major component of A. spinolae, while hexyl butyrate was the most abundant component in the pheromone blends of the other four species. In addition to the three compounds, a fourth component, (E)-2-octenyl butyrate, was present in the gland extracts of A. lucorum and T. apicalis females. Field tests suggest that the ternary blends of hexyl butyrate, (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal as found in the extracts of the females of each species do not inhibit attraction of conspecific males but ensure species-specificity of attraction between A. lucorum, O. campestris and T. apicalis. Furthermore, (E)-2-octenyl butyrate was essential for attraction of A. lucorum and T. apicalis males, but strongly inhibited attraction of male A. spinolae, O. campestris and S. rubrovittatus. The combined results from this study and previous studies suggest that the minor component and pheromone dose in addition to the relative ratio of the major components play an important role in reproductive isolation between mirid species. PMID:25973902

  15. Identification of genes expressed in the sex pheromone gland of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon with putative roles in sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    we proposed possible A. ipsilon biosynthesis pathways for major and minor sex pheromone components. Conclusions Our study identified genes potentially involved in sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport in A. ipsilon. The identified genes are likely to play essential roles in sex pheromone production, transport and degradation and could serve as targets to interfere with pheromone release. The identification of highly expressed CSPs and OBPs in the pheromone gland suggests that they may play a role in the binding, transport and release of sex pheromones during sex pheromone production in A. ipsilon and other Lepidoptera insects. PMID:24053512

  16. Trapping Phyllophaga spp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in the United States and Canada using sex attractants

    Treesearch

    Paul S. Robbins; Steven R. Alm; Charles D. Armstrong; Anne L. Averill; Thomas C. Baker; Robert J. Bauernfiend; Frederick P. Baxendale; S. Kris Braman; Rick L. Brandenburg; Daniel B. Cash; Gary J. Couch; Richard S. Cowles; Robert L. Crocker; Zandra D. DeLamar; Timothy G. Dittl; Sheila M. Fitzpatrick; Kathy L. Flanders; Tom Forgatsch; Timothy J. Gibb; Bruce D. Gill; Daniel O. Gilrein; Clyde S. Gorsuch; Abner M. Hammond; Patricia D. Hastings; David W. Held; Paul R. Heller; Rose T. Hiskes; James L. Holliman; William G. Hudson; Michael G. Klein; Vera L. Krischik; David J. Lee; Charles E. Linn; Nancy J. Luce; Kenna E. MacKenzie; Catherine M. Mannion; Sridhar Polavarapu; Daniel A. Potter; Wendell L. Roelofs; Brian M. Rovals; Glenn A. Salsbury; Nathan M. Schiff; David J. Shetlar; Margaret Skinner; Beverly L. Sparks; Jessica A. Sutschek; Timothy P. Sutschek; Stanley R. Swier; Martha M. Sylvia; Niel J. Vickers; Patricia J. Vittum; Richard Weidman; Donald C. Weber; R. Chris Williamson; Michael G. Villani

    2006-01-01

    The sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Phyllophaga anxia, is a blend of the methyl esters of two amino acids, L-valine and L-isoleucine. A field trapping study was conducted, deploying different blends of the two compounds at 59 locations in the United States and Canada. More than 57,000 males of 61 Phyllophaga species (Coleoptera...

  17. Minor components in the sex pheromone of legume podborer: Maruca vitrata development of an attractive blend.

    PubMed

    Downham, M C A; Hall, D R; Chamberlain, D J; Cork, A; Farman, D I; Tamò, M; Dahounto, D; Datinon, B; Adetonah, S

    2003-04-01

    The legume podborer, Maruca vitrata (syn. M. testulalis) (F.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pantropical pest of legume crops. Sex pheromone was collected by gland extraction or trapping of volatiles from virgin female moths originating in India, West Africa, or Taiwan. Analysis by GC-EAG and GC-MS confirmed previously published findings that (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal is the most abundant EAG-active component with 2-5% of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienol also present. At least one other EAG response was detected at retention times typical of monounsaturated hexadecenals or tetradecenyl acetates, but neither could be detected by GC-MS. Laboratory wind-tunnel bioassays and a field bioassay of blends of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal with (E,E )-10,12-hexadecadienol and a range of monounsaturated hexadecenal and tetradecenyl acetate isomers indicated greatest attraction of males was to those including (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienol and (E)-10-hexadecenal as minor components. In subsequent trapping experiments in cowpea fields in Benin, traps baited with a three-component blend of (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal and these two minor components in a 100:5:5 ratio caught significantly more males than traps baited with the major component alone, either two-component blend, or virgin female moths. Further blend optimization experiments did not produce a more attractive blend. No significant differences in catches were found between traps baited with polyethylene vials or rubber septa, or between lures containing 0.01 and 0.1 mg of synthetic pheromone. Significant numbers of female M. vitrata moths, up to 50% of total catches, were trapped with synthetic blends but not with virgin females. At present there is no clear explanation for this almost unprecedented finding, but the phenomenon may improve the predictive power of traps for population monitoring.

  18. Larval sensilla of the moth Heliothis virescens respond to sex pheromone components.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, M; Gehrke, P; Badeke, E; Sachse, S; Breer, H; Krieger, J

    2016-10-01

    Female-released sex pheromones orchestrate the mating behaviour of moths. Recent studies have shown that sex pheromones not only attract adult males but also caterpillars. Single sensillum recordings revealed that larval antennal sensilla of the moth Heliothis virescens respond to specific sex pheromone components. In search for the molecular basis of pheromone detection in larvae, we found that olfactory sensilla on the larval antennae are equipped with the same molecular elements that mediate sex pheromone detection in adult male moths, including the Heliothis virescens receptors 6 (HR6) and HR13, as well as sensory neurone membrane protein 1 (SNMP1). Thirty-eight olfactory sensory neurones were identified in three large sensilla basiconica; six of these are considered as candidate pheromone responsive cells based on the expression of SNMP1. The pheromone receptor HR6 was found to be expressed in two cells and the receptor HR13 in three cells. These putative pheromone responsive neurones were accompanied by cells expressing pheromone-binding protein 1 (PBP1) and PBP2. The results indicate that the responsiveness of larval sensilla to female-emitted sex pheromones is based on the same molecular machinery as in the antennae of adult males. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Attraction of dispersing boll weevils from surrounding habitats relative to simulated pheromone diffusion from traps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability to detect populations of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), with pheromone traps has contributed significantly in progress toward eradication of the boll weevil. However, new information is needed to aid in the interpretation of trap captures, such as identification of habitats...

  20. Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) response to pyramid traps baited with attractive light and pheromonal stimuli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Halyomorpha halys is an invasive insect that causes severe economic damage to multiple agricultural commodities. Several monitoring techniques have been developed to monitor H. halys including pheromone and light-baited black pyramid traps. Here, we evaluated the attractiveness of these traps bait...

  1. Effect of abundance of the navel orangeworm on sampling range and interference between pheromone traps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sampling range of pheromone traps for the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae) and its association with abundance was investigated by examining mutual interference within cross-shaped arrays of nine wing traps baited with virgin females and placed at 400 m interva...

  2. Evaluation of pheromone-baited traps for winter moth and Bruce spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Elkinton, Joseph S; Lance, David; Boettner, George; Khrimian, Ashot; Leva, Natalie

    2011-04-01

    We tested different pheromone-baited traps for surveying winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), populations in eastern North America. We compared male catch at Pherocon 1C sticky traps with various large capacity traps and showed that Universal Moth traps with white bottoms caught more winter moths than any other trap type. We ran the experiment on Cape Cod, MA, where we caught only winter moth, and in western Massachusetts, where we caught only Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a congener of winter moth native to North America that uses the same pheromone compound [(Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] and is difficult to distinguish from adult male winter moths. With Bruce spanworm, the Pherocon 1C sticky traps caught by far the most moths. We tested an isomer of the pheromone [(E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] that previous work had suggested would inhibit captures of Bruce spanworm but not winter moths. We found that the different doses and placements of the isomer suppressed captures of both species to a similar degree. We are thus doubtful that we can use the isomer to trap winter moths without also catching Bruce spanworm. Pheromone-baited survey traps will catch both species.

  3. Green Light Synergistally Enhances Male Sweetpotato Weevil Response to Sex Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.

    2014-01-01

    Sweetpotato, commercially grown in over 100 countries, is one of the ten most important staple crops in the world. Sweetpotato weevil is a major pest of sweetpotato in most areas of cultivation, the feeding of which induces production in the sweetpotato root of extremely bitter tasting and toxic sesquiterpenes which can render the sweetpotato unfit for consumption. A significant step towards improved management of this weevil species was the identification of a female-produced sex pheromone [(Z)-3-dodecenyl (E)-2-butenoate] to which males are highly attracted. Reported here are results of research that documents a nearly 5-fold increase in male sweetpotato weevil catch in traps baited with this pheromone and a green light provided by a solar-powered, light-emitting diode (LED). The combination of olfactory and night-visible visual cues significantly enhanced trap effectiveness for this nighttime-active insect species. These results provide promise for improved sweetpotato weevil detection and suppression in mass trapping programs. PMID:24675727

  4. Development of an efficient pheromone-based trapping method for the banana root borer Cosmopolites sordidus.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V P; Cruz, Z T; Guerrero, A

    2009-01-01

    The banana root borer Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of bananas throughout the world. Chemical control is both undesirable and expensive, where biological control alternatives are limited, and pheromone-based trapping results in low captures. In this study, several important factors that affect pheromone-based catches, such as trap type, trap dimensions, and color and position of the traps, were optimized. Ground traps were found to be superior to ramp and pitfall traps, and larger traps (40 x 25 cm and above) were more efficient than smaller ones (30 x 15 cm). In a color-choice test, the banana weevil clearly preferred brown traps over yellow, red, gray, blue, black, white, and green, with mahogany being more attractive than other shades of brown. In addition, pheromone baited ground traps positioned in the shade of the canopy caught significantly more adults than those placed in sunlight. Therefore, mahogany-brown ground traps 40 x 25 cm appear to be the most efficient at catching C. sordidus adults and have the greatest potential for use in mass trapping and programs for eradication of this pest.

  5. Synthetic pheromones disrupt male Dioryctria spp. moths in a loblolly pine seed orchard

    Treesearch

    Gary L. DeBarr; James L. Hanula; Christine G. Niwa; John C Nord

    2000-01-01

    Synthetic sex pheromones released in a loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (Pinaceae), seed orchard interfered with the ability of male coneworm moths, Dioryctria Zeller spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), to locate traps baited with sex pheromones or live females. Pherocon 1 C® traps baited with synthetic pheromones or live conspecific...

  6. First Evidence of a Volatile Sex Pheromone in Lady Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Fassotte, Bérénice; Fischer, Christophe; Durieux, Delphine; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited “calling behavior”, which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance) of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that (–)-β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%), with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle. PMID:25514321

  7. Pheromones of milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) attract wayward plant bugs: Phytocoris mirid sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-He; Aldrich, Jeffrey R

    2003-08-01

    The synthetic aggregation pheromone of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Lygaeinae), also attracted males of the plant bug, Phytocoris difficilis Knight (Miridae). Field testing partial blends against the six-component blend comprising the Oncopeltus pheromone showed that cross-attraction of P. difficilis males was due to synergism between (E)-2-octenyl acetate and (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate. Hexyl acetate was abundant in the metathoracic scent gland (MSG) secretion of P. difficilis males, but because female P. difficilis could not initially be found in the field, further combinatorial tests were guided by prior research on the pheromones of two Phytocoris species in the western United States. The combination of hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates was as attractive to P. difficilis males as the milkweed bug pheromone, yet no milkweed bugs were drawn to this blend. Gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection (EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of female P. difficilis MSGs determined that their secretion contained predominantly hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (all strongly EAD-active)-the latter two compounds found only in trace amounts from males-plus five minor female-specific compounds, three of which were EAD-active. (E,E)-2,4-Hexadienyl acetate was not detected from P. difficilis females or males. The blend of the three major components, hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (2:1.5:1 by volume), was as attractive as the blend of all six EAD-active compounds identified from females, indicating that this ternary blend constitutes the sex pheromone of P. difficilis. Hexyl acetate with (E)-2-octenyl acetate also attracted males of another species, P. breviusculus Reuter, but addition of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and/or (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate inhibited attraction of P. breviusculus males. Attraction of P. difficilis males occurred mainly during the first half of scotophase. The

  8. SEX PHEROMONE OF THE PLANT BUG, PHYTOCORTIS conspurcatus Knight (HETEROPTERA: MIRIDAE)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Female Phytocoris sp. produce a sex pheromone from metathoracic scent glands. The pheromone consists of hexyl acetate (HA; present in both sexes), with the female-specific compounds, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate (E2HA), octyl acetate (OA) and (E)-2-octenyl acetate (E2OA). HA and E2OA are key components of ...

  9. Sex pheromones and gene transfer in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Wirth, R

    2000-01-01

    Cell-density-dependent regulatory controls have been recognized in recent years to play major roles with regard to many microorganisms. In gram-negative bacteria very often N-acyl-homoserine lactones act as 'quorum-sensing' regulators, whilst gram-positive bacteria mainly use peptides to monitor their cell density. The so-called sex pheromone system of Enterococcus faecalis is just one example of the latter type of regulation. The system is a complex one; in this communication, I will discuss in particular the potential role of the peptides to also act as virulence factors.

  10. A Biologically Active Analog of the Sex Pheromone of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Silk, P J; Ryall, K; Mayo, P; MaGee, D I; Leclair, G; Fidgen, J; Lavallee, R; Price, J; McConaghy, J

    2015-03-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (EAB), is an invasive species causing unprecedented levels of mortality to ash trees in its introduced range. The female-produced sex pheromone of EAB has been shown to contain the macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide. This compound and its geometrical isomer, (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, have been demonstrated previously to be EAG active and, in combination with a host-derived green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol, to be attractive to male EAB in green prism traps deployed in the ash tree canopy. In the current study, we show that the saturated analog, dodecan-12-olide, is similarly active, eliciting an antennal response and significant attraction of EAB in both olfactometer and trapping bioassays in green traps with (3Z)-hexenol. Conformational modeling of the three lactones reveals that their energies and shapes are very similar, suggesting they might share a common receptor in EAB antennae. These findings provide new insight into the pheromone ecology of this species, highlighting the apparent plasticity in response of adults to the pheromone and its analog. Both of the unsaturated isomers are costly to synthesize, involving multistep, low-yielding processes. The saturated analog can be made cheaply, in high yield, and on large scale via Mitsunobu esterification of a saturated ω-hydroxy acid or more simply by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of commercially available cyclododecanone. The analog can thus provide an inexpensive option as a lure for detection surveys as well as for possible mitigation purposes, such as mating disruption.

  11. [The sex-trapping of Sterrha biselata (Hufn.) (Lepidoptera Geometridae, Sterrhinae) by acetoxy-1 dodecadiens-7 E, 9Z, the sex pheromone of Lobesia botrana (Schiff.) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae, Olethreutinae)].

    PubMed

    Biwer, G; Lalanne-Cassou, B; Descoins, C; Samain, D

    1975-03-24

    7E, 9Z dodecadienyl acetate, a sex-heromone for Lobesia botrana, is selectively attractive, in vineyards, for males of this species. By testing this compound in woods and orchards, we have found that it was also selectively attractive for males of a geometrid moth; Sterrha biselata. This is one of the first examples where a definite chemical substance is active for a geometrid species.

  12. Disruption of pheromone communication of Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using microencapsulated sex pheromones formulated with horticultural oil.

    PubMed

    Wins-Purdy, A H; Judd, G J R; Evenden, M L

    2007-10-01

    Sprayable, microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulations represent a promising tool for achieving mating disruption, yet often lack sustained effectiveness in the field, making repeated applications necessary. This study evaluated the impact of adding Purespray Green horticultural oil as an adjuvant to 3M MEC-LR, an MEC formulation of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, on disruption of mate-finding behavior in Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) in small-plot trials in experimental apple orchards. Treatments consisting of MEC-LR in water, MEC-LR in water + 2% (vol:vol) Purespray Green, and a water control were applied to plots of apple using an airblast sprayer at a rate of 100 g of pheromone/ha. Disruption caused by foliar treatments was evaluated over a 7-wk period using mark-release recapture experiments in the field and concurrent bioassays in a flight tunnel. Disruption of orientation to 2-d-old, calling, virgin females was used as a measure of treatment effect in all experiments. Both pheromone alone and pheromone + oil treatments significantly disrupted male mate-finding behavior for a period of > or =21 d in flight tunnel assays and > or =42 d in mark-recapture field trials. The addition of oil did not significantly enhance the disruption activity nor increase the longevity of the MEC pheromone formulation. Our results show the compatibility of spraying MEC pheromone with a horticultural oil, and techniques for applying an oil-pheromone formulation to maximize the control impact of this combination are discussed.

  13. Beetle fauna captured in traps baited with Tomicus piniperda pheromone blends in a pine stand in Central Croatia

    Treesearch

    Milan Pernek; Boris Hrasovec; Miljenko Zupanic

    2003-01-01

    During field evaluations of pheromone blends used for monitoring Tomicus piniperda beetles, many non-target beetles were captured and identified. Five pheromone blends, plus commercially available TOMODOR were used in two different traps: the IPM Tech Intercept PTBB and the THEYSOHN intercept barrier trap. In addition to Tomicus...

  14. Feeding regulates sex pheromone attraction and courtship in Drosophila females

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Trona, Federica; Borrero-Echeverry, Felipe; Bilz, Florian; Grabe, Veit; Becher, Paul G.; Carlsson, Mikael A.; Nässel, Dick R.; Hansson, Bill S.; Sachse, Silke; Witzgall, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, gender-specific behavioural responses to the male-produced sex pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) rely on sexually dimorphic, third-order neural circuits. We show that nutritional state in female flies modulates cVA perception in first-order olfactory neurons. Starvation increases, and feeding reduces attraction to food odour, in both sexes. Adding cVA to food odour, however, maintains attraction in fed females, while it has no effect in males. Upregulation of sensitivity and behavioural responsiveness to cVA in fed females is paralleled by a strong increase in receptivity to male courtship. Functional imaging of the antennal lobe (AL), the olfactory centre in the insect brain, shows that olfactory input to DA1 and VM2 glomeruli is also modulated by starvation. Knocking down insulin receptors in neurons converging onto the DA1 glomerulus suggests that insulin-signalling partly controls pheromone perception in the AL, and adjusts cVA attraction according to nutritional state and sexual receptivity in Drosophila females. PMID:26255707

  15. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) flight behavior and phenology based on field-deployed automated pheromone-baited traps

    Treesearch

    Patrick C. Tobin; Kenneth T. Klein; Donna S. Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), are extensively monitored in the United States through the use of pheromone-baited traps.We report on use of automated pheromone-baited traps that use a recording sensor and data logger to record the unique date-time stamp of males as they enter the trap.We deployed a total of 352 automated traps...

  16. Pheromone-trapping the nun moth, Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Guo-Fa; Zhang, Jun-Sheng; Xue, Qi; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Qing-He

    2017-08-01

    The nun moth, Lymantria monacha L., is one of the most important defoliators of Eurasian coniferous forests. Outbreaks during 2011-2015 in the natural/planted larch, and larch-birch mixed forests of the Greater Khingan Range in Inner Mongolia, China, caused tremendous timber losses from severe defoliation and tree mortality. A series of trapping experiments were conducted in these outbreak areas to evaluate the efficacy of a synthetic species-specific pheromone lure based on the female pheromone blend of European nun moth populations. Our results clearly show that the nun moth in Inner Mongolia is highly and specifically attracted to this synthetic pheromone, with few gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) captured. Flight activity monitoring of L. monacha male moths using pheromone-baited Unitraps at 2 locations during the summer of 2015 indicated that the flight period started in mid-July, peaking in early August at both locations. Based on male moth captures, there was a strong diurnal rhythm of flight activity throughout the entire scotophase, peaking between 22:00 and 24:00. Unitraps and wing traps had significantly and surprisingly higher catches than the gypsy moth traps. Unitraps fastened to tree trunks 2 m above ground caught significantly more male moths than those at the ground level or at 5 m height. Male L. monacha moths can be attracted to pheromone-baited traps in open areas 150-200 m distant from the infested forest edge. Our data should allow improvement on the performance of pheromone-baited traps for monitoring or mass-trapping to combat outbreaks of this pest in northeastern China. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Differential Octopaminergic Modulation of Olfactory Receptor Neuron Responses to Sex Pheromones in Heliothis virescens

    PubMed Central

    Hillier, N. Kirk; Kavanagh, Rhys M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Octopamine is an important neuromodulator of neural function in invertebrates. Octopamine increases male moth sensitivity to female sex pheromones, however, relatively little is known as to the role of octopamine in the female olfactory system, nor its possible effects on the reception of non-pheromone odorants. The purpose of this study was to determine relative effects of octopamine on the sensitivity of the peripheral olfactory system in male and female Heliothis virescens. Single sensillum recording was conducted in both sexes following injection with octopamine or Ringer solution, and during odorant stimulation with conspecific female sex pheromone or host plant volatiles. Results indicate that octopamine plays a significant modulatory role in female sex pheromone detection in female moths; and that male and female pheromone detection neurons share distinct pharmacological and physiological similarities in H. virescens despite sexual dimorphism at the antennal level. PMID:26650832

  18. Differential Octopaminergic Modulation of Olfactory Receptor Neuron Responses to Sex Pheromones in Heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Hillier, N Kirk; Kavanagh, Rhys M B

    2015-01-01

    Octopamine is an important neuromodulator of neural function in invertebrates. Octopamine increases male moth sensitivity to female sex pheromones, however, relatively little is known as to the role of octopamine in the female olfactory system, nor its possible effects on the reception of non-pheromone odorants. The purpose of this study was to determine relative effects of octopamine on the sensitivity of the peripheral olfactory system in male and female Heliothis virescens. Single sensillum recording was conducted in both sexes following injection with octopamine or Ringer solution, and during odorant stimulation with conspecific female sex pheromone or host plant volatiles. Results indicate that octopamine plays a significant modulatory role in female sex pheromone detection in female moths; and that male and female pheromone detection neurons share distinct pharmacological and physiological similarities in H. virescens despite sexual dimorphism at the antennal level.

  19. Identification of the Sex Pheromone of the Tree Infesting Cossid Moth Coryphodema tristis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bouwer, Marc Clement; Slippers, Bernard; Degefu, Dawit; Wingfield, Michael John; Lawson, Simon; Rohwer, Egmont Richard

    2015-01-01

    The cossid moth (Coryphodema tristis) has a broad range of native tree hosts in South Africa. The moth recently moved into non-native Eucalyptus plantations in South Africa, on which it now causes significant damage. Here we investigate the chemicals involved in pheromone communication between the sexes of this moth in order to better understand its ecology, and with a view to potentially develop management tools for it. In particular, we characterize female gland extracts and headspace samples through coupled gas chromatography electro-antennographic detection (GC-EAD) and two dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS). Tentative identities of the potential pheromone compounds were confirmed by comparing both retention time and mass spectra with authentic standards. Two electrophysiologically active pheromone compounds, tetradecyl acetate (14:OAc) and Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc) were identified from pheromone gland extracts, and an additional compound (Z9-14:OH) from headspace samples. We further determined dose response curves for the identified compounds and six other structurally similar compounds that are common to the order Cossidae. Male antennae showed superior sensitivity toward Z9-14:OAc, Z7-tetradecenyl acetate (Z7-14:OAc), E9-tetradecenyl acetate (E9-14:OAc), Z9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH) and Z9-tetradecenal (Z9-14:Ald) when compared to female antennae. While we could show electrophysiological responses to single pheromone compounds, behavioral attraction of males was dependent on the synergistic effect of at least two of these compounds. Signal specificity is shown to be gained through pheromone blends. A field trial showed that a significant number of males were caught only in traps baited with a combination of Z9-14:OAc (circa 95% of the ratio) and Z9-14:OH. Addition of 14:OAc to this mixture also improved the number of males caught, although not significantly. This study represents a major step towards developing a useful

  20. Sex pheromone production and perception in European corn borer moths is determined by both autosomal and sex-linked genes

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, Wendell; Glover, Thomas; Tang, Xian-Han; Sreng, Isabelle; Robbins, Paul; Eckenrode, Charles; Löfstedt, Christer; Hansson, Bill S.; Bengtsson, Bengt O.

    1987-01-01

    Inheritance patterns for sex pheromone production in females, pheromone detection on male antennal olfactory receptor cells, and male pheromone behavioral responses were studied in pheromonally distinct populations of European corn borers from New York State. Gas chromatographic analyses of pheromone glands, single sensillum recordings, and flight tunnel behavioral analyses were carried out on progeny from reciprocal crosses, as well as on progeny from subsequent F2 and maternal and paternal backcrosses. The data show that the production of the female pheromone blend primarily is controlled by a single autosomal factor, that pheromone-responding olfactory cells are controlled by another autosomal factor, and that behavioral response to pheromone is controlled by a sex-linked gene. F1 males were found to possess olfactory receptor cells that give spike amplitudes to the two pheromone isomers that are intermediate to those of the high and low amplitude cells of the parent populations. Fifty-five percent of the F1 males tested responded fully to pheromone sources ranging from the hybrid (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate/(Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E/Z) molar blend of 65:35 to the E/Z molar blend of 3:97 for the Z morph parents, but very few responded to the E/Z molar blend of 99:1 for the E morph parents. Data on the inheritance patterns support speculation that the Z morph is the ancestral and that the E morph is the derived European corn borer population. PMID:16593886

  1. Field evaluation of effect of temperature on release of disparlure from a pheromone-baited trapping system used to monitor gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Tobin, Patrick C; Zhang, Aijun; Onufrieva, Ksenia; Leonard, Donna S

    2011-08-01

    Traps baited with disparlure, the synthetic form of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), sex pheromone are used to detect newly founded populations and estimate population density across the United States. The lures used in trapping devices are exposed to field conditions with varying climates, which can affect the rate of disparlure release. We evaluated the release rate of disparlure from delta traps baited with disparlure string dispenser from 1 to 3 yr across a broad geographic gradient, from northern Minnesota to southern North Carolina. Traps were deployed over approximately 12 wk that coincided with the period of male moth flight and the deployment schedule of traps under gypsy moth management programs. We measured a uniform rate of release across all locations when considered over the accumulation of degree-days; however, due to differences in degree-day accumulation across locations, there were significant differences in release rates over time among locations. The initial lure load seemed to be sufficient regardless of climate, although rapid release of the pheromone in warmer climates could affect trap efficacy in late season. Daily rates of release in colder climates, such as Minnesota and northern Wisconsin, may not be optimal in detection efforts. This work highlights the importance of local temperatures when deploying pheromone-baited traps for monitoring a species across a large and climatically diverse landscape.

  2. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-05

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone.

  3. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone. PMID:26729427

  4. Sex-specific mating pheromones in the nematode Panagrellus redivivus.

    PubMed

    Choe, Andrea; Chuman, Tatsuji; von Reuss, Stephan H; Dossey, Aaron T; Yim, Joshua J; Ajredini, Ramadan; Kolawa, Adam A; Kaplan, Fatma; Alborn, Hans T; Teal, Peter E A; Schroeder, Frank C; Sternberg, Paul W; Edison, Arthur S

    2012-12-18

    Nematodes use an extensive chemical language based on glycosides of the dideoxysugar ascarylose for developmental regulation (dauer formation), male sex attraction, aggregation, and dispersal. However, no examples of a female- or hermaphrodite-specific sex attractant have been identified to date. In this study, we investigated the pheromone system of the gonochoristic sour paste nematode Panagrellus redivivus, which produces sex-specific attractants of the opposite sex. Activity-guided fractionation of the P. redivivus exometabolome revealed that males are strongly attracted to ascr#1 (also known as daumone), an ascaroside previously identified from Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites. Female P. redivivus are repelled by high concentrations of ascr#1 but are specifically attracted to a previously unknown ascaroside that we named dhas#18, a dihydroxy derivative of the known ascr#18 and an ascaroside that features extensive functionalization of the lipid-derived side chain. Targeted profiling of the P. redivivus exometabolome revealed several additional ascarosides that did not induce strong chemotaxis. We show that P. redivivus females, but not males, produce the male-attracting ascr#1, whereas males, but not females, produce the female-attracting dhas#18. These results show that ascaroside biosynthesis in P. redivivus is highly sex-specific. Furthermore, the extensive side chain functionalization in dhas#18, which is reminiscent of polyketide-derived natural products, indicates unanticipated biosynthetic capabilities in nematodes.

  5. Sex-specific mating pheromones in the nematode Panagrellus redivivus

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Andrea; Chuman, Tatsuji; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Dossey, Aaron T.; Yim, Joshua J.; Ajredini, Ramadan; Kolawa, Adam A.; Kaplan, Fatma; Alborn, Hans T.; Teal, Peter E. A.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Edison, Arthur S.

    2012-01-01

    Nematodes use an extensive chemical language based on glycosides of the dideoxysugar ascarylose for developmental regulation (dauer formation), male sex attraction, aggregation, and dispersal. However, no examples of a female- or hermaphrodite-specific sex attractant have been identified to date. In this study, we investigated the pheromone system of the gonochoristic sour paste nematode Panagrellus redivivus, which produces sex-specific attractants of the opposite sex. Activity-guided fractionation of the P. redivivus exometabolome revealed that males are strongly attracted to ascr#1 (also known as daumone), an ascaroside previously identified from Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites. Female P. redivivus are repelled by high concentrations of ascr#1 but are specifically attracted to a previously unknown ascaroside that we named dhas#18, a dihydroxy derivative of the known ascr#18 and an ascaroside that features extensive functionalization of the lipid-derived side chain. Targeted profiling of the P. redivivus exometabolome revealed several additional ascarosides that did not induce strong chemotaxis. We show that P. redivivus females, but not males, produce the male-attracting ascr#1, whereas males, but not females, produce the female-attracting dhas#18. These results show that ascaroside biosynthesis in P. redivivus is highly sex-specific. Furthermore, the extensive side chain functionalization in dhas#18, which is reminiscent of polyketide-derived natural products, indicates unanticipated biosynthetic capabilities in nematodes. PMID:23213209

  6. Identification and Expression Profiles of Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis and Transport Related Genes in Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; Fang, Li-Ping; He, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Geng; Sun, Liang; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Deng, Dao-Gui; Li, Jin-Bu

    2015-01-01

    Although the general pathway of sex pheromone synthesis in moth species has been established, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The common cutworm Spodoptera litura is an important agricultural pest worldwide and causes huge economic losses annually. The female sex pheromone of S. litura comprises Z9,E11-14:OAc, Z9,E12-14:OAc, Z9-14:OAc, and E11-14:OAc. By sequencing and analyzing the transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands, we identified 94 candidate genes related to pheromone biosynthesis (55 genes) or chemoreception (39 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that two desaturase genes (SlitDes5 and SlitDes11) and one fatty acyl reductase gene (SlitFAR3) showed pheromone gland (PG) biased or specific expression, and clustered with genes known to be involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Furthermore, 4 chemoreception related genes (SlitOBP6, SlitOBP11, SlitCSP3, and SlitCSP14) also showed higher expression in the PG, and could be additional candidate genes involved in sex pheromone transport. This study provides the first solid background information that should facilitate further elucidation of sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport, and indicates potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. litura for a novel pest management strategy. PMID:26445454

  7. Identification and Expression Profiles of Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis and Transport Related Genes in Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; Fang, Li-Ping; He, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Geng; Sun, Liang; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Deng, Dao-Gui; Li, Jin-Bu

    2015-01-01

    Although the general pathway of sex pheromone synthesis in moth species has been established, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The common cutworm Spodoptera litura is an important agricultural pest worldwide and causes huge economic losses annually. The female sex pheromone of S. litura comprises Z9,E11-14:OAc, Z9,E12-14:OAc, Z9-14:OAc, and E11-14:OAc. By sequencing and analyzing the transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands, we identified 94 candidate genes related to pheromone biosynthesis (55 genes) or chemoreception (39 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that two desaturase genes (SlitDes5 and SlitDes11) and one fatty acyl reductase gene (SlitFAR3) showed pheromone gland (PG) biased or specific expression, and clustered with genes known to be involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Furthermore, 4 chemoreception related genes (SlitOBP6, SlitOBP11, SlitCSP3, and SlitCSP14) also showed higher expression in the PG, and could be additional candidate genes involved in sex pheromone transport. This study provides the first solid background information that should facilitate further elucidation of sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport, and indicates potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. litura for a novel pest management strategy.

  8. Extracellular matrix and sex-inducing pheromone in Volvox.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, Armin

    2003-01-01

    During evolution of multicellularity it was imperative to create a complex, multifunctional extracellular matrix (ECM) out of the simple cell wall of a unicellular ancestor. The green alga Volvox represents one of the simplest multicellular organisms, but even so, it already has a highly developed ECM. This ECM is mainly composed of an assortment of glycoproteins, many of which are hydroxyproline rich and extensively sulfated. Several ECM proteins are cross-linked and might have only structural functions. However, the ECM does not represent a static but rather a dynamic and multifunctional interface between a cell and its neighboring cells or its environment. It not only provides protection and structural support for the shape of each cell and the organism as a whole, but also plays a broad range of biological roles in growth, development, reproduction, and responses to environmental stress or wounding. The variety of functions of the ECM requires many glycoproteins to do the work. To attain a high flexibility and adaptability, almost all ECM glycoproteins from Volvox consist of modules, defined as functional subunits that form modular mosaic proteins with an outstanding combinatorial potential. The ECM's functions are not only extensive but also change under developmental control or by environmental incidents. The changing scope of duties necessitates a permanent ECM turnover and remodeling. In Volvox carteri one particularly challenging trigger of such ECM modifications is a sex-inducing pheromone, which is one of the most potent biological effector molecules known: the glycoprotein pheromone is fully effective for inducing sexual development in males and females at concentrations as low as 10(-16) M. The earliest detectable response to the pheromone is the synthesis of ECM glycoproteins.

  9. Identification of a sex pheromone from male yellow mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Bryning, Gareth P; Chambers, John; Wakefield, Maureen E

    2005-11-01

    The sex pheromone released by the adult female Tenebrio molitor, 4-methyl-1-nonanol, is well known. In addition, there is evidence that adult males release a pheromone that attracts females. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and identify male-released pheromone(s). Emissions from virgin adult males and females were collected on filter paper and extracted with pentane. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. One male-specific compound was detected and identified as (Z)-3-dodecenyl acetate (Z3-12:Ac). In arena bioassays, E3-12:Ac was attractive to females only, at 1 and 10 microg doses. E3-12:Ac was also attractive to females at a 10-microg dose. The presence of both male and female pheromones, each attracting the opposite sex, may contribute to maintaining a high-density population of both sexes.

  10. Effect of Bait Quantity and Trap Color on the Trapping Efficacy of the Pheromone Trap for the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

    PubMed Central

    Abuagla, Abdullah Mohamed; Al-Deeb, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Curculionidae: Coleoptera), is not native to the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since its arrival in 1985, it has been causing major damage to date palm trees. A primary control strategy has been the use of pheromone baited traps. The objectives of this study were to determine the quantity of bait, and the best trap color, to obtain the maximum catch of R. ferrugineus under field conditions in the UAE. Traps with 100, 300, or 500 g of dates as bait collected the same number of R. ferrugineus adults. Captures in black traps were significantly higher than captures in red, yellow, or white traps. Thus, using a black pheromone trap containing 100 g of dates can significantly enhance R. ferrugineus control efforts, and can help considerably in reducing the red palm weevil's deleterious impact on date palm production in UAE. PMID:23451836

  11. Geometric isomers of sex pheromone components do not affect attractancy of Conopomorpha cramerella in cocoa plantations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella, has previously been identified as a blend of (E,Z,Z)- and (E,E,Z)-4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetates and the corresponding alcohols. These pheromone components have been synthesized with modification of the existing method and relative at...

  12. Sex pheromone for the brownbanded cockroach is an unusual dialkyl-substituted alpha-pyrone.

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, R E; Webster, F X; Zhang, A; Schal, C; Liang, D; Sreng, I; Roelofs, W L

    1993-01-01

    Female brownbanded cockroaches, Supella longipalpa, emit a sex pheromone that attracts males from a distance. This pheromone was isolated and identified as 5-(2,4-dimethylheptanyl)-3-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one (which we refer to as supellapyrone), and its structure was confirmed by synthesis. A racemic blend of the synthetic compound elicited behavioral and electrophysiological responses comparable to the natural pheromone across a range of doses. This compound is not only a very different type of cockroach pheromone but also makes up an additional class of natural products--namely, 3,5-dialkyl-substituted alpha-pyrones. PMID:11607437

  13. Sex pheromone for the brownbanded cockroach is an unusual dialkyl-substituted alpha-pyrone.

    PubMed

    Charlton, R E; Webster, F X; Zhang, A; Schal, C; Liang, D; Sreng, I; Roelofs, W L

    1993-11-01

    Female brownbanded cockroaches, Supella longipalpa, emit a sex pheromone that attracts males from a distance. This pheromone was isolated and identified as 5-(2,4-dimethylheptanyl)-3-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one (which we refer to as supellapyrone), and its structure was confirmed by synthesis. A racemic blend of the synthetic compound elicited behavioral and electrophysiological responses comparable to the natural pheromone across a range of doses. This compound is not only a very different type of cockroach pheromone but also makes up an additional class of natural products--namely, 3,5-dialkyl-substituted alpha-pyrones.

  14. Pheromones, male lures and trapping of tephritid fruit flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The dipteran family of Tephritidae consists of many genera, of which several namely, Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Dacus, Rhagoletis and Toxotrypana possess species of high economic importance as major pests of fruits and vegetables. Hitherto, pheromones isolated and identified for possible use...

  15. Pheromone-food-bait trap and acoustic surveys of Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae)in Curacao

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pheromone-food-bait trap and acoustic surveys were conducted in Curacao to monitor a recently discovered invasion of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus L. (RPW). This pest of economic importance in regions of Asia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean was not observed in the Americas until 2009. Due to its...

  16. Stink bugs (Hemitera: Pentatomidae) in pheromone-baited traps near crop field edges in Georgia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton. Our specific objective for this 3-yr study was to use traps baited with Euschistus spp. pheromone to monitor stink bugs in habitats near cotton and peanut field edges before, during, and after crop growth and development. Plant-feedi...

  17. Mountain pine beetle population sampling: inferences from Lindgren pheromone traps and tree emergence cages

    Treesearch

    Barbara J. Bentz

    2006-01-01

    Lindgren pheromone traps baited with a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)) lure were deployed for three consecutive years in lodgepole pine stands in central Idaho. Mountain pine beetle emergence was also monitored each year using cages on infested trees. Distributions of beetles caught in...

  18. Single mutation to a sex pheromone receptor provides adaptive specificity between closely related moth species

    PubMed Central

    Leary, Greg P.; Allen, Jean E.; Bunger, Peggy L.; Luginbill, Jena B.; Linn, Charles E.; Macallister, Irene E.; Kavanaugh, Michael P.; Wanner, Kevin W.

    2012-01-01

    Sex pheromone communication, acting as a prezygotic barrier to mating, is believed to have contributed to the speciation of moths and butterflies in the order Lepidoptera. Five decades after the discovery of the first moth sex pheromone, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pheromone communication between closely related species. Although Asian and European corn borers (ACB and ECB) can be interbred in the laboratory, they are behaviorally isolated from mating naturally by their responses to subtly different sex pheromone isomers, (E)-12- and (Z)-12-tetradecenyl acetate and (E)-11- and (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (ACB: E12, Z12; ECB; E11, Z11). Male moth olfactory systems respond specifically to the pheromone blend produced by their conspecific females. In vitro, ECB(Z) odorant receptor 3 (OR3), a sex pheromone receptor expressed in male antennae, responds strongly to E11 but also generally to the Z11, E12, and Z12 pheromones. In contrast, we show that ACB OR3, a gene that has been subjected to positive selection (ω = 2.9), responds preferentially to the ACB E12 and Z12 pheromones. In Ostrinia species the amino acid residue corresponding to position 148 in transmembrane domain 3 of OR3 is alanine (A), except for ACB OR3 that has a threonine (T) in this position. Mutation of this residue from A to T alters the pheromone recognition pattern by selectively reducing the E11 response ∼14-fold. These results suggest that discrete mutations that narrow the specificity of more broadly responsive sex pheromone receptors may provide a mechanism that contributes to speciation. PMID:22891317

  19. Blending synthetic pheromones of cerambycid beetles to develop trap lures that simultaneously attract multiple species.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joseph C H; Mitchell, Robert F; Striman, Becca L; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated attraction of cerambycid beetle species to blends of known cerambycid pheromones to determine whether such blends could be used as effective trap lures for detecting and monitoring multiple species simultaneously. Pheromone-baited traps captured 1,358 cerambycid beetles of which 1,101 (81.1%) belonged to three species in the subfamily Cerambycinae: Neoclytus acuminatus (F.), Neoclytus mucronatus (F.), and Xylotrechus colonus (F.). Beetles of these species were significantly attracted to synthetic blends that contained their pheromone components (isomers of 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, 2,3-hexanediol, or both), despite the presence of pheromone components of different species, including other isomers of 2,3-hexanediol, (E/Z)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate, and citral. In some cases, attraction was partially inhibited by the pheromone components of heterospecific species, whereas for N. acuminatus, attraction was completely inhibited when blends contained (2R*,3S*)-hexanediol, the racemic mixture of diastereomers of its pheromone, (2S,3S)-hexanediol. Among the remaining beetles captured were three species in the subfamily Lamiinae: Astyleiopus variegatus (Haldeman), Graphisurus fasciatus (Degeer), and Lepturges angulatus (LeConte). All three lamiine species were previously known to be attracted to (E/Z)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate and were captured in significant numbers by blends containing that compound. Our results suggest that different types of cerambycid pheromones can be combined to create effective multispecies lures for use in surveillance programs that target exotic cerambycid species.

  20. Aggression and Courtship in Drosophila: Pheromonal Communication and Sex Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, María Paz; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Upon encountering a conspecific in the wild, males have to rapidly detect, integrate and process the most relevant signals to evoke an appropriate behavioral response. Courtship and aggression are the most important social behaviors in nature for procreation and survival: for males, making the right choice between the two depends on the ability to identify the sex of the other individual. In flies as in most species, males court females and attack other males. Although many sensory modalities are involved in sex recognition, chemosensory communication mediated by specific molecules that serve as pheromones plays a key role in helping males distinguish between courtship and aggression targets. The chemosensory signals used by flies include volatile and non-volatile compounds, detected by the olfactory and gustatory systems. Recently, several putative olfactory and gustatory receptors have been identified that play key roles in sex recognition, allowing investigators to begin to map the neuronal circuits that convey this sensory information to higher processing centers in the brain. Here, we describe how Drosophila melanogaster males use taste and smell to make correct behavioral choices. PMID:24043358

  1. Glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase is required for PBAN-induced sex pheromone biosynthesis in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Du, Mengfang; Liu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Xiaoming; Yin, Xinming; Han, Shuangyin; Song, Qisheng; An, Shiheng

    2015-01-29

    Female moths employ their own pheromone blends as a communicational medium in mating behavior. The biosynthesis and release of sex pheromone in female moths are regulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and the corresponding action of PBAN has been well elucidated in Bombyx mori. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanism regarding the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor. In this study, quantitative proteomics was utilized to comprehensively elucidate the expression dynamics of pheromone glands (PGs) during development. Proteomic analysis revealed a serial of differentially expressed sex pheromone biosynthesis-associated proteins at the different time points of B. mori development. Most interestingly B. mori glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (BmGPAT) was found to be expressed during the key periods of sex pheromone biosynthesis. RNAi knockdown of BmGPAT confirmed the important function of this protein in the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor, triacylglcerol (TAG), and subsequently PBAN-induced production of sex pheromone, bombykol. Behavioral analysis showed that RNAi knockdown of GPAT significantly impaired the ability of females to attract males. Our findings indicate that GPAT acts to regulate the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor, TAG, thus influencing PBAN-induced sex pheromone production and subsequent mating behavior.

  2. Glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase is required for PBAN-induced sex pheromone biosynthesis in Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Du, Mengfang; Liu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Xiaoming; Yin, Xinming; Han, Shuangyin; Song, Qisheng; An, Shiheng

    2015-01-01

    Female moths employ their own pheromone blends as a communicational medium in mating behavior. The biosynthesis and release of sex pheromone in female moths are regulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and the corresponding action of PBAN has been well elucidated in Bombyx mori. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanism regarding the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor. In this study, quantitative proteomics was utilized to comprehensively elucidate the expression dynamics of pheromone glands (PGs) during development. Proteomic analysis revealed a serial of differentially expressed sex pheromone biosynthesis-associated proteins at the different time points of B. mori development. Most interestingly B. mori glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (BmGPAT) was found to be expressed during the key periods of sex pheromone biosynthesis. RNAi knockdown of BmGPAT confirmed the important function of this protein in the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor, triacylglcerol (TAG), and subsequently PBAN-induced production of sex pheromone, bombykol. Behavioral analysis showed that RNAi knockdown of GPAT significantly impaired the ability of females to attract males. Our findings indicate that GPAT acts to regulate the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor, TAG, thus influencing PBAN-induced sex pheromone production and subsequent mating behavior. PMID:25630665

  3. A synthesized pheromone induces upstream movement in female sea lamprey and summons them into traps.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas S; Yun, Sang-Seon; Thompson, Henry T; Brant, Cory O; Li, Weiming

    2009-01-27

    Female insect pheromone blends induce robust tracking responses in males and direct them into traps. In vertebrates, pheromones that induce strong and precise tracking responses in natural habitats have rarely been described. Here, we show in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a vertebrate invader of the Laurential Great Lakes, that a synthesized component of the male mating pheromone, 7alpha, 12alpha, 24-trihydroxy-5alpha-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS), when released into a stream to reach concentrations of 10(-14), 10(-13), 10(-12), 10(-11), or 10(-10) M, triggers robust upstream movement in ovulated females drawing approximately 50% into baited traps. Experiments conducted in diverse stream segments demonstrate the level of behavioral response was not affected by habitat conditions and is effective over hundreds of meters. 3kPZS is equally effective at luring ovulated females as the whole pheromone blend released by males between 10(-14) and 10(-11) M. 3kPZS diverts ovulated females away from and disrupts orientation to male washings when applied at concentrations higher than washings. Indeed, a single pheromone compound is able to redirect female sea lampreys away from a natural pheromone source and lure them into traps, which should be more effective than targeting males when applied in population control. Our findings may spur the discovery of other potent and environmentally benign agents to combat biological invasion, a process accelerated by globalization, exacerbated by climate change, and costing the global economy US$ 1.4 trillion of damage annually.

  4. A synthesized pheromone induces upstream movement in female sea lamprey and summons them into traps

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Yun, Sang-Seon; Thompson, Henry T.; Brant, Cory O.; Li, Weiming

    2009-01-01

    Female insect pheromone blends induce robust tracking responses in males and direct them into traps. In vertebrates, pheromones that induce strong and precise tracking responses in natural habitats have rarely been described. Here, we show in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a vertebrate invader of the Laurential Great Lakes, that a synthesized component of the male mating pheromone, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS), when released into a stream to reach concentrations of 10−14, 10−13, 10−12, 10−11, or 10−10 M, triggers robust upstream movement in ovulated females drawing ≈50% into baited traps. Experiments conducted in diverse stream segments demonstrate the level of behavioral response was not affected by habitat conditions and is effective over hundreds of meters. 3kPZS is equally effective at luring ovulated females as the whole pheromone blend released by males between 10−14 and 10−11 M. 3kPZS diverts ovulated females away from and disrupts orientation to male washings when applied at concentrations higher than washings. Indeed, a single pheromone compound is able to redirect female sea lampreys away from a natural pheromone source and lure them into traps, which should be more effective than targeting males when applied in population control. Our findings may spur the discovery of other potent and environmentally benign agents to combat biological invasion, a process accelerated by globalization, exacerbated by climate change, and costing the global economy US$ 1.4 trillion of damage annually. PMID:19164592

  5. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-01-01

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affected the calling behavior (pheromone emission) of adult females, and the orientation responses of adult males to sex pheromone were also significantly inhibited by these terpenoids in a wind tunnel and in the field. We suggest that disruption of both pheromone emission and orientation to sex pheromone may explain, at least in part, an observed reduction in herbivore attack in polyculture compared with monoculture plantings. We also propose that mating disruption of both male and female moths with non-host plant volatiles may be a promising alternative pest management strategy. PMID:27585907

  6. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-09-02

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affected the calling behavior (pheromone emission) of adult females, and the orientation responses of adult males to sex pheromone were also significantly inhibited by these terpenoids in a wind tunnel and in the field. We suggest that disruption of both pheromone emission and orientation to sex pheromone may explain, at least in part, an observed reduction in herbivore attack in polyculture compared with monoculture plantings. We also propose that mating disruption of both male and female moths with non-host plant volatiles may be a promising alternative pest management strategy.

  7. Sticky Traps Baited with Synthetic Aggregation Pheromone Predict Fruit Orchard Infestations of Plautia stali (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Toyama, Masatoshi; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Mishiro, Koji; Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio

    2015-10-01

    The brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali Scott, mainly reproduces on Japanese cedar or cypress cones in Japanese plantation forests during summer and autumn. It often depletes its food sources in forest habitats and moves to cultivated crops in large numbers. To establish an easy method for assessing the risk of fruit orchard infestation by P. stali, we conducted a 3-yr field survey that monitored the attraction of bugs to the synthetic P. stali aggregation pheromone using a sticky trap. We used a morphological indicator, variable body size depending on food intake, to estimate the nutritional status in nymphs, which showed that nymphs attracted to the synthetic pheromone were starving. Comparisons between increasing changes in the number of stylet sheaths left on the cones by P. stali and the number of trapped nymphs show that monitoring nymphs with the pheromone-baited sticky trap is useful for inferring conditions regarding food resources in forest habitats. The trend toward trapping second instars can provide a timely overview of resource competition for cones. Trapping middle-to-late (third-fifth) instars is a warning that the cones are finally depleted and that there is a high probability that adults will leave the forests and invade the orchards. In addition, trends in trapping adults suggest that there is a potential risk of orchard infestation by the pest and predict the intensity and period of the invasion. The pheromone-baited sticky trap is an easy but useful survey tool for predicting P. stali orchard infestations. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A synthesized mating pheromone component increases adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) trap capture in management scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Dawson, Heather; Wang, Huiyong; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Application of chemical cues to manipulate adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) behavior is among the options considered for new sea lamprey control techniques in the Laurentian Great Lakes. A male mating pheromone component, 7a,12a,24-trihydroxy-3-one-5a-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), lures ovulated female sea lamprey upstream into baited traps in experimental contexts with no odorant competition. A critical knowledge gap is whether this single pheromone component influences adult sea lamprey behavior in management contexts containing free-ranging sea lampreys. A solution of 3kPZS to reach a final in-stream concentration of 10-12 mol·L-1 was applied to eight Michigan streams at existing sea lamprey traps over 3 years, and catch rates were compared between paired 3kPZS-baited and unbaited traps. 3kPZS-baited traps captured significantly more sexually immature and mature sea lampreys, and overall yearly trapping efficiency within a stream averaged 10% higher during years when 3kPZS was applied. Video analysis of a trap funnel showed that the likelihood of sea lamprey trap entry after trap encounter was higher when the trap was 3kPZS baited. Our approach serves as a model for the development of similar control tools for sea lamprey and other aquatic invaders.

  9. Evidence for sex pheromones and inbreeding avoidance in select North America yellowjacket species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little is known about the roles of sex pheromones in mate-finding behavior of social wasps (Vespidae). Working with the aerial yellowjacket, Dolichovespula arenaria (Fabricius), baldfaced hornet, D. maculata (L.), western yellowjacket, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), southern yellowjacket, V. squam...

  10. Control of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by biodegradable ecodian sex pheromone dispensers.

    PubMed

    Anfora, G; Baldessari, M; De Cristofaro, A; Germinara, G S; Ioriatti, C; Reggiori, F; Vitagliano, S; Angeli, G

    2008-04-01

    Mating disruption with a high density of sex pheromone dispensers is a new strategy recently developed for the control of the moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Ecodian LB dispensers, made of low-cost biodegradable material, were formulated with 10 mg of (E,Z) -7,9-dodecadienyl acetate and placed at a rate of 1,600 dispensers per ha. Seasonal dispenser performances were studied using different methods. The female attractiveness disruption and the efficacy of the method were evaluated in the field. The release rates of field-aged Ecodian LB dispensers, measured directly by solid phase microextraction, was comparable with that of the standard monitoring lure after 50-60 d of field exposure and significantly lower beyond 60 d; however, at the end of the season, it was approximately 46 times higher than that of a calling L. botrana female. Electroantennographic recordings showed that dispensers of different field age strongly stimulated male antennae. In a wind tunnel test, dispensers elicited close-range approaches and direct source contacts irrespective of their age. In fields treated with Ecodian dispensers the attractiveness of traps lured with calling females and monitoring baits was significantly reduced. Our data suggest that Ecodian dispensers are active sources of pheromone throughout the season. The efficacy of Ecodian strategy for L. botrana control was comparable with standard mating disruption and curative insecticides.

  11. A new approach to determine the capture conditions of bark beetles in pheromone-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Gonca Ece; Cicek, Osman; Enez, Korhan; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2014-11-02

    Forests form an organic unity with a great number of organic and inorganic components and tend to maintain the sustainability of their existing balance. However, some factors which adversely affect the balance of nature may interrupt this sustainability. The epidemic which is formed by bark beetles in their spreading region, due to various factors, changes the stability so much that interference is required. One of the most common methods used to monitor these beetles is pheromone-baited traps. The recognition of parameters, such as date (day/month/year), temperature and humidity, when bark beetles are captured in pheromone-baited traps, especially those used for monitoring will help to increase the trap efficiency on land and to develop an effective strategy for combating pests. In this study, an electronic control unit was added to pheromone-baited traps in order to obtain all of the above mentioned parameters. This unit operates with microcontrollers and data related to the parameters is saved in a storage unit. This is triggered by the beetle at the moment it is captured in the trap. A photovoltaic system was used to meet the energy needed for the system functioning and to complete the counting process in due time.

  12. A new approach to determine the capture conditions of bark beetles in pheromone-baited traps

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Gonca Ece; Cicek, Osman; Enez, Korhan; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Forests form an organic unity with a great number of organic and inorganic components and tend to maintain the sustainability of their existing balance. However, some factors which adversely affect the balance of nature may interrupt this sustainability. The epidemic which is formed by bark beetles in their spreading region, due to various factors, changes the stability so much that interference is required. One of the most common methods used to monitor these beetles is pheromone-baited traps. The recognition of parameters, such as date (day/month/year), temperature and humidity, when bark beetles are captured in pheromone-baited traps, especially those used for monitoring will help to increase the trap efficiency on land and to develop an effective strategy for combating pests. In this study, an electronic control unit was added to pheromone-baited traps in order to obtain all of the above mentioned parameters. This unit operates with microcontrollers and data related to the parameters is saved in a storage unit. This is triggered by the beetle at the moment it is captured in the trap. A photovoltaic system was used to meet the energy needed for the system functioning and to complete the counting process in due time. PMID:26019592

  13. How a sex pheromone might act at a concentration below 10(-16) M.

    PubMed

    Sumper, M; Berg, E; Wenzl, S; Godl, K

    1993-03-01

    The sex-inducing pheromone of Volvox carteri is a glycoprotein that triggers development of males and females at a concentration below 10(-16) M. Evidence is presented for the existence of a novel mechanism of signal amplification operating within the extracellular matrix of this multicellular organism. A family of 70 kDa matrix glycoproteins denoted pherophorins bear a C-terminal domain being homologous to the sex-inducing pheromone. Under the influence of the pheromone, this domain is liberated by highly specific proteolysis.

  14. Sex pheromone recognition and characterization of three pheromone-binding proteins in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Aping; Zhou, Jing; Bin Mao; Zheng, Ya; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Daiqin; Wang, Pan; Liu, Kaiyu; Wang, Xiaoping; Ai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are essential for the filtering, binding and transporting of sex pheromones across sensillum lymph to membrane-associated pheromone receptors of moths. In this study, three novel PBP genes were expressed in Escherichia coli to examine their involvement in the sex pheromone perception of Maruca vitrata. Fluorescence binding experiments indicated that MvitPBP1-3 had strong binding affinities with four sex pheromones. Moreover, molecular docking results demonstrated that six amino acid residues of three MvitPBPs were involved in the binding of the sex pheromones. These results suggested that MvitPBP1-3 might play critical roles in the perception of female sex pheromones. Additionally, the binding capacity of MvitPBP3 with the host-plant floral volatiles was high and was similar to that of MvitGOBP2. Furthermore, sequence alignment and docking analysis showed that both MvitGOBP2 and MvitPBP3 possessed an identical key binding site (arginine, R130/R140) and a similar protein pocket structure around the binding cavity. Therefore, we hypothesized that MvitPBP3 and MvitGOBP2 might have synergistic roles in binding different volatile ligands. In combination, the use of synthetic sex pheromones and floral volatiles from host-plant may be used in the exploration for more efficient monitoring and integrated management strategies for the legume pod borer in the field. PMID:27698435

  15. Discovery of a disused desaturase gene from the pheromone gland of the moth Ascotis selenaria, which secretes an epoxyalkenyl sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masataka G; Katsuma, Susumu; Ito, Katsuhiko; Rong, Yu; Matsumoto, Shogo; Ando, Tetsu; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2013-11-29

    Female Ascotis selenaria (Geometridae) moths use 3,4-epoxy-(Z,Z)-6,9-nonadecadiene, which is synthesized from linolenic acid, as the main component of their sex pheromone. While the use of dietary linolenic or linoleic fatty acid derivatives as sex pheromone components has been observed in moth species belonging to a few families including Geometridae, the majority of moths use derivatives of a common saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, as their sex pheromone components. We attempted to gain insight into the differentiation of pheromone biosynthetic pathways in geometrids by analyzing the desaturase genes expressed in the pheromone gland of A. selenaria. We demonstrated that a Δ11-desaturase-like gene (Asdesat1) was specifically expressed in the pheromone gland of A. selenaria in spite of the absence of a desaturation step in the pheromone biosynthetic pathway in this species. Further analysis revealed that the presumed transmembrane domains were degenerated in Asdesat1. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Asdesat1 anciently diverged from the lineage of Δ11-desaturases, which are currently widely used in the biosynthesis of sex pheromones by moths. These results suggest that an ancestral Δ11-desaturase became dysfunctional in A. selenaria after a shift in pheromone biosynthetic pathways.

  16. Multiple Sex Pheromones and Receptors of a Mushroom-producing Fungus Elicit Mating in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Thomas J.; DeSimone, Susan M.; Mitton, Michael F.; Kurjan, Janet; Raper, Carlene A.

    1999-01-01

    The mushroom-producing fungus Schizophyllum commune has thousands of mating types defined, in part, by numerous lipopeptide pheromones and their G protein-linked receptors. Compatible combinations of pheromones and receptors encoded by different mating types regulate a pathway of sexual development leading to mushroom formation and meiosis. A complex set of pheromone–receptor interactions maximizes the likelihood of outbreeding; for example, a single pheromone can activate more than one receptor and a single receptor can be activated by more than one pheromone. The current study demonstrates that the sex pheromones and receptors of Schizophyllum, when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, can substitute for endogenous pheromone and receptor and induce the yeast pheromone response pathway through the yeast G protein. Secretion of active Schizophyllum pheromone requires some, but not all, of the biosynthetic machinery used by the yeast lipopeptide pheromone a-factor. The specificity of interaction among pheromone–receptor pairs in Schizophyllum was reproduced in yeast, thus providing a powerful system for exploring molecular aspects of pheromone–receptor interactions for a class of seven-transmembrane-domain receptors common to a wide range of organisms. PMID:10436012

  17. Beyond species recognition: somatic state affects long-distance sex pheromone communication

    PubMed Central

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Jentschke, Petra C.; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Long-range sex pheromones have been subjected to substantial research with a particular focus on their biosynthesis, peripheral perception, central processing and the resulting orientation behaviour of perceivers. Fundamental to the research on sex attractants was the assumption that they primarily coordinate species recognition. However, especially when they are produced by the less limiting sex (usually males), the evolution of heightened condition dependence might be expected and long-range sex pheromones might, therefore, also inform about a signaller's quality. Here we provide, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive study of the role of a male's long-range pheromone in mate choice that combines chemical analyses, video observations and field experiments with a multifactorial manipulation of males' condition. We show that the emission of the long-distance sex pheromone of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides is highly condition-dependent and reliably reflects nutritional state, age, body size and parasite load—key components of an individual's somatic state. Both, the quantity and ratio of the pheromone components were affected but the time invested in pheromone emission was largely unaffected by a male's condition. Moreover, the variation in pheromone emission caused by the variation in condition had a strong effect on the attractiveness of males in the field, with males in better nutritional condition, of older age, larger body size and bearing less parasites being more attractive. That a single pheromone is influenced by so many aspects of the somatic state and causes such variation in a male's attractiveness under field conditions was hitherto unknown and highlights the need to integrate indicator models of sexual selection into pheromone research. PMID:26180067

  18. Beyond species recognition: somatic state affects long-distance sex pheromone communication.

    PubMed

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Jentschke, Petra C; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2015-08-07

    Long-range sex pheromones have been subjected to substantial research with a particular focus on their biosynthesis, peripheral perception, central processing and the resulting orientation behaviour of perceivers. Fundamental to the research on sex attractants was the assumption that they primarily coordinate species recognition. However, especially when they are produced by the less limiting sex (usually males), the evolution of heightened condition dependence might be expected and long-range sex pheromones might, therefore, also inform about a signaller's quality. Here we provide, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive study of the role of a male's long-range pheromone in mate choice that combines chemical analyses, video observations and field experiments with a multifactorial manipulation of males' condition. We show that the emission of the long-distance sex pheromone of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides is highly condition-dependent and reliably reflects nutritional state, age, body size and parasite load--key components of an individual's somatic state. Both, the quantity and ratio of the pheromone components were affected but the time invested in pheromone emission was largely unaffected by a male's condition. Moreover, the variation in pheromone emission caused by the variation in condition had a strong effect on the attractiveness of males in the field, with males in better nutritional condition, of older age, larger body size and bearing less parasites being more attractive. That a single pheromone is influenced by so many aspects of the somatic state and causes such variation in a male's attractiveness under field conditions was hitherto unknown and highlights the need to integrate indicator models of sexual selection into pheromone research.

  19. Spawning synchrony in Arenicola marina: evidence for sex pheromonal control

    PubMed Central

    Hardege, J. D.; Bentley, M. G.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical communication systems controlling reproductive behaviour have been shown in a number of marine polychaetes. This study investigated the use of sex pheromones to coordinate spawning behaviour in gravid lugworms (Arenicola marina). Lugworms typically reproduce in the autumn, during low water of spring tides, and often exhibit epidemic spawning. Females release gametes within the burrow whereas males deposit spermatozoa on to the beach surface. The incoming tide dilutes the spermatozoa and transports them to the females' burrows. Sperm is diluted rapidly and sperm concentrations fall below the minimum required for fertilization within a few minutes. The present investigation establishes the existence of chemical signals synchronizing spawning for the first time in an iteroparous polychaete. The process can be divided into two steps, the induction of gamete release by waterborne chemical cues and burrow irrigation behaviour in females: burrow irrigation representing the means by which spermatozoa are carried to the eggs. In both sexes, the release of gametes can be induced by exposure to sea water into which other individuals had previously spawned. Males also respond to odour compounds from other males. The overall effect of the chemical signals results in synchronized, mass spawning of a population.

  20. Female snake sex pheromone induces membrane responses in vomeronasal sensory neurons of male snakes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guang-Zhe; Zhang, Jing-Ji; Wang, Dalton; Mason, Robert T; Halpern, Mimi

    2006-07-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is important for activating accessory olfactory pathways that are involved in sexually dimorphic mating behavior. The VNO of male garter snakes is critically important for detection of, and response to, female sex pheromones. In the present study, under voltage-clamp conditions, male snake VNO neurons were stimulated with female sexual attractiveness pheromone. Thirty-nine of 139 neurons exhibited inward current responses (reversal potential: -10.6 +/- 2.8 mV). The amplitude of the inward current was dose dependent, and the relationship could be fitted by the Hill equation. Under current-clamp conditions, application of pheromone produced membrane depolarizing responses and increases in firing frequency. These results suggest that the female pheromone directly affects male snake VNO neurons and results in opening of ion channels, thereby converting the pheromone signal to an electrical signal. The response to female pheromone is sexually dimorphic, that is, the pheromone does not evoke responses in VNO neurons of female snakes. An associated finding of the present study is that the female sex pheromone, which is insoluble in aqueous solutions, became soluble in the presence of Harderian gland homogenate.

  1. Female sex pheromone components ofHeliothis peltigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) : Chemical identification from gland extracts and male response.

    PubMed

    Dunkelblum, E; Kehat, M

    1989-08-01

    Ten compounds were found in the sex pheromone glands ofHeliothis peltigera (Schiff) and identified as tetradecenal, (Z)-9-tetradecenal, (Z)-9-tetradecenol, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, hexadecanal, (Z)-7-hiexadecenal, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, (Z)-11-hexadecenol, and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate. Behavioral tests in a wind tunnel and subsequent trapping studies conducted in the field indicated that (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-tetradecenal are the main pheromone components ofH. peltigera. Addition of (Z)-11-hexadecenol to the binary blend did not enhance the capture of males ofH. peltigera, but it decreased the number of males of the sympatricH. armigera. Rubber septa impregnated with a mixture of 2 mg (Z)-11-hexadecenal + 1 mg (Z)-9-tetradecenal + 0.6 mg (Z)-11-hexadecenol are recommended for monitoringH. peltigera.

  2. Sex pheromone component ratios and mating isolation among three Lygus plant bug species of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, John A.; Fefer, Daniela; Levi-Zada, Anat

    2013-12-01

    The plant bugs Lygus hesperus, Lygus lineolaris, and Lygus elisus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are major pests of many agricultural crops in North America. Previous studies suggested that females release a sex pheromone attractive to males. Other studies showed that males and females contain microgram amounts of ( E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, hexyl butyrate, and ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate that are emitted as a defense against predators. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that female L. lineolaris and L. elisus have a 4:10 ratio of hexyl butyrate to ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate that is reversed from the 10:1 ratio in female L. hesperus (males of the three species have ~10:1 ratio). These reversed ratios among females of the species suggest a behavioral role. Because both sexes have nearly equal amounts of the major volatiles, females should release more to attract males. This expectation was supported because L. hesperus females released more hexyl butyrate (mean of 86 ng/h) during the night (1800-0700 hours) than did males (<1 ng/h). We used slow-rotating pairs of traps to test the attraction of species to blends of the volatiles with a subtractive method to detect synergism. Each species' major butyrate ester was released at 3 μg/h, the minor butyrate according to its ratio, and ( E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal at 2 μg/h. The resulting catches of only Lygus males suggest that ( E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal is an essential sex pheromone component for all three species, ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate is essential for L. elisus and L. lineolaris, and hexyl butyrate is essential for L. hesperus. However, all three components are recognized by each species since ratios of the butyrate esters are critical for conspecific attraction and heterospecific avoidance by males and thus play a role in reproductive isolation among the three species. Because L. hesperus males and females are known to emit these major volatiles for repelling ant predators, our study links defensive allomones in Lygus bugs with an

  3. Identification of the female-produced sex pheromone of Tischeria ekebladella, an oak leafmining moth.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Béla Péter; Tröger, Armin; Toshova, Theodora B; Subchev, Mitko; van Nieukerken, Erik J; Koster, J C Sjaak; Szőcs, Gábor; Tóth, Miklós; Francke, Wittko

    2012-10-01

    The native leafmining moth Tischeria ekebladella (Lepidoptera: Tischeriidae) feeds on oaks and recently has become a pest of silviculture and urban green areas in central Europe. The behavioral responses of male moths to hexane extracts of whole bodies of calling females or males were tested under laboratory conditions. Only extracts of females elicited responses from males. Analysis of extracts by coupled gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection revealed the presence of two electroantennogram-active peaks. Structure elucidation of these compounds, by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry and independent synthesis revealed them to be (3Z,6Z,9Z)-tricosa-3,6,9-triene and (3Z,6Z,9Z,19Z)-tricosa-3,6,9,19-tetraene. While the triene was present in both sexes, the tetraene was female-specific. The latter is a new structure for a pheromone component of Lepidoptera and a novel natural product. Field trapping tests, carried out in a mixed oak forest near Budapest (Hungary), using synthetic compounds applied to rubber dispensers, showed that the tetraene per se elicited catches of males in large numbers. When the triene was added to the tetraene in a ratio of 1:1, there was no increase in trap catch; the triene alone did not elicit catches of males. For monitoring this insect, the tetraene, applied to rubber dispensers at a dose of 300 μg, is a potent sex attractant.

  4. Sex-linked transcription factor involved in a shift of sex-pheromone preference in the silkmoth Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Tsuguru; Fujii, Takeshi; Namiki, Shigehiro; Abe, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Takeshi; Ohnuma, Akio; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Katsuma, Susumu; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shimada, Toru

    2011-01-01

    In the sex-pheromone communication systems of moths, odorant receptor (Or) specificity as well as higher olfactory information processing in males should be finely tuned to the pheromone of conspecific females. Accordingly, male sex-pheromone preference should have diversified along with the diversification of female sex pheromones; however, the genetic mechanisms that facilitated the diversification of male preference are not well understood. Here, we explored the mechanisms involved in a drastic shift in sex-pheromone preference in the silkmoth Bombyx mori using spli mutants in which the genomic structure of the gene Bmacj6, which encodes a class IV POU domain transcription factor, is disrupted or its expression is repressed. B. mori females secrete an ∼11:1 mixture of bombykol and bombykal. Bombykol alone elicits full male courtship behavior, whereas bombykal alone shows no apparent activity. In the spli mutants, the behavioral responsiveness of males to bombykol was markedly reduced, whereas bombykal alone evoked full courtship behavior. The reduced response of spli males to bombykol was explained by the paucity of bombykol receptors on the male antennae. It was also found that, in the spli males, neurons projecting into the toroid, a compartment in the brain where bombykol receptor neurons normally project, responded strongly to bombykal. The present study highlights a POU domain transcription factor, Bmacj6, which may have caused a shift of sex-pheromone preference in B. mori through Or gene choice and/or axon targeting. PMID:22006327

  5. Neural regulation of sex pheromone biosynthesis in Heliothis moths

    PubMed Central

    Teal, P. E. A.; Tumlinson, J. H.; Oberlander, H.

    1989-01-01

    Pheromone biosynthesis in females of Heliothis zea is regulated endogenously by a neuropeptide produced in the subesophageal ganglion. We have found that the ventral nerve cord must be intact for normal induction of pheromone biosynthesis and that pheromonotropic activity is associated with extracts of the abdominal nerve cord, but only during the period when pheromone is produced. We did not find evidence of pheromonotropic activity in hemolymph obtained from females that were producing pheromone. Extracts of the brain—subesophageal ganglion complex, which contain pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), induced pheromone biosynthesis when applied to the terminal abdominal ganglion only if nerves from this ganglion to the pheromone gland were intact. Brain—subesophageal ganglion extracts did not induce biosynthesis when applied directly to the pheromone glands in vitro. From our results, we conclude that the target site of PBAN is not the pheromone gland but the terminal abdominal ganglion, and we hypothesize that the abdominal nerve cord transports PBAN to the terminal abdominal ganglion. PMID:16594023

  6. Combination phenyl propionate/pheromone traps for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almonds in the vicinity of mating disruption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating...

  7. Functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in the purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-N; Zhang, J; Yan, S-W; Chang, H-T; Liu, Y; Wang, G-R; Dong, S-L

    2014-10-01

    The sex pheromone communication system in moths is highly species-specific and extremely sensitive, and pheromone receptors (PRs) are thought to be the most important factors in males. In the present study, three full-length cDNAs encoding PRs were characterized from Sesamia inferens antennae. These three PRs were all male-specific in expression, but their relative expression levels were very different; SinfOR29 was 17- to 23-fold higher than the other two PRs. Phylogenetic and motif pattern analyses showed that these three PRs were allocated to different PR subfamilies with different motif patterns. Functional analysis using the heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that SinfOR29 specifically and sensitively responded to the major pheromone component, Z11-16:OAc [concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50 ) = 3.431 × 10(-7) M], while SinfOR21 responded robustly to a minor pheromone component Z11-16:OH (EC50  = 1.087 × 10(-6) M). SinfOR27, however, displayed no response to any of the three pheromone components, but, interestingly, it was sensitive to a non-sex pheromone component Z9,E12-14:OAc (EC50  = 1.522 × 10(-6) M). Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of specificity and sensitivity of the sex pheromone communication system in moths.

  8. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Johnson, Nicholas S; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p < 0.05) and cause increases in activity during several daytime hours in preovulated and ovulated females. These results are one of the first examples of how sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  9. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p < 0.05) and cause increases in activity during several daytime hours in preovulated and ovulated females. These results are one of the first examples of how sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  10. Increased behavioral and neuronal sensitivity to sex pheromone after brief odor experience in a moth.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Hansson, Bill S; Nilsson, Ulf; Han, Qian; Sjöholm, Marcus; Skals, Niels; Anton, Sylvia

    2007-06-01

    Plasticity in the response to stimuli related to food and oviposition cues is well documented in insects. However, responses to cues related to reproduction, for example, sex pheromones, are considered to be innate and thus not affected by experience. Here we show that brief preexposure to sex pheromones, without ensuing reward, lowers the threshold for behavioral response and augments the sensitivity in antennal lobe interneurons to pheromone compared with naive male moths. Thus, the sex pheromone system in insects can be modulated by experience. In addition, we show that the behavioral attraction to sex pheromone increases after preexposure in a time-dependent manner: a short-term effect, possibly a form of sensitization, and a long-term effect after more than 24 h. The behavioral long-term effect is paralleled by an increase in sensitivity of interneurons in the primary olfactory center, whereas the peripheral olfactory system does not change its sensitivity. We hypothesize that short-term sensitization to sex pheromone serves as a kind of alert system, whereas the long-term effect improves male performance when reproductively active females are present.

  11. Putative pathway of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation by expression patterns of genes identified from female pheromone gland and adult antenna of Sesamia inferens (Walker).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhu, Jia-Yao; Li, Sheng-Yun; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-05-01

    The general pathway of biosynthesis and degradation for Type-I sex pheromones in moths is well established, but some genes involved in this pathway remain to be characterized. The purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens, employs a pheromone blend containing components with three different terminal functional groups (Z11-16:OAc, Z11-16:OH, and Z11-16:Ald) of Type-I sex pheromones. Thus, it provides a good model to study the diversity of genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways. By analyzing previously obtained transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands and antennae, we identified 73 novel genes that are possibly related to pheromone biosynthesis (46 genes) or degradation (27 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that one desaturase (SinfDes4), one fatty acid reductase (SinfFAR2), and one fatty acid xtransport protein (SinfFATP1) genes were predominantly expressed in pheromone glands, and clustered with genes involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Ten genes including five carboxylesterases (SinfCXE10, 13, 14, 18, and 20), three aldehyde oxidases (SinfAOX1, 2 and 3), and two alcohol dehydrogenases (SinfAD1 and 3) were expressed specifically or predominantly in antennae, and could be candidate genes involved in pheromone degradation. SinfAD1 and 3 are the first reported alcohol dehydrogenase genes with antennae-biased expression. Based on these results we propose a pathway involving these potential enzyme-encoding gene candidates in sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation in S. inferens. This study provides robust background information for further elucidation of the genetic basis of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation, and ultimately provides potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. inferens for control purposes.

  12. Effect of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis cotton on pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) response to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Carrière, Yves; Nyboer, Megan E; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Sollome, James; Colletto, Nick; Antilla, Larry; Dennehy, Timothy J; Staten, Robert T; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2006-06-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to transgenic crops producing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) could reduce male response to pheromone traps. Such costs would cause underestimation of resistance frequency if monitoring was based on analysis of males caught in pheromone traps. To develop a DNA-based resistance monitoring program for pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), we compared the response to pheromone traps of males with and without cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). When irradiated males from two hybrid laboratory strains with an intermediate frequency of resistance alleles were released in large field cages, the probability of capture in pheromone traps was not lower for males with resistance alleles than for males without resistance alleles. These results suggest that analysis of trapped males would not underestimate the frequency of resistance. As the time males spent in traps in the field increased from 3 to 15 d, the success of DNA amplification declined from 100 to 30%. Thus, the efficiency of a DNA-based resistance monitoring program would be improved by analyzing males remaining in traps for 3 d or less.

  13. Role of plant volatiles and hetero-specific pheromone components in the wind tunnel response of male Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to modified sex pheromone blends.

    PubMed

    Ammagarahalli, B; Chianella, L; Gomes, P; Gemeno, C

    2017-10-01

    Female Grapholita molesta (Busck) release a pheromone blend composed of two stereoisomeric acetates (Z8-12:Ac and E8-12:Ac), which in a 100:6 ratio stimulate maximum conspecific male approach. Z8-12:OH is described as a third pheromone component that increases responses to the acetate blend. Departures from the optimal pheromone blend ratio, or too high or low pheromone doses of the optimal blend ratio, result in lower male response. In a previous study, we show that plant volatiles synergize male response to a suboptimal-low pheromone concentration. In the present study, we show that the plant blend does not synergize male response to a suboptimal-high pheromone dose. The plant blend, however, synergized male response to pheromone blends containing unnatural Z:E-acetate isomer ratios. We revisited the role of alcohols in the pheromone response of G. molesta by replacing Z8-12:OH with conspecific and heterospecific pheromone alcohols or with plant odors. Codlemone, the alcohol sex pheromone of Cydia pomonella L., E8, E10-12:OH, did supplant the role of Z8-12:OH, and so did the plant volatile blend. Dodecenol (12:OH), which has been described as a fourth pheromone component of G. molesta, also increased responses, but not as much as Z8-12:OH, codlemone or the plant blend. Our results reveal new functions for plant volatiles on moth sex pheromone response under laboratory conditions, and shed new light on the role of alcohol ingredients in the pheromone blend of G. molesta.

  14. Putative sex-specific human pheromones do not affect gender perception, attractiveness ratings or unfaithfulness judgements of opposite sex faces

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Robin M.; Schlatter, Sophie; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Debate continues over the existence of human sex pheromones. Two substances, androstadienone (AND) and estratetraenol (EST), were recently reported to signal male and female gender, respectively, potentially qualifying them as human sex pheromones. If AND and EST truly signal gender, then they should affect reproductively relevant behaviours such as mate perception. To test this hypothesis, heterosexual, Caucasian human participants completed two computer-based tasks twice, on two consecutive days, exposed to a control scent on one day and a putative pheromone (AND or EST) on the other. In the first task, 46 participants (24 male, 22 female) indicated the gender (male or female) of five gender-neutral facial morphs. Exposure to AND or EST had no effect on gender perception. In the second task, 94 participants (43 male, 51 female) rated photographs of opposite-sex faces for attractiveness and probable sexual unfaithfulness. Exposure to the putative pheromones had no effect on either attractiveness or unfaithfulness ratings. These results are consistent with those of other experimental studies and reviews that suggest AND and EST are unlikely to be human pheromones. The double-blind nature of the current study lends increased support to this conclusion. If human sex pheromones affect our judgements of gender, attractiveness or unfaithfulness from faces, they are unlikely to be AND or EST. PMID:28405372

  15. Putative sex-specific human pheromones do not affect gender perception, attractiveness ratings or unfaithfulness judgements of opposite sex faces.

    PubMed

    Hare, Robin M; Schlatter, Sophie; Rhodes, Gillian; Simmons, Leigh W

    2017-03-01

    Debate continues over the existence of human sex pheromones. Two substances, androstadienone (AND) and estratetraenol (EST), were recently reported to signal male and female gender, respectively, potentially qualifying them as human sex pheromones. If AND and EST truly signal gender, then they should affect reproductively relevant behaviours such as mate perception. To test this hypothesis, heterosexual, Caucasian human participants completed two computer-based tasks twice, on two consecutive days, exposed to a control scent on one day and a putative pheromone (AND or EST) on the other. In the first task, 46 participants (24 male, 22 female) indicated the gender (male or female) of five gender-neutral facial morphs. Exposure to AND or EST had no effect on gender perception. In the second task, 94 participants (43 male, 51 female) rated photographs of opposite-sex faces for attractiveness and probable sexual unfaithfulness. Exposure to the putative pheromones had no effect on either attractiveness or unfaithfulness ratings. These results are consistent with those of other experimental studies and reviews that suggest AND and EST are unlikely to be human pheromones. The double-blind nature of the current study lends increased support to this conclusion. If human sex pheromones affect our judgements of gender, attractiveness or unfaithfulness from faces, they are unlikely to be AND or EST.

  16. Short-chain alkanes synergise responses of moth pests to their sex pheromones.

    PubMed

    Gurba, Alexandre; Guerin, Patrick M

    2016-05-01

    The use of sex pheromones for mating disruption of moth pests of crops is increasing worldwide. Efforts are under way to augment the efficiency and reliability of this control method by adding molecules derived from host plants to the sex attractants in dispensers. We show how attraction of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff., and the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., males to underdosed levels of their sex pheromones is increased by adding heptane or octane over a range of release rates. Pheromone-alkane mixtures enhance male recruitment by up to 30%, reaching levels induced by calling females, and shorten the flight time to the sex attractant by a factor of 2. The findings show the promise of using short-chain alkanes as pheromone synergists for mating disruption of insect pests of food crops. Alkane-pheromone combinations are expected to increase the competitiveness of dispensers with females, and to reduce the amount of pheromone needed for the control of these pests. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The brain organization of the lichen moth Eilema japonica, which secretes an alkenyl sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2012-10-03

    The neuroanatomy of the brain is important for the functional analysis of sex pheromone recognition in moths. Most moths use either of two types of compounds, aliphatic or alkenyl compounds, as sex pheromones. As previous studies on the neuroanatomy of moths have mostly been carried out using moths that use aliphatic compounds, information on the brain of moths that use alkenyl compounds is scarce. Here, we describe the brain anatomy of the male lichen-feeding moth Eilema japonica (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), which uses a mixture of alkenyl compounds as a sex pheromone. We reconstructed the major neuropils in the midbrain of E. japonica and compared them with those of the silkmoth, which uses an aliphatic derivative as a sex pheromone. The brain organization of the two species was basically similar, except for the size of the macroglomerular complex, where pheromone information is processed. The macroglomerular complex in E. japonica consisted of four large glomeruli, which were positioned along dorsoventral and anterior-posterior axes. The glomerulus at the site of entry of the antennal nerve was shown to have the largest volume. The number of glomeruli was equal to the number of pheromone components that are crucial for orientation behavior in E. japonica.

  18. Lasioderma chemistry sex pheromone of cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne F.).

    PubMed

    Chuman, T; Mochizuki, K; Mori, M; Kohno, M; Kato, K; Noguchi, M

    1985-04-01

    A chemical study of the sex pheromone of the cigarette beetle was carried out. Seven components were isolated from active fractions of column chromatography of the female extract, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence and confirmed by synthesis to be (4S,6S,7S)-4,6-di-methyl-7-hydroxynonan-3-one (serricornin) (I), 2,6-diethyl-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran (anhydroserricornin) (II), 4,6-dimethylnonan-3,7-dione (III), 4,6-dimethylnonan-3,7-diol (IV), 4,6-dimethyl-7-hydroxy-4-nonen-3-one (V), (2S,3R)-2,3-dihydro-3,5-dimethyl-2-ethyl-6-(l-methyl-2-oxobutyl)-4H-pyran-4-one (serricorone) (VI) and (2S,3R)-2,3-dihydro-3,5-dimethyl-2-ethyl-6-(1-methyl-2-hydroxybutyl)-4H-pyran-4-one (serricorole) (VII).These structural features suggested that the occurrence of these components might be related to the polyketide biosynthesis. The behavioral bioassay and BAG experiments revealed the biological role of each component in the copulatory behavior of this insect.

  19. Plant odorants interfere with detection of sex pheromone signals by male Heliothis virescens

    PubMed Central

    Pregitzer, Pablo; Schubert, Marco; Breer, Heinz; Hansson, Bill S.; Sachse, Silke; Krieger, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    In many insects, mate finding relies on female-released sex pheromones, which have to be deciphered by the male olfactory system within an odorous background of plant volatiles present in the environment of a calling female. With respect to pheromone-mediated mate localization, plant odorants may be neutral, favorable, or disturbing. Here we examined the impact of plant odorants on detection and coding of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens. By in vivo imaging the activity in the male antennal lobe (AL), we monitored the interference at the level of olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) to illuminate mixture interactions. The results show that stimulating the male antenna with Z11-16:Ald and distinct plant-related odorants simultaneously suppressed pheromone-evoked activity in the region of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), where Z11-16:Ald-specific OSNs terminate. Based on our previous findings that antennal detection of Z11-16:Ald involves an interplay of the pheromone binding protein (PBP) HvirPBP2 and the pheromone receptor (PR) HR13, we asked if the plant odorants may interfere with any of the elements involved in pheromone detection. Using a competitive fluorescence binding assay, we found that the plant odorants neither bind to HvirPBP2 nor affect the binding of Z11-16:Ald to the protein. However, imaging experiments analyzing a cell line that expressed the receptor HR13 revealed that plant odorants significantly inhibited the Z11-16:Ald-evoked calcium responses. Together the results indicate that plant odorants can interfere with the signaling process of the major sex pheromone component at the receptor level. Consequently, it can be assumed that plant odorants in the environment may reduce the firing activity of pheromone-specific OSNs in H. virescens and thus affect mate localization. PMID:23060749

  20. Identification of the Sex Pheromone of a Protected Species, the Spanish Moon Moth Graellsia isabellae

    PubMed Central

    McElfresh, J. Steven; Romero, Carmen; Vila, Marta; Marí-Mena, Neus; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Sex attractant pheromones are highly sensitive and selective tools for detecting and monitoring populations of insects, yet there has been only one reported case of pheromones being used to monitor protected species. Here, we report the identification and synthesis of the sex pheromone of a protected European moth species, Graellsia isabellae (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), as the single component, (4E,6E,11Z)-hexadecatrienal. In preliminary field trials, lures loaded with this compound attracted male moths from populations of this species at a number of widely separated field sites in France, Switzerland, and Spain, clearly demonstrating the utility of pheromones in sampling potentially endangered insect species. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886-010-9831-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20658260

  1. The Lutzomyia longipalpis complex: a brief natural history of aggregation-sex pheromone communication.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Carolina N; Dias, Denise B Dos Santos; Araki, Alejandra S; Hamilton, James G C; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Jones, Théresa M

    2016-11-14

    In this paper we review the natural history of pheromone communication and the current diversity of aggregation-sex pheromones in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. This species complex is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. The identification of variation in pheromone chemotypes combined with molecular and sound analyses have all contributed to our understanding of the extent of divergence among cryptic members of this complex. The importance of chemical signals as pre-mating barriers and drivers of speciation is discussed. Moreover, the importance of aggregation-sex pheromones as sexually selected signals is highlighted with evidence from the literature suggesting their potential role in species and mate recognition as well as mate assessment. The distinct evolutionary forces possibly involved are briefly reviewed and discussed in the context of this intriguing insect.

  2. Bile Acid secreted by male sea lamprey that acts as a sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiming; Scott, Alexander P; Siefkes, Michael J; Yan, Honggao; Liu, Qin; Yun, Sang-Seon; Gage, Douglas A

    2002-04-05

    We show that reproductively mature male sea lampreys release a bile acid that acts as a potent sex pheromone, inducing preference and searching behavior in ovulated female lampreys. The secreted bile acid 7alpha,12alpha,24-trihydroxy-5alpha-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate was released in much higher amounts relative to known vertebrate steroid pheromones and may be secreted through the gills. Hence, the male of this fish species signals both its reproductive status and location to females by secreting a pheromone that can act over long distances.

  3. Identification of Critical Secondary Components of the Sex Pheromone of the Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We identified a four-component sex pheromone blend that is as attractive to male navel orangeworm (NOW), Amyelois transitella, as hexane extracts from female pheromone glands. This blend contains Z11,Z13-16:Ald, Z11,Z13-16:OH, Z11,E13-16:OH and (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z-23:H)-tricosapentaene (C23 pentaene)....

  4. Distribution of putative male sex pheromones among Lutzomyia sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J G C; Brazil, R P; Campbell-Lendrum, D; Davies, C R; Kelly, D W; Pessoa, F A C; de Queiroz, R G

    2002-01-01

    Male Lutzomyia longipalpis produce terpene sex pheromones in glandular tissue underlying the cuticle. The pheromones are transmitted to the surface via cuticle-lined ducts (measuring 0.25 microm in diameter), each of which reaches the surface in the centre of a papule (measuring 3-3.5 microm in diameter). Similar papules, in a range of shapes but all characterized by the presence of a central pore and absence of macroserae, occur in some other species of sandfly. The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of sex pheromones in sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia that do and do not have the papules. The results indicate that sex pheromones are not widely distributed amongst male Lutzomyia spp. Male members of the genus can be subdivided into three groups: those that produce terpenes and have cuticular papules; those that do not produce terpenes but still have the associated papules; and those that have neither terpenes nor papules. The papules seen in the species that do not synthesise sex pheromones are presumably vestigial, non-functional structures. Such species may have stopped producing pheromone as the result of changes in the way in which the females found and selected mates or changing feeding preferences. A similar event has occurred in the Lepidoptera, where vestigial pheromone-secreting structures remain in some species which no longer produce pheromone. Lutzomyia lenti collected in southern Brazil produced a novel diterpene whereas male L. lenti from north-eastern Brazil did not, supporting suggestions by others that L. lenti is, like L. longipalpis, a species complex.

  5. Comparison of three types of traps baited with sexual pheromones for ambrosia beetle Megaplatypus mutatus (Coleoptera: Platypodinae) in poplar plantations.

    PubMed

    Funes, Hernán; Zerba, Eduardo; González Audino, Paola

    2009-08-01

    Megaplatypus mutatus (Coleoptera: Platypodinae) is an ambrosia beetle native to South America that only attacks standing live trees and is a serious problem for commercial poplar (Populus L.; Salicaceae) plantations in Argentina. The development of traps baited with synthetic pheromones that can be used for monitoring M. mutatus in infested poplar plantations is an important goal in preventive programs. Pioneer male M. mutatus emit a pheromone composed mainly by (+)-sulcatol and sulcatone. In the current study, we tested their release rates from several polymeric reservoir systems, to develop and manufacture a pheromone-releasing device. The efficacy of three different types of traps was evaluated in the field. Single funnel traps equipped with cross-vanes (CIPEIN-CV) captured significantly more insects than multiple funnel traps (LINDGREN) and simple funnel traps (CIPEIN-F).

  6. Survey for winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in northeastern North America with pheromone-baited traps and hybridization with the native Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We used pheromone-baited traps to survey the distribution of winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., a new invasive defoliator from Europe in eastern New England. The traps also attracted Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst), native to North America. We used pheromone-baited traps to survey the...

  7. A Sex Pheromone Receptor in the Hessian Fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Martin N.; Corcoran, Jacob A.; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Hillbur, Ylva; Newcomb, Richard D.; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1–2 days) and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR) family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E)-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1) are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogs, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogs together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the Cecidomyiidae

  8. Sex pheromones of Callosobruchus subinnotatus and C. maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): congeneric responses and role of air movement.

    PubMed

    Mbata, G N; Shu, S; Ramaswamy, S B

    2000-04-01

    Females of Callosobruchus spp. are known to produce sex pheromones that attract males. These sex pheromones cannot be adopted for use in pest management without first investigating the responses of the males in the windless conditions of storage environments. Consequently, behavioural bioassays of Callosobruchus subinnotatus Pic males were conducted in an olfactometer in the absence of air-flow. Under these conditions males were found to be able to follow odour trails to the source. However, the latency period was longer in diffusional bioassays than for insects in a Y-tube olfactometer that provided directional wind cues. The highest percentage of males reached the pheromone source when components of the pheromones, (E)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (E32A) and (Z)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid (Z32A), were formulated in a 50:50 or 25:75 ratio. Males of C. maculatus (Fabricius) responded to sex pheromone of C. subinnotatus, but males of C. subinnotatus did not respond to that of C. maculatus. The two sex pheromone components of C. subinnotatus are also constituents of C. maculatus sex pheromone. These two components may be potentially useful in monitoring the populations of both species in stored beans. It is postulated that (Z)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid (Z33A), the major component of the sex pheromone of C. maculatus, must have acted as an antagonist inhibiting response of C. subinnotatus to the sex pheromone of C. maculatus.

  9. Identification and functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in the common cutworm (Spodoptera litura).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Yan, Shuwei; Liu, Yang; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Male moths can finely discriminate the sex pheromone emitted by conspecific females from similar compounds. Pheromone receptors, expressed on the dendritic membrane of sensory neurons housed in the long trichoid sensilla of antennae, are thought to be associated with the pheromone reception. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized 4 pheromone receptors from the antennae of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A tissue distribution analysis showed that the expression of the 4 SlituPRs was restricted to antennae. In addition, SlituOR6 and SlituOR13 were specifically expressed in male antennae whereas SlituOR11 and SlituOR16 were male-biased. Functional investigation by heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed that SlituOR6 was specifically tuned to the second major pheromone component, Z9,E12-14:OAc, SlituOR13 was equally tuned to Z9,E12-14:OAc and Z9-14:OAc, with a small response to the major pheromone component Z9,E11-14:OAc, SlituOR16 significantly responded to the behavioral antagonist Z9-14:OH, whereas SlituOR11 did not show response to any of the pheromone compounds tested in this study. Our results provide molecular data to better understand the mechanisms of sex pheromone detection in the moth S. litura and bring clues to investigate the evolution of the sexual communication channel in closely related species through comparison with previously reported pheromone receptors in other Spodoptera species.

  10. Mating-induced differential coding of plant odour and sex pheromone in a male moth.

    PubMed

    Barrozo, Romina B; Jarriault, David; Deisig, Nina; Gemeno, Cesar; Monsempes, Christelle; Lucas, Philippe; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2011-05-01

    Innate behaviours in animals can be influenced by several factors, such as the environment, experience, or physiological status. This behavioural plasticity originates from changes in the underlying neuronal substrate. A well-described form of plasticity is induced by mating. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, males experience a post-ejaculatory refractory period, during which they avoid new females. In the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, mating induces a transient inhibition of responses to the female-produced sex pheromone. To understand the neural bases of this inhibition and its possible odour specificity, we carried out a detailed analysis of the response characteristics of the different neuron types from the periphery to the central level. We examined the response patterns of pheromone-sensitive and plant volatile-sensitive neurons in virgin and mated male moths. By using intracellular recordings, we showed that mating changes the response characteristics of pheromone-sensitive antennal lobe (AL) neurons, and thus decreases their sensitivity to sex pheromone. Individual olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) recordings and calcium imaging experiments indicated that pheromone sensory input remains constant. On the other hand, calcium responses to non-pheromonal odours (plant volatiles) increased after mating, as reflected by increased firing frequencies of plant-sensitive AL neurons, although ORN responses to heptanal remained unchanged. We suggest that differential processing of pheromone and plant odours allows mated males to transiently block their central pheromone detection system, and increase non-pheromonal odour detection in order to efficiently locate food sources. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Reinvestigation of Cactoblastis Captorum (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) sex pheromone for improved attractiveness and greater specificity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) is recognized as an invasive species in the Caribbean, United States, and Mexico with potential to adversely impact native cactus population. Prior work using hexane extracts of sex glands showed that the sex pheromone of this species has 54% of (Z, E) -9.12 tetradecadi...

  12. Switching attraction to inhibition: mating-induced reversed role of sex pheromone in an insect.

    PubMed

    Barrozo, Romina B; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2010-09-01

    In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, newly mated males cease to be attracted to the female-produced sex pheromone, preventing them from re-mating until the next night, by which time they would have refilled their reproductive glands for a potential new ejaculate. The behavioural plasticity is accompanied by a decrease in neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). However, it was not clear whether the lack of the sexually guided behaviour results from the absence of sex pheromone detection in the ALs, or if they ignore it in spite of detection, or if the sex pheromone itself inhibits attraction behaviour after mating. To test these hypotheses, we performed behavioural tests and intracellular recordings of AL neurons to non-pheromonal odours (flower volatiles), different doses of sex pheromone and their mixtures in virgin and newly mated males. Our results show that, although the behavioural and AL neuron responses to flower volatiles alone were similar between virgin and mated males, the behavioural response of mated males to flower odours was inhibited by adding pheromone doses above the detection threshold of central neurons. Moreover, we show that the sex pheromone becomes inhibitory by differential central processing: below a specific threshold, it is not detected within the AL; above this threshold, it becomes inhibitory, preventing newly mated males from responding even to plant odours. Mated male moths have thus evolved a strategy based on transient odour-selective central processing, which allows them to avoid the risk-taking, energy-consuming search for females and delay re-mating until the next night for a potential new ejaculate.

  13. Detection and monitoring of pink bollworm moths and invasive insects using pheromone traps and encounter rate models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one of the most destructive pests in agriculture. An ongoing eradication program using a combination of sex pheromone monitoring and mating disruption, irradiated sterile moth releases, genetically-modified Bt...

  14. Nematode-trapping fungi eavesdrop on nematode pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yen-Ping; Mahanti, Parag; Schroeder, Frank C.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The recognition of molecular patterns associated with specific pathogens or food sources is fundamental to ecology and plays a major role in the evolution of predator-prey relationships [1]. Recent studies showed that nematodes produce an evolutionarily highly conserved family of small molecules, the ascarosides, which serve essential functions in regulating nematode development and behavior [2-4]. Here we show that nematophagous fungi, natural predators of soil-dwelling nematodes [5], can detect and respond to ascarosides. Nematophagous fungi use specialized trapping devices to catch and consume nematodes, and previous studies demonstrated that most fungal species do not produce traps constitutively but rather initiate trap-formation in response to their prey [6]. We found that ascarosides, which are constitutively secreted by many species of soil-dwelling nematodes, represent a conserved molecular pattern used by nematophagous fungi to detect prey and trigger trap formation. Ascaroside-induced morphogenesis is conserved in several closely related species of nematophagous fungi and occurs only under nutrient-deprived condition. Our results demonstrate that microbial predators eavesdrop on chemical communication among their metazoan prey to regulate morphogenesis, providing a striking example of predator-prey co-evolution. We anticipate that these findings will have broader implications for understanding other inter-kingdom interactions involving nematodes, which are found in almost any ecological niche on Earth. PMID:23246407

  15. Nematode-trapping fungi eavesdrop on nematode pheromones.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Yen-Ping; Mahanti, Parag; Schroeder, Frank C; Sternberg, Paul W

    2013-01-07

    The recognition of molecular patterns associated with specific pathogens or food sources is fundamental to ecology and plays a major role in the evolution of predator-prey relationships. Recent studies showed that nematodes produce an evolutionarily highly conserved family of small molecules, the ascarosides, which serve essential functions in regulating nematode development and behavior. Here, we show that nematophagous fungi, natural predators of soil-dwelling nematodes, can detect and respond to ascarosides. Nematophagous fungi use specialized trapping devices to catch and consume nematodes, and previous studies demonstrated that most fungal species do not produce traps constitutively but rather initiate trap formation in response to their prey. We found that ascarosides, which are constitutively secreted by many species of soil-dwelling nematodes, represent a conserved molecular pattern used by nematophagous fungi to detect prey and trigger trap formation. Ascaroside-induced morphogenesis is conserved in several closely related species of nematophagous fungi and occurs only under nutrient-deprived conditions. Our results demonstrate that microbial predators eavesdrop on chemical communication among their metazoan prey to regulate morphogenesis, providing a striking example of predator-prey coevolution. We anticipate that these findings will have broader implications for understanding other interkingdom interactions involving nematodes, which are found in almost any ecological niche on Earth.

  16. Female sex pheromone and male behavioral responses of the bombycid moth Trilocha varians: comparison with those of the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daimon, Takaaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Nakajima, Yumiko; Fujii, Tsuguru; Katsuma, Susumu; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shimada, Toru

    2012-03-01

    Analysis of female sex pheromone components and subsequent field trap experiments demonstrated that the bombycid moth Trilocha varians uses a mixture of ( E, Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal (bombykal) and ( E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienyl acetate (bombykyl acetate) as a sex pheromone. Both of these components are derivatives of ( E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol), the sex pheromone of the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori. This finding prompted us to compare the antennal and behavioral responses of T. varians and B. mori to bombykol, bombykal, and bombykyl acetate in detail. The antennae of T. varians males responded to bombykal and bombykyl acetate but not to bombykol, and males were attracted only when lures contained both bombykal and bombykyl acetate. In contrast, the antennae of B. mori males responded to all the three components. Behavioral analysis showed that B. mori males responded to neither bombykal nor bombykyl acetate. Meanwhile, the wing fluttering response of B. mori males to bombykol was strongly inhibited by bombykal and bombykyl acetate, thereby indicating that bombykal and bombykyl acetate act as behavioral antagonists for B. mori males. T. varians would serve as a reference species for B. mori in future investigations into the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of sex pheromone communication systems in bombycid moths.

  17. An ABC Transporter Is Required for Secretion of Peptide Sex Pheromones in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Varahan, Sriram; Harms, Nathan; Gilmore, Michael S.; Tomich, John M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterococci are leading causes of hospital-acquired infection in the United States and continue to develop resistances to new antibiotics. Many Enterococcus faecalis isolates harbor pheromone-responsive plasmids that mediate horizontal transfer of even large blocks of chromosomal genes, resulting in hospital-adapted strains over a quarter of whose genomes consist of mobile elements. Pheromones to which the donor cells respond derive from lipoprotein signal peptides. Using a novel bacterial killing assay dependent on the presence of sex pheromones, we screened a transposon mutant library for functions that relate to the production and/or activity of the effector pheromone. Here we describe a previously uncharacterized, but well-conserved, ABC transporter that contributes to pheromone production. Using three distinct pheromone-dependent mating systems, we show that mutants defective in expressing this transporter display a 5- to 6-order-of-magnitude reduction in conjugation efficiency. In addition, we demonstrate that the ABC transporter mutant displays an altered biofilm architecture, with a significant reduction in biofilm biomass compared to that of its isogenic parent, suggesting that pheromone activity also influences biofilm development. The conservation of this peptide transporter across the Firmicutes suggests that it may also play an important role in cell-cell communication in other species within this important phylum. PMID:25249282

  18. Optimization of pheromone lure and trap design for monitoring the fire coneworm, Dioryctria abietivorella

    Treesearch

    W. B. Strong; J. G. Millar; G. G. Grant; J. A. Moreira; J. M. Chong; C. Rodolph

    2008-01-01

    The major components of the sex pheromone of Dioryctria abietivorella (Groté) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were recently identified as (9Z,11E)-tetradecadien-1-yl acetate (9Z,11E-14:Ac) and a polyunsaturated, long-chain hydrocarbon (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-pentacosapentaene (C25 pentaene). The optimal ratio of these components and the role of potential minor components were not...

  19. Identification of pheromone synergists for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus trapping systems from Phoenix canariensis palm volatiles.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; Abad-Payá, María; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2014-07-02

    Trapping systems for the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, rely on the use of natural plant odor sources to boost the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone. The identification of the key odorants involved in attraction is essential in the development of a synthetic pheromone synergist to replace the nonstandardized use of plant material in traps. Canary Islands date palms (Phoenix canariensis) have become preferred hosts for R. ferrugineus in Europe; thus, the volatile profile of different P. canariensis plant materials, including healthy and infested tissues, is investigated in the present work by means of solid phase microextraction (SPME-GC-MS), aimed to identify pheromone synergists. The electroantennography (EAG) response of the compounds identified was recorded, as well as the preliminary field response of several EAG-active compounds. The so-called "palm esters" (ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate, and propyl butyrate) elicit the strongest EAG responses but performed poorly in the field. Mixtures of esters and alcohols give evidence of better performance, but release rates need further optimization.

  20. Simple synthesis of 5,9-dimethylated long-chain alkanes, the sex pheromones of leaf miner moths.

    PubMed

    Liang, T; Kuwahara, S; Hasegawa, M; Kodama, O

    2000-11-01

    Each stereoisomeric mixture of 5,9-dimethylpentadecane and 5,9-dimethylhexadecane, the major and the minor sex pheromone components of Perileucoptera coffeella, respectively, was synthesized in about 25% overall yield through 6 steps from beta-citronellol. 5,9-Dimethylheptadecane, the major sex pheromone component of Leucoptera malifoliella, was also synthesized analogously as a stereoisomeric mixture in a 22% overall yield.

  1. Similar worldwide patterns in the sex pheromone signal and response in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The response of Grapholita molesta (Busck) males to three-component sex pheromone blends containing a 100% ratio of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and a 10% ratio of (Z)-8-dodecenol, but with varying ratios of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (0.4%, 5.4%, 10.4%, 30.4%, and 100.1% ...

  2. Novel sex pheromone components from the fall cankerworm moth,Alsophila pometaria.

    PubMed

    Wong, J W; Palaniswamy, P; Underbill, E W; Steck, W F; Chisholm, M D

    1984-03-01

    A sex pheromone extract from fall cankerworm moths,Alsophila pometaria, attracted conspecific males in field tests. Four EAG-active components were isolated from the extract and identified by GC-MS, highfield PMR spectroscopy, and microchemical techniques asn-nonadecane (I), (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene (II), (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetraene (III), and (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-nonadecatetrane (IV). Studies of the behavioral responses of male moths in a flight tunnel to the isolated components showed II, III, and IV were the major components of the sex pheromone. No sex pheromone behavioral responses were observed for I.

  3. Plant volatiles enhance behavioral responses of grapevine moth males, Lobesia botrana to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    von Arx, Martin; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Guerin, Patrick M

    2012-02-01

    Plant volatiles play an important role in the lives of phytophagous insects, by guiding them to oviposition, feeding and mating sites. We tested the effects of different host-plant volatiles on attraction of Lobesia botrana males to the female-produced sex pheromone, in a wind tunnel. Addition of volatile emissions from grapevines or individual plant volatiles to pheromone increased the behavioral responses of L. botrana males over those to pheromone alone. At a low release rate (under-dosed) of pheromone, addition of (E)-β-caryophyllene, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, 1-hexanol, or 1-octen-3-ol increased all behavioral responses, from activation to pheromone source contact, while addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, (E)-β-farnesene, (Z)-3-hexenol, or methyl salicylate affected only the initial behavioral responses. Dose-response experiments suggested an optimal release ratio of 1:1000 (sex pheromone: host plant volatile). Our results highlight the role of plant volatiles in the sensory ecology of L. botrana.

  4. Impact of trap design and density on effectiveness of a commercial pheromone lure for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The navel orangeworm is an important pest of almonds, pistachios, and walnuts. A commercial pheromone lure for this pest became publicly available in 2013. We compared effectiveness of this synthetic lure (NOW Biolure) between common commercial trap designs, and with unmated females in wing traps. O...

  5. Use of pheromone traps to predict infestation levels of the nantucket pine tip moth: Can it be done?

    Treesearch

    Christopher Asaro; C. Wayne Berisford

    1999-01-01

    Pheromone traps baited with synthetic baits are used in southeastern pine plantations to monitor the phenology of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock)) for timing of insecticide applications. Trap catches of tip moths have been difficult to interpret because they decrease considerably relative to population density from the...

  6. Phenology of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Florida based on attraction of adult males to pheromone traps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research was conducted in Florida to assess the phenology of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), based on numbers of adult males captured at traps baited with a synthetic pheromone. Trapping was conducted at three locations in east central Florida in ornamental plantings of hib...

  7. Response of Tortricid Moths and Non-Target Insects to Pheromone Trap Color in Commercial Apple Orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pheromone traps are a widely used tool for monitoring pest activity in commercial apple orchards. Studies were conducted to evaluate delta-style traps painted with different colors (orange, red, yellow, green, blue, and white) for capture of obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris...

  8. Female sex pheromone of the Yunnan pine caterpillar moth Dendrolimus houi: first (E,Z)-isomers in pheromone components of Dendrolimus spp.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang Bo; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Cheng Hua; Wang, Hong Bin

    2007-07-01

    The Yunnan pine caterpillar Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière is a serious defoliator of coniferous forests in southwestern China. Gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAG) analyses of extracts of female sex pheromone glands of D. houi moths revealed the presence of three compounds eliciting antennal responses. These were identified as (5E,7Z)-5,7-dodecadien-1-ol (E5,Z7-12:OH), (5E,7Z)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (E5,Z7-12:OAc), and (5E,7Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (E5,Z7-12:Ald) by comparison of their GC retention indices, mass spectra, and EAG activities with those of synthetic standards. Average amounts of E5,Z7-12:OH, E5,Z7-12:OAc, and E5,Z7-12:Ald per calling virgin D. houi female were 14.7 +/- 12.9 ng (+/- SD), 5.8 +/- 5.4 ng, and 0.8+1.4 ng, respectively, in a ratio of 100:39.7:5.6. These three components were also collected from the headspace of calling virgin female moths by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). In addition, trace quantities of (Z)-5-dodecen-1-ol (Z5-12:OH), (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-ol (Z5,E7-12:OH), (5E,7E)-5, 7-dodecadien-1-ol (E5,E7-12:OH), (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (Z5,E7-12:OAc), (5Z,7Z)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (Z5,Z7-12:OAc), and (5E,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (E5,E7-12:OAc) were tentatively identified in female pheromone gland extracts by selected ion monitoring GC-MS. Field trapping experiments showed that E5,Z7-12:OH, E5,Z7-12:OAc, and E5,Z7-12:Ald were essential for attraction of male D. houi moths. Traps baited with a 20:1:1 blend (alcohol/acetate/aldehyde) loaded on gray rubber septa were as effective as traps baited with virgin female moths. The optimum ratio of acetate to aldehyde was 1:1, and this ratio was more critical than the ratio of either compound to the alcohol. This represents the first example of (E,Z)-isomers in pheromone blends of Dendrolimus species.

  9. An ABC transporter is required for secretion of peptide sex pheromones in Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Varahan, Sriram; Harms, Nathan; Gilmore, Michael S; Tomich, John M; Hancock, Lynn E

    2014-09-23

    Enterococci are leading causes of hospital-acquired infection in the United States and continue to develop resistances to new antibiotics. Many Enterococcus faecalis isolates harbor pheromone-responsive plasmids that mediate horizontal transfer of even large blocks of chromosomal genes, resulting in hospital-adapted strains over a quarter of whose genomes consist of mobile elements. Pheromones to which the donor cells respond derive from lipoprotein signal peptides. Using a novel bacterial killing assay dependent on the presence of sex pheromones, we screened a transposon mutant library for functions that relate to the production and/or activity of the effector pheromone. Here we describe a previously uncharacterized, but well-conserved, ABC transporter that contributes to pheromone production. Using three distinct pheromone-dependent mating systems, we show that mutants defective in expressing this transporter display a 5- to 6-order-of-magnitude reduction in conjugation efficiency. In addition, we demonstrate that the ABC transporter mutant displays an altered biofilm architecture, with a significant reduction in biofilm biomass compared to that of its isogenic parent, suggesting that pheromone activity also influences biofilm development. The conservation of this peptide transporter across the Firmicutes suggests that it may also play an important role in cell-cell communication in other species within this important phylum. Enterococcus faecalis ranks as one of the leading causes of hospital-associated infections. Strains possessing resistance to multiple antibiotics are becoming all too common in clinical settings. Pheromone-responsive plasmids play an important role in harboring and disseminating these antibiotic resistance genes. Here we have identified a novel ABC transporter that is responsible for the secretion of peptide pheromones, which enables communication between cells to mediate plasmid transfer. We have also shown that this transporter is

  10. Sex pheromone receptor proteins. Visualization using a radiolabeled photoaffinity analog

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.G.; Prestwich, G.D.; Riddiford, L.M.

    1988-03-15

    A tritium-labeled photoaffinity analog of a moth pheromone was used to covalently modify pheromone-selective binding proteins in the antennal sensillum lymph and sensory dendritic membranes of the male silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus. This analog, (E,Z)-6,11-(/sup 3/H)hexadecadienyl diazoacetate, allowed visualization of a 15-kilodalton soluble protein and a 69-kilodalton membrane protein in fluorescence autoradiograms of electrophoretically separated antennal proteins. Covalent modification of these proteins was specifically reduced when incubation and UV irradiation were conducted in the presence of excess unlabeled pheromone, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. These experiments constitute the first direct evidence for a membrane protein of a chemosensory neuron interacting in a specific fashion with a biologically relevant odorant.

  11. Attraction of the larval predator Elater ferrugineus to the sex pheromone of its prey, Osmoderma eremita, and its implication for conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Glenn P; Larsson, Mattias C; Hedin, Jonas

    2004-02-01

    Elater ferrugineus is a threatened click beetle inhabiting old hollow trees. Its larvae consume larvae of other saproxylic insects including the threatened scarab beetle Osmoderma eremita. Recently, (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone was identified as a male-produced sex pheromone of O. eremita. Here we present evidence that E. ferrugineus adults use this odor as a kairomone for location of their prey. In field trapping experiments, significantly more trapping events of E. ferrugineus beetles were observed in Lindgren funnel traps baited with (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone than in control traps (20 vs. 1, respectively). Analyses of headspace collections from E. ferrugineus beetles indicate that the predator itself does not produce the substance. Both sexes were attracted to the prey pheromone. suggesting that E. ferrugineus males use the odor as an indirect cue for location of mates or of the tree hollows, which make up their habitat. When compared to pitfall traps, the Lindgren system was significantly more effective in trapping E. ferragineus, and no difference could be established for O. eremita, showing the high potential to use odor-based systems to catch both species. We suggest that (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone could be used as a master signal in monitoring programs for these vulnerable beetle species. which are both regarded as indicators of the associated insect fauna of the threatened habitat of old hollow trees.

  12. Sex- and Gonad-Affecting Scent Compounds and 3 Male Pheromones in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lixing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Feng, Zhi-Yong

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying sex pheromones of the rat (Rattus norvegicus). We characterized the volatiles and semivolatiles of rat preputial gland and voided urine by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and quantified them by their GC areas (abundances) and percentage of GC areas (relative abundances). Although all the compounds other than 4-heptanone and phenol detected were shared by males and females, the quantities for some of these sex-common compounds exhibited sexual dimorphism and decreased with gonadectomy. Thus, these compounds might be sex pheromones. Among them, squalene from preputial glands and 2-heptanone and 4-ethyl phenol from urine were 3 major compounds. They were richer in males and could be suppressed by castration. Adding any of the 3 compounds (at a concentration higher than its physiological level in male urine) to castrated male urine (CMU) increased the attractiveness of CMU to sex-naive females. Adding the 3 together (at the levels in normal male urine) to CMU significantly increased the attractiveness of CMU to females. However, such combination did not fully restore females' preference for urine from intact males, suggesting that some other trace compounds such as 4-heptanone and phenol might also play some roles in sex attractiveness. Thus, squalene, 2-heptanone, and 4-ethyl phenol were indeed male pheromone molecules in rats. Our study also indicates that E,E-β-farnesene and E-α-farnesene, both richer in females than males, might be putative female pheromones. PMID:18515819

  13. Sex- and gonad-affecting scent compounds and 3 male pheromones in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Sun, Lixing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Feng, Zhi-Yong

    2008-09-01

    This study was aimed at identifying sex pheromones of the rat (Rattus norvegicus). We characterized the volatiles and semivolatiles of rat preputial gland and voided urine by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified them by their GC areas (abundances) and percentage of GC areas (relative abundances). Although all the compounds other than 4-heptanone and phenol detected were shared by males and females, the quantities for some of these sex-common compounds exhibited sexual dimorphism and decreased with gonadectomy. Thus, these compounds might be sex pheromones. Among them, squalene from preputial glands and 2-heptanone and 4-ethyl phenol from urine were 3 major compounds. They were richer in males and could be suppressed by castration. Adding any of the 3 compounds (at a concentration higher than its physiological level in male urine) to castrated male urine (CMU) increased the attractiveness of CMU to sex-naive females. Adding the 3 together (at the levels in normal male urine) to CMU significantly increased the attractiveness of CMU to females. However, such combination did not fully restore females' preference for urine from intact males, suggesting that some other trace compounds such as 4-heptanone and phenol might also play some roles in sex attractiveness. Thus, squalene, 2-heptanone, and 4-ethyl phenol were indeed male pheromone molecules in rats. Our study also indicates that E,E-beta-farnesene and E-alpha-farnesene, both richer in females than males, might be putative female pheromones.

  14. Free flight odor tracking in Drosophila: Effect of wing chemosensors, sex and pheromonal gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Houot, Benjamin; Gigot, Vincent; Robichon, Alain; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2017-01-09

    The evolution of powered flight in insects had major consequences for global biodiversity and involved the acquisition of adaptive processes allowing individuals to disperse to new ecological niches. Flies use both vision and olfactory input from their antennae to guide their flight; chemosensors on fly wings have been described, but their function remains mysterious. We studied Drosophila flight in a wind tunnel. By genetically manipulating wing chemosensors, we show that these structures play an essential role in flight performance with a sex-specific effect. Pheromonal systems are also involved in Drosophila flight guidance: transgenic expression of the pheromone production and detection gene, desat1, produced low, rapid flight that was absent in control flies. Our study suggests that the sex-specific modulation of free-flight odor tracking depends on gene expression in various fly tissues including wings and pheromonal-related tissues.

  15. Free flight odor tracking in Drosophila: Effect of wing chemosensors, sex and pheromonal gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Houot, Benjamin; Gigot, Vincent; Robichon, Alain; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of powered flight in insects had major consequences for global biodiversity and involved the acquisition of adaptive processes allowing individuals to disperse to new ecological niches. Flies use both vision and olfactory input from their antennae to guide their flight; chemosensors on fly wings have been described, but their function remains mysterious. We studied Drosophila flight in a wind tunnel. By genetically manipulating wing chemosensors, we show that these structures play an essential role in flight performance with a sex-specific effect. Pheromonal systems are also involved in Drosophila flight guidance: transgenic expression of the pheromone production and detection gene, desat1, produced low, rapid flight that was absent in control flies. Our study suggests that the sex-specific modulation of free-flight odor tracking depends on gene expression in various fly tissues including wings and pheromonal-related tissues. PMID:28067325

  16. Binding affinity of five PBPs to Ostrinia sex pheromones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) of Lepidoptera function in chemical communication, mate attraction and recognition, and may be involved in reinforcement of sexual isolation between recently diverged species. Directional selection was previously predicted between PBP3 orthologs of the corn borer si...

  17. Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

    Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

  18. Sex-specific mating pheromones in the nematode Panagrellus redivivus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite advances in medicine and crop genetics, nematodes remain significant human pathogens and agricultural pests. This warrants investigation of alternative strategies for pest control, such as interference with pheromone-mediated reproduction. Because only two nematode species have had their phe...

  19. A single sex pheromone receptor determines chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Uchino, Keiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishioka, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2011-06-01

    In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol), is sufficient to elicit full sexual behavior. We have previously shown that the sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 mediates specific detection of bombykol in the antennae of male silkmoths. However, it is unclear whether the sex pheromone receptor is the minimally sufficient determination factor that triggers initiation of orientation behavior towards a potential mate. Using transgenic silkmoths expressing the sex pheromone receptor PxOR1 of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in BmOR1-expressing neurons, we show that the selectivity of the sex pheromone receptor determines the chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth. Bombykol receptor neurons expressing PxOR1 responded to its specific ligand, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald), in a dose-dependent manner. Male moths expressing PxOR1 exhibited typical pheromone orientation behavior and copulation attempts in response to Z11-16:Ald and to females of P. xylostella. Transformation of the bombykol receptor neurons had no effect on their projections in the antennal lobe. These results indicate that activation of bombykol receptor neurons alone is sufficient to trigger full sexual behavior. Thus, a single gene defines behavioral selectivity in sex pheromone communication in the silkmoth. Our findings show that a single molecular determinant can not only function as a modulator of behavior but also as an all-or-nothing initiator of a complex species-specific behavioral sequence.

  20. Differential interactions of sex pheromone and plant odour in the olfactory pathway of a male moth.

    PubMed

    Deisig, Nina; Kropf, Jan; Vitecek, Simon; Pevergne, Delphine; Rouyar, Angela; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Lucas, Philippe; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia; Barrozo, Romina

    2012-01-01

    Most animals rely on olfaction to find sexual partners, food or a habitat. The olfactory system faces the challenge of extracting meaningful information from a noisy odorous environment. In most moth species, males respond to sex pheromone emitted by females in an environment with abundant plant volatiles. Plant odours could either facilitate the localization of females (females calling on host plants), mask the female pheromone or they could be neutral without any effect on the pheromone. Here we studied how mixtures of a behaviourally-attractive floral odour, heptanal, and the sex pheromone are encoded at different levels of the olfactory pathway in males of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. In addition, we asked how interactions between the two odorants change as a function of the males' mating status. We investigated mixture detection in both the pheromone-specific and in the general odorant pathway. We used a) recordings from individual sensilla to study responses of olfactory receptor neurons, b) in vivo calcium imaging with a bath-applied dye to characterize the global input response in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe and c) intracellular recordings of antennal lobe output neurons, projection neurons, in virgin and newly-mated males. Our results show that heptanal reduces pheromone sensitivity at the peripheral and central olfactory level independently of the mating status. Contrarily, heptanal-responding olfactory receptor neurons are not influenced by pheromone in a mixture, although some post-mating modulation occurs at the input of the sexually isomorphic ordinary glomeruli, where general odours are processed within the antennal lobe. The results are discussed in the context of mate localization.

  1. Differential Interactions of Sex Pheromone and Plant Odour in the Olfactory Pathway of a Male Moth

    PubMed Central

    Deisig, Nina; Kropf, Jan; Vitecek, Simon; Pevergne, Delphine; Rouyar, Angela; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Lucas, Philippe; Gadenne, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Most animals rely on olfaction to find sexual partners, food or a habitat. The olfactory system faces the challenge of extracting meaningful information from a noisy odorous environment. In most moth species, males respond to sex pheromone emitted by females in an environment with abundant plant volatiles. Plant odours could either facilitate the localization of females (females calling on host plants), mask the female pheromone or they could be neutral without any effect on the pheromone. Here we studied how mixtures of a behaviourally-attractive floral odour, heptanal, and the sex pheromone are encoded at different levels of the olfactory pathway in males of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. In addition, we asked how interactions between the two odorants change as a function of the males' mating status. We investigated mixture detection in both the pheromone-specific and in the general odorant pathway. We used a) recordings from individual sensilla to study responses of olfactory receptor neurons, b) in vivo calcium imaging with a bath-applied dye to characterize the global input response in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe and c) intracellular recordings of antennal lobe output neurons, projection neurons, in virgin and newly-mated males. Our results show that heptanal reduces pheromone sensitivity at the peripheral and central olfactory level independently of the mating status. Contrarily, heptanal-responding olfactory receptor neurons are not influenced by pheromone in a mixture, although some post-mating modulation occurs at the input of the sexually isomorphic ordinary glomeruli, where general odours are processed within the antennal lobe. The results are discussed in the context of mate localization. PMID:22427979

  2. Timing of male sex pheromone biosynthesis in a butterfly - different dynamics under direct or diapause development.

    PubMed

    Larsdotter-Mellström, Helena; Murtazina, Rushana; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Wiklund, Christer

    2012-05-01

    The life history traits and behavior of the butterfly Pieris napi are well-known, as the species is often used as a model organism for evolutionary and ecological studies. The species has two or more generations per year in the major part of its temperate distribution, and as different selection pressures affect the different generations, both behavioral and physiological seasonal polyphenisms have been shown previously. Here, we explored the dynamics of male sex pheromone production. The two generations are shown to have significantly different scent compositions early in life; the direct developers--who have shorter time for pupal development--need the first 24 hr of adult life after eclosion to synthesize the sex pheromone citral (geranial and neral 1:1)--whereas the diapausing individuals who have spent several months in the pupal stage eclose with adult scent composition. Resource allocation and biosynthesis also were studied in greater detail by feeding butterflies (13)C labeled glucose either in the larval or adult stage, and recording incorporation into geranial, neral, and other volatiles produced. Results demonstrate that the pheromone synthesized by newly eclosed adult males is based on materials ingested in the larval stage, and that adult butterflies are able to synthesize the pheromone components geranial and neral and the related alcohols also from adult intake of glucose. In summary, our study shows that time-stress changes the timing in biosynthesis of the complete pheromone between generations, and underpins the importance of understanding resource allocation and the physiological basis of life history traits.

  3. A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Enault, Jérémy; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Bernay, Benoît; Lefranc, Benjamin; Leprince, Jérôme; Baudy-Floc'h, Michèle; Henry, Joël

    2012-01-01

    Background The cephalopod mollusk Sepia officinalis can be considered as a relevant model for studying reproduction strategies associated to seasonal migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones that are thought to induce the aggregation of mature cuttlefish in their egg-laying areas. Results To facilitate the identification of sex pheromones, 576 5′-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced from a single cDNA library generated from accessory sex glands of female cuttlefish. Our analysis yielded 223 unique sequences composed of 186 singletons and 37 contigs. Three major redundant ESTs called SPα, SPα′ and SPβ were identified as good candidates for putative sex pheromone transcripts and are part of the 87 unique sequences classified as unknown. The alignment of translated SPα and SPα′ revealed a high level of conservation, with 98.4% identity. Translation led to a 248-amino acid precursor containing six peptides with multiple putative disulfide bonds. The alignment of SPα-α′ with SPβ revealed a partial structural conservation, with 37.3% identity. Translation of SPβ led to a 252-amino acid precursor containing five peptides. The occurrence of a signal peptide on SPα, SPα′ and SPβ showed that the peptides were secreted. RT-PCR and mass spectrometry analyses revealed a co-localization of transcripts and expression products in the oviduct gland. Preliminary in vitro experiments performed on gills and penises revealed target organs involved in mating and ventilation. Conclusions The analysis of the accessory sex gland transcriptome of Sepia officinalis led to the identification of peptidic sex pheromones. Although preliminary functional tests suggested the involvement of the α3 and β2 peptides in ventilation and mating stimulation, further functional investigations will make it possible to identify the complete set of biological activities expected from waterborne pheromones. PMID

  4. A complex set of sex pheromones identified in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Enault, Jérémy; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Bernay, Benoît; Lefranc, Benjamin; Leprince, Jérôme; Baudy-Floc'h, Michèle; Henry, Joël

    2012-01-01

    The cephalopod mollusk Sepia officinalis can be considered as a relevant model for studying reproduction strategies associated to seasonal migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones that are thought to induce the aggregation of mature cuttlefish in their egg-laying areas. To facilitate the identification of sex pheromones, 576 5'-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced from a single cDNA library generated from accessory sex glands of female cuttlefish. Our analysis yielded 223 unique sequences composed of 186 singletons and 37 contigs. Three major redundant ESTs called SPα, SPα' and SPβ were identified as good candidates for putative sex pheromone transcripts and are part of the 87 unique sequences classified as unknown. The alignment of translated SPα and SPα' revealed a high level of conservation, with 98.4% identity. Translation led to a 248-amino acid precursor containing six peptides with multiple putative disulfide bonds. The alignment of SPα-α' with SPβ revealed a partial structural conservation, with 37.3% identity. Translation of SPβ led to a 252-amino acid precursor containing five peptides. The occurrence of a signal peptide on SPα, SPα' and SPβ showed that the peptides were secreted. RT-PCR and mass spectrometry analyses revealed a co-localization of transcripts and expression products in the oviduct gland. Preliminary in vitro experiments performed on gills and penises revealed target organs involved in mating and ventilation. The analysis of the accessory sex gland transcriptome of Sepia officinalis led to the identification of peptidic sex pheromones. Although preliminary functional tests suggested the involvement of the α3 and β2 peptides in ventilation and mating stimulation, further functional investigations will make it possible to identify the complete set of biological activities expected from waterborne pheromones.

  5. Alkenyl sex pheromone analogs in the hemolymph of an arctiid Eilema japonica and several non-arctiid moths.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Nakano, Ryo; Nirazawa, Takuya; Rong, Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2015-11-01

    The majority of moth species utilize compounds derived from de novo synthesized fatty acids as their sex pheromones (type I). In contrast, species belonging to two recently diverged moth families, Arctiidae and Geometridae, utilize alkenes and their epoxides, which are derived from dietary essential fatty acids (EFAs), as their sex pheromones (type II). In the latter species, EFAs are considered to be converted into alkenes, often after chain elongation, in specialized cells called oenocytes. These alkenes are transported through the hemolymph to the pheromone gland, from which they are secreted with or without further modifications. We confirmed that the appearance of EFA-derived alkenes in the hemolymph was closely associated with the completion of pheromone gland formation in an arctiid moth Eilema japonica. Analyses of the hemolymph of several moth species utilizing type-I sex pheromones demonstrated the occurrence of (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-tricosatriene (T23), a typical type-II component, in the hemolymph of a noctuid Mamestra brassicae and two crambids Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia scapulalis. Our results demonstrated that moths utilizing type-I pheromones have the ability to synthesize type-II sex pheromones, and suggested that recently diverged groups of moths may have secondarily exploited EFA-derived alkenes as sex pheromones.

  6. Pellet Formulations of Sex Pheromone Components for Mating Disruption of Oriental Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Turfgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A previous study showed that sprayable sex pheromone formulations for mating disruption to control the oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, had limited persistence and contaminated shoes worn in the treated areas. Contamination of shoes created a nuisance by attracting male beetles when ...

  7. Sex Pheromone Receptor Specificity in the European Corn Borer Moth, Ostrinia nubilalis.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, exists as two separate sex pheromone races. ECB(Z) females produce a 97:3 blend of Z11- and E11-14:OAc whereas ECB(E) females produce an opposite 1:99 ratio of the Z and E isomers. Males of each race respond specifically to their conspecific female...

  8. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  9. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  10. (Z)-9-Pentacosene - contact sex pheromone of the locust borer, Megacyllene robiniae

    Treesearch

    Matthew D. Ginzel; Jocelyn G. Miller; Lawrence M. Hanks

    2003-01-01

    Male locust borers, Megacyllene robiniae (Forster), responded to females only after contacting them with their antennae, indicating that mate recognition was mediated by a contact sex pheromone. GC-MS analyses of whole-body extracts of males and females determined that the profiles of compounds in the extracts were qualitatively similar, but differed...

  11. Identification of a Sex Attractant Pheromone for Male Winterform Pear Psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, have been shown to use a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. We compared the chemical profiles obtained from cuticular extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females, with...

  12. Phenyl propionate and sex pheromone for monitoring navel orangeworm in the presence of mating disruption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The recent availability of sex pheromone lures for the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), improves options for monitoring this key pest in conventionally-managed almonds. These lures are, however, minimally effective in the presence of mating disruption. Experi...

  13. Identification of a sex attractant pheromone for male winterform pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola.

    PubMed

    Guédot, Christelle; Millar, Jocelyn G; Horton, David R; Landolt, Peter J

    2009-12-01

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, uses a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. We compared the chemical profiles obtained from cuticular extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females to isolate and identify the pheromone. Post-diapause females produced significantly more of the cuticular hydrocarbon, 13-methylheptacosane, than post-diapause males and diapausing females. In olfactometer assays, conspecific males were attracted to synthetic racemic 13-methylheptacosane, whereas females were not, indicating that the behavioral response to this chemical is sex-specific. Furthermore, 13-methylheptacosane was as attractive to males as a cuticular extract of females, suggesting that this chemical was largely responsible for the female attractiveness. A field study showed that males but not females were attracted to 13-methylheptacosane, confirming the olfactometer results. This study provides evidence that 13-methylheptacosane is a sex attractant pheromone for C. pyricola winterform males. This is the first identification of a sex pheromone in the Psylloidea. Our results open the path to developing monitoring tools and possibly new strategies for integrated pest management of this insect.

  14. Sex attractant pheromone of the house fly: isolation, identification and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Carlson, D A; Mayer, M S; Silhacek, D L; James, J D; Beroza, M; Bierl, B A

    1971-10-01

    A sex pheromone isolated from the cuticle and feces of the female house fly attracts the male fly; it has been identified as (Z)-9-tricosene. Chemical and biological comparisons of the natural and synthesized compounds show that they are identical.

  15. Expression and Function of Sex Pheromones and Receptors in the Homothallic Ascomycete Gibberella zeae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In heterothallic ascomycete fungi, idiomorphic alleles at the MAT locus control two sex pheromone/receptor pairs that function in recognition and chemoattraction of strains with opposite mating types. In the ascomycete Gibberella zeae, the MAT locus is rearranged such that both alleles are adjacent...

  16. Flying faster: Flight height affects orthokinetic responses during moth flight to sex pheromone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Male Grapholita molesta (Busck) were allowed to fly upwind along horizontal sex pheromone plumes in laboratory flight tunnels. Flying males experienced tunnel-width stripes perpendicular to the wind line, or pseudo randomly distributed dots (5cm diameter, equal to stripe width), and their flights we...

  17. (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate: a supernormal stimulus of Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] sex pheromone behavior.

    PubMed

    Mayer, M S; Mitchell, E R

    2002-03-01

    Males discriminate between the single most important individual component of the sex pheromone of the female cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:Ac), and a mixture containing Z7-12:Ac and the other five putative components. The manifestation of discrimination is not an enhancement of captures by the mixture, rather, it is a reduction of captures in a paired trap baited with Z7-12:Ac by itself. Previous experiments showed that either or both of (Z)-7-tetradecenyl acetate (Z7-14:Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac) were responsible for this discrimination. This report provides evidence that Z7-14:Ac is more active than Z9-14:Ac, which appears to have no demonstrable effect on behavior. The results are discussed with reference to the behavior that is effected by the above three components, the composition of the native sex pheromone, and whether or not Z7-12:Ac might be a supernormal releaser of behavior.

  18. Identification of female-produced sex pheromone of the honey locust gall midge, Dasineura gleditchiae.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Béla; Kárpáti, Zsolt; Szocs, Gábor; Hall, David R

    2009-06-01

    The honey locust gall midge, Dasineura gleditchiae Osten Sacken 1866 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is the main pest of ornamental varieties of the honey locust tree, Gleditsia triacanthos L., in North America, and is now becoming a pest of concern in Europe. Female midges were observed to emerge in the early morning with their ovipositor extended until they mated. Volatiles were collected from virgin females in a closed-loop stripping apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to electroantennographic (EAG) recording from the antenna of a male midge. A single EAG response was observed, which was assumed to be to the major component of the female sex pheromone. This was identified as (Z)-2-acetoxy-8-heptadecene by comparison of its mass spectrum and GC retention times on different columns with those of synthetic standards and by micro-analytical reactions. This compound was synthesized, and the individual enantiomers were produced by kinetic resolution with lipase from Candida antarctica. Analysis of the naturally-produced compound on a cyclodextrin GC column indicated it was the (R)-enantiomer. In EAG dose-response measurements, the (R)-enantiomer alone or in the racemic mixture evoked significant responses from the antennae of male D. gleditchiae, whereas the (S)-enantiomer did not. In field trapping tests, the (R)-enantiomer attracted male D. gleditchiae. The racemic compound was equally attractive, but the (S)-enantiomer was not attractive. Both the pure (R)-enantiomer or racemic (Z)-2-acetoxy-8-heptadecene, applied to red rubber septa in a dose range of 3-30 microg, constitute a strongly attractive bait in sticky traps for monitoring the flight of D. gleditchiae.

  19. Prospects for the control of apple leaf midge Dasineura mali (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) by mass trapping with pheromone lures.

    PubMed

    Lo, Peter L; Walker, James T S; Suckling, D Max

    2015-07-01

    Apple leaf midge, Dasineura mali (Kieffer), poses quarantine issues for some apple export markets because larvae occasionally pupate in the stem end and calyx of fruit. Pheromone-baited oil-filled containers were used in 1 ha orchard plots to trap adult male D. mali in order to test the potential for mass trapping to reduce populations. Mass-trapped plots had 97% fewer adult males in pheromone traps and 48% fewer larvae per shoot in the second D. mali generation compared with untreated areas. Oil traps caught on average 900 000 D. mali per plot over 11 weeks during the second and third generations. Catches averaged 9200 per trap at plot corners. By comparison, catches were 51% lower 10-25 m away along borders, 80% lower at the midpoint of borders and 95% lower >7 m from plot edges. Fruit infestation was low (four out of 8000 apples). The attractiveness of the pheromone, monophagous habit and low mobility of D. mali enhance the prospects for successful mass trapping. Countering this are high populations, multivoltinism and aspects of mating behaviour. Mass trapping would probably have been more effective had it been in place season long and conducted over successive years. It needs refinements and more study before becoming a feasible control option for D. mali. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Identification of sex pheromone produced by female sweetpotato weevil,Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers).

    PubMed

    Heath, R R; Coffelt, J A; Sonnet, P E; Proshold, F I; Dueben, B; Tumlinson, J H

    1986-06-01

    A sex pheromone of the sweetpotato weevil,Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers), was obtained from collections of volatiles from virgin females, and pheromone was isolated by means of liquid and gas chromatography. The purification procedure was monitored by quantitative laboratory and field bioassays and the compound was identified as (Z)-3-dodecen-1-ol (E)-2-butenoate by means of spectroscopic and microchemical methods. Synthesis, followed by laboratory and field bioassays, showed that the biological activity of the synthetic material was qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable from that of the purified natural product.

  1. Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.

    PubMed Central

    Cardé, R T

    1976-01-01

    Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique. PMID:789060

  2. The Structure, Stability and Pheromone Binding of the Male Mouse Protein Sex Pheromone Darcin

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Marie M.; McLean, Lynn; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Hurst, Jane L.; Beynon, Robert J.; Lian, Lu-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Mouse urine contains highly polymorphic major urinary proteins that have multiple functions in scent communication through their abilities to bind, transport and release hydrophobic volatile pheromones. The mouse genome encodes for about 20 of these proteins and are classified, based on amino acid sequence similarity and tissue expression patterns, as either central or peripheral major urinary proteins. Darcin is a male specific peripheral major urinary protein and is distinctive in its role in inherent female attraction. A comparison of the structure and biophysical properties of darcin with MUP11, which belongs to the central class, highlights similarity in the overall structure between the two proteins. The thermodynamic stability, however, differs between the two proteins, with darcin being much more stable. Furthermore, the affinity of a small pheromone mimetic is higher for darcin, although darcin is more discriminatory, being unable to bind bulkier ligands. These attributes are due to the hydrophobic ligand binding cavity of darcin being smaller, caused by the presence of larger amino acid side chains. Thus, the physical and chemical characteristics of the binding cavity, together with its extreme stability, are consistent with darcin being able to exert its function after release into the environment. PMID:25279835

  3. Chemosterilization of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) does not affect sex pheromone release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siefkes, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Li, Weiming

    2003-01-01

    Release of males sterilized by injection with bisazir is an important experimental technique in management of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an invasive, nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Sea lampreys are semelparous and sterilization can theoretically eliminate a male's reproductive capacity and, if the ability to obtain mates is not affected, waste the sex products of females spawning with him. It has been demonstrated that spermiating males release a sex pheromone that attracts ovulating females. We demonstrated that sterilized, spermiating males also released the pheromone and attracted ovulating females. In a two-choice maze, ovulating females increased searching behavior and spent more time in the side of the maze containing chemical stimuli from sterilized, spermiating males. This attraction response was also observed in spawning stream experiments. Also, electro-olfactograms showed that female olfactory organs were equally sensitive to chemical stimuli from sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males. Finally, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry showed that extracts from water conditioned with sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males contained the same pheromonal molecule at similar levels. We concluded that injection of bisazir did not affect the efficacy of sex pheromone in sterilized males.

  4. Tissue distribution and lipophorin transport of hydrocarbons and sex pheromones in the house fly, Musca domestica

    PubMed Central

    Schal, Coby; Sevala, Veeresh; de L.Capurro, Margareth; Snyder, Theodore E.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Bagnères, Anne–Geneviève

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between epicuticular and internal hydrocarbons in the adult house fly, Musca domestica and the distribution of hydrocarbons, including the female sex pheromone component, (Z)-9-tricosene, in tissues. Internal hydrocarbons increased dramatically in relation to sexual maturation and were found in the hemolymph, ovaries, digestive tract, and fat body. (Z)-9-Tricosene comprised a relatively large fraction of the hydrocarbons in the female carcass and hemolymph, and less so in other tissues, while other hydrocarbons were represented in greater amounts in the ovaries than in other tissues. It therefore appears that certain hydrocarbons were selectively provisioned to certain tissues such as the ovaries, from which pheromone was relatively excluded. Both KBr gradient ultracentrifugation and specific immunoprecipitation indicated that > 90% of hemolymph hydrocarbons were associated with a high-density lipophorin (density = 1.09 g ml−1), composed of two apoproteins under denaturing conditions, apolipophorin I (∼240 kD) and apolipophorin II (∼85 kD). Our results support a predicted model (Chino, 1985) that lipophorin is involved in the transport of sex pheromone in M. domestica. In addition to delivering hydrocarbons and sex pheromones to the cuticular surface, we suggest that lipophorin may play an important role in an active mechanism that selectively deposits certain subsets of hydrocarbons at specific tissues. PMID:15455072

  5. Mutations at the Darkener of Apricot locus modulate pheromone production and sex behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fumey, Julien; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2017-04-01

    Mutations at the Darkener of Apricot (Doa) locus of Drosophila melanogaster alter sexual differentiation by disrupting sex-specific splicing of doublesex pre-mRNA, a key regulator of sex determination. Here, we study the effect of seven Doa alleles and several trans-heterozygous combinations on pheromones and courtship behavior. The cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile was slightly masculinized in females, with an accumulation of shorter compounds (C23 and C25) and a reduction in longer compounds (C27 and C29). The profile was feminized in males. Female cuticular profiles showed fewer dienes and female pheromones in six alleles and in the trans-heterozygotes and showed more male pheromones (tricosene and pentacosene) in three alleles (DEM, E786 and HD) and in all trans-heterozygotes. Courtship was severely affected in Doa males; in particular, males made fewer copulation attempts and copulated less with both control and Doa females. These results suggest that Doa could modulate pheromone production and sex behavior by altering sexual differentiation in the cuticle and the nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Concordant preferences for opposite-sex signals? Human pheromones and facial characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, R. Elisabeth; Boothroyd, Lynda; Burt, D. Michael; Feinberg, David R.; Jones, Ben C.; Little, Anthony C.; Pitman, Robert; Whiten, Susie; Perrett, David I.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated whether preferences for masculine and feminine characteristics are correlated across two modalities, olfaction and vision. In study 1, subjects rated the pleasantness of putative male (4,16-androstadien-3-one; 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one) and female (1,3,5 (10),16-estratetraen-3-ol) pheromones, and chose the most attractive face shape from a masculine-feminine continuum for a long- and a short-term relationship. Study 2 replicated study 1 and further explored the effects of relationship context on pheromone ratings. For long-term relationships, women's preferences for masculine face shapes correlated with ratings of 4,16-androstadien-3-one and men's preferences for feminine face shapes correlated with ratings of 1,3,5(10),16-estratetraen-3-ol. These studies link sex-specific preferences for putative human sex pheromones and sexually dimorphic facial characteristics. Our findings suggest that putative sex pheromones and sexually dimorphic facial characteristics convey common information about the quality of potential mates. PMID:15156922

  7. Concordant preferences for opposite-sex signals? Human pheromones and facial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, R Elisabeth; Boothroyd, Lynda; Burt, D Michael; Feinberg, David R; Jones, Ben C; Little, Anthony C; Pitman, Robert; Whiten, Susie; Perrett, David I

    2004-03-22

    We have investigated whether preferences for masculine and feminine characteristics are correlated across two modalities, olfaction and vision. In study 1, subjects rated the pleasantness of putative male (4,16-androstadien-3-one; 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one) and female (1,3,5 (10),16-estratetraen-3-ol) pheromones, and chose the most attractive face shape from a masculine-feminine continuum for a long- and a short-term relationship. Study 2 replicated study 1 and further explored the effects of relationship context on pheromone ratings. For long-term relationships, women's preferences for masculine face shapes correlated with ratings of 4,16-androstadien-3-one and men's preferences for feminine face shapes correlated with ratings of 1,3,5(10),16-estratetraen-3-ol. These studies link sex-specific preferences for putative human sex pheromones and sexually dimorphic facial characteristics. Our findings suggest that putative sex pheromones and sexually dimorphic facial characteristics convey common information about the quality of potential mates.

  8. A study of the female produced sex pheromone of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangat, Jaswinder

    regulation of pheromone biosynthesis in mature mated and virgin beetles. Further work is required to elucidate the biochemical basis for the inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis. Understanding the regulation of sex pheromone biosynthesis in this model organism will enhance our understanding of the process in beetles in general, and may (in the long term) lead to new pest control strategies.

  9. A nonspecific defensive compound evolves into a competition avoidance cue and a female sex pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Ingmar; Rössler, Thomas; Hofferberth, John; Brummer, Michael; Ruther, Joachim; Stökl, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of chemical communication and the origin of pheromones are among the most challenging issues in chemical ecology. Current theory predicts that chemical communication can arise from compounds primarily evolved for non-communicative purposes but experimental evidence showing a gradual evolution of non-informative compounds into cues and true signals is scarce. Here we report that females of the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma use the defensive compound (−)-iridomyrmecin as a semiochemical cue to avoid interference with con- and heterospecific competitors and as the main component of a species-specific sex pheromone. Although competition avoidance is mediated by (−)-iridomyrmecin alone, several structurally related minor compounds are necessary for reliable mate attraction and recognition. Our findings provide insights into the evolution of insect pheromones by demonstrating that the increasing specificity of chemical information is accompanied by an increasing complexity of the chemical messengers involved and the evolution of the chemosensory adaptations for their exploitation. PMID:24231727

  10. The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection. PMID:23466986

  11. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathway for disparlure in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar

    PubMed Central

    Jurenka, Russell A.; Subchev, Mitko; Abad, José-Luis; Choi, Man-Yeon; Fabriàs, Gemma

    2003-01-01

    The pheromone biosynthetic pathway for production of the sex pheromone disparlure, 2-methyl-7R,8S-epoxy-octadecane, was determined for the gypsy moth. Each step in the pathway was followed by using deuterium-labeled compounds that could be identified by using GC/MS. This approach provides unequivocal determination of specific reactions in the pathway. It was shown that the alkene precursor, 2-methyl-Z7-octadecene, is most likely made in oenocyte cells associated with abdominal epidermal cells. The pathway begins with valine contributing carbons for chain initiation, including the methyl-branched carbon, followed by chain elongation to 19 carbons. The double bond is introduced with an unusual Δ12 desaturase that utilizes a methyl-branched substrate. The resulting 18-methyl-Z12-nonadecenoate is decarboxylated to the hydrocarbon, 2-methyl-Z7-octadecene. The alkene is then transported to the pheromone gland through the hemolymph, most probably by lipophorin. At the pheromone gland, the alkene is unloaded and transformed into the epoxide disparlure for release into the environment. A chiral HPLC column was used to demonstrate that the (R,S)-stereoisomer of the epoxide, (+)-disparlure is found in pheromone glands. PMID:12533665

  12. Enterococcal Sex Pheromones: Evolutionary Pathways to Complex, Two-Signal Systems

    PubMed Central

    Berntsson, Ronnie Per-Arne

    2016-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria carry out intercellular communication using secreted peptides. Important examples of this type of communication are the enterococcal sex pheromone systems, in which the transfer of conjugative plasmids is controlled by intercellular signaling among populations of donors and recipients. This review focuses on the pheromone response system of the conjugative plasmid pCF10. The peptide pheromones regulating pCF10 transfer act by modulating the ability of the PrgX transcription factor to repress the transcription of an operon encoding conjugation functions. Many Gram-positive bacteria regulate important processes, including the production of virulence factors, biofilm formation, sporulation, and genetic exchange using peptide-mediated signaling systems. The key master regulators of these systems comprise the RRNPP (RggRap/NprR/PlcR/PrgX) family of intracellular peptide receptors; these regulators show conserved structures. While many RRNPP systems include a core module of two linked genes encoding the regulatory protein and its cognate signaling peptide, the enterococcal sex pheromone plasmids have evolved to a complex system that also recognizes a second host-encoded signaling peptide. Additional regulatory genes not found in most RRNPP systems also modulate signal production and signal import in the enterococcal pheromone plasmids. This review summarizes several structural studies that cumulatively demonstrate that the ability of three pCF10 regulatory proteins to recognize the same 7-amino-acid pheromone peptide arose by convergent evolution of unrelated proteins from different families. We also focus on the selective pressures and structure/function constraints that have driven the evolution of pCF10 from a simple, single-peptide system resembling current RRNPPs in other bacteria to the current complex inducible plasmid transfer system. PMID:27021562

  13. Enterococcal Sex Pheromones: Evolutionary Pathways to Complex, Two-Signal Systems.

    PubMed

    Dunny, Gary M; Berntsson, Ronnie Per-Arne

    2016-06-01

    Gram-positive bacteria carry out intercellular communication using secreted peptides. Important examples of this type of communication are the enterococcal sex pheromone systems, in which the transfer of conjugative plasmids is controlled by intercellular signaling among populations of donors and recipients. This review focuses on the pheromone response system of the conjugative plasmid pCF10. The peptide pheromones regulating pCF10 transfer act by modulating the ability of the PrgX transcription factor to repress the transcription of an operon encoding conjugation functions. Many Gram-positive bacteria regulate important processes, including the production of virulence factors, biofilm formation, sporulation, and genetic exchange using peptide-mediated signaling systems. The key master regulators of these systems comprise the RRNPP (RggRap/NprR/PlcR/PrgX) family of intracellular peptide receptors; these regulators show conserved structures. While many RRNPP systems include a core module of two linked genes encoding the regulatory protein and its cognate signaling peptide, the enterococcal sex pheromone plasmids have evolved to a complex system that also recognizes a second host-encoded signaling peptide. Additional regulatory genes not found in most RRNPP systems also modulate signal production and signal import in the enterococcal pheromone plasmids. This review summarizes several structural studies that cumulatively demonstrate that the ability of three pCF10 regulatory proteins to recognize the same 7-amino-acid pheromone peptide arose by convergent evolution of unrelated proteins from different families. We also focus on the selective pressures and structure/function constraints that have driven the evolution of pCF10 from a simple, single-peptide system resembling current RRNPPs in other bacteria to the current complex inducible plasmid transfer system. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Variation in relative quantities of airborne sex pheromone components from individual femaleEphestia cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Barrer, P M; Lacey, M J; Shani, A

    1987-03-01

    The airborne sex pheromone components (Z,E)-9,12-tetradeca-dien-1-yl acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-y1 acetate from single calling females ofEphestia cautella (Walker) were trapped within glass capillary tubes and were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Broad and similar distributions of relative quantities were found for a laboratory strain and three Australian field strains, and means differed strongly from those reported previously for this species. The overall mean proportion of the two components found for Australian females was 88∶12. The composition in individuals ranged from 63∶27 to 97∶3. The proportions for individuals appeared to vary slightly in a random fashion from day to day, and proportions for first-generation progeny were influenced by the maternal blend.

  15. Hourly and seasonable variation in catch of winter moths and bruce spanworm in pheromone-baited traps

    Treesearch

    Joseph Elkinton; Natalie Leva; George Boettner; Roy Hunkins; Marinko. Sremac

    2011-01-01

    Elkinton et al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which, as far as it is known, consists of a single compound that is also used by Bruce spanworm, the North American congener of winter moth, O....

  16. Field capture of Thyanta perditor with pheromone-baited traps and cross-attraction to other pentatomids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Brazil, Thyanta perditor is one of the stink bugs attacking soybean and also could be found on others crops such as wheat, sunflower and sorghum. The objective of this work was to test the field attractiveness of traps baited with synthetic T. perditor pheromone. Two-liter transparent plastic sof...

  17. Attraction of agrilus planipennis fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to a volatile pheromone: effects of release rate, host volatile and trap placement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attraction of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, to a volatile pheromone was demonstrated in three field experiments using baited green sticky traps. A dose-response curve was generated for male A. planipennis to increasing release rates of (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide, (3Z)-lactone, in com...

  18. Potential for use of synthetic sex pheromone for mating disruption of the olive pyralid moth, Euzophera pinguis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Antonio; Quesada, Antonio; Sanchez, Adolfo

    2004-05-01

    The potential for pheromone-based mating disruption of the olive pyralid moth (OPM), Euzophera pinguis, in olive groves was investigated during the second flight period in small-plot trials in 2002. The female of this species emits a blend of (9Z,12E)-tetradecadien-1-ol and (9Z,12E)-tetradecadienyl acetate, which were synthesized for field tests. Mating disruption efficacy in 0.8-ha trials was evaluated using two parameters: reduction of male capture in pheromone traps and reduction of infestation in infestation-prone sites. White rubber septa containing 10 mg of pheromone blend as disruptant were applied at a density of 50 septa/ha for each treatment. Mean catches of E. pinguis males in pheromone traps were greatly reduced (> 95%) in pheromone-treated plots relative to similar traps placed in control plots. In addition, significant reductions were recorded (35-40%) in the oviposition and infestation levels during pheromone treatment. The total amount of pheromone blend released from disruption dispensers during the field trials was estimated to average 5.4 mg/ha/day, over 56 days.

  19. Simultaneously Hermaphroditic Shrimp Use Lipophilic Cuticular Hydrocarbons as Contact Sex Pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Terschak, John A.; Harley, Maggy A.; Lin, Junda; Hardege, Jörg D.

    2011-01-01

    Successful mating is essentially a consequence of making the right choices at the correct time. Animals use specific strategies to gain information about a potential mate, which is then applied to decision-making processes. Amongst the many informative signals, odor cues such as sex pheromones play important ecological roles in coordinating mating behavior, enabling mate and kin recognition, qualifying mate choice, and preventing gene exchange among individuals from different populations and species. Despite overwhelming behavioral evidence, the chemical identity of most cues used in aquatic organisms remains unknown and their impact and omnipresence have not been fully recognized. In many crustaceans, including lobsters and shrimps, reproduction happens through a cascade of events ranging from initial attraction to formation of a mating pair eventually leading to mating. We examined the hypothesis that contact pheromones on the female body surface of the hermaphroditic shrimp Lysmata boggessi are of lipophilic nature, and resemble insect cuticular hydrocarbon contact cues. Via chemical analyses and behavioural assays, we show that newly molted euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp contain a bouquet of odor compounds. Of these, (Z)-9-octadecenamide is the key odor with hexadecanamide and methyl linoleate enhancing the bioactivity of the pheromone blend. Our results show that in aquatic systems lipophilic, cuticular hydrocarbon contact sex pheromones exist; this raises questions on how hydrocarbon contact signals evolved and how widespread these are in the marine environment. PMID:21533136

  20. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    PubMed Central

    Duménil, Claire; Judd, Gary J. R.; Bosch, Dolors; Baldessari, Mario; Gemeno, César; Groot, Astrid T.

    2014-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption. PMID:26462935

  1. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Duménil, Claire; Judd, Gary J R; Bosch, Dolors; Baldessari, Mario; Gemeno, César; Groot, Astrid T

    2014-09-26

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

  2. Contact sex pheromone components of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus analis (F.).

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Kenji; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Yajima, Arata; Mimura, Takanori; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ohsawa, Kanju

    2010-09-01

    Callosobruchus analis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), found throughout tropical Asia and Africa, is a pest of stored legumes. Previous work has shown that females of this species produce a contact sex pheromone that elicits copulatory behavior in males. Comparisons of copulatory activity between any two of four congeneric species suggest that the contact sex pheromones are species specific. In laboratory bioassays, male C. analis exhibited copulatory behavior to a female dummy to which a crude extract of virgin females was applied. The extract had been collected by a filter paper method and was purified by acid-base partition and chromatographic techniques. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of active fractions revealed that the active compounds were 2,6-dimethyloctane-1,8-dioic acid (1) and callosobruchusic acid, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2-octene-1,8-dioic acid (2), previously identified as contact sex pheromones of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and C. chinensis (L.), respectively. The stereoisomeric and chemical compositions were determined by the 2D-HPLC-Ohrui-Akasaka method as (2S,6R)-1:(S)-2=1.8:1, which meant that both compounds in C. analis were stereochemically pure, unlike the case of C. maculatus and C. chinensis. An examination of the influence of synthetic pheromone compounds on male copulatory activity revealed that (2S,6R)-1 is the main component, and that (S)-2 has an additive effect. In the examination of the stereochemistry-activity relationship, no copulatory behavior was elicited by (2R,6S)-1, and, furthermore, the enantiomer significantly masked the pheromonal activity of (2S,6R)-1. Glass rod dummy assays also suggested the presence of synergists. These results could elucidate the specificity of mate recognition in C. analis.

  3. 2,3-Hexanediols as Sex Attractants and a Female-produced Sex Pheromone for Cerambycid Beetles in the Prionine Genus Tragosoma

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, James D.; McElfresh, J. Steven; Moreira, Jardel A.; Swift, Ian; Wright, Ian M.; Žunič, Alenka; Mitchell, Robert F.; Graham, Elizabeth E.; Alten, Ronald L.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Hanks, Lawrence M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work suggests that closely related cerambycid species often share pheromone components, or even produce pheromone blends of identical composition. However, little is known of the pheromones of species in the subfamily Prioninae. During field bioassays in California, males of three species in the prionine genus Tragosoma were attracted to 2,3-hexanediols, common components of male-produced aggregation pheromones of beetles in the subfamily Cerambycinae. We report here that the female-produced sex pheromone of Tragosoma depsarium “sp. nov. Laplante” is (2R,3R)-2,3-hex-anediol, and provide evidence from field bioassays and electro-antennography that the female-produced pheromone of both Tragosoma pilosicorne Casey and T depsarium “harrisi” LeConte may be (2S,3R)-2,3-hexanediol. Sexual dimorphism in the sculpting of the prothorax suggests that the pheromone glands are located in the prothorax of females. This is the second sex attractant pheromone structure identified from the subfamily Prioninae, and our results provide further evidence of pheromonal parsimony within the Cerambycidae, in this case extending across both subfamily and gender lines. PMID:22923142

  4. Identification of sex pheromone components of darksided cutworm,Euxoa messoria, and modification of sex attractant blend for adult males.

    PubMed

    Struble, D L; Byers, J R

    1987-05-01

    Eleven "pheromone-like" compounds were identified in excised abdomen tip extracts of calling adult females of darksided cutworm,Euxoa messoria (Harris). The essential pheromone components were (Z)-7- and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetates in a ratio of 1∶40, which agreed with an attractant blend developed empirically by field testing the attractancies of synthetic blends. The pheromone component, (Z)-11-hexadecenol, improved the attraction of darksided cutworm males whereas the components (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate and (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate inhibited their attraction. The other "pheromone-like" compounds identified in the female extracts had no obvious effect on the attraction of darksided cutworm males. Three compounds that functioned as parapheromones when substituted for (Z)-7-hexadecenyl acetate in the two-component blend were (Z)-7-pentadecenyl, (Z)-7-tetradecenyl, and (Z)-7-tridecenyl acetates. (Z)-11-hexadecenal was not detected in the female extracts, but it had a synergistic effect on the attraction of darksided cutworm moths and inhibited the attraction of male moths of a nontarget species,Helotropha reniformis (Grote). As a trap bait for monitoring purposes, we recommend a four-component blend of (Z)-7-hexadecenyl acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecenol, and (Z)-11-hexadecenal at 12.5, 500, 1, and 10 μg/red rubber septum dispenser containing 5 μg of antioxidant 2,6-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol. This blend is effective under field conditions for at least six weeks.

  5. Morganella morganii bacteria produces phenol as the sex pheromone of the New Zealand grass grub from tyrosine in the colleterial gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, D. G.; Jackson, T. A.; Unelius, C. R.; Wee, S. L.; Young, S. D.; Townsend, R. J.; Suckling, D. M.

    2016-08-01

    Costelytra zealandica (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae) is a univoltine endemic species that has colonised and become a major pest of introduced clover and ryegrass pastures that form about half of the land area of New Zealand. Female beetles were previously shown to use phenol as their sex pheromone produced by symbiotic bacteria in the accessory or colleterial gland. In this study, production of phenol was confirmed from the female beetles, while bacteria were isolated from the gland and tested for attractiveness towards grass grub males in traps in the field. The phenol-producing bacterial taxon was identified by partial sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene, as Morganella morganii. We then tested the hypothesis that the phenol sex pheromone is biosynthesized from the amino acid tyrosine by the bacteria. This was shown to be correct, by addition of isotopically labelled tyrosine (13C) to the bacterial broth, followed by detection of the labelled phenol by SPME-GCMS. Elucidation of this pathway provides specific evidence how the phenol is produced as an insect sex pheromone by a mutualistic bacteria.

  6. Morganella morganii bacteria produces phenol as the sex pheromone of the New Zealand grass grub from tyrosine in the colleterial gland.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D G; Jackson, T A; Unelius, C R; Wee, S L; Young, S D; Townsend, R J; Suckling, D M

    2016-08-01

    Costelytra zealandica (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae) is a univoltine endemic species that has colonised and become a major pest of introduced clover and ryegrass pastures that form about half of the land area of New Zealand. Female beetles were previously shown to use phenol as their sex pheromone produced by symbiotic bacteria in the accessory or colleterial gland. In this study, production of phenol was confirmed from the female beetles, while bacteria were isolated from the gland and tested for attractiveness towards grass grub males in traps in the field. The phenol-producing bacterial taxon was identified by partial sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene, as Morganella morganii. We then tested the hypothesis that the phenol sex pheromone is biosynthesized from the amino acid tyrosine by the bacteria. This was shown to be correct, by addition of isotopically labelled tyrosine ((13)C) to the bacterial broth, followed by detection of the labelled phenol by SPME-GCMS. Elucidation of this pathway provides specific evidence how the phenol is produced as an insect sex pheromone by a mutualistic bacteria.

  7. Selection on male sex pheromone composition contributes to butterfly reproductive isolation

    PubMed Central

    Bacquet, P. M. B.; Brattström, O.; Wang, H.-L.; Allen, C. E.; Löfstedt, C.; Brakefield, P. M.; Nieberding, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Selection can facilitate diversification by inducing character displacement in mate choice traits that reduce the probability of maladaptive mating between lineages. Although reproductive character displacement (RCD) has been demonstrated in two-taxa case studies, the frequency of this process in nature is still debated. Moreover, studies have focused primarily on visual and acoustic traits, despite the fact that chemical communication is probably the most common means of species recognition. Here, we showed in a large, mostly sympatric, butterfly genus, a strong pattern of recurrent RCD for predicted male sex pheromone composition, but not for visual mate choice traits. Our results suggest that RCD is not anecdotal, and that selection for divergence in male sex pheromone composition contributed to reproductive isolation within the Bicyclus genus. We propose that selection may target olfactory mate choice traits as a more common sensory modality to ensure reproductive isolation among diverging lineages than previously envisaged. PMID:25740889

  8. A Background of a Volatile Plant Compound Alters Neural and Behavioral Responses to the Sex Pheromone Blend in a Moth

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Fabienne; Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Bourgeois, Thomas; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Anton, Sylvia; Renou, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of intra-specific olfactory signals within a complex environment of plant-related volatiles is crucial for reproduction in male moths. Sex pheromone information is detected by specific olfactory receptor neurons (Phe-ORNs), highly abundant on the male antenna. The information is then transmitted to the pheromone processing macroglomerular complex (MGC) within the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe, where it is processed by local interneurons and projection neurons. Ultimately a behavioral response, orientation toward the pheromone source, is elicited. Volatile plant compounds (VPCs) are detected by other functional types of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) projecting in another area of the antennal lobe. However, Phe-ORNs also respond to some VPCs. Female-produced sex pheromones are emitted within a rich environment of VPCs, some of which have been shown to interfere with the detection and processing of sex pheromone information. As interference between the different odor sources might depend on the spatial and temporal features of the two types of stimuli, we investigated here behavioral and neuronal responses to a brief sex pheromone blend pulse in a VPC background as compared to a control background in the male noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. We observed male orientation behavior in a wind tunnel and recorded responses of Phe-ORNs and MGC neurons to a brief sex pheromone pulse within a background of individual VPCs. We also recorded the global input signal to the MGC using in vivo calcium imaging with the same stimulation protocol. We found that VPCs eliciting a response in Phe-ORNs and MGC neurons masked responses to the pheromone and decreased the contrast between background odor and the sex pheromone at both levels, whereas α-pinene did not interfere with first order processing. The calcium signal produced in response to a VPC background was tonic, lasting longer than the VPC stimulus duration, and masked entirely the pheromone response

  9. A Background of a Volatile Plant Compound Alters Neural and Behavioral Responses to the Sex Pheromone Blend in a Moth.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Fabienne; Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Bourgeois, Thomas; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Anton, Sylvia; Renou, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of intra-specific olfactory signals within a complex environment of plant-related volatiles is crucial for reproduction in male moths. Sex pheromone information is detected by specific olfactory receptor neurons (Phe-ORNs), highly abundant on the male antenna. The information is then transmitted to the pheromone processing macroglomerular complex (MGC) within the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe, where it is processed by local interneurons and projection neurons. Ultimately a behavioral response, orientation toward the pheromone source, is elicited. Volatile plant compounds (VPCs) are detected by other functional types of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) projecting in another area of the antennal lobe. However, Phe-ORNs also respond to some VPCs. Female-produced sex pheromones are emitted within a rich environment of VPCs, some of which have been shown to interfere with the detection and processing of sex pheromone information. As interference between the different odor sources might depend on the spatial and temporal features of the two types of stimuli, we investigated here behavioral and neuronal responses to a brief sex pheromone blend pulse in a VPC background as compared to a control background in the male noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. We observed male orientation behavior in a wind tunnel and recorded responses of Phe-ORNs and MGC neurons to a brief sex pheromone pulse within a background of individual VPCs. We also recorded the global input signal to the MGC using in vivo calcium imaging with the same stimulation protocol. We found that VPCs eliciting a response in Phe-ORNs and MGC neurons masked responses to the pheromone and decreased the contrast between background odor and the sex pheromone at both levels, whereas α-pinene did not interfere with first order processing. The calcium signal produced in response to a VPC background was tonic, lasting longer than the VPC stimulus duration, and masked entirely the pheromone response

  10. Selection of pheromone trap and attractant dispenser load to monitor black army cutworm,Actebia fennica.

    PubMed

    Gray, T G; Shepherd, R F; Struble, D L; Byers, J B; Maher, T F

    1991-02-01

    Catch rates of black army cutworm moths,Actebia fennica (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were determined for different types of traps and different dispenser loads of sex attractant. Of the five traps tested, highest catch (35 males/per night) was obtained with Uni-Traps, whereas Pherocon 1CP, Delta and Hara traps rapidly became saturated at 9, 6, and 11 males/per night, respectively. Multi-Pher traps, like the Uni-Traps, have a covered vertical cone with a large collecting bucket but only catch about 1/3 of the number of moths (9 males/per night) as the Uni-Traps, thus reducing potential saturation. Red rubber septa loaded with 500 μg of attractant blend gave a consistent catch for at least 60 days; 1000 and 2000 μg loadings lasted for a minimum of 90 days. Polyvinylchloride and red rubber septa dispensers containing 100 μg of attractant had similar catch rates, which decreased rapidly with age. Based on these trap and lure-loading experiments, Multi-Pher traps baited with 1000 μg of attractant in a red rubber septum were selected for future calibration studies between catch density and population fluctuations on susceptible sites. Two years of monitoring results also are reported.

  11. Specificity of the Receptor for the Major Sex Pheromone Component in Heliothis virescens

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Gissella M.; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Estes, Patricia A.; Leal, Walter S.; Gould, Fred

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the Drosophila melanogaster OR67dGAL4;UAS system was used to functionally characterize the receptor for the major component of the sex pheromone in the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), HvOR13. Electrophysiological and behavioral assays showed that transgenic flies expressing HvOR13 responded to (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald). However, tests were not performed to determine whether these flies would also respond to secondary components of the H. virescens sex pheromone. Thus, in this study the response spectrum of HvOR13 expressed in this system was examined by performing single cell recordings from odor receptor neuron in trichoid T1 sensilla on antennae of two Or67dGAL4 [1]; UAS-HvOR13 lines stimulated with Z11-16:Ald and six H. virescens secondary pheromone components. Fly courtship assays were also performed to examine the behavioral response of the Or67dGAL4[1]; UAS-HvOR13 flies to Z11-16:Ald and the secondary component Z9-14:Ald. Our combined electrophysiological and behavioral studies indicated high specificity and sensitivity of HvOR13 to Z11-16:Ald. Interestingly, a mutation leading to truncation in the HvOR13 C-terminal region affected but did not abolish pheromone receptor response to Z11-16:Ald. The findings are assessed in relationship to other HvOR13 heterologous expression studies, and the role of the C-terminal domain in receptor function is discussed. A third line expressing HvOR15 was also tested but did not respond to any of the seven pheromone components. PMID:24773407

  12. Sex Pheromones: (E,E)-8,10-Dodecadien-1-ol in the Codling Moth.

    PubMed

    Beroza, M; Bierl, B A; Moffitt, H R

    1974-01-11

    Although (E,E)-8,10-Dodecadien-l-ol was reported to be a sex pheromone of the codling moth [Laspeyresia pomonella (L.)], its presence in the moth was questioned, mainly because it has not been isolated. A computerized search of data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of a partially purified extract equivalent to 45 abdominal tips of female moths produced a mass spectrum that matched that of the authentic coinpound. Other data also confirmed the presence of the compound.

  13. Lures for red palm weevil trapping systems: aggregation pheromone and synthetic kairomone.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; Melita, Ourania; Michaelakis, Antonios; Milonas, Panagiotis; Minuz, Roxana; Riolo, Paola; Abbass, Mohamed Kamal; Lo Bue, Paolo; Colazza, Stefano; Peri, Ezio; Soroker, Victoria; Livne, Yaara; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The optimisation of the lure is essential for the implementation of trapping systems to control insect pests. In this work, the response of the red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, to increasing emission rates of its aggregation pheromone (ferrugineol) and the efficacy of a convenient synthetic kairomone based on fermentation odours (ethyl acetate and ethanol) have been evaluated in different years and locations along the Mediterranean basin. In general, although capture data and emission had noticeable variability among locations, significantly fewer RPW were captured in pyramidal Picusan® traps with the lowest ferrugineol emission rates tested (0.6-3.8 mg day(-1) ). Captures increased rapidly with ferrugineol emission up to 4-5 mg day(-1) ; then, higher emission rates did not improve or reduce captures, up to the highest emission rate tested of 50.9 mg day(-1) . Thus, there is no evidence of an optimum release rate corresponding to a maximum of RPW catches. Traps baited with the synthetic kairomone (1:3 ethyl acetate/ethanol) captured 1.4-2.2 times more total weevils than traps baited only with ferrugineol. Moreover, in most of the locations, the synthetic blend was at least as effective as the local coattractants used (plant material + molasses). Ferrugineol emission rate can vary in a wide range without significantly affecting RPW response. Coattractants based on fermenting compounds, ethyl acetate and ethanol, are able to improve the attractant level of ferrugineol and could be employed to replace non-standardised natural kairomones in RPW trapping systems after further optimisation of their proportions and doses. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Female Sex Pheromone in Trails of the Minute Pirate Bug, Orius minutus (L).

    PubMed

    Maeda, Taro; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yasui, Hiroe; Matsuyama, Shigeru

    2016-05-01

    Orius minutus (L.) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) is a natural enemy of agricultural pests such as thrips, aphids, and various newly hatched insect juveniles. In this study, we conducted 1) behavioral assays for evidence of contact sex pheromone activity in trails of O. minutus, and 2) chemical analysis to identify the essential chemical components of the trails. Males showed arrestment to trails of mature virgin females but not to trails from either conspecific nymphs or immature females. Females also showed arrestment to trails from conspecific males, although the response was weaker than that exhibited by males. The activity of female trails lasted for at least 46 h after deposition. Males showed a response irrespective of mating experience. Following confirmation that a contact sex pheromone was present in the trails of female O. minutus, we used a bioassay-driven approach to isolate the active chemicals. After fractionation on silica gel, the n-hexane fraction was found to be biologically active to males. A major compound in the active fraction was (Z)-9-nonacosene; this compound was found only in trail extracts of mature virgin females. Synthetic (Z)-9-nonacosene arrested O. minutus males, indicating that it is the major active component of the contact sex pheromone in the trails of female O. minutus.

  15. Release mechanism of sex pheromone in the female gypsy moth Lymantria dispar: a morpho-functional approach.

    PubMed

    Solari, Paolo; Crnjar, Roberto; Spiga, Saturnino; Sollai, Giorgia; Loy, Francesco; Masala, Carla; Liscia, Anna

    2007-07-01

    A morpho-functional investigation of the sex pheromone-producing area was correlated with the pheromone release mechanism in the female gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. As assessed by male electroantennograms (EAG) and morphological observations, the pheromone gland consists of a single-layered epithelium both in the dorsal and ventral halves of the intersegmental membrane between the 8th and 9th abdominal segments. By using the male EAG as a biosensor of real-time release of sex pheromone from whole calling females, we found this process time coupled with extension movements of the ovipositor. Nevertheless, in females in which normal calling behavior was prevented, pheromone release was detected neither in absence nor in presence of electrical stimulation of the ventral nerve cord/terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG) complex. Tetramethylrhodamine-conjugated dextran amine stainings also confirm the lack of any innervation of the gland from nerves IV to VI emerging from the TAG. These findings indicate that the release of sex pheromone from the glands in female gypsy moths is independent of any neural control exerted by the TAG on the glands, at least by way of its three most caudally located pairs of nerves, and appears as a consequence of a squeezing mechanism in the pheromone-producing area.

  16. Monitoring stored-product pests in food processing plants with pheromone trapping, contour mapping, and mark-recapture.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J F; Mullen, M A; Dowdy, A K

    2002-10-01

    Distribution and movement patterns of several species of stored-product pests in a food processing plant were investigated. The objectives of this study were to determine the temporal and spatial variation in abundance of stored-product pests using pheromone traps; assess the effectiveness of trap type, location, and number on monitoring insect populations; and to evaluate the nature of pheromone trap capture hot spots by measuring patterns of insect movement. We determined that the distributions of Trogoderma variabile Ballion, Lasioderina serricorne (F.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) within the facility were typically clumped and that foci of high trap captures, based on visual observation of contour maps, varied among species and over time. Trap type and location influenced the number of T. variabile captured: traps on the floor and along walls captured more individuals than hanging traps and traps next to support pillars. T. variabile was the predominant insect pest at this facility and from mark-recapture studies, we found that individual beetles moved across multiple floors in the facility and from 7 to 216 m though the warehouse.

  17. Lobesia botrana IPM: electrospun polyester microfibers serve as biodegradable sex pheromone dispensers.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Hans E; Langner, S S

    2013-01-01

    Modern insect pest management is faced with an increasingly sophisticated set of requirements. Control agent/dispenser combinations must be at the same time safe, nontoxic, inexpensive, reproducibly efficacious, environmentally compatible, biodegradable, and sustainable, and should be based on renewable resources. The methods employed preferably should be suitable for the growing and tightly controlled organic growing sector as well. All this calls for a level of sophistication and reproducibility previously unknown. Only very few systems can offer this kind of performance, but fortunately can be found in the area of suitable pheromone/dispenser combinations. This report is an attempt to adapt electrospun Ecoflex polyester micro fibers of the Greiner-Wendorff type to the very specific needs of the grape growing industry. Specifically required are "semi-intelligent" dispenser materials. On a weight basis, the electrospun product should achieve as high a proportion as possible of "retainable" sex pheromone (E,Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate of Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) and should release it as uniformly as possible into the surrounding airspace. Using the Doye bioassay, some progress indeed has recently been achieved with electrospun Ecoflex microfibers of 0.5-3.5 microm diameter. They were employed as dispensers for programmed sex pheromone release with an effective mating disruption duration of up to seven weeks. With one microfiber/pheromone treatment, this covers one entire flight period of the trivoltine L. botrana. Mechanical application of this microfiber/pheromone preparation (with the option of automation) is possible. Disruption effects are comparable with those of commercially available dispensers of the Isonet type. Exposed under vineyard conditions, Ecoflex polyester fibers are a spider silk like material which is biodegradable within half a year. Thus, after releasing its pheromone load, it does not need removal, which saves one cultivation step

  18. Olfactory perception and behavioral effects of sex pheromone gland components in Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng; Guo, Hao; Hou, Chao; Wu, Han; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Two sympatric species Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta use (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecenal as sex pheromone components in reverse ratio. They also share several other pheromone gland components (PGCs). We present a comparative study on the olfactory coding mechanism and behavioral effects of these additional PGCs in pheromone communication of the two species using single sensillum recording, in situ hybridization, calcium imaging, and wind tunnel. We classify antennal sensilla types A, B and C into A, B1, B2, C1, C2 and C3 based on the response profiles, and identify the glomeruli responsible for antagonist detection in both species. The abundance of these sensilla types when compared with the number of OSNs expressing each of six pheromone receptors suggests that HarmOR13 and HassOR13 are expressed in OSNs housed within A type sensilla, HarmOR14b within B and C type sensilla, while HassOR6 and HassOR16 within some of C type sensilla. We find that for H. armigera, (Z)-11-hexadecenol and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate act as behavioral antagonists. For H. assulta, instead, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate acts as an agonist, while (Z)-9-hexadecenol, (Z)-11-hexadecenol and (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate are antagonists. The results provide an overall picture of intra- and interspecific olfactory and behavioral responses to all PGCs in two sister species. PMID:26975244

  19. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Mating Behavior and Male Sex Pheromones in Nasonia Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Wenwen; Mousset, Mathilde; Horsburgh, Gavin J.; Vermeulen, Cornelis J.; Johannes, Frank; van de Zande, Louis; Ritchie, Michael G.; Schmitt, Thomas; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2016-01-01

    A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation. Behavioral analysis showed that N. oneida females had consistently higher latency times, and broke off the mating sequence more often in the mounting stage when confronted with N. giraulti males compared with males of their own species. N. oneida males produce a lower quantity of the long-range male sex pheromone (4R,5S)-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RS-HDL). Crosses between the two species yielded hybrid males with various pheromone quantities, and these males were used in mating trials with females of either species to measure female mate discrimination rates. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis involving 475 recombinant hybrid males (F2), 2148 reciprocally backcrossed females (F3), and a linkage map of 52 equally spaced neutral single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers plus SNPs in 40 candidate mating behavior genes revealed four QTL for male pheromone amount, depending on partner species. Our results demonstrate that the RS-HDL pheromone plays a role in the mating system of N. giraulti and N. oneida, but also that additional communication cues are involved in mate choice. No QTL were found for female mate discrimination, which points at a polygenic architecture of female choice with strong environmental influences. PMID:27172207

  20. Mammalian pheromones.

    PubMed

    Liberles, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian pheromones control a myriad of innate social behaviors and acutely regulate hormone levels. Responses to pheromones are highly robust, reproducible, and stereotyped and likely involve developmentally predetermined neural circuits. Here, I review several facets of pheromone transduction in mammals, including (a) chemosensory receptors and signaling components of the main olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ involved in pheromone detection; (b) pheromone-activated neural circuits subject to sex-specific and state-dependent modulation; and (c) the striking chemical diversity of mammalian pheromones, which range from small, volatile molecules and sulfated steroids to large families of proteins. Finally, I review (d) molecular mechanisms underlying various behavioral and endocrine responses, including modulation of puberty and estrous; control of reproduction, aggression, suckling, and parental behaviors; individual recognition; and distinguishing of own species from predators, competitors, and prey. Deconstruction of pheromone transduction mechanisms provides a critical foundation for understanding how odor response pathways generate instinctive behaviors.

  1. Mammalian Pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Liberles, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian pheromones control a myriad of innate social behaviors and acutely regulate hormone levels. Responses to pheromones are highly robust, reproducible, and stereotyped and likely involve developmentally predetermined neural circuits. Here, I review several facets of pheromone transduction in mammals, including (a) chemosensory receptors and signaling components of the main olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ involved in pheromone detection; (b) pheromone-activated neural circuits subject to sex-specific and state-dependent modulation; and (c) the striking chemical diversity of mammalian pheromones, which range from small, volatile molecules and sulfated steroids to large families of proteins. Finally, I review (d ) molecular mechanisms underlying various behavioral and endocrine responses, including modulation of puberty and estrous; control of reproduction, aggression, suckling, and parental behaviors; individual recognition; and distinguishing of own species from predators, competitors, and prey. Deconstruction of pheromone transduction mechanisms provides a critical foundation for understanding how odor response pathways generate instinctive behaviors. PMID:23988175

  2. Sex pheromone components ofEuxoa drewseni Chemical identification, electrophysiological evaluation, and field attractancy tests.

    PubMed

    Struble, D L

    1983-03-01

    Eleven compounds structurally similar to known lepidopterous pheromone components were identified in the extract from 18 calling female moths ofEuxoa drewseni (Staudinger). The identifications were done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization and electroantennographic detectors simultaneously. Detector antennae were from five species of moths. In the field, male moths were specifically attracted to a three-component blend of dodecyl, (Z)-5-dodecenyl, and (Z)-7-tetradecenyl acetates in a ratio of 2∶6∶1. This blend at 1000 μg/rubber septum dispenser is recommended as a trap bait for monitoring purposes. Low concentrations of (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate or (Z)-7-tetradecenol inhibited the attraction of moths to the three-component blend. (Z)-7-Pentadecenyl acetate functioned as a parapheromone in place of (Z)-7-tetradecenyl acetate in the pheromone blend, and they appear to react via the same antennal receptor.

  3. A sex-inducing pheromone triggers cell cycle arrest and mate attraction in the diatom Seminavis robusta

    PubMed Central

    Moeys, Sara; Frenkel, Johannes; Lembke, Christine; Gillard, Jeroen T. F.; Devos, Valerie; Van den Berge, Koen; Bouillon, Barbara; Huysman, Marie J. J.; De Decker, Sam; Scharf, Julia; Bones, Atle; Brembu, Tore; Winge, Per; Sabbe, Koen; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Clement, Lieven; De Veylder, Lieven; Pohnert, Georg; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Although sexual reproduction is believed to play a major role in the high diversification rates and species richness of diatoms, a mechanistic understanding of diatom life cycle control is virtually lacking. Diatom sexual signalling is controlled by a complex, yet largely unknown, pheromone system. Here, a sex-inducing pheromone (SIP+) of the benthic pennate diatom Seminavis robusta was identified by comparative metabolomics, subsequently purified, and physicochemically characterized. Transcriptome analysis revealed that SIP+ triggers the switch from mitosis-to-meiosis in the opposing mating type, coupled with the transcriptional induction of proline biosynthesis genes, and the release of the proline-derived attraction pheromone. The induction of cell cycle arrest by a pheromone, chemically distinct from the one used to attract the opposite mating type, highlights the existence of a sophisticated mechanism to increase chances of mate finding, while keeping the metabolic losses associated with the release of an attraction pheromone to a minimum. PMID:26786712

  4. Trapping Phyllophaga spp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in the United States and Canada using sex attractants.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Paul S.; Alm, Steven R.; Armstrong, Charles. D.; Averill, Anne L.; Baker, Thomas C.; Bauernfiend, Robert J.; Baxendale, Frederick P.; Braman, S. Kris; Brandenburg, Rick L.; Cash, Daniel B.; Couch, Gary J.; Cowles, Richard S.; Crocker, Robert L.; DeLamar, Zandra D.; Dittl, Timothy G.; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M.; Flanders, Kathy L.; Forgatsch, Tom; Gibb, Timothy J.; Gill, Bruce D.; Gilrein, Daniel O.; Gorsuch, Clyde S.; Hammond, Abner M.; Hastings, Patricia D.; Held, David W.; Heller, Paul R.; Hiskes, Rose T.; Holliman, James L.; Hudson, William G.; Klein, Michael G.; Krischik, Vera L.; Lee, David J.; Linn, Charles E.; Luce, Nancy J.; MacKenzie, Kenna E.; Mannion, Catherine M.; Polavarapu, Sridhar; Potter, Daniel A.; Roelofs, Wendell L.; Royals, Brian M.; Salsbury, Glenn A.; Schiff, Nathan M.; Shetlar, David J.; Skinner, Margaret; Sparks, Beverly L.; Sutschek, Jessica A.; Sutschek, Timothy P.; Swier, Stanley R.; Sylvia, Martha M.; Vickers, Neil J.; Vittum, Patricia J.; Weidman, Richard; Weber, Donald C.; Williamson, R. Chris; Villani, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    The sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Phyllophaga anxia, is a blend of the methyl esters of two amino acids, L-valine and L-isoleucine. A field trapping study was conducted, deploying different blends of the two compounds at 59 locations in the United States and Canada. More than 57,000 males of 61 Phyllophaga species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) were captured and identified. Three major findings included: (1) widespread use of the two compounds [of the 147 Phyllophaga (sensu stricto) species found in the United States and Canada, males of nearly 40% were captured]; (2) in most species intraspecific male response to the pheromone blends was stable between years and over geography; and (3) an unusual pheromone polymorphism was described from P. anxia. Populations at some locations were captured with L-valine methyl ester alone, whereas populations at other locations were captured with L-isoleucine methyl ester alone. At additional locations, the L-valine methyl ester-responding populations and the L-isoleucine methyl ester-responding populations were both present, producing a bimodal capture curve. In southeastern Massachusetts and in Rhode Island, in the United States, P. anxia males were captured with blends of L-valine methyl ester and L-isoleucine methyl ester. PMID:19537965

  5. Trapping Phyllophaga spp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in the United States and Canada using sex attractants.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Paul S; Alm, Steven R; Armstrong, Charlesd; Averill, Anne L; Baker, Thomas C; Bauernfiend, Robert J; Baxendale, Frederick P; Braman, S Kris; Brandenburg, Rick L; Cash, Daniel B; Couch, Gary J; Cowles, Richard S; Crocker, Robert L; DeLamar, Zandra D; Dittl, Timothy G; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M; Flanders, Kathy L; Forgatsch, Tom; Gibb, Timothy J; Gill, Bruce D; Gilrein, Daniel O; Gorsuch, Clyde S; Hammond, Abner M; Hastings, Patricia D; Held, David W; Heller, Paul R; Hiskes, Rose T; Holliman, James L; Hudson, William G; Klein, Michael G; Krischik, Vera L; Lee, David J; Linn, Charles E; Luce, Nancy J; MacKenzie, Kenna E; Mannion, Catherine M; Polavarapu, Sridhar; Potter, Daniel A; Roelofs, Wendell L; Royals, Brian M; Salsbury, Glenn A; Schiff, Nathan M; Shetlar, David J; Skinner, Margaret; Sparks, Beverly L; Sutschek, Jessica A; Sutschek, Timothy P; Swier, Stanley R; Sylvia, Martha M; Vickers, Neil J; Vittum, Patricia J; Weidman, Richard; Weber, Donald C; Williamson, R Chris; Villani, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    The sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Phyllophaga anxia, is a blend of the methyl esters of two amino acids, L-valine and L-isoleucine. A field trapping study was conducted, deploying different blends of the two compounds at 59 locations in the United States and Canada. More than 57,000 males of 61 Phyllophaga species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) were captured and identified. Three major findings included: (1) widespread use of the two compounds [of the 147 Phyllophaga (sensu stricto) species found in the United States and Canada, males of nearly 40% were captured]; (2) in most species intraspecific male response to the pheromone blends was stable between years and over geography; and (3) an unusual pheromone polymorphism was described from P. anxia. Populations at some locations were captured with L-valine methyl ester alone, whereas populations at other locations were captured with L-isoleucine methyl ester alone. At additional locations, the L-valine methyl ester-responding populations and the L-isoleucine methyl ester-responding populations were both present, producing a bimodal capture curve. In southeastern Massachusetts and in Rhode Island, in the United States, P. anxia males were captured with blends of L-valine methyl ester and L-isoleucine methyl ester.

  6. Pheromone-baited traps for assessment of seasonal activity and population densities of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in nurseries producing ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Rebeccah A; Redak, Richard A; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2011-04-01

    Operational parameters of traps baited with the pheromones of three mealybug species were optimized in nurseries producing ornamental plants. All pheromone doses (1-320 microg) attracted Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) males, with the lowest dose (1 microg) attracting the fewest males for both species. Doses of 3.2-100 microg were as attractive to male P. longispinus as the highest dose (320 microg); doses from 10 to 320 microg were equally attractive for P. viburni males. Lures containing 25-microg doses of either pheromone had effective field lifetimes of at least 12 wk. Experiments were performed to test the efficacy of combining multiple pheromones to attract several species of mealybugs simultaneously. Lures loaded with a mixture of the pheromones of P. longispinus, P. viburni, and Planococcus citri (Risso) were as attractive to P. viburni and P. citri as lures with their individual pheromones. Response of P. longispinus to the blend was decreased by 38% compared with its pheromone as a single component. A subsequent trial with two-component blends showed that the pheromone ofP. citri was responsible for this modest decrease in P. longispinus response. This should not affect the overall efficacy of using these lures for monitoring the presence of all three mealybug species simultaneously. Pheromone traps were used to detect infestations of P. longispinus throughout the season and to track population cycles. When pheromone-baited traps for P. longispinus were compared with manual sampling, trap counts of male mealybugs were significantly correlated with mealybugs counted on plants in the vicinity of the traps.

  7. A novel mechanism regulating a sexual signal: the testosterone-based inhibition of female sex pheromone expression in garter snakes.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2014-08-01

    Vertebrates communicate their sex to conspecifics through the use of sexually dimorphic signals, such as ornaments, behaviors and scents. Furthermore, the physiological connection between hormones and secondary sexual signal expression is key to understanding their dimorphism, seasonality and evolution. The red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) is the only reptile for which a described pheromone currently exists, and because garter snakes rely completely on the sexual attractiveness pheromone for species identification and mate choice, they constitute a unique model species for exploring the relationship between pheromones and the endocrine system. We recently demonstrated that estrogen can activate female pheromone production in male garter snakes. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) acting to prevent female pheromone production in males. We found that castrated males (GX) are courted by wild males in the field and produce appreciable amounts of female sex pheromone. Furthermore, pheromone production is inhibited in castrates given testosterone implants (GX+T), suggesting that pheromone production is actively inhibited by the presence of testosterone. Lastly, testosterone supplementation alone (T) increased the production of several saturated methyl ketones in the pheromone but not the unsaturated ketones; this may indicate that saturated ketones are testosterone-activated components of the garter snake's skin lipid milieu. Collectively, our research has shown that pheromone expression in snakes results from two processes: activation by the feminizing steroid estradiol and inhibition by testosterone. We suggest that basal birds and garter snakes share common pathways of activation that modulate crucial intraspecific signals that originate from skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reproduction and the pheromonal regulation of sex type in fern gametophytes.

    PubMed

    Atallah, Nadia M; Banks, Jo Ann

    2015-01-01

    The fern life cycle includes a haploid gametophyte that is independent of the sporophyte and functions to produce the gametes. In homosporous ferns, the sex of the gametophyte is not fixed but can vary depending on its social environment. In many species, the sexual phenotype of the gametophyte is determined by the pheromone antheridiogen. Antheridiogen induces male development and is secreted by hermaphrodites once they become insensitive to its male-inducing effect. Recent genetic and biochemical studies of the antheridiogen response and sex-determination pathway in ferns, which are highlighted here, reveal many similarities and interesting differences to GA signaling and biosynthetic pathways in angiosperms.

  9. General odorant-binding proteins and sex pheromone guide larvae of Plutella xylostella to better food.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiao; Ban, Liping; Song, Li-Mei; Liu, Yang; Pelosi, Paolo; Wang, Guirong

    2016-05-01

    Olfaction of Lepidopteran larvae has received little attention, compared to the damage to crops done by insects at this stage. We report that larvae of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella are attracted to their natural sex pheromone and to their major component (Z)-11-hexadecenal, but only in a food context. For such task they use two general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs), abundantly expressed in the three major sensilla basiconica of the larval antenna, as shown by whole-mount immunostaining and immunocytochemistry experiments. None of the three genes encoding pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are expressed at this stage. Both recombinant GOBPs bind (Z)-11-hexadecenal and the corresponding alcohol, but not the acetate. Binding experiments performed with five mutants of GOBP2, where aromatic residues in the binding pocket were replaced with leucine showed that only one or two amino acid substitutions can completely abolish binding to the pheromone shifting the affinity to plant-derived compounds. We hypothesise that detection of their species-specific pheromone may direct larvae to the sites of foraging chosen by their mother when laying eggs, to find better food, as well as to reduce competition with individuals of the same or other species sharing the same host plant. We also provide evidence that GOBP2 is a narrowly tuned binding protein, whose affinity can be easily switched from linear pheromones to branched plants terpenoids, representing a tool better suited for the simple olfactory system of larvae, as compared to the more sophisticated organ of adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A cytochrome P450 gene plays a role in the recognition of sex pheromones in the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Feng, B; Zheng, K; Li, C; Guo, Q; Du, Y

    2017-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) genes are involved in fundamental physiological functions, and might be also associated with the olfactory recognition of sex pheromones in beetles and moths. A P450 gene, Spodoptera litura CYP4L4 (SlituCYP4L4), was cloned for the first time from the antennae of S. litura. SlituCYP4L4 was almost exclusively expressed in the adult stage and predominantly expressed in the adult antennae. In situ hybridization showed that SlituCYP4L4 localized mainly at the base of the long sensilla trichoidea, which responds to sex pheromone components. Pretreatment with an S. litura sex pheromone significantly reduced the expression levels of SlituCYP4L4, consistent with other genes involved in sex pheromone recognition. The expression level of SlituCYP4L4 was different in moths collected with different ratios of sex pheromone lures and collected in different geographical locations. After gene knockdown of SlituCYP4L4 in the antennae, the electroantennogram (EAG) responses of male and female moths to (9Z,11E)-tetradecadienyl acetate or (9Z,12E)-tetradecadienyl acetate were significantly decreased. In contrast, EAG responses to plant volatiles and sex pheromones of other moth species were not significantly influenced in these moths. SlituCYP4L4 was also expressed in the gustatory tissues and sensilla, which suggests that SlituCYP4L4 may have other functions in the chemosensory system. Our results have shown for the first time the function of a CYP gene with appendage-specific expression in insect sex pheromone recognition, especially in adult moths. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Impact of Trap Design and Density on Effectiveness of a Commercial Pheromone Lure for Monitoring Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Burks, Charles S; Higbee, Bradley S

    2015-04-01

    The navel orangeworm is an important pest of almonds, pistachios, and walnuts. A commercial pheromone lure for this pest became publicly available in 2013. We compared effectiveness of this synthetic lure (NOW Biolure) between common commercial trap designs, and with unmated females in wing traps. Orange wing traps and delta traps captured similar numbers of males when each was baited with females, although there was a significantly greater density of captured males on the smaller glue area of the delta traps. In contrast, lure-baited wing traps captured about half the males captured in female-baited wing traps in single-night tests. In these single-night tests, wing traps baited with NOW Biolure captured significantly more males than delta traps baited with NOW Biolure, and bucket traps and delta traps baited with NOW Biolure captured similar numbers of males. When the sampling interval was extended to a week, the performance of lure-baited and female-baited wing traps was more similar. Delta and bucket traps baited with NOW Biolure generally performed more poorly than wing traps baited with NOW Biolure in these weekly monitoring tests. However, the bucket traps occasionally outperformed the other trap types during periods of peak abundance. Navel orangeworm traps at a density of one per 4 ha detected differences in abundance between adjacent walnut varieties, whereas such differences were not detected with one trap per 20 ha. The implications of these findings for monitoring for navel orangeworm in these different host crops are discussed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Extracellular modulation of the silkmoth sex pheromone receptor activity by cyclic nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Tatsuro; Touhara, Kazushige

    2014-01-01

    Odorants and pheromones are essential to insects as chemical cues for finding food or an appropriate mating partner. These volatile compounds bind to olfactory receptors (Ors) expressed by olfactory sensory neurons. Each insect Or functions as a ligand-gated ion channel and is a heteromeric complex that comprises one type of canonical Or and a highly conserved Orco subunit. Because there are many Or types, insect Ors can recognize with high specificity a myriad of chemical cues. Cyclic nucleotides can modulate the activity of insect Or-Orco complexes; however, the mechanism of action of these nucleotides is under debate. Here, we show that cyclic nucleotides, including cAMP and cGMP, interact with the silkmoth sex pheromone receptor complex, BmOr-1-BmOrco, from the outside of the cell and that these nucleotides act as antagonists at low concentrations and weak agonists at high concentrations. These cyclic nucleotides do not compete with the sex pheromone, bombykol, for binding to the BmOr-1 subunit. ATP and GTP also weakly inhibited BmOr-1-BmOrco activity, but D-ribose had no effect; these findings indicated that the purine moiety was crucial for the inhibition. Only the bombykol receptors have been so far shown to be subject to modulation by nucleotide-related compounds, indicating that this responsiveness to these compounds is not common for all insect Or-Orco complexes.

  13. Within-population variability in a moth sex pheromone blend: genetic basis and behavioural consequences

    PubMed Central

    Groot, Astrid T.; Schöfl, Gerhard; Inglis, Ollie; Donnerhacke, Susanne; Classen, Alice; Schmalz, Antje; Santangelo, Richard G.; Emerson, Jennifer; Gould, Fred; Schal, Coby; Heckel, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary diversification of sexual communication systems in moths is perplexing because signal and response are under stabilizing selection in many species, and this is expected to constrain evolutionary change. In the moth Heliothis virescens, we consistently found high phenotypic variability in the female sex pheromone blend within each of four geographically distant populations. Here, we assess the heritability, genetic basis and behavioural consequences of this variation. Artificial selection with field-collected moths dramatically increased the relative amount of the saturated compound 16:Ald and decreased its unsaturated counterpart Z11–16:Ald, the major sex pheromone component (high line). In a cross between the high- and low-selected lines, one quantitative trait locus (QTL) explained 11–21% of the phenotypic variance in the 16:Ald/Z11–16:Ald ratio. Because changes in activity of desaturase enzymes could affect this ratio, we measured their expression levels in pheromone glands and mapped desaturase genes onto our linkage map. A delta-11-desaturase had lower expression in females producing less Z11–16:Ald; however, this gene mapped to a different chromosome than the QTL. A model in which the QTL is a trans-acting repressor of delta-11 desaturase expression explains many features of the data. Selection favouring heterozygotes which produce more unsaturated components could maintain a polymorphism at this locus. PMID:24500170

  14. Age and sex selectivity in trapping mule deer

    SciTech Connect

    Garrott, R.A.; White, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    A mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) trapping experiment is described using modified Clover traps in which changes in the placement of bait and height of the trap door modified the ratio of adult does to male and female fawns captured. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in age-sex capture ratios are discussed and indicate that modified Clover traps selectivity capture mule deer, thus introducing bias into population sampling. (JMT)

  15. Ultrastructure of sensilla of antennae and ovipositor of Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and location of female sex pheromone gland

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Min; Chang, Meng-Meng; Lu, Yan; Lei, Chao-Liang; Yang, Feng-Lian

    2017-01-01

    The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella, is a serious pest of stored grains worldwide. Presently, the best effective control against the moth is to disrupt the sexual communication between sexes. Sexual communication in moths includes two processes in which females produce and release pheromones from the sex pheromone gland and males detect and respond to them with a relatively sophisticated olfactory system in their antennae. To better understand these processes, we studied the ultrastructure of antennal and ovipositor sensilla of S. cerealella and determined the location of the female sex pheromone gland. Seven types of antennal sensilla were identified on both sexes: sensilla trichodea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla styloconica, sensilla auricillica, sensilla squamiformia and Bӧhm bristles. Of these sensilla, the sensilla trichodea were significantly more abundant on male antennae than on those of females, suggesting that these sensilla may detect the sex pheromones. On the ovipositor, only sensilla chaetica of various lengths were found. The sexual gland was an eversible sac of glandular epithelium that was situated dorsally in the intersegmental membrane between the 8th and 9th abdominal segments. These results will lead to a better understanding of mate finding with sex pheromones for this worldwide pest species. PMID:28094781

  16. Temporal clumping of bark beetle arrival at pheromone traps: Modeling anemotaxis in chaotic plumes.

    PubMed

    Byers, J A

    1996-11-01

    The sequence of arrival of the bark beetlesIps typographus andPityogenes chalcographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) at traps baited with their synthetic pheromones was monitored with a portable fraction collector. Histograms of the natural arrival patterns of both species were nonrandom and clumped at shorter time scales (1-, 2-, 4-, 5-, or 6-min cells) but appeared random at larger time scales (10, 20 or 30 min). Monte Carlo generation of similar histograms showed them to be random at all of these time scales. A stochastic computer model could graphically simulate insect orientation to odor sources based on present theories of odor-modulated anemotaxis and casting. Although this model was used throughout, since it assumes only that insects cast perpendicular to the current wind direction, a second model could slightly improve orientation success. However, the second model requires that the insect remember its ground path (upwind) prior to losing the plume (after an abrupt wind direction change). The effects of casting and flight parameters on orientation success and randomness of arrival sequence within various plumes were determined by simulation. Similarly, the effects of random walks in plume direction, plume width, and wind speed were explored. The results showed that dynamic random variations in plume direction and especially wind speed could cause an otherwise random arrival sequence (e.g., under constant wind) to become clumped and nonrandom. Therefore, the clumped arrival patterns of bark beetles and other insects, includingSpodoptera litura, at pheromone sources could result from random-walk fluctuations in wind speed and wind direction.

  17. Sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, contains an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aijun; Amalin, Divina; Shirali, Shyam; Serrano, Miguel S.; Franqui, Rosa A.; Oliver, James E.; Klun, Jerome A.; Aldrich, Jeffrey R.; Meyerdirk, Dale E.; Lapointe, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    Two compounds that together constitute the female sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus, were isolated, identified, and synthesized. They are (R)-2-isopropenyl-5-methyl-4-hexenyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [common name is (R)-lavandulyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate] and [(R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(1-methylethylidene)cyclobutyl]methyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [which we refer to as (R)-maconelliyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate]. Maconelliol is an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene, and its structure has been established by enantioselective synthesis from precursors of known structure and configuration. A 1:5 synthetic mixture of the two RS esters (1 μg per rubber septum) proved to be a potent attractant of males in field bioassays. The pheromone component, maconelliyl 2-methylbutanoate, represents a heretofore undescribed natural product. PMID:15197282

  18. Identification and synthesis of female sex pheromone of Oriental beetle,Anomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, A; Facundo, H T; Robbins, P S; Linn, C E; Hanula, J L; Villani, M G; Roelofs, W L

    1994-09-01

    Females of the Oriental beetle,Anomala orientalis (Waterhouse), release a sex pheromone composed of a 9:1 blend of (Z)- and (E)-7-tetradecen-2-one. The double-bond position of the pheromone was determined by DMDS derivatization and interpretation of the fragmentation patterns produced by monounsaturated ketones. In a sustained-flight tunnel, males responded by flying toward female beetles and attempting to copulate with them. Both effluvium and whole-body extracts of OB females were analyzed, and the activity was found only in the airborne extracts. Flight-tunnel bioassays also showed that a synthetic 90:10Z/E blend on a rubber septum was attractive and that the responses of males to this blend were equivalent toZ isomer alone, but much better than to the singleE isomer.

  19. Sex pheromone biology and behavior of the cowpea weevilCallosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Qi, Y T; Burkholder, W E

    1982-02-01

    Female cowpea weevils,Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), emitted a pheromone which excited males. Pheromone release began soon after emergence and continued for one week. Synchronization of pheromone release with calling behavior was demonstrated. Mating reduced pheromone release but not male response. Pheromone obtained by aeration collection was utilized for determining a quantitative dose-response relationship.

  20. An Insecticide Further Enhances Experience-Dependent Increased Behavioural Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect.

    PubMed

    Abrieux, Antoine; Mhamdi, Amel; Rabhi, Kaouther K; Egon, Julie; Debernard, Stéphane; Duportets, Line; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used to protect plants against pest insects, and insecticide residues remaining in the environment affect both target and non-target organisms. Whereas low doses of neonicotinoids have been shown to disturb the behaviour of pollinating insects, recent studies have revealed that a low dose of the neonicotinoid clothianidin can improve behavioural and neuronal sex pheromone responses in a pest insect, the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, and thus potentially improve reproduction. As male moth behaviour depends also on its physiological state and previous experience with sensory signals, we wondered if insecticide effects would be dependent on plasticity of olfactory-guided behaviour. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, whether a brief pre-exposure to the sex pheromone could enhance the behavioural response to this important signal in the moth A. ipsilon at different ages (sexually immature and mature males) and after different delays (2 h and 24 h), and if the insecticide clothianidin would interfere with age effects or the potential pre-exposure-effects. Brief pre-exposure to the pheromone induced an age-independent significant increase of sex pheromone responses 24 h later, whereas sex pheromone responses did not increase significantly 2 h after exposure. However, response delays were significantly shorter compared to naïve males already two hours after exposure. Oral treatment with clothianidin increased sex pheromone responses in sexually mature males, confirming previous results, but did not influence responses in young immature males. Males treated with clothianidin after pre-exposure at day 4 responded significantly more to the sex pheromone at day 5 than males treated with clothianidin only and than males pre-exposed only, revealing an additive effect of experience and the insecticide. Plasticity of sensory systems has thus to be taken into account when investigating the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides

  1. An Insecticide Further Enhances Experience-Dependent Increased Behavioural Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect

    PubMed Central

    Abrieux, Antoine; Mhamdi, Amel; Rabhi, Kaouther K.; Egon, Julie; Debernard, Stéphane; Duportets, Line; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used to protect plants against pest insects, and insecticide residues remaining in the environment affect both target and non-target organisms. Whereas low doses of neonicotinoids have been shown to disturb the behaviour of pollinating insects, recent studies have revealed that a low dose of the neonicotinoid clothianidin can improve behavioural and neuronal sex pheromone responses in a pest insect, the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, and thus potentially improve reproduction. As male moth behaviour depends also on its physiological state and previous experience with sensory signals, we wondered if insecticide effects would be dependent on plasticity of olfactory-guided behaviour. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, whether a brief pre-exposure to the sex pheromone could enhance the behavioural response to this important signal in the moth A. ipsilon at different ages (sexually immature and mature males) and after different delays (2 h and 24 h), and if the insecticide clothianidin would interfere with age effects or the potential pre-exposure-effects. Brief pre-exposure to the pheromone induced an age-independent significant increase of sex pheromone responses 24 h later, whereas sex pheromone responses did not increase significantly 2 h after exposure. However, response delays were significantly shorter compared to naïve males already two hours after exposure. Oral treatment with clothianidin increased sex pheromone responses in sexually mature males, confirming previous results, but did not influence responses in young immature males. Males treated with clothianidin after pre-exposure at day 4 responded significantly more to the sex pheromone at day 5 than males treated with clothianidin only and than males pre-exposed only, revealing an additive effect of experience and the insecticide. Plasticity of sensory systems has thus to be taken into account when investigating the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides

  2. Identification of the sex pheromone of the currant shoot borer Lampronia capitella.

    PubMed

    Löfstedt, Christer; Zhu, Junwei; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Buda, Vincas; Jirle, Erling V; Hellqvist, Sven; Löfqvist, Jan; Plass, Ernst; Franke, Stephan; Francke, Wittko

    2004-03-01

    Under an artificial light:dark cycle, females of Lampronia capitella were observed calling, with extended terminal abdominal segments, during the first 2 hr of the photoperiod. Extracts of terminal abdominal segments from females elicited large electroantennographic responses from male antennae. Gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection revealed three active peaks. Based on comparison of retention times and mass spectra of synthetic standards, these compounds were identified as (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienol and the corresponding acetate and aldehyde. The electroantennographic activity of the four geometric isomers of all three compounds was investigated, and the respective (Z,Z)-isomer was found to be the most active in all cases. Aldehydes generally elicited larger antennal responses than alcohols, whereas acetates were the least active compounds. A subtractive trapping assay in the field, based on a 13:26:100 micrograms mixture of (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienal, (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate, and (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienol confirmed that all three compounds are pheromone components. Subtraction of (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienol from the blend completely eliminated its attractiveness, whereas the other two-component blends showed reduced activity. This is the first pheromone identification from the monotrysian superfamily Incurvarioidea, confirming that the common pheromones among ditrysian moths (long-chain fatty acid derivatives comprising alcohols, acetates, and aldehydes with one or more double bonds) is not an autapomorphy of Ditrysia, but a synapomorphy of the more advanced heteroneuran lineages.

  3. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) flight behavior and phenology based on field-deployed automated pheromone-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Patrick C; Klein, Kenneth T; Leonard, Donna S

    2009-12-01

    Populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), are extensively monitored in the United States through the use of pheromone-baited traps. We report on use of automated pheromone-baited traps that use a recording sensor and data logger to record the unique date-time stamp of males as they enter the trap. We deployed a total of 352 automated traps under field conditions across several U.S. states over a 5-yr period. In many cases, there was general congruence between male moth capture and the number of recorded events. Although it was difficult to decipher an individual recording event because of the tendency for over-recording, the overall distribution of recorded events was useful in assessing male gypsy moth flight behavior and phenology. The time stamp for recorded events corroborated a previous report of crepuscular gypsy moth male flight behavior, because, although most moths were trapped between 12 and 16 h, there was a consistent period of flight activity between 20 and 22 h. The median male flight duration was 24 d (228 DD, base threshold = 10 degrees C), but there were several traps that recorded flight periods >42 d that could not be explained by overcounting given the congruence between moth capture and the number of recorded events. Unusually long flight periods could indicate the introduction of male moths or other life stages that developed under different climatic conditions.

  4. Human (Homo sapiens) responses to the pig (Sus scrofa) sex pheromone 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3-one.

    PubMed

    Filsinger, E E; Braun, J J; Monte, W C; Linder, D E

    1984-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the pig sex pheromone 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3-one may function as a human sex pheromone. Two hundred male and female college students were assigned to one of four odor conditions (androstenone, methyl anthranilate, skatole, and a no-odor control) and were asked to rate photographs of a male stimulus and to rate their own mood in the presence of each odorant. There was a significant overall sex by treatment condition interaction. Men in the androstenone condition rated the stimulus male as more passive, and women in the androstenone condition rated themselves as less sexy; these effects were specific to the androstenone condition.

  5. An oral male courtship pheromone terminates the response of Nasonia vitripennis females to the male-produced sex attractant.

    PubMed

    Ruther, Joachim; Hammerl, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Sex pheromones are crucial for mate finding in many animals. Long-range attraction, mate recognition, and the elicitation of sexual receptiveness during courtship are typically mediated by different compounds. It is widely unknown, however, how the different components of a species' pheromone system influence each other. Here, we demonstrated in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis that females quickly cease to respond to the male sex attractant after they contact a male's oral secretion during courtship. We used this behavioral switch to monitor the fractionation of head extracts from male wasps for identification of the bioactive compounds as a blend of ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate, and ethyl α-linolenate. This is the first identification of a cephalic courtship pheromone in parasitic Hymenoptera. Plasticity in pheromone-mediated sexual behavior of female insects has hitherto been attributed to the transfer of bioactive proteinaceous molecules with the male ejaculate. The pheromone interaction reported here sheds new light on the sexual communication of insects by showing that the sex pheromone response of females can be terminated by males independent of sperm transfer.

  6. Functional characterization of a sex pheromone receptor in the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis by heterologous expression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Montagné, Nicolas; Chertemps, Thomas; Brigaud, Isabelle; François, Adrien; François, Marie-Christine; de Fouchier, Arthur; Lucas, Philippe; Larsson, Mattias C; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2012-09-01

    Moth sex pheromone communication is recognised as a long-standing model for insect olfaction studies, and a widespread knowledge has been accumulated on this subject thanks to numerous chemical, electrophysiological and behavioural studies. A key step has been the identification of candidate sex pheromone receptors, opening new routes to understanding the specificity and sensitivity of this communication system, but only few of these receptors have as yet been functionally characterised. In this context, we aim at unravelling the molecular bases of pheromone reception in the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis. Taking advantage of a collection of antennal-expressed sequence tags, we previously identified three fragments of candidate pheromone receptors in this species. Here, we report full-length cloning of one of these receptors, named SlitOR6. Both sequence and expression pattern analyses were consistent with its annotation as a pheromone receptor, which we further confirmed by functional characterization. Using Drosophila antennae as a heterologous expression system, we identified a single component of the pheromone blend of S. littoralis, (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, as the ligand of SlitOR6. Two strategies were employed: (i) expressing SlitOR6 in the majority of Drosophila olfactory neurons, in addition to endogenous receptors, and monitoring the responses to pheromone stimuli by electroantennography; (ii) replacing the Drosophila pheromone receptor OR67d with SlitOR6 and monitoring the response by single sensillum recordings. Results were fully congruent and responses to (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate were highly specific in both heterologous systems. This approach appears to be efficient and reliable for studying moth pheromone receptors in an in vivo context.

  7. Identification and Behavioral Evaluation of Sex Pheromone Components of the Chinese Pine Caterpillar Moth, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiang-Bo; Liu, Kui-Wei; Wang, Hong-Bin; Zhang, Su-Fang; Zhang, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Background The Chinese pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai and Liu (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) is the most important defoliator of coniferous trees in northern China. Outbreaks occur over enormous areas and often lead to the death of forests during 2–3 successive years of defoliation. The sex pheromone of D. tabulaeformis was investigated to define its chemistry and behavioral activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Sex pheromone was collected from calling female D. tabulaeformis by headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) and by solvent extraction of pheromone glands. Extracts were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and coupled GC-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), using antennae from male moths. Five components from the extracts elicited antennal responses. These compounds were identified by a combination of retention indices, electron impact mass spectral matches, and derivatization as (Z)-5-dodecenyl acetate (Z5-12:OAc), (Z)-5-dodecenyl alcohol (Z5-12:OH), (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (Z5,E7-12:OAc), (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl propionate (Z5,E7-12:OPr), and (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-ol (Z5,E7-12:OH). Behavioral assays showed that male D. tabulaeformis strongly discriminated against incomplete and aberrant blend ratios. The correct ratio of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,E7-12:OH, and Z5,E7-12:OPr was essential for optimal upwind flight and source contact. The two monoenes, Z5-12:OAc and Z5-12:OH, alone or binary mixtures, had no effect on behavioral responses when added to the optimal three-component blend. Conclusions/Significance The fact that deviations from the optimal ratio of 100∶100∶4.5 of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,EZ7-12:OH, and Z5,E7-12:OPr resulted in marked decreases in male responses suggests that biosynthesis of the pheromone components is precisely controlled. The optimal blend of the sex pheromone components of D. tabulaeformis worked out in this study should find immediate use in monitoring this

  8. Identification of novel C(20) and C (22) trienoic acids from arctiid and geometrid female moths that produce polyenyl Type II Sex pheromone components.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Kanae; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yamakawa, Rei; Muramatsu, Minoru; Naka, Hideshi; Kondo, Yusuke; Ando, Tetsu

    2008-11-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-electroantennographic detection (EAD) analyses of the sex pheromone extract from a wasp moth, Syntomoides imaon (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae: Syntominae), showed that virgin females produced (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-henicosatriene and (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-henicosatetraene with a trace amount of their C(20) analogs. Identification of the chemical structures was facilitated by comparison with authentic standards and the double-bond positions were confirmed by dimethyl disulfide derivatization of monoenes produced by a diimide reduction. In a field test in the Yonaguni-jima Islands, males of the diurnal species were captured in traps baited with a 1:2 mixture of the above-described synthetic C(21) polyenes. Lipids were extracted from the abdominal integument and its associated oenocytes and peripheral fat bodies. Following derivatization, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were fractionated by HPLC equipped with an ODS column, and methyl (Z,Z,Z)-11,14,17-icosatrienoate and (Z,Z,Z)-13,16,19-docosatrienoate were identified by GC-MS. These novel C(20) and C(22) acid moieties are longer-chain analogs of linolenic acid, (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid. They are presumed to be biosynthetic precursors of the S. imaon pheromone because the C(21) trienyl component might be formed by decarboxylation of the C(22) acid. On the other hand, the C(20) acid, but not the C(22) acid, was found in FAMEs of Ascotis selenaria cretacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), which secretes C(19) pheromone components, (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene and the monoepoxy derivative, indicating that different systems of the chain elongation might play an important role in developing species-specific communication systems mediated with polyunsaturated hydrocarbons and/or epoxy derivatives, components of Type II lepidopteran sex pheromones.

  9. Male sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L., excrete a sex pheromone from gill epithelia.

    PubMed

    Siefkes, Michael J; Scott, Alexander P; Zielinski, Barbara; Yun, Sang-Seon; Li, Weiming

    2003-07-01

    During the period when they are producing sperm, male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L.) release a sex pheromone 7alpha, 12alpha, 24-trihydroxy-5alpha-cholan-3-one-24-sulfate (3 keto-petromyzonol sulfate, 3ketoPZS) that induces search and preference behaviors in ovulating females. In this study, we conducted a series of experiments to demonstrate that release of this pheromone into water takes place exclusively through the gills. In a behavioral maze, water conditioned with the anterior region of spermiating males induced an increase of search and preference behaviors in ovulating females. Similar behavior was not elicited by water conditioned by the posterior region. The anterior region washings and whole-body washings from spermiating males also elicited large and virtually identical electro-olfactogram responses from female sea lampreys, while the posterior washings produced negligible responses. Further, mass spectrometry and immunoassay confirmed that virtually all the 3ketoPZS released into water was through the gills. Immunocytochemistry revealed some gill epithelial cells and hepatocytes from spermiating males contained dense immunoreactive 3ketoPZS, but not those from prespermiating males. These results demonstrate that 3ketoPZS is released through the gill epithelia and suggest that this pheromone or its precursor may be produced in the liver.

  10. 1-Tridecene—male-produced sex pheromone of the tenebrionid beetle Parastizopus transgariepinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiselhardt, Sven; Ockenfels, Peter; Peschke, Klaus

    2008-03-01

    Males of the genus Parastizopus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exhibit a special pheromone-emitting behaviour. They do a headstand, expose the aedeagus and remain in this posture for a few seconds. The pheromone emitted by P. transgariepinus was collected by solid-phase micro-extraction (100 μm polydimethylsiloxane fibre) and identified as 1-tridecene by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Presumably, this compound originates from the aedeagal gland, a special feature in Parastizopus, as 1-tridecene is the main compound in the gland reservoirs (23.6 ± 3.8%), accompanied by various less volatile fatty acid esters (25.2 ± 2.0%) and hydrocarbons (51.2 ± 5.7%). 1-Tridecene is also part of the pygidial defensive secretion of both sexes, together with other 1-alkenes, monoterpene hydrocarbons and 1,4-benzoquinones, but as none of these other compounds was detected during calling, the pygidial gland could be ruled out as pheromone source. Extracts of the aedeagal gland reservoirs and the pygidial defensive secretion contained comparable amounts of 1-tridecene, 1.24 ± 0.41 and 1.88 ± 0.54 μg/male, respectively. Chemo-orientation experiments using a servosphere showed that 1 μg of 1-tridecene was attractive to females but not to males.

  11. In vitro assay for sex pheromone biosynthesis by the female yellow mealworm beetle and identification of a regulated step.

    PubMed

    Mangat, Jaswinder; Langedock, Colin; Vanderwel, Désirée

    2006-05-01

    Several pheromones are known to be involved in mediating the mating behavior of the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The only sex pheromone that has been identified to date in this species is the female-produced male attractant, 4-methylnonanol (MNol). The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro assay for the last biosynthetic step involved in MNol biosynthesis, the reduction of 4-methylnonanoic acid (MNA) to the corresponding pheromone product. In vitro assays were conducted by adding appropriate cofactors and radioactively labelled precursor. Radioactive pheromone product was separated from the radioactive precursor by column chromatography, and quantified through scintillation counting. The conversion of MNA to MNol was observed, and was comparable to that observed in vivo using the same radiolabelled substrate. In both the in vivo and in vitro assays, the (3)H-MNA was also converted to a nonpolar product, tentatively identified as a triacylglyerol (TAG) derivative. The reduction of (3)H-MNA to pheromone proceeded through the coenzyme A intermediate. Mature females reduced significantly more precursor to pheromone than the immature females and the males, both in vivo and in vitro, indicating that the reduction of MNA to MNol is a regulated step involved in pheromone production. Using the in vitro assay reported herein, studies are ongoing in our lab to purify and characterize the enzyme catalyzing the reduction.

  12. Amino Acid Change in an Orchid Desaturase Enables Mimicry of the Pollinator’s Sex Pheromone

    DOE PAGES

    Sedeek, Khalid E. M.; Whittle, Edward; Guthörl, Daniela; ...

    2016-05-19

    Here, we show that mimicry illustrates the power of selection to produce phenotypic convergence in biology. A striking example is the imitation of female insects by plants that are pollinated by sexual deception of males of the same insect species. This involves mimicry of visual, tactile, and chemical signals of females, especially their sex pheromones. The Mediterranean orchid Ophrys exaltata employs chemical mimicry of cuticular hydrocarbons, particularly the 7-alkenes, in an insect sex pheromone to attract and elicit mating behavior in its pollinators, males of the cellophane bee Colletes cunicularius. A difference in alkene double-bond positions is responsible for reproductivemore » isolation between O. exaltata and closely related species, such as O. sphegodes. We show that these 7-alkenes are likely determined by the action of the stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase (SAD) homolog SAD5. After gene duplication, changes in subcellular localization relative to the ancestral housekeeping desaturase may have allowed proto-SAD5’s reaction products to undergo further biosynthesis to both 7- and 9-alkenes. Such ancestral coproduction of two alkene classes may have led to pollinator-mediated deleterious pleiotropy. Despite possible evolutionary intermediates with reduced activity, amino acid changes at the bottom of the substrate-binding cavity have conferred enzyme specificity for 7-alkene biosynthesis by preventing the binding of longer-chained fatty acid (FA) precursors by the enzyme. In conclusion, this change in desaturase function enabled the orchid to perfect its chemical mimicry of pollinator sex pheromones by escape from deleterious pleiotropy, supporting a role of pleiotropy in determining the possible trajectories of adaptive evolution.« less

  13. Amino Acid Change in an Orchid Desaturase Enables Mimicry of the Pollinator’s Sex Pheromone

    SciTech Connect

    Sedeek, Khalid E. M.; Whittle, Edward; Guthörl, Daniela; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Shanklin, John; Schlüter, Philipp M.

    2016-05-19

    Here, we show that mimicry illustrates the power of selection to produce phenotypic convergence in biology. A striking example is the imitation of female insects by plants that are pollinated by sexual deception of males of the same insect species. This involves mimicry of visual, tactile, and chemical signals of females, especially their sex pheromones. The Mediterranean orchid Ophrys exaltata employs chemical mimicry of cuticular hydrocarbons, particularly the 7-alkenes, in an insect sex pheromone to attract and elicit mating behavior in its pollinators, males of the cellophane bee Colletes cunicularius. A difference in alkene double-bond positions is responsible for reproductive isolation between O. exaltata and closely related species, such as O. sphegodes. We show that these 7-alkenes are likely determined by the action of the stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase (SAD) homolog SAD5. After gene duplication, changes in subcellular localization relative to the ancestral housekeeping desaturase may have allowed proto-SAD5’s reaction products to undergo further biosynthesis to both 7- and 9-alkenes. Such ancestral coproduction of two alkene classes may have led to pollinator-mediated deleterious pleiotropy. Despite possible evolutionary intermediates with reduced activity, amino acid changes at the bottom of the substrate-binding cavity have conferred enzyme specificity for 7-alkene biosynthesis by preventing the binding of longer-chained fatty acid (FA) precursors by the enzyme. In conclusion, this change in desaturase function enabled the orchid to perfect its chemical mimicry of pollinator sex pheromones by escape from deleterious pleiotropy, supporting a role of pleiotropy in determining the possible trajectories of adaptive evolution.

  14. Amino Acid Change in an Orchid Desaturase Enables Mimicry of the Pollinator’s Sex Pheromone

    DOE PAGES

    Sedeek, Khalid E. M.; Whittle, Edward; Guthörl, Daniela; ...

    2016-05-19

    Here, we show that mimicry illustrates the power of selection to produce phenotypic convergence in biology. A striking example is the imitation of female insects by plants that are pollinated by sexual deception of males of the same insect species. This involves mimicry of visual, tactile, and chemical signals of females, especially their sex pheromones. The Mediterranean orchid Ophrys exaltata employs chemical mimicry of cuticular hydrocarbons, particularly the 7-alkenes, in an insect sex pheromone to attract and elicit mating behavior in its pollinators, males of the cellophane bee Colletes cunicularius. A difference in alkene double-bond positions is responsible for reproductivemore » isolation between O. exaltata and closely related species, such as O. sphegodes. We show that these 7-alkenes are likely determined by the action of the stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase (SAD) homolog SAD5. After gene duplication, changes in subcellular localization relative to the ancestral housekeeping desaturase may have allowed proto-SAD5’s reaction products to undergo further biosynthesis to both 7- and 9-alkenes. Such ancestral coproduction of two alkene classes may have led to pollinator-mediated deleterious pleiotropy. Despite possible evolutionary intermediates with reduced activity, amino acid changes at the bottom of the substrate-binding cavity have conferred enzyme specificity for 7-alkene biosynthesis by preventing the binding of longer-chained fatty acid (FA) precursors by the enzyme. In conclusion, this change in desaturase function enabled the orchid to perfect its chemical mimicry of pollinator sex pheromones by escape from deleterious pleiotropy, supporting a role of pleiotropy in determining the possible trajectories of adaptive evolution.« less

  15. Unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons synergize responses to sex attractant pheromone in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Millar, Jocelyn G; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Four trienyl hydrocarbons, (Z3, Z6, Z9)-tricosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC), (Z3, Z6, Z9)-pentacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-25:HC), (Z3, Z6, Z9)-heptacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-27:HC), and (Z3, Z6, Z9)-nonacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-29:HC) were identified in a non-polar fraction of the body wax of male and female yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis. The relative amounts and ratios of these hydrocarbons differed between sexes. In females, the ratios in body wax and pheromone gland extracts were similar, with lesser amounts found in gland extracts. Synergistic effects of these hydrocarbons when added to the known aldehyde pheromone components were assessed in wind tunnel tests. A blend of (E)-10-hexadecenal (E10-16: Ald) and (Z)-10-hexadecenal (Z10-16: Ald) elicited upwind flight and orientation of males to the pheromone source, but arriving males did not remain close to source for very long. Among the hydrocarbons identified, only Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC enhanced the activity of the aldehyde blend by increasing the time spent close to the source and the number of source contacts. Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC and (Z9)-heptacosene (Z9-27:HC) also increased close-range responses to the aldehyde blend. The activity of the aldehyde blend plus these two hydrocarbons was similar to that of crude pheromone extract. Positive dose-response relationships between the aldehyde blend and two hydrocarbon mixtures were found. The lowest doses that elicited synergism were 10(-1) female equivalents (of body wax extracts) for the two hydrocarbons, and 10(-2) female equivalents for the total unsaturated hydrocarbon mixture.

  16. Relative abundance and flight phenology of two pheromone types of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Hartfield, E A; Harris, M K; Medina, R F

    2011-08-01

    Two synthetic sex pheromones have been developed and are currently used to detect the flight of the pecan nut casebearer, Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig, the most damaging pest of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. One pheromone (referred to as standard) is attractive to moths in the southern United States, but not in Mexico. The other pheromone (referred to as Mexican) is attractive to moths in the southern United States and in Mexico. These two pheromones have been implemented by producers as an important tool in monitoring the activity of this pest and have allowed for more efficient pesticide use. In the future, these pheromones could be used as a means of population reduction through pheromone based control methods. Trapping data taken over a 3-yr period were used to determine if phenological differences exist between pheromone types of pecan nut casebearer. The relative abundance of each pheromone type at several locations in the United States also was evaluated. Results of this study indicate that no phenological differences exist between the two pheromone types studied in the United States and that significantly more males are attracted to field-deployed pheromone traps baited with the standard pheromone than to traps baited with the Mexican pheromone.

  17. Host plant volatiles serve to increase the response of male European grape berry moths, Eupoecilia ambiguella, to their sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; von Arx, Martin; Guerin, Patrick M

    2009-09-01

    The European grape berry moth is an important pest in vineyards. Males respond to the female-produced sex pheromone released from a piezo nebulizer in a dose-dependent manner in a wind tunnel: <50% arrive at the source at 5-50 pg/min (underdosed), 80% arrive at 100 pg/min to 10 ng/min (optimal) and <20% arrive at 100 ng/min (overdosed). Males responding to overdosed pheromone show in flight arrestment at 80 cm from the source. Host plant chemostimuli for Eupoecilia ambiguella increase the responses of males to underdosed and overdosed pheromone. (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (+)-terpinen-4-ol, (E)-beta-caryophyllene and methyl salicylate released with the underdosed pheromone cause a significant increase in male E. ambiguella flying to the source. Time-event analysis indicates a positive correlation between faster activation and probability of source contact by the responding males. The four host plant compounds added to the overdosed pheromone permitted males to take off faster and with a higher probability of flying to the source. This suggests that perception of host plant products with the sex pheromone facilitates male E. ambiguella to locate females on host plants, lending credence to the hypothesis that plant products can signal rendezvous sites suitable for mating.

  18. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps.

    PubMed

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  19. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  20. Aphid pheromones.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Pickett, John A; Hardie, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are the main insect pests of agricultural crops in temperate regions causing major economic losses. Although broad-spectrum insecticides are available for control, alternative and more targeted methods are needed due to insecticide resistance and increasing environmental pressures. An alternative control method for aphids is to exploit their pheromones, which have been extensively studied in recent years. For example, aphids release alarm pheromones in response to natural enemy attack and these could be used to deter aphids from the crops. Sex pheromones have also been identified which could be used to interfere males locating conspecific females (oviparae), as well as for manipulating natural enemies. Several hypotheses relating to how species integrity is maintained via the aphid sex pheromone have been proposed. The composition and behavioral activity of these pheromones, and how their use could be implemented in integrated pest management systems to control aphids, is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. How to make a sexy snake: estrogen activation of female sex pheromone in male red-sided garter snakes.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2012-03-01

    Vertebrates indicate their genetic sex to conspecifics using secondary sexual signals, and signal expression is often activated by sex hormones. Among vertebrate signaling modalities, the least is known about how hormones influence chemical signaling. Our study species, the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), is a model vertebrate for studying hormonal control of chemical signals because males completely rely on the female sex pheromone to identify potential mates among thousands of individuals. How sex hormones can influence the expression of this crucial sexual signal is largely unknown. We created two groups of experimental males for the first experiment: Sham (blank implants) and E2 (17β-estradiol implants). E2 males were vigorously courted by wild males in outdoor bioassays, and in a Y-maze E2 pheromone trails were chosen by wild males over those of small females and were indistinguishable from large female trails. Biochemically, the E2 pheromone blend was similar to that of large females, and it differed significantly from Shams. For the second experiment, we implanted males with 17β-estradiol in 2007 but removed the implants the following year (2008; Removal). That same year, we implanted a new group of males with estrogen implants (Implant). Removal males were courted by wild males in 2008 (implant intact) but not in 2009 (removed). Total pheromone quantity and quality increased following estrogen treatment, and estrogen removal re-established male-typical pheromone blends. Thus, we have shown that estrogen activates the production of female pheromone in adult red-sided garter snakes. This is the first known study to quantify both behavioral and biochemical responses in chemical signaling following sex steroid treatment of reptiles in the activation/organization context. We propose that the homogametic sex (ZZ, male) may possess the same targets for activation of sexual signal production, and the absence of the activator (17

  2. More rare males in Ostrinia: response of Asian corn borer moths to the sex pheromone of the European corn borer.

    PubMed

    Linn, Charles E; Musto, Callie J; Roelofs, Wendell L

    2007-01-01

    A previous flight tunnel study showed that 3-5% of European corn borer (ECB) moths, Ostrinia nubilalis (Z/E11-14:OAc), could fly upwind and make contact with sources releasing the sex pheromone of the related Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (2:1 Z/E12-14:OAc). In this study, we show that rare males (3-4%) are also present in South Korean ACB that respond to the sex pheromone blends of the ECB UZ (97:3 Z/E11-14:OAc) and BE (1:99 Z/E11-14:OAc) pheromone races. We also show that the upwind flight response of a significant proportion of male ACB was antagonized by the addition of 1% Z9-14:OAc to the ACB blend, a compound that also antagonizes the upwind flight of ECB males. Male ACB flight behavior was not, however, affected by adding either of the ECB blends to the ACB blend, or by the addition of 50% 14:OAc, a compound identified from female pheromone glands of ACB and a number of other Ostrinia species. Additional flight tunnel tests with ACB to study the comparative aspects of ECB and ACB pheromone response specificity showed that male ACB exhibited maximal levels of upwind flight and source contact with doses of pheromone (30 and 100 microg on rubber septum sources) that also elicited maximal levels in the two ECB pheromone races. The maximal level of source contact for ACB (66%) was lower than observed with the UZ race of ECB to its pheromone blend (>95%), but comparable to those for the BE race of ECB (65-70%). Male ACB also flew upwind in high proportions to a broader range of ratios of Z/E12-14:OAc (80:20 to 20:80) than was previously observed for either of the ECB races.

  3. Large-Scale Evaluation of Association Between Pheromone Trap Captures and Cotton Boll Infestation for Pink Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Carrière, Yves; Antilla, Larry; Liesner, Leighton; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2017-03-16

    Although transgenic cotton producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a cornerstone for pink bollworm control in some countries, integrated pest management remains important for bolstering sustainability of Bt cotton and is critical for controlling pink bollworm where Bt cotton is not available or where this pest has evolved resistance to Bt cotton. Here, we used data on moth captures in gossyplure-baited pheromone traps and boll infestations for 163 Bt and 152 non-Bt cotton fields from Arizona to evaluate accuracy of chemical control decisions relying on moth trapping data and capacity of Bt cotton to suppress survival of offspring produced by moths. Assuming an economic injury level of 12% boll infestation, the accuracy of decisions based on moth captures corresponding to economic thresholds of 6%, 8%, and 10% boll infestation increased from 44.7% to 67.1%. The association between moth captures and boll infestation was positive and significant for non-Bt cotton fields but was not significant for Bt cotton fields. Although chemical control decisions based on trapping data were only moderately accurate, pheromone traps could still be valuable for determining when moth populations are high enough to trigger boll sampling to more rigorously evaluate the need for insecticide sprays.

  4. A new male sex-pheromone and novel cuticular cues for chemical communication in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dreisewerd, Klaus; Luftmann, Heinrich; Müthing, Johannes; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background In many insect species, cuticular hydrocarbons serve as pheromones that can mediate complex social behaviors. In Drosophila melanogaster, several hydrocarbons including the male sex pheromone 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) and female-specific 7,11-dienes influence courtship behavior and can function as cues for short-term memory associated with the mating experience. Behavioral and physiological studies suggest that other unidentified chemical communication cues are likely to exist. To more fully characterize the hydrocarbon profile of the D. melanogaster cuticle, we applied direct ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-LDI-o-TOF MS) and analyzed the surface of intact fruit flies at a spatial resolution of approximately 200 μm. Results We report the chemical and spatial characterization of 28 species of cuticular hydrocarbons, including a new major class of oxygen-containing compounds. Using UV-LDI MS, pheromones previously shown to be expressed exclusively by one sex, e.g. cVA, 7,11-heptacosadiene, and 7,11-nonacosadiene, appear to be found on both male and female flies. In males, cVA co-localizes at the tip of the ejaculatory bulb with a second acetylated hydrocarbon named CH503. We describe the chemical structure of CH503 as 3-O-acetyl-1,3-dihydroxy-octacosa-11,19-diene and show one behavioral role for this compound as a long-lived inhibitor of male courtship. Like cVA, CH503 is transferred from males to females during mating. Unlike cVA, CH503 remains on the surface of females for at least 10 days. Conclusions Oxygenated hydrocarbons comprise one major previously undescribed class of compounds on the Drosophila cuticular surface. In addition to cVA, a newly-discovered long chain acetate, CH503, serves as a mediator of courtship-related chemical communication. PMID:19615904

  5. Methyl paraben as a sex pheromone in canine urine--is the question still open?

    PubMed

    Dzięcioł, M; Politowicz, J; Szumny, A; Niżański, W

    2014-01-01

    The literature concerning the issue of canine sex pheromones includes reports presenting completely conflicting opinions about the chemical composition of the canine urine in the context of semiochemical communication. At present, the predominant report cited by many different authors is the article published in Science in 1979 by Goodwin at al., presenting methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (methyl paraben) as the main canine sex pheromone. While it has been proved that pure methyl paraben lacks semiochemical activity as do commercially available products containing this substance (Eau D'Estrus, Synbiotics, USA), in view of the conflicting published reports the aim of this study was to revaluate using modern techniques the presence of methyl p-hydroxybenzoate in canine urine during different phases of the ovarian cycle. Ten female dogs of different breeds were used. Urine samples from bitches collected during various stages of the ovarian cycle were examined with using the SPME and GC/MS methods. Methyl paraben was not detected in any of the samples. In conclusion, because of the lack of methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate in the samples examined, the present study confirmed negative opinions on the possibility of this substance playing a crucial role in semiochemical communication during reproduction in dogs (Canis familiaris).

  6. A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Peter J.; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D.; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping

    2009-05-01

    Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with ( n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C25 had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.

  7. Beyond 9-ODA: sex pheromone communication in the European honey bee Apis mellifera L.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Axel; Dietz, Daniel; Spaethe, Johannes; Tautz, Jürgen

    2006-03-01

    The major component of the mandibular gland secretion of queen honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), 9-ODA ((2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid), has been known for more than 40 yr to function as a long-range sex pheromone, attracting drones at congregation areas and drone flyways. Tests of other mandibular gland components failed to demonstrate attraction. It remained unclear whether these components served any function in mating behavior. We performed dual-choice experiments, using a rotating drone carousel, to test the attractiveness of 9-ODA compared to mixtures of 9-ODA with three other most abundant components in virgin queen mandibular gland secretions: (2E)-9-hydroxydecenoic acid (9-HDA), (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid (10-HDA), and p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB). We found no differences in the number of drones attracted to 9-ODA or the respective mixtures over a distance. However, adding 9-HDA and 10-HDA, or 9-HDA, 10-HDA, and HOB to 9-ODA increased the number of drones making contact with the baited dummy. On the basis of these results, we suggest that at least 9-HDA and 10-HDA are additional components of the sex pheromone blend of A. mellifera.

  8. A Sex Attractant for Trapping Crambus cypridalis (Lepidoptera: crambidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traps in eastern Washington wheat fields, baited with a sex attractant for the moth of the wheat head armyworm Dargida diffusa (Walker), also captured numbers of males of a type of sod webworm, Crambus cypridalis. When the two components of the sex attractant were tested singly versus together in a ...

  9. Female sex pheromone of brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis blend optimization.

    PubMed

    Cork, A; Alam, S N; Das, A; Das, C S; Ghosh, G C; Farman, D I; Hall, D R; Maslen, N R; Vedham, K; Phythian, S J; Rouf, F M; Srinivasan, K

    2001-09-01

    The brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis is the major pest of eggplant in South Asia. Analysis of female pheromone gland extracts prepared from insects of Indian and Taiwanese origin confirmed (E)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (E11-16:Ac) as the major pheromone component with 0.8 to 2.8% of the related (E)-11-hexadecen-1-ol (E11-16:OH), as previously reported from Sri Lanka. The average quantity of E11-16:Ac extracted per female was estimated to be 33 ng, with a range of 18.9 to 46.4 ng when collected 2 to 3 hr into the scotophase. In field trials conducted in India, blends containing between 1 and 10% E11-16:OH caught more male L. orbonalis than E11-16:Ac alone. At the 1,000 microg dose, on white rubber septa, addition of 1% E11-16:OH to E11-16:Ac was found to be more attractive to male L. orbonalis than either 0.1 or 10% E11-16:OH. Trap catch was found to be positively correlated with pheromone release rate, with the highest dose tested, 3,000 microg, on white rubber septa catching more male moths than lower doses. Field and wind tunnel release rate studies confirmed that E11-16:OH released from white rubber septa and polyethylene vials at approximately twice the rate of E11-16:Ac and that the release rate of both compounds was doubled in polyethylene vials compared to white rubber septa. This difference in release rate was reflected in field trials conducted in Bangladesh where polyethylene vial dispensers caught more male moths than either black or white rubber septa, each loaded with the same 100:1 blend of E11-16:Ac and E11-16:OH in a 3,000 microg loading.

  10. Efficacy of aggregation pheromone in trapping red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) and rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Linn.) from infested coconut palms.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, A K; Chandrashekharaiah, M; Kandakoor, Subhash B; Nagaraj, D N

    2014-05-01

    Red palm weevil and Rhinoceros beetle are the major pests inflicting severe damage to coconut palms. Due to ineffectiveness of the current management practices to control the two important pests on coconut, a study was conducted to know the attractiveness of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle to aggregation pheromone. Olfactometer studies indicated that the aggregation pheromone of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle attracted significantly more number of weevils (13.4 females and 7.6 male weevils) and beetles (6.5 male and 12.3 female beetles), respectively than control. Similarly, field studies found that both 750 and 1000 mg pheromone dosage lures of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle trapped significantly higher numbers of weevils (695.80 and 789 weevils, respectively) and beetles (98 and 108 beetles, respectively) in traps (P < 0.05), respectively. On an average (n = 6 field trials) 80-85% red palm weevil and 72-78% rhinoceros beetle population got trapped. Observations indicated activity of red palm weevil throughout the year and of rhinoceros beetle from September to March around Bangalore, South India. Pheromone traps for red palm weevil can be placed in fields from June to August and October to December and September to February for rhinoceros beetle. Population reductions of the two coleopteran pests by pheromone traps are compatible with mechanical and cultural management tools with cumulative effects.

  11. Effect of release rate and ratio of (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol from synthetic pheromone blends on trap capture ofHeliothis subflexa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Heath, R R; Mitchell, E R; Cibrian Tovar, J

    1990-04-01

    Response of maleHeliothis subflexa to pheromone-baited traps containing blends of tetradecanal, (Z)-9-tetradecanal, hexadecanal, (Z)-7-hexadecenal, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, hexadecan-1-ol acetate, (Z)-7-hexadecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-9-hexadecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-9-hexadecen-1-ol, and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol was evaluated. Analysis of trap capture data indicated that (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol was a critical component of the pheromone blend. It was determined from emission rate data and measurements of the ratio of pheromone components emitted from rubber septa tested that a significant increase in trap capture of maleH. subflexa occurred when the blends investigated released the alcohol in a narrow range relative to the total amount of pheromone emitted. The optimum range of release ratio of the alcohol for the capture of males in sticky traps was determined to be 0.9-3.5% of the pheromone blend. This release ratio range was reduced to 0.9-1.6% when bucket traps were used.

  12. Variation in sex pheromone emission does not reflect immunocompetence but affects attractiveness of male burying beetles—a combination of laboratory and field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Bagrii, Nadiia; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness. As a measurement of immune capacity, we used an individual's encapsulation ability against a novel antigen. In the second experiment, we specifically examined whether a trade-off between chemical trait expression and immune function existed. To this end, we challenged the immune system and measured the subsequent investment in sex pheromone emission and the attractiveness of the male under field conditions. We found that a male's immunocompetence was neither related to the emission of the male's sex pheromone nor to its attractiveness in the field. Furthermore, none of the immune-challenge treatments affected the subsequent investment in pheromone emission or number of females attracted. However, we showed that the same males that emitted a high quantity of their sex pheromone in the laboratory were able to attract more females in the field. Our data suggest that the chemical signal is not a reliable predictor of a male's immunocompetence but rather is a general important fitness-related trait, with a higher emission of the sex pheromone measured in the laboratory directly affecting the attractiveness of a male under field conditions.

  13. A reference gene set for sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, based on genome and transcriptome digital gene expression analyses.

    PubMed

    He, Peng; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Hong, Duan-Yang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xing-Liang; Zuo, Ling-Hua; Tang, Xian-Fu; Xu, Wei-Ming; He, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Female moths synthesize species-specific sex pheromone components and release them to attract male moths, which depend on precise sex pheromone chemosensory system to locate females. Two types of genes involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways play essential roles in this important moth behavior. To understand the function of genes in the sex pheromone pathway, this study investigated the genome-wide and digital gene expression of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes in various adult tissues in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, which is a notorious vegetable pest worldwide. A massive transcriptome data (at least 39.04 Gb) was generated by sequencing 6 adult tissues including male antennae, female antennae, heads, legs, abdomen and female pheromone glands from DBM by using Illumina 4000 next-generation sequencing and mapping to a published DBM genome. Bioinformatics analysis yielded a total of 89,332 unigenes among which 87 transcripts were putatively related to seven gene families in the sex pheromone biosynthesis pathway. Among these, seven [two desaturases (DES), three fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) one acetyltransferase (ACT) and one alcohol dehydrogenase (AD)] were mainly expressed in the pheromone glands with likely function in the three essential sex pheromone biosynthesis steps: desaturation, reduction, and esterification. We also identified 210 odorant-degradation related genes (including sex pheromone-degradation related genes) from seven major enzyme groups. Among these genes, 100 genes are new identified and two aldehyde oxidases (AOXs), one aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), five carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs), five UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), eight cytochrome P450 (CYP) and three glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) displayed more robust expression in the antennae, and thus are proposed to participate in the degradation of sex pheromone components and plant volatiles. To date, this is the most

  14. Involvement of a bifunctional fatty-acyl desaturase in the biosynthesis of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, sex pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Moto, Ken'ichi; Suzuki, Masataka G.; Hull, J. Joe; Kurata, Ryuichiro; Takahashi, Shunya; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Okano, Kazuhiro; Imai, Kiyohiro; Ando, Tetsu; Matsumoto, Shogo

    2004-01-01

    The straight-chain C10 to C18 unsaturated aliphatic compounds containing an oxygenated functional group (aldehyde, alcohol, or acetate ester) derived from saturated C16 or C18 fatty acids are a major class of sex pheromone components produced by female moths. In the biosynthesis of these pheromone components, various combinations of limited chain-shortening and regio- and stereospecific desaturation reactions significantly contribute to the production of a vast number of the species-specific pheromone components in Lepidoptera. Biosynthesis of the silkmoth sex pheromone bombykol, (E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadien-1-ol, involves two consecutive desaturation steps, the second of which is unique in that it generates a conjugated diene system from the Δ11-monoene C16 intermediate. In experiments designed to characterize the acyl-CoA desaturases responsible for bombykol biosynthesis, we have cloned three cDNAs encoding desaturase family members from the pheromone gland of the inbred strain of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori. Transcript analyses by RT-PCR and subsequent functional assays using a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system revealed that desat1 is the only desaturase gene prominently expressed during pheromonogenesis and that its gene product, B. mori Desat1, possesses both Z11 desaturation and Δ10,12-desaturation activities. Consequently, we have concluded that B. mori Desat1 is not only a bifunctional desaturase involved in bombykol biosynthesis but that it is also the enzyme responsible for both desaturation steps. PMID:15173596

  15. Female sex pheromones of two Japanese saturniid species, Rhodinia fugax and Loepa sakaei: identification, synthesis, and field evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qi; Kanegae, Akiko; Miyachi, Takashi; Naka, Hideshi; Tatsuta, Haruki; Ando, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    While 11 species in the family Saturniidae are found in Japan, no sex pheromones of the native species had been investigated previously. We collected larvae of Rhodinia fugax in Nagano and Tottori Prefecture, and of Loepa sakaei in Okinawa Prefecture, and extracted sex pheromones of these two species from virgin female moths. In gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analyses, male antennae of each species responded to one component in the respective pheromone extracts of conspecific females. Chemical analyses of the extracts by GC/mass spectrometry revealed that the EAD-active compounds of R. fugax and L. sakaei were a hexadecadienal and a tetradecadienyl acetate, respectively. The two species belong to the subfamily Saturniinae, and the mass spectra of both were similar to that of the 6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate identified from Antheraea polyphemus, classified in the same subfamily, suggesting the same 6,11-dienyl structure for the C16 aldehyde and a 4,9-dienyl structure for the C14 acetate. Based on this assumption, four geometrical isomers of each dienyl compound were stereoselectively synthesized via acetylene intermediates, compared to the natural products, and tested in the field. Male catches confirmed the pheromone structures of the two Japanese saturniid species as (6E,11Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal for R. fugax and (4E,9Z)-4,9-tetradecadienyl acetate for L. sakaei. The compounds have a characteristic 1,6-dienyl motif common to the pheromones of Saturniinae species.

  16. Influence of Fermenting Bait and Vertical Position of Traps on Attraction of Cerambycid Beetles to Pheromone Lures.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joseph C H; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-10-01

    Because larvae of cerambycid beetles feed within woody plants, they are difficult to detect, and are readily transported in lumber and other wooden products. As a result, increasing numbers of exotic cerambycid species are being introduced into new regions of the world through international commerce, and many of these species pose a threat to woody plants in natural and managed forests. There is a great need for effective methods for detecting exotic and potentially invasive cerambycid species, and for monitoring native species for conservation purposes. Here, we describe a field experiment in east-central Illinois which tested whether attraction of beetles to a blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones would be enhanced by volatiles from fermenting bait composed of crushed fruit, sugars, yeast, and wood chips. A second experiment tested the same treatments, but also assessed how trap catch was influenced by the vertical position of traps within forests (understory versus within the canopy). During the two experiments, 885 cerambycid beetles of 37 species were caught, with Xylotrechus colonus (F.) (subfamily Cerambycinae) being the most numerous (∼52% of total). Adults of several cerambycid species were significantly attracted by the pheromone blend, but the fermenting bait significantly enhanced attraction only for X. colonus and Graphisurus fasciatus (Degeer) (subfamily Lamiinae). Traps in the forest understory caught the greatest number of X. colonus and G. fasciatus, whereas more adults of the cerambycine Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus (F.) were caught in the forest canopy rather than the understory.

  17. Evaluation of novel semiochemical dispensers simultaneously releasing pear ester and sex pheromone for mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The performance of polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with two rates of ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was compared with similar dispensers and two commercial dispensers l...

  18. Determination of HPLC fluorescence analysis of the natural enantiomers of sex pheromones in the New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioassays of 6 racemic synthesized candidate sex pheromone compounds against male New World Screwworm flies showed that the most potent bioactivity was found with 6-acetoxy-19-methylnonacosane and 7-acetoxy-15-methylnonacosane compared to 4 other isomeric acetoxy nonacosanes. Since all these methyl-...

  19. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of 5,9-dimethylpentadecane and 5,9-dimethylhexadecane--the sex pheromones of Leucoptera coffeella.

    PubMed

    Doan, Nhuan Ngoc; Le, Thach Ngoc; Nguyen, Hao Cong; Hansen, Poul Erik; Duus, Fritz

    2007-08-28

    Racemic 5,9-dimethylpentadecane and 5,9-dimethylhexadecane, the major and minor constituents, respectively, of the sex pheromone of Leucoptera coffeella, have been synthesized from citronellol in 56-58% overall yield through six steps. Ultrasound irradiation efficiently supported tosylation of alcohols (two steps) as well as the subsequent cross coupling reactions with the pertinent Grignard reagents (also two steps).

  20. Creating Point Sources for Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Low-Volume Sprays of a Microencapsulated Sex Pheromone Formulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to examine the depositioin of microcapsules and the attractiveness of treated apple leaves for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), following low volume concentrated sprays of a microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulation (CheckMate CM-F). Nearly 30% of leaves collected f...

  1. Analysis of the sex pheromone extract of individual male Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies from six regions in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J G C; Maingon, R D C; Alexander, B; Ward, R D; Brazil, R P

    2005-12-01

    Although the phlebotomine sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is generally accepted to be a species complex, it is unclear how many members there are, how they are related and which are the main vectors of leishmaniasis. The vectorial capacity of each sibling species is likely to differ, thus a means of identifying the most important vector species is of critical importance to the epidemiology and control of this debilitating disease in South and Central America. In Brazil four chemotypes have been distinguished by sex pheromone analysis. In this study the sex pheromone extracts of L. longipalpis from six regions of Brazil were analysed in detail. Samples included the sympatric 1-spot, 2-spot and intermediate spot morphotypes from Sobral, Ceará State. The results strongly suggest that members of the complex that produce different sex pheromones are reproductively isolated, thus strengthening the argument that the different chemotypes represent true sibling species. The study also found significant differences in morphology and the amounts of sex pheromone produced by members of each chemotype from different parts of Brazil, which suggests population substructuring that has not previously been recognized. Evidence of a fifth chemotype in Brazil is also presented.

  2. Interspecific Sex in Grass Smuts and the Genetic Diversity of Their Pheromone-Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Ronny; Vollmeister, Evelyn; Feldbrügge, Michael; Begerow, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    The grass smuts comprise a speciose group of biotrophic plant parasites, so-called Ustilaginaceae, which are specifically adapted to hosts of sweet grasses, the Poaceae family. Mating takes a central role in their life cycle, as it initiates parasitism by a morphological and physiological transition from saprobic yeast cells to pathogenic filaments. As in other fungi, sexual identity is determined by specific genomic regions encoding allelic variants of a pheromone-receptor (PR) system and heterodimerising transcription factors. Both operate in a biphasic mating process that starts with PR–triggered recognition, directed growth of conjugation hyphae, and plasmogamy of compatible mating partners. So far, studies on the PR system of grass smuts revealed diverse interspecific compatibility and mating type determination. However, many questions concerning the specificity and evolutionary origin of the PR system remain unanswered. Combining comparative genetics and biological approaches, we report on the specificity of the PR system and its genetic diversity in 10 species spanning about 100 million years of mating type evolution. We show that three highly syntenic PR alleles are prevalent among members of the Ustilaginaceae, favouring a triallelic determination as the plesiomorphic characteristic of this group. Furthermore, the analysis of PR loci revealed increased genetic diversity of single PR locus genes compared to genes of flanking regions. Performing interspecies sex tests, we detected a high potential for hybridisation that is directly linked to pheromone signalling as known from intraspecies sex. Although the PR system seems to be optimised for intraspecific compatibility, the observed functional plasticity of the PR system increases the potential for interspecific sex, which might allow the hybrid-based genesis of newly combined host specificities. PMID:22242007

  3. Control and Monitoring of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Walnut Orchards Treated With Novel High-Load, Low-Density "Meso" Dispensers of Sex Pheromone and Pear Ester.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M

    2016-03-27

    Low-density per ha "meso" dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, kairomone and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, pheromone of codling moth,Cydia pomonella(L)., were evaluated versus meso dispensers loaded with pheromone alone for mating disruption control in walnut orchards receiving no insecticide sprays. Meso dispensers loaded with codlemone alone (Ph meso) were applied at 50 ha(-1)and compared with mesos combining codlemone and pear ester (Ph + PE meso) at 25 and 50 ha(-1) Various lures containing pear ester (PE), Ph-PE combo, and an experimental codlemone plus (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene lure were tested alone and with acetic acid (AA) lures for moth capture efficacy. Male moth capture in pheromone traps was significantly reduced by 88% in Ph meso plots and 96% in Ph + PE meso plots versus control plots. Moth capture in Ph-PE combo traps was significantly reduced for both sexes in all meso plots. Harvest damage by both the codling moth and the secondary pest, navel orangeworm,Amyelois transitella(Walker), was significantly lower in all meso treatment plots compared with damage in control plots. Nut injury level with the Ph + PE meso treatment (50 ha(-1)) was significantly lower than in Ph meso plots for both codling moth and combined pest injury. Regression analysis suggested that nut infestation levels by navel orangeworm were influenced by codling moth levels. In all meso plots, the most effective lures attracting both codling moth sexes were PE & AA or Ph-PE combo & AA. Demonstrated disruption and control efficacy of these pheromone plus PE-meso dispensers applied at low densities supports development of the meso dispenser tactic for practical pest management use in walnut orchards with inherent low planting densities. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the United States.

  4. 2,3-Dihydrohomofarnesal: female sex attractant pheromone component of Callosobruchus rhodesianus (Pic).

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Kenji; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Yajima, Arata; Matsumoto, Noriko; Kagohara, Yuuma; Kamada, Koichi; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ohsawa, Kanju

    2010-08-01

    Callosobruchus rhodesianus (Pic) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is a pest of stored legumes through the Afro-tropical region. In laboratory bioassays, males of C. rhodesianus were attracted to volatiles collected from virgin females. Collections were purified by various chromatographic techniques, and the biologically active component isolated using gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection analysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses suggested that the active compound was 2,3-dihydrohomofarnesal, i.e., 7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-6,10-dodecadienal. The structure was confirmed by non-stereoselective and enantioselective total synthesis. Using chiral gas chromatography, the absolute configuration of the natural compound was confirmed as (3S,6E)-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-6,10-dodecadienal. Y-tube olfactomter assays showed that only the (S)-enantiomer attracted males of C. rhodesianus. The (R)-enantiomer and racemate did not attract males, suggesting that the (R)-enantiomer inhibits the activity of the natural compound. In combination with previous reports about sex attractant pheromones of congeners, we suggest that a saltational shift of the pheromone structure arose within the genus Callosobruchus.

  5. Hybrid Sex Pheromones of the Hibiscus Flower-bud Borer, Rehimena surusalis.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Ryokuhei; Sumiuchi, Yoko; Uehara, Takuya; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Naka, Hideshi

    2015-11-01

    The sex pheromone of the hibiscus flower borer Rehimena surusalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was analyzed by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Three EAD-active components were found in crude pheromone gland extracts of calling females. GC/MS and GC analyses using synthetic chemicals and derivatization of the extracts identified three components as (10E,12Z)-hexadeca-10,12-dienal (E10,Z12-16:Ald,), (10E,12E)-hexadeca-10,12-dienyl acetate (E10,Z12-16:OAc), and (3Z,6Z,9Z)-tricosa-3,6,9-triene (Z3,Z6,Z9-23:HC). In field tests, male moths were strongly attracted to a ternary blend of E10,Z12-16:Ald, E10,Z12-16:OAc, and Z3,Z6,Z9-23:HC at a ratio of 1:5:14, but single and binary blends showed only weak or no attraction.

  6. Pheromone antagonism in the European corn borer moth Ostrinia nubilalis.

    PubMed

    Gemeno, César; Sans, Albert; López, Carmen; Albajes, Ramon; Eizaguirre, Matilde

    2006-05-01

    Mixing the sex pheromones of the Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides, and the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, results in significantly lower captures of O. nubilalis when compared to traps loaded with its pheromone alone. Rubber septa loaded with a constant concentration of the pheromone of O. nubilalis and different percentages of the S. nonagrioides pheromone (from 1 to 100%) causes dose-dependent antagonism in the field. Electroantennograms of O. nubilalis males showed high antennal responses to its own pheromone components, followed by smaller responses to the major, [(Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac)], and two minor components [dodecyl acetate (12:Ac) and (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald)] of the S. nonagrioides pheromone. There was almost no response to the S. nonagrioides minor component (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH). Field tests that used traps baited with the O. nubilalis pheromone plus individual components of S. nonagrioides showed that Z11-16:Ald causes the antagonism. Adding 1% Z11-16:Ald to the pheromone of O. nubilalis reduced oriented flight and pheromone source contact in the wind tunnel by 26% and 83%, respectively, and trap captures in the field by 90%. The other three pheromone components of S. nonagrioides inhibited pheromone source contact but not oriented flight of O. nubilalis males and did not inhibit capture in the field. Cross-adaptation electroantennogram suggests that Z11-16:Ald stimulates a different odor receptor neuron than the pheromone components of O. nubilalis. We conclude that Z11-16:Ald is a potent antagonist of the behavioral response of O. nubilalis.

  7. Coding and interaction of sex pheromone and plant volatile signals in the antennal lobe of the codling moth Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Trona, Federica; Anfora, Gianfranco; Bengtsson, Marie; Witzgall, Peter; Ignell, Rickard

    2010-12-15

    In the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) plant volatiles attract males and females by upwind flight and synergise the male response to the female-produced sex pheromone, indicating a close relationship between the perception of social and environmental olfactory signals. We have studied the anatomical and functional organisation of the antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory centre, of C. pomonella with respect to the integration of sex pheromone and host-plant volatile information. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the glomerular structure of the AL revealed 50±2 and 49±2 glomeruli in males and females, respectively. These glomeruli are functional units involved in the coding of odour quality. The glomerular map of the AL was then integrated with electrophysiological recordings of the response of individual neurons in the AL of males and females to sex pheromone components and behaviourally active plant volatiles. By means of intracellular recordings and stainings, we physiologically characterised ca. 50 neurons in each sex, revealing complex patterns of activation and a wide variation in response dynamics to these test compounds. Stimulation with single chemicals and their two-component blends produced both synergistic and inhibitory interactions in projection neurons innervating ordinary glomeruli and the macroglomerular complex. Our results show that the sex pheromone and plant odours are processed in an across-fibre coding pattern. The lack of a clear segregation between the pheromone and general odour subsystems in the AL of the codling moth suggests a level of interaction that has not been reported from other insects.

  8. Application of chiral gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection to the determination of the stereochemistry of a cockroach sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Leal, W S; Shi, X; Liang, D; Schal, C; Meinwald, J

    1995-02-14

    The coupling of an electroantennographic detector to a chiral capillary gas chromatographic system provides a highly sensitive technique for the determination of pheromone stereochemistry. Electronic modification of the usual electroantennographic detector enables the detector to respond to the relatively broad peaks produced by chiral gas chromatographic systems. By using this methodology, supellapyrone, a female sex pheromone of the brownbanded cockroach Supella longipalpa (Orthoptera: Blattellidae), is shown to be 5-(2'R,4'R-dimethylheptanyl)-3-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one.

  9. Application of chiral gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection to the determination of the stereochemistry of a cockroach sex pheromone.

    PubMed Central

    Leal, W S; Shi, X; Liang, D; Schal, C; Meinwald, J

    1995-01-01

    The coupling of an electroantennographic detector to a chiral capillary gas chromatographic system provides a highly sensitive technique for the determination of pheromone stereochemistry. Electronic modification of the usual electroantennographic detector enables the detector to respond to the relatively broad peaks produced by chiral gas chromatographic systems. By using this methodology, supellapyrone, a female sex pheromone of the brownbanded cockroach Supella longipalpa (Orthoptera: Blattellidae), is shown to be 5-(2'R,4'R-dimethylheptanyl)-3-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one. PMID:7862628

  10. Effect of Male House Mouse Pheromone Components on Behavioral Responses of Mice in Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    PubMed

    Musso, Antonia E; Gries, Regine; Zhai, Huimin; Takács, Stephen; Gries, Gerhard

    2017-03-01

    Urine of male house mice, Mus musculus, is known to have primer pheromone effects on the reproductive physiology of female mice. Urine-mediated releaser pheromone effects that trigger certain behavioral responses are much less understood, and no field studies have investigated whether urine deposits by male or female mice, or synthetic mouse pheromone, increase trap captures of mice. In field experiments, we baited traps with bedding soiled with urine and feces of caged female or male mice, and recorded captures of mice in these and in control traps containing clean bedding. Traps baited with female bedding preferentially captured adult males, whereas traps baited with male bedding preferentially captured juvenile and adult females, indicating the presence of male- and female-specific sex pheromones in soiled bedding. Analyses of headspace volatiles emanating from soiled bedding by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that 3,4-dehydro-exo-brevicomin (DEB) was seven times more prevalent in male bedding and that 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (DHT) was male-specific. In a follow-up field experiment, traps baited with DEB and DHT captured 4 times more female mice than corresponding control traps, thus indicating that DEB and DHT are sex attractant pheromone components of house mouse males. Our study provides impetus to identify the sex attractant pheromone of female mice, and to develop synthetic mouse pheromone as a lure to enhance the efficacy of trapping programs for mouse control.

  11. Behavioral and pheromonal phenotypes associated with expression of loss-of-function mutations in the sex-lethal gene of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, L; McRobert, S P

    1995-02-01

    We have shown that female-specific functions of the sex determination gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) regulate sexual behavior and synthesis of the three major sex pheromones that have been identified in normal, sexually mature Drosophilia melanogaster males and virgin females. Diplo-X flies, heterozygous in trans for two partial loss-of-function Sxl mutations, elicit less courtship than normal females and produce large quantities of the inhibitory pheromones that normal males synthesize. In addition, the mutant flies fail to synthesize the female-predominant aphrodisiac pheromone or make very small quantities of this compound.

  12. Male sex pheromones and the phylogeographic structure of the Lutzomyia longipalpis species complex (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Brazil and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Watts, Phillip C; Hamilton, J Gordon C; Ward, Richard D; Noyes, Harry A; Souza, Nataly A; Kemp, Stephen J; Feliciangeli, M Dora; Brazil, Reginaldo; Maingon, Rhayza D C

    2005-10-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis, a sibling complex, is the main vector of Leishmania chagasi/infantum. Discriminating between siblings is important as they may differ in vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis populations display distinct male sex pheromone chemotypes. We investigated the phylogeographic pattern of variation at microsatellite loci from 11 populations from Brazil and Venezuela related to their male pheromone. Temporal genetic differentiation was mostly not significant at the same site. Spatial genetic differentiation was, however, strong, although there was only a weak relationship between genetic differentiation and the geographic distance separating the samples (r2 < 0.10); geographic separation explained a much greater (54-97%) percentage of the genetic differences among populations when samples with the same pheromone type were analyzed separately. A cluster analysis showed five groups: Lu. cruzi (Brazil) and Lu. pseudolongipalpis (Venezuela) as separate species, two (mostly 9-methyl-germacrene-B) Venezuelan and Brazilian groups, and a very distinct cluster of Brazilian cembrene populations.

  13. The sex-inducing pheromone and wounding trigger the same set of genes in the multicellular green alga Volvox.

    PubMed Central

    Amon, P; Haas, E; Sumper, M

    1998-01-01

    The sex-inducing pheromone of the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri is a glycoprotein that triggers development of males and females at a concentration <10(-16) M. By differential screening of a cDNA library, two novel genes were identified that are transcribed under the control of this pheromone. Unexpectedly, one gene product was characterized as a lysozyme/chitinase, and the other gene product was shown to encode a polypeptide with a striking modular composition. This polypeptide has a cysteine protease domain separated by an extensin-like module from three repeats of a chitin binding domain. In higher plants, similar protein families are known to play an important role in defense against fungi. Indeed, we found that the same set of genes triggered by the sexual pheromone was also inducible in V. carteri by wounding. PMID:9596636

  14. The sex-inducing pheromone and wounding trigger the same set of genes in the multicellular green alga Volvox.

    PubMed

    Amon, P; Haas, E; Sumper, M

    1998-05-01

    The sex-inducing pheromone of the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri is a glycoprotein that triggers development of males and females at a concentration <10(-16) M. By differential screening of a cDNA library, two novel genes were identified that are transcribed under the control of this pheromone. Unexpectedly, one gene product was characterized as a lysozyme/chitinase, and the other gene product was shown to encode a polypeptide with a striking modular composition. This polypeptide has a cysteine protease domain separated by an extensin-like module from three repeats of a chitin binding domain. In higher plants, similar protein families are known to play an important role in defense against fungi. Indeed, we found that the same set of genes triggered by the sexual pheromone was also inducible in V. carteri by wounding.

  15. Desaturases from the spotted fireworm moth (Choristoneura parallela) shed light on the evolutionary origins of novel moth sex pheromone desaturases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weitian; Rooney, Alejandro P; Xue, Bingye; Roelofs, Wendell L

    2004-11-24

    Six acyl-CoA desaturase-encoding cDNAs from mRNA isolated from the spotted fireworm moth, Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were characterized and assayed for functionality. The expression levels of these cDNAs were determined in the pheromone gland and fat body by real-time PCR and the resulting patterns are in line with results from published studies on other moth sex pheromone desaturases. The cDNAs were found to correspond to six genes. Using both biochemical and phylogenetic analyses, four of these were found to belong to previously characterized desaturase functional groups [the Delta 10,11, the Delta 9 (16>18) and the Delta 9 (18>16) groups]. A desaturase highly expressed in the pheromone gland was a novel E11 desaturase that was specific to 14-carbon precursor acids. The fifth gene [CpaZ9(14-26)] was found to display a novel Z9 activity indicating that it belongs to a new Delta 9 functional group, whereas the sixth gene was determined to be nonfunctional with respect to desaturase activity. In accordance with previous studies, we find that desaturases of the Delta 10,11 and Delta 14 groups, which are the fastest evolving desaturases and possess the novel pheromone biosynthetic function, are expressed primarily in the pheromone gland whereas all other desaturases, which do not possess the novel reproductive function, evolve more slowly and display the ancestral metabolic function and pattern of gene expression.

  16. Epimerisation of chiral hydroxylactones by short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases accounts for sex pheromone evolution in Nasonia

    PubMed Central

    Ruther, Joachim; Hagström, Åsa K.; Brandstetter, Birgit; Hofferberth, John; Bruckmann, Astrid; Semmelmann, Florian; Fink, Michaela; Lowack, Helena; Laberer, Sabine; Niehuis, Oliver; Deutzmann, Rainer; Löfstedt, Christer; Sterner, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Males of all species of the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia use (4R,5S)-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RS) as component of their sex pheromone while only N. vitripennis (Nv), employs additionally (4R,5R)-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RR). Three genes coding for the NAD+-dependent short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) NV10127, NV10128, and NV10129 are linked to the ability of Nv to produce RR. Here we show by assaying recombinant enzymes that SDRs from both Nv and N. giraulti (Ng), the latter a species with only RS in the pheromone, epimerise RS into RR and vice versa with (4R)-5-oxo-4-decanolide as an intermediate. Nv-derived SDR orthologues generally had higher epimerisation rates, which were also influenced by NAD+ availability. Semiquantitative protein analyses of the pheromone glands by tandem mass spectrometry revealed that NV10127 as well as NV10128 and/or NV10129 were more abundant in Nv compared to Ng. We conclude that the interplay of differential expression patterns and SDR epimerisation rates on the ancestral pheromone component RS accounts for the evolution of a novel pheromone phenotype in Nv. PMID:27703264

  17. Identification of sex pheromones from cowpea weevil,Callosobruchus maculatus, and related studies withC. analis (coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Phillips, T W; Phillips, J K; Webster, F X; Tang, R; Burkholder, W E

    1996-12-01

    Female cowpea weevils,Callosobruchus maculatus, produce a sex pheromone that elicits orientation and sexual behavior in males. Bioassay-directed isolation of the sex pheromone was conducted and compounds in the active fraction were identified and synthesized. Volatiles were collected from individual virgin females by adsorption on filter paper dises and hexane extraction. A bioassay was used in which the locomotory response of single males in glass vials was recorded upon exposure to treatments or controls. Crude extracts were subjected to silica gel column chromatography with solvents of increasing polarity; all activity eluted with methanol. Activity in the highly polar methanol fraction suggested a carboxylic acid or a compound with multiple polar functionality. Acid-base partitioning of the crude extract isolated all activity in the acid fraction, confirming that the pheromone was a carboxylic acid. The acid fraction was further fractionated by preparative GC with a Carbowax column. The most active GC fraction contained the following five 8-carbon acids identified by GC-MS and comparison with synthetic candidates: 3-methyleneheptanoic acid, (Z)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid, (E)-3-methyl-3-heptenoic acid, (Z)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid, and (E)-3-methyl-2-heptenoic acid. Each of the synthetic acids was active individually for males, and combinations of two or more of the acid pheromones had an additive effect. Upwind flight responses to natural and synthetic pheromones were observed in a flight tunnel. (Z)-3-Methyl-2-heptenoic acid was previously identified as the sex pheromone for the relatedC. analis, but this and the other four acid pheromones fromC. maculatus were inactive for maleC. analis. There was no cross-attraction betweenC. maculatus andC. analis in reciprocal studies using extracted volatiles from females of both species, GC-MS analysis ofC. analis female volatiles failed to detect any of theC. maculatus compounds but did find an unidentified C-8 acid

  18. Sex pheromone monitoring as a versatile tool for determining presence and abundance of Cydia pomonella (Lep.: Tortricidae) in German apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Czyrt, T; Schmid, S; Leithold, G; Vilcinskas, A

    2012-01-01

    Cydia pomonella (Lep.: Tortricidae), the codling moth, is an apple, pear, quince and walnut pest with considerable impact on horticultural production systems in many parts of the world. In commercial apple production, it is responsible for a yearly damage level of 40 billion dollars. In response to the need of tight codling moth control there are several options for intervention by pest managers in commercially operated orchards. Spray and count methods have been used for decades with success, but at considerable external costs for the integrity of ecological cycles. Also, problems with pesticide residues and with resistant strains are an issue of concern. For environmental reasons, toxicological means are discounted here. Instead, flight curves based on sex pheromone trapping and monitoring are preferred means towards determining the optimal timing of interventions by biotechnical and biological control methods. Finally, ecological reasons are discussed for vastly different population levels of C. pomonella developing in closely neighboring field sections which operated under different environmental management.

  19. Unusual macrocyclic lactone sex pheromone of Parcoblatta lata, a primary food source of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Santangelo, Richard G; Carpenter, Shannon; Webster, Francis X; Kiemle, David J; Gemeno, Cesar; Leal, Walter S; Schal, Coby

    2012-02-21

    Wood cockroaches in the genus Parcoblatta, comprising 12 species endemic to North America, are highly abundant in southeastern pine forests and represent an important prey of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis. The broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata, is among the largest and most abundant of the wood cockroaches, constituting >50% of the biomass of the woodpecker's diet. Because reproduction in red-cockaded woodpeckers is affected dramatically by seasonal and spatial changes in arthropod availability, monitoring P. lata populations could serve as a useful index of habitat suitability for woodpecker conservation and forest management efforts. Female P. lata emit a volatile, long-distance sex pheromone, which, once identified and synthesized, could be deployed for monitoring cockroach populations. We describe here the identification, synthesis, and confirmation of the chemical structure of this pheromone as (4Z,11Z)-oxacyclotrideca-4,11-dien-2-one [= (3Z,10Z)-dodecadienolide; herein referred to as "parcoblattalactone"]. This macrocyclic lactone is a previously unidentified natural product and a previously unknown pheromonal structure for cockroaches, highlighting the great chemical diversity that characterizes olfactory communication in cockroaches: Each long-range sex pheromone identified to date from different genera belongs to a different chemical class. Parcoblattalactone was biologically active in electrophysiological assays and attracted not only P. lata but also several other Parcoblatta species in pine forests, underscoring its utility in monitoring several endemic wood cockroach species in red-cockaded woodpecker habitats.

  20. Presence of Putative Male-Produced Sex Pheromone in Lutzomyia cruciata (Diptera: Psychodidae), Vector of Leishmania mexicana.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A K; Rojas, J C; Cruz-López, L C; Malo, Edi A; Mikery, O F; Castillo, A

    2016-11-01

    Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) is a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mexico and Central America. However, several aspects of its ecology and behavior are unknown, including whether a male pheromone partially mediates the sexual behavior of this sand fly. In this study, we evaluated the behavioral response of females to male abdominal extracts in a Y-tube olfactometer. The volatile compounds from male abdominal extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with those of female abdominal extracts. Finally, the disseminating structures of the putative sex pheromone were examined by scanning electron microscopy in the male abdomen. Females were more attracted to male abdominal extract than to the hexane control, suggesting the presence of male-produced sex pheromone. The male abdominal extracts were characterized by the presence of 12 sesquiterpene compounds. The major component, an unknown sesquiterpene with an abundance of 60%, had a mass spectrum with molecular ion of m/z 262. In contrast, the abdominal female extracts contained saturated fatty acids. Finally, we detected the presence of small "papules" with a mammiform morphology distributed on the abdominal surface of tergites IV-VII of male Lu. cruciata These structures are not present in females. We conclude that Lu. cruciata males likely produce a pheromone involved in attracting or courting females. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Seasonal Changes in Adult Longevity and Pupal Weight of the Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Implications for Interpreting Pheromone Trap Catch

    Treesearch

    Christopher Asaro; C. Wayne Berisford

    2001-01-01

    Pheromone trap catches of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Corn-stock), are often much higher during the first generation as compared with later generations, regardless of population density or damage levels. One hypothesis proposed to explain this phenomenon is reduced adult longevity during summer due to high temperatures. In this...

  2. Can spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirky) pheromone trap catches or stand conditions predict Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) tree mortality in Colorado?

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; John B. Popp

    2017-01-01

    1) Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) can cause extensive tree mortality in forests dominated by their hosts. Among these, the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) is one of the most important beetles in western North America causing Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) tree mortality. 2) Although pheromone traps with attractants are commonly used...

  3. Diurnal flight response of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, to pheromone-baited traps in two northern California walnut habitats

    Treesearch

    Steven J. Seybold; Jennifer A. King; Daren R. Harris; Lori J. Nelson; Shakeeb M. Hamud; Yigen. Chen

    2012-01-01

    The diurnal flight response of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was assessed during two seasonal periods at two sites in northern California. Males and females flew primarily at dusk in response to aggregation pheromone-baited traps during late June/early July, and the percentage of beetles that...

  4. 10-Methyldodecanal, a Novel Attractant Pheromone Produced by Males of the South American Cerambycid Beetle Eburodacrys vittata.

    PubMed

    Silva, Weliton D; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M; Bento, José Maurício S

    2016-01-01

    We report the identification, synthesis, and field bioassay of a novel attractant pheromone produced by males of Eburodacrys vittata (Blanchard), a South American cerambycid beetle in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Headspace volatiles from males contained a sex-specific compound, identified as 10-methyldodecanal. In a field bioassay conducted in Brazil, significant numbers of males and females were caught in traps baited with synthesized racemic 10-methyldodecanal, consistent with the aggregation-sex pheromones produced by males of many cerambycine species. This compound represents a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and it is the first pheromone identified for a species in the tribe Eburiini.

  5. 10-Methyldodecanal, a Novel Attractant Pheromone Produced by Males of the South American Cerambycid Beetle Eburodacrys vittata

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Jocelyn G.; Hanks, Lawrence M.; Bento, José Maurício S.

    2016-01-01

    We report the identification, synthesis, and field bioassay of a novel attractant pheromone produced by males of Eburodacrys vittata (Blanchard), a South American cerambycid beetle in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Headspace volatiles from males contained a sex-specific compound, identified as 10-methyldodecanal. In a field bioassay conducted in Brazil, significant numbers of males and females were caught in traps baited with synthesized racemic 10-methyldodecanal, consistent with the aggregation-sex pheromones produced by males of many cerambycine species. This compound represents a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and it is the first pheromone identified for a species in the tribe Eburiini. PMID:27512985

  6. (6E,8Z)-6,8-Pentadecadienal, a Novel Attractant Pheromone Produced by Males of the Cerambycid Beetles Chlorida festiva and Chlorida costata.

    PubMed

    Silva, Weliton D; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M; Bento, José Maurício S

    2016-10-01

    We report the identification, synthesis, and first field bioassays of a pheromone component with a novel structure produced by adult males of Chlorida festiva (L.) and Chlorida costata Audinet-Serville, longhorn beetle species in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Headspace volatiles from males contained a sex-specific compound that was identified as (6E,8Z)-6,8-pentadecadienal. Traps baited with this compound captured adults of both species and sexes, consistent with the aggregation-sex pheromones produced by males of many species in this subfamily. This compound represents a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and it is the first pheromone identified from species in the tribe Bothriospilini.

  7. Sex pheromone of a coccoid insect with sexual and asexual lineages: fate of an ancestrally essential sexual signal in parthenogenetic females.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T; Moromizato, Chie; Mori, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Sex pheromones play a central role in intersexual communication for reproduction in many organisms. Particularly in insects, reproductive isolation that leads to speciation is often achieved by shifts of pheromone chemistries. However, the divergence and evolution of pheromones remain largely unknown. This study reveals a unique evolutionary consequence for terpenoid pheromones in coccoid insects. Coccoids, such as mealybugs, show clear sexual dimorphism: males are dwarf and short-lived, whereas females are wingless and almost immobile. Female pheromones are therefore indispensable for males to navigate for sexual reproduction, but some females can reproduce asexually. Interestingly, a derived asexual lineage that reproduces by parthenogenesis coexists with its ancestral lineage that reproduces sexually in a population of the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes Here, we isolated, characterized and synthesized a novel monoterpene, (-)-(anti-1,2-dimethyl-3-methylenecyclopentyl)acetaldehyde, as a pheromone of the sexual females of Dbrevipes This monoterpene aldehyde, with an irregular linkage of isoprene units, is notable, because all mealybug pheromones previously reported are carboxylic esters of terpenols. This compound was, however, never produced by the asexual females. As a consequence of acquiring parthenogenetic reproduction, the asexual females appear to have abandoned the production of the sex pheromone, which had been essential to attracting males in their ancestors. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Rapid modulation of gene expression profiles in the telencephalon of male goldfish following exposure to waterborne sex pheromones.

    PubMed

    Lado, Wudu E; Zhang, Dapeng; Mennigen, Jan A; Zamora, Jacob M; Popesku, Jason T; Trudeau, Vance L

    2013-10-01

    Sex pheromones rapidly affect endocrine physiology and behaviour, but little is known about their effects on gene expression in the neural tissues that mediate olfactory processing. In this study, we exposed male goldfish for 6h to waterborne 17,20βP (4.3 nM) and PGF2α (3 nM), the main pre-ovulatory and post-ovulatory pheromones, respectively. Both treatments elevated milt volume (P=0.001). Microarray analysis of male telencephalon following PGF2α treatment identified 71 unique transcripts that were differentially expressed (q<5%; 67 up, 4 down). Functional annotation of these regulated genes indicates that PGF2α pheromone exposure affects diverse biological processes including nervous system functions, energy metabolism, cholesterol/lipoprotein transport, translational regulation, transcription and chromatin remodelling, protein processing, cytoskeletal organization, and signalling. By using real-time RT-PCR, we further validated three candidate genes, ependymin-II, calmodulin-A and aldolase C, which exhibited 3-5-fold increase in expression following PGF2α exposure. Expression levels of some other genes that are thought to be important for reproduction were also determined using real-time RT-PCR. Expression of sGnRH was increased by PGF2α, but not 17,20βP, whereas cGnRH expression was increased by 17,20βP but not PGF2α. In contrast, both pheromones increase the expression of glutamate (GluR2a, NR2A) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA γ2) receptor subunit mRNAs. Milt release and rapid modulation of neuronal transcription are part of the response of males to female sex pheromones.

  9. Female Sex Pheromone in the Skin and Circulation of a Garter Snake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garstka, William R.; Crews, David

    1981-11-01

    Serums and extracts of tissues from the female garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) each act as a pheromone and elicit male courtship behavior when applied to the back of another male. Since pheromonal activity is present in yolk and liver tissue of untreated females and can be induced with estrogen treatment in the serums and livers of males, the pheromone may be associated with the circulating yolk lipoprotein, vitellogenin.

  10. Characterization of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Takeout Genes and Their Differential Responses to Insecticides and Sex Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Jiang, Yanyun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Spodoptera litura (S. litura) is one of the most serious agricultural insect pests worldwide. Takeout (TO) is involved in a variety of physiological and biochemical pathways and performs various biological functions. We characterized 18 S. litura TO genes and investigated their differential responses to insecticides and sex pheromones. All predicted TO proteins have two Cysteines that are unique to the N-terminal of the TO family proteins and contain four highly conserved Prolines, two Glycines, and one Tyrosine. The expression levels of seven TO genes in the male antennae were higher than those in the female antennae, although the expression levels of 10 TO genes in the female were higher than those in the male. We investigated the effects of the sex pheromone and three insecticides, that is, chlorpyrifos (Ch), emamectin benzoate (EB), and fipronil (Fi), on the expression levels of the TO genes in the antennae. The results showed that the insecticides and sex pheromone affect the expression levels of the TO genes. One day after the treatment, the expression levels of SlTO15 and SlTO4 were significantly induced by the Ch/EB treatment. Two days after the S. litura moths were treated with Fi, the expression of SlTO4 was significantly induced (28.35-fold). The expression of SlTO10 changed significantly after the Ch and EB treatment, although the expression of SlTO12 and SlTO15 was inhibited by the three insecticides after two days of treatment. Our results lay a foundation for studying the role of TO genes in the interaction between insecticides and sex pheromone.

  11. The male abdominal glands of Leucophaea maderae: chemical identification of the volatile secretion and sex pheromone function.

    PubMed

    Farine, Jean-Pierre; Sirugue, Daniel; Abed-Vieillard, Dehbia; Everaerts, Claude; Le Quéré, Jean-Luc; Bonnard, Odile; Brossut, Remy

    2007-02-01

    In Leucophaea maderae, male calling behavior involves the release of a sex pheromone from the abdominal sternal glands. An extract of sternal glands attracted conspecific females over a distance. The compounds present were identified as hydroxy-3-butan-2-one, (2R, 3R)-butanediol, senecioic acid, and (E)-2-octenoic acid. The same components are also present in male tergal glands. The identified compounds were tested on their own and in mixtures. Their biological function is discussed.

  12. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in sex pheromone-treated orchards with (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene or pear ester in combination with codlemone and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan L; Light, Douglas M

    2012-04-01

    Traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) or (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) in two- or three-way combinations with the sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) and acetic acid (AA) were evaluated for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). All studies were conducted in apple orchards, Malus domestica Borkhausen, treated with sex pheromone dispensers during 2010. Septa were loaded with codlemone, DMNT, and pear ester individually or codlemone with either DMNT or pear ester together (combo lures). Polyethylene vials loaded with AA were added as a co-lure. Residual analyses of field-aged combo lures and weight loss of the AA co-lure were conducted. AA vials lost 50-150 mg wk(-1). Weekly weight loss was not affected by field aging, but was closely correlated with the daily mean temperature. Pear ester was released from septa at a slightly higher but nonsignificant rate than codlemone. DMNT was released at a significantly higher rate than codlemone, and lures were effective for 4 wk. The addition of codlemone to traps baited with either host plant volatile plus AA had either no effect or significantly increased total moth catches. The addition of AA significantly increased the catch of female moths with either combo lure. Total moth catches in traps baited with pear ester or DMNT combo lures and AA did not differ and were either significantly higher or similar to the pear ester combo lure. These data suggest that codling moth may be more effectively monitored in sex pheromone-treated orchards with multi-component lures, including codlemone, AA, and host plant volatiles.

  13. [Electrophysiological study of sex pheromone reception in the boar, Sus scrofa].

    PubMed

    Minor, A V; Vasil'eva, V S

    1980-01-01

    Electroolfactograms were recorded in isolated olfactory epithelium of pigs, both females and castrated males, of various age. The boar pheromone, 5 alpha-androst-16-en-3-one, elicited negative electrical responses up to 2 mV in many preparations. The threshold response corresponded to as low as 10(-9) g of the pheromone on a filter paper. The specific anosmia to the boar pheromone was discovered in few preparations, where responses to the pheromone were absent and the sensitivity to common odour substances (butyl acetate, camphor, butyric acid, etc.) was unchanged.

  14. Sex pheromone components and control of the citrus pock caterpillar, Prays endocarpa, found in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vang, Le Van; Do, Nguyen Duc; An, Le Ky; Son, Pham Kim; Ando, Tetsu

    2011-01-01

    The citrus pock caterpillar, Prays endocarpa (Yponomeutidae; Praydinae), is a pest of pomelo (Citrus grandis L.) in Vietnam. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of pheromone gland extracts from female moths identified three monoenyl compounds, (Z)-7-tetradecenal (Z7-14:Ald), (Z)-7-tetradecenyl acetate (tentatively identified, Z7-14:OAc), and (Z)-7-tetradecen-1-ol (Z7-14:OH), in a ratio of about 10:3:10. In the field, traps baited with synthetic Z7-14:Ald (0.5 mg) caught male P. endocarpa. The other two compounds, either alone or when added to Z7-14:Ald, did not elicit increases in trap catch (relative to the appropriate treatment). Synthetic Z7-14:Ald was used to monitor and control this species in pomelo orchards in Vinh Long Province. Monitoring revealed that adults were present throughout the year with discernible peaks in December, March, and April. A mass-trapping trial, using 20 traps in a 0.1 ha pomelo orchard, effectively suppressed fruit damage to levels similar to that achieved by an insecticide (Karate 2.5EC). Mating disruption trials, using polyethylene-tube dispensers, each filled with 80 mg of Z7-14:Ald at a rate of 200 or 400 dispensers/ha, also controlled damage by this pest to levels below that achieved by an insecticide treatment. This work demonstrates the potential for pheromone-based control of this pest in Vietnam.

  15. Combined use of herbivore-induced plant volatiles and sex pheromones for mate location in braconid parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Desurmont, Gaylord; Degen, Thomas; Zhou, Guoxin; Laplanche, Diane; Henryk, Luka; Turlings, Ted C J

    2017-03-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are important cues for female parasitic wasps to find hosts. Here, we investigated the possibility that HIPVs may also serve parasitoids as cues to locate mates. To test this, the odour preferences of four braconid wasps - the gregarious parasitoid Cotesia glomerata (L.) and the solitary parasitoids Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson), Microplitis rufiventris Kokujev and Microplitis mediator (Haliday) - were studied in olfactometers. Each species showed attraction to pheromones but in somewhat different ways. Males of the two Cotesia species were attracted to virgin females, whereas females of M. rufiventris were attracted to virgin males. Male and female M. mediator exhibited attraction to both sexes. Importantly, female and male wasps of all four species were strongly attracted by HIPVs, independent of mating status. In most cases, male wasps were also attracted to intact plants. The wasps preferred the combination of HIPVs and pheromones over plant odours alone, except M. mediator, which appears to mainly use HIPVs for mate location. We discuss the ecological contexts in which the combined use of pheromones and HIPVs by parasitoids can be expected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that braconid parasitoids use HIPVs and pheromones in combination to locate mates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Sex pheromones of three citrus leafrollers, Archips atrolucens, Adoxophyes privatana, and Homona sp., inhabiting the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Vang, Le; Thuy, Ho Nhu; Khanh, Chau Nguyen Quoc; Son, Pham Kim; Yan, Qi; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Jinbo, Utsugi; Ando, Tetsu

    2013-06-01

    Archips atrolucens, Adoxophyes privatana, and Homona sp. are serious defoliators of citrus trees in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. In order to establish a sustainable pest-management program for the three species, their female-produced sex pheromones were investigated by GC-EAD and GC-MS analyses, and the following multi-component pheromones were identified: (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:OAc), (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:OAc), and tetradecyl acetate (14:OAc) in a ratio of 64:32:4 for A. atrolucens; Z11-14:OAc and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc) in a ratio of 92:8 for A. privatana; and Z11-14:OAc and (Z)-9-dodecenyl acetate (Z9-12:OAc) in a ratio of 96:4 for Homona sp. Each lure baited with synthetic components as a mimic of the natural pheromone attracted males of the target species specifically, indicating that each monounsaturated minor component plays a significant role for mating communication and reproductive isolation of the three species inhabiting the same citrus orchards. In an extract of the pheromone glands of A. atrolucens females, the content of 14:OAc was very low, but a synergistic effect was observed clearly when the saturated compound was mixed at the same level as the E11-14:OAc. The synthetic lures will provide useful tools for monitoring flights of adults of the three species.

  17. Field trials of aggregation pheromones for the stink bugs Chlorochroa uhleri and Chlorochroa sayi (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Millar, Jocelyn G; McBrien, Heather M; McElfresh, J Steven

    2010-10-01

    In field trials, adult Chlorochroa uhleri (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of both sexes were caught in significant numbers in cylindrical screen traps baited with gray rubber septum lures loaded with the main component of the male-produced pheromone, methyl (E)-6-2,3-dihydrofarnesoate. Addition of the two possible minor components of the pheromone, methyl (E)-5-2,6,10-trimethyl-5,9-undecadienoate and methyl (2E,6E)-farnesoate, did not affect attraction. Combining the pheromone with different concentrations of volatiles mimicking the odors of a known host plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), had no significant effect on attraction of adult bugs, whereas combining the pheromone with the pheromones of two sympatric stink bug species, Chlorochroa sayi (Stål) and Euschistus conspersus Uhler, decreased trap captures, suggesting interference between the pheromones. Small numbers of Chlorochroa ligata (Say) adults also were attracted, but numbers caught were too low to allow statistical comparisons between lure blends. In field trials with C. sayi, all three of the male-specific pheromone compounds [methyl geranate, methyl citronellate, and methyl (E) -6-2,3-dihydrofarnesoate] were required for optimal attraction. As with C. uhleri, adults of both sexes were attracted to pheromone lures in approximately equal numbers. Because of the decreased volatility (=release rate) of methyl (E)-6-2,3-dihydrofarnesoate in comparison with the other two, lower molecular weight pheromone components, lures needed to be loaded with a disproportionately high amount of methyl (E)-6-2,3-dihydrofarnesoate to obtain the best trap catch. There was no indication that the pheromone components of C. uhleri or E. conspersus interfered with the attractiveness of the C. sayi pheromone in lures containing a blend of all three pheromones.

  18. Expression of a desaturase gene, desat1, in neural and nonneural tissues separately affects perception and emission of sex pheromones in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, François; Nojima, Tetsuya; Houot, Benjamin; Chauvel, Isabelle; Chaudy, Sylvie; Dupas, Stéphane; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Animals often use sex pheromones for mate choice and reproduction. As for other signals, the genetic control of the emission and perception of sex pheromones must be tightly coadapted, and yet we still have no worked-out example of how these two aspects interact. Most models suggest that emission and perception rely on separate genetic control. We have identified a Drosophila melanogaster gene, desat1, that is involved in both the emission and the perception of sex pheromones. To explore the mechanism whereby these two aspects of communication interact, we investigated the relationship between the molecular structure, tissue-specific expression, and pheromonal phenotypes of desat1. We characterized the five desat1 transcripts—all of which yielded the same desaturase protein—and constructed transgenes with the different desat1 putative regulatory regions. Each region was used to target reporter transgenes with either (i) the fluorescent GFP marker to reveal desat1 tissue expression, or (ii) the desat1 RNAi sequence to determine the effects of genetic down-regulation on pheromonal phenotypes. We found that desat1 is expressed in a variety of neural and nonneural tissues, most of which are involved in reproductive functions. Our results suggest that distinct desat1 putative regulatory regions independently drive the expression in nonneural and in neural cells, such that the emission and perception of sex pheromones are precisely coordinated in this species. PMID:22114190

  19. Receptor neuron responses to potential sex pheromone components in the caddisfly Rhyacophila nubila (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae).

    PubMed

    Hansson, B S.; Larsson, M C.

    1998-02-01

    Olfactory single sensillum responses of male and female caddisflies Rhyacophila nubila (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) were examined with the tungsten penetration technique to investigate the presence of receptor neurons tuned to potential sex pheromone components. The compounds tested in the experiment were heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one, (R)-heptan-2-ol, and (R)-nonan-2-ol, which have all been found to be present in female abdominal glands, plus the two antipodes (S)-heptan-2-ol and (S)-nonan-2-ol. Four types of receptor neurons were found in equal proportions in males and females. One type responded primarily to heptan-2-one. A second type responded primarily to (R)-heptan-2-ol and a third type primarily to its enantiomer (S)-heptan-2-ol. The fourth type of receptor neuron responded to nonan-2-one, (R)-nonan-2-one, and (S)-nonan-2-ol, with a bias to nonan-2-one. The receptor neurons responding to the tested compounds made up a great majority of the contacted neurons in both males and females.

  20. Effect of attractant sex pheromone on immature larval stages of ixodid tick species.

    PubMed

    Ranju, R S; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Leela, V; Basith, S Abdul

    2012-10-01

    Attractant sex pheromone (ASP) 2,6-dichloro phenol was used in the current study to evaluate the percentage attraction and the behavioural responses of the five ixodid tick species namely Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus microplus (Boophilus microplus), Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides and Hyalomma marginatum using petridish bioassay. Two concentrations of 2,6-DCP (0.1 M and 0.05 M) was used for the larval stages of all five ixodid tick species of which 0.1 M concentration was found to have maximum attraction. Trials with 0.1 M ASP revealed highest per cent of attraction in R. sanguineus larvae (71 %) followed by H. bispinosa (55 %) and R. microplus (55 %). With 0.1 M ASP R. haemaphysaloides and H. marginatum showed least attraction (39 % each). However the per cent of attraction of R. haemaphysaloides was higher (46 %) with 0.05 M ASP. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant difference in per cent of attraction between the different tick larvae using 0.05 and 0.1 M ASP. The larvae also exhibited behavioural responses such as feeding, probing, resting and questing posture.

  1. Cytotoxicity of a Quinone-containing Cockroach Sex Pheromone in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bennett; Carr, Brian A; Krolikowski, Paul; Chang, Frank N

    2007-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of blattellaquinone (BTQ), a sex pheromone produced by adult female German cockroaches, have been studied using human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ), a toxic chemical implicated in benzene toxicity, was used as a reference compound. Both BQ and BTQ showed comparable toxicity toward A549 cells, with LD50 values estimated to be 14 and 19 microM, respectively. These two compounds increased the formation of an oxidized fluorescent probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, but had no effect on the cellular GSSG level. Interestingly, BTQ increased the level of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha and was 4-fold more efficient in depleting cellular GSH content than BQ. Of the five GSH adducts of BTQ isolated, three were identified as mono-GSH conjugates, and the other two were di-conjugates. Mass spectrometric and NMR analyses of the di-conjugates showed that the second GSH molecule displaced the isovaleric acid moiety, potentially via a nucleophilic substitution reaction. The ability of BTQ to conjugate a second GSH molecule without quinone regeneration indicated that it may be a more effective cross-linking agent than BQ. Future experiments may be needed to evaluate the overall safety of BTQ before the commercialization of the compound as a cockroach attractant.

  2. The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus) to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C), being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9)-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1) Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2) During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex pheromone is perceived as

  3. The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus) to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones.

    PubMed

    von Hoermann, Christian; Ruther, Joachim; Ayasse, Manfred

    2012-08-14

    The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C), being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9)-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions:1) Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones?2) During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex pheromone is perceived as well, virgin females can optimise

  4. Unexpected Effects of Low Doses of a Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Behavioral Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect

    PubMed Central

    Rabhi, Kaouther K.; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  5. Total synthesis, proof of absolute configuration, and biosynthetic origin of stylopsal, the first isolated sex pheromone of strepsiptera.

    PubMed

    Lagoutte, Roman; Šebesta, Petr; Jiroš, Pavel; Kalinová, Blanka; Jirošová, Anna; Straka, Jakub; Černá, Kateřina; Šobotník, Jan; Cvačka, Josef; Jahn, Ullrich

    2013-06-24

    The asymmetric total synthesis of the diastereomers of stylopsal establishes the absolute configuration of the first reported sex pheromone of the twisted-wing parasite Stylops muelleri as (3R,5R,9R)-trimethyldodecanal. The key steps for the diastereo- and enantiodivergent introduction of the methyl groups are two different types of asymmetric conjugate addition reactions of organocopper reagents to α,β-unsaturated esters, whereas the dodecanal skeleton is assembled by Wittig reactions. The structure of the natural product was confirmed by chiral gas chromatography (GC) techniques, GC/MS and GC/electroantennography (EAD) as well as field tests. An investigation into the biosynthesis of the pheromone revealed that it is likely to be produced by decarboxylation of a 4,6,10-trimethyltridecanoic acid derivative, which was found in substantial amounts in the fat body of the female, but not in the host bee Andrena vaga. This triple-branched fatty acid precursor thus seems to be biosynthesized de novo through a polyketide pathway with two consecutive propionate-propionate-acetate assemblies to form the complete skeleton. The simplified, motionless and fully host-dependent female exploits a remarkable strategy to maximize its reproductive success by employing a relatively complex and potent sex pheromone. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Biosynthesis and endocrine control of the production of the German cockroach sex pheromone 3,11-dimethylnonacosan-2-one.

    PubMed Central

    Chase, J; Touhara, K; Prestwich, G D; Schal, C; Blomquist, G J

    1992-01-01

    The biosynthesis and endocrine regulation of sex pheromone production in the female German cockroach (Blattella germanica) were determined. Radio-TLC and radio-GLC were used to demonstrate the metabolism of 3,11-dimethylnonacosane, a major cuticular lipid component, to the corresponding alkan-2-ol and methyl ketone. [11,12-3H2]-3,11-Dimethylnonacosan-2-ol was efficiently metabolized to the methyl ketone, and radio-GLC showed that the methyl ketone product from both experiments was coeluted with a methyl ketone standard. A comparison of the metabolism of the labeled dimethylalkane and dimethylalkan-2-ol by age and sex showed that both males and females from day 1 through day 9 after adult emergence readily metabolized the alcohol to the corresponding methyl ketone, whereas only females of 5-9 days postemergence efficiently converted the labeled dimethylalkane to the corresponding methyl ketone. Application of the juvenile hormone analog hydroprene induced significant increases in the conversion of the labeled hydrocarbon to the methyl ketone in starved adult females as well as in females fed a protein-free diet, conditions under which endogenous juvenile hormone biosynthesis is nearly undetectable. These data show that the methyl ketone sex pheromone is formed by the hydroxylation and oxidation of the 3,11-dimethylalkane at the 2 position, show that the age- and sex-specific step in this process is the conversion of 3,11-dimethylnonacosane to 3,11-dimethylnonacosan-2-ol, and provide evidence that juvenile hormone regulates sex pheromone production in the German cockroach. Images PMID:1631090

  7. (Z)-9-nonacosene-major component of the contact sex pheromone of the beetle Megacyllene caryae.

    PubMed

    Ginzel, Matthew D; Moreira, Jardel A; Ray, Ann M; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2006-02-01

    Male Megacyllene caryae (Gahan) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) respond to females only after touching them with their antennae, indicating that mate recognition is mediated by a contact sex pheromone. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of whole-body solvent extracts of male and female M. caryae revealed substantial differences in hydrocarbon profiles, with nearly half of the compounds in the extracts from females being absent from those of males. Biological activities of fractions of crude extracts of females, and reconstructed blends of the most abundant straight-chain (nC(27), nC(28), nC(29)), methyl-branched (2Me-C(26), 9Me-C(29), 11, 13, 15Me-C(29)), and unsaturated (Z9:C(29), Z13:C(29), Z14:C(29), Z13:C(31), Z14:C(31), Z15:C(31)) compounds in extracts of females were tested in arena bioassays, assessing four steps in the mating behavior sequence of males (orientation, arrestment, body alignment, mounting and attempting to couple the genitalia). Males showed limited response to dead females treated with fractions of the crude extract or blends of synthetic straight-chain and methyl-branched alkanes, but responded strongly to the blend of synthetic monoenes. Further trials determined that the complete sequence of mating behaviors, up to and including coupling the genitalia, was elicited by Z9:C(29) alone. Z9:C(29) is a homolog of the contact pheromone (Z9:C(25)) of the congener M. robiniae (Förster). Previous work with M. robiniae suggested that wipe sampling of cuticular hydrocarbons of females by solid phase microextraction yielded a more representative profile of components actually encountered by a male's antennae, and so provided a more readily interpretable profile of potential semiochemicals present in the wax layer than does solvent extraction. We tested this hypothesis by comparing hydrocarbon profiles of female M. caryae by the two sampling methods. Z9:C(29) was the only compound among the dominant hydrocarbons that was present in higher

  8. Pheromone production, male abundance, body size, and the evolution of elaborate antennae in moths

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, Matthew RE; Johnson, Tamara L; Elgar, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    The males of some species of moths possess elaborate feathery antennae. It is widely assumed that these striking morphological features have evolved through selection for males with greater sensitivity to the female sex pheromone, which is typically released in minute quantities. Accordingly, females of species in which males have elaborate (i.e., pectinate, bipectinate, or quadripectinate) antennae should produce the smallest quantities of pheromone. Alternatively, antennal morphology may be associated with the chemical properties of the pheromone components, with elaborate antennae being associated with pheromones that diffuse more quickly (i.e., have lower molecular weights). Finally, antennal morphology may reflect population structure, with low population abundance selecting for higher sensitivity and hence more elaborate antennae. We conducted a phylogenetic comparative analysis to test these explanations using pheromone chemical data and trapping data for 152 moth species. Elaborate antennae are associated with larger body size (longer forewing length), which suggests a biological cost that smaller moth species cannot bear. Body size is also positively correlated with pheromone titre and negatively correlated with population abundance (estimated by male abundance). Removing the effects of body size revealed no association between the shape of antennae and either pheromone titre, male abundance, or mean molecular weight of the pheromone components. However, among species with elaborate antennae, longer antennae were typically associated with lower male abundances and pheromone compounds with lower molecular weight, suggesting that male distribution and a more rapidly diffusing female sex pheromone may influence the size but not the general shape of male antennae. PMID:22408739

  9. Sites of release of Putative Sex Pheromone and Sexual Behaviour in Female Carcinus maenas(Crustacea: Decapoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamber, S. D.; Naylor, E.

    1997-02-01

    Pre-moult female Carcinus maenasurine was confirmed as a source of putative sex pheromone. The sexual and temporal specificity of bioactivity in pre-moult female urine was demonstrated when urine samples taken from inter-moult and pre-moult male crabs, and inter-moult females, failed to generate a sexual response from receptive males. Detection sensitivity of male crabs to pre-moult female urine was established at a dilution factor of 1 μl of urine in 10 ml of seawater. Experimental blockage of the site of urine release (the antennal gland opercula) failed to diminish the chemical attractiveness of pre-moult female crabs to test males, implicating at least one further site of putative pheromone release. Observations of female sexual behaviour demonstrated an active role by pre-moult and post-moult female crabs when introduced to male crabs whose locomotor movement had been temporarily restricted.

  10. Synthesis of sex pheromone components of the forest tent caterpillar,Malacosoma disstria (Hübner) and of the western tent caterpillar,Malacosoma californicum (Packard).

    PubMed

    Chisholm, M D; Steck, W F; Bailey, B K; Underbill, E W

    1981-01-01

    All four geometrical isomers of 5,7-dodecadien-1-ol have been stereoselectively synthesized by using Wittig condensation reactions. (5 Z,7E)-5,7-Dodecadien-1-ol and its corresponding aldehyde are components of the sex pheromone of the forest tent caterpillar. (5 E,7 Z)-5,7-Dodecadienal is a component of the pheromone of the western tent caterpillar. These compounds have been successfully tested in the field.

  11. Identification and functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengcheng; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2013-08-01

    In moths, males can detect a distinct blend of several pheromone components by specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on the antennae. Four candidate pheromone receptors (PR) with seven transmembrane domains were identified by homology cloning from the antennae of Spodoptera exigua (Sexi). Phylogenetic analyses reveal that all four odorant receptors (OR) belong to pheromone receptor subtypes. Expression patterns revealed that PRs were male-specific in the antenna except for SexiOR11, which was female antenna-biased. Functional analyses of these PRs were conducted using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. SexiOR13 and SexiOR16 were all broadly activated by multiple pheromone components. SexiOR13 responded robustly to the critical pheromone component, Z9, E12-14:OAc and the minor pheromone component, Z9-14:OAc at a concentration of 10(-4) M. Dose-response studies indicate that SexiOR13 was approximately 4 times more sensitive to Z9,E12-14:OAc (EC50 = 3.158 × 10(-6) M) compared to Z9-14:OAc (EC50 = 1.203 × 10(-5) M). While, SexiOR16 responded robustly to the secondary pheromone component Z9-14:OH with high sensitivity (EC50 = 9.690 × 10(-7) M). However, similar tests of the five pheromones with SexiOR6 and SexiOR11 failed to elicit any response. These results provide basic knowledge to further advance research on the molecular mechanisms of pheromone reception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiple Δ11-desaturase genes selectively used for sex pheromone biosynthesis are conserved in Ostrinia moth genomes.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takeshi; Yasukochi, Yuji; Rong, Yu; Matsuo, Takashi; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2015-06-01

    Regulation of the expression of fatty acyl-CoA desaturases, which introduce a double bond into the fatty acid moiety of the substrate, is crucial for the production of species-specific sex pheromones in moths. In Ostrinia moths, two distinct Δ11-desaturases and a Δ14-desaturase are known to be selectively used in the biosynthesis of sex pheromones. Of the two Δ11-desaturases, one identified from Ostrinia nubilalis and Ostrinia scapulalis, Z/EΔ11, forms the Z and E isomers of a double bond at position 11, whereas the other identified from Ostrinia latipennis, LATPG1(=EΔ11), exclusively forms an E double bond at position 11. Since the retroposon(ezi)-fused, non-functional Δ11-desaturase gene, ezi-Δ11α, in the genomes of O. nubilalis and O. furnacalis was previously suggested to be an orthologue of latpg1, we here explored Z/EΔ11 orthologues in the genome of O. latipennis. We newly identified two Δ11-desaturase genes, latpg2 and latpg3, which were orthologous to ezi-Δ11β and Z/EΔ11, respectively. We found that an ezi-like element was integrated in intron 1 of latpg1, and confirmed that only latpg1 was expressed in the pheromone gland of O. latipennis. Thus, at least three Δ11-desaturase genes are present in the genome of O. latipennis, and latpg1 is selectively transcribed in the pheromone gland of this moth. The non-functionality of ezi-inserted desaturase genes in O. nubilalis and O. furnacalis may not be a direct consequence of the insertion of an ezi- or ezi-like element into the gene.

  13. Spatial variability of western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pheromone trap captures in sprinkler irrigated corn in eastern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Hoeting, Jennifer A

    2011-06-01

    Strategies for controlling pests are an integral part of any agricultural management plan. Most field crops, such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and corn (Zea mays L.) are managed as if they are homogeneous units. However, pests within fields are rarely homogenous. Development of plans that use targeted pest control tactics requires knowledge of the ecological drivers of the pest species. That is, by understanding the spatio-temporal factors influencing pest populations, we can develop management strategy to prevent or reduce pest damage. This study was conducted to quantify variables influencing the spatial variability of adult male western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith). Striacosta albicosta moths were collected in pheromone traps in two center pivot, irrigated corn fields near Wiggins, CO. We hypothesized that moth abundance would be influenced by the distance from the edge of the field, distance to nearest alternative corn crop and affected by anisotropic effects, such as prevailing wind direction. Greater trap catches of S. albicosta in each of the fields were found with increased proximity to the edge of the field, if the nearest neighboring crop was corn. Prevailing wind direction and directional effects were found to influence abundance. Results serve as a first step toward building a precision pest management system for controlling S. albicosta.

  14. Pheromone lure and trap color affects bycatch in agricultural landscapes of Utah

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aerial traps, using combinations of color and attractive lures, are a critical tool for detecting and managing insect pest populations. Yet, despite improvements in trap efficacy, collection of non-target species (“bycatch”) plagues many insect pest surveys. Bycatch can influence survey effectivenes...

  15. The effects of mating status and time since mating on female sex pheromone levels in the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Takashi; Yasuda, Tetsuya

    2014-02-01

    Although mating status affects future mating opportunities, the biochemical changes that occur in response to mating are not well understood. This study investigated the effects of mating status on the quantities of sex pheromone components found in whole-body extracts and volatile emissions of females of the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium. When sampled at one of four time points within a 4-day postmating period, females that had copulated with a male had greater whole-body quantities of sex pheromone components than those of virgin females sampled at the same times. The quantities of sex pheromone components emitted by virgin females over a 24-h period were initially high but then steadily decreased, whereas 24-h emissions were persistently low among mated females when measured at three time points within the 4 days after mating. As a result, soon after mating, the mated females emitted less sex pheromones than virgin females, but there were no significant differences between mated and virgin females at the end of the experiment. Thus, postmating reduction in the rate of emission of sex pheromones could explain previously observed changes in female attractiveness to male T. caelestialium.

  16. Addition of Pear Ester With Sex Pheromone Enhances Disruption of Mating by Female Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Walnut Orchards Treated with Meso Dispensers.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Grant, Joseph A; Haff, Ronald P; Knight, Alan L

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the low-density application of 50 dispensers per hectare, in contrast to the traditional >800 dispensers per hectare in apple orchards, to achieve disruption of communication of adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in walnuts, Juglans regia (L.), using several methods. These methods included cumulative catches of male moths in traps baited with sex pheromone (Ph) or codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, or a combination of codlemone, pear ester (PE), ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and acetic acid, and by examining the mating status of females. These data were collected from 2011-2014 in nontreated plots and in similar plots treated with Meso dispensers loaded with codlemone (Ph Meso) or codlemone and PE (Ph + PE Meso). Male moth captures in both the Ph and combination lure traps reduced by 88-96% and 72 to 77%, respectively, compared with traps in the nontreated plots. A significantly higher proportion of female moths were nonmated in plots treated with Ph + PE Meso dispensers (33%) than in plots treated with Ph Meso (18-26%), or left nontreated (13%). In addition, significantly fewer multiple-mated females were trapped in the Ph + PE Meso-treated plots (6%) than in either Ph Meso-treated (13-18%) or nontreated plots (23%). These data suggest that the addition of PE can effectively improve Ph-based disruption of C. pomonella in walnut orchards. In addition, these data suggest that the use of low-density hand-applied dispensers can be an effective and lower-cost approach to manage this pest in the large canopy presented by walnut orchards. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Maximizing Information Yield From Pheromone-Baited Monitoring Traps: Estimating Plume Reach, Trapping Radius, and Absolute Density of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Michigan Apple

    PubMed Central

    Adams, C. G.; Schenker, J. H.; McGhee, P. S.; Gut, L. J.; Brunner, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Novel methods of data analysis were used to interpret codling moth (Cydia pomonella) catch data from central-trap, multiple-release experiments using a standard codlemone-baited monitoring trap in commercial apple orchards not under mating disruption. The main objectives were to determine consistency and reliability for measures of: 1) the trapping radius, composed of the trap’s behaviorally effective plume reach and the maximum dispersive distance of a responder population; and 2) the proportion of the population present in the trapping area that is caught. Two moth release designs were used: 1) moth releases at regular intervals in the four cardinal directions, and 2) evenly distributed moth releases across entire approximately 18-ha orchard blocks using both high and low codling moth populations. For both release designs, at high populations, the mean proportion catch was 0.01, and for the even release of low populations, that value was approximately 0.02. Mean maximum dispersive distance for released codling moth males was approximately 260 m. Behaviorally effective plume reach for the standard codling moth trap was < 5 m, and total trapping area for a single trap was approximately 21 ha. These estimates were consistent across three growing seasons and are supported by extraordinarily high replication for this type of field experiment. Knowing the trapping area and mean proportion caught, catch number per single monitoring trap can be translated into absolute pest density using the equation: males per trapping area = catch per trapping area/proportion caught. Thus, catches of 1, 3, 10, and 30 codling moth males per trap translate to approximately 5, 14, 48, and 143 males/ha, respectively, and reflect equal densities of females, because the codling moth sex ratio is 1:1. Combined with life-table data on codling moth fecundity and mortality, along with data on crop yield per trapping area, this fundamental knowledge of how to interpret catch

  18. Sex pheromone source location by garter snakes: : A mechanism for detection of direction in nonvolatile trails.

    PubMed

    Ford, N B; Low, J R

    1984-08-01

    Male plains garter snakes,Thamnophis radix, tested in a 240-cm-long arena can detect directional information from a female pheromone trail only when the female is allowed to push against pegs while laying the trail. The female's normal locomotor activity apparently deposits pheromone on the anterolateral surfaces of vertical structures in her environment. The male sensorily assays the sides of these objects and from this information determines the female's direction of travel.

  19. Chemical communication in termites: syn-4,6-dimethylundecan-1-ol as trail-following pheromone, syn-4,6-dimethylundecanal and (5E)-2,6,10-trimethylundeca-5,9-dienal as the respective male and female sex pheromones in Hodotermopsis sjoestedti (Isoptera, Archotermopsidae).

    PubMed

    Lacey, Michael J; Sémon, Etienne; Krasulová, Jana; Sillam-Dussès, David; Robert, Alain; Cornette, Richard; Hoskovec, Michal; Záček, Petr; Valterová, Irena; Bordereau, Christian

    2011-12-01

    The trail-following pheromone and sex pheromones were investigated in the Indomalayan termite Hodotermopsis sjoestedti belonging to the new family Archotermopsidae. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after solid phase microextraction (SPME) of the sternal gland secretion of pseudergates and trail-following bioassays demonstrated that the trail-following pheromone of H. sjoestedti was syn-4,6-dimethylundecan-1-ol, a new chemical structure for termite pheromones. GC-MS after SPME of the sternal gland secretion of alates also allowed the identification of sex-specific compounds. In female alates, the major sex-specific compound was identified as (5E)-2,6,10-trimethylundeca-5,9-dienal, a compound previously identified as the female sex pheromone of the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. In male alates, the major sex-specific compound was identified as syn-4,6-dimethylundecanal, a homolog of syn-4,6-dimethyldodecanal, which has previously been confirmed as the male sex pheromone of Z. nevadensis. The presence of sex-specific compounds in alates of H. sjoestedti strongly suggests for this termite the presence of sex-specific pairing pheromones which were only known until now in Z. nevadensis. Our results showed therefore a close chemical relationship between the pheromones of the taxa Hodotermopsis and Zootermopsis and, in contrast, a clear difference with the taxa Stolotermes and Porotermes, which is in total agreement with the recent creation of the families Archotermopsidae and Stolotermitidae as a substitute for the former family Termopsidae.

  20. Antennal response and field attraction of the predator Elatophilus hebraicus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) to sex pheromones and analogues of three Matsucoccus spp. (Homoptera: Matsucoccidae).

    PubMed

    Dunkelblum, E; Mendel, Z; Gries, G; Gries, R; Zegelman, L; Hassner, A; Mori, K

    1996-03-01

    The predator Elatophilus hebraicus is closely associated with its prey, the pine bast scale, Matsucoccus josephi, and utilizes the M. josephi sex pheromone as a kairomone. Kairomonal activity of E. hebraicus was studied by GC-EAD and field bioassays. The sex pheromone of M. josephi [2E,5R,6E,8E)-5,7-dimethyl-2,6,8-decatrien-4-one [(R)-E-M.j.] elicited a strong EAD response and attracted large numbers of the predator. The sex pheromone of two allopatric Matsucoccus spp., Matsucoccus feytaudi, (3S,7R,8E,10E)-3,7,9-trimethyl-8,10-dodecadien-6-one [(S,R)-E-M.f.] and Matcucossus matsumurae, (2E, 4E,6R,10R)-4,6,10,12-tetramethyl-2,4-tridecadien-7-one [(R,R)-E-M.m.], were also EAD-active and attracted significant numbers of E. hebraicus in the forest. Increasing the lure load of (S,R)-E-M.f. and (R,R)-E-M.m., in order to compensate for their lower volatility relative to (R)-E-M.j., resulted in similar attraction of E. hebraicus to each of the three pheromones. Other Matsucoccus pheromone stereoisomers displayed no behavioral activity. There was a significant difference in the activity of sex pheromone analogues, (6E/Z,8E)-5,7-dimethyl-6,8-decadien-4-one (52% E + 48% Z, ANLG 1) and (6E/Z,8E)-2,4,6-trimethyl- 1,6,8-nonatrien-3-one (60% E + 40% Z, ANLG 2). The (E) isomer of ANLG 1 evoked a strong EAD response from E. hebraicus and the mixture of E/Z ANLG 1 attracted the predator in moderate numbers, whereas ANLG 2 was inactive both in EAD and field tests. Conversely, M. josephi males were not attracted to M. feytaudi and M. matsumurae pheromones or pheromone analogues. Cross-activity of E. hebraicus to M. feytaudi and M. matsumurae pheromones may be based on structural similarity of the compounds. Alternatively, E. hebraicus may respond specifically to the pheromones of two allopatric Matsucoccus spp. If true, kairomonal attraction of E. hebraicus to these pheromones may have evolved during speciation of Matsucoccidae and may have been preserved despite the allopatry of M

  1. Increased allocation of adult-acquired carbohydrate to egg production results in its decreased allocation to sex pheromone production in mated females of the moth Heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G; Harmon, J P

    2014-02-15

    Females of most species of moths produce a volatile sex pheromone that attracts conspecific males over distance. In females of the polyandrous moth Heliothis virescens, feeding on carbohydrate (e.g. nectar) supplies precursor, via hemolymph trehalose, for both sex pheromone and egg production. With limited carbohydrate acquisition these two reproductive physiologies might compete for hemolymph trehalose, resulting in an allocation deficit to either sex pheromone or egg production. Using virgin and mated females, which have low and high egg maturation rates, respectively, we fed females a limited diet of (13)C-labeled glucose daily and, using mass isotopomer distribution analysis, determined allocations of adult-acquired carbohydrate (AAC) to newly synthesized pheromone and ovarian and egg fats, our proxies for allocation to egg production. With increased number of feeds, AAC enrichment of hemolymph trehalose increased, as expected. This led to mated females increasing their proportional allocation of AAC to ovarian and egg fats, but decreasing their proportional allocation of AAC to pheromone production. By contrast, virgins increased their proportional allocation of AAC to pheromone production with increased feeds, consistent with increasing AAC enrichment of hemolymph trehalose. These results show that with limited AAC intake, enhanced egg maturation in mated females results in reduced AAC allocation to pheromone production; this does not occur in virgins because of their lower egg maturation rate. This physiological competition for AAC corresponded with decreased pheromone production in mated moths to levels unlikely to attract mates. Therefore, the availability and/or allocation of AAC may be a proximate mechanism underlying the incidence of polyandry in this and other species of moths.

  2. Inhibition of the responses to sex pheromone of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Malo, Edi A; Rojas, Julio C; Gago, Rafael; Guerrero, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Trifluoromethyl ketones reversibly inhibit pheromone-degrading esterases in insect olfactory tissues, affecting pheromone detection and behavior of moth males. In this work, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl trifluoromethyl ketone (Z9-14:TFMK), a closely-related analogue of the pheromone of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was prepared and tested in electroantennogram and field tests as possible inhibitors of the pheromone action. The electroantennogram parameters, amplitude, and the repolarization time of the antennal responses of S. frugiperda males were affected by Z9-14:TFMK vapors. Exposure of male antennae to a stream of air passing through 100 μg of the ketone produced a significant reduction of the amplitude and an increase of 2/3 repolarization time signals to the pheromone. The effect was reversible and dose-dependent. In the field, the analogue significantly decreased the number of males caught when mixed with the pheromone in 10:1 ratio. The results suggest that Z9-14:TFMK is a mating disruptant of S. frugiperda and may be a good candidate to consider in future strategies to control this pest.

  3. Inhibition of the Responses to Sex Pheromone of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Edi A.; Rojas, Julio C.; Gago, Rafael; Guerrero, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Trifluoromethyl ketones reversibly inhibit pheromone-degrading esterases in insect olfactory tissues, affecting pheromone detection and behavior of moth males. In this work, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl trifluoromethyl ketone (Z9-14:TFMK), a closely-related analogue of the pheromone of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was prepared and tested in electroantennogram and field tests as possible inhibitors of the pheromone action. The electroantennogram parameters, amplitude, and the repolarization time of the antennal responses of S. frugiperda males were affected by Z9-14:TFMK vapors. Exposure of male antennae to a stream of air passing through 100 ìg of the ketone produced a significant reduction of the amplitude and an increase of 2/3 repolarization time signals to the pheromone. The effect was reversible and dose-dependent. In the field, the analogue significantly decreased the number of males caught when mixed with the pheromone in 10:1 ratio. The results suggest that Z9-14:TFMK is a mating disruptant of S. frugiperda and may be a good candidate to consider in future strategies to control this pest. PMID:24766416

  4. REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION BY SEX PHEROMONES IN THE CLOSTERIUM PERACEROSUM-STRIGOSUM-LITTORALE COMPLEX (ZYGNEMATALES, CHAROPHYCEAE)(1).

    PubMed

    Tsuchikane, Yuki; Ito, Motomi; Sekimoto, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-01

    The Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale (C. psl.) complex consists of unicellular algae and is known to be composed of several reproductively isolated mating groups of heterothallic strains. Group I-E is completely isolated from mating groups II-A and II-B, groups II-A and II-B are partially isolated from each other, and only mating-type plus (mt(+) ) cells of group II-A and mating-type minus (mt(-) ) cells of group II-B form zygotes. Based on the alignment of 1506 group I introns, significant phylogenetic relationships were observed among mating groups II-A and II-B, while mating group I-E was distant from groups II-A and II-B. Sexual cell division in both mating-type cells of group II-A was stimulated in conditioned media in which cells of group II-B had been cultured. When mt(-) cells of group II-B were stimulated in conditioned medium derived from group II-A, mt(+) cells of group II-B did not respond to the conditioned medium. Conditioned media derived from group I-E did not exhibit sexual cell division (SCD)-inducing activity against any strain except those within its own group. From the alignment of deduced amino acid sequences from orthologous protoplast-release-inducing protein (PR-IP) Inducer genes, we detected a significant similarity among groups II-A and II-B, and mating group I-E had low similarity to other mating groups. The existing degree of reproductive isolation can be partially explained by differences in molecular structures and physiological activities of sex pheromones of these heterothallic mating groups.

  5. Sex Pheromones of C. elegans Males Prime the Female Reproductive System and Ameliorate the Effects of Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Aprison, Erin Z.; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Pheromones are secreted molecules that mediate animal communications. These olfactory signals can have substantial effects on physiology and likely play important roles in organismal survival in natural habitats. Here we show that a blend of two ascaroside pheromones produced by C. elegans males primes the female reproductive system in part by improving sperm guidance toward oocytes. Worms have different physiological responses to different ratios of the same two molecules, revealing an efficient mechanism for increasing coding potential of a limited repertoire of molecular signals. The endogenous function of the male sex pheromones has an important side benefit. It substantially ameliorates the detrimental effects of prolonged heat stress on hermaphrodite reproduction because it increases the effectiveness with which surviving gametes are used following stress. Hermaphroditic species are expected to lose female-specific traits in the course of evolution. Our results suggest that some of these traits could have serendipitous utility due to their ability to counter the effects of stress. We propose that this is a general mechanism by which some mating-related functions could be retained in hermaphroditic species, despite their expected decay. PMID:26645097

  6. Sex Pheromones of C. elegans Males Prime the Female Reproductive System and Ameliorate the Effects of Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Aprison, Erin Z; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2015-12-01

    Pheromones are secreted molecules that mediate animal communications. These olfactory signals can have substantial effects on physiology and likely play important roles in organismal survival in natural habitats. Here we show that a blend of two ascaroside pheromones produced by C. elegans males primes the female reproductive system in part by improving sperm guidance toward oocytes. Worms have different physiological responses to different ratios of the same two molecules, revealing an efficient mechanism for increasing coding potential of a limited repertoire of molecular signals. The endogenous function of the male sex pheromones has an important side benefit. It substantially ameliorates the detrimental effects of prolonged heat stress on hermaphrodite reproduction because it increases the effectiveness with which surviving gametes are used following stress. Hermaphroditic species are expected to lose female-specific traits in the course of evolution. Our results suggest that some of these traits could have serendipitous utility due to their ability to counter the effects of stress. We propose that this is a general mechanism by which some mating-related functions could be retained in hermaphroditic species, despite their expected decay.

  7. Prey sex pheromone as kairomone for a new group of predators (Coleoptera: Dasytidae, Aplocnemus spp.) of pine bast scales.

    PubMed

    Branco, M; van Halder, I; Franco, J C; Constantin, R; Jactel, H

    2011-12-01

    During the last decades, an increasing number of predators were found to use specific prey pheromones as chemical cues. Beyond its ecological relevance, this knowledge has practical applications on insect conservation and pest control. In this study, we present first evidence that two species of the family Dasytidae (Coleoptera) Aplocnemus brevis Rosenhauer and A. raymondi Sainte-Claire Deville use the sex pheromone of the pine bast scale Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae) as kairomone to locate this prey. The feeding habits and biology of Aplocnemus species are practically unknown. In the laboratory, the adults of Aplocnemus sp. accepted M. feytaudi egg masses as food source as well as other diets. Females represented more than 90% of Aplocnemus sp. attracted to the pheromone lures. We believe that females use this olfactory cue to locate suitable places for oviposition and that larvae are the predators of Matsucoccus. This study further demonstrates that the response to the kairomone elicited short prey searching times, about 23% of the individuals appeared less than 12 min after lure exposure, being consistent with the hypothesis of prey specialization. Habitat and geographical distribution predict an ancestral association of A. brevis with M. feytaudi and of A. raymondi with M. pini. Nevertheless, a recent prey shift of A. raymondi to the invasive M. feytaudi in Corsica is in progress.

  8. Synthetic pheromones and plant volatiles alter the expression of chemosensory genes in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xinlong; Qian, Kai; Du, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Pheromone and plant odorants are important for insect mating, foraging food sources and oviposition. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating pheromone and odorant signaling, we employed qRT-PCR to study the circadian rhythms of ABP, OBP, PBP, and OR gene expression in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua and their responses after a pre-exposure to sex pheromone compounds or plant volatiles. The neuronal responses of male S. exigua to 20 chemical compounds were recorded at three specific time periods using the electroantennogram. The results showed a circadian rhythm in the expression profiles of some chemosensory genes in the antennae similar to their behavioral rhythm. The expression profiles of OR3, OR6, OR11, OR13, OR16, OR18, Orco, ABP2, OBP1, OBP7, and PBP1, and EAG responses to chemical compounds, as well as their circadian rhythm were significantly affected after exposure to synthetic sex pheromones and plant volatiles. These findings provide the first evidence that the gene expression of chemosensory genes and olfactory sensitivity to sex pheromones are affected by pre-exposing insects to pheromone compounds and plant volatiles. It helps to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying pheromone activity, and the application of sex pheromones and plant volatiles in mating disruption or mass trapping. PMID:26611815

  9. Identification of a female-produced sex pheromone from the southern corn rootworm,Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber.

    PubMed

    Guss, P L; Tumlinson, J H; Sonnet, P E; McLaughlin, J R

    1983-09-01

    A sex pheromone has been isolated and identified from virgin females of the southern corn rootworm (SCR),Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber. The synthesized compound, 10-methyl-2-tridecanone was shown to be attractive to males of the SCR, and also to males ofD. u. undecimpunctata Mannerheim, the western spotted cucumber beetle (WSCB), and ofD. u. duodecimnotata in Mexico. Males of both the SCR and the WSCB strongly preferred theR over theS enantiomer. The resolved enantiomers were not tested againstD. u. duodecimnotata.

  10. Assessment of commercially available pheromone lures for monitoring diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola.

    PubMed

    Evenden, M L; Gries, R

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromone monitoring lures from five different commercial sources were compared for their attractiveness to male diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola, Brassica napus L., fields in western Canada. Lures that had the highest pheromone release rate, as determined by aeration analyses in the laboratory, were the least attractive in field tests. Lures from all the commercial sources tested released more (Z)-11-hexadecenal than (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the most attractive lures released a significantly higher aldehyde to acetate ratio than less attractive lures. Traps baited with sex pheromone lures from APTIV Inc. (Portland, OR) and ConTech Enterprises Inc. (Delta, BC, Canada) consistently captured more male diamondback moths than traps baited with lures from the other sources tested. In two different lure longevity field trapping experiments, older lures were more attractive to male diamondback moths than fresh lures. Pheromone release from aged lures was constant at very low release rates. The most attractive commercially available sex pheromone lures tested attracted fewer diamondback moth males than calling virgin female moths suggesting that research on the development of a more attractive synthetic sex pheromone lure is warranted.

  11. Evaluation of Pheromone Trap Devices for the Capture of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) in Southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Pardo, David; Sancho, José; Colacci, Marco; Boukouvala, Maria C; Nikolaidou, Anastassia J; Kondodimas, Demetrius C; Benavent-Fernández, Enrique; Gálvez-Settier, Santiago; Trematerra, Pasquale

    2017-03-14

    The development of reliable monitoring techniques can offer valuable sources of knowledge on the control of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae). Nevertheless, there is a knowledge gap on the simultaneous large-scale monitoring of T. pityocampa male adult population by using novel trap devices. Thus, the influence of type of trap device on the capture of male adults of T. pityocampa was evaluated in four areas with pine trees in southern Europe; two in Greece (Thessaly and Attica), one in Italy (Molise), and one in Spain (Valencia). Six different novel trap devices, i.e., Prototype 1, Prototype 2, Prototype 3, Prototype 4, Prototype 5, and Prototype 6, were tested during 2015 between July and November. In general, the male adult catches lasted longer in the two sites of Greece compared with Molise and Valencia. Hence, in Thessaly, captures started in early August and remained at high levels until late September. In Attica, captures started in mid-August and lasted until early November. In contrast, for both Molise and Valencia, most of the male adults were captured in August, while male adult catches were recorded until September. From the trap devices tested, Prototype 1 was found superior than the other devices, regardless of the area, with the exception of Valencia, where there were no differences in the overall captures among Prototype 1, Prototype 5, and Prototype 6. In most of the combinations tested, there was a positive and significant correlation among captures of T. pityocampa in pairs of different trap devices, indicating that most of them gave similar population fluctuations. Our results suggest that Prototype 1 should be selected for the monitoring of T. pityocampa male adult population.

  12. Laboratory Syntheses of Insect Pheromones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Russell A.; Hoban, James N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information and procedures for the multi-step synthesis of tiger moth and boll weevil pheromones (sex attractants). These syntheses require several laboratory periods. The tiger moth pheromone synthesis is suitable for introductory organic chemistry while the boll weevil pheromone is recommended for an advanced laboratory…

  13. Laboratory Syntheses of Insect Pheromones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Russell A.; Hoban, James N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information and procedures for the multi-step synthesis of tiger moth and boll weevil pheromones (sex attractants). These syntheses require several laboratory periods. The tiger moth pheromone synthesis is suitable for introductory organic chemistry while the boll weevil pheromone is recommended for an advanced laboratory…

  14. Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying sex- and maturation-related variation in pheromone responses in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Villar, Gabriel; Baker, Thomas C; Patch, Harland M; Grozinger, Christina M

    2015-07-01

    In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), social organization is primarily mediated by pheromones. Queen-produced 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (9-ODA) functions as both a social and sex pheromone, eliciting attraction in both female workers and male drones, but also affecting other critical aspects of worker physiology and behavior. These effects are also maturation related, as younger workers and sexually mature drones are most receptive to 9-ODA. While changes in the peripheral nervous system drive sex-related differences in sensitivity to 9-ODA, the mechanisms driving maturation-related shifts in receptivity to 9-ODA remain unknown. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that changes at the peripheral nervous system may be mediating plastic responses to 9-ODA by characterizing expression levels of AmOR11 (the olfactory receptor tuned to 9-ODA) and electrophysiological responses to 9-ODA. We find that receptor expression correlates significantly with behavioral receptivity to 9-ODA, with nurses and sexually mature drones exhibiting higher levels of expression than foragers and immature drones, respectively. Electrophysiological responses to 9-ODA were not found to correlate with behavioral receptivity or receptor expression, however. Thus, while receptor expression at the periphery exhibits a level of plasticity that correlates with behavior, the mechanisms driving maturation-dependent responsiveness to 9-ODA appear to function primarily in the central nervous system.

  15. Effect of Larvae Treated with Mixed Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis - Abamectin on Sex Pheromone Communication System in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Ze; Chen, Peng-Zhou; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Deng, Jian-Yu; Harris, Marvin-K; Wanna, Ruchuon; Wang, Fu-Min; Zhou, Guo-Xin; Yao, Zhang-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis - abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of “orientation” than control males but lower percentages of “approaching” and “landing” in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9–16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11–16:Ald and Z9–16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H.armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating. PMID:23874751

  16. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended.

  17. Mating system of the European hornet Vespa crabro: male seeking strategies and evidence for the involvement of a sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Spiewok, S; Schmolz, E; Ruther, J

    2006-12-01

    We describe details of the mate finding strategy of drones of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, and present evidence for the involvement of sex pheromones. Tests were carried out with free flying drones in natural habitats. Males patrolled the nest site itself, as well as nearby nonresource-based sites, without showing territorial behavior. Patrolling was restricted to sunny spots in the vegetation, and thus, the locations changed throughout the day. Drones were attracted to both caged gynes and to dead workers treated with gyne extracts, indicating the presence of a female-produced sex attractant. Treated workers also elicited copulation attempts by the attracted drones. Extracts from gynes, workers, and drones contained exclusively cuticular lipids, and the profile from gynes was much more diverse than that of workers and drones. The most striking differences observed related to the alkenes, monomethyl- and dimethylalkanes. The results provide a lead for potential attracting and copulation-releasing semiochemicals in V. crabro.

  18. [Relationship between sex hormones, pheromones, interleukine production and risk of drug dependence].

    PubMed

    Bokhan, N A; Nevidimova, T I

    2015-01-01

    Serum steroid hormones and production of proinflammatory cytokines in 109 individuals with substance dependence, 34 occasional users and 78 control subjects were examined. Immaturity of gender as a risk factor for the formation of drug dependence associated with infectious and inflammatory processes was estimated by olfactory pheromone tests.

  19. Flying slower: Floor pattern object size affects orthokinetic responses during moth flight to sex pheromone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies with Oriental Fruit Moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta) and Heliothis virescens males flying upwind along a pheromone plume showed that they increased their upwind flight speed as they flew higher above striped floor patterns and, for OFM, to a similar degree over dotted floor patterns. ...

  20. A novel bio-engineering approach to generate an eminent surface-functionalized template for selective detection of female sex pheromone of Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Moitra, Parikshit; Bhagat, Deepa; Pratap, Rudra; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Plant pests exert serious effects on food production due to which the global crop yields are reduced by ~20–40 percent per year. Hence to meet the world’s food needs, loses of food due to crop pests must be reduced. Herein the silicon dioxide based MEMS devices are covalently functionalized for robust and efficient optical sensing of the female sex pheromones of the pests like Helicoverpa armigera for the first time in literature. The functionalized devices are also capable of selectively measuring the concentration of this pheromone at femtogram level which is much below the concentration of pheromone at the time of pest infestation in an agricultural field. Experiments are also performed in a confined region in the presence of male and female pests and tomato plants which directly mimics the real environmental conditions. Again the reversible use and absolutely trouble free transportation of these pheromone nanosensors heightens their potentials for commercial use. Overall, a novel and unique approach for the selective and reversible sensing of female sex pheromones of certain hazardous pests is reported herein which may be efficiently and economically carried forward from the research laboratory to the agricultural field. PMID:27892521

  1. A novel bio-engineering approach to generate an eminent surface-functionalized template for selective detection of female sex pheromone of Helicoverpa armigera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moitra, Parikshit; Bhagat, Deepa; Pratap, Rudra; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2016-11-01

    Plant pests exert serious effects on food production due to which the global crop yields are reduced by ~20-40 percent per year. Hence to meet the world’s food needs, loses of food due to crop pests must be reduced. Herein the silicon dioxide based MEMS devices are covalently functionalized for robust and efficient optical sensing of the female sex pheromones of the pests like Helicoverpa armigera for the first time in literature. The functionalized devices are also capable of selectively measuring the concentration of this pheromone at femtogram level which is much below the concentration of pheromone at the time of pest infestation in an agricultural field. Experiments are also performed in a confined region in the presence of male and female pests and tomato plants which directly mimics the real environmental conditions. Again the reversible use and absolutely trouble free transportation of these pheromone nanosensors heightens their potentials for commercial use. Overall, a novel and unique approach for the selective and reversible sensing of female sex pheromones of certain hazardous pests is reported herein which may be efficiently and economically carried forward from the research laboratory to the agricultural field.

  2. Sticky traps saturate with navel orangeworm in a non-linear fashion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to evaluate saturation thresholds as well as differences among wing-trap types, we used unmated female navel orangeworm (NOW) as sex pheromone baits in wing-traps that varied by color and glue/trapping surface. These results were compared to male capture in red delta and simple water cup tr...

  3. 2-Methyl-(Z)-7-Octadecene - the sex pheromone of allopatric Lymantria serva and Lymantria lucescens: two potential invasive species in the Orient

    Treesearch

    Paul W. Schaefer; Gerhard Gries; Regine Gries; Yasutomo Higashiura; Yi-Bin Fan

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to identify the sex pheromones of two allopatric Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae): (1) L. serva (Fabricius) in Taiwan whose larvae attack and occasionally defoliate Ficus spp. and (2) L. lucescens (Fabricius) in Honshu, Japan, whose larvae feed on Quercus...

  4. Pheromone trap and population model-based control of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in Romanian apple culture.

    PubMed

    Iordanescu, O; Micu, R; Angelache, I; Blidaru, A; Snejana, D; Simeria, G; Draganescu, E; Beyers, T; Verberne, A; Aerts, R

    2007-01-01

    Like in most parts of the world, the codling moth, Cydia pomonello (L.), is one of the most important pests in apple orchards in the Romanian Banat region. There, the control of this pest is often inadequate and the damage and economic losses are therefore enormous. This lack of control is caused by structural problems such as the absence of an advanced distribution network for phytopharmaceutical products, obsolete spraying equipment and the insufficient exchange of knowledge and expertise of those products and the pest itself between the local research facilities and the apple growers. The purpose of this research project is rather demonstrative, because a change in the Romanian pome culture's attitude is urgently needed. Pheromone trapping and the computerized population model RIMpro Cydia, which predicts important phenological events such as adult flight and egg hatch, were used to determine the optimal spray timing. These modern pest management techniques would not only minimize pressure on the environment, but also on the income of the Romanian apple grower, for whom phytopharmaceuticals are a high-priced investment. In July 2006 a comparative study between the supervised pest control program using Calypso, Runner and Reldan, all easily obtainable and commercially available insecticides in the region, and a conventional Romanian management programme was conducted. The control plot and the two test plots were all three located in a high codling moth pressure orchard in Timişoara. In the control plot 9,44 % of the fruits were damaged by codling moth larvae. In the plot containing the trees that were treated according to the traditional Romanian management programme 5,56 % damage was recorded, while the supervised management plot showed only 1,1% damage. Additionally damage was measured in another orchard in Periam, about 60 km away from the other plots. There, an intensive control program using Reldan, Calypso, Actare, Karate and Insegar was applied and damage

  5. A degree-day model initiated by pheromone trap captures for managing pecan nut casebearer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in pecans.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Allen E; Muegge, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    Field observations from pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) Koch, orchards in Texas were used to develop and validate a degree-day model of cumulative proportional adult flight and oviposition and date of first observed nut entry by larvae of the first summer generation of the pecan nut casebearer, Acrobasis nuxvorella Nuenzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The model was initiated on the date of first sustained capture of adults in pheromone traps. Mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures were used to determine the sum of degree-days from onset to 99% moth flight and oviposition and the date on which first summer generation larvae were first observed penetrating pecan nuts. Cumulative proportional oviposition (y) was described by a modified Gompertz equation, y = 106.05 x exp(-(exp(3.11 - 0.00669 x (x - 1), with x = cumulative degree-days at a base temperature of 3.33 degrees C. Cumulative proportional moth flight (y) was modeled as y = 102.62 x exp(- (exp(1.49 - 0.00571 x (x - 1). Model prediction error for dates of 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90% cumulative oviposition was 1.3 d and 83% of the predicted dates were within +/- 2 d of the observed event. Prediction error for date of first observed nut entry was 2.2 d and 77% of model predictions were within +/- 2 d of the observed event. The model provides ample lead time for producers to implement orchard scouting to assess pecan nut casebearer infestations and to apply an insecticide if needed to prevent economic loss.

  6. Pheromone Autodetection: Evidence and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Holdcraft, Robert; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory communication research with insects utilizing sex pheromones has focused on the effects of pheromones on signal receivers. Early pheromone detection studies using the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori L., and Saturniids led to the assumption that emitters, especially females, are unable to detect their own pheromone. Pheromone anosmia, i.e., the inability of females to detect their conspecific sex pheromone, was often assumed, and initially little attention was paid to female behaviors that may result from autodetection, i.e., the ability of females to detect their sex pheromone. Detection of conspecific pheromone plumes from nearby females may provide information to improve chances of mating success and progeny survival. Since the first documented example in 1972, numerous occurrences of autodetection have been observed and verified in field and laboratory studies. We summarize here a significant portion of research relating to autodetection. Electrophysiological and behavioral investigations, as well as expression patterns of proteins involved in pheromone autodetection are included. We discuss problems inherent in defining a boundary between sex and aggregation pheromones considering the occurrence of autodetection, and summarize hypothesized selection pressures favoring autodetection. Importance of including autodetection studies in future work is emphasized by complications arising from a lack of knowledge combined with expanding the use of pheromones in agriculture. PMID:27120623

  7. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  8. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-05-27

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies.

  9. General principles of attraction and competitive attraction as revealed by large-cage studies of moths responding to sex pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Miller, J. R.; McGhee, P. S.; Siegert, P. Y.; Adams, C. G.; Huang, J.; Grieshop, M. J.; Gut, L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of how insects are actually affected by sex pheromones deployed throughout a crop so as to disrupt mating has lacked a mechanistic framework sufficient for guiding optimization of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic. Major hypotheses are competitive attraction, desensitization, and camouflage. Working with codling moths, Cydia pomonella, in field cages millions of times larger than laboratory test tubes and at substrate concentrations trillions of times less than those typical for enzymes, we nevertheless demonstrate that mating disruption sufficiently parallels enzyme (ligand) –substrate interactions so as to justify adoption of conceptual and analytical tools of biochemical kinetics. By doing so, we prove that commercial dispensers of codling moth pheromone first competitively attract and then deactivate males probably for the remainder of a night. No evidence was found for camouflage. We generated and now validate simple algebraic equations for attraction and competitive attraction that will guide optimization and broaden implementation of behavioral manipulations of pests. This analysis system also offers a unique approach to quantifying animal foraging behaviors and could find applications across the natural and social sciences. PMID:20018720

  10. Identification of sex pheromone components of the pea midge, Contarinia pisi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter; Arn, Heinrich; Bengtsson, Marie; Löfqvist, Jan; Biddle, Anthony J.; Smitt, Olof; Högberg, Hans-Erik; Plass, Ernst; Franke, Stephan; Francke, Wittko

    Three components in extract of pheromone glands of female pea midges, Contarinia pisi, were found to be active on male pea midge antennae by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection. The EAD active components were identified as 2-acetoxytridecane, (2S,11S)-diacetoxytridecane, and (2S,12S)-diacetoxytridecane. A blend of these compounds proved to be highly attractive to males in windtunnel experiments.

  11. Female sex pheromone of Cystidia couaggaria couaggaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): identification and field attraction.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Rei; Takubo, Yoshiko; Ohbayashi, Kanako; Naka, Hideshi; Ando, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    The plum cankerworm moth, Cystidia couaggaria couaggaria (Geometridae: Ennominae), is a defoliator of Chinese plum trees (Prunus mume). The pheromone components of the female were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with an electro-antennographic (EAG) detector and GC coupled with mass spectrometry. The crude pheromone extract included several EAG-active components, i.e., trienyl, dienyl, and saturated hydrocarbons, with a C21-C25 straight chain. The characteristic mass spectra indicated the unsaturated hydrocarbons to be (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-trienes and (6Z,9Z)-6,9-dienes. In the fields, mixtures of the synthetic C<21 and C<23 trienes in a ratio of 2:3 and 1:4 successfully attracted males of this diurnal species during daytime. While the male antennae responded to the C25 triene and saturated hydrocarbons, their synergistic effects were not observed on the male attraction in the fields. Addition of the C21 diene interestingly inhibited the activity of the triene mixture. Males of Cystidia truncangulata, a sympatric diurnal congener of C. c. couaggaria, showed similar EAG responses to the unsaturated hydrocarbons, but no C. truncangulata males were attracted by the lures tested for C. c. couaggaria males, indicating that the identified hydrocarbons comprised the species-specific pheromone of C. c. couaggaria females.

  12. Control and monitoring of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with novel high-load, low-density “meso” dispensers of sex pheromone and pear ester

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel low-density per ha “meso” dispensers loaded with both pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, kairomone and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., were evaluated versus meso dispensers loaded with pheromone-alone for their mating disru...

  13. Novel components of the sex pheromones produced by emerald moths: identification, synthesis, and field evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Rei; Do, Nguyen Duc; Kinjo, Masakatsu; Terashima, Yoshie; Ando, Tetsu

    2011-01-01

    The subfamily Geometrinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) includes many species called emerald moths. Based on our recent finding of novel polyenyl compounds, including a double bond at the 12-position from two geometrine species, Hemithea tritonaria and Thalassodes immissaria intaminata, (6Z,9Z,12Z)-6,9,12-trienes and (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z)-3,6,9,12-tetraenes with a C(17)-C(20) straight chain were synthesized and analyzed by GC-MS. The 6,9,12-trienes, which were prepared by a double Wittig reaction between two alkanals and an ylide derived from (Z)-1,6-diiodo-3-hexene, characteristically produced fragment ions at m/z 79, 150, and M-98. The 3,6,9,12-tetraenes, which were prepared by a coupling between (Z)-3-alkenal and an ylide derived from (3Z,6Z)-1-iodo-3,6-nonadiene, showed fragment ions at m/z 79, 148, and M-96. These diagnostic ions were useful to distinguish these compounds from other known polyenyl pheromones, such as 4,6,9- and 6,9,11-trienes and 1,3,6,9-tetraenes. With reference to the GC-MS data, pheromone extracts of other species in Geometrinae inhabiting the Iriomote Islands were analyzed, and the 6,9,12-trienes were identified in the pheromone gland extracts of Pamphlebia rubrolimbraria rubrolimbraria and Maxates versicauda microptera. Furthermore, a field evaluation of the synthetic polyenes in a mixed forest of Tokyo revealed the following new male attractants for emerald moths: Idiochlora ussuriaria by a C(17) 6,9,12-triene and Jodis lactearia by a C(20) 3,6,9,12-tetraene, indicating the characteristic chemical structures of Geometrinae pheromones. On the other hand, through reexamination of the pheromone extract of H. tritonaria, (3E,6E)-α-farnesene was identified as an electrophysiologically active component in addition to the C(17) 6,9,12-triene. The binary mixture attracted more males than the single component lure baited with the triene in the Iriomote Islands.

  14. Trap trees for elm bark beetles : Augmentation with pheromone baits and chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Lanier, G N; Jones, A H

    1985-01-01

    European elm bark beetles,Scolytus multistriatus (Marsh.), were strongly attracted to American elms,Ulmus americana L., baited with theS. multistriatus attractant, multilure, or killed by injection of the arboricide, cacodylic acid; a combination of the two treatments was most attractive. Comparisons of beetle catches on sticky bands affixed to the trees with samples of bark from the same trees showed that the number of beetles landing on cacodylic acid-treated trees was approximately 40 times greater than the number boring into them. Spraying the bark with the insecticide chlorpyrifos had no direct effect on attraction. No live bark beetle brood was found in trees that had been treated with cacodylic acid or chlorpyrifos, but trees that were only baited or left untreated (check) were attacked, killed, and colonized. We suggest that the contribution of the cacodylic acid trap tree technique to Dutch elm disease control will be enhanced by baiting treated trees with multilure and spraying their lower boles with 0.5% chlorpyrifos. This treatment will eliminate diseased and unwanted elms as potential breeding material and kill large numbers of elm bark beetles that might otherwise innoculate healthy elms with the Dutch elm disease fungus.

  15. Evidence for occurrence of mounting sex pheromone on body surface of femaleDermacentor variabilis (Say) AndDermacentor andersoni (Stiles) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Gordon, J; Hamilton, C; Sonenshine, D E

    1988-01-01

    MaleDermacentor variabilis andD. andersoni respond to an unknown chemical or chemicals present on the body surfaces of partially engorged conspecific female ticks. Following contact, the males mount the females and apply their mouthparts and legs against the female dorsal body surface. Then, the males turn with these appendages still in close contact and crawl to the female's venter, whereupon they locate the gonopore, probe the vulva, and copulate. Similar responses are elicited by heterospecific as well as conspecific females. However, the response is lost when the female cuticle is cleaned (delipidized) with organic solvents. It can be restored by applying hexane extracts prepared from female cuticle to the previously cleaned females. Males do not use surface texture as the primary stimulus for mate recognition. Male ticks also respond to hexane extracts applied to spherical inanimate objects, ("dummy" female), suggesting that a chemical or chemicals soluble in organic solvents has been transferred to these objects. These findings suggest the existence of a previously undescribed pheromone, the mounting sex pheromone (MSP). This contact sex pheromone enables males excited and attracted by 2,6-dichlorophenol to identify the female as a potential mating partner. The MSP is the second in the series of three sex pheromones guiding the hierarchy of behavioral responses which constitute tick courtship behavior.

  16. Mating disruption of Paralobesia viteana in vineyards using pheromone deployed in SPLAT-GBM wax droplets.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2008-08-01

    A paraffin wax formulation releasing pheromone for mating disruption of insects was tested during 2005 and 2006 in Vitis labrusca vineyards infested by grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). In early May of each year, 1-ml droplets of SPLAT-GBM wax containing 3% sex pheromone of P. viteana were applied to every wooden post at a rate of 400/ha in replicated 1.3-ha plots. Moth captures in sex pheromone baited traps placed at the vineyard borders and interiors revealed significant disruption of male moth captures in treated plots, with activity of one application lasting over 10 weeks during both years. Treatment with SPLAT-GBM did not affect the proportion of clusters infested until the end of the second growing season, when infestation was 27% lower in the treated plots than in the control plots. Comparisons of moth captures in traps placed inside 15.2 x 16.5 m vine plots that were untreated or received varying densities of 0.2-ml wax drops or Isomate-GBM hand-tied dispensers at the recommended rate of 450/ha indicated that orientational disruption increased with droplet density. Similar numbers of moths were captured in plots that received 10 or 30 drops per vine as were trapped in plots with twist ties spaced at 0.4 per vine. Moth captures in monitoring traps baited with increasing sizes of wax droplets (0.2, 0.5, or 1-ml drops) or red septa containing P. viteana sex pheromone suggest decreasing ability of male moths to reach traps with increasing pheromone loading. This study indicates that wax-deployed pheromone can reduce crop infestation by P. viteana after 2 years of deployment, and that the increasing of pheromone release by using application of greater droplet densities or by using larger droplets will improve the level of disruption achieved.

  17. Pherophorins: a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins from Volvox structurally related to the sex-inducing pheromone.

    PubMed

    Godl, K; Hallmann, A; Rappel, A; Sumper, M

    1995-01-01

    Pherophorins are extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins from Volvox that share homology with the sex-inducing pheromone. A novel pherophorin (pherophorin III) was characterized both with respect to expression pattern and proteolytic processing in vivo. Furthermore, it was shown that the pherophorins represent a protein family of ECM glycoproteins exhibiting a modular composition: their N-terminally located domain is a homolog of a domain found in the ECM glycoprotein SSG 185. Together with SSG 185, pherophorin I is a main component of the cellular zone within the ECM. The Volvox genome contains a tandem arrangement of genes encoding pherophorin II-related polypeptides. Inhibition of proteolytic processing of pherophorin II and III in vivo appears to result in the suppression of sexual induction.

  18. Production and release of (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienal by sex pheromone glands of females ofPlodia interpunctella (lepidoptera: pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Teal, P E; Heath, R R; Dueben, B D; Coffelt, J A; Vick, K W

    1995-06-01

    Extracts of sex pheromone glands obtained from females ofPloida interpunctella contained detectable amounts of (Z,E,)-9,12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (Z9,E12-14:Ac) and (Z,E.)-9,12-tetradecadien-1-ol (Z9,E12-14:OH) 4 hr prior to the first scotophase after adult emergence. The amount of pheromone increased during the first 4 hr of the scotophase and then declined to low levels during the subsequent photophase. Decapitation of females immediately after emergence, prior to expansion of the wings, inhibited production of pheromone during the subsequent 48 hr. Injection of extracts of the heads of 1-day-old females ofP. interpunctella of partially purified extracts of the cephalic ganglia of females of the corn earworm moth into decapitated females stimulated production of bothZ9,E12-14:Ac andZ9,E12-14:OH as well as production of (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienal (Z9,E12-14:Al). This aldehyde was subsequently identified from extracts of pheromone glands obtained from naturally calling females as well as from volatiles emitted by calling females. Studies on the terminal steps in biosynthesis of the pheromone showed thatZ9,E12-14:OH was produced from the corresponding acetate and thatZ9,E12-14:Al was produced from the alcohol via the action of an oxidase(s).

  19. Synthetic sex pheromone in a long-lasting lure attracts the visceral leishmaniasis vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, for up to 12 weeks in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bray, Daniel P; Carter, Vicky; Alves, Graziella B; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Bandi, Krishna K; Hamilton, James G C

    2014-03-01

    Current control methodologies have not prevented the spread of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) across Brazil. Here, we describe the development of a new tool for controlling the sand fly vector of the disease: a long-lasting lure, which releases a synthetic male sex pheromone, attractive to both sexes of Lutzomyia longipalpis. This device could be used to improve the effectiveness of residual insecticide spraying as a means of sand fly control, attracting L. longipalpis to insecticide-treated animal houses, where they could be killed in potentially large numbers over a number of weeks. Different lure designs releasing the synthetic pheromone (±)-9-methylgermacrene-B (CAS 183158-38-5) were field-tested in Araçatuba, São Paulo (SP). Experiments compared numbers of sand flies caught overnight in experimental chicken sheds with pheromone lures, to numbers caught in control sheds without pheromone. Prototype lures, designed to last one night, were first used to confirm the attractiveness of the pheromone in SP, and shown to attract significantly more flies to test sheds than controls. Longer-lasting lures were tested when new, and at fortnightly intervals. Lures loaded with 1 mg of pheromone did not attract sand flies for more than two weeks. However, lures loaded with 10 mg of pheromone, with a releasing surface of 15 cm2 or 7.5 cm2, attracted female L. longipalpis for up to ten weeks, and males for up to twelve weeks. Approximately five times more sand flies were caught with 7.5 cm2 10 mg lures when first used than occurred naturally in non-experimental chicken resting sites. These results demonstrate that these lures are suitably long-lasting and attractive for use in sand fly control programmes in SP. To our knowledge, this is the first sex pheromone-based technology targeting an insect vector of a neglected human disease. Further studies should explore the general applicability of this approach for combating other insect-borne diseases.

  20. Synthetic Sex Pheromone in a Long-Lasting Lure Attracts the Visceral Leishmaniasis Vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, for up to 12 Weeks in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Daniel P.; Carter, Vicky; Alves, Graziella B.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Bandi, Krishna K.; Hamilton, James G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Current control methodologies have not prevented the spread of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) across Brazil. Here, we describe the development of a new tool for controlling the sand fly vector of the disease: a long-lasting lure, which releases a synthetic male sex pheromone, attractive to both sexes of Lutzomyia longipalpis. This device could be used to improve the effectiveness of residual insecticide spraying as a means of sand fly control, attracting L. longipalpis to insecticide-treated animal houses, where they could be killed in potentially large numbers over a number of weeks. Different lure designs releasing the synthetic pheromone (±)-9-methylgermacrene-B (CAS 183158-38-5) were field-tested in Araçatuba, São Paulo (SP). Experiments compared numbers of sand flies caught overnight in experimental chicken sheds with pheromone lures, to numbers caught in control sheds without pheromone. Prototype lures, designed to last one night, were first used to confirm the attractiveness of the pheromone in SP, and shown to attract significantly more flies to test sheds than controls. Longer-lasting lures were tested when new, and at fortnightly intervals. Lures loaded with 1 mg of pheromone did not attract sand flies for more than two weeks. However, lures loaded with 10 mg of pheromone, with a releasing surface of 15 cm2 or 7.5 cm2, attracted female L. longipalpis for up to ten weeks, and males for up to twelve weeks. Approximately five times more sand flies were caught with 7.5 cm2 10 mg lures when first used than occurred naturally in non-experimental chicken resting sites. These results demonstrate that these lures are suitably long-lasting and attractive for use in sand fly control programmes in SP. To our knowledge, this is the first sex pheromone-based technology targeting an insect vector of a neglected human disease. Further studies should explore the general applicability of this approach for combating other insect-borne diseases. PMID:24651528

  1. Sex pheromones of five olethreutine species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with the seedlings and fruits of mangrove plants in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan: identification and field evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vang, Le Van; Inomata, Shin-Ichi; Kinjo, Masakatsu; Komai, Furumi; Andoi, Tetsu

    2005-04-01

    The sex pheromones of three Cryptophlebia, one Centroxena, and one Eucosma species (Lepidoptera: Olethreutinae) inhabiting mangroves in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, were studied with coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection, and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The larvae of each Cryptophlebia species are specifically associated with viviparous seedlings from one of three mangrove Rhizophoraceae plants. Whereas three EAG-active alcohol components, (Z)-8-dodecen-1-ol, (E)-8-dodecen1-ol, and dodecan-1-ol, in a ratio of 100:12:4, were identified from the pheromone gland extract of female of C. horii (host: Bruguiera gymnorrhiza), two other sibling species produced the corresponding acetates, i.e., (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate, (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate, and dodecyl acetate, in a 100:2:3 ratio from Cryptophlebia palustris (host: Rhizophora stylosa in Iriomote-jima Island) and in a 100:7:13 ratio from C. amamiana (host: Kandelia candel in Amami-oshima Island). The double bond positions of the monounsaturated components were confirmed by GC-MS analyses of their adducts with dimethyl disulfide. On the other hand, the larvae of Centroxena sp. feed on fruits of Sonneratia alba, another mangrove plant in the Sonneratiaceae, and the extract of the female pheromone glands contained (8E,10E)-dodecadienyl acetate and dodecyl acetate in a ratio of 100:5. The double bond position of the diunsaturated compound was confirmed by GC-MS analysis of its adduct with 4-methyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione. (E)-9-Dodecenyl acetate w sively identified in the pheromone gland extract of Eucosma coniogramma females reared from seedlings of B. gymnorrhiza. Although the roles of minor components have not been revealed by field tests, synthetic lures baited with the main pheromone component of each species successfully attracted the target males, confirming that the sex pheromone is one of the most important factors for their reproductive isolation.

  2. The GPCR membrane receptor, DopEcR, mediates the actions of both dopamine and ecdysone to control sex pheromone perception in an insect

    PubMed Central

    Abrieux, Antoine; Duportets, Line; Debernard, Stéphane; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory information mediating sexual behavior is crucial for reproduction in many animals, including insects. In male moths, the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL) is specialized in the treatment of information on the female-emitted sex pheromone. Evidence is accumulating that modulation of behavioral pheromone responses occurs through neuronal plasticity via the action of hormones and/or catecholamines. We recently showed that a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), AipsDopEcR, with its homologue known in Drosophila for its double affinity to the main insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), and dopamine (DA), present in the ALs, is involved in the behavioral response to pheromone in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon. Here we tested the role of AipsDopEcR as compared to nuclear 20E receptors in central pheromone processing combining receptor inhibition with intracellular recordings of AL neurons. We show that the sensitivity of AL neurons for the pheromone in males decreases strongly after AipsDopEcR-dsRNA injection but also after inhibition of nuclear 20E receptors. Moreover we tested the involvement of 20E and DA in the receptor-mediated behavioral modulation in wind tunnel experiments, using ligand applications and receptor inhibition treatments. We show that both ligands are necessary and act on AipsDopEcR-mediated behavior. Altogether these results indicate that the GPCR membrane receptor, AipsDopEcR, controls sex pheromone perception through the action of both 20E and DA in the central nervous system, probably in concert with 20E action through nuclear receptors. PMID:25309365

  3. Evaluation of the major female Eurytoma amygdali sex pheromone components, (Z,Z)-6,9-tricosadiene and (Z,Z)-6,9-pentacosadiene for male attraction in field tests.

    PubMed

    Mazomenos, Basilis E; Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas; Milonas, Panagiotis

    2004-06-01

    We evaluated the attraction of male almond seed wasp Eurytoma amygdali to the synthetic alkadienes (Z,Z)-6,9-tricosadiene and (Z,Z)-6,9-pentacosadiene and their blend in almond orchards using baited rubber septa attached to cardboard rectangular adhesive traps. The two alkadienes were recently isolated from virgin female whole body extracts and SPME collected volatiles. The alkenes (Z)-9-tricosene, (Z)-9-pentacosene, and (Z)-9-heptacosene, present in female extracts, were also added to the blend of the alkadienes and tested. The alkadienes tested individually attracted males when the traps were baited with doses ranging from 10 to 30 mg/trap. The maximum number of males was attracted to traps baited with 10 mg of a (Z,Z)-6,9-C(23:2):(Z,Z)-6,9-C(25:2) blend at a ratio of 7:3. Results with the three alkenes added to the blend were inconclusive because of low populations. The present study on E. amygdali is the first one reporting attraction of males to synthetic sex pheromone components in field trials for a Eurytomidae species. The synthetic alkadienes blend offers the potential to develop an effective system for monitoring populations of the almond seed wasp in almond orchards.

  4. Aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Identification and field activity.

    PubMed

    Eller, F J; Bartelt, R J; Shasha, B S; Schuster, D J; Riley, D G; Stansly, P A; Mueller, T F; Shuler, K D; Johnson, B; Davis, J H; Sutherland, C A

    1994-07-01

    This study describes the identification of an aggregation pheromone for the pepper weevil,Anthonomus eugenii and field trials of a synthetic pheromone blend. Volatile collections and gas chromatography revealed the presence of six male-specific compounds. These compounds were identified using chromatographic and spectral techniques as: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (E)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienoic acid (geranic acid), and (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol). The emission rates of these compounds from feeding males were determined to be about: 7.2, 4.8, 0.45, 0.30, 2.0, and 0.30µg/male/day, respectively. Sticky traps baited with a synthetic blend of these compounds captured more pepper weevils (both sexes) than did unbaited control traps or pheromone-baited boll weevil traps. Commercial and laboratory formulations of the synthetic pheromone were both attractive. However, the commercial formulation did not release geranic acid properly, and geranic acid is necessary for full activity. The pheromones of the pepper weevil and the boll weevil are compared. Improvements for increasing trap efficiency and possible uses for the pepper weevil pheromone are discussed. A convenient method for purifying geranic acid is also described.

  5. Structure of Peptide Sex Pheromone Receptor PrgX and PrgX/Pheromone Complexes and Regulation of Conjugation in Enterococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Shi,K.; Brown, C.; Gu, Z.; Kozlowicz, B.; Dunny, G.; Ohlendorf, D.; Earhart, C.

    2005-01-01

    Many bacterial activities, including expression of virulence factors, horizontal genetic transfer, and production of antibiotics, are controlled by intercellular signaling using small molecules. To date, understanding of the molecular mechanisms of peptide-mediated cell-cell signaling has been limited by a dearth of published information about the molecular structures of the signaling components. Here, we present the molecular structure of PrgX, a DNA- and peptide-binding protein that regulates expression of the conjugative transfer genes of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pCF10 in response to an intercellular peptide pheromone signal. Comparison of the structures of PrgX and the PrgX/pheromone complex suggests that pheromone binding destabilizes PrgX tetramers, opening a 70-bp pCF10 DNA loop required for conjugation repression.

  6. Area-wide mass trapping by pheromone-based attractants for the control of sugar beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris Germar, Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Drmić, Zrinka; Tóth, Miklós; Lemić, Darija; Grubišić, Dinka; Pospišil, Milan; Bažok, Renata

    2017-10-01

    Owing to the changing climate, narrow crop rotation, and changes in insecticide application practice, sugar beet weevil (SBW) (Bothynoderes punctiventris Germar) has become the most important economic pest in sugar beet. To develop alternative control methods, an area-wide (AW) control program using aggregation pheromones was implemented over 4 years on an area of 6 and 14.8 km(2) in east Croatia. The mass trapping of SBW on the 'old' sugar beet fields reduced the population from 0.73% to 11.59%. Owing to the strong attack, mass trapping was not effective enough to avoid an insecticide application. However, it significantly reduced the number of insecticide applications, the amount of insecticide used, and the damage compared to the fields outside the mass trapping area. This is the first study to implement an AW program for SBW. It may not be possible to state from this study that trapping alone can reduce the SBW population below the economic threshold level. However, the data do suggest that trapping can play an important role in the reduction of insecticide applications and in creating an integrated pest management plan for dealing with SBW under similar circumstances. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of the brownbanded cockroach, Supella longipalpa, to stereoisomers of its sex pheromone, supellapyrone.

    PubMed

    Gemeno, César; Leal, Walter S; Mori, Kenji; Schal, Coby

    2003-08-01

    Females of the brownbanded cockroach, Supella longipalpa, release a sex pheromone (supellapyrone) during a calling behavior and attract males from a distance. Supellapyrone has four possible configurations resulting from two asymmetric carbons at positions 2 and 4 (i.e., 2R,4R; 2R,4S; 2S,4R; and 2S,4S), but only the RR isomer is produced by females. Using pure synthetic stereoisomers in field tests, we showed that males are attracted to RR but also to high concentrations of the isomer SR. To study the activity of the stereoisomers in more detail we developed behavioral and electroantennogram (EAG) dose-response curves for each. Behaviorally, RR was the most active isomer with just 0.3 pg delivered on a filter paper being sufficient to elicit 50% male response in the olfactometer. Males were also attracted to SR and SS in the olfactometer, but at much higher dosages (100x ) than the natural compound; RS did not elicit behavioral responses at any of the doses tested. In EAG assays, the antenna of male S. longipalpa showed high and similar sensitivity to RR and SR, but a much lower (10%) sensitivity to SS and practically no response to RS. The lack of agreement between behavioral and electrophysiological data suggested either that RR and SR stimulate different antennal sensory neuron types, or that some aspect of the interaction between the pheromone and the sensillum environment or the receptor neuron itself is different. To test the first hypothesis we examined the response of the antenna before and after adaptation with each of the four stereoisomers. Positive cross-adaptation between RR and SR suggests that these two compounds stimulate the same receptor cells. Therefore, the lack of agreement between behavioral and EAG dose-response curves could be explained by isomer-specific molecular interactions between the pheromone and the receptor neuron. Although RR and SR produced the same EAG amplitude, stimulation with SR resulted in a slower recovery rate (i.e., wider

  8. How much is a pheromone worth?

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Jose Mauricio S.; Parra, Jose Roberto P.; de Miranda, Silvia H. G.; Adami, Andrea C. O.; Vilela, Evaldo F.; Leal, Walter S.

    2016-01-01

    Pheromone-baited traps have been widely used in integrated pest management programs, but their economic value for growers has never been reported.  We analyzed the economic benefits of long-term use of traps baited with the citrus fruit borer Gymnandrosoma aurantianum sex pheromone in Central-Southern Brazil. Our analysis show that from 2001 to 2013 citrus growers avoided accumulated pest losses of 132.7 million to 1.32 billion USD in gross revenues, considering potential crop losses in the range of 5 to 50%. The area analyzed, 56,600 to 79,100 hectares of citrus (20.4 to 29.4 million trees), corresponds to 9.7 to 13.5% of the total area planted with citrus in the state of São Paulo. The data show a benefit-to-cost ratio of US$ 2,655 to US$ 26,548 per dollar spent on research with estimated yield loss prevented in the range of 5-50%, respectively. This study demonstrates that, in addition to the priceless benefits for the environment, sex pheromones are invaluable tools for growers as their use for monitoring populations allows rational and reduced use of insecticides, a win-win situation. PMID:27583133

  9. How much is a pheromone worth?

    PubMed

    Bento, Jose Mauricio S; Parra, Jose Roberto P; de Miranda, Silvia H G; Adami, Andrea C O; Vilela, Evaldo F; Leal, Walter S

    2016-01-01

    Pheromone-baited traps have been widely used in integrated pest management programs, but their economic value for growers has never been reported.  We analyzed the economic benefits of long-term use of traps baited with the citrus fruit borer Gymnandrosoma aurantianum sex pheromone in Central-Southern Brazil. Our analysis show that from 2001 to 2013 citrus growers avoided accumulated pest losses of 132.7 million to 1.32 billion USD in gross revenues, considering potential crop losses in the range of 5 to 50%. The area analyzed, 56,600 to 79,100 hectares of citrus (20.4 to 29.4 million trees), corresponds to 9.7 to 13.5% of the total area planted with citrus in the state of São Paulo. The data show a benefit-to-cost ratio of US$ 2,655 to US$ 26,548 per dollar spent on research with estimated yield loss prevented in the range of 5-50%, respectively. This study demonstrates that, in addition to the priceless benefits for the environment, sex pheromones are invaluable tools for growers as their use for monitoring populations allows rational and reduced use of insecticides, a win-win situation.

  10. Determination of the Relative and Absolute Configurations of the Female-produced Sex Pheromone of the Cerambycid Beetle Prionus californicus

    PubMed Central

    Rodstein, Joshua; Barbour, James D.; McElfresh, J. Steven; Wright, Ian M.; Barbour, Karen S.; Ray, Ann M.; Hanks, Lawrence M.

    2010-01-01

    We previously identified the basic structure of the female-produced sex attractant pheromone of the cerambycid beetle, Prionus californicus Motschulsky (Cerambycidae: Prioninae), as 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid. A synthesized mixture of the four stereoisomers of 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid was highly attractive to male beetles. Here, we describe stereoselective syntheses of three of the four possible stereoisomers, and the results of laboratory and field bioassays showing that male beetles are attracted specifically to (3R,5S)-3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid, but not to its enantiomer, (3S,5R)-3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid, indicating that the (3R,5S)-enantiomer is the active pheromone component. The diastereomeric (3R,5R)- and (3S,5S)-enantiomers were excluded from consideration because their gas chromatographic retention times were different from that of the insect-produced compound. The mixture of the four stereoisomers of 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid was as attractive to male P. californicus as the (3R,5S)-enantiomer, indicating that none of the other three stereoisomers inhibited responses to the active enantiomer. Beetles responded to as little as 10 ng and 10 μg of synthetic 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid in laboratory and field studies, respectively. Field studies indicated that c