Science.gov

Sample records for sexual minority populations

  1. Measuring community connectedness among diverse sexual minority populations.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Meyer, Ilan H

    2012-01-01

    Theory and research agree that connectedness to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is an important construct to account for in understanding issues related to health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. However, the measurement of this construct among lesbian and bisexual women or racial and ethnic minority individuals has not yet been adequately investigated. This study examined the reliability and validity of an existing measure of connectedness to the LGBT Community among a diverse group of sexual minority individuals in New York City, and whether differences in connectedness existed across gender and race or ethnicity. Scores on the measure demonstrated both internal consistency and construct stability across subgroups defined by gender and race or ethnicity. The subgroups did not differ in their mean levels of connectedness, and scores on the measure demonstrated factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity, both generally and within each of the subgroups. Inconsistencies were observed with regard to which scores on the measure demonstrated predictive validity in their associations with indicators of mental health and well-being. The scale is a useful tool for researchers and practitioners interested in understanding the role of community connectedness in the lives of diverse populations of sexual minority individuals.

  2. Measuring Community Connectedness among Diverse Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and research agree that connectedness to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is an important construct to account for in understanding issues related to health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. However, the measurement of this construct among lesbian and bisexual women or racial/ethnic minority individuals has not yet been adequately investigated. This study examined the reliability and validity of an existing measure of Connectedness to the LGBT Community among a diverse group of sexual minority individuals in New York City and whether differences in connectedness existed across gender and race/ethnicity. Scores on the measure demonstrated both internal consistency and construct stability across subgroups defined by gender and race/ethnicity. The subgroups did not differ in their mean levels of connectedness and scores on the measure demonstrated factorial, convergent, and discriminate validity both generally and within each of the subgroups. Inconsistencies were observed with regard to which scores on the measure demonstrated predictive validity in their associations with indicators of mental health and well-being. The scale is a useful tool for researchers and practitioners interested in understanding the role of community connectedness in the lives of diverse populations of sexual minority individuals. PMID:21512945

  3. Discrimination, Mental Health, and Substance Use Disorders Among Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) populations have a higher prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Such disparities have been attributed, in part, to minority stressors, including distal stressors such as discrimination. However, few studies have examined associations between discrimination, mental health, and substance use disorders by gender among sexual minority populations. Methods: We analyzed data from 577 adult men and women who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual and participated in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Six questions assessed discrimination due to sexual orientation. Weighted multivariable logistic regression examined associations between experiences of sexual orientation discrimination and both mental health and substance use disorders. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual minority men and women, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Results: Sexual minority men who ever experienced discrimination (57.4%) reported higher odds of any lifetime drug use disorder and cannabis use disorder compared to sexual minority men who never experienced discrimination. Sexual minority women who ever experienced discrimination (42.9%) reported higher odds of any lifetime mood disorder and any lifetime anxiety disorder compared to sexual minority women who never experienced discrimination. Conclusion: The findings suggest that discrimination is differentially associated with internalizing (mental health) and externalizing (substance use) disorders for sexual minority men and women. These findings indicate a need to consider how homophobia and heteronormative discrimination may contribute to distinct health outcomes for lesbian and bisexual women compared with gay and bisexual men. PMID:27383512

  4. Social support networks among diverse sexual minority populations.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M; Meyer, Ilan H; Schwartz, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a study of the function and composition of social support networks among diverse lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women (n = 396) in comparison to their heterosexual peers (n = 128). Data were collected using a structured social support network matrix in a community sample recruited in New York City. Our findings show that gay and bisexual men may rely on "chosen families" more than lesbian and bisexual women. Both heterosexuals and LGBs relied less on family and more on other people (e.g., friends, coworkers) for everyday social support (e.g., recreational and social activities, talking about problems). Providers of everyday social support were most often of the same sexual orientation and race/ethnicity as participants. In seeking major support (e.g., borrowing large sums of money), heterosexual men and women along with lesbian and bisexual women relied primarily on their families, but gay and bisexual men relied primarily on other LGB individuals. Racial/ethnic minority LGBs relied on LGB similar others at the same rate as did White LGBs but, notably, racial/ethnic minority LGBs reported receiving fewer dimensions of support.

  5. Importance of Health and Social Care Research into Gender and Sexual Minority Populations in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pramod R; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2015-11-01

    Despite progressive legislative developments and increased visibility of sexual and gender minority populations in the general population, mass media often report that this population face a wide range of discrimination and inequalities. LGBT (lesbian, gay, and bisexual, and transgender) populations have not been considered as priority research populations in Nepal. Research in other geographical settings has shown an increased risk of poor mental health, violence, and suicide and higher rates of smoking, as well as alcohol and drugs use among LGBT populations. They are also risk for lifestyle-related illness such as cancer, diabetes, and heart diseases. Currently, in Nepal, there is a lack of understanding of health and well-being, social exclusion, stigma, and discrimination as experienced by these populations. Good-quality public health research can help design and implement targeted interventions to the sexual and gender minority populations of Nepal. PMID:26543163

  6. Importance of Health and Social Care Research into Gender and Sexual Minority Populations in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pramod R; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2015-11-01

    Despite progressive legislative developments and increased visibility of sexual and gender minority populations in the general population, mass media often report that this population face a wide range of discrimination and inequalities. LGBT (lesbian, gay, and bisexual, and transgender) populations have not been considered as priority research populations in Nepal. Research in other geographical settings has shown an increased risk of poor mental health, violence, and suicide and higher rates of smoking, as well as alcohol and drugs use among LGBT populations. They are also risk for lifestyle-related illness such as cancer, diabetes, and heart diseases. Currently, in Nepal, there is a lack of understanding of health and well-being, social exclusion, stigma, and discrimination as experienced by these populations. Good-quality public health research can help design and implement targeted interventions to the sexual and gender minority populations of Nepal.

  7. Structural stigma and all-cause mortality in sexual minority populations.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Bellatorre, Anna; Lee, Yeonjin; Finch, Brian K; Muennig, Peter; Fiscella, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    Stigma operates at multiple levels, including intrapersonal appraisals (e.g., self-stigma), interpersonal events (e.g., hate crimes), and structural conditions (e.g., community norms, institutional policies). Although prior research has indicated that intrapersonal and interpersonal forms of stigma negatively affect the health of the stigmatized, few studies have addressed the health consequences of exposure to structural forms of stigma. To address this gap, we investigated whether structural stigma-operationalized as living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice-increases risk of premature mortality for sexual minorities. We constructed a measure capturing the average level of anti-gay prejudice at the community level, using data from the General Social Survey, which was then prospectively linked to all-cause mortality data via the National Death Index. Sexual minorities living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice experienced a higher hazard of mortality than those living in low-prejudice communities (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 3.03, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.50, 6.13), controlling for individual and community-level covariates. This result translates into a shorter life expectancy of approximately 12 years (95% C.I.: 4-20 years) for sexual minorities living in high-prejudice communities. Analysis of specific causes of death revealed that suicide, homicide/violence, and cardiovascular diseases were substantially elevated among sexual minorities in high-prejudice communities. Strikingly, there was an 18-year difference in average age of completed suicide between sexual minorities in the high-prejudice (age 37.5) and low-prejudice (age 55.7) communities. These results highlight the importance of examining structural forms of stigma and prejudice as social determinants of health and longevity among minority populations.

  8. Sexual minorities seeking services.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Tracey L; Emanuel, Kristen; Bradford, Judith

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for services between July 1, 1997 and December 31, 2000 at Fenway Community Health in Boston, MA. Data are based on clients' self-reports and clinician assessments of clients' presenting problem, relevant developmental history, prior mental health and substance abuse treatment, current reports of emotional/psychological symptoms, and areas of impaired functioning. Although substance abuse and suicidal ideation were commonly reported problems, other concerns were more frequently reported. High percentages of lesbians and bisexual women reported relationship concerns and lack of adequate social networks; rates of depression and anxiety based on clinicians' assessments were also high. Overall, lesbians and bisexual women did not differ in the issues they brought to treatment or level or types of impairment. Compared with previous community survey samples, however, study participants appeared to be healthier than general, non-clinical samples of self-identified lesbians, possibly reflecting the special characteristics of sexual minority women who seek treatment in specialized community sites such as the Fenway. Although patients who come to these sites may not represent the more general population of sexual minority women, community health centers known to serve lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals may be fruitful access points for studying the mental health status and treatment needs of sexual minority women. PMID:24815719

  9. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures.

  10. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  11. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  12. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  13. [Sexual abuse of minors].

    PubMed

    Hayez, J Y

    1991-01-01

    The author gives a definition of sexual abuse on minors, emphasizing its more frequent occurrence inside the family (incest) than outside. He describes the countertransference reactions induced by this type of abuse, especially in professional teams who tend to put each other in a position of rivalry. Next, he sketches the pathogeny of sexual abuse, the clinical signs and the long term effects. The author deduces what should be the first signs of sexual abuse and proposes a pattern of diagnosis. Finally, he explains a management model, of the crisis and the follow-up of this difficult situation. PMID:1670411

  14. Tobacco Product Use Among Sexual Minority Adults

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah E.; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Tessman, Greta K.; King, Brian A.; Alexander, Tesfa; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A growing body of evidence reveals higher rates of tobacco use among sexual minority populations relative to non-minority (“straight”) populations. This study seeks to more fully characterize this disparity by examining tobacco use by distinct sexual identities and gender to better understand patterns of: (1) cigarette smoking and smoking history; and (2) use of other tobacco products including cigars, pipes, hookah, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco. Methods Data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a random-digit dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, were analyzed in 2014. A sexual minority category was created by combining gay, lesbian, and bisexual responses, along with those who selected an option for other non-heterosexual identities. Results Smoking prevalence was higher among sexual minority adults (27.4%) than straight adults (17.3%). Cigarette smoking was particularly high among bisexual women (36.0%). Sexual minority women started smoking and transitioned to daily smoking earlier than their straight peers. Use of other tobacco products was higher among sexual minority women: prevalence of e-cigarette (12.4%), hookah (10.3%), and cigar use (7.2%) was more than triple that of their straight female peers (3.4%, 2.5%, and 1.3%, respectively). Likewise, prevalence of sexual minority men’s e-cigarette (7.9%) and hookah (12.8%) use exceeded that of straight men (4.7% and 4.5%, respectively). Conclusions Tobacco use is significantly higher among sexual minority than straight adults, particularly among sexual minority women. These findings underscore the importance of tobacco control efforts designed to reach sexual minorities and highlight the heterogeneity of tobacco use within this population. PMID:26526162

  15. Sexual minority youth.

    PubMed

    Steever, John; Francis, Jenny; Gordon, Lonna P; Lee, Janet

    2014-09-01

    This article provides an overview of the medical and mental health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth population. Information is reviewed regarding both primary medical care and the special health risks that these youth face. Providers are introduced to the concept that societal and internalized homophobia lead directly to certain health disparities, including substance use, school and family rejection, depression, and increased sexually transmitted infection acquisition. This article familiarizes the primary care practitioner with the health care needs of the LGBT population and the research behind the various recommendations for caring for these youth.

  16. Sexual minority youth.

    PubMed

    Steever, John; Francis, Jenny; Gordon, Lonna P; Lee, Janet

    2014-09-01

    This article provides an overview of the medical and mental health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth population. Information is reviewed regarding both primary medical care and the special health risks that these youth face. Providers are introduced to the concept that societal and internalized homophobia lead directly to certain health disparities, including substance use, school and family rejection, depression, and increased sexually transmitted infection acquisition. This article familiarizes the primary care practitioner with the health care needs of the LGBT population and the research behind the various recommendations for caring for these youth. PMID:25124211

  17. The Mental Health of Sexual Minority Adults In and Out of the Closet: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies find that sexual orientation concealment affords escape from stigma and discrimination but also creates a psychological toll. While disclosure alleviates the mental burden of concealment, it invites the stress of navigating a new public identity. Population-based samples that include both “in” and “out” sexual minorities provide an ideal opportunity to resolve limitations and inconsistencies of previous non-probability investigations into the mental health correlates of concealment and disclosure. Method Sexual minority participants in the California Quality of Life Survey (n=2,083) indicated whether and when they had first disclosed their sexual orientation to others. Prevalence of one-year major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder was derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form. Results Closeted men (n=84) were less likely to be depressed than out men (n=1,047; OR=0.41 95% CI: 0.17-0.996). Men who were recently out (n=201) experienced higher odds of major depressive disorder (OR=6.21 95% CI: 1.53-24.47) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR=5.51 95% CI: 1.51-20.13) as compared to closeted men. Men who were distantly out (n = 846) also experienced higher odds of major depressive disorder than men who were closeted (OR=2.91; 95% CI: 1.10-7.69). Recently out women (n=243) experienced lower odds of depression than closeted women (n=63) (OR=0.21; 95% CI: 0.05-0.96). Conclusion Whether being in or out of the closet is associated with depression and anxiety largely depends on gender. Clinical and policy implications are discussed in terms of the unique stressors facing men and women both in and out of the closet. PMID:26280492

  18. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    PubMed

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness.

  19. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    PubMed

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness. PMID:27102605

  20. Extending Sexual Objectification Theory and Research to Minority Populations, Couples, and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimerdinger-Edwards, Sarah R.; Vogel, David L.; Hammer, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    This reaction highlights several strengths of this major contribution and discusses some future directions in this line of research. The authors offer research ideas in the areas of cultural and cross-cultural issues, couples and relationships, as well as direct and indirect effects of sexual objectification on men. In terms of providing…

  1. Smoking Initiation, Tobacco Product Use, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among General Population and Sexual Minority Youth, Missouri, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Jane A.; Everett, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Research indicates disparities in risky health behaviors between heterosexual and sexual minority (referred to as LGBQ; also known as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning) youth. Limited data are available for tobacco-use–related behaviors beyond smoking status. We compared data on tobacco age of initiation, product use, and secondhand smoke exposure between general population and LGBQ youth. Methods Data for general population youth were from the statewide, representative 2011 Missouri Youth Tobacco Survey, and data for LGBQ youth were from the 2012 Out, Proud and Healthy survey (collected at Missouri Pride Festivals). Age-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to examine differences between general population (N = 1,547) and LGBQ (N = 410) youth, aged 14 to 18 years. Logistic regression models identified variables associated with current smoking. Results The 2 groups differed significantly on many tobacco-use–related factors. General population youth initiated smoking at a younger age, and LGBQ youth did not catch up in smoking initiation until age 15 or 16. LGBQ youth (41.0%) soon surpassed general population youth (11.2%) in initiation and proportion of current smokers. LGBQ youth were more likely to use cigars/cigarillos, be poly-tobacco users, and be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle (for never smokers). Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.18–1.62), female sex (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.13–2.37), LGBQ identity (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.50–5.94), other tobacco product use (OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 6.01–12.51), and SHS exposure in a vehicle (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 3.83–9.31) all significantly increased the odds of being a current smoker. Conclusion This study highlights a need for the collection of data on sexual orientation on youth tobacco surveys to address health disparities among LGBQ youth. PMID:24995655

  2. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Hate Crimes and Suicidality Among a Population-Based Sample of Sexual-Minority Adolescents in Boston

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether past-year suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents was more common in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Methods. Participants’ data came from a racially/ethnically diverse population-based sample of 9th- through 12th-grade public school students in Boston, Massachusetts (n = 1292). Of these, 108 (8.36%) reported a minority sexual orientation. We obtained data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults with battery between 2005 and 2008 from the Boston Police Department and linked the data to the adolescent’s residential address. Results. Sexual-minority youths residing in neighborhoods with higher rates of LGBT assault hate crimes were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation (P = .013) and suicide attempts (P = .006), than were those residing in neighborhoods with lower LGBT assault hate crime rates. We observed no relationships between overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes and suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents (P > .05), providing evidence for specificity of the results to LGBT assault hate crimes. Conclusions. Neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual-orientation disparities in adolescent suicidality, highlighting potential targets for community-level suicide-prevention programs. PMID:24328619

  3. Outcomes of Sexual Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…

  4. Health Disparities Among Young Adult Sexual Minorities in the US

    PubMed Central

    Strutz, Kelly L.; Herring, Amy H.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging research suggests that young adult sexual minorities (identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual or engaging in same-sex attractions or behaviors) experience poorer health than their majority counterparts, but many measures of health inequity remain unexamined in population-based research. Purpose To describe a wide range of health status and healthcare access characteristics of sexual minorities in comparison with those of the majority population in a national sample of U.S. young adults. Methods Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses of Wave IV data (2008) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (participants aged 24–32 years, n=13,088) were conducted. Health measures were self-rated health; diagnosis of any of several physical or mental illnesses or sexually transmitted infections; measured body mass index; depression classified from self-reported symptoms; use of antidepressant and anxiolytic medication; uninsured; forgone care; and receipt of physical, dental, and psychological services. Analyses were conducted in 2012–2013. Results Sexual minority women had elevated odds of most adverse health conditions and lower odds of receiving a physical or dental examination. Sexual minority men had elevated odds of fewer adverse health conditions. Conclusions Young adult sexual minorities are at higher risk of poor physical and mental health. The results highlight the multidimensionality of sexual minority status and respond to calls for greater understanding of the health of this population. PMID:25241194

  5. Measures of sexual minority status and suicide risk among young adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Almazan, Elbert P; Roettger, Michael E; Acosta, Pauline S

    2014-01-01

    Multiple measures of sexual minority status are necessary to accurately describe the diversity of attractions, identities, and behaviors in sexual minority populations. We investigated whether four measures of sexual minority status (sexual minority attraction, sexual minority identity, sexual minority lifetime behavior, and sexual minority recent 12-month behavior) were associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts among young adults ages 24 to 34 in the United States. We analyzed data from Wave IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We employed logistic regression models in the analysis. Multiple sexual minority status measures had significant associations with increased suicidal thoughts among women and men. Multiple sexual minority status measures had significant associations with increased suicide attempts among women, but not among men. Diverse sexual minority populations are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts. Multiple measures of sexual minority status should be utilized in future studies of sexual minority status and suicide risk. Suicide prevention programs should ensure intervention is available across diverse sexual minority populations.

  6. Social and Sexual Risk Factors among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…

  7. Sexual Identity Development among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Eric M.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    1999-01-01

    This study explored how ethnicity influenced sexual identity development in 139 sexual-minority males. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low internalized homophobia, and became romantically and sexually involved with other males…

  8. Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths' Ideal Romantic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Johns, Michelle M; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna; Santana, Matt Leslie; Zimmerman, Marc

    2011-04-01

    Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, we examined the validity of Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, we examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and tested whether the three underlying constructs of the theory (Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment) emerged when participants were asked to consider their ideal relationship with another man. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we found support for the three-factor solution to characterize sexual minority male youths' ideal romantic relationship, after minimizing item cross-loadings and adapting the content of the Passion subscale. We discuss the implications of our findings regarding the measurement of the TLS among sexual minority male youth and propose ways to enhance its measurement in future research. PMID:21709758

  9. Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths’ Ideal Romantic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna; Santana, Matt Leslie; Zimmerman, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, we examined the validity of Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, we examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and tested whether the three underlying constructs of the theory (Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment) emerged when participants were asked to consider their ideal relationship with another man. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we found support for the three-factor solution to characterize sexual minority male youths’ ideal romantic relationship, after minimizing item cross-loadings and adapting the content of the Passion subscale. We discuss the implications of our findings regarding the measurement of the TLS among sexual minority male youth and propose ways to enhance its measurement in future research. PMID:21709758

  10. Health Inequalities Among Sexual Minority Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blosnich, John R.; Farmer, Grant W.; Lee, Joseph G. L.; Silenzio, Vincent M. B.; Bowen, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Improving the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals is a Healthy People 2020 goal; however, the IOM highlighted the paucity of information currently available about LGB populations. Purpose To compare health indicators by gender and sexual orientation statuses. Methods Data are from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys conducted January–December of 2010 with population-based samples of non-institutionalized U.S. adults aged over 18 years (N=93,414) in ten states that asked about respondents’ sexual orientation (response rates=41.1%–65.6%). Analyses were stratified by gender and sexual orientation to compare indicators of mental health, physical health, risk behaviors, preventive health behaviors, screening tests, health care utilization, and medical diagnoses. Analyses were conducted in March 2013. Results Overall, 2.4% (95% CI=2.2, 2.7) of the sample identified as LGB. All sexual minority groups were more likely to be current smokers than their heterosexual peers. Compared with heterosexual women, lesbian women had over 30% decreased odds of having an annual routine physical exam, and bisexual women had over 2.5 times the odds of not seeking medical care owing to cost. Compared with heterosexual men, gay men were less likely to be overweight or obese, and bisexual men were twice as likely to report a lifetime asthma diagnosis. Conclusions This study represents one of the largest samples of LGB adults and finds important health inequalities, including that bisexual women bear particularly high burdens of health disparities. Further work is needed to identify causes of and intervention for these disparities. PMID:24650836

  11. Multidimensional characterization of sexual minority adolescents' sexual safety strategies.

    PubMed

    Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A

    2013-10-01

    Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths' risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers'. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths' sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents.

  12. Depressive Symptoms Among Immigrant Latino Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Martinez, Omar; Song, Eun-Young; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Duck, Stacy; Downs, Mario; Bloom, Fred R.; Allen, Alex Boeving; Miller, Cindy; Reboussin, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of depressive symptoms among immigrant Latino sexual minorities. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, and univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify correlates of depressive symptoms. Results Unweighted and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates of depressive symptoms were 69.2% and 74.8%, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, low social support, sexual compulsivity, and high self-esteem were significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusions A need exists for culturally congruent mental health services for immigrant Latino sexual minorities in the southern United States. PMID:23985187

  13. MINORITY STRESS, POSITIVE IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT, AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESILIENCE AMONG SEXUAL MINORITY MALE YOUTH

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Minority stress processes have been shown to have significant associations with negative mental health outcomes among sexual minority populations. Given that adversity may be experienced growing up as a sexual minority in heteronormative, if not heterosexist, environments, our research on resilience among sexual minority male youth proposes that positive identity development may buffer the effects of a range of minority stress processes. Methods An ethnically diverse sample of 200 sexual minority males ages 16–24 (mean age, 20.9 years) was recruited using mixed recruitment methods. We developed and tested two new measures: concealment stress during adolescence and sexual minority-related positive identity development. We then tested a path model that assessed the effects of minority stressors, positive identity development, and social support on major depressive symptoms. Results Experience of stigma was associated with internalized homophobia (β=.138, p<.05) and major depressive symptoms (β=1.076, OR=2.933, p<.001), and internalized homophobia partially mediated experience’s effects on major depression (β=.773, OR=2.167, p<.001). Concealment stress was associated with positive identity development (β=.155, p<.05) and internalized homophobia (β=.418, p<.001), and positive identity development partially mediated concealment stress’s effects on internalized homophobia (β=−.527, p<.001). Concealment stress demonstrated a direct effect on major depression (β=1.400, OR=4.056, p<.001), and indirect paths to social support through positive identity development. Conclusions With these results, we offer an exploratory model that empirically identifies significant paths among minority stress dimensions, positive identity development, and major depressive symptoms. This study helps further our understanding of minority stress, identity development, and resources of resilience among sexual minority male youth. PMID:26478901

  14. Protective Factors, Campus Climate, and Health Outcomes among Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Michael R.; Kulick, Alex; Atteberry, Brittanie

    2015-01-01

    Heterosexism on campus can create a chilly climate for sexual minority students. Research has documented the negative impacts of campus climate on sexual minority students' health; however, little research has examined the role of potential protective factors among this population. Drawing on data collected from self-identified sexual minority…

  15. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  16. Evidence of Syndemics and Sexuality-Related Discrimination Among Young Sexual-Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Kinsky, Suzanne M.; Herrick, Amy L.; Stall, Ron D.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Syndemics, or the co-occurrence and interaction of health problems, have been examined extensively among young men who have sex with men, but their existence remain unexamined, to our knowledge, among sexual-minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) women. Thus, we investigated if syndemics were present among young sexual-minority women, and if sexual-orientation discrimination was an independent variable of syndemic production. Methods: A total of 467 sexual-minority women between the ages of 18 and 24 completed a cross-sectional online survey regarding their substance use, mental health, sexual behaviors, height, weight, and experiences of discrimination. We used structural equation modeling to investigate the presence of syndemics and their relationship to sexual-orientation discrimination. Results: Heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, ecstasy use, hallucinogen use, depressive symptoms, multiple sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) comprised syndemics in this population (chi-square=24.989, P=.201; comparative fit index [CFI]=0.946; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.023). Sexual-orientation discrimination is significantly and positively associated with the latent syndemic variable (unstandardized coefficient=0.095, P<.05), and this model fit the data well (chi-square=33.558, P=.059; CFI=0.914; RMSEA=0.029). The reverse causal model showed syndemics is not an independent variable of sexual-orientation discrimination (unstandardized coefficient=0.602, P>.05). Conclusions: Syndemics appear to be present and associated with sexual-orientation discrimination among young sexual-minority women. Interventions aimed at reducing discrimination or increasing healthy coping may help reduce substance use, depressive symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors in this population. PMID:26788674

  17. Mentoring Sexual Minority Youth. Technical Assistance Packet #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucovy, Linda

    It is estimated that up to 10% of the U.S. population is lesbian or gay. Being a member of a sexual minority group places youth at risk. Along with the challenges all adolescents deal with, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth must cope with prejudice, discrimination, and violence in schools or in their families. While mentoring programs…

  18. Shanghai, China: Hotline for Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Placed in the current political context of growing liberalization within China, this essay describes the Shanghai Hotline for Sexual Minorities. Funded by agencies outside the government, these services target LGBTs toward self-acceptance and AIDS/STD education while seeking to reduce social prejudice.

  19. Sexual Minority Students. Technical Assistance Sampler On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This booklet discusses issues facing sexual minority students. An introduction presents the National Association of School Psychologists' (NASP's) position statement on gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. Section 1 highlights: "Violence, Homophobia, and Prejudice" (e.g., anti-gay harassment in schools documented, violence prevention, and a guide for…

  20. Bullying in Schools towards Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varjas, Kris; Dew, Brian; Marshall, Megan; Graybill, Emily; Singh, Anneliese; Meyers, Joel; Birckbichler, Lamar

    2008-01-01

    Gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, questioning and inter-sex (GLBTQI) youth, and those perceived to be GLBTQI, face extensive verbal and physical bullying in schools. Although increasing attention has been made at examining the safety concerns of sexual minority (GLBTQI) youth, there remain important gaps in the literature as well as significant…

  1. Perceived sibling relationships of sexual minority youth.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Richardson, Rhonda A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships.

  2. Anxiety and Related Disorders and Concealment in Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeffrey M; Blasey, Christine; Barr Taylor, C; Weiss, Brandon J; Newman, Michelle G

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minorities face greater exposure to discrimination and rejection than heterosexuals. Given these threats, sexual minorities may engage in sexual orientation concealment in order to avoid danger. This social stigma and minority stress places sexual minorities at risk for anxiety and related disorders. Given that three fourths of anxiety disorder onset occurs before the age of 24, the current study investigated the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in sexual minority young adults relative to their heterosexual peers. Secondarily, the study investigated sexual orientation concealment as a predictor of anxiety and related disorders. A sample of 157 sexual minority and 157 heterosexual young adults matched on age and gender completed self-report measures of the aforementioned disorders, and indicated their level of sexual orientation concealment. Results revealed that sexual minority young adults reported greater symptoms relative to heterosexuals across all outcome measures. There were no interactions between sexual minority status and gender, however, women had higher symptoms across all disorders. Sexual minority young women appeared to be at the most risk for clinical levels of anxiety and related disorders. In addition, concealment of sexual orientation significantly predicted symptoms of social phobia. Implications are offered for the cognitive and behavioral treatment of anxiety and related disorders in this population.

  3. Prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth: variation across gender, sexual minority identity and gender of sexual partners.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa

    2015-01-01

    Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence.

  4. Sexual Risk Behaviors and Steroid Use among Sexual Minority Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Safren, Steven A.; Jampel, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research has extensively examined the relationship between the use of alcohol and illicit substances with sexual risk behaviors among sexual minority (i.e., gay and bisexual) male youth; however, no known studies have assessed the association of steroid use to risk behaviors among this population. Methods Participants were 556 sexually active sexual minority adolescent boys (M age = 16.2, SD = 1.3), taken from a pooled dataset of the 14 jurisdictions from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys that assessed sexual orientation. The association between lifetime use of steroids and sexual risk behaviors were examined. Results Controlling for number of sexual partners, depression, victimization, and race, boys who reported increased steroid use were at increased odds of engaging in condomless sex, OR = 1.55, p = .003, and use of alcohol/drugs during sex, OR = 1.48, p = .002. Conclusions Steroid use among sexual minority adolescent boys is prevalent and associated with HIV/STI sexual transmission risk behaviors. PMID:26144592

  5. Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth. PMID:23292751

  6. Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth.

  7. Intrinsic Religion and Internalized Homophobia in Sexual-Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ream, Geoffrey L.

    This research investigates the development of conflict between sexual minority identity and religious identity in sexual minority youth, examining religion as both a risk factor and a protective factor. Intrinsic religion was expected to predict self reported conflict between religious and sexual minority identity. Retrospectively reported…

  8. Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.

    PubMed

    Pendragon, Diane K

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment.

  9. A systematic review of the aetiology of tobacco disparities for sexual minorities

    PubMed Central

    Blosnich, John; Lee, Joseph G L; Horn, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining risk factors/correlates of cigarette smoking among lesbian, gay and bisexual (ie, sexual minority) populations. Methods Sets of terms relevant to sexual minority populations and cigarette smoking were used in a simultaneous search of 10 databases through EBSCOhost. The search was limited to the peer-reviewed literature up to January 2011, using no geographic or language limits. For inclusion, the paper was required to: (1) have been written in English, (2) have sexual minorities (defined by either attraction, behaviour, or identity) included in the study population and (3) have examined some form of magnitude of association for risk factors/correlates of any definition of cigarette smoking. A total of 386 abstracts were reviewed independently, with 26 papers meeting all inclusion criteria. Abstracts were reviewed and coded independently by authors JB and JGLL using nine codes derived from the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Studies used various measures of sexual orientation and of smoking. Risk factors that could be considered unique to sexual minorities included internalised homophobia and reactions to disclosure of sexual orientation. Some studies also indicated common smoking risk factors experienced at higher rates among sexual minorities, including stress, depression, alcohol use and victimisation. Conclusions This review identified risks that were associated with sexual minority status and common to the general population but experienced at potentially higher rates by sexual minorities. Government and foundation funds should be directed towards research on the origins of this disparity. PMID:22170335

  10. Healthy eating, exercise, and weight: impressions of sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Deborah J; Balsam, Kimberly F; Diergaarde, Brenda; Russo, Marla; Escamilla, Gina M

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for multiple disease outcomes, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. A healthy diet and physically active lifestyle can prevent obesity. Sexual orientation is an important demographic factor that has been suggested to affect engagement in health-related behaviors, and interventions developed for the general population of women are likely to be less effective in assisting sexual minority women to make healthy choices. We conducted seven focus groups with sexual minority women (i.e., lesbians and bisexual women) to explore issues, including barriers and motivations, regarding healthy eating, physical activity, and weight in this population. The participants reported a wide range of levels of engagement in health-related behaviors. While nearly all of the participants reported some awareness of the importance of good dietary choices, the majority reported some confusion about what constitutes a healthy diet. In contrast, the majority of participants seemed clearly aware that regular exercise was important for good health. These data can guide the design of effective intervention strategies to improve health behaviors in sexual minority women.

  11. Microaggressions: Clinical errors with sexual minority clients.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Elliot S; Miller, Deborah J; Spengler, Paul M

    2016-09-01

    Sexual minority (SM) individuals live in a heterosexist society that denigrates their sexual orientation identity. The stigma and prejudice they regularly encounter is hypothesized to lead to their significantly increased risk for developing mental health disorders. Because of these factors, therapists should be diligent to create an affirming and supportive therapeutic environment but this is often not the case. SM clients frequently report experiencing sexual orientation microaggressions in therapy, such as heteronormative statements, a disregard for their sexual orientation identity, and an assumption that their presenting issues are rooted in their sexual orientation identity. These microaggressions should be viewed as bias manifested as clinical errors because of how they weaken therapeutic alliance, decrease the effectiveness of treatment, decrease utilization intent, and cultivate feelings of shame, anger, and misunderstanding. This article provides empirically supported findings regarding common SM clinical errors and microaggressions, a clinical example of such biases with corrective examples along with the author's personal reactions, and more general strategies for avoiding microaggressive errors with SM clients. Implications for practice, training, and research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27631867

  12. A Case for Legal Protection for Sexual Minority Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Holly N.; Caraway, Chadwick; Stader, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Discrimination based on sexual orientation in K-12 education is not prohibited in many school districts across the United States. Teachers who are of the sexual minority (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) must remain closeted or risk losing their jobs. A history of past court decisions and laws deeming sexual minorities to be degenerates from which…

  13. The Courage To Care: Addressing Sexual Minority Issues on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenritter, Nan

    1998-01-01

    Sexual minority students face issues similar to those of ethnic and racial minority students. This article provides a framework for assessing the community college's inclusion of sexual minority students: lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The first section of the article assesses community colleges in terms of sexual…

  14. Perceived risk for cancer in an urban sexual minority

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Coups, Elliot; Warren, Barbara; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2013-01-01

    Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals are a sexual minority experiencing elevated cancer risk factors and health disaparites, e.g., elevated tobacco use, disproportionate rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Little attention has been paid to cancer prevention, education, and control in sexual minorities. This study describes cancer risk perceptions and their correlates so as to generate testable hypotheses and provide a foundation for targeting cancer prevention and risk reduction efforts in this high risk population. A cross-sectional survey of affiliates of a large urban community center serving sexual minority persons yielded a study sample of 247 anonymous persons. The survey assessed demographics, absolute perceived cancer risk, cancer risk behaviors, desired lifestyle changes to reduce cancer risk, and psychosocial variables including stress, depression, and stigma. Univariate and multivariate nonparametric statistics were used for analyses. The sample was primarily white non-Hispanic, middle-aged, and > 80% had at least a high school education. Mean values for absolute perceived cancer risk (range 0–100% risk), were 43.0 (SD = 25.4) for females, and for males, 49.3 (SD = 24.3). For females, although the multivariate regression model for absolute perceived cancer risk was statistically significant (P < .05), no single model variable was significant. For men, the multivariate regression model was significant (P < .001), with endorsement of “don't smoke/quit smoking” to reduce personal cancer risk (P < .001), and greater number of sexual partners (P = .054), positively associated with absolute perceived risk for cancer. This study provides novel data on cancer risk perceptions in sexual minorities, identifying correlates of absolute perceived cancer risk for each gender and several potential foci for cancer prevention interventions with this at-risk group. PMID:20872174

  15. Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that…

  16. Sexual Identity, Attractions, and Behavior among Young Sexual-Minority Women over a 2-Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined sexual identities, attractions, and behaviors of sexual-minority women in 2-year follow-up of women first interviewed at 16-23 years. Found half the participants had changed sexual-minority orientations more than once; one- third changed identities since the first interview. Found changes in sexual attractions were larger among bisexuals…

  17. Identity, refugeeness, belonging: experiences of sexual minority refugees in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edward Ou Jin; Brotman, Shari

    2011-08-01

    This article explores the results of a qualitative community-based research project on the intersectional experiences of sexual minority refugees living in Canada. Undertaken between 2008 and 2010, this study examines sexual minority refugees' multifaceted experiences of migration, the refugee determination process, and settlement. Through an analysis of the interrelated themes of identity, refugeeness, and belonging, we hope to further investigate the ways in which Canadian refugee policies, social institutions, and dominant discourses contribute to the sociopolitical construction of sexual minority refugees. We conclude with an exploration of strategies for increasing protection of sexual minority refugees in Canada.

  18. Cigarette smoking disparities among sexual minority cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Charles; Blosnich, John R.; Lytle, Megan; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Peppone, Luke J.; Mustian, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sexual minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) adults smoke cigarettes at higher rates than heterosexual adults. Smoking after receiving a cancer diagnosis is a major health concern, yet risk of continued smoking among sexual minority cancer survivors is as yet unknown. The current study examines current smoking among sexual minority vs. heterosexual adult cancer survivors. Method Data drawn from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in five states (Alaska, California, Massachusetts, New Mexico, and Wisconsin) included items about sexual orientation, cancer diagnosis, and tobacco use. The analytic sample included 124 sexual minority and 248 propensity score matched heterosexual adult cancer survivors. Results Bivariate analysis showed that sexual minority cancer survivors had twice the odds of current smoking as their heterosexual counterparts (OR = 2.03, 95%CI:1.09–3.80). In exploratory analyses stratified by sex, sexual minority disparities in prevalence of smoking post-cancer showed a trend toward significance among females, not males. Conclusion The current study offers preliminary evidence that sexual minority status is one variable among many that must be taken into account when assessing health behaviors post-cancer diagnosis. Future research should identify mechanisms leading from sexual minority status to increased rates of smoking and develop tailored smoking cessation interventions. PMID:25984441

  19. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing…

  20. Student-on-Student Sexual Orientation Harassment: Legal Protections for Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, David L.; Graca, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Like all teens, sexual minority youths (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) face many challenges, including student-on-student sexual orientation harassment. The authors examine recent research into the relative frequency, the potential impact, and school district responsibility to protect sexual minority youths from ongoing…

  1. The Influences of Career Support and Sexual Identity on Sexual Minority Women's Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Lauren D.; Gushue, George V.; Cerrone, Michelle T.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between sexual identity, family/friend career support, and career aspirations in a sample of 381 sexual minority women. The results indicated that family career support and friend career support were positively related to career aspirations of sexual minority women. The results also indicated that the…

  2. Sexual minority status, peer harassment, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future.

  3. Minority stress is longitudinally associated with alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah M; Gilmore, Amanda K; Rhew, Isaac C; Hodge, Kimberley A; Kaysen, Debra L

    2016-10-01

    Compared to sexual minority men and heterosexual women, sexual minority women report elevated alcohol use in young adulthood. Heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders disproportionately affect sexual minority women across the lifespan, yet there is limited research investigating reasons for such associations. The present study investigates longitudinal associations between minority stress and both alcohol use as well as self-rated drinking consequences. Participants (N=1057) were self-identified lesbian (40.5%) and bisexual (59.5%) women between the ages of 18 to 25 recruited from across the U.S. using online advertisements. Participants completed four annual surveys. Hurdle mixed effects models were used to assess associations between minority stress and typical weekly drinking and drinking consequences one year later. Minority stress was not significantly associated with subsequent typical drinking. However, minority stress was significantly associated with having any alcohol consequences as well as the count of alcohol consequences one year later after controlling for covariates. Consistent with extant literature, this study provides evidence for a prospective association between minority stress experienced by sexual minority women and drinking consequences. This study also provides support for the potential impact of efforts to reduce minority stress faced by sexual minority women.

  4. Minority stress is longitudinally associated with alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah M; Gilmore, Amanda K; Rhew, Isaac C; Hodge, Kimberley A; Kaysen, Debra L

    2016-10-01

    Compared to sexual minority men and heterosexual women, sexual minority women report elevated alcohol use in young adulthood. Heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders disproportionately affect sexual minority women across the lifespan, yet there is limited research investigating reasons for such associations. The present study investigates longitudinal associations between minority stress and both alcohol use as well as self-rated drinking consequences. Participants (N=1057) were self-identified lesbian (40.5%) and bisexual (59.5%) women between the ages of 18 to 25 recruited from across the U.S. using online advertisements. Participants completed four annual surveys. Hurdle mixed effects models were used to assess associations between minority stress and typical weekly drinking and drinking consequences one year later. Minority stress was not significantly associated with subsequent typical drinking. However, minority stress was significantly associated with having any alcohol consequences as well as the count of alcohol consequences one year later after controlling for covariates. Consistent with extant literature, this study provides evidence for a prospective association between minority stress experienced by sexual minority women and drinking consequences. This study also provides support for the potential impact of efforts to reduce minority stress faced by sexual minority women. PMID:27249806

  5. Strategies for improving sexual health in ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Fenton, K A

    2001-02-01

    In many developed countries, ethnic minority communities bear the brunt of poor sexual health outcomes, with high rates of HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections and their sequelae. Economic disadvantage, social exclusion and racism experienced by these communities all contribute to the observed inequalities. However, culturally prescribed attitudes and behaviours also play an important role. A review of the literature suggests that multifaceted and sustained approaches are needed to improve the sexual health of ethnic minority communities. Chief among these approaches are improving sexually transmitted infection surveillance and research tools; creating collaborative partnerships with communities; targeting high-risk groups and networks; and improving access to, and the utilization of, proven effective interventions.

  6. Strategies employed by sexual minority adolescents to cope with minority stress

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach, J.T.; Gibbs, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with parents or other family members. Although stress in this population has been explored in previous research, very little is known about how SMA cope. Relying upon an adolescent coping model, this study examined the coping strategies, responses, and resources of SMA related to stress. Forty-eight racially and ethnically diverse SMA (age 14–19) were recruited for 90-minute tape-recorded interviews. The semi-structured interviews were guided by a life history calendar. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo. All transcripts were coded by two members of the research team and went through a consensus process. Forty-three unique coping statements emerged that fit with the Compas model of adolescent coping. SMA cope with minority stress in similar ways to heterosexual youth coping with general stress, but findings suggest that SMA may also use different kinds of coping resources. Although further research is needed, the present study identified a variety of ways SMA cope with stress and can inform future research on the development interventions. PMID:26634221

  7. Understanding social and sexual networks of sexual minority men and transgender women in Guatemala city to improve HIV prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Tucker, C; Arandi, C Galindo; Bolaños, J Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G; Barrington, C

    2014-11-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties.

  8. Sexual Orientation Prototypicality and Well-Being Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adults.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Brian A; Meuwly, Nathalie; Davila, Joanne; Eaton, Nicholas R; Yoneda, Athena

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the associations between sexual orientation prototypicality--or the extent to which an individual's attractions or sexual behaviors are similar to others in the same sexual orientation category--and several indicators of well-being (depressive symptoms, loneliness, and self-esteem). Data were analyzed from a sample of 586 self-identified heterosexual and sexual minority (lesbian/gay and bisexual) men and women who completed an online survey. We used k-means cluster analysis to assign individuals to sexual orientation clusters (resulting in heterosexual and sexual minority clusters) based on dimensions of same-sex and other-sex attractions (emotional, romantic, and sexual) and sexual behavior. Sexual orientation prototypicality was operationalized as the Euclidean distance between an individual's position in the cluster and their cluster centroid. Lower sexual orientation prototypicality (i.e., greater Euclidean distance from one's cluster centroid) was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, higher loneliness, and lower self-esteem for men and women; results did not significantly differ for self-identified heterosexuals versus sexual minorities. Although self-identified sexual orientation and sexual orientation prototypicality were both associated with well-being for women, only sexual orientation prototypicality was associated with well-being for men. Findings suggest that sexual orientation prototypicality may be a better indicator of well-being than sexual orientation for men. Further, sexual orientation prototypicality appears to play a significant role in well-being for women.

  9. New paradigms for research on heterosexual and sexual-minority development.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa M

    2003-12-01

    As psychological research on sexual-minority (i.e., nonheterosexual) adolescents has increased over the past 20 years, it has become increasingly segregated from research on mainstream heterosexual youths, as if the knowledge gleaned from each population had nothing to offer our understanding of the other. To the contrary, understanding of both populations would be greatly improved by integrating investigations of sexual-minority issues into mainstream psychological research on adolescents. I outline 4 weaknesses in contemporary research on sexual-minority youth that stem from--and perpetuate--its historical isolation from mainstream developmental research: misspecification of the populations under study, lack of attention to within-group diversity, failure to test alternative explanations for--and moderators of--"sexual-minority effects," and insufficient attention to the underlying processes and mechanisms through which sexual-minority effects operate. Correcting these weaknesses has important implications for future research on how same-sex and other-sex sexuality shape adolescent psychosocial development and clinical child and adolescent problems. PMID:14710457

  10. Neighborhood-level LGBT hate crimes and current illicit drug use among sexual minority youth

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dustin T.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Johnson, Renee M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether past-30 day illicit drug use among sexual minority youth was more common in neighborhoods with a greater prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT, or sexual minority) individuals. Methods We used a population-based survey of public school youth in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting of 1292 9th–12th grade students from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (sexual minority n = 108). Data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults and battery between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Boston Police Department and linked to youths’ residential address. Youth reported past-30 day use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney tests and corresponding p-values were computed to assess differences in substance use by neighborhood-level LGBT assault hate crime rate among sexual minority youth (n = 103). Results The LGBT assault hate crime rate in the neighborhoods of sexual minority youth who reported current marijuana use was 23.7 per 100,000, compared to 12.9 per 100,000 for sexual minority youth who reported no marijuana use (p = 0.04). No associations between LGBT assault hate crimes and marijuana use among heterosexual youth (p > 0.05) or between sexual minority marijuana use and overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes (p > 0.05) were detected, providing evidence for result specificity. Conclusions We found a significantly greater prevalence of marijuana use among sexual minority youth in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of LGBT assault hate crimes. These results suggest that neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in marijuana use. PMID:24326203

  11. Suicidality and self-harm among sexual minorities in Japan.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Anthony S

    2008-10-01

    In this study, I used ethnographic methods to examine suicidality and nonsuicidal self-harm among gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender persons in Japan. Participants (N = 84) indicated that suicidality and self-harm are serious problems among sexual minorities and tend to be driven by (a) a homophobic/transphobic environment and the negative consequences of sexual minorities either disclosing their true selves or remaining hidden and silent within such an environment; (b) various antecedents to poor mental health; and (c) factors not directly related to being a sexual minority, particularly unemployment and debt in the context of a protracted national economic decline in Japan prior to the study period of 2003--2004. Participants also perceived a potentially higher risk for suicidality and self-harm among sexual minority adolescents and persons in their early 20s; those who work in the entertainment, bar, or sex industries; and survivors of violence perpetrated by intimate partners or family members. PMID:18689528

  12. Disparities in Healthcare for Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.

  13. Suicidality and self-harm among sexual minorities in Japan.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Anthony S

    2008-10-01

    In this study, I used ethnographic methods to examine suicidality and nonsuicidal self-harm among gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender persons in Japan. Participants (N = 84) indicated that suicidality and self-harm are serious problems among sexual minorities and tend to be driven by (a) a homophobic/transphobic environment and the negative consequences of sexual minorities either disclosing their true selves or remaining hidden and silent within such an environment; (b) various antecedents to poor mental health; and (c) factors not directly related to being a sexual minority, particularly unemployment and debt in the context of a protracted national economic decline in Japan prior to the study period of 2003--2004. Participants also perceived a potentially higher risk for suicidality and self-harm among sexual minority adolescents and persons in their early 20s; those who work in the entertainment, bar, or sex industries; and survivors of violence perpetrated by intimate partners or family members.

  14. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  15. Sexual coercion and behavior among a sample of sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Satinsky, Sonya; Jozkowski, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Sexual coercion may affect the sexual experiences of sexual minority women differently. Women (n=445) aged 18 to 71 years (Mean=30.38) answered an online survey on sexual orientation, lifetime coercion, and sexual history. Sexual minority women (45.8%, n=204) were more likely to report having been coerced into unwanted sexual behavior (56.5%) than heterosexual women (44.8 %; p=0.010). Coerced sexual minority women reported earlier ages of initiation into performing oral sex (p=0.016), penile-vaginal (p=0.024), and penile-anal (p=0.027) intercourse. In multiple logistic regression models, currently being in a partnered relationship was the sole factor related to lifetime engagement in penile-vaginal intercourse and receiving oral sex from partners. Having at least a graduate degree was the only characteristic related to engagement in lifetime penile-anal intercourse. Sexual coercion was not related to any lifetime sexual behavior outcomes. The nature of sexual initiation and coercion should be explored further among sexual minority women, with the goal of incorporating their experiences into prevention and treatment initiatives.

  16. Sexual coercion and behavior among a sample of sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Satinsky, Sonya; Jozkowski, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Sexual coercion may affect the sexual experiences of sexual minority women differently. Women (n=445) aged 18 to 71 years (Mean=30.38) answered an online survey on sexual orientation, lifetime coercion, and sexual history. Sexual minority women (45.8%, n=204) were more likely to report having been coerced into unwanted sexual behavior (56.5%) than heterosexual women (44.8 %; p=0.010). Coerced sexual minority women reported earlier ages of initiation into performing oral sex (p=0.016), penile-vaginal (p=0.024), and penile-anal (p=0.027) intercourse. In multiple logistic regression models, currently being in a partnered relationship was the sole factor related to lifetime engagement in penile-vaginal intercourse and receiving oral sex from partners. Having at least a graduate degree was the only characteristic related to engagement in lifetime penile-anal intercourse. Sexual coercion was not related to any lifetime sexual behavior outcomes. The nature of sexual initiation and coercion should be explored further among sexual minority women, with the goal of incorporating their experiences into prevention and treatment initiatives. PMID:24400673

  17. The Whole Family Serves: Supporting Sexual Minority Youth in Military Families.

    PubMed

    Gyura, Ashley N; McCauley, Sabrina Opiola

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minority youth in military families have a unique set of stressors that affect their mental, emotional, and physical health. There is a pronounced gap in data addressing the specific stressors of this population and how they interact to impact the health of the adolescent. The culture of the United States military has historically been heterosexist and homophobic, propelled primarily by policies that restricted the recruitment and service of lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals, leading to a continued secrecy around sexual orientation that may affect how sexual minority youth within the community view themselves. Homophobia, social stigma, and victimization lead to significant health disparities among sexual minority youth, and youth connected to the military have additional stressors as a result of frequent moves, parental deployment, and general military culture. Primary care providers must be aware of these stressors to provide a safe environment, thorough screening, and competent care for these adolescents.

  18. The Whole Family Serves: Supporting Sexual Minority Youth in Military Families.

    PubMed

    Gyura, Ashley N; McCauley, Sabrina Opiola

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minority youth in military families have a unique set of stressors that affect their mental, emotional, and physical health. There is a pronounced gap in data addressing the specific stressors of this population and how they interact to impact the health of the adolescent. The culture of the United States military has historically been heterosexist and homophobic, propelled primarily by policies that restricted the recruitment and service of lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals, leading to a continued secrecy around sexual orientation that may affect how sexual minority youth within the community view themselves. Homophobia, social stigma, and victimization lead to significant health disparities among sexual minority youth, and youth connected to the military have additional stressors as a result of frequent moves, parental deployment, and general military culture. Primary care providers must be aware of these stressors to provide a safe environment, thorough screening, and competent care for these adolescents. PMID:26597449

  19. NASN position statement: Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression (sexual minority students): school nurse practice.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Beverly; Kelts, Susan; Robarge, Deb; Davis, Catherine; Delger, Suzey; Compton, Linda

    2013-03-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Sexual minority persons are those who identify themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual (LGB) or are unsure of their sexual orientation, or those who have had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or both sexes (Kann et al., 2011). Sexual minority is thought to be a more inclusive and neutral term. For the purposes of this statement, the term sexual minority will be used in lieu of LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning).

  20. Sexual minorities, human rights and public health strategies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Epprecht, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made towards the recognition of sexual minority rights in Africa. At the same time, a marked increase in attacks, rhetorical abuse, and restrictive legislation against sexual minorities or ‘homosexuality’ makes activism for sexual rights a risky endeavour in many African countries. Campaigns for sexual rights and ‘coming out’ are frequently perceived as a form of Western cultural imperialism, leading to an exportation of Western gay identities and provoking a patriotic defensiveness. Cultures of quiet acceptance of same-sex relationships or secretive bisexuality are meanwhile also problematic given the high rate of HIV prevalence on much of the continent. This article examines specific initiatives that are using subtle, somewhat covert means to negotiate a path between rights activism and secretive bisexuality. It argues that strategies primarily focused on health concerns that simultaneously yet discreetly promote sexual rights are having some success in challenging prevalent homophobic or ‘silencing’ cultures and discourses.

  1. Sexual Minority Stress and Suicide Risk: Identifying Resilience through Personality Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Nicholas A.; Heck, Nicholas C.; Flentje, Annesa; Gleason, Hillary; Oost, Kathryn M.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexual minority-based victimization, which includes threats or enacted interpersonal violence, predicts elevated suicide risk among sexual minority individuals. However, research on personality factors that contribute to resilience among sexual minority populations is lacking. Using the Five-Factor Model, we hypothesized that individuals classified as adaptive (versus at-risk) would be at decreased risk for a suicide attempt in the context of reported lifetime victimization. Method Sexual minority-identified young adults between the ages of 18 and 25 (N=412) were recruited nationally and asked to complete an online survey containing measures of personality, sexual minority stress, and lifetime suicide attempts. Results A two-stage cluster analytic method was used to empirically derive latent personality profiles and to classify respondents as adaptive (lower neuroticism and higher extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness) or at-risk (higher neuroticism, lower extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness) on the basis of their Five Factor Personality trait scores. Adaptive individuals were slightly older and less likely to conceal their sexual orientation, but reported similar rates of victimization, discrimination, and internalized heterosexism as their at-risk counterparts. Logistic regression results indicate that despite reporting similar rates of victimization, which was a significant predictor of lifetime suicide attempt, adaptive individuals evidenced decreased risk for attempted suicide in the context of victimization, relative to at-risk individuals. Discussion These findings suggest that an adaptive personality profile may confer resilience in the face of sexual minority-based victimization. This study adds to our knowledge of sexual minority mental health and highlights new directions for future research. PMID:26640810

  2. Obesity in minority populations: an epidemiologic assessment.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, S K

    1994-03-01

    This article reviews issues relating to the prevalence, health implications, and prevention and treatment perspectives of obesity in U.S racial and ethnic minority groups. The growing interest in obesity in minority populations reflects an awareness of the high prevalence of obesity among black, Hispanic, Asian and Pacific Islander and Native Americans as well as a generally increased interest in minority health. In addition, the fact that some aspects of obesity among minorities differ from those in whites suggests that new insights may be gained from studying obesity in diverse populations. However, there are many methodological problems to be overcome, including some that arise from the way minority groups are defined. Under the assumption that all obesity results from a period of sustained positive energy balance at the individual level, an epidemiologic explanation for the excess of obesity in minorities at the population level seems readily apparent. A surplus of obesity-promoting forces and a deficit of obesity-inhibiting forces, caused by secular changes in food availability and physical activity, accompany the early phases of modernization and economic advancement. The high prevalence of obesity in minority populations can be viewed as a function of the slope and timing of these secular changes. Genetic predisposition, cultural attitudes, and exposure to maternal obesity and diabetes in utero may be potentiating factors. In this context, interventions targeting individuals would seem inevitably to put racial and ethnic minority groups on the path toward the same weight control crisis now observed in the majority white population. This suggests that the underlying causes of the societal energy balance problem must be addressed at the population level in order for effective clinical approaches to be developed for minority populations with a high obesity prevalence. PMID:16353618

  3. The ecology of sexual health of sexual minorities in Guatemala City.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Andrade, Mario; Wilks, Cindy; Simán, Florence M; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H

    2015-12-01

    Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender persons carry disproportionate burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections compared with other Guatemalan subgroups. However, little is known about the determinants of sexual health to inform health promotion and disease prevention interventions among these sexual minorities. We sought to explore sexual health and HIV risk among Guatemalan sexual minorities, using a community-based participatory research approach. We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 87 participants total) and 10 individual in-depth interviews with gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we analyzed verbatim transcripts and identified 24 themes that we organized into five ecological factors influencing sexual health: intrapersonal (e.g. misconceptions about HIV transmission, low perceived susceptibility and lack of condoms use skills); interpersonal (e.g. family rejection and condom use as a barrier to intimacy); community (e.g. discrimination and stigma); institutional (e.g. limited access to health promotion resources); and public policy (e.g. perceived lack of provider confidentiality and anti-gay rhetoric). There is profound need for multiple-level interventions to ensure that Guatemalan sexual minorities have the knowledge and skills needed to reduce sexual risk. Interventions are warranted to increase social support among sexual minorities, reduce negative perspectives about sexual minorities, develop institutional resources to meet the needs of sexual minorities and reduce harmful anti-gay rhetoric. Understanding and intervening on the identified factors is especially important given that the health of Guatemalan sexual minorities has been to-date neglected.

  4. The ecology of sexual health of sexual minorities in Guatemala City.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Andrade, Mario; Wilks, Cindy; Simán, Florence M; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H

    2015-12-01

    Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender persons carry disproportionate burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections compared with other Guatemalan subgroups. However, little is known about the determinants of sexual health to inform health promotion and disease prevention interventions among these sexual minorities. We sought to explore sexual health and HIV risk among Guatemalan sexual minorities, using a community-based participatory research approach. We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 87 participants total) and 10 individual in-depth interviews with gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we analyzed verbatim transcripts and identified 24 themes that we organized into five ecological factors influencing sexual health: intrapersonal (e.g. misconceptions about HIV transmission, low perceived susceptibility and lack of condoms use skills); interpersonal (e.g. family rejection and condom use as a barrier to intimacy); community (e.g. discrimination and stigma); institutional (e.g. limited access to health promotion resources); and public policy (e.g. perceived lack of provider confidentiality and anti-gay rhetoric). There is profound need for multiple-level interventions to ensure that Guatemalan sexual minorities have the knowledge and skills needed to reduce sexual risk. Interventions are warranted to increase social support among sexual minorities, reduce negative perspectives about sexual minorities, develop institutional resources to meet the needs of sexual minorities and reduce harmful anti-gay rhetoric. Understanding and intervening on the identified factors is especially important given that the health of Guatemalan sexual minorities has been to-date neglected. PMID:24688113

  5. The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use among Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…

  6. Exclusionary health policy: responding to the risk of poor health among sexual minority youth in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ylioja, Thomas; Craig, Shelley L

    2014-01-01

    Measuring indicators of health status and demographics are essential in the population health approach. In Canada, sexual minority youth face increased risk for poor health outcomes in behavioral and mental health indicators, yet the health policy response has been severely lacking. The current population health approach exacerbates the social exclusion of a vulnerable, at-risk population. The authors examine health status through the social determinants of health to highlight the need for including sexual identity, attraction, and behavior in youth population health surveys. Additional interventions that address the social determinants of health are needed.

  7. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904

  8. Sexual orientation microaggressions and the experience of sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Platt, Lisa F; Lenzen, Alexandra L

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to confirm and expand on previous research on sexual orientation microaggressions--subtle discrimination in the form of verbal, behavioral, and environmental slights and indignities as defined by Sue (2010). The study had two primary research questions: Does the data from the sample validate Sue's (2010) typology of sexual orientation microaggressions? Beyond Sue's (2010) typology, are other themes/types of sexual orientation microaggressions present in the data? Using a focus group methodology, data was collected from a sample of self-identified non-heterosexual college students (N=12). Data analysis confirmed five previously identified themes from Sue's (2010) typology (Endorsement of Heteronormative Culture, Sinfulness, Homophobia, Heterosexist Language/Terminology, and Oversexualization) and demonstrated two new themes (Undersexualization and Microaggressions as Humor). The implications of sexual orientation microaggressions, along with limitations and future research directions, are discussed.

  9. Understanding the Educational Attainment of Sexual Minority Women and Men*

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457

  10. Interventions to reduce sexual minority stigma in sororities.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Heather D; Bisconti, Toni L

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects that two different types of interventions have on reducing sexual minority stigma in sororities. Affect, behaviors, and cognitions toward gay men and lesbians were measured using the Affective Reactions to Homosexuality Scale, Homophobic Behavior of Students Scale, and Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gays Scale. A total of 82 participants from two sororities participated in two different types of interventions, that is, panel discussion and video and discussion. Repeated measures analyses revealed significant reductions in the measures of sexual minority stigma and that neither intervention was more effective than the other. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20391011

  11. [Judicial proceedings involving sexual abuse of minors in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how courts in Cameroon treat cases involving sexual abuse on minors by comparing the incidence of hospital examinations and legal proceedings for sexual abuse. This retrospective study is based on a review of public records at the Yaoundé Court of Justice covering the period from October 1, 1994 to January 6, 1999. Of the 2345 criminal cases recorded during the study period, 224 involved sexual abuse on minors under the age of 16 years (9.5 p. 100 of cases). The victims were all female ranging from 3 to 15 years of age (mean, 9 years) with a peak incidence between 10 and 15 years (70 p. 100). All offenders were adults between 21 and 50 years of age (mean, 30 years) at the time of the crime. This study showed that the incidence of court proceedings for sexual abuse is higher than that of hospital examinations for sexual abuse. Most offenders convicted of sexual abuse on minors received long prison sentences, i.e. 15 years or more. No reconciliatory action or mediation was initiated by the court or third parties. PMID:11100448

  12. Analyzing Clinical Presentation, Service Utilization, and Clinical Outcome of Female Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Heather C.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers examining clinically-relevant trends for sexual minority women have found evidence of psychological distress and greater utilization of mental health services compared to heterosexually-identified women. However, the results of many research studies with this population have methodological limitations surrounding recruitment of…

  13. Perceptions of campus climate by sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Tetreault, Patricia A; Fette, Ryan; Meidlinger, Peter C; Hope, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) often have negative experiences on university campuses due to their sexual orientation or gender identity. Direct and indirect experiences contribute to an overall perception of the campus climate. This study used an online survey to assess students' perceptions of campus climate, their experiences confronting bias, support of family members and friends, and whether they had considered leaving campus. Multiple regression analysis indicated that perceptions of poorer campus climate were predicted by greater unfair treatment by instructors, more impact from anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) bias on friends' and families' emotional support, and having hidden one's LGBT identity from other students. Cluster analyses revealed four groups of participants distinguished by openness about their sexual orientation and negative experiences, with one group appearing to be at risk for poor retention. Results are discussed in terms of the needs of LGBTQ students on campus.

  14. Tobacco Denormalization as a Public Health Strategy: Implications for Sexual and Gender Minorities.

    PubMed

    Antin, Tamar M J; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Hunt, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Although the population-level success of tobacco denormalization is widely accepted, it remains unclear whether these strategies alleviate health inequities for sexual and gender minorities. The high risk of smoking among sexual and gender minorities together with research that documents a relationship between stigma-related processes and smoking prevalence for these groups raises questions about whether tobacco-related stigma intensifies the disadvantages associated with the stigmas of other social identities. We have not adequately considered how tobacco-related stigma overlaps with other social identity stigmas. Given concerns about the intensification of inequality, this type of inquiry has important implications for understanding both the effectiveness and limitations of tobacco denormalization strategies for sexual and gender minorities and identifying those tobacco prevention, treatment, and public health policies that work to ameliorate health inequities. PMID:26469677

  15. LGBT community, social network characteristics, and smoking behaviors in young sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily S; Youatt, Emily J; Soler, Jorge H; McClelland, Sara I; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2013-09-01

    Smoking rates among young sexual minority women (YSMW) are disproportionately high as compared to heterosexual populations. While this disparity has commonly been attributed to the sexual minority stress process, little empirical work has explored what may protect YSMW from high rates of smoking. Using data (N = 471) from a cross-sectional study designed to investigate YSMW's (age 18-24) smoking behaviors and correlates; we explore the relationship of LGBT community connections, YSMW's social network characteristics, and stress to smoking behaviors (i.e., status, frequency, amount). Through this analysis, we find support for LGBT community connection as well as friendships with other sexual minorities as protective in relation to YSMW's smoking behaviors. We discuss the implications of our results, highlighting the need for future longitudinal research and interventions designed to bolster YSMW's connections to the LGBT community and their social networks.

  16. Effects of Sexual Expectancies on Early Sexualized Behavior Among Urban Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Levine, Brooklyn; Alicea, Stacey; Watson, Janet L.; Miranda, Ana; McKay, Mary M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different types of sexual expectancies on early sexual behavior among racial/ethnic minority young adolescents. African American and Latino participants between 11 and 13 years old were recruited through schools and community-based agencies in the South Bronx, New York (N = 223). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict early sexual behavior outcomes, which include engagement in sexual possibility situations, kissing, and sexual touching. The moderating effect of gender was examined using multiplicative interaction terms. Higher expectations categorized as personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies related to the negative consequences of sexual intercourse decreased the odds of engagement in early sexual behavior; whereas higher academic/career and sexual health expectancies did not. Gender moderated the relationships between personal/parental expectancies and engagement in sexual possibility situations and romantic/peer expectancies and kissing. Social workers formulating sexual health promotion and HIV prevention programs for racial/ethnic minority young adolescents should focus on personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies in favor of negative expectancies regarding academic/career achievement, pregnancy, and HIV. Social work interventions to delay sexual debut should include a family-based component and should be sensitive to gender differences in sexual expectancies. PMID:22461958

  17. An Ethnographic Analysis of Adolescent Sexual Minority Website Usage: Exploring Notions of Information Seeking and Sexual Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulfridge, Rocky M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…

  18. Adapting the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model: Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Young sexual minority males are among those at highest risk for HIV infection, yet we know relatively little about the impact of sexual identity development on HIV risk. This study used cross-sectional data to investigate factors associated with HIV-related sexual risk among a sample of sexual minority males (n = 156), ages 14 to 21 years, using…

  19. Lay Conceptions of Sexual Minority Groups.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara E; LaFrance, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    Bisexual people are often implored to "pick a side," implying that bisexuality is both more controllable and less desirable than heterosexuality or homosexuality. Bisexual people's status as a social group perceived to fall between a traditionally advantaged group and a traditionally disadvantaged group may have the potential to clarify lay conceptions of sexual orientation. We examined participants' views of groups varying in sexual orientation by randomly assigning participants (including heterosexual men and women as well as gay men and lesbian women) from four samples to evaluate heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual targets (N = 1379). Results provided strong evidence for the previously untested theoretical argument that bisexuality is perceived as less stable than heterosexuality or homosexuality. In addition, participants low in Personal Need for Structure rated female (but not male) bisexuality as relatively stable, suggesting that a preference for simple, binary thinking can partially explain a negative conception of an ostensibly "intermediate" identity. Bisexual targets were perceived as falling between heterosexual and homosexual targets in terms of gender nonconformity, and less decisive, less monogamous, and lacking in positive traits that were associated with homosexual targets. In sum, views of bisexual people were both more negative than and qualitatively different from views of gay men and lesbian women. We discuss the results as an illustration of the complex ways that perceivers' attitudes can differ depending on which target groups they are considering, suggesting that intergroup bias cannot be fully understood without attending to social categories viewed as intermediate. PMID:26597649

  20. Shattering the Lavender Ceiling: Sexual Minorities in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey-Musolf, Michael

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss some of the challenges experienced by sexual minorities in physics, from both a personal and broader perspective. I will also comment on the opportunities for the field to become more inclusive, supportive, and scientifically stronger by addressing these challenges.

  1. Mental Health and Substance Use of Sexual Minority College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Davoren, Ann Kearns

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assess the mental health and substance use of sexual minority collegiate student-athletes in the United States, as compared with heterosexual college students and heterosexual student-athletes. Participants: Undergraduate students (N = 196,872) who completed the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment…

  2. Perceptions of Rural School Staff regarding Sexual Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Lynn M.; Atlas, Jana G.; Saunders, Anita L.; Philbrick, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Sexual minority students often do not feel safe in school, especially in rural communities, and changes are needed within school environments in order to provide a safe and effective learning environment for all students. Prior to implementing school change, an investigation into the perceptions of educators in public schools in three rural New…

  3. Exploring Attitudes of Future Educators about Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Kristen B.; Rodger, Susan; Cummings, Anne L.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-two secondary teacher candidates from a Canadian university completed questionnaires assessing levels of homoprejudice, knowledge of homosexuality, and perceptions of professional issues related to sexual minority youth. The level of homoprejudice in this sample was lower than in earlier studies with teachers, and lower homoprejudice was…

  4. School Experience of Chinese Sexual Minority Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Diana K.

    2016-01-01

    Heterosexism faced by sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning [LGBQ]) students has been extensively studied internationally in the past 2 decades but has only recently received attention from Hong Kong Chinese society. Chinese LGBQ students are not guaranteed to be included in Hong Kong schools, where antidiscrimination…

  5. Shame in Sexual Minorities: Stigma, Internal Cognitions, and Counseling Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veronica R. F.; Yarhouse, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Theorists, clinicians, and researchers have suggested that shame is a central concern in the lives of sexual minority individuals. Cognitive theorists believe that shame occurs when a person fails to achieve his or her standards, which are often based on social, cultural, and spiritual values. Although it is asserted that stigma causes shame among…

  6. Preventing Bullying and Harassment of Sexual Minority Students in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Holly N.; Casida, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Sexual minority students (most often gay, lesbian, or bisexual, but including anyone who does not or is perceived to not fit the common heterosexual stereotype) often face ongoing bullying and harassment in schools that goes unstopped by faculty or administration. These students suffer academically, emotionally, and physically as a direct result…

  7. Beyond Risk: Resilience in the Lives of Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.

    2005-01-01

    Several decades of research tell us that sexual minority youth are among those most at risk for the negative outcomes of frequent concern in the lives of young people: academic failure, emotional distress, compromised relationships, risk behavior, and suicidality. We know much less about resilience, the characteristics and factors that explain or…

  8. Sexual Minorities on Community College Campuses. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leider, Steven

    This digest provides a review of current literature relating to sexual minorities and the ongoing dialogue surrounding multiculturalism and inclusiveness on community college campuses. A 1998 study conducted on the six San Francisco community college campuses indicated that more than 1 in 3 of 484 community college students surveyed had engaged in…

  9. Ethical and Methodological Complexities in Research Involving Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettinger, Thomas V.

    2010-01-01

    While there is growing attention to sexual minorities in adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD) literature, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people have received very little attention in AE or in HRD research. This article captures methodological issues and concerns from LBGTQ-related research from…

  10. Preparing Educators to Meet the Needs of Sexual Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Darline; Woest, Hillary

    2005-01-01

    Educational systems are falling short of addressing the needs of sexual minority students. Not only are gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender students left off the list of diversities needing services, but they are also at times targeted by students and educators as deserving of attack. The damages done by the educational system, either through…

  11. Sexual Minority Issues and Human Rights Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuji, Keiko

    2007-01-01

    The "Dowa" (Human Rights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others to…

  12. Variables associated with the nature of sexual abuse to minors.

    PubMed

    Cantón Duarte, José; Cortés Arboleda, M Rosario; Cantón-Cortés, David

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence and characteristics of childhood and adolescence sexual abuse suffered by a sample of university students, as well as the variables associated with the nature of abuse. Participants anonymously completed the Questionnaire on Child Sexual Abuse, in order to obtain information about experience of sexual abuse. Of a total of 2,375 students, 289 (12.2%) declared having suffered sexual abuse before the age of 18. The invasiveness, continuity, and severity of abuse was related to the location where the abuse took place (the more severe cases were committed in the homes of the victim and perpetrator) and to the circumstances of abuse (relationships with partners/at a party or while caring for a child predicted more severe abuse). The age of the victim (preschool) and an intrafamilial relationship between victim and perpetrator were also related to more invasive, continuous, and severe sexual abuse. The knowledge of characteristics of perpetrator and victim and the context in which sexual abuse occurs can help to better comprehend the nature and correlates of sexual abuse. The results of the present study may contribute to the design of programs for the prevention of sexual abuse to minors.

  13. Variables associated with the nature of sexual abuse to minors.

    PubMed

    Cantón Duarte, José; Cortés Arboleda, M Rosario; Cantón-Cortés, David

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence and characteristics of childhood and adolescence sexual abuse suffered by a sample of university students, as well as the variables associated with the nature of abuse. Participants anonymously completed the Questionnaire on Child Sexual Abuse, in order to obtain information about experience of sexual abuse. Of a total of 2,375 students, 289 (12.2%) declared having suffered sexual abuse before the age of 18. The invasiveness, continuity, and severity of abuse was related to the location where the abuse took place (the more severe cases were committed in the homes of the victim and perpetrator) and to the circumstances of abuse (relationships with partners/at a party or while caring for a child predicted more severe abuse). The age of the victim (preschool) and an intrafamilial relationship between victim and perpetrator were also related to more invasive, continuous, and severe sexual abuse. The knowledge of characteristics of perpetrator and victim and the context in which sexual abuse occurs can help to better comprehend the nature and correlates of sexual abuse. The results of the present study may contribute to the design of programs for the prevention of sexual abuse to minors. PMID:22774431

  14. Sexual Minorities on Community College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leider, Steven

    This article provides an overview of the current status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) students on community college campuses, and gives an idea of offerings and programs available at some campuses and districts. A primary difficulty in researching this subject is the anonymity of much of the LGBT population. The "coming out"…

  15. Health policy considerations for our sexual minority patients.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A

    2006-03-01

    Homosexuality and transsexuality are still widely viewed by lay individuals as morally negative and deserving of legal proscription. Peer-reviewed data confirm that experiences of legal discrimination are associated with stress-related health problems, reduced utilization of health care, and financial and legal challenges for individuals and families, especially those with children. In the last 3 years, the American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, and American Psychoanalytic Association have each reviewed the research on sexual orientation and identity, and each has confirmed that sexual orientation and gender identity do not correlate with mental illness or immorality. They have each endorsed laws that confer equality to sexual minorities, including nondiscrimination in employment, medical insurance coverage, adoption, and access to civil marriage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), by virtue of its history of advocacy for women's health, is in a position to promote policy and make similar recommendations, recognizing that sexual minority women's health and their family issues are an integral component of taking care of all women. The College should review the policies of America's premier mental health associations and consider including sexual orientation and gender identity in its own nondiscrimination policy, and ACOG should issue a policy statement in support of laws to provide safety from violence and discrimination, equal employment opportunities, equal health insurance coverage, and equal access to civil marriage.

  16. Sexual Identity Mobility and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Analysis of Moderating Factors Among Sexual Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Everett, Bethany G; Talley, Amelia E; Hughes, Tonda L; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Johnson, Timothy P

    2016-10-01

    Sexual minority identity (bisexual, lesbian) is a known risk factor for depression in women. This study examined a facet of minority stress prevalent among women-sexual identity mobility-as an identity-related contributor to higher levels of depressive symptoms. We used three waves of data from the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study, a longitudinal study of sexual minority women (N = 306). Random effects OLS regression models were constructed to examine the effect of sexual identity changes on depressive symptoms. We found that 25.6 % of the sample reported a sexual identity change between Wave I and Wave II, and 24.9 % reported a sexual identity change between Waves II and III. Women who reported a change in sexual identity also reported more depressive symptoms subsequent to identity change. This effect was moderated by the number of years participants had reported their baseline identity and by whether the participant had initiated a romantic relationship with a male partner.

  17. Sexual Identity Mobility and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Analysis of Moderating Factors Among Sexual Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Everett, Bethany G; Talley, Amelia E; Hughes, Tonda L; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Johnson, Timothy P

    2016-10-01

    Sexual minority identity (bisexual, lesbian) is a known risk factor for depression in women. This study examined a facet of minority stress prevalent among women-sexual identity mobility-as an identity-related contributor to higher levels of depressive symptoms. We used three waves of data from the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study, a longitudinal study of sexual minority women (N = 306). Random effects OLS regression models were constructed to examine the effect of sexual identity changes on depressive symptoms. We found that 25.6 % of the sample reported a sexual identity change between Wave I and Wave II, and 24.9 % reported a sexual identity change between Waves II and III. Women who reported a change in sexual identity also reported more depressive symptoms subsequent to identity change. This effect was moderated by the number of years participants had reported their baseline identity and by whether the participant had initiated a romantic relationship with a male partner. PMID:27255306

  18. Understanding Social and Sexual Networks of Sexual Minority Men and Transgender Women in Guatemala City to Improve HIV Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, C.; Arandi, C. Galindo; Bolaños, J. Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G.; Barrington, C.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236

  19. Comparing Sexual-Minority and Heterosexual Young Women's Friends and Parents as Sources of Support for Sexual Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Carly K.; Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an…

  20. Mental Health Disorders in Young Urban Sexual Minority Men

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michelle Nicole; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Very few studies have examined mental disorders among male sexual minority youth. We describe demographic correlates, comorbidity, and history of mental disorders and suicidality in a large sample of male sexual minority youth. Methods Structured diagnostic interviews were conducted with 449 racially diverse, urban sexual minority males, ages 16-20, who were recruited using a social-network driven sampling methodology. Results Lifetime major depressive episode (MDE) affected 33.2% of the youth. Lifetime conduct disorder (23.6%), alcohol abuse/dependence (19.6%), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 16.0%), and nicotine dependence (10.7%) were also common. Black participants were less likely than White participants to be diagnosed with lifetime MDE, alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence, suicidal ideation, and anorexia, as well as past 12-month alcohol abuse/dependence (OR's range from .08-.46). Relative to participants identifying as gay, bisexual identified youth were at higher risk for lifetime PTSD (OR=2.04), and participants who did not identify as gay or bisexual were at higher risk for both lifetime and past 12-month nicotine dependence (OR's = 4.36 and 3.46, respectively). Most participants with mental disorders never received treatment, and comorbidity was common. Conclusions MDE, conduct disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, PTSD, and nicotine dependence are common and infrequently treated in young sexual minority men. Some within-group disparities emerged, suggesting factors related to racial background and self-identification may help to understand resilience to the unique stressors experienced by these young men. PMID:25294230

  1. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Personal Mastery Among Sexual Minority African American Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Buttram, Mance E.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Research among sexual minorities has traditionally examined problems such as substance use, HIV risk, mental health problems, and victimization. Among sexual minority street-based female sex workers, these vulnerabilities can be magnified. Grounded in theories of resilience, this study examines risk and protective factors associated with a high level of personal mastery among a vulnerable population of women. Data are drawn from baseline interviews from street-based African American female sex workers enrolled in a randomized intervention trial in Miami, Florida. We compare sexual minority (N=197) and heterosexual (N=365) women on measures of risk and protective factors; among sexual minority women we present logistic regression analyses which reveal that severe mental distress and HIV transmission risk are associated with low levels of personal mastery, while protective factors of transportation access and social support are associated with high levels of personal mastery. These findings suggest that these protective factors may potentially facilitate the development of personal mastery and represent beneficial avenues for intervention efforts. PMID:25530691

  2. Human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities in Kathmandu, Nepal: a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nepal has experienced sporadic reports of human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities. Our objective was to identify a range of human rights that are enshrined in international law and/or are commonly reported by sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu, to be nonprotected or violated. Methods In September 2009 three focus group discussions were conducted by trained interviewers among a convenience sample of sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu Nepal. The modified Delphi technique was utilized to elicit and rank participant-generated definitions of human rights and their subsequent violations. Data was analyzed independently and cross checked by another investigator. Results Participants (n = 29) reported experiencing a range of human rights violations at home, work, educational, health care settings and in public places. Lack of adequate legal protection, physical and mental abuse and torture were commonly reported. Access to adequate legal protection and improvements in the family and healthcare environment were ranked as the most important priority areas. Conclusions Sexual and gender minorities in Nepal experienced a range of human rights violations. Future efforts should enroll a larger and more systematic sample of participants to determine frequency, timing, and/or intensity of exposure to rights violations, and estimate the population-based impact of these rights violations on specific health outcomes PMID:22591775

  3. Future directions in research on sexual minority adolescent mental, behavioral, and sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This article describes current knowledge on sexual, mental, and behavioral health of sexual minority (SM) youth and identifies gaps that would benefit from future research. A translational sciences framework is used to conceptualize the article, discussing findings and gaps along the spectrum from basic research on prevalence and mechanisms, to intervention development and testing, to implementation. Relative to adults, there has been much less research on adolescents and very few studies that had longitudinal follow-up beyond one year. Due to historical changes in the social acceptance of the SM community, new cohorts are needed to represent contemporary life experiences and associated health consequences. Important theoretical developments have occurred in conceptualizing mechanisms that drive SM health disparities and mechanistic research is underway, including studies that identify individual and structural risk/protective factors. Research opportunities exist in the utilization of sibling-comparison designs, inclusion of parents, and studying romantic relationships. Methodological innovation is needed in sampling SM populations. There has been less intervention research and approaches should consider natural resiliencies, life-course frameworks, prevention science, multiple levels of influence, and the importance of implementation. Regulatory obstacles are created when ethics boards elect to require parental permission and ethics research is needed. There has been inconsistent inclusion of SM populations in the definition of “health disparity population,” which impacts funding and training opportunities. There are incredible opportunities for scholars to make substantial and foundational contributions to help address the health of SM youth, and new funding opportunities to do so. PMID:25575125

  4. Differences in Sexual Orientation Diversity and Sexual Fluidity in Attractions Among Gender Minority Adults in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn White; Keo-Meier, Colton L

    2016-01-01

    This study characterized sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions in a community-based sample of self-identified transgender and gender-nonconforming adults in Massachusetts. Participants were recruited in 2013 using bimodel methods (online and in person) to complete a one-time, Web-based quantitative survey that included questions about sexual orientation identity and sexual fluidity. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to examine the correlates of self-reported changes in attractions ever in lifetime among the whole sample (n = 452) and after transition among those who reported social gender transition (n = 205). The sample endorsed diverse sexual orientation identities: 42.7% queer, 19.0% other nonbinary, 15.7% bisexual, 12.2% straight, and 10.4% gay/lesbian. Overall, 58.2% reported having experienced changes in sexual attractions in their lifetime. In adjusted models, trans masculine individuals were more likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity in their lifetime (aRR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.34, 2.12). Among those who transitioned, 64.6% reported a change in attractions posttransition, and trans masculine individuals were less likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity (aRR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.69). Heterogeneity of sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions are the norm rather than the exception among gender minority people. PMID:26156113

  5. Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts Among Sexual Minority Adults by Study Sampling Strategies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bogaert, Laura; Rhodes, Anne E.; Brennan, David J.; Gesink, Dionne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous reviews have demonstrated a higher risk of suicide attempts for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons (sexual minorities), compared with heterosexual groups, but these were restricted to general population studies, thereby excluding individuals sampled through LGB community venues. Each sampling strategy, however, has particular methodological strengths and limitations. For instance, general population probability studies have defined sampling frames but are prone to information bias associated with underreporting of LGB identities. By contrast, LGB community surveys may support disclosure of sexuality but overrepresent individuals with strong LGB community attachment. Objectives. To reassess the burden of suicide-related behavior among LGB adults, directly comparing estimates derived from population- versus LGB community–based samples. Search methods. In 2014, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Scopus databases for articles addressing suicide-related behavior (ideation, attempts) among sexual minorities. Selection criteria. We selected quantitative studies of sexual minority adults conducted in nonclinical settings in the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Data collection and analysis. Random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression assessed for a difference in prevalence of suicide-related behavior by sample type, adjusted for study or sample-level variables, including context (year, country), methods (medium, response rate), and subgroup characteristics (age, gender, sexual minority construct). We examined residual heterogeneity by using τ2. Main results. We pooled 30 cross-sectional studies, including 21 201 sexual minority adults, generating the following lifetime prevalence estimates of suicide attempts: 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3%, 5%) for heterosexual respondents to population surveys, 11% (95% CI = 8%, 15%) for LGB respondents to population surveys, and 20% (95% CI

  6. The Role of Sexual Images in Online and Offline Sexual Behaviour With Minors.

    PubMed

    Quayle, Ethel; Newman, Emily

    2015-06-01

    Sexual images have long been associated with sexual interest and behaviour with minors. The Internet has impacted access to existing content and the ability to create content which can be uploaded and distributed. These images can be used forensically to determine the legality of the behaviour, but importantly for psychiatry, they offer insight into motivation, sexual interest and deviance, the relationship between image content and offline sexual behaviour, and how they might be used in online solicitation and grooming with children and adolescents. Practitioners will need to consider the function that these images may serve, the motivation for their use and the challenges of assessment. This article provides an overview of the literature on the use of illegal images and the parallels with existing paraphilias, such as exhibitionism and voyeurism. The focus is on recent research on the Internet and sexual images of children, including the role that self-taken images by youth may play in the offending process. PMID:25894354

  7. Non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity in sexual minority and heterosexual young adults.

    PubMed

    Lacefield, Katharine; Negy, Charles

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity in sexual minority and heterosexual young adults.

    PubMed

    Lacefield, Katharine; Negy, Charles

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21796485

  9. Enacted Stigma and HIV Risk Behaviours among Sexual Minority Indigenous Youth in Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Saewyc, Elizabeth; Clark, Terryann; Barney, Lucy; Brunanski, Dana; Homma, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Enacted stigma has been linked to increased HIV risk behaviours among sexual minority youth, but despite higher rates of HIV and other STIs, there is very little research with Indigenous youth. In this study, secondary analyses of three population-based, school surveys were conducted to explore the associations between HIV risk and enacted stigma among sexual minority Indigenous youth in Canada, the US, and New Zealand. Data were analyzed and interpreted with guidance from Indigenous and sexual minority research team members, Indigenous advisory groups, and community consultations. In all three countries, Indigenous sexual minority youth were more likely to experience enacted stigma (such as bullying, discrimination, exclusion, harassment, or school-based violence) and report increased HIV risk behaviours (such as lack of condom use, multiple sexual partners, pregnancy involvement, and injection drug use) compared to heterosexual peers. Data were analyzed by age, gender, and sexual orientation, and for some groups, higher levels of enacted stigma was associated with higher HIV risk. The findings highlight the need for more research, including identifying protective factors, and developing interventions that focus on promoting resilience, addressing the levels of stigma and homophobic violence in school, and restoring historical traditions of positive status for Indigenous sexual minority people. PMID:26793243

  10. Sexual networks: measuring sexual selection in structured, polyandrous populations.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Grant C; James, Richard; Krause, Jens; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2013-03-01

    Sexual selection is traditionally measured at the population level, assuming that populations lack structure. However, increasing evidence undermines this approach, indicating that intrasexual competition in natural populations often displays complex patterns of spatial and temporal structure. This complexity is due in part to the degree and mechanisms of polyandry within a population, which can influence the intensity and scale of both pre- and post-copulatory sexual competition. Attempts to measure selection at the local and global scale have been made through multi-level selection approaches. However, definitions of local scale are often based on physical proximity, providing a rather coarse measure of local competition, particularly in polyandrous populations where the local scale of pre- and post-copulatory competition may differ drastically from each other. These limitations can be solved by social network analysis, which allows us to define a unique sexual environment for each member of a population: 'local scale' competition, therefore, becomes an emergent property of a sexual network. Here, we first propose a novel quantitative approach to measure pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection, which integrates multi-level selection with information on local scale competition derived as an emergent property of networks of sexual interactions. We then use simple simulations to illustrate the ways in which polyandry can impact estimates of sexual selection. We show that for intermediate levels of polyandry, the proposed network-based approach provides substantially more accurate measures of sexual selection than the more traditional population-level approach. We argue that the increasing availability of fine-grained behavioural datasets provides exciting new opportunities to develop network approaches to study sexual selection in complex societies.

  11. Sexual networks: measuring sexual selection in structured, polyandrous populations

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Grant C.; James, Richard; Krause, Jens; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection is traditionally measured at the population level, assuming that populations lack structure. However, increasing evidence undermines this approach, indicating that intrasexual competition in natural populations often displays complex patterns of spatial and temporal structure. This complexity is due in part to the degree and mechanisms of polyandry within a population, which can influence the intensity and scale of both pre- and post-copulatory sexual competition. Attempts to measure selection at the local and global scale have been made through multi-level selection approaches. However, definitions of local scale are often based on physical proximity, providing a rather coarse measure of local competition, particularly in polyandrous populations where the local scale of pre- and post-copulatory competition may differ drastically from each other. These limitations can be solved by social network analysis, which allows us to define a unique sexual environment for each member of a population: ‘local scale’ competition, therefore, becomes an emergent property of a sexual network. Here, we first propose a novel quantitative approach to measure pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection, which integrates multi-level selection with information on local scale competition derived as an emergent property of networks of sexual interactions. We then use simple simulations to illustrate the ways in which polyandry can impact estimates of sexual selection. We show that for intermediate levels of polyandry, the proposed network-based approach provides substantially more accurate measures of sexual selection than the more traditional population-level approach. We argue that the increasing availability of fine-grained behavioural datasets provides exciting new opportunities to develop network approaches to study sexual selection in complex societies. PMID:23339246

  12. "Honk against homophobia": rethinking relations between media and sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Venzo, Paul; Hess, Kristy

    2013-01-01

    The theory of "symbolic annihilation" or "symbolic violence" has been used in academic literature to describe the way in which sexual minorities have been ignored, trivialized, or condemned by the media. This article aims to de-center research from issues of media representation to consider the capacity for minority groups to proactively use new media and its various avenues for interactivity, social networking, and feedback to fight social exclusion. This work suggests that new media has become a space in which the nominally marginal in society may acquire "social artillery"-a term used to describe how sexual minorities utilize their expanding and more readily accessible social connections in digital space to combat instances of homophobia. The research draws on the results of an inquiry into the relation between media and a regional youth social justice group in Australia tackling homophobia. The research demonstrates that the group is becoming increasingly adept and comfortable with using a cross-section of media platforms to fulfill their own objectives, rather than seeing themselves as passive subjects of media representation. This article argues that this sets an example for other socially excluded groups looking to renegotiate their relation with the media in regional areas.

  13. Adapting the Get Yourself Tested Campaign to Reach Black and Latino Sexual-Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Garbers, Samantha; Friedman, Allison; Martinez, Omar; Scheinmann, Roberta; Bermudez, Dayana; Silva, Manel; Silverman, Jen; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background Culturally appropriate efforts are needed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing and care among Black and Latino sexual-minority youth, who are at high risk for STDs. Get Yourself Tested, a national testing campaign, has demonstrated success among youth, but it has yet to be assessed for relevance or impact among this population. Method This effort included (1) formative and materials-testing research through focus groups; (2) adaptation of existing Get Yourself Tested campaign materials to be more inclusive of Black and Latino sexual-minority youth; (3) a 3-month campaign in four venues of New York City, promoting STD testing at events and through mobile testing and online and social media platforms; (4) process evaluation of outreach activities; and (5) an outcome evaluation of testing at select campaign venues, using a preexperimental design. Results During the 3-month campaign period, the number of STD tests conducted at select campaign venues increased from a comparable 3-month baseline period. Although testing uptake through mobile vans remained low in absolute numbers, the van drew a high-prevalence sample, with positivity rates of 26.9% for chlamydia and 11.5% for gonorrhea. This article documents the process and lessons learned from adapting and implementing a local campaign for Black and Latino sexual-minority youth. PMID:27225216

  14. Sexual Orientation Minorities in College Counseling: Prevalence, Distress, and Symptom Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavey, Andrew A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual minority group members are at a higher risk for mental health difficulties than are heterosexual individuals. The results of this study showed that college student sexual minorities were common in counseling centers and that they were more likely than heterosexual students to seek counseling. The results also showed that sexual orientation…

  15. Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Prejudice on Aggression Toward Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Lisco, Claire G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was the first to test the moderating effect of acute alcohol intoxication on the relation between heterosexual men’s sexual prejudice and perpetration of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Method Participants were 320 heterosexual men aged 21-30 recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed a measure of prejudice toward sexual minorities and were randomly assigned to one of eight experimental groups within a 2 (Beverage: Alcohol, No-Alcohol Control) × 2 (Opponent Gender: Male, Female) × 2 (Opponent Sexual Orientation: Homosexual, Heterosexual) design. Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked via reception of electric shocks from a fictitious opponent. Participants’ physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Results The association between sexual prejudice and aggression toward the gay male opponent was stronger among intoxicated, relative to sober, participants. This pattern of association was not observed among participants who competed against the heterosexual male, heterosexual female, or lesbian opponent. Conclusions Findings provide the first experimental evidence that alcohol intoxication moderates sexually-prejudiced aggression toward gay men. These data offer a first step toward understanding how alcohol facilitates bias-motivated aggression. Such knowledge contributes to the empirical foundation needed to guide the development of interventions for alcohol-related aggression toward sexual minorities. PMID:26171278

  16. Promoting the successful development of sexual and gender minority youths.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Garofalo, Robert; Makadon, Harvey J

    2014-06-01

    Because of societal discomfort with atypical expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youths have experienced enhanced developmental challenges compared with their heterosexual peers. A recent special issue of the American Journal of Public Health delineated how social stigma affecting LGBT youths has resulted in a wide range of health disparities, ranging from increased prevalence of depression and substance use to downstream effects, such as an increased risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease when older. We review the clinical significance of these findings for health care professionals, who need to become informed about these associations to provide better care for their sexual and gender minority youth patients, and to be able to educate their parents and other caregivers.

  17. Promoting the Successful Development of Sexual and Gender Minority Youths

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, Robert; Makadon, Harvey J.

    2014-01-01

    Because of societal discomfort with atypical expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youths have experienced enhanced developmental challenges compared with their heterosexual peers. A recent special issue of the American Journal of Public Health delineated how social stigma affecting LGBT youths has resulted in a wide range of health disparities, ranging from increased prevalence of depression and substance use to downstream effects, such as an increased risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease when older. We review the clinical significance of these findings for health care professionals, who need to become informed about these associations to provide better care for their sexual and gender minority youth patients, and to be able to educate their parents and other caregivers. PMID:24825194

  18. Promoting the successful development of sexual and gender minority youths.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Garofalo, Robert; Makadon, Harvey J

    2014-06-01

    Because of societal discomfort with atypical expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youths have experienced enhanced developmental challenges compared with their heterosexual peers. A recent special issue of the American Journal of Public Health delineated how social stigma affecting LGBT youths has resulted in a wide range of health disparities, ranging from increased prevalence of depression and substance use to downstream effects, such as an increased risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease when older. We review the clinical significance of these findings for health care professionals, who need to become informed about these associations to provide better care for their sexual and gender minority youth patients, and to be able to educate their parents and other caregivers. PMID:24825194

  19. Developmental Trajectories of Substance Use among Sexual Minority Girls: Associations with Sexual Victimization and Sexual Health Risk

    PubMed Central

    Oshri, Assaf; Handley, Elizabeth D.; Sutton, Tara E.; Wortel, Sanne; Burnette, Mandi L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Our aim was to examine mechanisms underlying the development of sexual health risk behaviors in sexual minority girls (SMGs) and the relation of these mechanisms and sexual risk behaviors to sexual victimization. Methods Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods cohorts aged 15 and 18 (N = 391; 54 SMGs). Results SMGs reported more sexual victimization and steeper positive trajectories of substance misuse over time than heterosexual girls. Growth in alcohol use during adolescence mediated the link between SMG status and past year number of partners, whereas growth in marijuana use mediated the link between SMG status and self-reported sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Adding unwanted sexual experiences (UWSE) to the models resulted in reduction of significance in the direct or indirect effects from SMG status on the outcomes. UWSE emerged as a robust predictor, directly and indirectly related to past year number of partners via growth in alcohol use. UWSE also directly predicted STD history. Conclusions The increased risk of SMGs for alcohol and marijuana during adolescence, higher rates of sexual partners, and STD diagnosis may also be linked to their significant risk for sexual victimization. Findings highlight the importance of preventive interventions targeting victimization of SMGs. PMID:24534358

  20. Body Image Disturbance and Health Behaviors among Sexual Minority Men Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Goshe, Brett M.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Body image disturbance is a common experience for sexual minority men living with HIV, and is associated with poor self-care behaviors. However, to date, no known cohesive theoretical model has been advanced to understand the possible antecedents and outcomes of body image disturbance in this population. Thus, the goal of the current study was to test a biopsychosocial model of body image and self-care behaviors among sexual minority men living with HIV. Methods Participants were 106 gay and bisexual men living with HIV who completed a battery of self-report measures including assessment of body image disturbance, depression, lipodystrophy, appearance orientation, condom use self-efficacy, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Bayesian estimation was employed to assess model fit and direct and indirect pathways within the model. Results The data fit the model well, with all theorized pathways being significant. Lipodystrophy severity and appearance orientation were associated with elevated body image disturbance. In turn, body image disturbance was related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors, through the mechanisms of elevated depressive symptoms and poor condom use self-efficacy. Conclusions Elevated body image disturbance among sexual minority men living with HIV is associated with important biopsychosocial variables, which in turn are related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Integrative psychosocial interventions addressing co-occurring body image disturbance, depression, and HIV self-care behaviors may be a fruitful area of future clinical practice and research. PMID:24977311

  1. Social networks and risk for depressive symptoms in a national sample of sexual minority youth.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N = 14,212). Wave 1 (1994-1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents' social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents.

  2. A longitudinal, mixed methods study of sexual position identity, behavior, and fantasies among young sexual minority men.

    PubMed

    Pachankis, John E; Buttenwieser, Indiana G; Bernstein, Laura B; Bayles, Damon O

    2013-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that young sexual minority men's sexual position identities (e.g., "top," "bottom," "versatile") may be governed by dynamic influences. Yet, no study has prospectively examined whether, how, and why this aspect of sexual minority men's sexuality changes over time. Consequently, the present study investigated the extent to which young sexual minority men use sexual position identities consistently over time, typical patterns of position identity change, explanations given for this change, and the correspondence of changing sexual position identities with changing sexual behavior and fantasies. A total of 93 young sexual minority men indicated their sexual position identity, behavior, and fantasies at two assessment points separated by 2 years. Following the second assessment, a subset (n = 28) of participants who represented the various sexual position identity change patterns provided explanations for their change. More than half (n = 48) of participants changed their sexual position identity. Participants showed a significant move away from not using sexual position identities toward using them and a significant move toward using "mostly top." Changes in position identity were reflected, although imperfectly, in changes in sexual behavior and largely not reflected in fantasy changes. Participants offered 11 classes of explanations for their identity changes referencing personal development, practical reasons, changing relationships, and sociocultural influences. Previous investigations of sexual minority men's sexual position identities have not adequately attended to the possibility of the changing use of the sexual position categories "top," "bottom," and "versatile" across young adulthood. Results of the present study suggest the possibility of a more fluid, context-dependent use of these terms than previously documented.

  3. Validation of the Coping with Discrimination Scale in sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Ngamake, Sakkaphat T; Walch, Susan E; Raveepatarakul, Jirapattara

    2014-01-01

    The Coping With Discrimination Scale (CDS) shows promise as a self-report measure of strategies for coping with racial discrimination. To assess the psychometric properties of the measure for use with sexual minorities (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, or GLB persons), a nonprobability sample of 371 GLB adults completed the instrument along with several standardized, self-report measures. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the five-factor structure of the original scale with the exclusion of five items. Adequate internal consistency reliability was found. Internalization, drug and alcohol use, and detachment subscales were correlated positively with measures of psychological distress and negatively with a measure of life satisfaction, providing evidence of construct validity. The education/advocacy and resistance subscales were largely unrelated to concurrently administered validation measures, consistent with prior findings. Coping strategy use varied as a function of primary sources of social support. The CDS appears to be a psychometrically sound measure of several discrimination coping strategies for use with sexual minorities.

  4. Neighborhood-Level LGBT Hate Crimes and Bullying Among Sexual Minority Youths: A Geospatial Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Duncan, Dustin; Johnson, Renee

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a novel measure of environmental risk factors for bullying among sexual minority youths. Data on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) assault hate crimes were obtained from police records, geocoded, and then linked to individual-level data on bullying and sexual orientation from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (N = 1,292; 108 sexual minorities). Results indicated that sexual minority youths who reported relational and electronic bullying were more likely to reside in neighborhoods with higher LGBT assault hate crime rates. There was no asso- ciation between LGBT assault hate crimes and bullying among heterosexual youths, pro- viding evidence for specificity to sexual minority youth. Moreover, no relationships were observed between sexual minority bullying and neighborhood-level violent and property crimes, indicating that the results were specific to LGBT assault hate crimes.

  5. Changes in Neighborhood Characteristics and Depression Among Sexual Minority Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the relationship between changes in neighborhood characteristics during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood and depression among sexual minority young adults. Previous research has found that neighborhood characteristics influence sexual minority mental health and that sexual minorities are more likely to move to more urban and politically liberal locations. No study to date, however, has examined the impact of changes in neighborhood characteristics on sexual minority depression. The results from this study show that decreases in the percent urban was associated with increased risk of depression and decreases in the percent Republican voters in sexual minority’s neighborhood was associated with decreases in risk of depression. The results suggest that clinicians may want to screen sexual minority youth for recent changes in their neighborhoods to assess if these changes may be related to the onset or exacerbation of depressive episodes. PMID:24217448

  6. Neighborhood-Level LGBT Hate Crimes and Bullying Among Sexual Minority Youths: A Geospatial Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Duncan, Dustin; Johnson, Renee

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a novel measure of environmental risk factors for bullying among sexual minority youths. Data on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) assault hate crimes were obtained from police records, geocoded, and then linked to individual-level data on bullying and sexual orientation from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (N = 1,292; 108 sexual minorities). Results indicated that sexual minority youths who reported relational and electronic bullying were more likely to reside in neighborhoods with higher LGBT assault hate crime rates. There was no asso- ciation between LGBT assault hate crimes and bullying among heterosexual youths, pro- viding evidence for specificity to sexual minority youth. Moreover, no relationships were observed between sexual minority bullying and neighborhood-level violent and property crimes, indicating that the results were specific to LGBT assault hate crimes. PMID:26160063

  7. Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities in Hong Kong: Implications for mental health.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Diana K; Wu, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Intolerant attitudes and sexual prejudice against sexual minorities (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning/queer-LGBQ) has been a long-standing global concern. In this article, Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities are examined with reference to the cultural context in Hong Kong, a place where the East has intermingled with the West for over a century. Chinese sexuality manifested in Hong Kong is a mix of Confucian ideology and Christian thought. Traditional Confucian values of xiao (filial piety) and conventional religious thoughts of Christianity together influence Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities. Though many governmental policies have been put in place and numerous laws have been enacted to protect the human rights of underprivileged and disadvantaged groups over the past few decades, sexual minorities are frequently being excluded from most of these protections. In Hong Kong, sexual prejudice exists not only among the general public, but also among educators and mental health professionals. Thus, Chinese sexual minorities experience sexual prejudice and minority stress in Hong Kong under unique cultural circumstances. This calls for inclusive policies and an embracing attitude towards sexual minorities so their mental health will not suffer. PMID:26569635

  8. Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities in Hong Kong: Implications for mental health.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Diana K; Wu, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Intolerant attitudes and sexual prejudice against sexual minorities (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning/queer-LGBQ) has been a long-standing global concern. In this article, Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities are examined with reference to the cultural context in Hong Kong, a place where the East has intermingled with the West for over a century. Chinese sexuality manifested in Hong Kong is a mix of Confucian ideology and Christian thought. Traditional Confucian values of xiao (filial piety) and conventional religious thoughts of Christianity together influence Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities. Though many governmental policies have been put in place and numerous laws have been enacted to protect the human rights of underprivileged and disadvantaged groups over the past few decades, sexual minorities are frequently being excluded from most of these protections. In Hong Kong, sexual prejudice exists not only among the general public, but also among educators and mental health professionals. Thus, Chinese sexual minorities experience sexual prejudice and minority stress in Hong Kong under unique cultural circumstances. This calls for inclusive policies and an embracing attitude towards sexual minorities so their mental health will not suffer.

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Disparities in Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Physical Abuse, and Peer Victimization Among Sexual Minority and Sexual Nonminority Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921

  10. An Initial Investigation of Sexual Minority Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are at risk for negative school-based experiences and poor academic outcomes. Yet, little is known about their experiences in positive school-based contexts. Using the "National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health" (1,214 sexual minority and 11,427 heterosexual participants), this study compared participation…

  11. Longitudinal Disparities of Hazardous Drinking between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Individuals from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dermody, Sarah S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Burton, Chad; Hughes, Tonda; Aranda, Frances; Friedman, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minority (lesbian and gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) individuals are at an increased risk for hazardous drinking than heterosexual individuals, but little is known about the nature of the disparities as adolescents reach adulthood. We used four waves of a nationally representative data set, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), to examine disparities of hazardous drinking outcomes between sexual minority and heterosexual men and women from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 14 to 18 years old at the first assessment (N = 12,379; 53% female) and 27 to 31 years old at the fourth assessment. At the fourth assessment, 13% self-identified as sexual minority individuals, 16% were Hispanic, and 36% were of minority race, including primarily African Americans (60%) and Asian Americans (18%). There were clear hazardous drinking disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexual individuals over time. During adolescence, sexual minority individuals, particularly females, reported higher levels of hazardous drinking. As study participants reached adulthood, the magnitude of the hazardous drinking disparities increased among sexual minorities, sexual minority men in particular. Additional research is needed to better understand the developmental mechanisms that underlie the emerging sexual orientation related disparities of hazardous drinking in young adulthood. PMID:23325141

  12. Mental Health and Suicidality Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Sexual Minority Youths

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Wendy B.; Meyer, Ilan; Aranda, Frances; Russell, Stephen; Hughes, Tonda; Birkett, Michelle; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationships among sexual minority status, sex, and mental health and suicidality, in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Methods. Using pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys within 14 jurisdictions, we used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 6 mental health outcomes across 6 racial/ethnic groups, intersecting with sexual minority status and sex. Based on an omnibus measure of sexual minority status, there were 6245 sexual minority adolescents in the current study. The total sample was n = 72 691. Results. Compared with heterosexual peers, sexual minorities reported higher odds of feeling sad; suicidal ideation, planning and attempts; suicide attempt treated by a doctor or nurse, and self-harm. Among sexual minorities, compared with White youths, Asian and Black youths had lower odds of many outcomes, whereas American Native/Pacific Islander, Latino, and Multiracial youths had higher odds. Conclusions. Although in general, sexual minority youths were at heightened risk for suicidal outcomes, risk varied based on sex and on race/ethnicity. More research is needed to better understand the manner in which sex and race/ethnicity intersect among sexual minorities to influence risk and protective factors, and ultimately, mental health outcomes. PMID:24825217

  13. Suicidal Ideation and Attempts among Sexual Minority Youths Receiving Social Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Eugene N.; Freedenthal, Stacey; Wisneski, Hope

    2008-01-01

    The increased risk of suicidal ideation and attempts among sexual minority youths have been documented in studies using both convenience samples and representative community samples. However, as most youths do not access social services, these studies do not necessarily represent the sexual minority youths that community-based social workers may…

  14. Understanding Sexual Minority Male Students' Meaning-Making about Their Multiple Identities: An Exploratory Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillapaugh, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory comparative study examines the meaning-making experiences of six sexual minority males attending college or university in Canada or the United States. All of the participants identified as sexual minority males who were cisgender, out to family and/or friends, and between 20 and 24 years of age. In particular, the participants…

  15. Understanding Suicide among Sexual Minority Youth in America: An Ecological Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Kral, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines major risk factors for suicide among sexual minority youth using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Although suicidal behavior among sexual minority youth is a major public concern in the United States, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since the majority of empirical research studies have addressed…

  16. [Rapid population growth is unfavorable to prosperity of minority areas].

    PubMed

    Zhang, T

    1991-04-01

    According to China's 1990 census, the ethnic minority population increased by 35.5% from the 1982 census, 23 percentage points higher than the Han nationality. Among 55 ethnic minorities, 16 had growth rates of over 50% between 1982 and 1990. The Korean ethnic minority had the lowest growth rate, which was only 8.73%. The high growth rate of the ethnic minority population was due to the high level of natural increase and policy factors. With the changing policies toward ethnic minorities, preferential treatment has been give to the them in education, employment, career promotion, and childbearing quota. These policies stimulated switching from the Han nationality to the minority status. 50-60% of growth in the minority population between the 2 censuses has been attributed to the status switching. The per capita GNP in the minority administrative areas was 54.9% lower than in Han areas in 1980. It became 69% lower in 1988. Excessive growth of the ethnic minority population hindered education attainment and economic and resources development. Some ethnic minorities have an illiteracy rate of over 90% and an infant mortality rate of 171/1000. The ecological environment in certain minority areas is deteriorating due to extensive tree-felling and primitive farming methods. In contrast, the Korean minority developed its education program earlier on. Its total fertility rate has been around 1.4 since 1974 and it is gradually changing into a stationary population. Currently, no Korean National counties or townships are below the poverty line. The prevalence of disability is 3.5% in the Korean population, the lowest of all the ethnic groups. It is important to focus population programs among the ethnic minorities to increase their health and educational status. Promoting family planning programs, strictly enforcing the criteria for switching to minority status or setting deadlines to preference treatment eligibility for those who switched status could be possible policies

  17. The application of minority stress theory to marijuana use among sexual minority adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Schrager, Sheree M; Dunlap, Shannon L; Holloway, Ian W

    2015-02-01

    Previous research indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, including heightened rates of marijuana use. Minority stress theory suggests that difficult social situations create a state of chronic stress that leads to poor health outcomes for LGB adults; however, the applicability of this model has not been well explored in relation to substance use among LGB adolescents. The current study is a secondary analysis of the OutProud survey, conducted in 2000. The original study used purposive sampling to collect data from 1,911 LGB adolescents (age 12-17) across the United States, and represents the largest known study to explore experiences specific to identifying as LGB, such as homophobia and gay-related victimization. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the feasibility of applying a minority stress framework to understand marijuana use in this population. The final structural model for marijuana use in the LGB adolescent sample displayed excellent fit and modest explanatory power for marijuana use. Two of the five factors, community connectedness and internalized homophobia, were significantly (p < .05) associated with marijuana use. Findings suggest that minority stress theory may be appropriately applied to marijuana use in this population; however, better measurement of minority stress concepts for LGB adolescents is needed.

  18. Minority stress and sexual problems among African-American gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, Brian D; Crawford, Isiaah

    2007-08-01

    Minority stress, such as racism and gay bashing, may be associated with sexual problems, but this notion has not been examined in the literature. African-American gay/bisexual men face a unique challenge in managing a double minority status, putting them at high risk for stress and sexual problems. This investigation examined ten predictors of sexual problems among 174 African-American gay/bisexual men. Covarying for age, a forward multiple regression analysis showed that the measures of self-esteem, male gender role stress, HIV prevention self-efficacy, and lifetime experiences with racial discrimination significantly added to the prediction of sexual problems. Gay bashing, psychiatric symptoms, low life satisfaction, and low social support were significantly correlated with sexual problems, but did not add to the prediction of sexual problems in the regression analysis. Mediation analyses showed that stress predicted psychiatric symptoms, which then predicted sexual problems. Sexual problems were not significantly related to HIV status, racial/ethnic identity, or gay identity. The findings from this study showed a relationship between experiences with racial and sexual discrimination and sexual problems while also providing support for mediation to illustrate how stress might cause sexual problems. Addressing minority stress in therapy may help minimize and treat sexual difficulties among minority gay/bisexual men.

  19. Internalized Stigma among Sexual Minority Adults: Insights from a Social Psychological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herek, Gregory M.; Gillis, J. Roy; Cogan, Jeanine C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a social psychological framework for understanding sexual stigma, and it reports data on sexual minority individuals' stigma-related experiences. The framework distinguishes between stigma's manifestations in society's institutions ("heterosexism") and among individuals. The latter include "enacted sexual stigma" (overt…

  20. The challenge of asthma in minority populations.

    PubMed

    Leong, Albin B; Ramsey, Clare D; Celedón, Juan C

    2012-08-01

    The burden and disparity of asthma in race/ethnic minorities present a significant challenge. In this review, we will evaluate data on asthma epidemiology in minorities, examine potential reasons for asthma disparities, and discuss strategies of intervention and culturally sensitive care. PMID:21538075

  1. The link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities: an event-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Vincent, Wilson; Bakeman, Roger

    2010-09-01

    The current study used an event-based assessment approach to examine the day-to-day relationship between heterosexual men's alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward sexual minorities. Participants were 199 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 18-30 who completed (1) separate timeline followback interviews to assess alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities during the past year, and (2) written self-report measures of risk factors for aggression toward sexual minorities. Results indicated that aggression toward sexual minorities was twice as likely on a day when drinking was reported than on nondrinking days, with over 80% of alcohol-related aggressive acts perpetrated within the group context. Patterns of alcohol use (i.e., number of drinking days, mean drinks per drinking day, number of heavy drinking days) were not associated with perpetration after controlling for demographic variables and pertinent risk factors. Results suggest that it is the acute effects of alcohol, and not men's patterns of alcohol consumption, that facilitate aggression toward sexual minorities. More importantly, these data are the first to support an event-based link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities (or any minority group), and provide the impetus for future research to examine risk factors and mechanisms for intoxicated aggression toward sexual minorities and other stigmatized groups.

  2. Trans-diagnostic Psychopathology Factors and Sexual Minority Mental Health: Evidence of Disparities and Associations with Minority Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    Research on mental health disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexuals has traditionally taken a disorder-by-disorder approach. Recently developed trans-diagnostic approaches provide a new method to frame such investigations; however, trans-diagnostic factors have yet to be applied to sexual minority mental health disparities research. The current study applied this methodology to investigate mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual individuals in a large national probability sample (N = 34,653). Twelve-month diagnoses of 13 common mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders were modeled, and multi-group analysis indicated a sexual orientation-invariant trans-diagnostic latent structure. Significant disparities at the latent trans-diagnostic factor level were observed; these factor-level disparities are manifested as observed mental disorder disparities. Gender differences typically seen in trans-diagnostic research were not present between sexual minority women and men. Trans-diagnostic internalizing and externalizing factors were then used as outcomes in a minority stress framework and were positively predicted by lifetime history of sexual orientation-related minority stressors (i.e., discrimination and victimization). Implications for using trans-diagnostic approaches to frame intervention efforts, supplement disorder-by-disorder disparities methodologies, and synthesize piecemeal disparities literatures are discussed. PMID:25530981

  3. Migration, Multiple Sexual Partnerships, and Sexual Concurrency in the Garífuna Population of Honduras.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Anisha D; Pettifor, Audrey; Barrington, Clare; Marshall, Stephen W; Behets, Frieda; Guardado, Maria Elena; Farach, Nasim; Ardón, Elvia; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    The Garífuna, an ethnic minority group in Honduras, have been disproportionately affected by HIV. Previous research suggests that migration and high rates of multiple sexual partnerships are major drivers of the epidemic. Using data from a 2012 population-based survey, we assessed whether temporary migration was associated with (1) multiple sexual partnerships and (2) sexual concurrency among Garífuna men and women in Honduras. Among both men and women, temporary migration in the last year was associated with an increased likelihood of multiple sexual partnerships and with concurrency, though only the association between migration and multiple sexual partnerships among men was statistically significant (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio 1.7, 95 % CI 1.2-2.4). Migration may contribute to HIV/STI vulnerability among Garífuna men and women via increases in these sexual risk behaviors. Research conducted among men and women at elevated risk of HIV should continue to incorporate measures of mobility, including history of internal migration.

  4. Migration, multiple sexual partnerships, and sexual concurrency in the Garífuna population of Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Anisha D.; Pettifor, Audrey; Barrington, Clare; Marshall, Stephen W.; Behets, Frieda; Guardado, Maria Elena; Farach, Nasim; Ardón, Elvia; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    The Garífuna, an ethnic minority group in Honduras, have been disproportionately affected by HIV. Previous research suggests that migration and high rates of multiple sexual partnerships are major drivers of the epidemic. Using data from a 2012 population-based survey, we assessed whether temporary migration was associated with 1) multiple sexual partnerships and 2) sexual concurrency among Garífuna men and women in Honduras. Among both men and women, temporary migration in the last year was associated with an increased likelihood of multiple sexual partnerships and with concurrency, though only the association between migration and multiple sexual partnerships among men was statistically significant (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4). Migration may contribute to HIV/STI vulnerability among Garífuna men and women via increases in these sexual risk behaviors. Research conducted among men and women at elevated risk of HIV should continue to incorporate measures of mobility, including history of internal migration. PMID:26242612

  5. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed. PMID:27007469

  6. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed.

  7. Coping and Survival Skills: The Role School Personnel Play Regarding Support for Bullied Sexual Minority-Oriented Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Alexandra; Yarber, William L.; Sherwood-Laughlin, Catherine M.; Gray, Mary L.; Estell, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that bullying has serious health consequences, and sexual minority-oriented youth are disproportionately affected. Sexual minority-oriented youth include lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, or questioning (LGBTQ) individuals. This study examined the bullying experiences of sexual minority-oriented youth in a…

  8. A Comparison of Sexual Minority Youth Who Attend Religiously Affiliated Schools and Their Nonreligious-School-Attending Counterparts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Brandon T.; Heck, Nicholas C.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are an at-risk group for negative health outcomes. The present study compares descriptive characteristics and outness of sexual minority youth who attend religious schools to sexual minorities who do not attend religious schools, and also investigates if attending religiously affiliated schools is associated with levels of…

  9. Trajectories of dating violence: Differences by sexual minority status and gender.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Fromme, Kim

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how sexual minority status (as assessed using both identity and behavior) was associated with trajectories of dating violence. University students from a large Southwestern university completed questions on their sexual minority identity, the gender of their sexual partners, and about experiences of dating violence for six consecutive semesters (N = 1942). Latent growth curve modeling indicated that generally, trajectories of dating violence were stable across study participation. Sexual minority identity was associated with higher initial levels of dating violence at baseline, but also with greater decreases in dating violence across time. These differences were mediated by number of sexual partners. Having same and other-sex sexual partners was associated with higher levels of dating violence at baseline, and persisted in being associated with higher levels over time. No significant gender difference was observed regarding trajectories of dating violence.

  10. "There's so much at stake": sexual minority youth discuss dating violence.

    PubMed

    Gillum, Tameka L; DiFulvio, Gloria

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating violence among a sample of sexual minority youth. Focus groups were conducted as part of a larger study that surveyed 109 sexual minority youth between the ages of 18 and 24 years. Participants identified four main themes contributing to dating violence among same-sex couples: homophobia (societal and internalized); negotiating socially prescribed gender roles; assumed female connection; and other relationship issues. Such information is essential for determining the need for and content of dating violence services, including education, safety planning, and referrals for mental and physical health services for sexual minority youth.

  11. Immigrant Sexual Minority Latino Men in Rural North Carolina: An Exploration of Social Context, Social Behaviors, and Sexual Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Paul A.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant Sexual minority Latino men—who may or may not self-identify as gay—constitute a minority within a minority. Often labeled “hidden” and “hard-to-reach,” and marginalized along multiple dimensions, it is a sub-group about whom little is known. Informed by a Social Ecological Framework, we sought to describe key social variables for 190 such men in rural North Carolina and to test associations with three sexual outcomes: consistent condom use, number of sex partners, and sexual compulsivity. Participants reported limited English-language use, predominantly Latino close friends, middle levels of social support despite numerous social ties, and frequent experiences of discrimination. There were unique sets of correlates for each sexual outcome. Findings may inform health promotion interventions and guide future research. PMID:24344629

  12. The Association Between Supportive High School Environments and Depressive Symptoms and Suicidality Among Sexual Minority Students.

    PubMed

    Denny, Simon; Lucassen, Mathijs F G; Stuart, Jaimee; Fleming, Theresa; Bullen, Pat; Peiris-John, Roshini; Rossen, Fiona V; Utter, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if sexual minority students in supportive school environments experienced fewer depressive symptoms and lower rates of suicide ideation, plans and attempts ("suicidality") than sexual minority students in less supportive school environments. In 2007, a nationally representative sample (N = 9,056) of students from 96 high schools in New Zealand used Internet tablets to complete a health and well-being survey that included questions on sexual attractions, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Students reported their experience of supportive environments at school and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) bullying, and these items were aggregated to the school level. Teachers (n = 2,901) from participating schools completed questionnaires on aspects of school climate, which included how supportive their schools were toward sexual minority students. Multilevel models were used to estimate school effects on depressive symptoms and suicidality controlling for background characteristics of students. Sexual minority students were more likely to report higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality than their opposite-sex attracted peers (p < .001). Teacher reports of more supportive school environments for GLBT students were associated with fewer depressive symptoms among male sexual minority students (p = .006) but not for female sexual minority students (p = .09). Likewise in schools where students reported a more supportive school environment, male sexual minority students reported fewer depressive symptoms (p = .006) and less suicidality (p < .001) than in schools where students reported less favorable school climates. These results suggest that schools play an important role in providing safe and supportive environments for male sexual minority students.

  13. The Association Between Supportive High School Environments and Depressive Symptoms and Suicidality Among Sexual Minority Students.

    PubMed

    Denny, Simon; Lucassen, Mathijs F G; Stuart, Jaimee; Fleming, Theresa; Bullen, Pat; Peiris-John, Roshini; Rossen, Fiona V; Utter, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if sexual minority students in supportive school environments experienced fewer depressive symptoms and lower rates of suicide ideation, plans and attempts ("suicidality") than sexual minority students in less supportive school environments. In 2007, a nationally representative sample (N = 9,056) of students from 96 high schools in New Zealand used Internet tablets to complete a health and well-being survey that included questions on sexual attractions, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Students reported their experience of supportive environments at school and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) bullying, and these items were aggregated to the school level. Teachers (n = 2,901) from participating schools completed questionnaires on aspects of school climate, which included how supportive their schools were toward sexual minority students. Multilevel models were used to estimate school effects on depressive symptoms and suicidality controlling for background characteristics of students. Sexual minority students were more likely to report higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality than their opposite-sex attracted peers (p < .001). Teacher reports of more supportive school environments for GLBT students were associated with fewer depressive symptoms among male sexual minority students (p = .006) but not for female sexual minority students (p = .09). Likewise in schools where students reported a more supportive school environment, male sexual minority students reported fewer depressive symptoms (p = .006) and less suicidality (p < .001) than in schools where students reported less favorable school climates. These results suggest that schools play an important role in providing safe and supportive environments for male sexual minority students. PMID:25469988

  14. A Minority Stress – Emotion Regulation Model of Sexual Compulsivity among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Restar, Arjee; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual compulsivity represents a significant public health concern among gay and bisexual men given its co-occurrence with other mental health problems and HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to examine a model of sexual compulsivity based on minority stress theory and emotion regulation models of mental health among gay and bisexual men. Method Gay and bisexual men in New York City reporting at least nine past-90-day sexual partners (n = 374) completed measures of distal minority stressors (i.e., boyhood gender nonconformity and peer rejection, adulthood perceived discrimination), hypothesized proximal minority stress mediators (i.e., rejection sensitivity, internalized homonegativity), hypothesized universal mediators (i.e., emotion dysregulation, depression and anxiety), and sexual compulsivity. Results The hypothesized model fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.95, SRMR = 0.03). Distal minority stress processes (e.g., peer rejection) were generally found to confer risk for both proximal minority stressors (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and emotion dysregulation. Proximal minority stressors and emotion dysregulation, in turn, generally predicted sexual compulsivity both directly and indirectly through anxiety and depression. Conclusions The final model suggests that gay-specific (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and universal (e.g., emotion dysregulation) processes represent potential treatment targets to attenuate the impact of minority stress on gay and bisexual men's sexual health. Tests of interventions that address these targets to treat sexual compulsivity among gay and bisexual men represent a promising future research endeavor. PMID:25528179

  15. Korean version of the notification policy on sexual offenders: did it enhance public awareness of sexual crimes against minors?

    PubMed

    Shin, Junseob; Lee, Young-Boon

    2005-08-01

    This study reviewed the public notification policy of sexual offenders against minors in South Korea as compared to community notification programs in the United States. The study then examined the policy's impact on increasing the general public's awareness of such sexual crimes. This is based on the assumption that heightening public awareness can be a starting point in combating such crimes. Results of the data, drawn from a sample of 1,409 Koreans across the nation, showed that the notification policy enhanced public awareness. Factors related to this increase in awareness were people's concern about or familiarity with the policy and people's experience in identifying the existence of known sexual offenders in their communities. Based on the results of this study, strategies for enhancing public awareness of sexual crimes on minors were formulated. The need to develop treatment programs for sexual offenders was likewise highlighted. PMID:15983053

  16. I Want Your Sex: The Role of Sexual Exploration in Fostering Positive Sexual Self-Concepts for Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Mike C.; Talley, Amelia E.; Schwartz, Esther N.; Hancock, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Openness and self-exploration have been associated with myriad benefits. Within the realm of sexuality, sexual exploration may be 1 facet of openness and self-exploration that yields benefits. Prior literature suggests that such exploration may have benefits for sexual orientation minority persons, though limited research has investigated the benefits of sexual exploration for heterosexuals. The present study used data from 346 adult women (185 exclusively heterosexual, 161 not exclusively heterosexual) to investigate the role of sexual exploration as a mediator between sexual orientation status and positivity toward sex. Results of a structural equation modeling analysis supported mediation of the relationship between sexual orientation and sexual positivity via sexual exploration. Implications for future research and clinical interventions are presented. PMID:26380352

  17. Suicide Prevention Interventions for Sexual & Gender Minority Youth: An Unmet Need.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in the U.S. among youth ages 10 to 24. Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth face heightened risk for suicide and report greater odds of attempting suicide than their heteronormative peers. Contributing factors of experience, which are distinctly different from the experiences of heteronormative youth, place SGM youth at heightened risk for suicide. While interventions aimed at addressing suicide risk factors for all youth are being implemented and many have proven effective in the general population, no evidence-based intervention currently exists to reduce suicide risk within this special population. This perspective article discusses this need and proposes the development of an evidence-based suicide risk reduction intervention tailored to SGM youth. Creating a supportive school climate for SGM youth has been shown to reduce suicide risk and may provide protective effects for all youth while simultaneously meeting the unique needs of SGM youth. PMID:27354846

  18. Suicide Prevention Interventions for Sexual & Gender Minority Youth: An Unmet Need

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in the U.S. among youth ages 10 to 24. Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth face heightened risk for suicide and report greater odds of attempting suicide than their heteronormative peers. Contributing factors of experience, which are distinctly different from the experiences of heteronormative youth, place SGM youth at heightened risk for suicide. While interventions aimed at addressing suicide risk factors for all youth are being implemented and many have proven effective in the general population, no evidence-based intervention currently exists to reduce suicide risk within this special population. This perspective article discusses this need and proposes the development of an evidence-based suicide risk reduction intervention tailored to SGM youth. Creating a supportive school climate for SGM youth has been shown to reduce suicide risk and may provide protective effects for all youth while simultaneously meeting the unique needs of SGM youth. PMID:27354846

  19. Raising Sexual Minority Youths’ Health Levels by Incorporating Resiliencies Into Health Promotion Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Egan, James E.; Coulter, Robert W. S.; Friedman, M. Reuel; Stall, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Myriad health inequities that sexual minority youths (SMYs) experience have been documented over the past several decades. Evidence demonstrates that these are not a result of intrinsic characteristics; rather, they result from high levels of adversity that SMYs experience. Despite the pervasive marginalization that SMYs face, there is also evidence of great resilience within this population. It seems likely that if a culture of marginalization produces health inequities in SMYs, a culture of acceptance and integration can work to produce resiliencies. We have described how promoting forms of acceptance and integration could work to promote resilient SMYs despite an overarching culture of marginalization. Building on SMYs’ resiliencies may potentiate the effectiveness of health promotion interventions to reduce health disparities within this population. PMID:24328652

  20. Suicide Prevention Interventions for Sexual & Gender Minority Youth: An Unmet Need.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in the U.S. among youth ages 10 to 24. Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth face heightened risk for suicide and report greater odds of attempting suicide than their heteronormative peers. Contributing factors of experience, which are distinctly different from the experiences of heteronormative youth, place SGM youth at heightened risk for suicide. While interventions aimed at addressing suicide risk factors for all youth are being implemented and many have proven effective in the general population, no evidence-based intervention currently exists to reduce suicide risk within this special population. This perspective article discusses this need and proposes the development of an evidence-based suicide risk reduction intervention tailored to SGM youth. Creating a supportive school climate for SGM youth has been shown to reduce suicide risk and may provide protective effects for all youth while simultaneously meeting the unique needs of SGM youth.

  1. Emergence of clones in sexual populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neher, Richard A.; Vucelja, Marija; Mezard, Mark; Shraiman, Boris I.

    2013-01-01

    In sexual population, recombination reshuffles genetic variation and produces novel combinations of existing alleles, while selection amplifies the fittest genotypes in the population. If recombination is more rapid than selection, populations consist of a diverse mixture of many genotypes, as is observed in many populations. In the opposite regime, which is realized for example in the facultatively sexual populations that outcross in only a fraction of reproductive cycles, selection can amplify individual genotypes into large clones. Such clones emerge when the fitness advantage of some of the genotypes is large enough that they grow to a significant fraction of the population despite being broken down by recombination. The occurrence of this ‘clonal condensation’ depends, in addition to the outcrossing rate, on the heritability of fitness. Clonal condensation leads to a strong genetic heterogeneity of the population which is not adequately described by traditional population genetics measures, such as linkage disequilibrium. Here we point out the similarity between clonal condensation and the freezing transition in the random energy model of spin glasses. Guided by this analogy we explicitly calculate the probability, Y, that two individuals are genetically identical as a function of the key parameters of the model. While Y is the analog of the spin-glass order parameter, it is also closely related to rate of coalescence in population genetics: two individuals that are part of the same clone have a recent common ancestor.

  2. An Ecological Systems Comparison Between Homeless Sexual Minority Youths and Homeless Heterosexual Youths.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N

    2013-01-01

    This study examined risk and protective outcomes by comparing homeless sexual minority youths to heterosexual homeless youths regarding family, peer behaviors, school, mental health (suicide risk and depression), stigma, discrimination, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews (N = 147) were conducted with individuals ages 16-24 at three drop-in programs serving homeless youths in Toronto. Bivariate analyses indicated statistically significant differences between homeless sexual minorities (n=66) and their heterosexual counterparts (n=81) regarding all variables: family, peer behaviors, stigma, discrimination, mental health, substance use and sexual risk behaviors with the exception of school belonging. Specifically, homeless sexual minority youths fared more poorly (e.g. lower satisfaction with family communication, experienced more stigma, used more drugs and alcohol) than their heterosexual counterparts. Improving family communication may be a worthwhile intervention if the youths are still in contact with their families. Future research should focus on victimization in the context of multiple systems.

  3. [Distinguishing normal identity formation process for sexual minorities from obsessive compulsive disorder with sexual orientation obsessions].

    PubMed

    Igartua, Karine J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In synthesizing a homosexual or bisexual identity, an individual may go through different stages before coming to a positive healthy identity. It is likely that there will be a period in which homosexual yearnings will be unwanted. Sometimes this distress leads the person to consult a health professional. Conversion therapy has been proven both ineffective and harmful and therefore has been ethically prohibited by all major psychiatric and psychological associations. The responsible clinician will attempt to assist the individual in his acceptance of his sexual minority. Occasionally individuals without homoeroticism consult because of distress related to sexual identity questioning which poses a different problem for clinicians especially if the situation goes unrecognized. The objective of this paper is to describe homosexual obsessive compulsive disorder (HOCD) and distinguish it clinically from the normal process of sexual minority identity formation in western culture.Methods A literature review yielded very few descriptions of homosexual OCD. A retrospective chart review of all patients seen in the last 3 years at the McGill University Sexual Identity Centre was conducted to identify all the cases of OCD. Six cases were found, 4 of which were of HOCD and are presented. Similarities between cases are highlighted.Results All cases were young men with relatively little relationship and sexual experience. Most were rather shy and had some other obsessional history in the past though often at a sub-clinical threshold. Obsessional doubt about their orientation was very distressing and did not abate over time as would normally occur with a homoerotic individual. The four patients who had an obsession of being gay despite little or no homoerotism are presented in detail. They all presented mental compulsions, avoidance and physiological monitoring. Continuous internal debate trying to prove or disprove sexual orientation was a ubiquitous mental

  4. Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project): design and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i) sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii) their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii) disclosure of sexuality; (iv) use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v) the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention) are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i) ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii) a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii) NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv) sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and the Terrence

  5. [Mental health implications of workplace discrimination against sexual and gender minorities: A literature review].

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Marie; Chamberland, Line

    2015-01-01

    Despite legislative advances in terms of workplace equality for sexual and gender minorities (SGM), available data ascertains the persistence of workplace discrimination of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and especially of transgender/transsexual employees. This article, based on an extensive literature review, explores the relationship between different types of workplace discrimination experiences and their impacts on the mental health of SGM and of different sub-populations: men who have sex with men, non-heterosexual women, lesbian and gay parents, and trans people. Furthermore, the article explores certain individual and systemic protection and risk factors that have an impact on this relationship, such as coming-out at work and organisational support. Finally, the existing literature on workplace discrimination and mental health of sexual and gender minorities highlights the importance, in the current legal and social context, of intersectional approaches and of research on homo- and trans-negative microaggressions. The article ends with a discussion on the implications for practice, research, and workplace settings, as well as with several recommendations for these settings. PMID:26966853

  6. Sexual discourses and strategies among minority ethnic youth in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Cense, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the way minority ethnic youth in the Netherlands evaluate their sexual experiences, how they frame these experiences in different sexual discourses and how they deal with conflicts between different sexual discourses, both at home and in Dutch society. During 46 narrative interviews, Dutch young people (aged 12-22 years) from different minority ethnic communities shared their sexual histories and their dreams for the future relating to love and sexuality. Different sexual discourses can be identified in the language they used to describe their ideas and their experiences. Young people grow up with a variety of discourses but actively re-shape them according to circumstances and need. In many cases, young people experience a conflict between the discourses of the home and those that are prevalent more generally in Dutch society. Young people's ways of negotiating these contradictory discourses comprise four main strategies: (1) conforming to parents' values, (2) breaking up with parents, (3) leading a double life and (4) integrating competing discourses. By bringing together different sexual discourses and acknowledging diverse strategies, sexual health policies can become more effective in promoting sexual health for minority ethnic youth. Findings from the study add fuel to debate on understanding (sexual) agency among young people, exhibiting the social 'embeddedness' of individual agency.

  7. Perceived interpersonal discrimination and depressive symptoms among sexual minority youth: Is religious affiliation a protective factor?

    PubMed Central

    Gattis, Maurice N.; Woodford, Michael R.; Han, Yoonsun

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. Midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage, as well as those among peers who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group’s stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth’s resilience to interpersonal discrimination. PMID:25119387

  8. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 (SD= 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ2 (83) = 402.9, p <.001, CFI=.94, TLI=.92, SRMR= .07, and RMSEA=.06, accounting for 73% of variance in psychological distress. Greater use of maladaptive coping and less use of sexual minority-specific coping were associated with higher psychological distress. Although maladaptive coping mediated the relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship. PMID:25530980

  9. School Support Groups, Other School Factors, and the Safety of Sexual Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodenow, Carol; Szalacha, Laura; Westheimer, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Sexual minority adolescents--those self-identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or with same-sex desires or sexual experiences--report higher rates of victimization and suicidality than their heterosexual peers, yet little empirical research has examined school factors associated with these risks. This study used data from the Massachusetts…

  10. Using the Information-Motivation Behavioral Model to Predict Sexual Behavior among Underserved Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Stein, Judith A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Hindman, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Testing, refining, and tailoring theoretical approaches that are hypothesized to reduce sexual risk behaviors among adolescent subpopulations is an important task. Relatively little is known about the relationship between components of the information-motivation-behavior (IMB) model and sexual behaviors among underage minority youth.…

  11. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs by College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Daniel G.; Calleja, Nancy G.; MacDonald, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the 2009 "National College Health Assessment" were analyzed by gender and sexual orientation for college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Male and female students identified as having a minority sexual orientation (gay or bisexual) were significantly more likely to use nonmedical prescription drugs than…

  12. Relationship Trajectories and Psychological Well-Being among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an…

  13. Religiosity and Alcohol Use in Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Danner, Fred; Riggle, Ellen D. B.

    2008-01-01

    Despite interest in the role of religiosity in youth development and health behavior, few studies have examined these associations in sexual minority youth. Participants (n = 11,699) who were adolescents (wave 1) and young adults (wave 3) in the Add Health survey were used to examine proximal and distal religiosity by sexual identity group and to…

  14. The Role of Personality in Predicting Drug and Alcohol Use Among Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Nicholas A.; Oost, Kathryn M.; Heck, Nicholas C.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Research consistently demonstrates that sexual minority status is associated with increased risk of problematic substance use. Existing literature in this area has focused on group-specific minority stress factors (e.g., victimization and internalized heterosexism). However, no known research has tested the incremental validity of personality traits as predictors of substance use beyond identified group-specific risk factors. Methods A sample of 704 sexual minority adults were recruited nationally from LGBTQQ community organizations and social networking websites and asked to complete an online survey containing measures of personality, sexual minority stress, and substance use. Results Hierarchical regression models were constructed to test the incremental predictive validity of Five-Factor personality traits over and above known sexual minority risk factors. Consistent with hypotheses, extraversion and conscientiousness were associated with drug and alcohol use after accounting for minority stress factors, and all factors except agreeableness were associated with substance use at the bivariate level of analysis. Conclusion Future research should seek to better understand the role of normal personality structures and processes conferring risk for substance use among sexual minorities. PMID:25347022

  15. Sexuality-related work discrimination and its association with the health of sexual minority emerging and young adult men in the Detroit Metro Area.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Pingel, Emily; Vanhemert, William; Loveluck, Jimena

    2014-03-01

    Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes among minority populations. The increasing evidence regarding health disparities among sexual minorities has underscored the importance of addressing sexuality discrimination as a public health issue. We conducted a web-based survey between May and September of 2012 in order to obtain a diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (ages 18-29; N = 397; 83% gay; 49% Black, 27% White, 15% Latino) living in the Detroit Metro Area (Michigan, USA). Using multivariate regression models, we examined the association between overall health (self-rated health, days in prior month when their physical or mental health was not good, limited functionality) and experiences of sexuality-based work discrimination. Fifteen percent reported at least one experience of sexuality-based work discrimination in the prior year. Recent workplace discrimination was associated with poorer self-rated health, a greater number of days when health was not good, and more functional limitation. We discuss the importance of addressing sexuality-related discrimination as a public health problem and propose multilevel intervention strategies to address these discriminatory practices.

  16. Sexuality-related work discrimination and its association with the health of sexual minority emerging and young adult men in the Detroit Metro Area.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Pingel, Emily; Vanhemert, William; Loveluck, Jimena

    2014-03-01

    Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes among minority populations. The increasing evidence regarding health disparities among sexual minorities has underscored the importance of addressing sexuality discrimination as a public health issue. We conducted a web-based survey between May and September of 2012 in order to obtain a diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (ages 18-29; N = 397; 83% gay; 49% Black, 27% White, 15% Latino) living in the Detroit Metro Area (Michigan, USA). Using multivariate regression models, we examined the association between overall health (self-rated health, days in prior month when their physical or mental health was not good, limited functionality) and experiences of sexuality-based work discrimination. Fifteen percent reported at least one experience of sexuality-based work discrimination in the prior year. Recent workplace discrimination was associated with poorer self-rated health, a greater number of days when health was not good, and more functional limitation. We discuss the importance of addressing sexuality-related discrimination as a public health problem and propose multilevel intervention strategies to address these discriminatory practices. PMID:24659928

  17. Sexuality-related work discrimination and its association with the health of sexual minority emerging and young adult men in the Detroit Metro Area

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Pingel, Emily; VanHemert, William; Loveluck, Jimena

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes among minority populations. The increasing evidence regarding health disparities among sexual minorities has underscored the importance of addressing sexuality discrimination as a public health issue. We conducted a web-based survey between May and September of 2012 in order to obtain a diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (ages 18–29; N = 397; 83% gay; 49% Black, 27% White, 15% Latino) living in the Detroit Metro Area (Michigan, USA). Using multivariate regression models, we examined the association between overall health (self-rated health, days in prior month when their physical or mental health was not good, limited functionality) and experiences of sexuality-based work discrimination. Fifteen percent reported at least one experience of sexuality-based work discrimination in the prior year. Recent workplace discrimination was associated with poorer self-rated health, a greater number of days when health was not good, and more functional limitation. We discuss the importance of addressing sexuality-related discrimination as a public health problem and propose multilevel intervention strategies to address these discriminatory practices. PMID:24659928

  18. Minority Stress and Mental Health among Dutch LGBs: Examination of Differences between Sex and Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke

    2011-01-01

    Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States.…

  19. Predictors of feminist activism among sexual-minority and heterosexual college women.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Carly K; Ayres, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in activism is related to several aspects of social development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Therefore, it is important to examine the correlates of different forms of activism, such as feminist collective action, among all youth. However, previous research has not investigated young sexual-minority women's engagement with feminist collective action. This study examined predictors of college-aged heterosexual and sexual-minority women's commitment to and participation in feminist activism. Sexual orientation, number of years in college, social support, experiences with discrimination, and gender identity were tested as predictors of commitment to and participation in feminist activism with a sample of 280 college-aged women (173 heterosexuals and 107 sexual minorities). Similar predictors were related to both commitment to and participation in feminist activism. However, for sexual-minority women, but not heterosexual women, the number of years in college was correlated with participation in feminist activism. Young sexual-minority women reported more participation in feminist activism than did heterosexual women, even after controlling for social support, discrimination, and gender identity.

  20. Structural Stigma and Cigarette Smoking in a Prospective Cohort Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual minority youth are more likely to smoke cigarettes than heterosexuals but research into the determinants of these disparities is lacking. Purpose To examine whether exposure to structural stigma predicts cigarette smoking in sexual minority youth. Methods Prospective data from adolescents participating in the Growing Up Today Study (2000–2005). Results Among sexual minority youth, living in low structural stigma states (e.g., states with non-discrimination policies inclusive of sexual orientation) was associated with a lower risk of cigarette smoking after adjustment for individual-level risk factors (Relative Risk[RR]=0.97, 95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 0.96, 0.99, p=0.02). This association remained marginally significant after additional controls for potential state-level confounders (RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.00, p=0.06). In contrast, among heterosexual youth, structural stigma was not associated with past-year smoking rates, documenting specificity of these effects to sexual minority youth. Conclusions Structural stigma represents a potential risk factor for cigarette smoking among sexual minority adolescents. PMID:24136092

  1. Sexually coercive behavior in male youth: population survey of general and specific risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth. PMID:19888644

  2. Sexually coercive behavior in male youth: population survey of general and specific risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth.

  3. [Population problems of the Gaoshan minority in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Chen, G

    1984-03-29

    The Gaoshan minority constitutes about 2% of Taiwan's population, and the total Gaoshan minority is estimated to have a population of 400,000. Most of them live on the island's west coast, in the central mountains, and eastern valleys. The birth rate of the Gaoshan minority is slightly higher than that of the average population, but its death rate is about two to three times above average. From 1949 to 1979, the population growth rate for the Gaoshan minority was about 79%. Close to 97% of the population is made up of young people and only 3% are old people. There are more males than females, and the age for marriage is generally young. The timespan of childbearing for the female is comparatively long. The educational and cultural levels of the Gaoshan minority are low. Most of the people earn their living by engaging in agriculture, together with additional activities in fishing and hunting; approximately 75% of the working people belong to this category. Only 14% are people who are working in industry, mining, commerce, and the transportation business. About 11% work in other professions. In recent years, the average income from agriculture and animal husbandry has gradually decreased, and the income from industrial wages and business has shown an obvious increase.

  4. Drivers of Disparity: Differences in Socially-Based Risk Factors of Self-injurious and Suicidal Behaviors Among Sexual Minority College Students

    PubMed Central

    Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) populations have increased prevalence of both self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, but reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. Objective To test the association between socially-based stressors (e.g., victimization, discrimination) and self-injurious behavior, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Participants A national sample of college-attending 18- to 24-year-olds. Methods Random or census samples from post-secondary educational institutions that administered the National College Health Assessment during the Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 semesters. Results Sexual minorities reported more socially-based stressors than heterosexuals. Bisexuals exhibited greatest prevalence of self-injurious and suicidal behaviors. In adjusted models, intimate partner violence was most consistently associated with self-injurious behaviros. Conclusions Sexual minorities' elevated risks of self-injurious and suicidal behaviors may stem from higher exposure to socially-based stressors. Within-group differences among sexual minorities offer insight to specific risk factors that may contribute to elevated self-injurious and suicidal behaviors in sexual minority populations. PMID:22316411

  5. Smoking Cessation Outcomes Among Sexual and Gender Minority and Nonminority Smokers in Extended Smoking Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Humfleet, Gary L.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Reus, Victor I.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual and gender minority individuals (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender [LGBT]) have a higher smoking prevalence than nonminority individuals. There is limited evidence of smoking abstinence success in nontailored smoking treatments among LGBT smokers. Methods: This study is a secondary data analysis comparing the efficacy of extended, nontailored treatments among sexual and gender minority and nonminority smokers. Data from two clinical trials were combined to increase power and generalizability of the findings. Trials began with 12 weeks of counseling, nicotine replacement, and bupropion, after which participants were randomized to an extended treatment. Results: Follow-up occurred at weeks 12, 24, 52, 64, and 104. Of the sample (n = 777), 17% identified as sexual and gender minority and 83% as nonminority. The sample was 75% non-Hispanic White, with 86% completing at least some college, and 68% were employed. Sexual and gender minorities were younger and indicated a greater desire to quit smoking than nonminority smokers. No other differences emerged on demographic, smoking, or mood variables. The average Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score was 4.8, and mean daily cigarettes was 19.8. The generalized estimating equations model revealed no significant differences in abstinence between sexual and gender minority smokers and nonminority smokers at all follow-up assessments. Conclusions: Sexual and gender minority smokers appear as likely to quit or abstain as nonminority smokers in extended, nontailored interventions. However, these findings may not generalize to other geographic areas, where access to treatment is limited or a higher stigma of sexual orientation exists. PMID:24727483

  6. Implications of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race/ethnicity for psychological distress among working-class sexual minorities: the United for Health Study, 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    Chae, David H; Krieger, Nancy; Bennett, Gary G; Lindsey, Jane C; Stoddard, Anne M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of demographic characteristics, the prevalence of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race, and relationships with psychological distress among 178 working-class sexual minorities (i.e., who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or had ever engaged in same-sex sexual behaviors) recruited to the United for Health Study (2003-2004). The results indicated considerable heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior, with a majority of sexual minority participants not identifying as LGB (74.2%). The authors found significant demographic differences in LGB identification by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, LGB participants had higher levels of psychological distress than non-LGB-identified sexual minorities. Linear regression analyses revealed that reports of racial/ethnic discrimination and sexuality discrimination were associated with higher levels of psychological distress among sexual minority participants. The results underscore the need to collect multiple measures of sexuality in conducting research on racially diverse working-class communities; to consider demographic factors in collecting sexuality data; and to disaggregate information on sexuality by LGB identification. Findings also highlight the importance of addressing discrimination in ameliorating problematic mental health outcomes among working-class sexual minorities.

  7. [Commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls. A multifocal, exploratory and prospective study in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D; Dassa, K S; Kenmogne, J B; Abanda Ngon, G

    2009-02-01

    To obtain reliable information on commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls under the age of 21, a multifocal, exploratry and prospective using a questionnaire was undertaken in Cameroon. This investigation was initiated and funded by the Cercle International pour la Promotion de la Création (CIPCRE) and carried out by the Cameroon Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CASPCAN). The survey was performed during the last quarter of year 2004 in four major cities of Cameroon, i.e. Yaoundé, Douala, Bamenca and Bafoussam. Of the 800 questionnaires that were distributed, 722 were considered as suitable for analysis (90.3%). A total of 291 minor girls were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, i.e., 40% of the population studied. The mean age of the victims was 16.6 years (range, 9-20 years). The main reason given for entering prostitution was poverty. The victims were fairly well educated but the level of instruction was not sufficient to find a job paying an income comparable to prostitution. Many were from large families (mean, 7.1 children). The victims' family was monogamous in 40.2% of cases, polygamous in 24.4%, and monoparental in 35.4%. Eighty percent of the victims already had run away from home at least once due to problems in their families ranging from severe corporal punishment (25.8%) and mistreatment linked to parental alcohol and drug abuse to forced early marriage (27.5%) and intrafamilial sexual abuse. A large proportion of the victims (36.4%) were mothers who could not attend school and could not find work. Many victims were completely neglected by their own parents with 43.4% of parents being aware of the activities of their daughters but only 10.6% being opposed to it. Most (78.5%) had good knowledge of the risk of HIV and used condoms regular. These results confirms the general hypothesis of the authors that commercial exploitation of minor girls is widespread in Cameroon. The authors recommend development of a national

  8. The experience of relapse to unsafe sexual behavior among HIV-positive, heterosexual, minority men.

    PubMed

    Sherman, D W; Kirton, C A

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the phenomenon of relapse to unsafe sexual behavior in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive, heterosexual, minority men. In-depth interviews were conducted by using a purposive sample of 18 HIV-positive, heterosexual, minority men who were recruited from an outpatient acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) clinic in upstate New York and a community-based HIV/AIDS service organization in New York City. All participants expressed concern about the seriousness and health threat of unsafe sexual behaviors. The perceived benefits and barriers to unsafe sexual practices were identified. Content analysis revealed the following themes related to relapse to unsafe sexual behavior: drug and alcohol use, state of mind, "looking good" and "helping" fallacies, male-female relationship issues, influence of friends, weighing the risks, sexual preparation, uncontrollable sexual urges, and the symbolic meaning of condoms. Clinical implications related to health assessment, interventions, and health education and prevention programs for HIV-positive heterosexual, minority men and their sexual partners are presented.

  9. Lifetime victimization, hazardous drinking and depression among heterosexual and sexual minority women

    PubMed Central

    HUGHES, TONDA L.; JOHNSON, TIMOTHY P.; STEFFEN, ALANA D.; WILSNACK, SHARON C.; EVERETT, BETHANY

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Substantial research documents sexual-orientation-related mental health disparities, but relatively few studies have explored underlying causes of these disparities. The goals of this paper were to (1) understand how differences in sexual identity and victimization experiences influence risk of hazardous drinking and depression, and (2) describe variations across sexual minority subgroups. Methods We pooled data from the 2001 National Study of Health and Life Experiences of Women (NSHLEW) and the 2001 Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women (CHLEW) study to compare rates of victimization, hazardous drinking, and depression between heterosexual women and sexual minority women (SMW), and to test the relationship between number of victimization experiences and the study outcomes in each of five sexual identity subgroups. Results Rates of each of the major study variables varied substantially by sexual identity, with bisexual and mostly heterosexual women showing significantly higher risk than heterosexual women on one or both of the study outcomes. Number of victimization experiences explained some, but not all, of the risk of hazardous drinking and depression among SMW. Conclusions Although victimization plays an important role, sexual-minority-specific stressors, such as stigma and discrimination, likely also helps explain substance use and mental health disparities among SMW. PMID:26789712

  10. Sexual selection hinders adaptation in experimental populations of yeast

    PubMed Central

    Reding, L. P.; Swaddle, J. P.; Murphy, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection, the suite of processes that lead to differential mating success among individuals, probably influences the evolutionary trajectory of populations. Because sexual selection often shifts traits away from their survival optima, strong sexual selection pressures are thought to increase potential for population extinction, especially during environmental change. Sexual selection pressures may also increase the opportunity for speciation by accelerating the generation of pre-zygotic isolation among populations. These relationships remain largely untested experimentally. Here, we allow populations of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to evolve for approximately 250 generations with altered sex ratios in order to test the effect of the strength of sexual selection on the fate of populations. We find that populations experiencing stronger sexual selection are less able to adapt to a novel environment compared with populations experiencing weaker sexual selection or no sex, and that strong sexual selection erases the benefits of sexual reproduction. This pattern persists when fitness is assayed in a closely related environment. We also identify a trend that may suggest the beginning of pre-zygotic isolation between populations experiencing stronger sexual selection, though this is not statistically significant. These results highlight the importance of sexual selection in shaping macroevolutionary patterns and biodiversity. PMID:23485874

  11. From patients to providers: changing the culture in medicine toward sexual and gender minorities.

    PubMed

    Mansh, Matthew; Garcia, Gabriel; Lunn, Mitchell R

    2015-05-01

    Equality for sexual and gender minorities (SGMs)-including members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities-has become an integral part of the national conversation in the United States. Although SGM civil rights have expanded in recent years, these populations continue to experience unique health and health care disparities, including poor access to health care, stigmatization, and discrimination. SGM trainees and physicians also face challenges, including derogatory comments, humiliation, harassment, fear of being ostracized, and residency/job placement discrimination. These inequities are not mutually exclusive to either patients or providers; instead, they are intertwined parts of a persistent, negative culture in medicine toward SGM individuals.In this Perspective, the authors argue that SGM physicians must lead this charge for equality by fostering diversity and inclusion in medicine. They posit that academic medicine can accomplish this goal by (1) modernizing research on the physician workforce, (2) implementing new policies and programs to promote safe and supportive training and practice environments, and (3) developing recruitment practices to ensure a diverse, competent physician workforce that includes SGM individuals.These efforts will have an immediate impact by identifying and empowering new leaders to address SGM health care reform, creating diverse training environments that promote cultural competency, and aligning medicine with other professional fields (e.g., business, law) that already are working toward these goals. By tackling the inequities that SGM providers face, academic medicine can normalize sexual and gender identity disclosure and promote a welcoming, supportive environment for everyone in medicine, including patients.

  12. The health status of minority populations in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Nickens, H. W.

    1991-01-01

    There is increasing national recognition that while our nation's health care system is the most expensive in the world, the health care status of Americans overall ranks poorly compared with other Western, industrialized nations. In the United States we tend to look at minority-majority variations of health status, as well as the variations of many other indicators by race or ethnicity, because race and ethnicity are particularly important components of our society. In general, health status indicators of minority Americans are worse than those of whites. In some locales, death rates of minority Americans are comparable to those of Third World nations. At the same time, minority Americans make up a rapidly increasing proportion of the nation's population and work force. Our baseline national data on some minority groups, however, currently are inadequate to detect shifts in health status. Finally, the rapidly expanding problem of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among some minority populations provides both an imperative and an opportunity to learn how model prevention programs should be designed and executed. PMID:1877226

  13. Disclosure experiences of sexual minority college student victims of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Sylaska, Kateryna M; Edwards, Katie M

    2015-06-01

    Although research on disclosure following intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is burgeoning, sexual minority young adults' (lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, questioning, etc.; LGBQ+) experiences have not received equal attention. The current study employed the minority stress framework to examine disclosure experiences of LGBQ+ college students across the United States reporting physical IPV victimization within their current relationship (n = 77). Participants completed measures assessing minority stress and IPV disclosure, and answered open-ended questions regarding the most and least helpful persons/responses to disclosure or reasons for non-disclosure. Results indicated that approximately one-third (35 %) of victims disclosed to at least one person, with friends being the most common recipients. Thematic analyses indicated that talking or listening to the victim was considered the most helpful response and not understanding the situation least helpful. Reasons for non-disclosure centered on themes of the victims' perception that the IPV was not a big deal. Quantitative findings regarding physical IPV disclosure indicated that non-disclosers experienced greater minority stress than disclosers. The current study suggests the presence of differences between sexual minority (i.e., LGBQ +persons) and non-sexual minority persons, as well as between LGBQ+ young adults/college students and older adults and presents a theoretical structure (i.e., minority stress framework) through which these differences may be understood.

  14. How Does Sexual Minority Stigma “Get Under the Skin”? A Psychological Mediation Framework

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual minorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared to heterosexuals. The field has identified two distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present paper is to develop a theoretical framework that integrates the important insights from these literatures. The framework postulates that (a) sexual minorities confront increased stress exposure resulting from stigma; (b) this stigma-related stress creates elevations in general emotion dysregulation, social/interpersonal problems, and cognitive processes conferring risk for psychopathology; and (c) these processes in turn mediate the relationship between stigma-related stress and psychopathology. It is argued that this framework can, theoretically, illuminate how stigma adversely affects mental health and, practically, inform clinical interventions. Evidence for the predictive validity of this framework is reviewed, with particular attention paid to illustrative examples from research on depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders. PMID:19702379

  15. A Model of Asian and Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Adkins, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender…

  16. Health Communication Practices among Parents and Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2014-01-01

    Positive perceptions of parent-child communication can influence behavioral outcomes such as sexual behavior and substance use among young people. Parent-child communication has been effective in modifying adverse health outcomes among heterosexual youth; however, limited research has examined the perceptions of parent-child communication among…

  17. Legal issues associated with sexual activity between adults and minors in Texas: a review.

    PubMed

    Smith, P B; Mumford, D M; Foreman, S

    1999-07-01

    Recent research on adolescent mothers and the age of their sexual partners has stimulated discussion of whether legal action should be taken against adult men who engage in sexual intercourse with minors. A nonrandom poll that started as casual questions but extended over 6 months to 52 doctors initiated this review. It became apparent that the primary care physicians (pediatrics, family medicine, and internal medicine) had little, if any, understanding of some key legal facts in Texas associated with adolescent sexuality and pregnancy, especially when adult partners are involved. This article provides a legislative overview for practitioners in an attempt to clarify the law, remediate any deficiency of knowledge, and remind physicians of their role in reporting sexual abuse of minors. PMID:10434769

  18. Exploring shame, guilt, and risky substance use among sexual minority men and women.

    PubMed

    Hequembourg, Amy L; Dearing, Ronda L

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the interrelations among shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, internalized heterosexism (IH), and problematic substance use among 389 gay, lesbian, and bisexual men and women. Problematic alcohol and drug use were positively related to shame-proneness and negatively related to guilt-proneness. Bisexuals reported riskier substance use behaviors, lower levels of guilt-proneness, and higher levels of IH than gay men and lesbians. Furthermore, study findings indicated that shame and IH are related. Additional investigations of these associations would supplement current understandings of sexual minority stress and advance the development of substance-related intervention and prevention efforts targeting sexual minorities.

  19. Sexual Minority Women and Alcohol: Intersections between drinking, relational contexts, stress and coping

    PubMed Central

    Condit, Megan; Kitaji, Kai; Drabble, Laurie; Trocki, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Few studies explore sexual minority women’s experiences and perceptions of alcohol. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six sexual minority women who reported having sought help for alcohol problems in the past and six who did not. Themes emerged in two broad areas: stressors that contributed to heavy or problem drinking and factors that enhanced coping and reduced both stress and problem use. Alcohol use across groups was framed in terms of social context (e.g., bar patronage), stress management, and addiction. The findings of the study underscore the importance of considering the role of alcohol in managing stress as well coping factors that may inform social service interventions. PMID:22228984

  20. Adherence to Mammography Screening Guidelines Among Transgender Persons and Sexual Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Whorms, Debra S; King, Dana S; Potter, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    We used retrospective (2012-2013) chart review to examine breast cancer screening among transgender persons and sexual minority women (n = 1263) attending an urban community health center in Massachusetts. Transgender were less likely than cisgender patients and bisexuals were less likely than heterosexuals and lesbians to adhere to mammography screening guidelines (respectively, adjusted odds ratios = 0.53 and 0.56; 95% confidence intervals = 0.31, 0.91 and 0.34, 0.92) after adjustment for sociodemographics. Enhanced cancer prevention outreach is needed among gender and sexual minorities.

  1. Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

  2. A Rainbow [Dis]connection?: Comparing Perceptions on Pre-Service Teachers' Preparation to Work with Minority Sexual and Gender Identity Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Reagan J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite research demonstrating the effects of hostile school climates on the academic achievements of minority sexual and gender identity (MSGI) youth, little attention is paid to preparing future teachers to work with this diverse student population. Given the importance of making learning environments safe and welcoming for all students, this…

  3. Does Parental Monitoring Moderate the Relation between Parent-Child Communication and Pre-Coital Sexual Behaviours among Urban, Minority Early Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Diane; Markham, Christine; Swank, Paul; Baumler, Elizabeth; McCurdy, Sheryl; Tortolero, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parental monitoring (PM) as a potential moderator of the relation between parent-child communication (PCC) and pre-coital sexual behaviours (PCSB) in an urban, minority, early adolescent population. Seventh-grade students (n = 1609) reported PCC, PM and PCSB. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess for…

  4. Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in…

  5. [Credibility of allegations of under age minors regarding sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Hayez, J Y; Vervier, J F; Charlier, D

    1994-01-01

    When a child under age states he/she has been sexually abused, there seldom exists an objective certainty to support the allegation. Whereas clinicians know that a child who speaks spontaneously probably speaks the truth, it is nonetheless difficult to exclude the possibility of fabulating, lying or mistaking. The error probability is sharply increased when abuse is referred by a parent, specially in a context of parental separation. This article thus presents a review of criteria which help to better assess the truth or error of allegations. Criteria include analysis of the child's talk, application of projective techniques, observation of his/her behavior, etc. The author also describes some differential diagnoses based on the behaviors and sexual allegations of children under age. PMID:7878137

  6. The Last Bastion of Sexual and Gender Prejudice? Sexualities, Race, Gender, Religiosity, and Spirituality in the Examination of Prejudice Toward Sexual and Gender Minorities.

    PubMed

    Cragun, Ryan T; Sumerau, J Edward

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has reported that many Americans hold prejudicial attitudes toward sexual and gender minorities. Most of this research analyzed attitudes toward target categories in isolation and not in relation to attitudes toward heterosexuals. In addition, most previous research has not examined attitudes of members of sexual and gender minority categories toward other categories. While some research has examined the influence of religiosity on attitudes toward sexual and gender minorities, none of these studies has examined religiosity while also examining the influence of spirituality. In this article we drew on insights from queer theory to examine attitudes toward heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals, as well as individuals who practice polygamy, among college students. Three samples gathered over a four-year period (2009, 2011, 2013) at a private, nonsectarian, midsized urban university in the Southeastern United States were used. We found that heterosexuals had the most positive rating, followed in order of rating by gay/lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals, and then those who practice polygamy. Regression analyses revealed gender and race were significant predictors of attitudes toward various sexual and gender categories. Holding a literalistic view of the Bible and self-identifying as more religious were related to more negative views toward sexual minorities, while self-identifying as more spiritual was related to more positive views. PMID:25116166

  7. A Relational Model of Sexual Minority Mental and Physical Health: The Negative Effects of Shame on Relationships, Loneliness, and Health

    PubMed Central

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at higher risk for mental and physical health disparities than heterosexuals, and some of these disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test four models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress. PMID:26010289

  8. A relational model of sexual minority mental and physical health: The negative effects of shame on relationships, loneliness, and health.

    PubMed

    Mereish, Ethan H; Poteat, V Paul

    2015-07-01

    Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at an increased risk for poorer mental and physical health outcomes than heterosexuals, and some of these health disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test 4 models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress.

  9. A relational model of sexual minority mental and physical health: The negative effects of shame on relationships, loneliness, and health.

    PubMed

    Mereish, Ethan H; Poteat, V Paul

    2015-07-01

    Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at an increased risk for poorer mental and physical health outcomes than heterosexuals, and some of these health disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test 4 models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress. PMID:26010289

  10. Maintaining the privacy of a minor's sexual orientation and gender identity in the medical environment.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Dealing with self-identity, sexual orientation, and gender identity is often a struggle for minors. The potential negative outcomes minors face when their sexual orientation or gender identity is disclosed to others before they have an opportunity to address it in their own time has become more evident in the media. Because of the intimate nature of the provider-patient relationship, the healthcare provider may be the first person in whom they confide. If a minor receives a positive, nonjudgmental experience from his or her provider, it will often lead to a more positive self-image, whereas a negative, judgmental experience will often result in the opposite. Critical components of their experience are a sense of trust that the provider will keep the information confidential and the healthcare setting being organized in a manner that promotes privacy. Healthcare providers play a key role in developing and projecting a safe, comfortable environment where the minor can discretely discuss issues of sexual orientation and gender identity. Establishing this environment will usually facilitate a positive therapeutic relationship between the minor and the provider. Steps healthcare providers can take to achieve trust from minor patients and ensure confidentiality of sensitive information are understanding privacy laws, making privacy a priority, getting consent, training staff, and demonstrating privacy in the environment.

  11. A Social Ecological Approach to Understanding Correlates of Lifetime Sexual Assault among Sexual Minority Women in Toronto, Canada: Results from a Cross-Sectional Internet-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logie, C. H.; Alaggia, R.; Rwigema, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma, discrimination and violence contribute to health disparities among sexual minorities. Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience sexual violence at similar or higher rates than heterosexual women. Most research with LBQ women, however, has focused on measuring prevalence of sexual violence rather than its association with health…

  12. [Sexual minorities: Concepts, attitudes and structure for an appropriate psychotherapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Igartua, Karine J; Montoro, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective To propose a theoretical model and clinical approach to sexual minority patients who consult mental health professionalsMethods Clinicians at the McGill University Sexual Identity Center (MUSIC) who have been treating patients from various sexual minorities for more than 15 years present useful theoretical constructs of gender and sexuality as well as guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of patients consulting for discomfort or confusion surrounding their sexual orientation, their gender identity or both, based on both the current literature and their clinical experience.Results The notions of non-binary construction of gender, of social determinism of gender roles and expression, and of gender creativity are presented. Sexual orientation is divided into four most commonly used dimensions (emotional attraction, physical attraction, behaviour and identity); the fluidity of these and their potential non-concordance are described. The fact that attraction to one gender is independent of attraction to another gender is highlighted. An attitude of openness to all forms of gender expression and sexual orientation constellations is encouraged to allow the patient free exploration of the several facets of their sexuality.Various domains to explore in evaluating sexual orientation and gender as well as therapeutic avenues are proposed. Areas to enquire about include: mental, physical and social experiences of gender, eroticism and sexual fantasies towards all genders, emotional attraction towards them, sexual and romantic experiences, comfort and certainty about one's identity and about disclosing it.Psychoeducation can be used to teach about sexual diversity and to assess the risks and benefits of coming out to self, family, friends, co-workers or strangers. Cognitive strategies can be undertaken to debunk homophobic and transphobic myths which may fuel poor self-esteem. Psychodynamic approaches can be used to heal the narcissistic wounds of homophobia

  13. [Sexual minorities: Concepts, attitudes and structure for an appropriate psychotherapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Igartua, Karine J; Montoro, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective To propose a theoretical model and clinical approach to sexual minority patients who consult mental health professionalsMethods Clinicians at the McGill University Sexual Identity Center (MUSIC) who have been treating patients from various sexual minorities for more than 15 years present useful theoretical constructs of gender and sexuality as well as guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of patients consulting for discomfort or confusion surrounding their sexual orientation, their gender identity or both, based on both the current literature and their clinical experience.Results The notions of non-binary construction of gender, of social determinism of gender roles and expression, and of gender creativity are presented. Sexual orientation is divided into four most commonly used dimensions (emotional attraction, physical attraction, behaviour and identity); the fluidity of these and their potential non-concordance are described. The fact that attraction to one gender is independent of attraction to another gender is highlighted. An attitude of openness to all forms of gender expression and sexual orientation constellations is encouraged to allow the patient free exploration of the several facets of their sexuality.Various domains to explore in evaluating sexual orientation and gender as well as therapeutic avenues are proposed. Areas to enquire about include: mental, physical and social experiences of gender, eroticism and sexual fantasies towards all genders, emotional attraction towards them, sexual and romantic experiences, comfort and certainty about one's identity and about disclosing it.Psychoeducation can be used to teach about sexual diversity and to assess the risks and benefits of coming out to self, family, friends, co-workers or strangers. Cognitive strategies can be undertaken to debunk homophobic and transphobic myths which may fuel poor self-esteem. Psychodynamic approaches can be used to heal the narcissistic wounds of homophobia

  14. Body Image and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Sexual Minority Men: A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Marcie C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of integrating objectification theory research with research on body image and eating problems among sexual minority men, the present study examined relations among sociocultural and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 231 sexual minority men. Results of a path analysis supported tenets of…

  15. The Impact of Perceived Discrimination and Social Support on the School Performance of Multiethnic Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Shelley L.; Smith, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are known to face increased risk of poor school performance; however, little research has focused on the educational experiences of multiethnic sexual minority youth (MSMY) in particular. Using venue-based sampling approaches, this study surveyed 255 MSMY at 15 urban high schools. The majority of participants identified as…

  16. Associations between Bullying and Engaging in Aggressive and Suicidal Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth: The Moderating Role of Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duong, Jeffrey; Bradshaw, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on the extent to which cyberbullying affects sexual minority youth is limited. This study examined associations between experiencing cyber and school bullying and engaging in aggressive and suicidal behaviors among sexual minority youth. We also explored whether feeling connected to an adult at school moderated these…

  17. Co-occurring Psychiatric and Drug Use Disorders among Sexual Minority Men with Lifetime Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Marshall, Brandon D.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Bryant, Kendall; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence indicates multiple health risks associated with harmful alcohol use among sexual minority men in the United States. In particular, sexual minority men with alcohol use disorders (AUD) might have greater co-occurring health problems compared with heterosexual men. We used nationally representative data to compare the prevalence of diagnostic co-occurring psychiatric disorders and drug use disorders (DUD) among sexual minority men with AUD compared with heterosexual males with a lifetime AUD diagnosis. Methods We analyzed data from 6,899 adult males with AUD participating in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Using multiple logistic regressions, we compared the odds of lifetime diagnosis of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and drug use disorders in sexual minority and heterosexual adult males with AUD. Results Of participants included in this analysis, 176 (2.6%) self-identified as a sexual minority. In adjusted analyses, sexual minority men with AUD were more likely than heterosexual men with AUD to have any mood disorder (including major depressive episode), any anxiety disorder (including panic disorder without agoraphobia, specific phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder), and lifetime DUD. Conclusions The elevated co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders and DUD among sexual minority men with AUD suggests that future research is warranted. A better understanding of the etiology of diagnostic co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders among sexual minority men in order to develop effective integrated prevention and treatment programs. PMID:25913886

  18. Body Image and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Sexual Minority Men: A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Marcie C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of integrating objectification theory research with research on body image and eating problems among sexual minority men, the present study examined relations among sociocultural and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 231 sexual minority men. Results of a path analysis supported tenets of…

  19. Sexual Minority Youth in the Schools: Issues and Desirable Counselor Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark

    This paper addresses the issues and desirable professional school counselor responses when working with sexual minority youth in the schools, including gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer, and questioning youth. The issues that are addressed include: developing a context in which to discuss these issues; coming out or the…

  20. Development and Validation of a Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehavot, Keren; King, Kevin M.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender expression varies considerably among lesbian and bisexual women and may be related to various stressors and health outcomes. However, no current measure adequately assesses gender expression in this community. Thus, the authors conducted three studies to develop and validate the Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women…

  1. Factors Impacting Counselor Competency When Counseling Sexual Minority Intimate Partner Violence Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    A queer theory perspective and grounded theory techniques were used to examine perceptions of counselor competency with sexual minority intimate partner violence victims. Ten counselors participated in two rounds of individual interviews. Results indicate that beneficial aspects of competency development occurred prior to, during, and after their…

  2. Critical Influences on Sexual Minority College Males' Meaning-Making of Their Multiple Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillapaugh, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory study explored the critical influences on college sexual minority males' meaning-making of their multiple identities. Twenty-six cisgender males attending colleges and universities within the United States and Canada were interviewed and provided journal responses to specific prompts. Four themes emerged, including:…

  3. Correlates of Cutting Behavior among Sexual Minority Youths and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope

    2010-01-01

    Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…

  4. Welcoming Children from Sexual-Minority Families into Our Schools. Fastback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard; Lamme, Laurel A.

    Based on the view that schools are responsible for providing a safe and supportive setting for all students and that with education the school climate will improve for sexual-minority parents and their children, this booklet provides information on how schools can become more welcoming to all students. Following introductory comments, the book is…

  5. STEM Education and Sexual Minority Youth: Examining Math and Science Coursetaking Patterns among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael; Estrada, Fernando; Sublett, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority students such as those identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual, as well as those identifying with emerging self-labels (e.g., queer) face a host of risk factors in high school that can potentially compromise educational excellence, particularly in rigorous academic disciplines. The current study advances the area of diversity…

  6. Sexual-Minority College Women's Experiences with Discrimination: Relations with Identity and Collective Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Carly; Leaper, Campbell

    2010-01-01

    This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that is…

  7. School Connectedness and Student-Teacher Relationships: A Comparison of Sexual Minority Youths and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Hilary D.

    2015-01-01

    Strong connections to school and positive student-teacher relationships offer numerous social, emotional, and academic benefits for youths. Unfortunately, sexual minority youths (SMY) are at risk for disparate school connectedness and student-teacher relationship experiences compared with their peers. Using the National Longitudinal Study of…

  8. Perceived Discrimination and Social Relationship Functioning among Sexual Minorities: Structural Stigma as a Moderating Factor

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Work on structural stigma shows how public policy affects health outcomes for members of devalued groups, including sexual minorities. In the current research, structural stigma is proposed as a moderating variable that strengthens deleterious associations between perceived discrimination and social relationship functioning. Hypotheses were tested in two cross-sectional studies, including both online (N = 214; Study 1) and community (N = 94; Study 2) samples of sexual minority men and women residing throughout the United States. Structural stigma was coded from policy related to sexual minority rights within each state. Confirming hypotheses, support for the moderating role of structural stigma was found via multilevel models across studies. Specifically, associations between perceived discrimination and friendship strain, loneliness (Study 1) and familial strain (Study 2) were increased for those who resided in states with greater levels of structural stigma and attenuated for those who resided in states with lesser levels. In Study 1, these results were robust to state-level covariates (conservatism and religiosity), but conservatism emerged as a significant moderator in lieu of structural stigma in Study 2. Results are discussed in the context of the shifting landscape of public policy related to sexual minority rights within the United States. PMID:26807046

  9. Chronic Physical Health Problems in Sexual Minority Women: Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Michele J

    2014-12-01

    Although there is substantial literature about sexual minority women's mental health and use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD), only recently has attention been focused on chronic physical health disorders thought to stem from stress and exposure to ATOD use. The most extensively studied aspect of physical health has been weight, with the majority of studies reporting higher prevalence of overweight and obesity. In addition, many studies report higher levels of stressful experiences in both childhood and adulthood for sexual minority women. In this paper, the hypothesized relationship between stress, unhealthy behaviors, and five common chronic physical health disorders is explored via review of the literature. Only asthma appeared to be consistently more common in sexual minority women, and few or no differences in diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and most cancers were found. The limitations of these studies are reviewed, and the need for studies that directly address the relationships among stress, health-damaging practices, and chronic disorder is emphasized. However, if these findings hold up, and sexual minority women are not more prone to these disorders, the field may need better theoretical frameworks from which to explore potential differences in the manifestation of mental versus chronic physical health disparities. PMID:26789854

  10. Framing the Issue/Framing the Question: How are Sexual Minority Issues Included in Diversity Initiatives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocco, Tonette S.; Delgado, Antonio; Landorf, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This paper situates sexual minority issues within organizations by examining what it means to engage diversity through the perspectives of hostility, compliance, inquiry, inclusion, and advocacy. These perspectives are discussed in terms of human resource development missions of individual development, career development, and organization…

  11. Transgender Individuals' Workplace Experiences: The Applicability of Sexual Minority Measures and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Melanie E.; Velez, Brandon; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered…

  12. Future Directions in Studies of Trauma among Ethnoracial and Sexual Minority Samples: Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triffleman, Elisa G.; Pole, Nnamdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Studies examining psychological trauma or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnoracial or sexual minority groups are relatively few. The "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" recently published 4 articles (Balsam, Lehavot, Beadnall, & Circo, 2010; Harrington, Crowther, & Shipherd, 2010; Lester, Resick, Young-Xu, & Artz,…

  13. Exploring the Social Integration of Sexual Minority Youth across High School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Cheadle, Jacob E.; Skalamera, Julie; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Mental health disparities between sexual minority and other youth have been theorized to result in part from the effects of the stigmatization on social integration. Stochastic actor-based modeling was applied to complete network data from two high schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (M[subscript age] = 15 years,…

  14. Psychosocial Concerns of Sexual Minority Youth: Complexity and Caution in Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Aragon, Steven R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian W.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation tested a large adolescent sample (n = 14,439) for significant group differences on psychosocial concerns on the basis of intersecting identities of sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning/less certain, heterosexual), race (Whites, racial minorities), and gender (boys, girls). A significant 2-way interaction…

  15. Protective School Climates and Reduced Risk for Suicide Ideation in Sexual Minority Youths

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Michelle; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Meyer, Ilan H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether sexual minority students living in states and cities with more protective school climates were at lower risk of suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts. Methods. Data on sexual orientation and past-year suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts were from the pooled 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Surveys from 8 states and cities. We derived data on school climates that protected sexual minority students (e.g., percentage of schools with safe spaces and Gay–Straight Alliances) from the 2010 School Health Profile Survey, compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students living in states and cities with more protective school climates reported fewer past-year suicidal thoughts than those living in states and cities with less protective climates (lesbians and gays: odds ratio [OR] = 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47, 0.99; bisexuals: OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.66, 0.99). Results were robust to adjustment for potential state-level confounders. Sexual orientation disparities in suicidal thoughts were nearly eliminated in states and cities with the most protective school climates. Conclusions. School climates that protect sexual minority students may reduce their risk of suicidal thoughts. PMID:24328634

  16. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A.; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually non-existent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a non-probability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self-identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women’s health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. PMID:25642782

  17. Victimization among female and male sexual minority status groups: evidence from the British Crime Survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Bere; Davies, Michelle; Scurlock-Evans, Laura

    2014-01-01

    International surveys of victims show crime rates in England and Wales, including hate crimes, are among the highest in Europe. Nevertheless, sexual minority status is a less considered risk factor in general victimization research. This study used sexual minority status and sex to predict victimization across British Crime Surveys from 2007-2010. Logistic regression analyses showed sexual minority status groups were more likely than heterosexuals to be victimized from any and some specific crimes. However, bisexuals rather than lesbians or gay men were more consistently victimized, notably by sexual attacks and within the household. Implications for understanding victimization among these groups are discussed.

  18. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L. |

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  19. Sexual risk behavior and STI health literacy among ethnic minority adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Dimmitt Champion, Jane; Harlin, Badia; Collins, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    Although information is available for prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI/HIV), adolescents continue to engage in high risk sexual behavior particularly ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of STI or abuse. A description therefore of STI/HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among these women is indicated for modification of prevention efforts for sexual health promotion. African-American (n=94) and Mexican-American (n=465) adolescent women 14-18 years of age were included in the study. Assessments of sexual risk behavior and STI/HIV knowledge among these adolescent women described Mexican-American women as at higher risk of STI, pregnancy, substance use and abuse with lower levels of STI/HIV knowledge, previous HIV testing and perceptions of risk than African-American women. A focus on Mexican-American adolescent women with histories of STI and abuse is indicated for translation of community-based health promotion interventions for amelioration of potential adverse sexual health outcomes among ethnic minority adolescent women.

  20. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity/Expression (Sexual Minority Students): School Nurse Practice. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Establishment of…

  1. Social integration and health: community involvement, stigmatized identities, and sexual risk in Latino sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M; Campbell, Richard T; Diaz, Rafael M

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the conceptual understanding and practical application of social integration theory to health behaviors. We test whether community involvement in AIDS and GLBT organizations moderates the relationship of racial and homosexual stigmata to sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men and transgender persons of Latin American origin or descent. We use structural equation modeling to analyze data from a sample of 643 individuals recruited via respondent-driven sampling. Among those not involved in community organizations, homosexual and racial stigmata are related to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, which is linked to sexual risk behavior. Among the involved group, the stigmata are not linked to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, or to sexual risk behavior. The moderating role of community involvement seems to be more salient in those currently involved than those ever involved.

  2. Social Integration and Health: Community Involvement, Stigmatized Identities, and Sexual Risk in Latino Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Campbell, Richard T.; Diaz, Rafael M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the conceptual understanding and practical application of social integration theory to health behaviors. We test whether community involvement in AIDS and GLBT organizations moderates the relationship of racial and homosexual stigmata to sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men and transgender persons of Latin American origin or descent. We use structural equation modeling to analyze data from a sample of 643 individuals recruited via respondent-driven sampling. Among those not involved in community organizations, homosexual and racial stigmata are related to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, which is linked to sexual risk behavior. Among the involved group, the stigmata are not linked to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, or to sexual risk behavior. The moderating role of community involvement seems to be more salient in those currently involved than those ever involved. PMID:20420293

  3. Integrating Sexual Minority Health Issues into a Health Assessment Class.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Jordon D; Nesteby, J Aleah; Randall, Carla E

    2015-01-01

    The health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population are traditionally overlooked by the health care community and are rendered invisible by most nursing school curricula. Initial contact with a nurse during a health history and assessment can have an impact on whether the person will feel comfortable disclosing his or her identity, returning for services, or following plans of care. Because the first interaction with a nurse can be critical, the health assessment course is an appropriate place in the curriculum to discuss the needs of the LGBT community. This article includes a discussion of unique health risks to the LGBT population, benefits, and challenges of incorporating these issues into the classroom and recommendations for including the care of this population into a health assessment nursing course. Specific communication techniques are provided that may be helpful during history taking and physical examination with a patient who is LGBT. Guidance regarding physical examination of the transgender patient is also included. These suggestions will be helpful to nurse faculty who teach health assessment, nursing students, educators who design and implement professional development and continuing education for established nurses, preceptors in the clinical setting, and any nurse who is unfamiliar with the needs and concerns specific to the LGBT population. PMID:26653044

  4. A Longitudinal Study of the Correlates of Persistent Smoking Among Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Barth B.; Everett, Bethany; Hughes, Tonda L.; Aranda, Frances; Johnson, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We conducted a longitudinal evaluation of factors associated with persistent smoking behaviors among sexual minority women (SMW; lesbians and bisexual women). Methods: Structured interview data were collected as part of a larger longitudinal study of SMW’s health: the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study. We conducted multivariate analyses to evaluate the influence of 4 groups of predictor variables on smoking: (a) demographic, (b) childhood victimization, (c) other substance use, and (d) health variables. Results: At Wave 1, 30.9% (n = 138) of participants reported current smoking, with substance-use and demographic factors having the strongest relationships to smoking status. The majority (84.9%) of Wave 1 smokers were also smoking at Wave 2. Among demographic variables, level of education was inversely associated with continued smoking. With respect to substance use, hazardous drinking and cocaine/heroin use were significantly associated with continued smoking. None of the victimization or health variables predicted smoking status. Conclusions: Consistent with previous studies, smoking rates in this sample of SMW were elevated. Despite intensive efforts to reduce smoking in the general population, 84% of SMW smokers continued smoking from Wave 1 to Wave 2. Findings suggest that the majority of SMW will continue to smoke over time. Additional research is needed to increase motivation and access to smoking cessation resources. PMID:24727370

  5. Development of Muscularity and Weight Concerns in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Males

    PubMed Central

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Corliss, Heather L.; Blood, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the development of muscularity and weight concerns among heterosexual and sexual minority males in adolescence. Method Participants were 5,868 males from the Growing Up Today Study, a US prospective cohort spanning ages 9–25 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to test sexual orientation differences in the development of muscularity concerns, weight gain attempts, and weight and shape concern. Results Desire for bigger muscles increased slightly each year across adolescence (β =.10, 95% C.I.= .09, .11) regardless of sexual orientation, but gay and bisexual participants reported greater desire for toned muscles than completely and mostly heterosexual males (β=.39, 95% C.I.=.21, .57). Desire for toned muscles did not change with age. Attempts to gain weight increased three-fold across adolescence, with up to 30% reporting weight gain attempts by age 16. Although underweight males (the smallest weight status class) were most likely to attempt to gain weight, most of the observed weight gain attempts were by healthy (69%) and overweight/obese (27%) males, suggesting that most attempts were medically unnecessary and could lead to overweight. Sexual minority participants were 20% less likely to report weight gain attempts than completely heterosexual participants. Weight and shape concern increased with age, with gay and bisexual participants experiencing a significantly greater increase than heterosexual males. Conclusions Sexual orientation modifies the development and expression of male weight and muscularity concerns. The findings have implications for early interventions for the prevention of obesity and eating disorder risk in heterosexual and sexual minority males. PMID:23316852

  6. A Religious Experience? Personal, Parental, and Peer Religiosity and the Academic Success of Sexual-Minority Youth Using Nationally Representative Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.; Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2012-01-01

    Using nationally representative transcript data, this study is the first to include a discussion of religiosity in the context of sexual-minority students' academic achievement. This study examines the issue in three capacities: first, by comparing school success of sexual-minority youth to a non-sexual-minority reference group; second, by…

  7. "Why Can't We Learn about This?" Sexual Minority Students Navigate the Official and Hidden Curricular Spaces of High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Ingrid E.; Sujak, Mark Conor

    2014-01-01

    In the spaces of high school, sexual minority youth often find that their needs for inclusion are not met by their institutions and those employed within. Through interviews with sexual minority high school students and written questionnaires with high school teachers and other faculty, we find that sexual minority youth are faced with exclusion…

  8. Minority Population Concentration and Earnings: Evidence from Fixed-Effects Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kecia; Pais, Jeremy; South, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with the hypothesis that heightened visibility and competition lead to greater economic discrimination against minorities, countless studies have observed a negative association between minority population concentration and minority socioeconomic attainment. But minorities who reside in areas with high minority concentration are likely…

  9. Sexual child abuse in a defined Swedish area 1993-97: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, A; Forsman, A; Soderstrom, H

    2001-10-01

    Attempting to avoid some of the most common methodological problems involved in research on sexual child abuse, we collected data on crimes, perpetrators, and sanctions in all convicted cases of sexual child abuse in a defined population during a 5-year period. This approach provided amply documented and ascertained cases with precise definitions and descriptions of the crimes involved, no clinical referral bias, and minimal dependence on memory effects. The results are valid for the small proportion of cases that lead to conviction in the context of Swedish legislation. Structured data were collected from the court dossiers in all cases of sexual crimes against minors (less than 15 years of age) tried and sentenced at the courts in the Västra Götaland region of Sweden between 1993 and 1997. The total number of 496 sentences for sexual crimes during the study period included 203 cases of sexual child abuse (40.8%) with 283 victims and 196 perpetrators, all men. Girls were victims in 85% of the cases, boys in 12%, and boys as well as girls in 3%. Sexual penetration had occurred in 54.5% of cases and the total proportion of hands-on crimes was 83%. Most perpetrators, 72%, were well known to the child. The most severe offenses took place within the family. A wide range of acts were classified as sexual child abuse, but most common was sexual penetration of a female child by her biological father or a family friend. PMID:11501297

  10. Sexual compulsivity scale: adaptation and validation in the spanish population.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Gómez-Martínez, Sandra; Llario, M Dolores-Gil; Salmerón-Sánchez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Sexual compulsivity has been studied in relation to high-risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections. The aim of this study was the adaptation and validation of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale to a sample of Spanish young people. This scale was applied to 1,196 (891 female, 305 male) Spanish college students. The results of principal components factor analysis using a varimax rotation indicated a two-factor solution. The reliability of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale was found to be high. Moreover, the scale showed good temporal stability. External correlates were examined through Pearson correlations between the Sexual Compulsivity Scale and other constructs related with HIV prevention. The authors' results suggest that the Sexual Compulsivity Scale is an appropriate measure for assessing sexual compulsivity, showing adequate psychometric properties in the Spanish population.

  11. Hepatitis C in ethnic minority populations in England.

    PubMed

    Mann, A G; Trotter, C L; Balogun, M Adekoyejo; Ramsay, M E

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the differing epidemiology of hepatitis C-related end-stage liver disease in ethnic minorities in England. We used Hospital Episode Statistics from 1997/98 to 2004/05 to directly age-standardize numbers of episodes and deaths from hepatitis C-related end-stage liver disease in ethnic groups using the white English population as standard and the age-structured population by ethnic group from the 2001 Census. We estimated the odds of having a diagnosis of end-stage liver disease amongst hepatitis C-infected individuals in each ethnic group compared with whites using logistic regression. The main outcome measures were age-standardized morbidity and mortality ratios and morbidity and mortality odds ratios. Standardized ratios (95% confidence interval) for hepatitis C-related end-stage liver disease ranged from 73 (38-140) in Chinese people to 1063 (952-1186) for those from an 'Other' ethnic group. Amongst individuals with a diagnosis of hepatitis C infection, the odds ratios (95% CI) of severe liver disease were 1.42 (1.13-1.79), 1.57 (1.36-1.81), 2.44 (1.85-3.22), 1.73 (1.36-2.19) and 1.83 (1.08-3.10) comparing individuals of Black African, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian and Chinese origin with whites, respectively. Ethnic minority populations in England are more likely than whites to experience an admission or to die from severe liver disease as a result of hepatitis C infection. Ethnic minority populations may have a higher prevalence of hepatitis C or they may experience a poorer prognosis because of differential access to health services, longer duration of infection or the prevalence of co-morbidities.

  12. Exploring the Social Integration of Sexual Minority Youth Across High School Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Cheadle, Jacob E.; Skalamera, Julie; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Mental health disparities between sexual minority and other youth have been theorized to result in part from the effects of the stigmatization on social integration. Stochastic actor-based modeling was applied to complete network data from two high schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (mean age =15 years, n=2,533). Same-sex attracted youth were socially marginalized in a smaller predominantly White school but not in a larger, more racially diverse school. For both schools, homophily was a critical network feature, and could represent social support for and social segregation of such youth. These findings emphasize school context in studying the social lives of sexual minority youth and suggest that youth may be better off socially in larger and more diverse schools. PMID:25689110

  13. Perceived Discrimination Is an Independent Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Kohlbrenner, Verena; Deuba, Keshab; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Sexual and gender minorities experience an elevated burden of suicidality compared with the general population. Still, little is known about that burden and the factors generating it in the context of low- and middle-income countries. The present study assessed the prevalence of suicidal ideation, planned suicide, and attempted suicide among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG) in Nepal, and examined the association of perceived discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation with suicidal ideation and with attempted suicide. Data were obtained from a surveillance survey among MSM and TG in Nepal in 2012. A sample of 400 MSM and TG, recruited using respondent-driven sampling, completed a structured face-to-face interview. Throughout their lifetime, 26.8% of the participants had experienced suicidal ideation, 12.0% had made a suicide plan, and 9.0% had attempted suicide. In particular, more TG than MSM had experienced suicidal ideation (39.8% vs. 21.3%), had made a suicide plan (19.5% vs. 8.9%), and had attempted suicide (15.3% vs. 6.4%). Overall, the odds of having experienced suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the 38.3% of participants who had perceived discrimination based on their sexual orientation (AOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.83–5.48). Moreover, the odds of suicidal ideation was significantly higher as the extent of perceived discrimination increased (AOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.15–1.60). However, the odds of attempted suicide was not significantly associated with perceived discrimination (AOR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.62–3.15). The findings highlight perceived discrimination as an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation. Future suicide prevention programs should target sexual and gender minorities and include elements focusing on discrimination. PMID:27437996

  14. Perceived Discrimination Is an Independent Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kohlbrenner, Verena; Deuba, Keshab; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Sexual and gender minorities experience an elevated burden of suicidality compared with the general population. Still, little is known about that burden and the factors generating it in the context of low- and middle-income countries. The present study assessed the prevalence of suicidal ideation, planned suicide, and attempted suicide among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG) in Nepal, and examined the association of perceived discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation with suicidal ideation and with attempted suicide. Data were obtained from a surveillance survey among MSM and TG in Nepal in 2012. A sample of 400 MSM and TG, recruited using respondent-driven sampling, completed a structured face-to-face interview. Throughout their lifetime, 26.8% of the participants had experienced suicidal ideation, 12.0% had made a suicide plan, and 9.0% had attempted suicide. In particular, more TG than MSM had experienced suicidal ideation (39.8% vs. 21.3%), had made a suicide plan (19.5% vs. 8.9%), and had attempted suicide (15.3% vs. 6.4%). Overall, the odds of having experienced suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the 38.3% of participants who had perceived discrimination based on their sexual orientation (AOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.83-5.48). Moreover, the odds of suicidal ideation was significantly higher as the extent of perceived discrimination increased (AOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.15-1.60). However, the odds of attempted suicide was not significantly associated with perceived discrimination (AOR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.62-3.15). The findings highlight perceived discrimination as an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation. Future suicide prevention programs should target sexual and gender minorities and include elements focusing on discrimination. PMID:27437996

  15. Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

    1995-06-01

    For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

  16. Academic and social integration on campus among sexual minority students: the impacts of psychological and experiential campus climate.

    PubMed

    Woodford, Michael R; Kulick, Alex

    2015-03-01

    A heterosexist campus climate can increase risk for mental health problems for sexual minority students; however, the relationship between campus climate for sexual minorities and academic outcomes remains understudied. Using a sample of sexual minority respondents extracted from a campus climate survey conducted at a large university in the Midwest, we examine relationships between multiple dimensions of psychological and experiential campus climate for sexual minorities with academic integration (academic disengagement, grade-point average [GPA]) and social integration (institutional satisfaction, acceptance on campus). We also investigate the protective role of engagement with informal academic and peer-group systems. Findings suggest campus climate affects sexual minority students' integration. In multivariate analyses, perceptions of whether lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people could be open about their sexual identity was positively associated with acceptance on campus; personal heterosexist harassment was positively associated with academic disengagement and negatively with GPA. Students' informal academic integration (instructor relations) and informal social integration (LGB friends) demonstrated influential main effects but did not moderate any of the climate-outcome relationships. Researchers should further explore the relationships between climate and academic outcomes among sexual minority students, both collectively and among specific sub-groups, and address the role of other protective factors.

  17. Academic and social integration on campus among sexual minority students: the impacts of psychological and experiential campus climate.

    PubMed

    Woodford, Michael R; Kulick, Alex

    2015-03-01

    A heterosexist campus climate can increase risk for mental health problems for sexual minority students; however, the relationship between campus climate for sexual minorities and academic outcomes remains understudied. Using a sample of sexual minority respondents extracted from a campus climate survey conducted at a large university in the Midwest, we examine relationships between multiple dimensions of psychological and experiential campus climate for sexual minorities with academic integration (academic disengagement, grade-point average [GPA]) and social integration (institutional satisfaction, acceptance on campus). We also investigate the protective role of engagement with informal academic and peer-group systems. Findings suggest campus climate affects sexual minority students' integration. In multivariate analyses, perceptions of whether lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people could be open about their sexual identity was positively associated with acceptance on campus; personal heterosexist harassment was positively associated with academic disengagement and negatively with GPA. Students' informal academic integration (instructor relations) and informal social integration (LGB friends) demonstrated influential main effects but did not moderate any of the climate-outcome relationships. Researchers should further explore the relationships between climate and academic outcomes among sexual minority students, both collectively and among specific sub-groups, and address the role of other protective factors. PMID:25367265

  18. Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiometabolic Risks in Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ferdinand, Keith C.; Rodriguez, Fatima; Nasser, Samar A.; Caballero, A. Enrique; Puckrein, Gary A.; Zangeneh, Farhad; Mansour, Michael; Foody, JoAnne Micale; Pemu, Priscilla E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death in the USA, regardless of self-determined race/ethnicity, and largely driven by cardiometabolic risk (CMR) and cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). The primary drivers of increased CMR include obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease as well as associated adverse behaviors of physical inactivity, smoking, and unhealthy eating habits. Given the importance of CRS for public health, multiple stakeholders, including the National Minority Quality Forum (the Forum), the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC), have developed this review to inform clinicians and other health professionals of the unique aspects of CMR in racial/ethnic minorities and of potential means to improve CMR factor control, to reduce CRS and CVD in diverse populations, and to provide more effective, coordinated care. This paper highlights CRS and CMR as sources of significant morbidity and mortality (particularly in racial/ethnic minorities), associated health-care costs, and an evolving index tool for cardiometabolic disease to determine geographical and environmental factors. Finally, this work provides a few examples of interventions potentially successful at reducing disparities in cardiometabolic health. PMID:24847329

  19. Love versus abuse: crossgenerational sexual relations of minors: a gay rights issue?

    PubMed

    Graupner, H

    1999-01-01

    The question discussed is how far crossgenerational sexual relations with or by minors could be considered to be a gay rights issue. The author discusses the issue from the perspective of general principles found in the case-law of the European Court on Human Rights. These principles suggest that the basic right to privacy should be interpreted as providing comprehensive protection of the right of children and adolescents to sexual self-determination, namely both the right to effective protection from (unwanted) sex and abuse on the one hand and the right to (wanted) sex on the other. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive international survey of national legal provisions and it leads to the conclusion that consensual sexual relations of and with adolescents over 14 (out of relations of authority) should be qualified a gay rights issue; likewise (as the exception to the rule) the possibility of filtering out cases from prosecution where a contact/relation is proven (beyond reasonable doubt) as consensual and harmless even though the minor involved is under 14. The legalization of (objectively consensual) sexual relations with persons under 14 as such, however, should not be considered to be a gay rights issue.

  20. Love versus abuse: crossgenerational sexual relations of minors: a gay rights issue?

    PubMed

    Graupner, H

    1999-01-01

    The question discussed is how far crossgenerational sexual relations with or by minors could be considered to be a gay rights issue. The author discusses the issue from the perspective of general principles found in the case-law of the European Court on Human Rights. These principles suggest that the basic right to privacy should be interpreted as providing comprehensive protection of the right of children and adolescents to sexual self-determination, namely both the right to effective protection from (unwanted) sex and abuse on the one hand and the right to (wanted) sex on the other. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive international survey of national legal provisions and it leads to the conclusion that consensual sexual relations of and with adolescents over 14 (out of relations of authority) should be qualified a gay rights issue; likewise (as the exception to the rule) the possibility of filtering out cases from prosecution where a contact/relation is proven (beyond reasonable doubt) as consensual and harmless even though the minor involved is under 14. The legalization of (objectively consensual) sexual relations with persons under 14 as such, however, should not be considered to be a gay rights issue. PMID:10482330

  1. The HIV Risk Profiles of Latino Sexual Minorities and Transgender Persons Who Use Websites or Apps Designed for Social and Sexual Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Christina J.; Reboussin, Beth; Mann, Lilli; Garcia, Manuel; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of websites and GPS-based mobile applications ("apps") designed for social and sexual networking has been associated with increased HIV risk; however, little is known about Latino sexual minorities' and transgender persons' use of these websites and apps and the risk profiles of those who use them compared with those who do not.…

  2. Garnering an In-depth Understanding of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Chennai, India: A Qualitative Analysis of Sexual Minority Status and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Closson, Elizabeth F.; Thomas, Beena; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Betancourt, Theresa; Menon, Sunil; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are a hidden and largely understudied population, and havean HIV prevalence 17 times higher than that of the general Indian population. Experiences of social marginalization and negative psychosocial conditions occur concurrent to HIV risk among Indian MSM. To better understand the contextual variables driving HIV risk and inform intervention development, five focus groups (n = 46) and nine key informant interviews were conducted with 55 MSM in Chennai in 2010. NVivo software was used to code the transcripts, and data were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis methodology. Participants described sources of psychological distress and low self-worth related to gender non-conformity and sexual minority status. These included stigma from society, pressure to marry, lack of familial acceptance, childhood sexual abuse, and the imperative to keep sexual minority status a secret. Participants' personal evaluations revealed that self-acceptance may be an important resilience factor that can shield these psychosocial and HIV risk factors. In promoting health-seeking behavioral changes for Indian MSM at an individual level, our findings point to the potential strength of strategies that focus on self-acceptance of one's sexual minority identity to foster better psychosocial and overall health. PMID:25358949

  3. Garnering an in-depth understanding of men who have sex with men in Chennai, India: a qualitative analysis of sexual minority status and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Thomas, Beena; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Theresa; Menon, Sunil; Safren, Steven A

    2015-10-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are a hidden and largely understudied population, and have an HIV prevalence 17 times higher than that of the general Indian population. Experiences of social marginalization and negative psychosocial conditions occur concurrent to HIV risk among Indian MSM. To better understand the contextual variables driving HIV risk and inform intervention development, five focus groups (n = 46) and nine key informant interviews were conducted with 55 MSM in Chennai in 2010. NVivo software was used to code the transcripts, and data were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis methodology. Participants described sources of psychological distress and low self-worth related to gender non-conformity and sexual minority status. These included stigma from society, pressure to marry, lack of familial acceptance, childhood sexual abuse, and the imperative to keep sexual minority status a secret. Participants' personal evaluations revealed that self-acceptance may be an important resilience factor that can shield these psychosocial and HIV risk factors. In promoting health-seeking behavioral changes for Indian MSM at an individual level, our findings point to the potential strength of strategies that focus on self-acceptance of one's sexual minority identity to foster better psychosocial and overall health. PMID:25358949

  4. Lessons From the Viagra Study: Methodological Challenges in Recruitment of Older and Minority Heterosexual Men for Research on Sexual Practices and Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sande Gracia; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Martinez Cardenas, Vicente Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Although all sexually active persons may be at potential risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there is a common misperception that older heterosexual adults are not at risk (Smith & Christakis, 2009). HIV is a continuing concern in persons ages 50 and older (Goodroad, 2003; Savasta, 2004). Therefore, research with this population is warranted. However, little literature addresses the recruitment of middle aged and older heterosexual men, particularly minority men, into research studies on sexual behaviors and practices. The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges that arose during the recruitment and data collection stages of a study on health and sexual practices of older heterosexual men using prescribed erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs, and the strategies that were used to meet these challenges. Lessons learned from this study will be discussed, as well as implications for HIV/STD researchers and clinicians. PMID:21216626

  5. Cancer in minority ethnic populations: priorities from epidemiological data.

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, R. S.; Rankin, J.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the frequency of cancers to develop priorities for cancer policy, prevention, services and research for black and minority ethnic populations in Britain. Data on populations originating in the Indian sub-continent, and Caribbean and African Commonwealth were extracted from published works. Cancers were ranked (top seven) on the basis of the number of cases, actual frequency, and also on relative frequency (SMR, SRR, PMR). Cancer was found to be a common cause of death. For example, during 1979-83 the proportion of deaths resulting from neoplasms in immigrants living in England and Wales was 11% for Indian and African men aged 20-49, and 19% for Caribbeans. The corresponding proportions were higher among women. The pattern of cancer depended on the method used to assess rankings. On the basis of the number of cases the top 3 ranking cancers for adults were breast, long and neoplasms of the lymphatic system. Based on SMR's cancer of the gallbladder, liver and oral cavity ranked amongst the top 3 for adults. For children the top ranking cancers were acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, central nervous system tumours and neuroblastoma. Variations by ethnic group were more evident in the rankings of relative frequency than in rankings based on numbers of cases. In conclusion, the most common and preventable cancers among minority ethnic populations were the same as those for the general population. The different cancer pattern based on SMRs highlight additional needs and provide potential models for research into understanding the causes of these cancers. Health services policy and practice should ensure that the common and preventable cancers take priority over rare cancers and those for which there is no effective treatment or prevention. Priorities for policy, prevention, clinical care and research should be set separately, for they differ. PMID:8782795

  6. Discrimination and depressive symptoms among sexual minority youth: is gay-affirming religious affiliation a protective factor?

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N; Woodford, Michael R; Han, Yoonsun

    2014-11-01

    Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage or who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that, although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group's stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth's resilience to interpersonal discrimination.

  7. Discrimination and depressive symptoms among sexual minority youth: is gay-affirming religious affiliation a protective factor?

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N; Woodford, Michael R; Han, Yoonsun

    2014-11-01

    Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage or who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that, although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group's stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth's resilience to interpersonal discrimination. PMID:25119387

  8. Pervasive Trauma Exposure Among US Sexual Orientation Minority Adults and Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Austin, S. Bryn; Corliss, Heather L.; Vandermorris, Ashley K.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed sexual orientation disparities in exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events and onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a representative US sample. Methods. We used data from 34 653 noninstitutionalized adult US residents from the 2004 to 2005 wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results. Lesbians and gay men, bisexuals, and heterosexuals who reported any same-sex sexual partners over their lifetime had greater risk of childhood maltreatment, interpersonal violence, trauma to a close friend or relative, and unexpected death of someone close than did heterosexuals with no same-sex attractions or partners. Risk of onset of PTSD was higher among lesbians and gays (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34, 3.06), bisexuals (AOR = 2.13; 95% CI = 1.38, 3.29), and heterosexuals with any same-sex partners (AOR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.54, 2.74) than it was among the heterosexual reference group. This higher risk was largely accounted for by sexual orientation minorities’ greater exposure to violence, exposure to more potentially traumatic events, and earlier age of trauma exposure. Conclusions. Profound sexual orientation disparities exist in risk of PTSD and in violence exposure, beginning in childhood. Our findings suggest there is an urgent need for public health interventions aimed at preventing violence against individuals with minority sexual orientations and providing follow-up care to cope with the sequelae of violent victimization. PMID:20395586

  9. Sexual abuse of minors: emerging medical and social problem in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Lema, V M

    1997-11-01

    Sexual abuse is one of the most dehumanising human offenses. There has been an increasing public concern and outcry regarding the escalating wave of sexual abuse of young girls in Malawi, in the recent past. Four young girls, aged between two and seven years who were sexually abused by adult males aged between 20 and 70 years seen and managed in the department within the past two years, are presented to illustrate the problem. Their physical injuries, varied reactions and those of their immediate families to the abuse; possible predisposing factors to the abuses; the related medical, psychosocial as well as legal management of such incidents, in the light of limited public awareness, and lack of adequately and appropriately trained personnel and facilities in Malawi are discussed. With the scare of AIDS and an increasing disintegration of the traditional family fabric, there is a high potential for an increase, not only of the prevalence of sexual abuse of minors in Malawi, but also the variety and severity of sequelae. It is therefore recommended that there is need to create public awareness about sexual abuse, train and equip the relevant personnel to appropriately manage such cases, as well as enact and enforce the relevant legal provisions, so as to curb the menace, for the well-being of the society. PMID:9557452

  10. Multiple early victimization experiences as a pathway to explain physical health disparities among sexual minority and heterosexual individuals.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Judith P; Zou, Christopher; Blosnich, John

    2015-05-01

    Prior research shows that health disparities exist between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals. We extend the literature by testing if the higher prevalence of childhood victimization experienced by sexual minority individuals accounts for lifetime health disparities. Heterosexual (n = 422) and sexual minority (n = 681) participants were recruited on-line in North America. Respondents completed surveys about their childhood victimization experiences (i.e., maltreatment by adults and peer victimization) and lifetime physician-diagnosed physical health conditions. Results showed that sexual minority individuals experienced higher prevalence of childhood victimization and lifetime physical health problems than heterosexuals. Mediation analyses indicated that maltreatment by adults and peer bullying explained the health disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexuals. This study is the first to show that multiple childhood victimization experiences may be one pathway to explain lifetime physical health disparities. Intervention programs reducing the perpetration of violence against sexual minority individuals are critical to reduce health care needs related to victimization experiences. PMID:25864147

  11. How Are Self-Efficacy and Family Involvement Associated with Less Sexual Risk Taking among Ethnic Minority Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Campen, Kali S.; Romero, Andrea J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the protective influences of family involvement (i.e., parental monitoring, communication, closeness, and family proximity) and sexual self-efficacy on the risky sexual behavior of ethnic minority (predominantly Mexican-origin) adolescents in the southwestern United States (N = 122). Results indicate that whereas…

  12. Comparing Health and Mental Health Needs, Service Use, and Barriers to Services among Sexual Minority Youths and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kelly A.; Chapman, Mimi V.

    2011-01-01

    Using a representative national sample (N = 20,745), this article explores health and mental health needs, service use, and barriers to services among sexual minority youths (SMYs) and heterosexual peers. SMYs were defined by ever having a same-sex romantic attraction or having a recent same-sex romantic relationship or sexual partner. SMYs…

  13. Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impact myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of…

  14. Sexual Network Profiles and Risk Factors for STIs Among African-American Sexual Minorities in Mississippi: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Mena, Leandro; Chan, Philip A; Rose, Jennifer; Simmons, Dantrell; Riggins, Reginald; Hoffmann, Michael; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Chamberlain, Nicholas; Nunn, Amy

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, socio-demographic characteristics, substance use, sexual behaviors, and sexual network profiles among African American sexual minorities in Jackson, Mississippi. Bivariate chi-square tests and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models explored individual and partner-related factors. Compared to their heterosexual counterparts, male African American sexual minorities reported fewer sex partners (odds ratios [OR] 0.33, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.16-0.65) and lower concurrency levels (OR 0.42, 95%CI 0.24-0.72). African American sexual minority women reported greater substance abuse, more sex partners (OR 2.54, 95%CI 1.47-4.38), higher concurrency levels (OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.24-2.64), and more transactional sex (OR 2.52, 95%CI 1.25-5.11). These results highlight the need for nuanced STI interventions tailored to African American sexual minorities in Mississippi. PMID:26788677

  15. Sexual Network Profiles and Risk Factors for STIs Among African-American Sexual Minorities in Mississippi: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Mena, Leandro; Chan, Philip A.; Rose, Jennifer; Simmons, Dantrell; Riggins, Reginald; Hoffmann, Michael; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Chamberlain, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study assessed sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, socio-demographic characteristics, substance use, sexual behaviors, and sexual network profiles among African American sexual minorities in Jackson, Mississippi. Bivariate chi-square tests and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models explored individual and partner-related factors. Compared to their heterosexual counterparts, male African American sexual minorities reported fewer sex partners (odds ratios [OR] 0.33, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.16–0.65) and lower concurrency levels (OR 0.42, 95%CI 0.24–0.72). African American sexual minority women reported greater substance abuse, more sex partners (OR 2.54, 95%CI 1.47–4.38), higher concurrency levels (OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.24–2.64), and more transactional sex (OR 2.52, 95%CI 1.25–5.11). These results highlight the need for nuanced STI interventions tailored to African American sexual minorities in Mississippi. PMID:26788677

  16. Assessment of female sexual arousal in forensic populations.

    PubMed

    Knack, Natasha M; Murphy, Lisa; Ranger, Rebekah; Meston, Cindy; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-04-01

    Sexual offenses cause significant harm to victims, their families, and society as a whole and thus are an important social concern. While it is commonly assumed that sexual offenses are committed solely by males, research has shown that approximately 5 % of sex crimes in the USA and Canada are committed by females. Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a method to measure male genital arousal, which is commonly used in the assessment and treatment of male sex offenders and men with paraphilic sexual interests. Similarly, vaginal photoplethysmography (VPP) is a test to measure female genital arousal and is commonly used to assess female sexual dysfunctions. Although VPP is currently the most validated method to measure genital arousal in women, its use with female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests has been almost nonexistent. One explanation for this is that some research has suggested that female genital arousal may not be category-specific, meaning that women will respond to any sexual cues, not just those involving their preferred sexual interests. However, not all research supports this finding. Due to the potential benefits of using VPP in the assessment and treatment of female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests, it is important that further research be done before dismissing the use of VPP in forensic populations. The purpose of this article is to review the current research on VPP and its applicability to female sex offenders and females with paraphilic sexual interests.

  17. Correlates of bullying in Quebec high school students: the vulnerability of sexual-minority youth

    PubMed Central

    Cénat, Jude Mary; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bullying has become a significant public health issue, particularly among youth. This study documents cyberbullying, homophobic bullying and bullying at school or elsewhere and their correlates among both heterosexual and sexual-minority high school students in Quebec (Canada). Method A representative sample of 8,194 students aged 14–20 years was recruited in Quebec (Canada) high schools. We assessed cyberbullying, homophobic bullying and bullying at school or elsewhere in the past 12 months and their association with current self-esteem and psychological distress as well as suicidal ideations. Results Bullying at school or elsewhere was the most common form of bullying (26.1%), followed by cyberbullying (22.9%) and homophobic bullying (3.6%). Overall, girls and sexual-minority youth were more likely to experienced cyberbullying and other form of bullying as well as psychological distress, low self-esteem and suicidal ideations. The three forms of bullying were significantly and independently associated with all mental health outcomes. Conclusions The results underscore the relevance of taking into account gender and sexual orientation variations in efforts to prevent bullying experience and its consequences. PMID:26047959

  18. Resilience in Community: A Social Ecological Development Model for Young Adult Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18–25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18–41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

  19. Resilience in community: a social ecological development model for young adult sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families.

  20. Factors influencing health care access perceptions and care-seeking behaviors of immigrant Latino sexual minority men and transgender individuals: Baseline findings from the HOLA intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, AE; Reboussin, BA; Mann, L; Ma, A; Song, E; Alonzo, J; Rhodes, SD

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about immigrant Latino sexual minorities' health seeking behaviors. This study examined factors associated with perceptions of access and actual care behaviors among this population in North Carolina. Methods A community-based participatory research partnership recruited 180 Latino sexual minority men and transgender individuals within preexisting social networks to participate in a sexual health intervention. Mixed-effects logistic regression models examined factors influencing health care access perceptions and use of services (HIV testing and routine check-ups). Results Results indicate that perceptions of access and actual care behaviors are low and affected by individual and structural factors, including: years living in NC, reported poor general health, perceptions of discrimination, micro-, meso-, and macro-level barriers, and residence in a Medically Underserved Area. Discussion To improve Latino sexual minority health, focus must be placed on multiple levels, individual characteristics (e.g., demographics), clinic factors (e.g., provider competence and clinic environment), and structural factors (e.g., discrimination). PMID:25418235

  1. Sexually-transmitted disease risk in a Micronesian atoll population.

    PubMed

    Brewis, A A

    1992-10-01

    The potential health threat of AIDS to the native island-based populations in the Pacific is now widely appreciated by those working in the public-health sector throughout the region. Although several countries in the region are yet to identify any cases of AIDS or HIV seropositivity, there is reason to suspect that heterosexual contact may emerge as a predominant mode of spread of HIV infection into native Pacific island populations. Sexual networks and their relationship to potentially 'risky behaviours' are described for a single native Micronesian atoll community on the basis of ethnographic observation and interviewing. This description is combined with the investigation of historic-demographic dimensions of the epidemiology of sexually-transmitted diseases in the same population to draw some conclusions about the opportunities for HIV transmission and acquisition among the sexually-active portions of this community. Although sexually-transmitted diseases have not had an appreciable epidemiological or demographic impact on the population in the past, the sexual networks within the community and beyond provide ample opportunity for the introduction and spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV and its sequel AIDS. PMID:10148657

  2. HIV/AIDS and sexual minorities in Mexico: a globalized struggle for the protection of human rights.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ruiz, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The fight against HIV/AIDS is an example of a global struggle for the promotion of sexual health and the protection of human rights for all, including sexual minorities. It represents a challenge for the understanding of its impact on political, social, and economic processes. My central goal in this piece is twofold. First, I underline the importance of a political and human rights perspective to the analysis of the global response to the pandemic, and I introduce the concept of policy networks for a better understanding of these dynamics. Second, I argue that, in the case of Mexico, the constitution of HIV/AIDS policy networks, which incorporate civil society and state actors, such as sexual minority activists and public officials, and their actions—both domestic and international—have resulted in a more inclusive HIV/AIDS policy-making process. However, serious human rights violations of HIV/AIDS patients and sexual minorities still remain.

  3. Identity development and exploration among sexual minority adolescents: examination of a multidimensional model.

    PubMed

    Glover, Jenna A; Galliher, Renee V; Lamere, Trenton G

    2009-01-01

    Based on a multidimensional model of sexual identity development, the current study examined self-labeling, romantic, and sexual experiences among middle and late adolescent sexual minorities. Eighty-two youths between the ages of 14 and 21 were recruited from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) community centers and associated Internet groups. Differences between males and females and between middle and late adolescents were first examined. Males reported markedly different patterns of self-labeling and romantic experiences, relative to females, but few age differences emerged. Additionally, patterns of association between self-labeling and sexual or romantic experiences provided support for the multidimensional model of identity development and exploration. Finally, significant associations emerged between relationship experiences and relational competency, such that adolescents who described themselves as isolated from intimate interpersonal relationships reported less relational esteem and more relational depression than those who reported predominantly engaging in same-sex romantic relationships. In addition, alternative styles of engaging in interpersonal relationships (e.g., same-sex intimate friendships, heterosexual dating) also were also associated with increased relational competency.

  4. Condom Use among Immigrant Latino Sexual Minorities: Multilevel Analysis after Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data. PMID:25646728

  5. Condom use among immigrant Latino sexual minorities: multilevel analysis after respondent-driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; McCoy, Thomas P

    2015-02-01

    This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data. PMID:25646728

  6. Sexual isolation and mating propensity among allopatric Drosophila mettleri populations.

    PubMed

    Castrezana, Sergio J; Markow, Therese Ann

    2008-07-01

    Drosophila mettleri is found in deserts of North America breeding in soil soaked by the juices of necrotic cacti. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) and cardón (Pachycereus pringlei) are the usual host cacti in Mexico and Arizona, while prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) is used by an isolated population on Santa Catalina Island off the southern California Coast. Populations of D. mettleri show significant local genetic differentiation, especially when geographical isolation is coupled with host shifts. We tested for evidence of sexual isolation among allopatric populations of D. mettleri using a variety of choice and no-choice tests. Populations exhibited significant differences in mating propensity, which translated into significant deviations from random mating. While in some cases these deviations were consistent with sexual isolation, in others, negative assortative mating was observed. No relationship between degree of genetic differentiation and the appearance of sexual isolation was detected. PMID:18561017

  7. Revision and extension of a multidimensional measure of sexual minority identity: the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Jonathan J; Kendra, Matthew S

    2011-04-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate a revised and extended version of the Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale (Mohr & Fassinger, 2000): the 27-item Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale (LGBIS). This revision features more inclusive and less stigmatizing language than the previous version and includes 2 new subscales assessing identity affirmation and centrality. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 297) and a confirmatory factor analysis (n = 357) supported an 8-factor solution assessing acceptance concerns, concealment motivation, identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, difficulty with the identity development process, identity superiority, identity affirmation, and identity centrality. Predicted associations with measures of identity-related constructs and psychosocial functioning provided preliminary validity evidence for LGBIS scores in a college student population. Study 2 (N = 51) provided evidence of the test-retest and internal consistency reliability of LGBIS scores. These studies suggest that the LGBIS may offer researchers an efficient means of assessing multiple dimensions of sexual orientation minority identity.

  8. Probing minority population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianxun; Zheng, Yan; Yan, Ya; Yang, Lingling; Yao, Yihui; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wu, Lina; Wang, Xu; Chen, Yuqing; Xing, Jinchun; Yan, Xiaomei

    2016-06-15

    The evolution and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has become a major threat to public health. Advanced tools are urgently needed to quickly diagnose antibiotic-resistant infections to initiate appropriate treatment. Here we report the development of a highly sensitive flow cytometric method to probe minority population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria via single cell detection. Monoclonal antibody against TEM-1 β-lactamase and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated secondary antibody were used to selectively label resistant bacteria green, and nucleic acid dye SYTO 62 was used to stain all the bacteria red. A laboratory-built high sensitivity flow cytometer (HSFCM) was applied to simultaneously detect the side scatter and dual-color fluorescence signals of single bacteria. By using E. coli JM109/pUC19 and E. coli JM109 as the model systems for antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible bacteria, respectively, as low as 0.1% of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were accurately quantified. By monitoring the dynamic population change of a bacterial culture with the administration of antibiotics, we confirmed that under the antimicrobial pressure, the original low population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria outcompeted susceptible strains and became the dominant population after 5hours of growth. Detection of antibiotic-resistant infection in clinical urine samples was achieved without cultivation, and the bacterial load of susceptible and resistant strains can be faithfully quantified. Overall, the HSFCM-based quantitative method provides a powerful tool for the fundamental studies of antibiotic resistance and holds the potential to provide rapid and precise guidance in clinical therapies. PMID:26852201

  9. Sexual and Gender Minority Youth Suicide: Understanding Subgroup Differences to Inform Interventions.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kimberly H McManama; Putney, Jennifer M; Hebert, Nicholas W; Falk, Amy M; Aguinaldo, Laika D

    2016-08-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are disproportionately affected by suicide-related thoughts and behaviors relative to their heterosexual and/or non-transgender peers. Theory and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique factors that contribute to this elevated risk, with distinguishable differences among SGM subgroups. Although SGM youth suicide prevention research is in its nascence, initial findings indicate that interventions which focus on family support and acceptance may be beneficial. It is critical that we develop and test tailored interventions for SGM youth at risk for suicide, with specific attention to subgroup differences and reductions in suicide-related thoughts and behaviors as outcomes.

  10. Sexual and Gender Minority Youth Suicide: Understanding Subgroup Differences to Inform Interventions.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kimberly H McManama; Putney, Jennifer M; Hebert, Nicholas W; Falk, Amy M; Aguinaldo, Laika D

    2016-08-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are disproportionately affected by suicide-related thoughts and behaviors relative to their heterosexual and/or non-transgender peers. Theory and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique factors that contribute to this elevated risk, with distinguishable differences among SGM subgroups. Although SGM youth suicide prevention research is in its nascence, initial findings indicate that interventions which focus on family support and acceptance may be beneficial. It is critical that we develop and test tailored interventions for SGM youth at risk for suicide, with specific attention to subgroup differences and reductions in suicide-related thoughts and behaviors as outcomes. PMID:27348621

  11. Is There a Difference? The Impact of Campus Climate on Sexual Minority and Gender Minority Students' Levels of Outness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Bartolo, Adriana N.

    2013-01-01

    Key scholars have studied campus climate, and often these climate studies are done through the lens of race and racial issues on campus. A few studies have explored the interaction between campus climate and sexual and gender minority students. However, those studies, like the climate studies through a racial lens, found that lesbian, gay,…

  12. Lack of Sexual Minorities' Rights as a Barrier to HIV Prevention Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Asia: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James E; Kanters, Steve

    2015-03-01

    This study set out to assess the relationship between variation in human rights for sexual minorities in Asian countries and indicators of HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. To quantitatively measure the relationship between variation in HIV prevention and variation in human rights for sexual minorities, this study developed the Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (SOGI) Human Rights Index (an original index with scores ranging from 0.0 to 1.0). Subsequently, this study collected 237 epidemiological and behavioral studies from 22 Asian countries and performed a series of meta-analyses in order to calculate national averages for five indicators of HIV prevention: HIV prevalence, inconsistent condom use, recent HIV testing, adequate HIV knowledge, and exposure to HIV prevention services. A change of human rights for sexual minorities from a score of 0.0 to 1.0 as measured by the SOGI Human Rights Index was correlated with a decrease in unprotected anal intercourse by 25.5% (p=0.075), and increases in recent HIV testing by 42.9% (p=0.011), HIV knowledge by 29.5% (p=0.032), and exposure to HIV prevention services by 37.9% (p=0.119). The relationship between HIV prevalence and variation in human rights for sexual minorities was not statistically significant. Our study found correlations between human rights and indicators of HIV prevention, further supporting the need for increased rights among marginalized populations. The paucity of studies from many Asian countries as well as the disparity in how indicators of HIV prevention are measured reveals a need for increased coverage and standardization of MSM serological and behavioral data in order to better inform evidence-based policymaking.

  13. Lack of Sexual Minorities' Rights as a Barrier to HIV Prevention Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Asia: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James E; Kanters, Steve

    2015-03-01

    This study set out to assess the relationship between variation in human rights for sexual minorities in Asian countries and indicators of HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. To quantitatively measure the relationship between variation in HIV prevention and variation in human rights for sexual minorities, this study developed the Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (SOGI) Human Rights Index (an original index with scores ranging from 0.0 to 1.0). Subsequently, this study collected 237 epidemiological and behavioral studies from 22 Asian countries and performed a series of meta-analyses in order to calculate national averages for five indicators of HIV prevention: HIV prevalence, inconsistent condom use, recent HIV testing, adequate HIV knowledge, and exposure to HIV prevention services. A change of human rights for sexual minorities from a score of 0.0 to 1.0 as measured by the SOGI Human Rights Index was correlated with a decrease in unprotected anal intercourse by 25.5% (p=0.075), and increases in recent HIV testing by 42.9% (p=0.011), HIV knowledge by 29.5% (p=0.032), and exposure to HIV prevention services by 37.9% (p=0.119). The relationship between HIV prevalence and variation in human rights for sexual minorities was not statistically significant. Our study found correlations between human rights and indicators of HIV prevention, further supporting the need for increased rights among marginalized populations. The paucity of studies from many Asian countries as well as the disparity in how indicators of HIV prevention are measured reveals a need for increased coverage and standardization of MSM serological and behavioral data in order to better inform evidence-based policymaking. PMID:26790014

  14. Interrelationships between LGBT-based victimization, suicide, and substance use problems in a diverse sample of sexual and gender minorities.

    PubMed

    Mereish, Ethan H; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Bradford, Judith B

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e. suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e. victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity [LGBT]) and suicidality. A nonprobability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N = 1457) ranged in age from 19-70 years. Participants reported history of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, substance use problems, as well as experiences of LGBT-based verbal and physical attacks. Substance use problems were a significant partial mediator between LGBT-based victimization and suicidal ideation and between LGBT-based victimization and suicide attempts for sexual and gender minorities. Nuanced gender differences revealed that substance use problems did not significantly mediate the relationship between victimization and suicide attempts for sexual minority men. Substance use problems may be one insidious pathway that partially mediates the risk effects of sexual and gender minority stress on suicidality. Substances might be a temporary and deleterious coping resource in response to LGBT-based victimization, which have serious effects on suicidal ideation and behaviors.

  15. Interrelationships between LGBT-based victimization, suicide, and substance use problems in a diverse sample of sexual and gender minorities.

    PubMed

    Mereish, Ethan H; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Bradford, Judith B

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e. suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e. victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity [LGBT]) and suicidality. A nonprobability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N = 1457) ranged in age from 19-70 years. Participants reported history of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, substance use problems, as well as experiences of LGBT-based verbal and physical attacks. Substance use problems were a significant partial mediator between LGBT-based victimization and suicidal ideation and between LGBT-based victimization and suicide attempts for sexual and gender minorities. Nuanced gender differences revealed that substance use problems did not significantly mediate the relationship between victimization and suicide attempts for sexual minority men. Substance use problems may be one insidious pathway that partially mediates the risk effects of sexual and gender minority stress on suicidality. Substances might be a temporary and deleterious coping resource in response to LGBT-based victimization, which have serious effects on suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:23535038

  16. Factors affecting academic achievement among sexual minority and gender-variant youth.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area.

  17. Factors affecting academic achievement among sexual minority and gender-variant youth.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area. PMID:25344999

  18. Portuguese adolescents' attitudes toward sexual minorities: transphobia, homophobia, and gender role beliefs.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Davies, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are common and widespread in Western societies. However, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, although research has shown that homophobic harassment and bullying is highly common among adolescents, little is known about adolescent's attitudes toward sexual minorities. This study aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge, by investigating adolescents' attitudes toward transgender individuals and possible attitudinal correlates of those attitudes. Participants (N = 188; 62 males and 126 females) were recruited in high schools in Lisbon, Portugal. Age ranged from 15 to 19 years (M = 17; SD = .96). Participants completed a questionnaire booklet measuring attitudes toward transgender individuals, lesbians, and gay men, and gender role beliefs. Results revealed that attitudes toward transgender individuals were significantly correlated with all attitude measures. Specifically, it was revealed that those participants who endorsed negative attitudes toward transgender individuals were also endorsing of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and tended to adhere to traditional gender roles. A significant gender effect was found with males being more negative toward sexual minorities than females, but these negative attitudes were more extreme toward gay men than toward lesbian women. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. A social ecological approach to understanding correlates of lifetime sexual assault among sexual minority women in Toronto, Canada: results from a cross-sectional internet-based survey.

    PubMed

    Logie, C H; Alaggia, R; Rwigema, M J

    2014-08-01

    Stigma, discrimination and violence contribute to health disparities among sexual minorities. Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience sexual violence at similar or higher rates than heterosexual women. Most research with LBQ women, however, has focused on measuring prevalence of sexual violence rather than its association with health outcomes, individual, social and structural factors. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey with LBQ women in Toronto, Canada. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess correlates of lifetime sexual assault (LSA). Almost half (42%) of participants (n = 415) reported experiences of LSA. Participants identifying as queer were more likely to have experienced LSA than those identifying as lesbian. When controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, experiencing LSA was associated with higher rates of depression, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), receiving an STI test, belief that healthcare providers were not comfortable with their LBQ sexual orientation, and sexual stigma (overall, perceived and enacted). A history of sexual violence was associated with lower: self-rated health, overall social support, family social support and self-esteem. This research highlights the salience of a social ecological framework to inform interventions for health promotion among LBQ women and to challenge sexual stigma and sexual violence.

  20. A social ecological approach to understanding correlates of lifetime sexual assault among sexual minority women in Toronto, Canada: results from a cross-sectional internet-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Logie, C. H.; Alaggia, R.; Rwigema, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma, discrimination and violence contribute to health disparities among sexual minorities. Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience sexual violence at similar or higher rates than heterosexual women. Most research with LBQ women, however, has focused on measuring prevalence of sexual violence rather than its association with health outcomes, individual, social and structural factors. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey with LBQ women in Toronto, Canada. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess correlates of lifetime sexual assault (LSA). Almost half (42%) of participants (n = 415) reported experiences of LSA. Participants identifying as queer were more likely to have experienced LSA than those identifying as lesbian. When controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, experiencing LSA was associated with higher rates of depression, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), receiving an STI test, belief that healthcare providers were not comfortable with their LBQ sexual orientation, and sexual stigma (overall, perceived and enacted). A history of sexual violence was associated with lower: self-rated health, overall social support, family social support and self-esteem. This research highlights the salience of a social ecological framework to inform interventions for health promotion among LBQ women and to challenge sexual stigma and sexual violence. PMID:24412812

  1. From the margins to the center: ethnic minority women and the mental health effects of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Chung, Heewoon; Tillman, Shaquita; Belcourt, Annie

    2009-10-01

    The trauma of sexual assault is heightened for many women by the interlocking experience of societal traumas such as racism, sexism, and poverty. The mental health effects of sexual assault are mediated by race and ethnicity. The investigators explore the experiences of African American, Asian American, Latina, and Native American female survivors of sexual assault. The sociohistorical context of intergenerational trauma in the lives of ethnic minorities is a part of the context for the contemporary experience of sexualized violence. Racial and ethnic dynamics related to sexual assault prevalence, mental health effects, and disclosure are examined. Literature related to cultural beliefs, community attitudes, and perceived social support in relation to sexualized violence are also reviewed. Finally, practice, research, and policy implications are discussed.

  2. I Want Your Sext: Sexting and Sexual Risk in Emerging Adult Minority Men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mikaela Jessica; Powell, Adeya; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-04-01

    Sexting, sending, or receiving sexually suggestive or explicit messages/photos/videos, have not been studied extensively. The aims of this study is to understand factors associated with sexting among minority (e.g., African- American, Hispanic) emerging adult males and the association between sexting and sexual risk. We recruited 119 emerging adult heterosexual males and assessed sexting and sexual risk behaviors. Fifty-four percent of participants sent a sext, and 70% received a sext. Participants were more likely to sext with casual partners than with steady partners. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who sent sexts to steady partners had significantly more unprotected vaginal intercourse and oral sex. Participants who sent sexts to casual partners had significantly more partners, and participants who received sexts from casual partners had significantly more unprotected oral sex and sex while on substances. We found that sexting is a frequent and reciprocal behavior among emerging adults, and there were different patterns of significance for sexts with casual and steady partners.

  3. The language of "sexual minorities" and the politics of identity: a position paper.

    PubMed

    Petchesky, Rosalind P

    2009-05-01

    In any highly contested political domain, language can be a potent force for change or an obstacle to understanding and coalition building across difference. This is surely the case in the global debates over sexuality and gender, where even those terms themselves have aroused heated conflicts. In this spirit, we want to challenge the uncritical use of the term "sexual minorities", based on a number of historical and conceptual problems with which that term - like the larger thicket of identities and identity politics it signifies - is encumbered. These include: ignoring history, legitimating dubious normativity, fixing biological categories, and recreating exclusions. With this struggle, we seem caught in a modernist dilemma between two desires: to name and honour difference by signifying identities and to avoid exclusivity and hierarchy by reclaiming universals. The insistence of diverse groups on naming themselves and achieving recognition of their distinctness and variety will go on as long as aspirations for democracy exist, because that is the nature and necessity of emancipatory politics. At the same time, our language needs to reflect the fluidity and complexity of sexuality and gender expressions in everyday life and their intricate interweaving with other conditions such as class, race, ethnicity, time and place.

  4. Non-Parental Adults in the Social and Risk Behavior Networks of Sexual Minority Male Youth

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The presence of non-parental adults (NPAs), or adults outside of caregivers (e.g., extended family, natural mentors), in the lives of adolescents and emerging adults has received a rapidly expanding amount of empirical attention in the last decade. Sexual minority male youth (SMMY) face disproportionate risks of abuse and victimization in relationships with parents and peers. Yet, despite the fact that this group, therefore, may be both potentially vulnerable to negative interpersonal influences but also poised to benefit from additional relationships, NPA involvement in the lives of SMMY is currently not well understood in the extant literature. This study sought to examine and characterize the involvement of NPAs in the social and risk networks of SMMY (n = 175; 54% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latino, 14% Caucasian; ages 17–23). Most SMMY identified at least one NPA, such as friends and grandparents, in their networks. Three categories of relationships were identified, Strictly Social, which only involved social interactions; Complex, which were both social and involved substance use and/or sexual activity; and Risky, which purely consisted of substance use or sexual activity. Relationships were rated as emotionally “closer” among ethnic minority SMMY, although, racial/ethnic similarity between SMMY and NPAs was not associated with relationship closeness. In addition, relationships involving female and heterosexual NPAs were also rated as stronger. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of considering multiple types of relationships between SMMY and NPAs when designing intervention and prevention efforts. Moreover, African American and Latino SMMY, who represent the most vulnerable sub-groups of SMMY in terms of HIV-risk, may be particularly poised to benefit from positive NPA relationships. PMID:26074655

  5. HIV testing among immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos in a US region with little historical Latino presence.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Paul A; Rhodes, Scott D

    2013-11-01

    Immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos constitute a vulnerable subgroup about which little is known. We examined HIV testing among 190 such Latinos recruited via respondent-driven sampling in North Carolina, a state with little historical Latino presence but recent, rapid growth of this population. Sixty-eight percent reported an HIV test in the past year, and nearly half reported multiple HIV tests. Concern for their health was the most frequent reason for seeking an HIV test. Reasons not to get tested included fear of a positive test, previous HIV tests, worry that test results might be reported to the government, and concerns that others might treat the person differently if found to be HIV positive. In a multiple variable model, correlates of HIV testing included age, educational attainment, HIV stigma, comfort with sexual orientation, and previous STD diagnoses. Among participants reporting anal sex, consistent condom use was associated with HIV testing, suggesting that protective behaviors may co-occur. These findings may inform the development of more efficacious interventions to increase HIV testing among this subgroup.

  6. Spreading of sexually transmitted diseases in heterosexual populations

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Latora, Vito; Moreno, Yamir; Profumo, Elio

    2008-01-01

    The spread of sexually transmitted diseases (e.g., chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, HIV, etc.) across populations is a major concern for scientists and health agencies. In this context, both the data collection on sexual contact networks and the modeling of disease spreading are intensive contributions to the search for effective immunization policies. Here, the spreading of sexually transmitted diseases on bipartite scale-free graphs, representing heterosexual contact networks, is considered. We analytically derive the expression for the epidemic threshold and its dependence with the system size in finite populations. We show that the epidemic outbreak in bipartite populations, with number of sexual partners distributed as in empirical observations from national sex surveys, takes place for larger spreading rates than for the case in which the bipartite nature of the network is not taken into account. Numerical simulations confirm the validity of the theoretical results. Our findings indicate that the restriction to crossed infections between the two classes of individuals (males and females) has to be taken into account in the design of efficient immunization strategies for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18212127

  7. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms: an adolescent population study.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915

  8. Sexual (Minority) Trajectories, Mental Health, and Alcohol Use: A Longitudinal Study of Youth as They Transition to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Fish, Jessica N; Pasley, Kay

    2015-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning youth health disparities are well documented; however, study limitations restrict our understanding of how the temporal interplay among domains of sexuality (attraction, behavior, and identity) situate individuals to be more or less at risk for poor mental health and alcohol use across the transition to adulthood. Four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 12,679; 51.29 % female) were used with repeated measures latent class analysis to estimate sexual trajectory groups designated by prospective reports of romantic attraction, sexual/romantic behavior, and sexual identity from adolescence to adulthood. Five unique trajectories emerged: two heterosexual groups (heterosexual early daters [58.37 %] and heterosexual later daters [29.83 %]) and three sexual minority groups (heteroflexible [6.44 %], later bisexually identified [3.32 %], and LG[B] identified [2.03 %]). These sexual trajectories differentiate risk for depressive symptomology, suicidal thoughts and behaviors, and alcohol use during adolescence and early adulthood. Groups where individuals first reported same-sex attraction and sexual minority identities in adulthood (heteroflexible and later bisexually identified) had similar levels of depression, suicidality, and greater substance use than those who largely reported same-sex attraction and behavior during adolescence (the LG[B] identified group). These later recognition groups showed greater risk for poor outcomes in waves where they also first reported these changes in attraction, behaviors, and identities. The emergence of three sexual minority groups reveal within-group differences in sexuality and sexual trajectories and how these experiences relate to risk and timing of risk across the transition to adulthood. PMID:25956289

  9. [Reconciliation and/or mediation settlements in cases of sexual abuse of minors in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D; Ngoh, F

    1999-01-01

    The twofold purpose of this study was to show that cases of sexual abuse involving minors can sometimes be resolved within the victim's entourage and to gain insight into the long-term clinical consequences of such acts. The study group was composed of 17 consultees recruited between 1993 and 1994. Inclusion criteria were level of education and understanding sufficient to obtain informed consent, Cameroon nationality, at least 15 years of age, and history of sexual abuse. Persons with a history of hospitalization or psychiatric treatment were excluded. After a one-hour history-taking interview, each subject filled out a questionnaire specially designed for the study. Analysis of data showed that 94 p. 100 of the victims were female. Most subjects were adolescents or younger when the sexual abuse occurred. All had been raped. Subjects presented a range of psychiatric problems, somatic manifestations and disturbances in instinctive functions. No court action had been started in 16 cases (94 p. 100) and charges had been filed in only one case (6 p. 100). Reconciliation was achieved in 2 cases (12.5 p. 100) and negotiated settlements involving payment of financial compensation to the parents of the victim were reached to avoid court action in 14 cases (87.5 p. 100). The results of this study demonstrate that reconciliation and/or negotiated settlements based on economic incentives and social pressures are sometimes preferable to court action. The clinical manifestations observed in the subjects could be considered as the long-term consequences of sexual abuse. PMID:10546190

  10. Negative Treatment by Family as a Predictor of Depressive Symptoms, Life Satisfaction, Suicidality, and Tobacco/Alcohol Use in Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Nam T.T.; Bass, Judith K.; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Research linking family rejection and health outcomes in sexual minority people is mostly limited to North America. We assessed the associations between negative treatment by family members and depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, suicidality, and tobacco/alcohol use in sexual minority women (SMW) in Viet Nam. Methods: Data were from an anonymous internet survey (n = 1936). Latent class analysis characterized patterns of negative treatment by family members experienced by respondents. Latent class with distal outcome modeling was used to regress depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, suicidality, and tobacco/alcohol use on family treatment class, controlling for predictors of family treatment and for two other types of sexual prejudice. Results: Five latent family treatment classes were extracted, including four negative classes representing varying patterns of negative family treatment. Overall, more than one negative class predicted lower life satisfaction, more depressive symptoms, and higher odds of attempted suicide (relative to the non-negative class), supporting the minority stress hypothesis that negative family treatment is predictive of poorer outcomes. Only the most negative class had elevated alcohol use. The association between family treatment and smoking status was not statistically significant. The most negative class, unexpectedly, did not have the highest odds of having attempted suicide, raising a question about survivor bias. Conclusion: This population requires public health attention, with emphasis placed on interventions targeting the family to promote acceptance and to prevent negative treatment, and interventions supporting those SMW who encounter the worst types of negative family treatment. PMID:27219025

  11. Effects of Victimization and Violence on Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors Among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Heath, Ryan D.; Elsaesser, Caitlin E.; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual minority youth (SMY) are at higher risk for victimization and suicide than are heterosexual youth (HY). Relatively little research has examined which types of victimization are most closely linked to suicide, which is necessary to develop targeted prevention interventions. The present study was conducted to address this deficit. Methods: The data come from the 2011 Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 1,907). Structural equation modeling (SEM) in Mplus evaluated the direct, indirect, and total effects of sexual orientation on a latent indicator of suicidal ideation and behaviors via seven types of victimization. Four indicators of victimization were school-specific (e.g., harassment due to sexual orientation or gender identity (SO/GID), bullying, threatened or injured with a weapon, and skipping school due to safety concerns), and three indicators assessed other types of victimization (e.g., electronic bullying, intimate partner violence, and sexual abuse). Results: Thirteen percent of youth were classified as SMY. Significantly more SMY than HY reported suicidal ideation (27.95% vs. 13.64%), a suicide plan (22.78% vs. 12.36%), and at least one suicide attempt (29.92% vs. 12.43%) in the past year (all P < .001). A greater percentage of SMY reported SO/GID-related harassment, skipping school, electronic bullying, and sexual abuse. Sexual orientation was not directly related to suicidal ideation and behaviors in SEM. Rather, SMY's elevated risk of suicidality functioned indirectly through two forms of school-based victimization: being threatened or injured with a weapon (B = .19, SE = .09, P ≤ .05) and experiencing SO/GID-specific harassment (B = .40, SE = .15, P ≤ .01). There also was a trend for SMY to skip school as a strategy to reduce suicide risk. Conclusion: Although SMY experience higher rates of victimization than do HY, school-based victimization that involves weapons or is due to one's SO

  12. The Predictive Syndemic Effect of Multiple Psychosocial Problems on Health Care Costs and Utilization among Sexual Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Sarah E; Elsesser, Steven; Grasso, Chris; Safren, Steven A; Bradford, Judith B; Mereish, Ethan; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies documenting sexual minority women's disproportionate risk for a range of medical, mental health, and substance use disorders have not provided a predictive framework for understanding their interrelations and outcomes. The present study aimed to address this gap by testing the syndemic effect of co-occurring psychosocial problems on 7-year health care costs and utilization among sexual minority women. The sample was comprised of sexual minority women (N = 341) who were seen at an urban LGBT-affirmative community health center. Medical and mental health care utilization and cost data were extracted from electronic medical records. Demographically adjusted regression models revealed that co-occurring psychosocial problems (i.e., childhood sexual abuse, partner violence, substance use, and mental health distress [history of suicide attempt]) were all strongly interrelated. The presence of these indicators had a syndemic (additive) effect on medical costs and utilization and mental health utilization over 7-year follow-up, but no effect on 7-year mental health costs. These results suggest that the presence and additive effect of these syndemic conditions may, in part, explain increased medical costs and utilization (and higher medical morbidity) among sexual minority women.

  13. Minority Stress Theory: An Examination of Factors Surrounding Sexual Risk Behavior among Gay & Bisexual Men Who Use Club Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Dentato, Michael P.; Halkitis, Perry N.; Orwat, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the impact of minority stress theory upon sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men using club drugs. Similar studies have focused on ethnic minorities and women, however gay and bisexual men demonstrate greater likelihood for risk behaviors leading to HIV/AIDS. Objective This study examined sexual risk behavior from the perspective of minority stress theory upon substance using gay and bisexual men and their partners. Methods Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined minority stress associations with participant sexual risk behaviors, drug use and partner type, controlling for demographics. Results 396 gay and 54 bisexual respondents, ages 18-67 reported at least one time drug use while engaging in sexual risk behavior. In the adjusted model, expectations of rejection associated with lower odds of sexual risk behavior, while older age approached significance. Conclusions Theoretical origins for examining risk behavior among gay and bisexual men may underscore risk and protective factors, while ultimately holding implications for prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:24319321

  14. The Predictive Syndemic Effect of Multiple Psychosocial Problems on Health Care Costs and Utilization among Sexual Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Sarah E; Elsesser, Steven; Grasso, Chris; Safren, Steven A; Bradford, Judith B; Mereish, Ethan; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies documenting sexual minority women's disproportionate risk for a range of medical, mental health, and substance use disorders have not provided a predictive framework for understanding their interrelations and outcomes. The present study aimed to address this gap by testing the syndemic effect of co-occurring psychosocial problems on 7-year health care costs and utilization among sexual minority women. The sample was comprised of sexual minority women (N = 341) who were seen at an urban LGBT-affirmative community health center. Medical and mental health care utilization and cost data were extracted from electronic medical records. Demographically adjusted regression models revealed that co-occurring psychosocial problems (i.e., childhood sexual abuse, partner violence, substance use, and mental health distress [history of suicide attempt]) were all strongly interrelated. The presence of these indicators had a syndemic (additive) effect on medical costs and utilization and mental health utilization over 7-year follow-up, but no effect on 7-year mental health costs. These results suggest that the presence and additive effect of these syndemic conditions may, in part, explain increased medical costs and utilization (and higher medical morbidity) among sexual minority women. PMID:26438415

  15. Computer Simulation of Sexual Selection on Age-Structured Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, S. G. F.; Penna, T. J. P.

    Using computer simulations of a bit-string model for age-structured populations, we found that sexual selection of older males is advantageous, from an evolutionary point of view. These results are in opposition to a recent proposal of females choosing younger males. Our simulations are based on findings from recent studies of polygynous bird species. Since secondary sex characters are found mostly in males, we could make use of asexual populations that can be implemented in a fast and efficient way.

  16. Perspectivas para mejorar la salud sexual de las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence; Sun, Christina J.; Andrade, Mario; Villatoro, Guillermo; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala son afectadas de manera desproporcionada por el VIH y otras infecciones transmitidas sexualmente (ITS). Sin embargo, poco se sabe de los factores que contribuyen al riesgo de infección en estas minorías. Investigadores de Estados Unidos y Guatemala quisimos informarnos sobre las necesidades de salud sexual e identificar características de programas de prevención de VIH/ITS para estas minorías. Llevamos a cabo 8 grupos focales con hombres gay, bisexuales y personas transgénero y entrevistas en profundidad con líderes comunitarios. Utilizamos el Método Comparativo Constante para analizar las transcripciones. Identificamos 24 factores que influyen en la salud sexual y 16 características de programas para reducir el riesgo de VIH/ITS en estas poblaciones. La identificación de factores de conductas sexuales de riesgo y de características de programas potencialmente efectivos ofrece gran potencial para desarrollar intervenciones que contribuyan a reducir el riesgo de infección por VIH/ITS en estas minorías en Guatemala. PMID:27494000

  17. Medicine and health care along the Silk Road. China's population control program among the national minorities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T O

    1985-01-01

    Travel along the Silk Road where many of China's national minorities live gives a new insight into the population growth problem. As a whole China's "one-child-for-one-family" campaign seems to have succeeded in controlling its national population, although the government takes a more liberal attitude toward the national minorities.

  18. Microaggressions, Feelings of Difference, and Resilience Among Adopted Children with Sexual Minority Parents.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rachel H; Crain, Emily E; Oakley, M K; Cashen, Krystal K; Garber, Karin J

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists about the unique experiences and possible marginalization of children with sexual minority parents. From a larger longitudinal project of diverse adoptive families, we examined cross-sectional data using mixed methods from interviews with 49 adopted children (M age = 8 years; 47% female) in 27 two-father and 22 two-mother families. Using thematic analysis, we coded themes of awareness of difference, microaggressions, and resilience (i.e., coping and positive family conceptualizations). Children experienced "feeling different" and microaggressions from peers, but generally at a low to medium intensity and with neutral (not negative) emotion. More instances of resilience and positive family conceptualizations were reported than microaggressions or feelings of difference, suggesting that children develop positive perceptions of their family and navigate experiences of difference with resilience. Filling important gaps in the literature, we discuss implications of our results for practice and policy.

  19. Cultivating Professional Allies for Sexual Minority Youth: A Community-Based Educational Intervention.

    PubMed

    Craig, Shelley L; Doiron, Christopher; Dillon, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority youth (SMY) face multiple risks in their daily lives that may influence their need for supportive care. Health and social service providers have unique opportunities to provide culturally competent services to these youth. This article describes a community-based educational intervention created to increase providers' knowledge, skills, and intention to support SMY. Based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model, this pilot study found that for a diverse sample of multidisciplinary professionals (n = 2,850), the odds of behavioral intention (BI) to support SMY were significantly higher when trainings were relevant to the professionals' experience (OR = 1.3), were sensitive (OR = 1.3), developed skills (OR = 1.1), and incorporated policy (OR = 1.2). Implications for the delivery of community-based trainings are provided.

  20. Social Stigma and Sexual Minorities' Romantic Relationship Functioning: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    PubMed

    Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    To bolster knowledge of determinants of relationship functioning among sexual minorities, the current meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively review evidence for the association between social stigma and relationship functioning as well as examine potential moderators. Thirty-five studies were identified, including 130 effect sizes (39 independent; N = 10,745). Across studies, evidence was found for a small but significant inverse association between social stigma and relationship functioning. Furthermore, this association was moderated by stigma type (with more deleterious associations for internalized relative to perceived stigma) and dimension of relationship functioning (with more deleterious associations for affective relative to cognitive and negative relative to positive). Evidence for demographic moderators (region, sex, race, age) was generally mixed although important limitations related to unique characteristics of study samples are discussed. We conclude by highlighting the importance of social stigma for relationship functioning and point toward directions for future research and policy action.

  1. Will AIDS be contained within U.S. minority urban populations?

    PubMed

    Wallace, R; Fullilove, M; Fullilove, R; Gould, P; Wallace, D

    1994-10-01

    Recent empirical research, and a simple stochastic modeling exercise, suggest that affluent suburban communities are at increased risk for the diffusion of HIV from present inner city epicenters, while the 'core group' construct of sexually transmitted disease theory suggests, somewhat counter-intuitively, that the hypercongregated and strongly self-interacting nature of affluent heterosexual elites in the U.S. places them at significant and increasing risk as well. In turn, a growing body of work strongly associates high HIV prevalence in minority urban populations with the processes of coupled physical and social disintegration which have produced the now-common and politically-generated 'hollowed out' pattern of U.S. cities. We conclude that a return to the principles of the Great Reform Movement, which first brought public health and public order to U.S. urban areas, is a necessary, but at present largely unrecognized, component to any successful national program to control AIDS in the United States, and particularly to stem the diffusion of HIV into heterosexual populations outside present diseases epicenters.

  2. Racial and sexual identity-related maltreatment among minority YMSM: prevalence, perceptions, and the association with emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Phillips, Gregory; Jones, Karen C; Outlaw, Angulique Y; Fields, Sheldon D; Smith, Justin C

    2011-08-01

    Bullying is a form of violence characterized as an aggressive behavior that is unprovoked and intended to cause harm. Prior studies have found that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience high levels of bullying related to their sexuality and this harassment can lead to engagement in risk behaviors, depression, and suicide. Ethnic/racial minority young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may experience dual levels of stigma and maltreatment due to both their sexuality and their race. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and perceptions of racial and sexual identity-based abuse among a sample of minority YMSM, and whether this maltreatment plays a role in the emotional distress of these youth. We found that overall 36% and 85% of participants experienced racial and sexuality-related bullying, respectively. There was a significant association between experiencing a high level of sexuality-related bullying and depressive symptomatology (p=0.03), having attempted suicide (p=0.03), and reporting parental abuse (p=0.05). We found no association between racial bullying and suicide attempts. In a multivariable logistic regression model, experiencing any racial bullying and high sexuality-related bullying were significant predictors of having a CES-D score ≥16; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.83 and 2.29, respectively. These findings contribute to the existing literature regarding the negative experiences and daily stressors facing LGBT youth with regard to both their minority status and LGBT identities. Future interventions for racial/ethnic minority YMSM should provide assistance to achieve a positive view of self that encompasses both their racial and sexual identities. PMID:21688988

  3. Racial and sexual identity-related maltreatment among minority YMSM: prevalence, perceptions, and the association with emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Phillips, Gregory; Jones, Karen C; Outlaw, Angulique Y; Fields, Sheldon D; Smith, Justin C

    2011-08-01

    Bullying is a form of violence characterized as an aggressive behavior that is unprovoked and intended to cause harm. Prior studies have found that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience high levels of bullying related to their sexuality and this harassment can lead to engagement in risk behaviors, depression, and suicide. Ethnic/racial minority young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may experience dual levels of stigma and maltreatment due to both their sexuality and their race. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and perceptions of racial and sexual identity-based abuse among a sample of minority YMSM, and whether this maltreatment plays a role in the emotional distress of these youth. We found that overall 36% and 85% of participants experienced racial and sexuality-related bullying, respectively. There was a significant association between experiencing a high level of sexuality-related bullying and depressive symptomatology (p=0.03), having attempted suicide (p=0.03), and reporting parental abuse (p=0.05). We found no association between racial bullying and suicide attempts. In a multivariable logistic regression model, experiencing any racial bullying and high sexuality-related bullying were significant predictors of having a CES-D score ≥16; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.83 and 2.29, respectively. These findings contribute to the existing literature regarding the negative experiences and daily stressors facing LGBT youth with regard to both their minority status and LGBT identities. Future interventions for racial/ethnic minority YMSM should provide assistance to achieve a positive view of self that encompasses both their racial and sexual identities.

  4. The HIV Risk Profiles of Latino Sexual Minorities and Transgender Persons Who Use Websites or Apps Designed for Social and Sexual Networking.

    PubMed

    Sun, Christina J; Reboussin, Beth; Mann, Lilli; Garcia, Manuel; Rhodes, Scott D

    2016-02-01

    The use of websites and GPS-based mobile applications ("apps") designed for social and sexual networking has been associated with increased HIV risk; however, little is known about Latino sexual minorities' and transgender persons' use of these websites and apps and the risk profiles of those who use them compared with those who do not. Data from 167 participants who completed the baseline survey of a community-level HIV prevention intervention, which harnesses the social networks of Latino sexual minorities and transgender persons, were analyzed. One quarter of participants (28.74%, n = 48) reported using websites or apps designed for social and sexual networking, and 119 (71.26%) reported not using websites or apps designed for social and sexual networking. Those who used websites or apps were younger and reported more male sex partners, a sexually transmitted disease diagnosis, and illicit drug use other than marijuana. HIV prevention interventions for those who use websites or apps should consider addressing these risks for HIV. PMID:26272786

  5. The HIV Risk Profiles of Latino Sexual Minorities and Transgender Persons Who Use Websites or Apps Designed for Social and Sexual Networking.

    PubMed

    Sun, Christina J; Reboussin, Beth; Mann, Lilli; Garcia, Manuel; Rhodes, Scott D

    2016-02-01

    The use of websites and GPS-based mobile applications ("apps") designed for social and sexual networking has been associated with increased HIV risk; however, little is known about Latino sexual minorities' and transgender persons' use of these websites and apps and the risk profiles of those who use them compared with those who do not. Data from 167 participants who completed the baseline survey of a community-level HIV prevention intervention, which harnesses the social networks of Latino sexual minorities and transgender persons, were analyzed. One quarter of participants (28.74%, n = 48) reported using websites or apps designed for social and sexual networking, and 119 (71.26%) reported not using websites or apps designed for social and sexual networking. Those who used websites or apps were younger and reported more male sex partners, a sexually transmitted disease diagnosis, and illicit drug use other than marijuana. HIV prevention interventions for those who use websites or apps should consider addressing these risks for HIV.

  6. [Is it necessary to control the population growth of national minorities].

    PubMed

    Tian, X Y

    1981-02-01

    In the process of Socialist construction and modernization, the development of the population of national minorities deserves our attention because it is directly related to the economic and cultural development in the areas inhabited by such national minorities, and it has a great impact on the welfare and future of those people. Moreover, the population growth of the minorities is a key factor in the national population control strategy. A rapid population growth among the minorities has caused serious problems in distribution of farm land and food supply, low personal income, a rise in the unemployment rate, and a rise in the illiteracy rate. This has prevented a rise in the living standard among the minority population. In order to prevent and solve population problems among the minorities, we must take appropriate measures according to local conditions to control population increases. Through popularization of education, population growth may be put under control. For those people who volunteer to practice family planning, the government should provide all kinds of assistance. At the same time, an effort is needed to introduce the necessity of improving birth quality, to popularize new methods of child birth, and to develop health and medical care for the general public, so that the quality of the minority population may be gradually improved.

  7. The influence of general identity disturbance on reports of lifetime substance use disorders and related outcomes among sexual minority adults with a history of substance use.

    PubMed

    Talley, Amelia E; Tomko, Rachel L; Littlefield, Andrew K; Trull, Timothy J; Sher, Kenneth J

    2011-09-01

    Previous research has shown that sexual minority (i.e., nonheterosexual) individuals report increased problematic substance use involvement, compared with their sexual majority counterparts. We hypothesize that feelings of an unstable sense of self (i.e., identity disturbance) may potentially drive problematic substance use. The purpose of the current study is to examine identity disturbance among sexual minorities as a potential explanatory mechanism of increased sexual minority lifetime rates of substance dependence. Measures of identity disturbance and three indicators of sexual orientation from lifetime female (n = 16,629) and male (n = 13,553) alcohol/illicit drug users in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined. Findings generally showed that the increased prevalence of alcohol dependence, illicit drug dependence, and combined alcohol/illicit drug dependence as well as a younger age of alcohol use initiation among sexual minority women was associated with elevated levels of identity disturbance. The results were consistent with a mediational role for identity disturbance in explaining the association between sexual minority status and substance dependence and were generally replicated among male sexual minority respondents. The current research suggests that identity disturbance, a predictor of substance use, may contribute to heightened risk for substance dependence among certain subgroups of sexual minority individuals.

  8. Understanding Health-Care Needs of Sexual and Gender Minority Veterans: How Targeted Research and Policy Can Improve Health.

    PubMed

    Mattocks, Kristin M; Kauth, Michael R; Sandfort, Theo; Matza, Alexis R; Sullivan, J Cherry; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2014-03-01

    Given the size of the patient population of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), it is likely the largest single provider of health care for sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals in the United States, including lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons. However, current VHA demographic data-collection strategies limit the understanding of how many SGM veterans there are, thereby making a population-based understanding of the health needs of SGM veterans receiving care in VHA difficult. In this article, we summarize the emergent research findings about SGM veterans and the first initiatives that have been implemented by VHA to promote quality care. Though the research on SGM veterans is in its infancy, it suggests that SGM veterans share some of the health risks noted in veterans generally and also risks associated with SGM status. Some promising resiliency factors have also been identified. These findings have implications for both VHA and non-VHA systems in the treatment of SGM veterans. However, more research on the unique needs of SGM veterans is needed to fully understand their health risks and resiliencies in addition to health-care utilization patterns.

  9. Alcohol and drug use among sexual minority college students and their heterosexual counterparts: the effects of experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility on campus

    PubMed Central

    Woodford, Michael R; Krentzman, Amy R; Gattis, Maurice N

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Research suggests that discrimination contributes to increased substance use among sexual minorities. Subtle discrimination and witnessing mistreatment, however, have received little attention. Using minority stress theory as a conceptual framework the authors examined the intersection of sexual orientation, experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility, and students’ alcohol and drug use. The authors hypothesized that experiencing/witnessing incivility/hostility would mediate the relationship between sexual minority status and drinking and drug use, as well as problematic use of these substances. Methods Data were taken from a campus climate survey (n = 2497; age mean [M] = 23.19 years; 61% female; 17% sexual minorities). Controlling for demographics, logistic regressions depicted specifications for each path of the mediation analysis and bootstrapping was used to assess the significance of each sexual minority-mistreatment-drinking/drug use path. Results Experiencing incivility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to personally experience incivility (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51–2.33), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.35–2.00). The mediation path was significant at P < 0.001. Further, witnessing hostility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to witness hostility (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.48–2.36), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.24–1.90). The mediation path was significant at P < 0.01. Conclusion The results provide further evidence for minority stress theory and suggest that clinical alcohol use interventions with sexual minorities need to assess personal incivilities and witnessing interpersonal

  10. Do Coping Styles Moderate or Mediate the Relationship between Internalized Heterosexism and Sexual Minority Women's Psychological Distress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test tenets of both minority stress and lesbian feminist/sexual identity development theories by examining the potential moderating and mediating roles of individual coping styles (i.e., problem-solving and avoidant coping) in the relationship between internalized heterosexism and lesbian and bisexual (sexual…

  11. Negotiating the Confluence: Middle-Eastern, Immigrant, Sexual-Minority Men and Concerns for Learning and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichler, Matthew A.; Mizzi, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual-minority male immigrants re-locating from the Middle East to the United States and Canada have particular experiences upon entry and integration into their new societies. The needs of learning and identity are highlighted through a multiple case approach involving three men. Interviews were conducted with the three participants, which were…

  12. School Climate, Individual Support, or Both? Gay-Straight Alliances and the Mental Health of Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, N. Eugene; Wisneski, Hope; Kane, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 284 sexual minority youth and young adults, this paper examines the relationships between mental health variables, the absence or presence of a gay-straight alliance, and membership status in a gay-straight alliance. The results suggest that the presence of a gay-straight alliance in a school or college, rather than actual…

  13. Urban Students' Attitudes about Sexual Minorities across Intersections of Sex and Race/Ethnicity: Data from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastic, Billie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…

  14. "I Just Want to Be Myself": Adolescents with Disabilities Who Identify as a Sexual or Gender Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Laurie Gutmann; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with disabilities who identify as a sexual or gender minority are at high risk for negative school experiences and poor outcomes, including peer rejection, bullying, and dropping out. Using an intersectionality framework, this study examined how multiple marginalized identities influence sense of self and school experience for this…

  15. Early Life Psychosocial Stressors and Housing Instability among Young Sexual Minority Men: the P18 Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kristen D; Kapadia, Farzana; Ompad, Danielle C; D'Avanzo, Paul A; Duncan, Dustin T; Halkitis, Perry N

    2016-06-01

    Homelessness and housing instability is a significant public health problem among young sexual minority men. While there is a growing body of literature on correlates of homelessness among sexual minority men, there is a lack of literature parsing the different facets of housing instability. The present study examines factors associated with both living and sleeping in unstable housing among n = 600 sexual minority men (ages 18-19). Multivariate models were constructed to examine the extent to which sociodemographic, interpersonal, and behavioral factors as well as adverse childhood experiences explain housing instability. Overall, 13 % of participants reported sleeping in unstable housing and 18 % had lived in unstable housing at some point in the 6 months preceding the assessment. The odds of currently sleeping in unstable housing were greater among those who experienced more frequent lack of basic needs (food, proper hygiene, clothing) during their childhoods. More frequent experiences of childhood physical abuse and a history of arrest were associated with currently living in unstable housing. Current enrollment in school was a protective factor with both living and sleeping in unstable housing. These findings indicate that being unstably housed can be rooted in early life experiences and suggest a point of intervention that may prevent unstable housing among sexual minority men. PMID:27169631

  16. "Does that Make Me a Woman?": Breast Cancer, Mastectomy, and Breast Reconstruction Decisions among Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Lisa R.; Tanenbaum, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Feminist scholars and activists writing about breast cancer care among women have highlighted the sexist and heterosexist assumptions often embedded in the medical management of breast cancer, and of mastectomy in particular. Despite these contributions, and some speculation that sexual minority women may be less interested in breast…

  17. Mental Health Pathways from Interpersonal Violence to Health-Related Outcomes in HIV-Positive Sexual Minority Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Method: HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban…

  18. Psychosocial treatment research with ethnic minority populations: ethical considerations in conducting clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Alvidrez, J; Arean, P A

    2002-01-01

    Because of historical mistreatment of ethnic minorities by research and medical institutions, it is particularly important for researchers to be mindful of ethical issues that arise when conducting research with ethnic minority populations. In this article, we focus on the ethical issues related to the inclusion of ethnic minorities in clinical trials of psychosocial treatments. We highlight 2 factors, skepticism and mistrust by ethnic minorities about research and current inequities in the mental health care system, that researchers should consider when developing psychosocial interventions studies that include ethnic minorities.

  19. Sexual behaviour and condom use as a protection against sexually transmitted infections in student population.

    PubMed

    Dijanić, Tomislav; Kozul, Karlo; Miskulin, Maja; Medić, Alan; Jurcev-Savicević, Anamarija; Burazin, Jelena

    2014-03-01

    (chi2 = 13.384, p < 0.05), and also plan to use it during following intercourse in the permanent relationship (chi2 = 17.575, p < 0.01). Growing condom use and decreasing risky sexual behaviour among students, as well as other adolescents and young adults needs to be maintained. Youth should learn before sexual initiation that only correct condom use at every sexual intercourse protects them against STI and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sexual education and STI/HIV prevention programmes, positive role of media (television) and civil organisations that communicate with the youth can help that. Such changes among adolescents and young adults should have to be seen in student population as well.

  20. Latino sexual and gender identity minorities promoting sexual health within their social networks: Process evaluation findings from a lay health advisor intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Christina J.; García, Manuel; Mann, Lilli; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    The HOLA intervention was a lay health advisor intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate HIV burden borne by Latino sexual and gender identity minorities (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, and transgender persons) living in the United States. Process evaluation data were collected for over a year of intervention implementation from 11 trained Latino male and transgender lay health advisors (Navegantes) to document the activities each Navegante conducted to promote condom use and HIV testing among his or her 8 social network members enrolled in the study. Over 13 months, the Navegantes reported conducting 1,820 activities. The most common activity was condom distribution. Navegantes had extensive reach beyond their enrolled social network members, and they engaged in health promotion activities beyond social network members enrolled in the study. There were significant differences between the types of activities conducted by Navegantes depending on who was present. Results suggest that lay health advisor interventions reach large number of at-risk community members and may benefit populations disproportionately impacted by HIV. PMID:25416309

  1. Latino sexual and gender identity minorities promoting sexual health within their social networks: process evaluation findings from a lay health advisor intervention.

    PubMed

    Sun, Christina J; García, Manuel; Mann, Lilli; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D

    2015-05-01

    The HOLA intervention was a lay health advisor intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate HIV burden borne by Latino sexual and gender identity minorities (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, and transgender persons) living in the United States. Process evaluation data were collected for over a year of intervention implementation from 11 trained Latino male and transgender lay health advisors (Navegantes) to document the activities each Navegante conducted to promote condom use and HIV testing among his or her eight social network members enrolled in the study. Over 13 months, the Navegantes reported conducting 1,820 activities. The most common activity was condom distribution. Navegantes had extensive reach beyond their enrolled social network members, and they engaged in health promotion activities beyond social network members enrolled in the study. There were significant differences between the types of activities conducted by Navegantes depending on who was present. Results suggest that lay health advisor interventions reach large number of at-risk community members and may benefit populations disproportionately affected by HIV.

  2. Literacy, Access, and Libraries among the Language Minority Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, Rebecca, Ed.

    Papers on linguistic minorities and library use include: (1) "Why Consider the Library and Books?" (Stephen Krashen); (2) "Supporting Spanish Language Literacy: Latino Children and School and Community Libraries" (Sandra Pucci); (3) "'I Did Not Know You Could Get Such Things There!': Secondary ESL Students' Understanding, Use and Beliefs…

  3. Evidence and knowledge gaps on the disease burden in sexual and gender minorities: a review of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Blondeel, Karel; Say, Lale; Chou, Doris; Toskin, Igor; Khosla, Rajat; Scolaro, Elisa; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) include individuals with a wide range of sexual orientations, physical characteristics, and gender identities and expressions. Data suggest that people in this group face a significant and poorly understood set of additional health risks and bear a higher burden of some diseases compared to the general population. A large amount of data is available on HIV/AIDS, but far less on other health problems. In this review we aimed to synthesize the knowledge on the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases, mental health conditions and violence experienced by SGM, based on available systematic reviews. We conducted a global review of systematic reviews, including searching the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaboration libraries, as well as PubMed, using a range of search terms describing the populations of interest, without time or language restrictions. Google Scholar was also scanned for unpublished literature, and references of all selected reviews were checked to identify further relevant articles. We found 30 systematic reviews, all originally written in English. Nine reviews provided data on HIV, 12 on other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), 4 on cancer, 4 on violence and 3 on mental health and substance use. A quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. The findings are presented in a narrative format. Our review primarily showed that there is a high burden of disease for certain subpopulations of SGM in HIV, STIs, STI-related cancers and mental health conditions, and that they also face high rates of violence. Secondly, our review revealed many knowledge gaps. Those gaps partly stem from a lack of original research, but there is an equally urgent need to conduct systematic and literature reviews to assess what we already know on the disease burden in SGM. Additional reviews are needed on the non-biological factors that could contribute to the higher disease burden. In addition, to provide universal access to

  4. Causes of male sexual trait divergence in introduced populations of guppies.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, A K; Head, M L; Brooks, R C; Rollins, L A; Ingleby, F C; Zajitschek, S R K

    2014-02-01

    Males from different populations of the same species often differ in their sexually selected traits. Variation in sexually selected traits can be attributed to sexual selection if phenotypic divergence matches the direction of sexual selection gradients among populations. However, phenotypic divergence of sexually selected traits may also be influenced by other factors, such as natural selection and genetic constraints. Here, we document differences in male sexual traits among six introduced Australian populations of guppies and untangle the forces driving divergence in these sexually selected traits. Using an experimental approach, we found that male size, area of orange coloration, number of sperm per ejaculate and linear sexual selection gradients for male traits differed among populations. Within populations, a large mismatch between the direction of selection and male traits suggests that constraints may be important in preventing male traits from evolving in the direction of selection. Among populations, however, variation in sexual selection explained more than half of the differences in trait variation, suggesting that, despite within-population constraints, sexual selection has contributed to population divergence of male traits. Differences in sexual traits were also associated with predation risk and neutral genetic distance. Our study highlights the importance of sexual selection in trait divergence in introduced populations, despite the presence of constraining factors such as predation risk and evolutionary history.

  5. Causes of male sexual trait divergence in introduced populations of guppies

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm, A K; Head, M L; Brooks, R C; Rollins, L A; Ingleby, F C; Zajitschek, S R K

    2014-01-01

    Males from different populations of the same species often differ in their sexually selected traits. Variation in sexually selected traits can be attributed to sexual selection if phenotypic divergence matches the direction of sexual selection gradients among populations. However, phenotypic divergence of sexually selected traits may also be influenced by other factors, such as natural selection and genetic constraints. Here, we document differences in male sexual traits among six introduced Australian populations of guppies and untangle the forces driving divergence in these sexually selected traits. Using an experimental approach, we found that male size, area of orange coloration, number of sperm per ejaculate and linear sexual selection gradients for male traits differed among populations. Within populations, a large mismatch between the direction of selection and male traits suggests that constraints may be important in preventing male traits from evolving in the direction of selection. Among populations, however, variation in sexual selection explained more than half of the differences in trait variation, suggesting that, despite within-population constraints, sexual selection has contributed to population divergence of male traits. Differences in sexual traits were also associated with predation risk and neutral genetic distance. Our study highlights the importance of sexual selection in trait divergence in introduced populations, despite the presence of constraining factors such as predation risk and evolutionary history. PMID:24456226

  6. Causes of male sexual trait divergence in introduced populations of guppies.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, A K; Head, M L; Brooks, R C; Rollins, L A; Ingleby, F C; Zajitschek, S R K

    2014-02-01

    Males from different populations of the same species often differ in their sexually selected traits. Variation in sexually selected traits can be attributed to sexual selection if phenotypic divergence matches the direction of sexual selection gradients among populations. However, phenotypic divergence of sexually selected traits may also be influenced by other factors, such as natural selection and genetic constraints. Here, we document differences in male sexual traits among six introduced Australian populations of guppies and untangle the forces driving divergence in these sexually selected traits. Using an experimental approach, we found that male size, area of orange coloration, number of sperm per ejaculate and linear sexual selection gradients for male traits differed among populations. Within populations, a large mismatch between the direction of selection and male traits suggests that constraints may be important in preventing male traits from evolving in the direction of selection. Among populations, however, variation in sexual selection explained more than half of the differences in trait variation, suggesting that, despite within-population constraints, sexual selection has contributed to population divergence of male traits. Differences in sexual traits were also associated with predation risk and neutral genetic distance. Our study highlights the importance of sexual selection in trait divergence in introduced populations, despite the presence of constraining factors such as predation risk and evolutionary history. PMID:24456226

  7. Sexual Minority Specific and Related Traumatic Experiences are Associated with Increased Risk for Smoking Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    O’Cleirigh, Conall; Dale, Sannisha K.; Elsesser, Steven; Pantalone, David W.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Bradford, Judith B.; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our study examined the hypothesis that sexual minority specific stress and trauma histories may explain some of the risk for smoking among gay/bisexual men. Methods Patients at a Boston community health center were invited to complete a 25-item questionnaire assessing demographics, general health, trauma history, and substance use. Of the 3,103 who responded, 1309 identified as male and gay or bisexual (82.8% White and mean age of 38.55 [sd = 9.76]). Results A multinomial logistic regression with current and former smoking status as the outcome (never smoked as referent group) and covariates of age, education, employment, HIV status, and race, showed that the number of sexual minority stressors/traumas were significantly related to the odds of both current and former smoking. In comparison to participants with no trauma history, those who reported 1, 2, 3, and 4 traumas had respectively 1.70 (OR=1.70: 95% CI: 1.24-2.34), 2.19 (OR=2.19: 95% CI: 1.48-3.23), 2.88 (OR=2.88: 95% CI: 1.71-4.85), and 6.94 (OR=6.94: 95% CI: 2.62-18.38) the odds of identifying as a current smoker. Adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed a significant dose effect of number of sexual minority stressors/traumas with odds of ever smoking. Experiencing intimate partner violence, anti-gay verbal attack, anti-gay physical attack, and childhood sexual abuse were each independently associated with increased odds of the smoking outcomes. Conclusion A sexual minority specific trauma history may represent a vulnerability for smoking among gay/bisexual men. Interventions that address trauma may enhance the efficacy of smoking cessation programs and improve the mental health of gay/bisexual men. PMID:25754971

  8. Population clustering and clonal structure evidence the relict state of Ulmus minor Mill. in the Balearic Islands.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Utrilla, P; Valbuena-Carabaña, M; Ennos, R; Gil, L

    2014-07-01

    Field elm (Ulmus minor) is a riparian tree that grows in rare, small populations scattered along temporary watercourses in the Balearic Islands, nowadays mostly covered with Mediterranean vegetation. Agriculture and farming on the fertile land along the periodically flooded plains have reduced the elm populations to sparse tree lines along the creek beds. The presence of field elm in this very anthropic landscape has led some authors to consider it as an introduced species in the Balearics. However, pollen data suggest these elms may be the remains of larger populations experiencing continuous population shrinkage during the Holocene, and hence be native to the isles. In this paper, we apply genetic markers to assess whether field elm is or is not indigenous to the Balearic Islands. We compare the genetic variation in nine nuclear microsatellites of six Balearic populations (three in each of the largest islands, Majorca and Minorca) with that of three natural Iberian populations located in two regions, one geologically (Baetic mountains, SE Iberia) and another historically (Catalonia, NE Iberia) related to the islands. Principal coordinates analysis and Bayesian clustering methods reveal a strong genetic differentiation of the Balearic populations from the Iberian ones, and even among islands, which support their native origin. Genotypic variation in the islands is very low and clonal reproduction is very high compared with the mainland, as it is frequently observed in populations of clonal species where sexual reproduction is limited. We discuss the practical implications of these findings for the conservation of elm genetic resources of these findings.

  9. Considerations for Reaching the Latino Population with Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Information and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Vega, Ernesto

    1990-01-01

    Latino and Latina sexual attitudes and behaviors must be understood if educators and counselors hope to reach this population with effective sexuality and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) information and education. The general U.S. Latino population is mostly sexually conservative; direct talk in public…

  10. Incarceration, high-risk sexual partnerships, and sexually transmitted infections in an urban population

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Susan M; Khan, Maria R; Tan, Sylvia; Turner, Charles F; Miller, William C.; Erbelding, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the associations between personal and partner incarceration, high-risk sexual partnerships and biologically-confirmed sexually transmitted infection (STI) in a U.S. urban population. Methods Data from a probability survey of young adults 15 to 35 years of age in Baltimore, MD, USA were analyzed to assess the prevalence of personal and partner incarceration and its association with several measures of high-risk sexual partnerships including multiple partners, partner concurrency, and current STI. Results A history of incarceration was common (24.1% among males and 11.3% among females). Among females with an incarcerated partner in the past year (15.3%), the risk of current STI was significantly increased (adjusted PR=2.3, 95% CI 1.5, 3.5). Multiple partners (5+) in the past year and partner concurrency were disproportionately high among men and women who had been incarcerated or who had sexual partner(s) who had recently been incarcerated. These associations remained robust independent of personal socio-demographic factors and illicit drug use. Conclusions Incarceration may contribute to STI risk not only by influencing engagement in high-risk behaviors but also by influencing contact with partners who engage in risky behaviors and who hence have elevated risk of infection. PMID:22250181

  11. Childhood sexual abuse by representatives of the Roman Catholic Church: a prevalence estimate among the Dutch population.

    PubMed

    Langeland, Willemien; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; Mager, Daniel; Smit, Jan H; Draijer, Nel

    2015-08-01

    Estimates of the extent of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) within in the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) in the general population are difficult to find. The independent Commission of Inquiry into sexual abuse of minors in the RCC in the Netherlands collected population-based data to estimate its prevalence. A large random online population sample was surveyed using a two-phase stratified sampling procedure. In Phase 1, 34,267 subjects aged 40 years and older were screened for childhood exposure to sexual abuse by non-family members, a history of institutionalization and a Roman Catholic upbringing. In Phase 2, a stratified subset of 2,462 subjects was assessed to obtain more detailed target information about sexual abuse reports within the RCC. We employed multiple imputation for the estimation of RCC CSA in the original Phase 1 sample. The prevalence of non-familial CSA in general (14.0%) was higher among women (17.2%) than among men (10.6%). The prevalence of CSA within the Dutch RCC (1.7%) was higher among men (2.7%) than among women (0.7%). As expected, older subjects reported more often CSA in the RCC than their younger counterparts. Respondents who stayed for some time in RCC run institutions for education or child protection had a higher risk to report sexual abuse. Although sexual abuse of minors by representatives of the RCC was a structural problem during a period that the Church was highly influential in the Netherlands, the estimated prevalence of the phenomenon is only a fraction of the prevalence rate of non-familial CSA. PMID:26003819

  12. The health of populations living in the indigenous minority settlements of northern Yakutia

    PubMed Central

    Burtseva, Tatiana E.; Uvarova, Tatiana E.; Tomsky, Mikhail I.; Odland, Jon Ø.

    2014-01-01

    This monograph contains the results of a study carried out by the Yakutsk Research Center for Complex Medical Problems, “Evaluating the health of the indigenous minorities of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) and optimizing medical assistance using innovative technologies and telemedicine in indigenous settlements.” The child population was studied in 19 indigenous minority settlements, and the adult population was studied in 12 settlements. PMID:25405106

  13. PTSD and Trauma-Related Difficulties in Sexual Minority Women: The Impact of Perceived Social Support.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Brandon J; Garvert, Donn W; Cloitre, Marylène

    2015-12-01

    This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related symptoms among sexual minority (SM) and heterosexual women and the influence of social support on the relationship between SM status and symptoms. We hypothesized that SM women would endorse higher symptoms of PTSD and related difficulties and that social support would moderate the relationship between SM status and symptoms. The sample, women seeking treatment for PTSD related to interpersonal violence (n = 477; mean age = 36.07 years; 22.9% SM) completed clinician-administered measures of PTSD and self-report measures of trauma-related difficulties and social support. The rate of PTSD diagnosis was higher for SM women. Social support and SM status were significantly associated with suicidality, self-perceptions, depression, somatic complaints, and functional impairment. The interaction between social support and SM status was significant for both functional impairment (β = -.26) and somatic complaints (β = -.39). High social support had an equal, positive effect among SM and nonminority women, whereas low social support had a greater negative impact among SM women. Results suggested the particular salience of social support on functioning and symptom severity among SM women and the potential importance of including interventions addressing social support into PTSD treatments for SM women.

  14. Natural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population.

    PubMed

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Pettay, Jenni E; Jokela, Markus; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-05-22

    Whether and how human populations exposed to the agricultural revolution are still affected by Darwinian selection remains controversial among social scientists, biologists, and the general public. Although methods of studying selection in natural populations are well established, our understanding of selection in humans has been limited by the availability of suitable datasets. Here, we present a study comparing the maximum strengths of natural and sexual selection in humans that includes the effects of sex and wealth on different episodes of selection. Our dataset was compiled from church records of preindustrial Finnish populations characterized by socially imposed monogamy, and it contains a complete distribution of survival, mating, and reproductive success for 5,923 individuals born 1760-1849. Individual differences in early survival and fertility (natural selection) were responsible for most variation in fitness, even among wealthier individuals. Variance in mating success explained most of the higher variance in reproductive success in males compared with females, but mating success also influenced reproductive success in females, allowing for sexual selection to operate in both sexes. The detected opportunity for selection is in line with measurements for other species but higher than most previous reports for human samples. This disparity results from biological, demographic, economic, and social differences across populations as well as from failures by most previous studies to account for variation in fitness introduced by nonreproductive individuals. Our results emphasize that the demographic, cultural, and technological changes of the last 10,000 y did not preclude the potential for natural and sexual selection in our species.

  15. Long-term effects of self-control on alcohol use and sexual behavior among urban minority young women.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Kenneth W; Scheier, Lawrence M; Acevedo, Bianca; Grenard, Jerry L; Botvin, Gilbert J

    2012-01-01

    High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners) in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample) reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19%) reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8%) reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and sexual behaviors.

  16. Cross-sectional study of sexual behaviour and knowledge about HIV among urban, rural, and minority residents in Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Bui, T. D.; Pham, C. K.; Pham, T. H.; Hoang, L. T.; Nguyen, T. V.; Vu, T. Q.; Detels, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three districts of Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam, to find out what proportion of the people who lived there engaged in behaviour that put them at risk of becoming infected with HIV, and to measure their knowledge about HIV infection and AIDS. METHODS: The survey was conducted in a rural district, Yen Hung; a mountainous district inhabited primarily by ethnic minority groups, Binh Lieu; and an urban district, Ha Long. Participants aged 15-45 years were randomly selected from the general population to be interviewed. FINDINGS: A total of 630 people from 707 households were interviewed; 8% were not home despite repeated visits and 3% refused to participate. The prevalence of premarital intercourse ranged from 9% to 16% among married men and 4% to 7% among married women. Among single men the proportion who had ever had intercourse ranged from 6% to 16%. Fewer than 3% reported having ever had sex with a sex worker. The median number of extramarital sex partners was 1. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS was high in the urban and rural areas but low in the mountainous area. Being male and being 20-29 years old were associated with having multiple sex partners. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of individuals reporting that they had had intercourse with sex workers and partners other than their spouse may explain the low rates of HIV infection among the heterosexual population; these rates are in contrast to the high rates of HIV infection found among injecting drug users. The association between having extramarital partners and being a younger man suggests that the tendency to have more sexual partners may increase in the future. If this happens, the potential for HIV to be spread through heterosexual sex will increase. PMID:11217661

  17. Some characteristics and the transition of the population reproduction patterns of China's national minorities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T

    1983-01-01

    The population reproduction patterns of China's minority groups differ to some extent from those of China as a whole. The population of some of the national minorities, such as the Mongolian, tibetan, and Hezhen nationalities, was actually decreasing before liberation. Cited as causal factors are the oppressive policies of past dynasties, lack of medical care in minority areas, and, in some instances, the religious imposition of strict celibacy on significant numbers of the male populaton. After libertation, reproductive patterns were characterized by a high birth rate and low mortality, resulting in a high growth rate. For example, in 1939-408 the birth rate among the Mongolian nationality in Inner Mongolia was 21.7, and the death rate was 28.3, resulting in a negative growth rate. In the period 1952-3, the birth rate rose to 41.5 while the death rate fell to 17.9 resulting in a growth rate of 23.6. This rapid transition is attributed to State policies of accelerated economic and cultural development in the minority areas, and the development of medical facilities. At present, a 3rd population pattern, characterized by a low birth rate, low mortality, and consequent low growth rate, is being seen among the national minorities. This is attributed to the leadership exhibited by minority cadres in family planning work. While advocating family planning, the State adopted a more flexible policy towards the minorities. A government directive stipulates that the specific rules can be drawn up according to the actual conditions by the nationality autonomous local authorities and the related provinces and autonomous regions. Family planning work has been achieved through the mobilization of the minority populations by the cadres, and by mass education on population theory and the relation between religious beliefs, marriage, and customs and family planning. Freedom of the minority people to preserve or reform their religious belief and customs has been absoluetely

  18. Sexual Minority Health Disparities in Adult Men and Women in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Grin, Benjamin M.; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kahler, Christopher W.; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We used nationally representative data to investigate health disparities associated with sexual minority status among adults in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from 11 114 adults who participated in the 2001 to 2010 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multiple logistic regressions, we examined the prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, mental health problems, cigarette smoking, and alcohol and illicit drug use in sexual minorities and heterosexual adults. Results. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, sexual minority men had greater odds of mental health problems, testing positive for HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 and self-reported gonorrhea and chlamydia. Sexual minority women had greater odds of mental health problems, testing positive for hepatitis C, smoking, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions. Numerous health disparities continue to face sexual minority men and women in the United States. Notably, health disparities persisted beyond the role of sociodemographic factors, including access to insurance and primary care, suggesting that further research is warranted to identify the determinants of health inequity for sexual minorities. PMID:26270288

  19. Associations between early first sexual intercourse and later sexual and reproductive outcomes: a systematic review of population-based data.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Wendy; Patrick, Kent; Smith, Anthony M A; Pitts, Marian K

    2015-04-01

    The assumption that early sexual debut leads to adverse outcomes has been used as justification for sexual health interventions and policies aimed at delaying sexual initiation, yet research in the area has been limited. This review identified and synthesized published literature on the association between early first sexual intercourse and later sexual/reproductive outcomes. Literature searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Current Contents. In all, 65 citations met the selection criteria (industrialized, population-based studies). By far the most common sexual behavior to have been investigated has been sexual partners. Studies consistently reported early first intercourse to be associated with more recent, lifetime, and concurrent sexual partners. Early initiators were also more likely to participate in a wider range of sexual practices and report increased sexual satisfaction (among men). Furthermore, early first intercourse, in some studies, was shown to increase the risk of teen pregnancies, teen births, and having an abortion, while findings on STIs and contraceptive use have been mixed. These findings, however, must be interpreted with caution due to methodological problems and limitations present in the research, including a lack of consensus on what constitutes early sexual intercourse and inconsistencies and problems with analyses.

  20. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

  1. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the US national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15–20 years) participants reported sexual orientation, past-year desire for toned/defined muscles and concerns with weight and shape, and past-year binge eating, restrictive dieting, purging (vomiting or laxative use) and use of products to increase muscularity (e.g., creatine, steroids). Latent class analyses identified two patterns at ages 15–16 years and three patterns at 17–18 and 19–20 years: Healthy (all ages; low body image concerns and weight-and shape-related behaviors; 54%–74% of observations), Muscle-Concerned (ages 17–18 and 19– 20; relatively high muscularity concern and product use; 18%–21% of observations), and Lean-Concerned (all ages; relatively high weight and shape concern, dieting, and binge eating; 19%– 28% of observations). Latent transition analyses revealed that sexual minority males (i.e., mostly heterosexual, gay, and bisexual) were more likely than completely heterosexual males to be Lean-Concerned at ages 17–18 and 19–20 years and to transition to the Lean-Concerned class from the Healthy class. There were no sexual orientation differences in odds of being Muscle-Concerned. Both heterosexual and sexual minority males are at risk for presenting body image concerns and weight- and shape-related behaviors that may have deleterious health consequences. Results suggest the need for screening for concerns and behaviors related to leanness and muscularity in early adolescence among all males, regardless of sexual orientation. PMID:26098578

  2. Minor Self-Harm and Psychiatric Disorder: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Moffit, Terrie E.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which minor self-harm in the general population is associated with psychiatric disorder. A population-based sample of 980 young adults was interviewed independently about past-year suicidal and self-harm behavior and thoughts, and psychiatric disorders. Self-harm included self-harmful behaviors such as…

  3. Sexual Dimorphism in the Dimensions of Teeth in Serbian Population.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Gordana; Kanjevac, Tatjana; Cetenovic, Bojana; Ajdukovic, Zorica; Petrovic, Nenad

    2016-04-01

    The study of teeth is of great interest to anthropologists, biologists, orthodontists and forensic scientists. The existence of sexual dimorphism in permanent teeth is a known phenomenon. Aim of this study was to analyze the presence of sexual dimorphism in the mesiodistal and vestibulolingual diameter of permanent teeth in the sample of Serbian population. Measurements were taken on plaster casts of 201 individuals of both sexes, ages between 18-25 years, using a digital caliper with 0.01 mm precision. The mesiodistal and vestibulolingual diameter of each permanent tooth was determined. A Student's t-test and a Mann-Whitney U test were used to statistically analyze the obtained results. There were no statistically significant differences in the teeth crown diameter between the right and left side of the same dental arch. Majority of the teeth examined were larger in male than in female patients. Statistically significant difference in the mesiodistal diameter of male and female maxillary and mandibular canines was found. The results of this study indicate that there are significant differences in teeth size between sexes in Serbian population. Males have larger diameters in teeth crowns than females. Canines show the greatest dimorphism.

  4. A Comparison of the Mental Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual First-Year Medical Students: A Report From Medical Student CHANGES

    PubMed Central

    Przedworski, Julia M.; Dovidio, John F.; Hardeman, Rachel R.; Phelan, Sean M.; Burke, Sara E.; Ruben, Mollie A.; Perry, Sylvia P.; Burgess, Diana J.; Nelson, David B.; Yeazel, Mark W.; Knudsen, John M.; van Ryn, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Research is lacking on psychological distress and disorder among sexual minority medical students (students who identify as non-heterosexual). If left unaddressed, distress may result in academic and professional difficulties and undermine workforce diversity goals. The authors compared depression, anxiety, and self-rated health among sexual minority and heterosexual medical students. Method This study included 4,673 first-year students with self-reported sexual orientation data in the fall 2010 baseline survey of the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation Study, a national longitudinal cohort study. The authors used items from published scales to measure depression, anxiety, self-rated health, and social stressors. They conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses to estimate the association between sexual identity and depression, anxiety, and self-rated health. Results Of the 4,673 students, 232 (5.0%) identified as a sexual minority. Compared with heterosexual students, after adjusting for relevant covariates, sexual minority students had greater risk of depressive symptoms (adjusted relative risk [ARR] =1.59 [95% CI, 1.24–2.04]) anxiety symptoms (ARR = 1.64 [1.08–2.49]), and low self-rated health (ARR = 1.77 [1.15–2.60]). Sexual minority students were more likely to report social stressors, including harassment (22.7% vs 12.7%, P < .001) and isolation (53.7% vs 42.8%, P = .001). Exposure to social stressors attenuated but did not eliminate the observed association between minority sexual identity and mental and self-reported health measures. Conclusions First-year sexual minority students experience significantly greater risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-rated health than heterosexual students. Targeted interventions are needed to improve mental health and well-being. PMID:25674912

  5. Effective Recruitment of Minority Populations Through Community-Led Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Carol R.; Brenner, Barbara L.; Lachapelle, Susanne; Amara, Duna A.; Arniella, Guedy

    2009-01-01

    Background Traditional research approaches frequently fail to yield representative numbers of people of color in research. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) may be an important strategy for partnering with and reaching populations who bear a greater burden of illness but have been historically difficult to engage. A Community Action Board of 20 East Harlem residents, leaders and advocates used CBPR to compare the effectiveness of different strategies in recruiting and enrolling adults with prediabetes into a peer-led diabetes prevention intervention. Methods The Board created five different recruitment strategies: recruiting through clinicians, at large public events like farmers markets, organizing special local recruitment events, recruiting at local organizations, and a partner-led approach in which community partners developed and managed the recruitment efforts at their sites. Results In 3 months, 555 local adults were approached; 249 were appropriate candidates for further evaluation (overweight, nonpregnant, East Harlem residents without known diabetes); 179 consented and returned fasting for 1/2 day of prediabetes testing; and 99 had prediabetes and enrolled in a pilot randomized trial. The partner-led approach was most successful, recruiting 68% of people enrolled. This was also the most efficient strategy; 34% of those approached through partners were ultimately enrolled, versus 0%–17% through the other four strategies. Participants were predominantly low-income, uninsured, undereducated Spanish-speaking women. Conclusions This CBPR approach highlights the value of a partner-led recruitment to identify, reach out and motivate a vulnerable population into research, using techniques that may be unfamiliar to researchers, but are nevertheless rigorous and effective. PMID:19896019

  6. Let’s Get Physical: Sexual Orientation Disparities in Physical Activity, Sports Involvement, and Obesity Among a Population-Based Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation disparities in physical activity, sports involvement, and obesity among a population-based adolescent sample. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2012 Dane County Youth Assessment for 13 933 students in grades 9 through 12 in 22 Wisconsin high schools. We conducted logistic regressions to examine sexual orientation disparities in physical activity, sports involvement, and body mass index among male and female adolescents. Results. When we accounted for several covariates, compared with heterosexual females, sexual minority females were less likely to participate in team sports (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37, 0.53) and more likely to be overweight (AOR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.62) or obese (AOR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.43, 2.48). Sexual minority males were less likely than heterosexual males to be physically active (AOR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.46, 0.83) or to participate in team sports (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.20, 0.32), but the 2 groups did not differ in their risk of obesity. Conclusions. Sexual orientation health disparities in physical activity and obesity are evident during adolescence. Culturally affirming research, interventions, and policies are needed for sexual minority youths. PMID:26180946

  7. Protection of racial/ethnic minority populations during an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sonja S; Fiscella, Kevin; Levine, Robert S; Ompad, Danielle C; McDonald, Marian

    2009-10-01

    Racial/ethnic minority populations experience worse health outcomes than do other groups during and after disasters. Evidence for a differential impact from pandemic influenza includes both higher rates of underlying health conditions in minority populations, increasing their risk of influenza-related complications, and larger socioeconomic (e.g., access to health care), cultural, educational, and linguistic barriers to adoption of pandemic interventions. Implementation of pandemic interventions could be optimized by (1) culturally competent preparedness and response that address specific needs of racial/ethnic minority populations, (2) improvements in public health and community health safety net systems, (3) social policies that minimize economic burdens and improve compliance with isolation and quarantine, and (4) relevant, practical, and culturally and linguistically tailored communications.

  8. Influence of population and general practice characteristics on prescribing of minor tranquilisers in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Andrew C.; Hann, Mark; Ashcroft, Daren M.

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of generalised anxiety disorders is widespread in Great Britain. Previous small-scale research has shown variations in minor tranquiliser prescribing, identifying several potential predictors of prescribing volume. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between general practice minor tranquiliser prescribing rates and practice population and general practice characteristics for all general practices in England. Methods: Multiple regression analysis of minor tranquiliser prescribing volumes during 2004/2005 for 8,291 English general practices with general practice and population variables obtained from the General Medical Services (GMS) statistics, Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), 2001 Census and 2004 Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). Results: The highest rates of minor tranquiliser prescribing were in areas with the greatest local deprivation while general practices situated in areas with larger proportions of residents of black ethnic origin had lower rates of prescribing. Other predictors of increased prescribing were general practices with older general practitioners and general practices with older registered practice populations. Conclusion: Our findings show that there is wide variation of minor tranquilisers prescribing across England which has implications regarding access to treatment and inequity of service provision. Future research should determine the barriers to equitable prescribing amongst general practices serving larger populations of black ethnic origin. PMID:25126140

  9. Sexual Reproduction in a Simple Growth Population Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, Carlos Gentil Oro; Santos, Marcio

    2012-05-01

    One of the most important characteristics in the survival of a species is related to the kind of reproduction responsible for the offspring generation. However, only in the last years the role played by sexual reproduction has been investigated. Then, for a better understanding of this kind of process we introduce, in this work, a surface reaction model that describes the role of the sexual reproduction. In our model two different elements of the species, representing male and female, can interact to reproduce a new element. The sex of this new element is chosen with a given probability and in order to take into account the mortality rate we introduce another kind of individual. The value of the spatial density of this element remains constant during the time evolution of the system. The model is studied using Monte Carlo simulations and mean field approximation. Depending on the values of the control parameters of the model, the system can attain two stationary states: In one of them the population survives and in the other it can be extinguished. Besides, accordingly to our results, the phase diagram of the model shows a discontinuous transition between these two states.

  10. Sexual offender recidivism among a population-based prison sample.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Briken, Peer; Turner, Daniel; Eher, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    The present study examines recidivism rates in sexual offenders using officially registered reconvictions in a representative data set of N = 1,115 male sexual offenders from Austria. In general, results indicate that most sexual offenders do not reoffend sexually after release from prison. More detailed, within the first 5 years after release, the sexual recidivism rate was 6% for the total sample, 4% for the rapist subgroup, and 8% for the child molester subgroup. The findings confirmed previous studies about sex offender recidivism which have shown that first-time sexual offenders are significantly less likely to sexually reoffend than those with previous sexual convictions. With regard to the relationship between age and sexual recidivism, the results challenged the traditional assumption of a clear linear function between age and recidivism. Taken together, compared with previous studies, the recidivism rates found in the present investigation are substantially lower than previous research has indicated.

  11. Breaking the Silence in the Counselor Education Classroom: A Training Seminar on Counseling Sexual Minority Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Quinn M.

    2003-01-01

    A counselor training seminar on sexual orientation is presented in this article. The seminar incorporated popular songs, readings, and class discussion to increase awareness of sexual identity development, stereotypes, and counseling interventions for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) clients. Results of evaluations suggest that the seminar had a…

  12. Change in Depressive Symptoms among Treatment-Seeking College Students Who Are Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effrig, Jessica C.; Maloch, Janelle K.; McAleavey, Andrew; Locke, Benjamin D.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in students' depressive symptoms during the course of treatment at college counseling centers were examined by sexual orientation. In Study 1, results showed that depressive symptoms decreased similarly across sexual orientation groups during the course of treatment. In Study 2, family support did not moderate the relationship between…

  13. Does reproductive isolation evolve faster in larger populations via sexually antagonistic coevolution?

    PubMed

    Gay, L; Eady, P E; Vasudev, R; Hosken, D J; Tregenza, T

    2009-10-23

    Sexual conflict over reproductive investment can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution and reproductive isolation. It has been suggested that, unlike most models of allopatric speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation through sexually antagonistic coevolution will occur faster in large populations as these harbour greater levels of standing genetic variation, receive larger numbers of mutations and experience more intense sexual selection. We tested this in bruchid beetle populations (Callosobruchus maculatus) by manipulating population size and standing genetic variability in replicated lines derived from founders that had been released from sexual conflict for 90 generations. We found that after 19 generations of reintroduced sexual conflict, none of our treatments had evolved significant overall reproductive isolation among replicate lines. However, as predicted, measures of reproductive isolation tended to be greater among larger populations. We discuss our methodology, arguing that reproductive isolation is best examined by performing a matrix of allopatric and sympatric crosses whereas measurement of divergence requires crosses with a tester line.

  14. Population clustering and clonal structure evidence the relict state of Ulmus minor Mill. in the Balearic Islands

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Utrilla, P; Valbuena-Carabaña, M; Ennos, R; Gil, L

    2014-01-01

    Field elm (Ulmus minor) is a riparian tree that grows in rare, small populations scattered along temporary watercourses in the Balearic Islands, nowadays mostly covered with Mediterranean vegetation. Agriculture and farming on the fertile land along the periodically flooded plains have reduced the elm populations to sparse tree lines along the creek beds. The presence of field elm in this very anthropic landscape has led some authors to consider it as an introduced species in the Balearics. However, pollen data suggest these elms may be the remains of larger populations experiencing continuous population shrinkage during the Holocene, and hence be native to the isles. In this paper, we apply genetic markers to assess whether field elm is or is not indigenous to the Balearic Islands. We compare the genetic variation in nine nuclear microsatellites of six Balearic populations (three in each of the largest islands, Majorca and Minorca) with that of three natural Iberian populations located in two regions, one geologically (Baetic mountains, SE Iberia) and another historically (Catalonia, NE Iberia) related to the islands. Principal coordinates analysis and Bayesian clustering methods reveal a strong genetic differentiation of the Balearic populations from the Iberian ones, and even among islands, which support their native origin. Genotypic variation in the islands is very low and clonal reproduction is very high compared with the mainland, as it is frequently observed in populations of clonal species where sexual reproduction is limited. We discuss the practical implications of these findings for the conservation of elm genetic resources of these findings. PMID:24619184

  15. Longitudinal Trends in Sexual Behaviors Without a Condom Among Sexual Minority Youth: The P18 Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Farzana; Bub, Kristen; Barton, Staci; Stults, Christopher B; Halkitis, Perry N

    2015-12-01

    Given the heightened risk for HIV and other STIs among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as well as the racial/ethnic disparities in HIV/STI risk, an understanding of longitudinal trends in sexual behaviors is warranted as YMSM emerge into adulthood. Drawing from an ongoing prospective cohort study, the present analysis employed latent growth curve modeling to examine trends in distinct types of sexual activity without condoms over time in sample of YMSM and examine differences by race/ethnicity and perceived familial socioeconomic status (SES). Overall, White and Mixed race YMSM reported more instances of oral sex without condoms as compared to other racial/ethnic groups with rates of decline over time noted in Black YMSM. White YMSM also reported more receptive and insertive anal sex acts without a condom than Black YMSM. Declines over time in both types of anal sex acts without condoms among Black men were noted when compared to White men, while increases over time were noted for mixed race YMSM for condomless insertive anal sex. The effects for race/ethnicity were attenuated with the inclusion of perceived familial SES in these models. These findings build on previous cross sectional studies showing less frequent sex without condoms among Black YMSM despite higher rates of HIV incidence in emerging adulthood, as well as the importance of considering economic conditions in such models. Efforts to understand racial/ethnic disparities in HIV/STIs among YMSM must move beyond examination of individual-level sexual behaviors and consider both race/ethnicity and socioeconomic conditions in order to evaluate how these factors shape the sexual behaviors of YMSM. PMID:26319222

  16. Social stressors and alcohol use among immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos in a nontraditional settlement state.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Paul A; Perreira, Krista; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D

    2014-09-01

    We sought to quantify the association of social stressors with alcohol use among immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos in North Carolina (n = 190). We modeled any drinking in past year using logistic regression and heavy episodic drinking in past 30 days using Poisson regression. Despite a large proportion of abstainers, there were indications of hazardous drinking. Among current drinkers, 63% reported at least one heavy drinking episode in past 30 days. Ethnic discrimination increased, and social support decreased, odds of any drinking in past year. Social support moderated the associations of English use and ethnic discrimination with heavy episodic drinking.

  17. The Trouble With “MSM” and “WSW”: Erasure of the Sexual-Minority Person in Public Health Discourse

    PubMed Central

    Young, Rebecca M.; Meyer, Ilan H.

    2005-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW) are purportedly neutral terms commonly used in public health discourse. However, they are problematic because they obscure social dimensions of sexuality; undermine the self-labeling of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people; and do not sufficiently describe variations in sexual behavior. MSM and WSW often imply a lack of lesbian or gay identity and an absence of community, networks, and relationships in which same-gender pairings mean more than merely sexual behavior. Overuse of the terms MSM and WSW adds to a history of scientific labeling of sexual minorities that reflects, and inadvertently advances, heterosexist notions. Public health professionals should adopt more nuanced and culturally relevant language in discussing members of sexual-minority groups. PMID:15961753

  18. Projections of the ethnic minority populations of the United Kingdom 2006-2056.

    PubMed

    Coleman, David

    2010-01-01

    The ethnic minority populations in the UK are growing substantially through immigration, a youthful age structure, and in some cases relatively high fertility. Their diverse demographic and socioeconomic characteristics have attracted considerable academic and policy attention, especially insofar as those distinctive characteristics have persisted in the generations born in the UK. No official projections of the UK ethnic populations have been published since 1979. This article provides projections to 2056 and beyond of 12 ethnic groups. Given overall net immigration and vital rates as assumed in the office for National Statistics 2008-based Principal Projection, and the ethnic characteristics estimated here, the ethnic minority populations (including the Other White) would increase from 13 percent of the UK population in 2006 to 28 percent by 2031 and 44 percent by 2056, and to about half the 0-4 age group in 2056. Alternative projections assume various lower levels of immigration. Possible implications of projected changes are discussed.

  19. Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell

    2011-01-01

    Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…

  20. Diverse Voices -- The Inclusion of Language-Minority Populations in National Studies: Challenges and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Rose Maria, Ed.; McCardle, Peggy, Ed.; Clark, Rebecca L., Ed.; Kinsella, Kevin, Ed.; Berch, Daniel, Ed.

    This report presents information developed from a workshop on the Inclusion of Language Minority Populations in National Studies (Bethesda, MD, July 17-28, 2000). To help find ways for survey research to capture the increasing linguistic diversity of the United States and thus be truly representative, this report focuses on current barriers to…

  1. An epidemiological study of sexual disorders in south Indian rural population

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Darshan, M. S.; Tandon, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sexuality is an important aspect of the personality of an individual and influences psychological, physical and social well-being of both men and women. It is a paradox, that in the country where ‘kamasutra’ (by Vatsyayana) took birth, there is a lack of research publications and sexuality related literature; hence the current study was conducted, to estimate the prevalence and association of sexual disorders with various socio-demographic variables, in the selected rural population. Materials and Methods: Subjects who were sexually active and fulfilled the study criteria were administered Arizona Sexual Experience Scale as screening tool for the presence of sexual problems. Those who were found to be having sexual problems were interviewed further using appropriate questionnaires. Results: 21.15% of the male subjects were diagnosed to have one (or more) sexual disorder. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction was found to be 15.77%, male hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) 2.56%; premature ejaculation was found to be prevalent in 8.76% of the male subjects. Around 14% of the female subjects were diagnosed to have female sexual disorders. Prevalence of female arousal dysfunction was found to be 6.65%, female HSDD 8.87%, female anorgasmia 5.67%, female dyspareunia 2.34% and female sexual aversion disorder was found to be prevalent in 0.37% of the female subjects. Conclusion: This study concluded that one in five males and one in seven females were suffering from one (or more) sexual disorder. Improving the training of undergraduate medical and nursing students in sexuality related issues, increasing trained individuals in sexual medicine by starting new courses, providing sex education to the general population using media and merging sexual health care with primary care, are likely to play a significant role in addressing the increasing sexual health morbidity. PMID:26124520

  2. A lotka-volterra model of coexistence between a sexual population and multiple asexual clones.

    PubMed

    Pound, Graeme E; Doncaster, C Patrick; Cox, Simon J

    2002-08-21

    At carrying capacity, small advantages in competitive ability can compensate a sexual population for its two-fold disadvantage in growth capacity when facing invasion by asexual mutants. In this paper, we develop a generic analytical model to consider the ecology of a sexual population comprising equal numbers of males and females, competing for shared prey resources with multiple female-only clones. We assume that the clones arise from the sexual population and are distinguished from it only by having narrower resource niches and twice the growth capacity. For sexual populations, at density-dependent carrying capacity, intra-specific competition between clonal individuals prevents them from realizing their two-fold advantage in intrinsic growth. This prediction leads to three novel outcomes: (i) a sexual population can coexist with any number of clones, provided their combined competitive impact remains less than the impact of the clones on each other; (ii) a sexual species can immediately exclude asexual invaders if it is a fast growing and strong competitor of shared resources and also has refuge in an abundant alternative resource; (iii) the rate of accumulation of clones in a sexual population will be slowed by intra and inter-specific competition amongst the clones themselves, in addition to the competitive impact from the original sexual population.

  3. Infection dynamics in coexisting sexual and asexual host populations: support for the Red Queen hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Daniela; Jokela, Jukka; Lively, Curtis M

    2014-08-01

    The persistence of sexual reproduction is a classic problem in evolutionary biology. The problem stems from the fact that, all else equal, asexual lineages should rapidly replace coexisting sexual individuals due to the cost of producing males in sexual populations. One possible countervailing advantage to sexual reproduction is that, on average, outcrossed offspring are more resistant than common clones to coevolving parasites, as predicted under the Red Queen hypothesis. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of infection by a sterilizing trematode (Microphallus sp.) in a natural population of freshwater snails that was composed of both sexual and asexual individuals (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). More specifically, we compared the frequency of infection in sexual and asexual individuals over a 5-year period at four sites at a natural glacial lake (Lake Alexandrina, South Island, New Zealand). We found that at most sites and over most years, the sexual population was less infected than the coexisting asexual population. Moreover, the frequency of uninfected sexual females was periodically greater than two times the frequency of uninfected asexual females. These results give clear support for a fluctuating parasite-mediated advantage to sexual reproduction in a natural population.

  4. A population of sexual Daphnia pulex resists invasion by asexual clones

    PubMed Central

    Innes, David J.; Ginn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Asexual reproduction avoids the costs associated with sex, predicting that invading asexual clones can quickly replace sexual populations. Daphnia pulex populations in the Great Lakes area are predominately asexual, but the elimination of sexual populations by invading clones is poorly understood. Asexual clones were detected at low frequency in one rare sexual population in 1995, with some increase in frequency during 2003 and 2004. However, these clones remained at low frequency during further yearly sampling (2005–2013) with no evidence that the resident sexual population was in danger of elimination. There was evidence for hybridization between rare males produced by asexual clones and sexual females with the potential to produce new asexual genotypes and spread the genetic factors for asexuality. In a short-term laboratory competition experiment, the two most common asexual clones did not increase in frequency relative to a genetically diverse sexual population due in part to a greater investment in diapausing eggs that trades-off current population growth for increased contribution to the egg bank. Our results suggest that a successful invasion can be prolonged, requiring a combination of clonal genotypes with high fitness, persistence of clones in the egg bank and negative factors affecting the sexual population such as inbreeding depression resulting from population bottlenecks. PMID:24943366

  5. A population of sexual Daphnia pulex resists invasion by asexual clones.

    PubMed

    Innes, David J; Ginn, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Asexual reproduction avoids the costs associated with sex, predicting that invading asexual clones can quickly replace sexual populations. Daphnia pulex populations in the Great Lakes area are predominately asexual, but the elimination of sexual populations by invading clones is poorly understood. Asexual clones were detected at low frequency in one rare sexual population in 1995, with some increase in frequency during 2003 and 2004. However, these clones remained at low frequency during further yearly sampling (2005-2013) with no evidence that the resident sexual population was in danger of elimination. There was evidence for hybridization between rare males produced by asexual clones and sexual females with the potential to produce new asexual genotypes and spread the genetic factors for asexuality. In a short-term laboratory competition experiment, the two most common asexual clones did not increase in frequency relative to a genetically diverse sexual population due in part to a greater investment in diapausing eggs that trades-off current population growth for increased contribution to the egg bank. Our results suggest that a successful invasion can be prolonged, requiring a combination of clonal genotypes with high fitness, persistence of clones in the egg bank and negative factors affecting the sexual population such as inbreeding depression resulting from population bottlenecks.

  6. Women convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor are different from women convicted of traditional sexual offenses: a brief research report.

    PubMed

    Cortoni, Franca; Sandler, Jeffrey C; Freeman, Naomi J

    2015-06-01

    Some jurisdictions have legally decreed that certain nonsexual offenses (e.g., promoting prostitution of a minor, arson, burglary) can be considered sexual offenses. Offenders convicted of these crimes can be subjected to sexual offender-specific social control policies such as registration, as well as be included in sexual offender research such as recidivism studies. No studies, however, have systematically examined differences and similarities between this new class of sexual offenders and more traditional sexual offenders. The current study used a sample of 94 women convicted of sexual offenses to investigate whether women convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor differed on demographic and criminogenic features from those convicted of more traditional sexual offenses. Results show that women convicted of promoting prostitution offenses have criminal histories more consistent with general criminality and exhibit more general antisocial features than women convicted of traditional sexual offenses. These results support the notion that the inclusion of legally defined sexual offenders with traditional ones obscures important differences in criminogenic features among these women.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Health Impact on Disproportionately Affected Populations, Including Minorities and Impoverished Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants. Most studies either did not have a sufficient sample size of ethnic minority women or did not use adequate statistical techniques to examine differences among different racial/ethnic groups. Few studies focused on Native American/Alaska Native and immigrant ethnic minority women and many of the intra-ethnic group studies have confounded race/ethnicity with income and other social determinants of health. Nonetheless, of the available data, there is evidence of health inequities associated with both minority ethnicity and IPV. To appropriately respond to the health needs of these groups of women, it is necessary to consider social, cultural, structural, and political barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, historical racism and trauma, perceived discrimination, immigration status) to patient–provider communication and help-seeking behaviors related to IPV, which can influence health outcomes. This comprehensive approach will mitigate the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities related to IPV and associated health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:25551432

  8. Differences in male coloration are predicted by divergent sexual selection between populations of a cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Selz, O M; Thommen, R; Pierotti, M E R; Anaya-Rojas, J M; Seehausen, O

    2016-05-11

    Female mating preferences can influence both intraspecific sexual selection and interspecific reproductive isolation, and have therefore been proposed to play a central role in speciation. Here, we investigate experimentally in the African cichlid fish Pundamilia nyererei if differences in male coloration between three para-allopatric populations (i.e. island populations with gene flow) of P. nyererei are predicted by differences in sexual selection by female mate choice between populations. Second, we investigate if female mating preferences are based on the same components of male coloration and go in the same direction when females choose among males of their own population, their own and other conspecific populations and a closely related para-allopatric sister-species, P. igneopinnis Mate-choice experiments revealed that females of the three populations mated species-assortatively, that populations varied in their extent of population-assortative mating and that females chose among males of their own population based on different male colours. Females of different populations exerted directional intrapopulation sexual selection on different male colours, and these differences corresponded in two of the populations to the observed differences in male coloration between the populations. Our results suggest that differences in male coloration between populations of P. nyererei can be explained by divergent sexual selection and that population-assortative mating may directly result from intrapopulation sexual selection. PMID:27147097

  9. Not in whose backyard? Minority population concentrations and noxious facility sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.

    1992-04-01

    The NIMBY (not in may backyard) syndrome has become the nemesis of facility siting efforts in the USA. Given people`s reluctance to live near noxious facilities, in whose backyard are such facilities located? This study employs US county-level data to examine relative concentrations of minorities living near noxious facilities. Facility types analyzed include electric generating plants, manufacturing plants, Superfund sites, and radioactive waste disposal sites. While this study does not address which cam first, the minority population concentration or the noxious facilities, it documents their current degree of association.

  10. Not in whose backyard Minority population concentrations and noxious facility sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The NIMBY (not in may backyard) syndrome has become the nemesis of facility siting efforts in the USA. Given people's reluctance to live near noxious facilities, in whose backyard are such facilities located This study employs US county-level data to examine relative concentrations of minorities living near noxious facilities. Facility types analyzed include electric generating plants, manufacturing plants, Superfund sites, and radioactive waste disposal sites. While this study does not address which cam first, the minority population concentration or the noxious facilities, it documents their current degree of association.

  11. Ecodevelopmental contexts for preventing type 2 diabetes in Latino and other racial/ethnic minority populations

    PubMed Central

    Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Boehm-Smith, Edna

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and it is now cited along with obesity as a global epidemic. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the prevalence of diabetes within the US, with racial and ethnic minorities disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes and its complications. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors influence the development and course of diabetes at multiple levels, including genetic, individual, familial, community and national. From an ecodevelopmental perspective, cultural variables assessed at one level (e.g., family level dietary practices) may interact with other types of variables examined at other levels (e.g., the availability of healthy foods within a low-income neighborhood), thus prompting the need for a clear analysis of these systemic relationships as they may increase risks for disease. Therefore, the need exists for models that aid in “mapping out” these relationships. A more explicit conceptualization of such multi-level relationships would aid in the design of culturally relevant interventions that aim to maximize effectiveness when applied with Latinos and other racial/ethnic minority groups. This paper presents an expanded ecodevelopmental model intended to serve as a tool to aid in the design of multi-level diabetes prevention interventions for application with racial/ethnic minority populations. This discussion focuses primarily on risk factors and prevention intervention in Latino populations, although with implications for other racial/ethnic minority populations that are also at high risk for type 2 diabetes. PMID:19101788

  12. Lesbian workers: personal strategies amid changing organisational responses to 'sexual minorities' in UK workplaces.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Fiona; Creegan, Chris; McKearney, Aidan; Wright, Tessa

    2008-01-01

    This article reports emerging findings from a qualitative research study about lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people at work in the UK. The research focuses on the personal experiences and strategies of LGB people amidst changing organisational responses to sexuality within a new legal and political landscape following the introduction of the Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003. The article draws specifically on the perceptions of lesbian respondents about a range of issues concerning social inclusion and exclusion in the workplace including coming out at work, treatment by managers and colleagues, workplace and organisational culture and participation in LGBT groups and networks.

  13. Use of the Internet for Sexual Health Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 16 to 44 Years: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey of the British Population

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Background Those who go online regarding their sexual health are potential users of new Internet-based sexual health interventions. Understanding the size and characteristics of this population is important in informing intervention design and delivery. Objective We aimed to estimate the prevalence in Britain of recent use of the Internet for key sexual health reasons (for chlamydia testing, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] testing, sexually transmitted infection [STI] treatment, condoms/contraceptives, and help/advice with one’s sex life) and to identify associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods Complex survey analysis of data from 8926 sexually experienced persons aged 16-44 years in a 2010-2012 probability survey of Britain’s resident population. Prevalence of recent (past year) use of Internet sources for key sexual health reasons was estimated. Factors associated with use of information/support websites were identified using logistic regression to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Results Recent Internet use for chlamydia/HIV testing or STI treatment (combined) was very low (men: 0.31%; women: 0.16%), whereas 2.35% of men and 0.51% of women reported obtaining condoms/contraceptives online. Additionally, 4.49% of men and 4.57% of women reported recent use of information/support websites for advice/help with their sex lives. Prevalence declined with age (men 16-24 years: 7.7%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001; women 16-24 years: 7.8%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001). Use of information/support websites was strongly associated with men’s higher socioeconomic status (managerial/professional vs semiroutine/routine: AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.27-2.93, P<.001). Despite no overall association with area-level deprivation, those in densely populated urban areas were more likely to report use of information/support websites than those living in rural areas (men: AOR 3.38, 95% CI 1.68-6.77, P<.001; women: AOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.34-4.70, P<.001). No

  14. Associations between social support network characteristics and receipt of emotional and material support among a sample of male sexual minority youth.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry; Barton, Staci; Siconolfi, Daniel; Figueroa, Rafael Perez

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined how social support network characteristics are related to perceived receipt of social support among male sexual minority youth. Using egocentric network data collected from a study of male sexual minority youth (n=592), multivariable logistic regression analyses examined distinct associations between individual and social network characteristics with receipt of (1) emotional and (2) material support. In multivariable models, frequent communication and having friends in one's network yielded a two-fold increase in the likelihood of receiving emotional support whereas frequent communication was associated with an almost three-fold higher likelihood of perceived material support. Finally, greater internalized homophobia and personal experiences of gay-related stigma were inversely associated with perceived receipt of emotional and material support, respectively. Understanding the evolving social context and social interactions of this new generation of male sexual minority youth is warranted in order to understand the broader, contextual factors associated with their overall health and well-being.

  15. Childhood Cancer Survivorship Research in Minority Populations: A Position Paper from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Smita; Gibson, Todd M; Ness, Kirsten K; Liu, Qi; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Krull, Kevin R; Nathan, Paul C; Neglia, Joseph P; Leisenring, Wendy; Yasui, Yutaka; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T

    2016-01-01

    By the middle of this century, racial/ethnic minority populations will collectively constitute 50% of the US population. This temporal shift in the racial/ethnic make-up of the US population demands a close look at the race/ethnicity-specific burden of morbidity and premature mortality among childhood cancer survivors. To optimize targeted long-term follow-up care, it is essential to understand whether the burden of morbidity borne by survivors of childhood cancer differs by race/ethnicity. This is challenging because the number of minority participants is often limited in current childhood cancer survivorship research, resulting in a paucity of race/ethnicity-specific recommendations and/or interventions. We show that while the overall childhood cancer incidence increased between 1973 and 2003, the mortality rate declined; however these changes did not differ appreciably by race/ethnicity. We speculate that any racial/ethnic differences in outcome are likely to be multifactorial, and draw upon data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study to illustrate the various contributors (socioeconomic characteristics, health behaviors and comorbidities) that could explain any observed differences in key treatment-related complications. Finally, we outline challenges in conducting race/ethnicity-specific childhood cancer survivorship research, showing that there are limited absolute numbers of children who are diagnosed and survive cancer in any one racial/ethnic minority population, precluding a rigorous evaluation of adverse events among specific primary cancer diagnoses and treatment exposure groups. PMID:27253866

  16. Schools, Sex Education, and Support for Sexual Minorities: Exploring Historic Marginalization and Future Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty-Caplan, David Milo

    2013-01-01

    School-based adolescent sexual health education in the United States has long served as a means of combating emotional and physical threats to the well-being of youth. However, this sex education has since its inception marginalized the experiences and health concerns of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students and contributed to school…

  17. Dating Violence among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence,…

  18. Configurations of Identity among Sexual Minority Youth: Context, Desire, and Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Pilecki, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four case studies centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire.…

  19. Feelings of Belonging: An Exploratory Analysis of the Sociopolitical Involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Angelique; Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio; Daniels, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts the sociopolitical involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander American sexual minority women within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities of color. For the analysis, a sample of over 1,200 women from the Social Justice Sexuality project was analyzed. Findings indicate that, for all groups of women, feelings of connectedness to the LGBT community was the most significant predictor of sociopolitical involvement within LGBT communities of color. PMID:26073263

  20. Feelings of Belonging: An Exploratory Analysis of the Sociopolitical Involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Harris, Angelique; Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio; Daniels, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    This article compares and contrasts the sociopolitical involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander American sexual minority women within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities of color. For the analysis, a sample of over 1,200 women from the Social Justice Sexuality project was analyzed. Findings indicate that, for all groups of women, feelings of connectedness to the LGBT community was the most significant predictor of sociopolitical involvement within LGBT communities of color.

  1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

  2. Patterns of Vaginal, Oral, and Anal Sexual Intercourse in an Urban Seventh-Grade Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. Methods: A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6%…

  3. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory

    PubMed Central

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals’ internalized homophobia and their friend’s sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities (N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend’s sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities’ resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research. PMID:26380836

  4. Sexual conflict and the gender load: correlated evolution between population fitness and sexual dimorphism in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Arnqvist, Göran; Tuda, Midori

    2010-05-01

    Although males and females share much of the same genome, selection is often distinct in the two sexes. Sexually antagonistic loci will in theory cause a gender load in populations, because sex-specific selection on a given trait in one sex will compromise the adaptive evolution of the same trait in the other sex. However, it is currently not clear whether such intralocus sexual conflict (ISC) represents a transient evolutionary state, where conflict is rapidly resolved by the evolution of sexual dimorphism (SD), or whether it is a more chronic impediment to adaptation. All else being equal, ISC should manifest itself as correlated evolution between population fitness and SD in traits expressed in both sexes. However, comparative tests of this prediction are problematic and have been unfeasible. Here, we assess the effects of ISC by comparing fitness and SD across distinct laboratory populations of seed beetles that should be well adapted to a shared environment. We show that SD in juvenile development time, a key life-history trait with a history of sexually antagonistic selection in this model system, is positively related to fitness. This effect is due to a correlated evolution between population fitness and development time that is positive in females but negative in males. Loosening the genetic bind between the sexes has evidently allowed the sexes to approach their distinct adaptive peaks.

  5. The Influence of Family Structure on Sexual Activity in a Randomized Effectiveness Trial for Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherr, Michael E.; Crow, Janet; Stamey, James; Jones, Johnny; Dyer, Preston

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of family structure on the outcomes of a sex education program in Miami, Florida. Using an experimental design, data collection occurred at pretest, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up with a sample of teenagers from high schools with a large majority of minority youth, assigned into treatment (n = 549) and control (n…

  6. Parents of Minors Who Have Sexually Abused: Legal Liability and Clinical Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oz, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    While children and adolescents generally do not have the right to vote, marry, or sign contracts independently, they are often held responsible for their crimes. In spite of this, some parents of minor victims file civil suits against parents of the youth responsible for the harm. The courts must then decide to what extent, if any, parents are…

  7. [Sex in Sweden--population based survey. Changed sexual pattern mirrors trends in the society].

    PubMed

    Lundberg, P O

    1999-04-21

    In a survey commissioned by the National Institute of Public Health, and carried out by specially trained staff at SIFO Research and Consulting, a representative population sample (n = 2,810, or 59 per cent of the actual sample) were interviewed regarding sexual mores. The items included 800 variables reflecting social background, lifestyle, and health, as well as knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour. The results showed, for instance, that Swedes have more sexual partners than 30 years ago, that anal sex is a currently fashionable trend, that oral sex is common, that relatively few are coerced to participate in sexual practices, and that the abortion rate is disturbingly high. PMID:10330869

  8. Development of microsatellite markers to genetically differentiate populations of Octopus minor from Korea and China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Yi-Kyung; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min; Jun, Je-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Of the more than 300 octopus species, Octopus minor is one of the most popular and economically important species in Eastern Asia, including Korea, along with O. vulgaris, O. ocellatus, and O. aegina. We developed 19 microsatellite markers from Octopus minor and eight polymorphic markers were developed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships among four octopus populations from Korea and three from China. The number of alleles per locus varied from 10 to 49, and allelic richness per locus ranged from 2 to 16.4 across all populations. The average allele number among the populations was 11.1, with a minimum of 8.3 and a maximum of 13.6. The mean allelic richness was 8.7 in all populations. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test revealed significant deviation in 19 of the 56 single-locus sites, and null alleles were presumed in five of eight loci. The pairwise F ( ST ) values between populations from Korea and China differed significantly in all pairwise comparisons. The genetic distances between the China and Korea samples ranged from 0.161 to 0.454. The genetic distances among the populations from Korea ranged from 0.033 to 0.090, with an average of 0.062; those among populations from China ranged from 0.191 to 0.316, with an average of 0.254. The populations from Korea and China formed clearly separated into clusters via an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram. Furthermore, a population from muddy flats on the western coast of the Korean Peninsula and one from a rocky area on Jeju Island formed clearly separated subclusters. An assignment test based on the allele distribution discriminated between the Korean and Chinese origins with 96.9 % accuracy.

  9. Development of microsatellite markers to genetically differentiate populations of Octopus minor from Korea and China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Yi-Kyung; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min; Jun, Je-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Of the more than 300 octopus species, Octopus minor is one of the most popular and economically important species in Eastern Asia, including Korea, along with O. vulgaris, O. ocellatus, and O. aegina. We developed 19 microsatellite markers from Octopus minor and eight polymorphic markers were developed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships among four octopus populations from Korea and three from China. The number of alleles per locus varied from 10 to 49, and allelic richness per locus ranged from 2 to 16.4 across all populations. The average allele number among the populations was 11.1, with a minimum of 8.3 and a maximum of 13.6. The mean allelic richness was 8.7 in all populations. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test revealed significant deviation in 19 of the 56 single-locus sites, and null alleles were presumed in five of eight loci. The pairwise F ( ST ) values between populations from Korea and China differed significantly in all pairwise comparisons. The genetic distances between the China and Korea samples ranged from 0.161 to 0.454. The genetic distances among the populations from Korea ranged from 0.033 to 0.090, with an average of 0.062; those among populations from China ranged from 0.191 to 0.316, with an average of 0.254. The populations from Korea and China formed clearly separated into clusters via an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram. Furthermore, a population from muddy flats on the western coast of the Korean Peninsula and one from a rocky area on Jeju Island formed clearly separated subclusters. An assignment test based on the allele distribution discriminated between the Korean and Chinese origins with 96.9 % accuracy. PMID:22707143

  10. Coming Out and the Potential for Growth in Sexual Minorities: The Role of Social Reactions and Internalized Homonegativity.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David; McAbee, James; Åsberg, Kia; McGee, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Coming out is a significant and sometimes difficult process in the lives of sexual minorities, but disclosure can also affect wellbeing in positive ways, including reduced distress and greater relationship satisfaction. This study investigates the possibility of stress-related growth and depreciation following coming out. To obtain a diverse sample with varying coming-out experiences, data were collected from undergraduate students as well as from online sources, including lesbian, gay, and bisexual support groups and Pride groups. Regression analyses indicated that negative social reactions to coming out predicted both growth and depreciation, although they more strongly predicted depreciation. Positive social reactions were positively related to stress-related growth, while internalized homonegativity was inversely associated with growth. Although the two sample sources (online and campus) differed in some ways, sample source was not a significant predictor in the regressions, nor was it indicated as a moderator in exploratory ANOVA analyses. PMID:26182185

  11. The Social Context of Depression Symptomology in Sexual Minority Male Youth: Determinants of Depression in a Sample of Grindr Users.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Jeremy J; Rice, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand which social context factors most influence depression symptomology among sexual minority male youth (SMMY). In 2011, 195 SMMY who use Grindr were recruited to complete an online survey in Los Angeles, California. Items focused on social context variables and depression symptomology. Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted using an ecological framework. The best fitting model accounted for 29.5% of the variance in depression. Experiences of homophobia, gay community connection, presence of an objecting network member, and emotional support were found to be significant predictors. Past experiences of homophobia continuing to affect youth indicates the need for intervention to reduction of homophobia in youths' social contexts. Interventions that teach youth skills to manage objecting viewpoints or help youth to reorganize their social networks may help to reduce the impact of an objecting network alter. PMID:26295497

  12. Coming Out and the Potential for Growth in Sexual Minorities: The Role of Social Reactions and Internalized Homonegativity.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David; McAbee, James; Åsberg, Kia; McGee, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Coming out is a significant and sometimes difficult process in the lives of sexual minorities, but disclosure can also affect wellbeing in positive ways, including reduced distress and greater relationship satisfaction. This study investigates the possibility of stress-related growth and depreciation following coming out. To obtain a diverse sample with varying coming-out experiences, data were collected from undergraduate students as well as from online sources, including lesbian, gay, and bisexual support groups and Pride groups. Regression analyses indicated that negative social reactions to coming out predicted both growth and depreciation, although they more strongly predicted depreciation. Positive social reactions were positively related to stress-related growth, while internalized homonegativity was inversely associated with growth. Although the two sample sources (online and campus) differed in some ways, sample source was not a significant predictor in the regressions, nor was it indicated as a moderator in exploratory ANOVA analyses.

  13. Physical Activity Disparities in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Youth Ages 12-22 Years Old: Roles of Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Athletic Self-Esteem

    PubMed Central

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Blood, Emily A.; Kroshus, Emily; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is an important health determinant. Little is known about sexual orientation differences in physical activity and their psychosocial determinants. Purpose To examine adolescent and young adult hours/week of moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and team sports participation by sexual orientation and investigate contributions of gender nonconformity and low athletic self-esteem to possible sexual orientation differences. Methods Analysis of data from 5,272 males and 7,507 females from 1999-2005 waves of the US Growing Up Today Study (ages 12-22 years). Results Sexual minorities (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) reported 1.21-2.62 hours/week less MVPA (p's<0.01) and were 46%-76% less likely to participate in team sports than same-gender heterosexuals. Gender nonconformity and athletic self-esteem accounted for 46%-100% of sexual orientation MVPA differences. Conclusions Physical activity contexts should be modified to welcome sexual minority males and females. Targeting intolerance of gender nonconformity and fostering athletic self-esteem may mitigate sexual orientation MVPA disparities. PMID:24347406

  14. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities

    PubMed Central

    Yingying, Huang; Abler, Laurie; Suiming, Pan; Henderson, Gail E.; Xin, Wang; Xingliang, Yao; Parish, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, STI/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n=398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n=2186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou. PMID:24174289

  15. Postcopulatory sexual selection reduces genetic diversity in experimental populations of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    LaMunyon, Craig W; Bouban, Oussama; Cutter, Asher D

    2007-01-01

    Postcopulatory sexual selection affects the evolution of numerous features ranging from mating behavior to seminal fluid toxicity to the size of gametes. In an earlier study of the effect of sperm competition risk on sperm size evolution, experimental populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were maintained either by outcrossing (sperm competition present) or by selfing (no sperm competition), and after 60 generations, significantly larger sperm had evolved in the outcrossing populations. To determine the effects of this selection on population genetic variation, we assessed genetic diversity in a large number of loci using random amplification of polymorphic DNA-PCR. Nearly 80% of the alleles present in parental strain populations persisted in the 6 experimental populations after the 60 generations and, despite a 2.2-fold difference in expected heterozygosity, the resulting levels of genetic variation were equivalent between the outcrossing and selfing experimental populations. By inference, we conclude that genetic hitchhiking due to sexual selection in the experimental populations dramatically reduced genetic diversity. We use the levels of variation in the selfing populations as a control for the effects of drift, and estimate the strength of sexual selection to be strong in obligatorily outcrossing populations. Although sequential hermaphrodites like C. elegans probably experience little sexual selection in nature, these data suggest that sexual selection can profoundly affect diversity in outcrossing taxa.

  16. Age trends in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Roma minority population of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zeljko, Hrvojka Marija; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Barešić, Ana; Tomas, Zeljka; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Miličić, Jasna; Salihović, Marijana Peričić; Janićijević, Branka

    2013-07-01

    The Roma (Gypsy) are the largest European minority population characterized by poverty, social exclusion as well as by numerous life-style and cultural specificities, which all could have an adverse impact on their cardiovascular health. This study assesses the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in community-based sample of 430 adult Roma, living in rural area of Croatia, by providing the actual and age-adjusted estimates using the European standard population. The most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes (blood pressure, obesity, smoking, glucose and lipid profile) were selected, and the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The study has shown that compared to general population of Croatia, the Roma population bears a high CVD risk factors load related to smoking and high glucose level. The CVD risk factors prevalence in Roma also showed important sex and age patterns, the most imposing of which are the findings of higher prevalence of CVD risks in women (especially obesity and triglyceride levels) and the trend of higher body mass index (BMI) level in younger age group (18-34 years) which both stand in contrast to the trends characterizing the general population of Croatia. These findings are complemented by the trend of decreased risk in the oldest age group (65+ years) for all investigated CVD risk factors (with exception of triglycerides level) compared to the 50-64 age group. We conclude that the age and sex CVD risks pattern point to the health transition of this rural Roma population. As we expect the proportion of CVD in the Roma minority of Croatia to increase in the future along with further modernization of their lifestyle, the CVD prevention measures in this population are urgent and should be primarily targeted at women and at the younger segment of this population.

  17. Stochastic modeling in biological populations with sexual reproduction through branching models: application to Coho salmon populations.

    PubMed

    Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso

    2014-12-01

    The motivation behind this research is to develop appropriate mathematical models to describe the demographic dynamics of animal populations with sexual reproduction. We introduce a new class of two-sex branching models where several mating strategies between females and males and a variety of possibilities for the process of reproduction are taken into account. Unlike other classes of two-sex models which assume that mating and reproduction are influenced by the number of couples in the population, we now consider the most realistic case where both biological processes are affected by the numbers of females and males in the population, which may differ. Under a general parametric setting, we deal with inferential questions about the main parameters affecting the reproduction process. By considering the observation over time of the numbers of females and males up to when a certain pre-set generation is reached, we derive Bayes estimators for such parameters. With the purpose of determining highest posterior density credibility sets, we also propose a computational algorithm. As illustration, we include an application to Coho salmon populations.

  18. Exploring young adult sexual minority women’s perspectives on LGBTQ smoking

    PubMed Central

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N=30, ages 18-24). Major themes identified include the belief that smoking was a way of overcoming stressors faced by heterosexual and LGBTQ young adults alike, a mechanism to relieve sexuality-related stressors, and an ingrained part of LGBTQ culture. Results suggest unique stressors influence LGBTQ smokers. Implications for smoking cessation interventions for LGBTQ youth are discussed. PMID:26508993

  19. Literature review of type 2 diabetes mellitus among minority Muslim populations in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni

    2015-01-01

    This review surveys the literature published on the characteristics and implications of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for the Arab and Bedouin populations of Israel. T2DM is a global health problem. The rapid rise in its prevalence in the Arab and Bedouin populations in Israel is responsible for their lower life expectancy compared to Israeli Jews. The increased prevalence of T2DM corresponds to increased rates of obesity in these populations. A major risk group is adult Arab women aged 55-64 years. In this group obesity reaches 70%. There are several genetic and nutritional explanations for this increase. We found high hospitalization rates for micro and macrovascular complications among diabetic patients of Arab and Bedouin origin. Despite the high prevalence of diabetes and its negative health implications, there is evidence that care and counseling relating to nutrition, physical activity and self-examination of the feet are unsatisfactory. Economic difficulties are frequently cited as the reason for inadequate medical care. Other proposed reasons include faith in traditional therapy and misconceptions about drugs and their side effects. In Israel, the quality indicators program is based on one of the world’s leading information systems and deals with the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes. The program’s baseline data pointed to health inequality between minority populations and the general population in several areas, including monitoring and control of diabetes. Based on these data, a pilot intervention program was planned, aimed at minority populations. This program led to a decrease in inequality and served as the basis for a broader, more comprehensive intervention that has entered the implementation stage. Interventions that were shown to be effective in other Arabic countries may serve as models for diabetes management in the Arab and Bedouin populations in Israel. PMID:25685290

  20. Sexual Maltreatment of Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Minors from the Horn of Africa: A Mixed Method Study Focusing on Vulnerability and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lay, Margaret; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The study described in this paper sought to identify the social, cultural, and political factors that effect African unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors' (UASM) vulnerability to sexual maltreatment in England. It aimed to illuminate how child protection measures could be strengthened for this highly marginalized group. Methods: A mixed…

  1. High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Students of a Minority-Serving University in a Community with a High HIV/AIDS Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Kim, Sunny; Pekovic, Vukosava; Zamor, Peggy; Velez, Elvira; Gabaroni, Mariela V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors used a stratified cluster sampling design to inform campus sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs. Participants and Methods: They conducted a cross-sectional study of students (N = 1,130) at a large, urban, minority-serving university in South Florida using the 2004 National College Health Assessment Survey…

  2. Associations between Caregiver Support, Bullying, and Depressive Symptomatology among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Girls: Results from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Renee M.; Kidd, Jeremy D.; Dunn, Erin C.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Corliss, Heather L.; Bowen, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Although sexual minority (SM) youth are at an increased risk for being bullied and experiencing depression, it is unclear how caregiver support is interrelated with those variables. Therefore, we sought to assess (a) the prevalence of nonphysical bullying, depressive symptomatology, and caregiver support among heterosexual and SM girls, (b) the…

  3. Internalized homophobia as a partial mediator between homophobic bullying and self-esteem among youths of sexual minorities in Quebec (Canada).

    PubMed

    Blais, Martin; Gervais, Jesse; Hébert, Martine

    2014-03-01

    Verbal/psychological homophobic bullying is widespread among youths of sexual minorities. Homophobic bullying has been associated with both high internalized homophobia and low self-esteem. The objectives were to document verbal/psychological homophobic bullying among youths of sexual minorities and model the relationships between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and self-esteem. A community sample of 300 youths of sexual minorities aged 14 to 22 years old was used. A structural equation model was tested using a nonlinear, robust estimator implemented in Mplus. The model postulated that homophobic bullying impacts self-esteem both directly and indirectly, via internalized homophobia. 60.7% of the sample reported at least one form of verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model explained 29% of the variance of self-esteem, 19.6% of the variance of internalized homophobia and 5.3% of the verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model suggests that the relationship between verbal/psychological homophobic bullying and self-esteem is partially mediated by internalized homophobia. The results underscore the importance of initiatives to prevent homophobic bullying in order to prevent its negative effects on the well-being of youths of sexual minorities.

  4. Childhood cancer survivorship research in minority populations: A position paper from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Smita; Gibson, Todd M; Ness, Kirsten K; Liu, Qi; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Krull, Kevin R; Nathan, Paul C; Neglia, Joseph P; Leisenring, Wendy; Yasui, Yutaka; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T

    2016-08-01

    By the middle of this century, racial/ethnic minority populations will collectively constitute 50% of the US population. This temporal shift in the racial/ethnic composition of the US population demands a close look at the race/ethnicity-specific burden of morbidity and premature mortality among survivors of childhood cancer. To optimize targeted long-term follow-up care, it is essential to understand whether the burden of morbidity borne by survivors of childhood cancer differs by race/ethnicity. This is challenging because the number of minority participants is often limited in current childhood cancer survivorship research, resulting in a paucity of race/ethnicity-specific recommendations and/or interventions. Although the overall childhood cancer incidence increased between 1973 and 2003, the mortality rate declined; however, these changes did not differ appreciably by race/ethnicity. The authors speculated that any racial/ethnic differences in outcome are likely to be multifactorial, and drew on data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study to illustrate the various contributors (socioeconomic characteristics, health behaviors, and comorbidities) that could explain any observed differences in key treatment-related complications. Finally, the authors outlined challenges in conducting race/ethnicity-specific childhood cancer survivorship research, demonstrating that there are limited absolute numbers of children who are diagnosed and survive cancer in any one racial/ethnic minority population, thereby precluding a rigorous evaluation of adverse events among specific primary cancer diagnoses and treatment exposure groups. Cancer 2016;122:2426-2439. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  5. Sexual Behaviors among Adults in Puerto Rico: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Suárez, Erick; Santos-Ortiz, María del Carmen; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Given changes in sexual behaviors and norms in the United States, there is a need for current and representative data on sexual behaviors with particular interest in gender, age, and racial/ethnic group differences. Aim Given the limited data for Hispanics and for Puerto Rico (PR), we described patterns of sexual behaviors and characteristics among a sexually active sample (n = 1,575) of adults aged 21–64 years in PR. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures for this study are sexual behaviors including age at sexual initiation, number of sexual partners, vaginal and anal intercourse, and oral sex, among others. Methods Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005–2008) was analyzed. The prevalence of sexual behaviors and characteristics was described by age-group and gender during the lifetime and in the past 12 months. Results Overall, 96.8%, 81.6%, and 60.9% of participants had ever engaged in vaginal, oral and anal sex, respectively, whereas 23.7% were seropositive to any of the sexually transmitted infections under study. Sexual initiation ≤15 years was reported by 37.8% of men and 21.4% of women; whereas 47.9% of men and 13.2% of women reported to have had ≥7 sexual partners in their lifetime. Approximately, 3% of women and 6% of men reported same-sex sexual practices, while history of forced sexual relations was reported by 9.6% of women and 2.5% of men. Sexual initiation ≤15 years was more common among individuals aged 21–34 years (41.4% men and 33.6% women) as compared with older cohorts. Although having had ≥7 sexual partners over a lifetime among men was similar across age groups, this behavior decreased in older women cohorts. In both genders, the prevalence of oral and anal sex was also lower in the older age cohorts. Conclusion This study provides essential information than can help health professionals understand the sexual practices and needs of the population of PR. PMID:21676177

  6. A Y-STR database of Iranian and Azerbaijanian minority populations.

    PubMed

    Roewer, Lutz; Willuweit, Sascha; Stoneking, Mark; Nasidze, Ivan

    2009-12-01

    Seventeen Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STR) DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a, DYS385b, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4 were studied in five minor linguistic groups from Iran (Arabs, Gilaki, Mazandarani, Bakhtiari and Southern Talysh) and one from Azerbaijan (Northern Talysh) with the goal of constructing of a representative Y-STR database for this region in Southwest Asia. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) reveals non-significant or low genetic distances between the Iranian Gilaki, Mazandarani, Bakhtiari and non-Iranian Turkish, Azerbaijanian, Armenian and Kurd populations, but larger genetic distances to both Talysh populations, the Iranian Arabs, Georgian and Kazakh populations. PMID:19948326

  7. Sexual selection counteracts extinction of small populations of the bulb mites.

    PubMed

    Jarzebowska, Magdalena; Radwan, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    Genetic drift in small populations can increase frequency of deleterious recessives and consequently lead to inbreeding depression and population extinction. On the other hand, as homozygosity at deleterious recessives increases, they should be purged from populations more effectively by selection. Sexual selection has been postulated to strengthen selection against deleterious mutations, and should thus decrease extinction rate and intensify purging of inbreeding depression. We tested these predictions in the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini. We created 100 replicate lines of small populations (five males and five females) and in half of them experimentally removed sexual selection by enforcing monogamy. The lines were propagated for eight generations and then assayed for purging of inbreeding depression. We found that proportion of lines which went extinct was lower with sexual selection than without. We also found evidence for purging of inbreeding depression in the lines with sexual selection, but not in lines without sexual selection. Our results suggest that purging of inbreeding depression was more effective against mutations with relatively large deleterious effects. Thus, although our data clearly indicate a positive impact of sexual selection on short-term survival of bottlenecked populations, long-term consequences are less clear as they may be negatively impacted by accumulation of deleterious mutations of small effect.

  8. Addressing health disparities in highly specialized minority populations: case study of Mexican Mennonite farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Treaster, Cyndi; Hawley, Suzanne R; Paschal, Angelia M; Molgaard, Craig A; St Romain, Theresa

    2006-04-01

    The Kansas Statewide Farmworker Health Program (KSFHP) has developed a unique set of culturally competent health interventions in response to the pressing public health needs of the state's underserved farmworker population. Key among these are its health education and translation efforts on behalf of the fast-growing Low German-speaking Mexican Mennonite farmworker population. Linguistic, religious, and cultural values have created unique and complex health disparities and barriers to care that can be broken down only through innovative approaches. KSFHP first conducted a health needs assessment survey of the farmworker population in 2003, which indicated prenatal care practices as a significant health disparity, especially among the Low German-speaking Mexican Mennonite population. In response, KSFHP successfully lobbied the state health department to implement a new standard of health behavior data collection that includes primary language data as a method of delineating population subgroups, making Kansas one of the first two states in the country to collect this information. KSFHP also developed culturally competent Low German-language recordings on health topics such as prenatal care in accordance with the information delivery needs of the Low German-speaking Mexican Mennonite farmworker population. Currently, a pilot program is in progress that offers additional outreach, health education, and interpretation, among other services. The work of the KSFHP has significant implications for further research into health disparities, specialized minority populations, and culturally competent data collection methods.

  9. Perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality and their effects on Iranian and American sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Mireshghi, Sholeh I; Matsumoto, David

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between three mental health constructs and perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Specifically, differences in perceived cultural attitudes and depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress between 49 Iranians and 47 Americans were compared. It was hypothesized that (a) perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality would be more negative among Iranians than Americans; (b) perceived cultural attitudes would be related to depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress; and (c) that Iranian participants' scores on the depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress measures would reflect poorer mental health than that of their American counterparts. Results indicated more negative perceptions of cultural attitudes toward homosexuality among Iranians. Contrary to prediction, however, no difference was found in levels of depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress among American and Iranian participants. Findings are discussed in terms of cultural and familial differences with regard to sexual orientation disclosure.

  10. A PILOT STUDY TO ASSESS TOBACCO USE AMONG SEXUAL MINORITIES IN HOUSTON, TEXAS

    PubMed Central

    Tamí-Maury, Irene; Lin, Mi-Ting; Lapham, Hillary; Hong, Judy; Cage, Catherine; Shete, Sanjay; Gritz, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives To assess tobacco use among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals from the 2014 Houston Pride Parade and Festival in Houston, Texas (TX). Methods Cross-sectional study using convenience sample of LGBT individuals (n=99) examining tobacco use, sexual orientation, and other socio-demographic factors through survey participation. Results Findings showed a high prevalence of tobacco and electronic cigarettes use. White LGBT individuals had greater odds of using any type of tobacco product. Discussion and Conclusions Despite a high smoking prevalence among the surveyed LGBT individuals, this study sample did not identify tobacco use as a health issue. Scientific Significance Supports the need for further investigation on tobacco-related disparities among LGBT individuals in Houston, TX. PMID:26009978

  11. Germline Selection: Population Genetic Aspects of the Sexual/Asexual Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    Population geneticists make a distinction between sexual and asexual organisms depending on whether individuals inherit genes from one or two parents. When individual genes are considered, this distinction becomes less satisfactory for multicellular sexual organisms. Individual genes pass through numerous asexual mitotic cell divisions in the germline prior to meiosis and sexual recombination. The processes of mitotic mutation, mitotic crossing over, and mitotic gene conversion create genotypic diversity between diploid cells in the germline. Genes expressed in the germline whose products affect cell viability (such as many ``housekeeping'' enzymes) may be subjected to natural selection acting on this variability resulting in a non-Mendelian output of gametes. Such genes will be governed by the population genetics of the sexual/asexual life cycle rather than the conventional sexual/Mendelian life cycle. A model is developed to investigate some properties of the sexual/asexual life cycle. When appropriate parameter values were included in the model, it was found that mutation rates per locus per gamete may vary by a factor of up to 100 if selection acts in the germline. Sexual/asexual populations appear able to evolve to a genotype of higher fitness despite intervening genotypes of lower fitness, reducing the problems of underdominance and Wright's adaptive landscape encountered by purely sexual populations. As might be expected this ability is chiefly determined by the number of asexual mitotic cell divisions within the germline. The evolutionary consequences of ``housekeeping'' loci being governed by the dynamics of the sexual/asexual life cycle are considered. PMID:1783297

  12. Sexual Activity and Impairment in Women with Systemic Sclerosis Compared to Women from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Brooke; Burri, Andrea; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Reports of low sexual activity rates and high impairment rates among women with chronic diseases have not included comparisons to general population data. The objective of this study was to compare sexual activity and impairment rates of women with systemic sclerosis (SSc) to general population data and to identify domains of sexual function driving impairment in SSc. Methods Canadian women with SSc were compared to women from a UK population sample. Sexual activity and, among sexually active women, sexual impairment were evaluated with a 9-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results Among women with SSc (mean age = 57.0 years), 296 of 730 (41%) were sexually active, 181 (61%) of whom were sexually impaired, resulting in 115 of 730 (16%) who were sexually active without impairment. In the UK population sample (mean age = 55.4 years), 956 of 1,498 women (64%) were sexually active, 420 (44%) of whom were impaired, with 536 of 1,498 (36%) sexually active without impairment. Adjusting for age and marital status, women with SSc were significantly less likely to be sexually active (OR = 0.34, 95%CI = 0.28–0.42) and, among sexually active women, significantly more likely to be sexually impaired (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.42–2.49) than general population women. Controlling for total FSFI scores, women with SSc had significantly worse lubrication and pain scores than general population women. Conclusions Sexual functioning is a problem for many women with scleroderma and is associated with pain and poor lubrication. Evidence-based interventions to support sexual activity and function in women with SSc are needed. PMID:23251692

  13. Attitudes toward minorities: a comparison of homosexuals and the general population.

    PubMed

    Beran, N J; Claybaker, C; Dillon, C; Haverkamp, R J

    1992-01-01

    As a prelude to a media campaign to improve the public image of gays, a gay rights organization in Columbus, Ohio, constructed a questionnaire to assess perceptions of and attitudes toward gays and various other minority groups including blacks, Jews, women, communists, and recovering alcoholics. The questionnaire was administered to two samples in the central Ohio area: a sample of the greater Columbus population at large, and a sample of gays and lesbians. This article reports on the comparative findings from these two samples.

  14. Traumatogenic Processes and Pathways to Mental Health Outcomes for Sexual Minorities Exposed to Bias Crime Information.

    PubMed

    Lannert, Brittany K

    2015-07-01

    Vicarious traumatization of nonvictim members of communities targeted by bias crimes has been suggested by previous qualitative studies and often dominates public discussion following bias events, but proximal and distal responses of community members have yet to be comprehensively modeled, and quantitative research on vicarious responses is scarce. This comprehensive review integrates theoretical and empirical literatures in social, clinical, and physiological psychology in the development of a model of affective, cognitive, and physiological responses of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals upon exposure to information about bias crimes. Extant qualitative research in vicarious response to bias crimes is reviewed in light of theoretical implications and methodological limitations. Potential pathways to mental health outcomes are outlined, including accumulative effects of anticipatory defensive responding, multiplicative effects of minority stress, and putative traumatogenic physiological and cognitive processes of threat. Methodological considerations, future research directions, and clinical implications are also discussed.

  15. Screening for Chlamydial Cervicitis in a Sexually Active University Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malotte, C. Kevin; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays to detect chlamydial cervicitis were performed on samples from 1,320 sexually active university women. Seventy-five had positive tests. Demographic, history, symptom, and physical examination variables were insufficient to predict infection accurately. Concludes that screening during routine visits with this…

  16. Decreased sexual signalling reveals reduced viability in small populations of the drumming wolf spider Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata.

    PubMed

    Ahtiainen, Jari J; Alatalo, Rauno V; Mappes, Johanna; Vertainen, Laura

    2004-09-01

    One of the important goals in conservation biology is to determine reliable indicators of population viability. Sexual traits have been suggested to indicate population extinction risk, because they may be related to viability through condition dependence. Moreover, condition-dependent sexual traits may be more sensitive indicators of population viability than early life-history traits, because deleterious fitness effects of inbreeding tend to be expressed mainly at the end of the species' life history. However, empirical evidence of the significance of sexual behaviour for population viability is missing. In this study, we examined two male sexual traits and survival in 39 different-sized and isolated natural populations of the wolf spider, Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata. We also used several traits to estimate female reproductive success in 25 populations of H. rubrofasciata. According to previous studies, H. rubrofasciata males have a costly and condition-dependent acoustic signal, courtship drumming, which is the target of female choice. Males with a high drumming rate have considerably higher viability than males with a low drumming rate, and females that mate with the more actively drumming males gain genetic benefits in terms of increased offspring viability. Our results show that males in small populations had both lower survival and lower drumming rate than males in larger populations. However, we did not find any evidence for a decline in important early life-history traits (offspring number, hatching success or offspring body mass) or female body mass in small populations. Our results have two important messages for conservation biology. First, they show that sexual traits can be used as sensitive indicators of population viability. Second, the indirect benefits of female choice in terms of good genes might partially compensate for the reduction of viability in declining populations. Also, our results support the view that deleterious effects of small

  17. Decreased sexual signalling reveals reduced viability in small populations of the drumming wolf spider Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata.

    PubMed Central

    Ahtiainen, Jari J.; Alatalo, Rauno V.; Mappes, Johanna; Vertainen, Laura

    2004-01-01

    One of the important goals in conservation biology is to determine reliable indicators of population viability. Sexual traits have been suggested to indicate population extinction risk, because they may be related to viability through condition dependence. Moreover, condition-dependent sexual traits may be more sensitive indicators of population viability than early life-history traits, because deleterious fitness effects of inbreeding tend to be expressed mainly at the end of the species' life history. However, empirical evidence of the significance of sexual behaviour for population viability is missing. In this study, we examined two male sexual traits and survival in 39 different-sized and isolated natural populations of the wolf spider, Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata. We also used several traits to estimate female reproductive success in 25 populations of H. rubrofasciata. According to previous studies, H. rubrofasciata males have a costly and condition-dependent acoustic signal, courtship drumming, which is the target of female choice. Males with a high drumming rate have considerably higher viability than males with a low drumming rate, and females that mate with the more actively drumming males gain genetic benefits in terms of increased offspring viability. Our results show that males in small populations had both lower survival and lower drumming rate than males in larger populations. However, we did not find any evidence for a decline in important early life-history traits (offspring number, hatching success or offspring body mass) or female body mass in small populations. Our results have two important messages for conservation biology. First, they show that sexual traits can be used as sensitive indicators of population viability. Second, the indirect benefits of female choice in terms of good genes might partially compensate for the reduction of viability in declining populations. Also, our results support the view that deleterious effects of small

  18. Analyses of Lettuce Drop Incidence and Population Structure of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and S. minor.

    PubMed

    Wu, B M; Subbarao, K V

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT To understand the geographical distribution of lettuce drop incidence and the structure of Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum populations, commercial lettuce fields were surveyed in the Salinas, San Joaquin, and Santa Maria Valleys in California. Lettuce drop incidence, pathogen species, and mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs) were determined and analyzed using geostatistic and geographical information system tools. Lettuce drop incidence was lowest in the San Joaquin Valley, and not significantly different between the other two valleys. Semivariogram analysis revealed that lettuce drop incidence was not spatially correlated between different fields in the Salinas Valley, suggesting negligible field-to-field spread or influence of inoculum in one field on other fields. Lettuce drop incidence was significantly lower in fields with a surface drip system than in fields with furrow or sprinkler irrigation systems, suggesting that the surface drip system can be a potential management measure for reducing lettuce drop. In the San Joaquin Valley, S. sclerotiorum was the prevalent species, causing drop in 63.5% of the fields, whereas S. minor also was identified in 25.4% of the fields. In contrast, in the Salinas Valley, S. minor was the dominant species (76.1%) whereas S sclerotiorum only observed in only 13.6% fields, in which only a few plants were infected by S. sclerotiorum. In the Santa Maria Valley, both species frequently were identified, with S. minor being slightly more common. Although many MCGs were identified in S. minor, most of them consisted of only one or two isolates. In all, approximately 91.4% of the isolates belonged to four MCGs. Among them, MCG-1 was the most prevalent group in all three valleys, accounting for 49.8% of total isolates. It was distributed all over the surveyed areas, whereas other MCGs were distributed more or less locally. Populations of S. sclerotiorum exhibited greater diversity, with 89 isolates collected from the

  19. Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population

    PubMed Central

    Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K.

    2011-01-01

    People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n=325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health information

  20. Sexual and Gender Minority Health: What We Know and What Needs to Be Done

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Kenneth H.; Bradford, Judith B.; Makadon, Harvey J.; Stall, Ron; Goldhammer, Hilary; Landers, Stewart

    2008-01-01

    We describe the emergence of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health as a key area of study and practice for clinicians and public health professionals. We discuss the specific needs of LGBT populations on the basis of the most recent epidemiological and clinical investigations, methods for defining and measuring LGBT populations, and the barriers they face in obtaining appropriate care and services. We then discuss how clinicians and public health professionals can improve research methods, clinical outcomes, and service delivery for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. PMID:18445789

  1. Poppr: an R package for genetic analysis of populations with mixed (clonal/sexual) reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poppr is an R package for analysis of population genetic data. It extends the adegenet package and provides several novel tools, particularly with regard to analysis of data from admixed, clonal, and/or sexual populations. Currently, poppr can be used for dominant/codominant and haploid/diploid gene...

  2. Intraoral minor salivary gland tumors: a retrospective study of 62 cases in a Venezuelan population.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Bastidas, H; Ocanto, R A; Acevedo, A M

    1996-01-01

    From 1968 to 1992 sixty-two cases of tumors of minor salivary glands were diagnosed from a Venezuelan population at the Oral Histopathology Laboratory of the Central University of Venezuela School of Dentistry. The diagnosis of individual tumors was based on the 1991 World Health Organization classification. Tumors were analyzed considering histological type, age and sex of the patient, and intraoral location. Pleomorphic adenomas constituted the most common histological diagnosis of the benign sample (71%), and 62% of the malignant tumors were diagnosed as mucoepidermoid carcinomas. The principal location was the palate, and a marked female prevalence was observed. Geographic differences appear to exist when compared with results of studies representing a cross-section of different world population groups.

  3. Overcoming Challenges in Conducting Clinical Trials in Minority Populations: Identifying and Testing What Works

    PubMed Central

    Azuine, Romuladus E.; Ekejiuba, Sussan E.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in clinical trials is one of the greatest gifts that humanity can give to the fields of medicine and public health. Clinical trials are central in public health’s mission to advance drug discovery. The enrollment and retention of participants, especially minority populations, is one of the most practical challenges of successfully implementing a clinical trial. In spite of these challenges, there are many reasons why a broader public participation in clinical trials is critical. The ability to generalize the scientific findings and the principles of equity, justice, and beneficence require an equitable distribution of the risks, benefits, and burdens of research for all classes and groups of people. A new methodology article published in this journal presents a promising framework for addressing minority recruitment and retention using what is known and using it innovatively to address a difficult problem facing clinical trials and public health. The innovative application of what is known in addressing a challenging problem, as this article presents, is worth the reading of all those interested in scientifically rigorous and ethically sound clinical trials that substantially comprise of diverse populations.

  4. Overcoming Challenges in Conducting Clinical Trials in Minority Populations: Identifying and Testing What Works

    PubMed Central

    Azuine, Romuladus E.; Ekejiuba, Sussan E.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in clinical trials is one of the greatest gifts that humanity can give to the fields of medicine and public health. Clinical trials are central in public health’s mission to advance drug discovery. The enrollment and retention of participants, especially minority populations, is one of the most practical challenges of successfully implementing a clinical trial. In spite of these challenges, there are many reasons why a broader public participation in clinical trials is critical. The ability to generalize the scientific findings and the principles of equity, justice, and beneficence require an equitable distribution of the risks, benefits, and burdens of research for all classes and groups of people. A new methodology article published in this journal presents a promising framework for addressing minority recruitment and retention using what is known and using it innovatively to address a difficult problem facing clinical trials and public health. The innovative application of what is known in addressing a challenging problem, as this article presents, is worth the reading of all those interested in scientifically rigorous and ethically sound clinical trials that substantially comprise of diverse populations. PMID:27621989

  5. Characteristics of Victims of Sexual Abuse by Gender and Race in a Community Corrections Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, C. Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Islam, M. Aminul; Hanover, Erin E.; Cropsey, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White…

  6. Initial Design of Culturally Informed Behavioral Intervention Technologies: Developing an mHealth Intervention for Young Sexual Minority Men With Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Enid; Mohr, David C

    2013-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, there is no well-articulated process for the design of culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. Objective This paper describes the early stages of such a process, illustrated by the methodology for the ongoing development of a behavioral intervention technology targeting generalized anxiety disorder and major depression among young sexual minority men. Methods We integrated instructional design for Internet behavioral intervention technologies with greater detail on information sources that can identify user needs in understudied populations, as well as advances in the understanding of technology-specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions that may need to be culturally tailored. Results General psychological theory describing how to effect change in the clinical target is first integrated with theory describing potentially malleable factors that help explain the clinical problem within the population. Additional information sources are then used to (1) evaluate the theory, (2) identify population-specific factors that may affect users’ ability to relate to and benefit from the behavioral intervention technology, and (3) establish specific skills, attitudes, knowledge, etc, required to change malleable factors posited in the theory. User needs result from synthesis of this information. Product requirements are then generated through application of the user needs to specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions (eg, technology platform). We provide examples of considerations relevant to each stage of this process and how they were applied. Conclusions This process can guide the initial design of other culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. This first attempt to create a systematic design process can spur development of guidelines for design of behavioral intervention technologies aimed to reduce health disparities. PMID:24311444

  7. Predation risk as a driving force for sexual segregation: a cross-population comparison.

    PubMed

    Croft, Darren P; Morrell, Lesley J; Wade, Amy S; Piyapong, Chantima; Ioannou, Christos C; Dyer, John R G; Chapman, Ben B; Wong, Yan; Krause, Jens

    2006-06-01

    Sexual segregation is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Although a number of hypotheses have been proposed to account for observed patterns, the generality of the mechanisms remains debated. One possible reason for this is the focus on segregation patterns in large mammals such as ungulates, where the majority of studies are descriptions of a single population. Here, we present the results of a cross‐population comparison of patterns of sexual segregation in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata. We relate observed patterns to experimental quantification of predation risk and sexual harassment of females by males in eight populations. We find that the degree of segregation increases with predation risk, with deeper waters becoming increasingly female biased. Furthermore, we observed that levels of male harassment are lower in deeper water but only in those rivers that contain major guppy predators. We conclude that sexual segregation in guppies is consistent with the predation risk hypothesis: sexual segregation results from a combination of predation risk driving males (the more vulnerable sex) into less risky habitats and females gaining benefits of reduced sexual harassment by remaining in high‐predation environments.

  8. Depressive Symptoms among Latino Sexual Minority Men and Latina Transgender Women in a New Settlement State: The Role of Perceived Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Alice; Tanner, Amanda E.; Mann, Lilli; Reboussin, Beth A.; Garcia, Manuel; Alonzo, Jorge; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the role of discrimination on depression among Latino sexual and gender identity minorities. This manuscript examined the relationship between ethnic/racial discrimination and sexual discrimination on clinically significant depressive symptoms among Latino sexual minority men (i.e., gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men) and Latina transgender women. Methods. A community-based participatory research partnership recruited participants (N = 186; 80.6% cisgender men) in North Carolina to a social network-based HIV intervention. Using baseline data, we quantified the amount of perceived discrimination and conducted mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine correlates of clinically significant depressive symptoms. Results. A high percentage of participants reported ethnic/racial discrimination (73.7%) and sexual discrimination (53.8%). In the multivariable models, ethnic/racial discrimination, sexual discrimination, masculinity, fatalism, and social support were significantly associated with clinically significant depressive symptoms. Discussion. Improving mental health requires multilevel interventions that address pertinent individual, interpersonal, and system level factors. PMID:27703808

  9. Acculturative Stress and Risky Sexual Behavior: The Roles of Sexual Compulsivity and Negative Affect.

    PubMed

    Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities. PMID:26584611

  10. Implicit bias against sexual minorities in medicine: cycles of professional influence and the role of the hidden curriculum.

    PubMed

    Fallin-Bennett, Keisa

    2015-05-01

    Despite many recent advances in rights for sexual and gender minorities in the United States, bias against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people still exists. In this Commentary, the author briefly reviews disparities with regard to LGBT health, in both health care and medical education, and discusses the implications of Burke and colleagues’ study of implicit and explicit biases against lesbian and gay people among heterosexual first-year medical students, published in this issue of Academic Medicine. Emphasis is placed on the ways in which physicians’ implicit bias against LGBT people can create a cycle that perpetuates a professional climate reinforcing the bias. The hidden curriculum in academic health centers is discussed as both a cause of this cycle and as a starting point for a research and intervention agenda. The findings from Burke and colleagues’ study, as well as other evidence, support raising awareness of LGBT discrimination, increasing exposure to LGBT individuals as colleagues and role models in academic health centers, and modifying medical education curricula as methods to break the cycle of implicit bias in medicine.

  11. Implicit bias against sexual minorities in medicine: cycles of professional influence and the role of the hidden curriculum.

    PubMed

    Fallin-Bennett, Keisa

    2015-05-01

    Despite many recent advances in rights for sexual and gender minorities in the United States, bias against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people still exists. In this Commentary, the author briefly reviews disparities with regard to LGBT health, in both health care and medical education, and discusses the implications of Burke and colleagues’ study of implicit and explicit biases against lesbian and gay people among heterosexual first-year medical students, published in this issue of Academic Medicine. Emphasis is placed on the ways in which physicians’ implicit bias against LGBT people can create a cycle that perpetuates a professional climate reinforcing the bias. The hidden curriculum in academic health centers is discussed as both a cause of this cycle and as a starting point for a research and intervention agenda. The findings from Burke and colleagues’ study, as well as other evidence, support raising awareness of LGBT discrimination, increasing exposure to LGBT individuals as colleagues and role models in academic health centers, and modifying medical education curricula as methods to break the cycle of implicit bias in medicine. PMID:25674911

  12. Sexually transmitted infections clinics as strategic venues for targeting high risk populations for HIV research and sexual health interventions.

    PubMed

    Clatts, Michael C; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; García, Hermes; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L; Colón-López, Vivian; Pérez-Rios, Naydi; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G

    2011-09-01

    Puerto Rico has one of the highest incidence rates of HIV in the U.S. Concurrent with increases in sexually transmitted infections (STI), an increasing share of the new infections in PR are associated with sexual transmission. Much of the available research on sexual risk in PR derives from STI/HIV surveillance data. There is limited social and epidemiological research on sexual risk in PR, particularly in hidden and often hard-to-reach populations at high risk. Despite the absence of substantial resources that most epidemiological studies require, a research collaboration was initiated in 2007 between researchers in the School of Public Health at the University of Puerto Rico and the Centro Latinoamericano de Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual (CLETS), one of the largest publicly funded centers for STI/HIV screening and treatment in the San Juan metropolitan area. Structured as a case study in the development of community-based research collaborations, this paper describes the early history and development of the project, including formative research, recruitment and training of students, and evolution in the study design that contributed to the current configuration of the ongoing "Core" study. Preliminary data are presented, highlighting data from a number of subpopulations that may contribute to our understanding of the role of behavioral risk in the STI/HIV epidemics in PR. More generally, the paper may guide the development of similar collaboration elsewhere in the Caribbean where HIV risk is increasing but where resources for research in high risk settings and groups are scarce.

  13. Shared Decision Making Among Clinicians and Asian American and Pacific Islander Sexual and Gender Minorities: An Intersectional Approach to Address a Critical Care Gap

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lucy J.; Lopez, Fanny Y.; Jia, Justin L.; Pho, Mai T.; Kim, Karen E.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Shared decision making (SDM) is a model of patient-provider communication. Little is known about the role of SDM in health disparities among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) sexual and gender minorities (SGM). We illustrate how issues at the intersection of AAPI and SGM identities affect SDM processes and health outcomes. We discuss experiences of AAPI SGM that are affected by AAPI heterogeneity, SGM stigma, multiple minority group identities, and sources of discrimination. Recommendations for clinical practice, research, policy, community development, and education are offered. PMID:27158858

  14. Shared Decision Making Among Clinicians and Asian American and Pacific Islander Sexual and Gender Minorities: An Intersectional Approach to Address a Critical Care Gap.

    PubMed

    Tan, Judy Y; Xu, Lucy J; Lopez, Fanny Y; Jia, Justin L; Pho, Mai T; Kim, Karen E; Chin, Marshall H

    2016-10-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) is a model of patient-provider communication. Little is known about the role of SDM in health disparities among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) sexual and gender minorities (SGM). We illustrate how issues at the intersection of AAPI and SGM identities affect SDM processes and health outcomes. We discuss experiences of AAPI SGM that are affected by AAPI heterogeneity, SGM stigma, multiple minority group identities, and sources of discrimination. Recommendations for clinical practice, research, policy, community development, and education are offered. PMID:27158858

  15. Within-population covariation between sexual reproduction and susceptibility to local parasites.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Amanda K; Xu, Julie Y; Lively, Curtis M

    2016-09-01

    Evolutionary biology has yet to reconcile the ubiquity of sex with its costs relative to asexual reproduction. Here, we test the hypothesis that coevolving parasites maintain sex in their hosts. Specifically, we examined the distributions of sexual reproduction and susceptibility to local parasites within a single population of freshwater snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Susceptibility to local trematode parasites (Microphallus sp.) is a relative measure of the strength of coevolutionary selection in this system. Thus, if coevolving parasites maintain sex, sexual snails should be common where susceptibility is high. We tested this prediction in a mixed population of sexual and asexual snails by measuring the susceptibility of snails from multiple sites in a lake. Consistent with the prediction, the frequency of sexual snails was tightly and positively correlated with susceptibility to local parasites. Strikingly, in just two years, asexual females increased in frequency at sites where susceptibility declined. We also found that the frequency of sexual females covaries more strongly with susceptibility than with the prevalence of Microphallus infection in the field. In linking susceptibility to the frequency of sexual hosts, our results directly implicate spatial variation in coevolutionary selection in driving the geographic mosaic of sex. PMID:27402345

  16. Testing for a genetic response to sexual selection in a wild Drosophila population.

    PubMed

    Gosden, T P; Thomson, J R; Blows, M W; Schaul, A; Chenoweth, S F

    2016-06-01

    In accordance with the consensus that sexual selection is responsible for the rapid evolution of display traits on macroevolutionary scales, microevolutionary studies suggest sexual selection is a widespread and often strong form of directional selection in nature. However, empirical evidence for the contemporary evolution of sexually selected traits via sexual rather than natural selection remains weak. In this study, we used a novel application of quantitative genetic breeding designs to test for a genetic response to sexual selection on eight chemical display traits from a field population of the fly, Drosophila serrata. Using our quantitative genetic approach, we were able to detect a genetically based difference in means between groups of males descended from fathers who had either successfully sired offspring or were randomly collected from the same wild population for one of these display traits, the diene (Z,Z)-5,9-C27 : 2 . Our experimental results, in combination with previous laboratory studies on this system, suggest that both natural and sexual selection may be influencing the evolutionary trajectories of these traits in nature, limiting the capacity for a contemporary evolutionary response.

  17. Within-population covariation between sexual reproduction and susceptibility to local parasites.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Amanda K; Xu, Julie Y; Lively, Curtis M

    2016-09-01

    Evolutionary biology has yet to reconcile the ubiquity of sex with its costs relative to asexual reproduction. Here, we test the hypothesis that coevolving parasites maintain sex in their hosts. Specifically, we examined the distributions of sexual reproduction and susceptibility to local parasites within a single population of freshwater snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Susceptibility to local trematode parasites (Microphallus sp.) is a relative measure of the strength of coevolutionary selection in this system. Thus, if coevolving parasites maintain sex, sexual snails should be common where susceptibility is high. We tested this prediction in a mixed population of sexual and asexual snails by measuring the susceptibility of snails from multiple sites in a lake. Consistent with the prediction, the frequency of sexual snails was tightly and positively correlated with susceptibility to local parasites. Strikingly, in just two years, asexual females increased in frequency at sites where susceptibility declined. We also found that the frequency of sexual females covaries more strongly with susceptibility than with the prevalence of Microphallus infection in the field. In linking susceptibility to the frequency of sexual hosts, our results directly implicate spatial variation in coevolutionary selection in driving the geographic mosaic of sex.

  18. Longitudinal Detection and Persistence of Minority Drug-Resistant Populations and Their Effect on Salvage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Masako; Matsuda, Masakazu; Hattori, Junko; Shiino, Teiichiro; Matano, Tetsuro; Heneine, Walid; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Sugiura, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug-resistant HIV are more prevalent and persist longer than previously demonstrated by bulk sequencing due to the ability to detect low-frequency variants. To clarify a clinical benefit to monitoring minority-level drug resistance populations as a guide to select active drugs for salvage therapy, we retrospectively analyzed the dynamics of low-frequency drug-resistant population in antiretroviral (ARV)-exposed drug resistant individuals. Materials and Methods Six HIV-infected individuals treated with ARV for more than five years were analyzed. These individuals had difficulty in controlling viremia, and treatment regimens were switched multiple times guided by standard drug resistance testing using bulk sequencing. To detect minority variant populations with drug resistance, we used a highly sensitive allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) with detection thresholds of 0.3–2%. According to ARV used in these individuals, we focused on the following seven reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant mutations: M41L, K65R, K70R, K103N, Y181C, M184V, and T215F/Y. Results of AS-PCR were compared with bulk sequencing data for concordance and presence of additional mutations. To clarify the genetic relationship between low-frequency and high-frequency populations, AS-PCR amplicon sequences were compared with bulk sequences in phylogenetic analysis. Results The use of AS-PCR enabled detection of the drug-resistant mutations, M41L, K103N, Y181C, M184V and T215Y, present as low-frequency populations in five of the six individuals. These drug resistant variants persisted for several years without ARV pressure. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that pre-existing K103N and T215I variants had close genetic relationships with high-frequency K103N and T215I observed during treatment. Discussion and Conclusion Our results demonstrate the long-term persistence of drug-resistant viruses in the absence of drug pressure. The rapid virologic failures with pre-existing mutant viruses

  19. Provider-Initiated HIV Testing for Migrants in Spain: A Qualitative Study with Health Care Workers and Foreign-Born Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Navaza, Barbara; Abarca, Bruno; Bisoffi, Federico; Pool, Robert; Roura, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Provider-initiated HIV testing (PITC) is increasingly adopted in Europe. The success of the approach at identifying new HIV cases relies on its effectiveness at testing individuals most at risk. However, its suitability to reach populations facing overlapping vulnerabilities is under researched. This qualitative study examined HIV testing experiences and perceptions amongst Latin-American migrant men who have sex with men and transgender females in Spain, as well as health professionals’ experiences offering HIV tests to migrants in Barcelona and Madrid. Methods We conducted 32 in-depth interviews and 8 discussion groups with 38 Latin-American migrants and 21 health professionals. We imported verbatim transcripts and detailed field work notes into the qualitative software package Nvivo-10 and applied to all data a coding framework to examine systematically different HIV testing dimensions and modalities. The dimensions analysed were based on the World Health Organization “5 Cs” principles: Consent, Counselling, Connection to treatment, Correctness of results and Confidentiality. Results Health professionals reported that PITC was conceptually acceptable for them, although their perceived inability to adequately communicate HIV+ results and resulting bottle necks in the flow of care were recurrent concerns. Endorsement and adherence to the principles underpinning the rights-based response to HIV varied widely across health settings. The offer of an HIV test during routine consultations was generally appreciated by users as a way of avoiding the embarrassment of asking for it. Several participants deemed compulsory testing as acceptable on public health grounds. In spite of—and sometimes because of—partial endorsement of rights-based approaches, PITC was acceptable in a population with high levels of internalised stigma. Conclusion PITC is a promising approach to reach sexual minority migrants who hold high levels of internalised stigma but

  20. Population structure influences sexual conflict in wild populations of water striders.

    PubMed

    Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Dlugos, Michael J; Holt, Galen P; Wilson, David Sloan; Pepper, Johnw

    2010-08-01

    In sexual conflict, aggressive males frequently diminish the long-term reproductive success of females in efforts to gain a short-term advantage over rival males. This short-term advantage can selectively favour high-exploitation males. However, just as the over-exploitation of resources can lead to local extinction, the over-exploitation of females in the form of harassment by aggressive males can yield similar consequences resulting in reduced female fecundity, increased female mortality and overall decline in mating activity. This outcome may often be prevented by selection acting at multiple levels of biological organization. Directional selection favouring aggressive exploitation within groups can be balanced by directional selection amongst groups opposing exploitation. Such between-group selection has recently been demonstrated in laboratory studies of water striders, where the conditional dispersal of individuals increased variation amongst groups and influenced the balance of selection toward reduced male aggression. This multilevel selection (MLS) framework also provides predictive value when investigating natural populations differing in their relative strength of selection within versus among groups. For water striders, the consequences of local exploitation cause fitness differences between groups, favouring less aggressive males. Inconsistently flowing ephemeral streams consist of isolated pools that prevent aggressive male water striders from escaping the consequences of local exploitation. We, therefore, predicted that inconsistently flowing ephemeral streams would favour the evolution of less aggressive males than would perennial streams, which allow aggressive males to move more freely and to escape the group-level costs of their aggression. Comparing two neighbouring streams during the mating season, we found that males dispersed naturally between pools at much higher rates in the perennial stream than in the ephemeral stream. As predicted, we

  1. The Association between Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Proxies for Sexual Risk Behavior: A Random Sample of the General Population of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer L.; Herlitz, Claes A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Several studies with small and ''high risk'' samples have demonstrated that a history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) is associated with sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). However, few studies with large random samples from the general population have specifically examined the relationship between CASA and SRBs with a…

  2. Velocity space evolution of a minority energetic electron population undergoing the anomalous Doppler instability

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, W. N.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.

    2015-11-15

    The kinetic evolution in velocity space of a minority suprathermal electron population that is undergoing the anomalous Doppler instability (ADI) is investigated using the results from fully nonlinear numerical simulations that self-consistently evolve particles and fields in a plasma. Electron trajectories in phase space during different stages of the ADI are captured, and are analysed in relation to the characteristics of the excited electric fields and of the overall distribution of particles. For some electrons, trapping and mirroring effects are observed during the saturation phase. A relationship between the second order moments of the perpendicular electron distribution function and time is established, and is used to investigate the range of applicability of analytical approximations drawn from classical theory, that involve a quasilinear wave-driven diffusion operator.

  3. The evolution of harm--effect of sexual conflicts and population size.

    PubMed

    Gay, Laurène; Hosken, David J; Eady, Paul; Vasudev, Ram; Tregenza, Tom

    2011-03-01

    Conflicts of interest between mates can promote the evolution of male traits that reduce female fitness and that drive coevolution between the sexes. The rate of adaptation depends on the intensity of selection and its efficiency, which depends on drift and genetic variability. This leads to the largely untested prediction that coevolutionary adaptations such as those driven by sexual conflict should evolve faster in large populations. We tested this using the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a species where harm inflicted by males is well documented. Although most experimental evolution studies remove sexual conflict, we reintroduced it in populations in which it had been experimentally removed. Both population size and standing genetic variability were manipulated in a factorial experimental design. After 90 generations of relaxed conflict (monogamy), the reintroduction of sexual conflicts for 30 generations favored males that harmed females and females that were more resistant to the genital damage inflicted by males. Males evolved to become more harmful when population size was large rather than when initial genetic variation was enriched. Our study shows that sexual selection can create conditions in which males can benefit from harming females and that selection may tend to be more intense and effective in larger populations.

  4. Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.

    PubMed

    Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

    2014-05-01

    This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority. PMID:24908456

  5. Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.

    PubMed

    Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

    2014-05-01

    This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority.

  6. Sexual activity and concerns in people with coronary heart disease from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Jackson, Sarah E; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sexual activity is a central component of intimate relationships, but sexual function may be impaired by coronary heart disease (CHD). There have been few representative population-based comparisons of sexual behaviour and concerns in people with and without CHD. We therefore investigated these issues in a large nationally representative sample of older people. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from 2979 men and 3711 women aged 50 and older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Sexual behaviour and concerns were assessed by validated self-completion questionnaire and analyses were weighted for non-response. Covariates included age, partnerships status and comorbidities. Results There were 376 men and 279 women with CHD. Men with CHD were less likely to be sexually active (68.7% vs 80.0%, adjusted OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.81), thought less about sex (74.7% vs 81.9%, OR 0.72, CI 0.54 to 0.95), and reported more erectile difficulties (47.4% vs 38.1%, OR 1.46, CI 1.10 to 1.93) than men without CHD. Effects were more pronounced among those diagnosed within the past 4 years. Women diagnosed <4 years ago were also less likely to be sexually active (35.4% vs 55.6%, OR 0.44, CI 0.23 to 0.84). There were few differences in concerns about sexual activity. Cardiovascular medication showed weak associations with erectile dysfunction. Conclusions There is an association between CHD and sexual activity, particularly among men, but the impact of CHD is limited. More effective advice after diagnosis might reverse the reduction in sexual activity, leading to improved quality of life. PMID:27126394

  7. Associations between social support network characteristics and receipt of emotional and material support among a sample of male sexual minority youth

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry; Barton, Staci; Siconolfi, Daniel; Figueroa, Rafael Perez

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined how social support network characteristics are related to perceived receipt of social support among male sexual minority youth. Using egocentric network data collected from a study of male sexual minority youth (n=592), multivariable logistic regression analyses examined distinct associations between individual and social network characteristics with receipt of (1) emotional and (2) material support. In multivariable models, frequent communication and having friends in one’s network yielded a two-fold increase in the likelihood of receiving emotional support whereas frequent communication was associated with an almost three-fold higher likelihood of perceived material support. Finally, greater internalized homophobia and personal experiences of gay-related stigma were inversely associated with perceived receipt of emotional and material support, respectively. Understanding the evolving social context and social interactions of this new generation of male sexual minority youth is warranted in order to understand the broader, contextual factors associated with their overall health and well-being. PMID:25214756

  8. Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Health Care Use and Expenditures in Sexual Minority Men: A Quasi-Natural Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Grasso, Chris; Mayer, Kenneth; Safren, Steven; Bradford, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether health care use and expenditures among gay and bisexual men were reduced following the enactment of same-sex marriage laws in Massachusetts in 2003. Methods. We used quasi-experimental, prospective data from 1211 sexual minority male patients in a community-based health center in Massachusetts. Results. In the 12 months after the legalization of same-sex marriage, sexual minority men had a statistically significant decrease in medical care visits (mean = 5.00 vs mean = 4.67; P = .05; Cohen's d = 0.17), mental health care visits (mean = 24.72 vs mean = 22.20; P = .03; Cohen's d = 0.35), and mental health care costs (mean = $2442.28 vs mean = $2137.38; P = .01; Cohen's d = 0.41), compared with the 12 months before the law change. These effects were not modified by partnership status, indicating that the health effect of same-sex marriage laws was similar for partnered and nonpartnered men. Conclusions. Policies that confer protections to same-sex couples may be effective in reducing health care use and costs among sexual minority men. PMID:22390442

  9. The Cellular Generation and a New Risk Environment: Implications for Texting-Based Sexual Health Promotion Interventions among Minority Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    George, Sheba; Phillips, Robert; McDavitt, Bryce; Adams, Wallis; Mutchler, Matt G.

    2012-01-01

    African American and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at the forefront of the U.S. HIV epidemic. As members of the “cellular generation,” these youth are very likely to use text messaging; yet, relatively little research has explored use of text messaging as a tool for sexual health promotion, particularly among racial ethnic minorities who are also sexual minorities. We report on the results of ten focus groups conducted among African American and Latino YMSM, aged 18–25, regarding their current texting practices and the feasibility/acceptability of text messaging as a means of conducting sexual health promotion. Our analyses revealed four main themes around their texting behaviors, texting preferences, perceived advantages/disadvantages of texting, and the “etiquette” of texting. We consider implications of these findings for the development of texting-based sexual health promotion interventions, particularly in conjunction with other existing interventions operating in a new risk environment. PMID:23304294

  10. Sexual recombination punctuated by outbreaks and clonal expansions predicts Toxoplasma gondii population genetics

    PubMed Central

    Grigg, Michael E.; Sundar, Natarajan

    2009-01-01

    The cosmopolitan parasitic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii is capable of infecting essentially any warm-blooded vertebrate worldwide, including most birds and mammals, and establishes chronic infections in one-third of the globe’s human population. The success of this highly prevalent zoonosis is largely the result of its ability to propagate both sexually and clonally. Frequent genetic exchanges via sexual recombination among extant parasite lineages that mix in the definitive felid host produces new lines that emerge to expand the parasite’s host range and cause outbreaks. Highly successful lines spread clonally via carnivorism and in some cases sweep to pandemic levels. The extent to which sexual reproduction versus clonal expansion shapes Toxoplasma’s current, global population genetic structure is the central question this review will attempt to answer. PMID:19217909

  11. Sexual recombination punctuated by outbreaks and clonal expansions predicts Toxoplasma gondii population genetics.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Michael E; Sundar, Natarajan

    2009-07-01

    The cosmopolitan parasitic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii is capable of infecting essentially any warm-blooded vertebrate worldwide, including most birds and mammals, and establishes chronic infections in one-third of the globe's human population. The success of this highly prevalent zoonosis is largely the result of its ability to propagate both sexually and clonally. Frequent genetic exchanges via sexual recombination among extant parasite lineages that mix in the definitive felid host produces new lines that emerge to expand the parasite's host range and cause outbreaks. Highly successful lines spread clonally via carnivorism and in some cases sweep to pandemic levels. The extent to which sexual reproduction versus clonal expansion shapes Toxoplasma's current, global population genetic structure is the central question this review will attempt to answer. PMID:19217909

  12. Partner Preference Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Potential Contribution to Spread of HIV Within Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Michelle; Hammond, Sydney; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Most prior research into drivers of HIV transmission has focused on individual characteristics rather than on dyadic-level behaviors such as sex partner selection. This article explores racial/ethnic preferences in sex and relationship partner selection among MSM to further contextualize the spread of HIV within minority groups. Methods: Participants were recruited through a mobile application (app) for men to meet other men in 2015 and completed an online survey on behaviors related to HIV risk. All analyses on the sample of 530 MSM were conducted in 2015. Results: There was significant homophily in partner selection within racial/ethnic minorities, but not for white MSM. In general, mobile app-using MSM reported a general preference for white and Hispanic men and a dispreference for black and Asian men, both for sex and relationship partners. Conclusion: Racial/ethnic preferences were found to drive intentions to form partnerships within this sample. Combined with the stigma many of these racial/ethnic minorities may also feel from homophobic attitudes within their own racial/ethnic communities, these MSM may be at particular risk for social isolation. These partner preferences likely affect the structure of the sexual networks of MSM and may contribute to increased clustering within high HIV incident sexual networks. PMID:26907954

  13. Environmental change disrupts communication and sexual selection in a stickleback population.

    PubMed

    Candolin, Ulrika; Tukiainen, Iina; Bertell, Elina

    2016-04-01

    Environmental change that disrupts communication during mate choice and alters sexual selection could influence population dynamics. Yet little is known about such long-term effects. We investigated experimentally the consequences that disrupted visual communication during mate choice has for the quantity and viability of offspring produced in a threespine stickleback population (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We further related the results to long-term monitoring of population dynamics in the field to determine if changes are apparent under natural conditions. The results show that impaired visual communication because of algal blooms reduces reliability of male visual signals as indicators of offspring survival during their first weeks of life. This relaxes sexual selection but has no effect on the number of offspring hatching, as most males have a high hatching success in turbid water. Despite eutrophication and high turbidity levels that interfere with communication during mate choice, the population has grown during recent decades. Large numbers of offspring hatching, combined with high variation in juvenile fitness, has probably shifted selection to later life history stages and maintained a viable population. Together with reduced cost of sexual selection and ongoing ecosystem changes caused by human activities, this could have promoted population growth. These results point to the complexity of ecosystems and the necessity to consider all influencing factors when attempting to understand impacts of human activities on populations. PMID:27220213

  14. An ephemeral sexual population of Phytophthora infestans in the northeastern United States and Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease, has been reported in North America since the mid-nineteenth century. In the United States the lack of or very limited sexual reproduction has resulted in largely clonal populations of P. infestans. In 2010 and 2011, but not in 2012 or ...

  15. Parental Opinion Concerning School Sexuality Education in a Culturally Diverse Population in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Janet R.; Johnson, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to expand upon previous research related to parental opinion concerning school sexuality education by sampling a culturally diverse, low-income population that has been traditionally under-represented in the literature. A total of 191 parents attending an urban community college completed a written questionnaire about what topics…

  16. Association between sexually transmitted disease and church membership. A retrospective cohort study of two Danish religious minorities

    PubMed Central

    Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont; Johansen, Christoffer; Søndergaard, Jens; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies comprising Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDAs) and Danish Baptists found that members have a lower risk of chronic diseases including cancer. Explanations have pointed to differences in lifestyle, but detailed aetiology has only been sparsely examined. Our objective was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour. Methods We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care contacts using the National Patient Register. We compared the incidence of syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia among members of the cohort with the general population. Results The cohort comprised 3119 SDA females, 1856 SDA males, 2056 Baptist females and 1467 Baptist males. For the entire cohort, we expected a total of 32.4 events of STD, and observed only 9. Female SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (both p<0.001). Male SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years also had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). No SDA members were diagnosed with gonorrhoea, when 3.4 events were expected, which, according to Hanley's ‘rule of three’, is a significant difference. No SDA or Baptist was diagnosed with syphilis. Conclusions The cohort shows significant lower incidence of STD, most likely including human papillomavirus, which may partly explain the lower incidence of cancers of the cervix, rectum, anus, head and neck. PMID:27016243

  17. Adiabatic theory for the population distribution in the evolutionary minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kan; Wang, Bing-Hong; Yuan, Baosheng

    2004-02-01

    We study the evolutionary minority game (EMG) using a statistical mechanics approach. We derive a theory for the steady-state population distribution of the agents. The theory is based on an “adiabatic approximation” in which short time fluctuations in the population distribution are integrated out to obtain an effective equation governing the steady-state distribution. We discover the mechanism for the transition from segregation (into opposing groups) to clustering (towards cautious behaviors). The transition is determined by two generic factors: the market impact (of the agents’ own actions) and the short time market inefficiency (arbitrage opportunities) due to fluctuations in the numbers of agents using opposite strategies. A large market impact favors “extreme” players who choose fixed opposite strategies, while large market inefficiency favors cautious players. The transition depends on the number of agents (N) and the effective rate of strategy switching. When N is small, the market impact is relatively large; this favors the extreme behaviors. Frequent strategy switching, on the other hand, leads to a clustering of the cautious agents.

  18. How Statewide LGB Policies Go From “Under Our Skin” to “Into Our Hearts”: Fatherhood Aspirations and Psychological Well-Being Among Emerging Adult Sexual Minority Men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65 % White; 92 % gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men. PMID:24233971

  19. How statewide LGB policies go from ‘‘under our skin’’ to ‘‘into our hearts’’: fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being among emerging adult sexual minority men.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65% White; 92% gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men. PMID:24233971

  20. How statewide LGB policies go from ‘‘under our skin’’ to ‘‘into our hearts’’: fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being among emerging adult sexual minority men.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65% White; 92% gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men.