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Sample records for sexual risk behaviour

  1. Gang masculinity and high-risk sexual behaviours.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Quinn, Katherine; Broaddus, Michelle; Pacella, Maria

    2017-02-01

    High-risk sexual behaviours include practices such as relationship violence and substance use, which often cluster together among young people in high-risk settings. Youth gang members often show high rates of such behaviours, substance use and relationship violence. This paper draws on data from in-depth interviews with male and female gang members from six different gangs to explore the role of powerful socialising peer groups that set gender, sexual and relationship roles and expectations for their male and female members. High-risk sexual behaviours among gang members included sex with multiple partners and group sex. Gang norms included the belief that male members were sexually insatiable with multiple sexual partners and that female gang members should be sexually available to male members. Alcohol and drugs were seen to have a large influence on sexual desire and the inability to use condoms. Much sexual behaviour with gangs, such as group sex, was viewed with ambivalence and seen as somewhat coercive. Finally, gendered sexual expectations (boys as sexually insatiable and girls as sexually available) made forming long-term romantic relationships problematic for gang members. The influence of gang norms such as these must be addressed in future programmes and interventions with gang members.

  2. Sexual behaviour and risk of sexually transmitted infections in young female healthcare students in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Marhuenda-Amorós, Dolores; Tomás-Rodríguez, María Isabel; Antón-Ruiz, Fina; Belda-Ibañez, Josefina; Montejo, Ángel Luis; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI), but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms). Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]). Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05) included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008) and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001). Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI. PMID:26966654

  3. Multiple violence victimisation associated with sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in Swedish youth.

    PubMed

    Blom, Helena; Högberg, Ulf; Olofsson, Niclas; Danielsson, Ingela

    2016-01-01

    To address the associations between emotional, physical and sexual violence, specifically multiple violence victimisation, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in youth, as well as possible gender differences. A cross-sectional population-based survey among sexually experienced youth using a questionnaire with validated questions on emotional, physical, and sexual violence victimisation, sociodemographics, health risk behaviours, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours. Proportions, unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The participants comprised 1192 female and 1021 male students aged 15 to 22 years. The females had experienced multiple violence (victimisation with two or three types of violence) more often than the males (21% vs. 16%). The associations between multiple violence victimisation and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours were consistent for both genders. Experience of/involvement in pregnancy yielded adjusted ORs of 2.4 (95% CI 1.5-3.7) for females and 2.1 (95% CI 1.3-3.4) for males, and early age at first intercourse 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-3.1) for females and 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0) for males. No significantly raised adjusted ORs were found for non-use of contraceptives in young men or young women, or for chlamydia infection in young men. Several types of sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours are strongly associated with multiple violence victimisation in both genders. This should be taken into consideration when counselling young people and addressing their sexual and reproductive health.

  4. Romantic, sexual, and sexual risk behaviours of adolescent females with severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Becnel, J N; Zeller, M H; Noll, J G; Sarwer, D B; Reiter-Purtill, J; Michalsky, M; Peugh, J; Biro, F M

    2017-10-01

    There is an increasing adolescent population with severe obesity with impairments in social and romantic relationships that are seeking clinical weight management, including weight loss surgery (WLS). To document romantic, sexual and sexual risk behaviours in a clinical sample of adolescent females with severe obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m(2) ) compared to those of healthy weight (HW). This multi-site study-an ancillary to a prospective longitudinal observational study documenting health in adolescents having WLS-presents pre-operative/baseline data from 108 females undergoing WLS, 68 severely obese seeking lifestyle intervention and 118 of HW. Romantic and sexual risk behaviour and birth control information sources were assessed using the Sexual Activities and Attitudes Questionnaire (SAAQ). Severely obese females reported engaging in fewer romantic and sexual behaviours compared to HW. Similar to HW, a subgroup (25%) of severely females were engaging in higher rates of sexual risk behaviours and reported pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A considerable number (28-44%) reported receiving no birth control information from physicians. Discussion topics with the adolescent patient should extend beyond reproductive health needs (e.g. contraception, unintended pregnancies) to include guidance around navigating romantic and sexual health behaviours that are precursors to these outcomes. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  5. Sexual behaviour, STDs and risks for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, R B; Pottern, L M; Strickler, H; Rabkin, C; Pope, V; Swanson, G M; Greenberg, R S; Schoenberg, J B; Liff, J; Schwartz, A G; Hoover, R N; Fraumeni, J F

    2000-01-01

    A population-based case-control study was carried out among 981 men (479 black, 502 white) with pathologically confirmed prostate cancer and 1315 controls (594 black, 721 white). In-person interviews elicited information on sexual behaviour and other potential risk factors for prostate cancer. Blood was drawn for serologic studies in a subset of the cases (n = 276) and controls (n = 295). Prostate cancer risk was increased among men who reported a history of gonorrhoea or syphilis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6; 95% confidence internal (CI) 1.2–2.1) or showed serological evidence of syphilis (MHA-TP) (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.0–3.5). Patterns of risk for gonorrhoea and syphilis were similar for blacks (OR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.2–2.2) and whites (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 0.8–3.2). Risks increased with increasing occurrences of gonorrhoea, rising to OR = 3.3 (95% CI 1.4–7.8) among subjects with three or more events (Ptrend= 0.0005). Frequent sexual encounters with prostitutes and failure to use condoms were also associated with increased risk. Syphilis, gonorrhoea, sex with prostitutes and unprotected sexual intercourse may be indicators of contact with a sexually transmissible factor that increases the risk of prostate cancer. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10682688

  6. Perception of risk of HIV infections and sexual behaviour of the sexually active university students in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nkomazana, Njabulo; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to establish university students' perceptions of risk of HIV infections. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 345 sexually active students at two universities in Zimbabwe (one state and one private). Results revealed that above a quarter of the respondents felt at risk of getting HIV due to their regular partners' sexual behaviours and more than half felt at risk of getting HIV due to their casual partners' sexual behaviours. In addition, a third of the respondents acknowledged the HIV risk due to their own sexual behaviours. More state university respondents felt exposed to HIV infections due to own sexual behaviours than their private university counterparts. Despite these revelations, only 66.56% had earlier thought of their chances of getting infected with HIV. Personal HIV risk perceptions were low, reported by 27.76% of the sexually active respondents. Almost all respondents described their fellows' sexual behaviours as either risky or very risky.

  7. Perception of risk of HIV infections and sexual behaviour of the sexually active university students in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Nkomazana, Njabulo; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The study sought to establish university students' perceptions of risk of HIV infections. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 345 sexually active students at two universities in Zimbabwe (one state and one private). Results revealed that above a quarter of the respondents felt at risk of getting HIV due to their regular partners' sexual behaviours and more than half felt at risk of getting HIV due to their casual partners' sexual behaviours. In addition, a third of the respondents acknowledged the HIV risk due to their own sexual behaviours. More state university respondents felt exposed to HIV infections due to own sexual behaviours than their private university counterparts. Despite these revelations, only 66.56% had earlier thought of their chances of getting infected with HIV. Personal HIV risk perceptions were low, reported by 27.76% of the sexually active respondents. Almost all respondents described their fellows' sexual behaviours as either risky or very risky. PMID:24921968

  8. Survey on HIV risk perception and sexual behaviours among seafarers.

    PubMed

    Grappasonni, I; Paci, P; Mazzucchi, F; Amenta, F

    2011-01-01

    Because the nature of their work seafarers spend long periods of time away from their families and therefore represent a group at risk for sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection. This paper reports the results of a survey to evaluate awareness and knowledge of the risk of HIV infection among seafarers. Risky behaviours for HIV transmission were also assessed. The survey was conducted using anonymous questionnaires on 197 workers of 9 vessels and 26 office employees of an Italian shipping company (FINAVAL S.p.A., Rome). The respondents considered HIV/AIDS as one of the diseases with a high risk of transmission. Most respondents had a good general knowledge of HIV/AIDS and on the ways of its transmission. However, there is still lack of knowledge on the basics of this disease. On the other hand, in spite of knowledge and awareness about the risks of the disease, only 56.35% of the interviewed crewmembers used protection in sexual intercourse with occasional partners. Compared to data available in literature, the percentage of self-protecting people is increasing, but the number of seafarers exposing themselves to risky behaviours is still high. As expected, condoms are used with regular partners with lower frequency compared to occasional intercourse. The results of this survey indicate that adequate prevention campaigns and major attention paid to seafarers health is useful for stimulating responsible conduct for the prevention of infectious diseases, including HIV infection. Nevertheless, it is still necessary to increase information about the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and how to reduce it.

  9. Sexual Risk Behaviours and Sexual Abuse in Persons with Severe Mental Illness in Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Patric; Johansson, Eva; Okello, Elialilia; Allebeck, Peter; Thorson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18–49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1) casual sex during illness episodes, (2) rape by non-partners, (3) exploitation by partners, (4) non-monogamous partners, and (5) sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting. PMID:22253770

  10. Gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmissible infections among adolescents in mental health treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Puja; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Braxton, Nikia D.; Crosby, Richard A.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents with a history of psychiatric disorder(s) are particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmissible infections (STIs) as a result of psychological and emotional states associated with higher rates of risky sexual behaviour. The present study examined gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and STI among adolescents in mental health treatment. Methods Three hundred and seventy nine sexually active adolescents, aged 13–18 years, from a larger multisite study, who received mental health treatment during the past year, completed an audio computer-assisted self interview assessing sociodemographics, psychiatric symptomatology and HIV/STI risk behaviours, and provided urine specimens tested for STI. Results After controlling for covariates, multivariate logistic regression models indicated that female adolescents were more likely to have had an HIV test (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.2, P = 0.0001), obtain their HIV test results (AOR = 2.9, P = 0.03), refuse sex out of fear for STI acquisition (AOR = 1.7, P = 0.04), or avoid a situation that might lead to sex (AOR = 2.4, P = 0.001), and were less likely to have a casual sex partner (AOR = 0.40, P = 0.002). Additionally, females were more likely to report inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.60, P = 0.001) and have a STI (AOR = 9.1, P = 0.0001) than their male counterparts. Conclusions Female adolescents receiving mental health treatment were more than nine times as likely to have an STI and more likely to use condoms inconsistently. The standard of care for mental health practice for adolescents should include referrals for STI screening and treatment as well as assessment and discussion of risky sexual behaviours as part of the treatment plan when indicated. Effective programs should address gender-specific communication and behavioural skills. PMID:22697141

  11. Gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmissible infections among adolescents in mental health treatment.

    PubMed

    Seth, Puja; Lang, Delia L; Diclemente, Ralph J; Braxton, Nikia D; Crosby, Richard A; Brown, Larry K; Hadley, Wendy; Donenberg, Geri R

    2012-07-01

    Adolescents with a history of psychiatric disorder(s) are particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmissible infections (STIs) as a result of psychological and emotional states associated with higher rates of risky sexual behaviour. The present study examined gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and STI among adolescents in mental health treatment. Three hundred and seventy nine sexually active adolescents, aged 13-18 years, from a larger multisite study, who received mental health treatment during the past year, completed an audio computer-assisted self interview assessing sociodemographics, psychiatric symptomatology and HIV/STI risk behaviours, and provided urine specimens tested for STI. After controlling for covariates, multivariate logistic regression models indicated that female adolescents were more likely to have had an HIV test (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.2, P=0.0001), obtain their HIV test results (AOR=2.9, P=0.03), refuse sex out of fear for STI acquisition (AOR=1.7, P=0.04), or avoid a situation that might lead to sex (AOR=2.4, P=0.001), and were less likely to have a casual sex partner (AOR=0.40, P=0.002). Additionally, females were more likely to report inconsistent condom use (AOR=2.60, P=0.001) and have a STI (AOR=9.1, P=0.0001) than their male counterparts. Female adolescents receiving mental health treatment were more than nine times as likely to have an STI and more likely to use condoms inconsistently. The standard of care for mental health practice for adolescents should include referrals for STI screening and treatment as well as assessment and discussion of risky sexual behaviours as part of the treatment plan when indicated. Effective programs should address gender-specific communication and behavioural skills.

  12. Parental Attitudes about Teenage Pregnancy: Impact on Sexual Risk Behaviour of African-American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa

    2014-01-01

    African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of parents'…

  13. Parental Attitudes about Teenage Pregnancy: Impact on Sexual Risk Behaviour of African-American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa

    2014-01-01

    African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of parents'…

  14. African-American men's exposure to music videos and their sexual attitudes and risk behaviour.

    PubMed

    Diclemente, Ralph J; Alexander, Adannaa O; Braxton, Nikia D; Ricks, Janelle M; Seth, Puja

    2013-07-01

    Media is a social determinant of HIV and sexually transmissible infection (STI) risk. However, limited empirical data have examined men's media exposure and their sexual attitudes and behaviour towards women. Eighty heterosexual African-American men were assessed on their exposure to music videos, sexual attitudes and behaviour. They also were tested for STIs. Findings indicated that men influenced by music videos reported more sexual adventurism, more condom barriers, more lifetime sexual partners, more condom request refusals, substance abuse and a history of incarceration. Further longitudinal research is needed to better understand this relationship and to address the role of media in HIV and STI prevention interventions.

  15. Sexual assault in childhood: risk HIV and AIDS behaviours in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gwandure, C

    2007-11-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that sexual assault in childhood is a risk factor in HIV and AIDS prevention and control in adulthood. It comprised 40 participants who were survivors of child sexual abuse and 40 participants who were not sexually abused. The sample had 20 sexually abused men, 20 non sexually abused men, 20 sexually abused women and 20 non sexually abused women. The group that had men and women who had a history of sexual assault reported higher HIV and AIDS risk behaviours than the non-abused comparison group. The survivors of sexual assault also had higher levels of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide ideation and external locus of control. They reported low self-esteem. This unhealthy psychological functioning was found to be a risk factor in HIV and AIDS prevention and control. Implications for future research are discussed.

  16. Sexual behaviours and associated risks in Chinese young people: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-ming; Guo, Shuai-Jun; Sun, Yu-ying

    2013-11-01

    The earlier and unprotected sexual behaviour of young Chinese, and the consequences of these actions, have become a health concern, posing a challenge to traditional Chinese concepts. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in sexual behaviour and associated risks among adolescents and young people in mainland China over the past three decades. A meta-analysis was undertaken to comprehensively review the sexual behaviour of Chinese young people (aged from 10 to 24 years) over the past 30 years. Relevant data published from 1979 to 2009 in the Chinese literature database were identified and retrieved. Analysis was performed based on set criteria. Seventy-five studies were identified that were published after 1990. Overall, the estimated prevalence of sexual intercourse among young people was 12.6%, with an average age at sexual debut of 19.4 years. The rate of condom use at sexual debut was 37.2%; 53.6% of young people reported not using a condom during the most recent act of sexual intercourse. The rates of unintentional pregnancy and abortion among the sexually active were 15.1% and 10.8%, respectively. Reviewing the data according to decades revealed that the number of young people engaging in sexual intercourse decreased from 14.3% in 1990-1999 to 11.8% in 2000-2009. However, these rates are higher than the prevalence of sexual activity reported before 1990, which, according to sporadic studies, did not exceeded 1%. There have been increases in sexual activity and high-risk sexual behaviour in Chinese young people in the decades since the adoption of the open door policy in China, particularly since the mid-1990s. High-risk sexual behaviours have contributed to certain adverse consequences in adolescents and young people, such as unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmissible infection. Thus, efficacious intervention strategies need to be developed and implemented.

  17. Sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tarkang, Elvis Enowbeyang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since female learners in high schools in Cameroon fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is assumed that these learners might be exposed to sexual risk behaviours. However, little has been explored on the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon. Methods A cross sectional design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire for data collection. Respondents were selected through disproportional stratified simple random sampling resulting in 210 female grade 10 to grade 12 learners from three participating high schools in Mbonge subdivision, Cameroon. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Results Majority of the respondents, 54.0% reported being sexually active, of whom only 39.8% used condoms during first sex; 49.5% used condoms during last sex and 29.6% used condoms consistently. Up to 32% of the sexually active respondents had multiple sexual partners in the past one year before the study, while 9.3% had multiple sexual partners during the study period. The mean age of first sex was 15.6 years. Lack of parental control, religion, academic profile, poverty, place of residence and perception of risk of HIV infection were the main factors significantly associated with sexual risk behaviours. Conclusion The findings indicate that sexual risk behaviours exist among high school female learners in Mbonge, Cameroon. There is need for campaigns and interventions to bring about sexual behaviour change. PMID:26090007

  18. Sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tarkang, Elvis Enowbeyang

    2015-01-01

    Since female learners in high schools in Cameroon fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is assumed that these learners might be exposed to sexual risk behaviours. However, little has been explored on the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon. A cross sectional design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire for data collection. Respondents were selected through disproportional stratified simple random sampling resulting in 210 female grade 10 to grade 12 learners from three participating high schools in Mbonge subdivision, Cameroon. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Majority of the respondents, 54.0% reported being sexually active, of whom only 39.8% used condoms during first sex; 49.5% used condoms during last sex and 29.6% used condoms consistently. Up to 32% of the sexually active respondents had multiple sexual partners in the past one year before the study, while 9.3% had multiple sexual partners during the study period. The mean age of first sex was 15.6 years. Lack of parental control, religion, academic profile, poverty, place of residence and perception of risk of HIV infection were the main factors significantly associated with sexual risk behaviours. The findings indicate that sexual risk behaviours exist among high school female learners in Mbonge, Cameroon. There is need for campaigns and interventions to bring about sexual behaviour change.

  19. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2014-01-01

    In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended.

  20. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. Results The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. Conclusion There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended. PMID:25437631

  1. Sexual sensation seeking, sexual compulsivity, and high-risk sexual behaviours among gay/bisexual men in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenjian; Zheng, Lijun; Liu, Yong; Zheng, Yong

    2016-09-01

    High-risk sexual behaviours (HRSBs), such as having male casual sexual partners (MCSPs) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), are combined with a high prevalence of HIV infection among gay/bisexual men. Sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual compulsivity (SC), which are intrapersonal factors, were observed to have associations with HRSB among gay/bisexual men in Western nations. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between SSS, SC, socio-demographic factors, and HRSB (defined as having MCSP and UAI with MCSP) among self-identified gay and bisexual men in Southwest China. The study was cross-sectional, with a sample of 436 respondents. And their mean age was 24.5 years. The results confirmed that SSS, SC, and sexual attitude are associated with both having MCSP and UAI with MCSP in the Chinese cultural context, among the subgroup of men who have sex with men. Being older, not a student, and having transactional sex in the last 6 months were independently associated with having MCSP. Lower educational level, unemployed, having a relationship with a man, and an unsure HIV status were independently associated with UAI with MCSP. This study indicates that SSS and SC are cross-cultural personality traits related to HRSB. The results of this study may shed light on HIV prevention among gay/bisexual men in China.

  2. Interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2011-01-19

    Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behaviour. Interventions for homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Randomised studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviour (biological, self-reporting of sexual-risk behaviour or health-seeking behaviour) in homeless youth (12-24 years). Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review. Reports of self-reporting sexual risk behaviour outcomes varied across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and outcomes precluded estimation of summary of effect measures. We assessed the risk of bias to be high for

  3. Ethnic variations in sexual behaviour in Great Britain and risk of sexually transmitted infections: a probability survey.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Kevin A; Mercer, Catherine H; McManus, Sally; Erens, Bob; Wellings, Kaye; Macdowall, Wendy; Byron, Christos L; Copas, Andrew J; Nanchahal, Kiran; Field, Julia; Johnson, Anne M

    Ethnic variations in the rate of diagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been reported in many developed countries. We used data from the second British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal 2000) to investigate the frequency of high-risk sexual behaviours and adverse sexual health outcomes in five ethnic groups in Great Britain. We did a stratified probability sample survey of 11161 men and women aged 16-44 years, resident in Great Britain, using computer-assisted interviews. Additional sampling enabled us to do more detailed analyses for 949 black Caribbean, black African, Indian, and Pakistani respondents. We used logistic regression to assess reporting of STI diagnoses in the past 5 years, after controlling for demographic and behavioural variables. We noted striking variations in number of sexual partnerships by ethnic group and between men and women. Reported numbers of sexual partnerships in a lifetime were highest in black Caribbean (median 9 [IQR 4-20]) and black African (9 [3-20]) men, and in white (5 [2-9]) and black Caribbean (4 [2-7]) women. Indian and Pakistani men and women reported fewer sexual partnerships, later first intercourse, and substantially lower prevalence of diagnosed STIs than did other groups. We recorded a significant association between ethnic origin and reported STIs in the past 5 years with increased risk in sexually active black Caribbean (OR 2.74 [95% CI 1.22-6.15]) and black African (2.95 [1.45-5.99]) men compared with white men, and black Caribbean (2.41 [1.35-4.28]) women compared with white women. Odds ratios changed little after controlling for age, number of sexual partnerships, homosexual and overseas partnerships, and condom use at last sexual intercourse. Individual sexual behaviour is a key determinant of STI transmission risk, but alone does not explain the varying risk across ethnic groups. Our findings suggest a need for targeted and culturally competent prevention interventions.

  4. Influences on loneliness, depression, sexual-risk behaviour and suicidal ideation among Thai transgender youth.

    PubMed

    Yadegarfard, Mohammadrasool; Ho, Robert; Bahramabadian, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of age, education level and number of sex partners on levels of loneliness, depression, suicidal ideation and sexual-risk behaviour in Thai male-to-female transgender youth. A total of 190 participants filled in the study's questionnaire, designed to tap the primary variables of age, level of education, number of sex partners, loneliness, depression, suicidal ideation and sexual-risk behaviour. Results reveal that level of education has a significant influence on depression and loneliness, the number of sex partners has a significant influence on sexual-risk behaviour and suicidal ideation and age has a significant influence on sexual-risk behaviour and suicidal ideation. Participants with higher levels of education reported more loneliness than participants who did not graduate from high school. In addition, participants who did not graduate from high school reported more depression than participants with some university credit. Furthermore, participants aged 15 to 19 years, compared with those of 20 to 25 years, reported higher level of sexual-risk behaviour and higher levels of suicidal ideation.

  5. Sexual behaviour in young people.

    PubMed

    Gerressu, Makeda; Stephenson, Judith M

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to synthesize major research findings in relation to young people and sexual behaviour from the period 2006-2007. We found several key reviews that advance knowledge in the field of young people and sexual behaviour, including observational studies, both qualitative and quantitative, and intervention studies designed to reduce sexual transmission of HIV in both developed and developing countries. Other reviews focused on same-sex behaviours, victimization within relationships, HIV infection/sexually transmitted infection in travellers, prevention of HIV/sexually transmitted infection and the determinants of sexual behaviour in young people. Powerful and consistent forces sustain gender differences in sexual behaviour. The design of interventions to reduce sexual risk behaviour should take account of these forces that help explain young people's sexual behaviour. Knowledge about the kind of interventions that reduce risk behaviour and should be implemented has improved, although the impact on health outcomes such as pregnancy and HIV/sexually transmitted infection is often uncertain. Effective school sex education needs to be part of much broader strategies to improve sexual health, and there is an urgent need for better evaluation of interventions, especially community interventions. Further longitudinal studies are needed to provide insight into the development of relationships and sexual behaviour as well as the course of acculturation.

  6. Psychological Factors in Risk Assessment and Management of Inappropriate Sexual Behaviour by Men with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mark; Willner, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Aim: This study examined the responses of care managers and direct care staff to vignettes of inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) by a man with an intellectual disability. The aim was to identify psychological factors that influenced their assessment of risk and the perceived need for risk management strategies. Method: The vignettes varied in…

  7. Drug and alcohol consumption and sexual risk behaviour among young adults: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Castilla, J; Barrio, G; Belza, M J; de la Fuente, L

    1999-08-02

    To study the association of the consumption of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs with sexual risk behaviour for HIV infection, data from a representative sample of the Spanish population aged 18-39 years were analysed. A national household survey was carried out in 1996 using a combination of face-to-face interviews and self-administered questionnaires. The survey included 5253 subjects aged 18-39 years who provided information on alcohol and drug consumption, number of sexual partners and condom use with the steady partner and with casual partners in the 12 months before the survey. Of those surveyed, 27.4% had been drunk at least once and 20.5% had consumed drugs. Both behaviours were associated with male sex, younger age, higher educational level, being single and having had more than one sexual partner. In the logistic regression analysis adjusting for the sociodemographic variables, the greater frequency of drunkenness and cannabis use were associated with having more than one sexual partner. Regular condom use was significantly less frequent among cocaine users and more frequent among opiate users, but was not associated with the use of other drugs. Sexual risk behaviour (i.e. more than one partner and failure to use a condom regularly) was more frequent among persons who had been drunk or used cannabis or cocaine. Excessive consumption of alcohol, and cannabis and cocaine use are independently associated with sexual behaviour involving greater risk of HIV infection or transmission.

  8. [Sexual risk behaviours and PAP testing in university women vaccinated against human papillomavirus].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Feito, Ana; Antón-Fernández, Raquel; Paz-Zulueta, María

    2017-08-31

    To estimate the association between the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and sexual risk behaviour, as well as the participation in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP). Cross-sectional study. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Law, and School of Economics and Business (University of Oviedo). Female university students. Information was collected about contraceptive methods, sexual behaviours, HPV knowledge, and participation in the CCSP. Furthermore, proportions and odds ratio (OR) were estimated with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Approximately two-thirds (67.7%) of the sample was vaccinated against HPV, and 216 women (65.3%) were sexually active. Barrier contraceptive methods were used by 67.6% during their current intimate relationships, being less frequent in non-vaccinated women (54.9% vs. 75.4% in vaccinated female students) (P=.002). The risk of having at least one sexual risk behaviour was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.29 (95%CI: 1.29-4.07). In addition, the probability of having a PAP test within the CCSP was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.18 (95%CI: 1.07-4.47). The prevalence of sexual risk behaviours in non-vaccinated women is elevated, and it is related to the lack of use of barrier contraceptive methods. The vaccination against HPV could affect sexual behaviours and the participation in the CCSP. Therefore, the information received by young people about contraceptive methods, sexually transmitted diseases, and cancer prevention should be reinforced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in attitude, sexual behaviour and the risk of HIV/AIDS transmission in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olayinka, B A; Osho, A A

    1997-09-01

    This pilot study was carried out in southwest Nigeria to determine the current trends in sexual behaviours known to be associated with HIV transmission in Nigeria. Knowledge of AIDS in general and as an incurable disease was high (91.4% and 79.4% respectively). Knowledge of the means of AIDS transmission was also very high among both men and women. Overall, condom use was consistent at 25%, inconsistent at 55% and non-existent at 20% for all sexually active respondents. Over 60 per cent of sexually active respondents had two or more sexual partners, with significantly more males than females having this number of sexual partners (p < 0.01). Eighteen per cent of sexually active respondents had a history of sex with commercial sex workers while 25% had a history of at least one sexually transmitted disease. Using multiple logistic regression, the significant determinants of condom use among the sexually active group were: being in a stable sexual relationship, history of sex with commercial sex workers, self-perception of testing positive for HIV and self-perception of HIV/AIDS risk in Nigeria. Prevalence of condom use in this study was much higher than those reported in previous studies, suggesting a probable decline in high risk sexual behaviours among inhabitants of urban Southwest Nigeria since the advent of AIDS. Most sexually active respondents aged 19 years or below (adolescents) who perceived themselves at a high risk of testing positive for HIV had never used condoms. The non usage of condoms among this group of adolescents is disturbing, since they are at greatest risk of spreading the disease. Health education and promotion of safe sex practices need to be extensively targeted at adolescents.

  10. Effects of Self-Efficacy Training Programmes on Adolescents' Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviour in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Titilayo Monsurat

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents' sexual risk-taking behavioural issues have generated concerns among parents, teachers and social workers. The study examined the effects of self-efficacy training programmes on adolescents' sexual risk-taking behaviour and also investigated whether socio-economic status and gender would moderate the effects of treatment on sexual…

  11. Mental health, childhood abuse and HIV sexual risk behaviour among university students in Ivory Coast

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little focus has been paid to the role of poor mental health and childhood abuse among young people with regard to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviour and HIV prevention in Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the association between mental health, childhood abuse and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university students in Ivory Coast. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with undergraduate students that were recruited randomly from classes at the Félix Houphouët Boigny University of Cocody. The sample included 824 university students (50% men and 50% women), with a mean age of 23.7 years (SD = 2.7). Results Of the 824 university students who completed the survey, 17.6% reported depression, 10.8% screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder, 8.3% reported at least monthly heavy episodic drinking, 13.5% reported childhood physical abuse and 4.7% sexual abuse, 33.9% had two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months, 66.3% had inconsistent condom use, 23.6% had alcohol use in the context of sex and 16.7% had a history of a sexually transmitted infection In multivariable analysis among men, lack of religiousness and alcohol use in the context of sex were associated with HIV risk behaviour, and among women, poorer family background, experience of sexual and physical partner violence, alcohol use in the context of sex and depression were associated with HIV risk behaviour. Conclusions Poor mental health (depression) including alcohol use and partner violence was found to be associated with HIV risk behaviour. Coordinated mental health and sexual and reproductive health services to meet the needs of university students would be desirable. PMID:23758850

  12. Mental health, childhood abuse and HIV sexual risk behaviour among university students in Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Tiembre, Issaka

    2013-06-11

    Little focus has been paid to the role of poor mental health and childhood abuse among young people with regard to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviour and HIV prevention in Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the association between mental health, childhood abuse and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university students in Ivory Coast. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with undergraduate students that were recruited randomly from classes at the Félix Houphouët Boigny University of Cocody. The sample included 824 university students (50% men and 50% women), with a mean age of 23.7 years (SD = 2.7). Of the 824 university students who completed the survey, 17.6% reported depression, 10.8% screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder, 8.3% reported at least monthly heavy episodic drinking, 13.5% reported childhood physical abuse and 4.7% sexual abuse, 33.9% had two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months, 66.3% had inconsistent condom use, 23.6% had alcohol use in the context of sex and 16.7% had a history of a sexually transmitted infection In multivariable analysis among men, lack of religiousness and alcohol use in the context of sex were associated with HIV risk behaviour, and among women, poorer family background, experience of sexual and physical partner violence, alcohol use in the context of sex and depression were associated with HIV risk behaviour. Poor mental health (depression) including alcohol use and partner violence was found to be associated with HIV risk behaviour. Coordinated mental health and sexual and reproductive health services to meet the needs of university students would be desirable.

  13. Pre- to post-immigration sexual risk behaviour and alcohol use among recent Latino immigrants in Miami.

    PubMed

    Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ren, Yi; Swank, Paul; Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective pre-immigration data on sexual risk and alcohol use behaviours was collected from 527 recent Latino immigrants to the USA, aged 18-34. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on post-immigration behaviours. Using a mixed model growth curve analysis, a six-level sexual risk change variable was constructed combining measures of sexual partners and condom use. The mixed model growth curve was also used to examine associations between changes in sexual risk behaviour and changes in alcohol use and for testing interaction effects of gender and documentation status. Results suggest that individuals with high sexual risk behaviour at pre-immigration converge to low/moderate risk post-immigration, and that those who were sexually inactive or had low sexual risk at pre-immigration increased their risk post-immigration. Individuals with moderately higher initial but decreasing sexual risk behaviour showed the steepest decline in alcohol use, but their drinking at Time 3 was still higher than individuals reporting low sexual risk at Time 1. On average, men drank more than women, except women in one of the highest sexual risk categories at Time 1 - who seemed to drink as much, if not more, than men. Undocumented men reported more frequent drinking than documented men. In contrast, undocumented women reported lower alcohol use than documented women.

  14. Pre- to Post-Immigration Sexual Risk Behaviour and Alcohol Use among Recent Latino Immigrants in Miami

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yi; Swank, Paul; Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective pre-immigration data on sexual risk and alcohol use behaviours was collected from 527 recent Latino immigrants to the USA, ages 18–34. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on post-immigration behaviours. Using a mixed model, growth curve (MMGC) analysis, a six level sexual risk change variable was constructed combining measures of sexual partners and condom use. MMGC was also used to examine associations between changes in sexual risk behaviour and changes in alcohol use and for testing interaction effects of gender and documentation status. Results suggest individuals with high sexual risk behaviour at pre-immigration converge to low/moderate risk post-immigration, and those who were sexually inactive or had low sexual risk at pre-immigration increased their risk post-immigration. Individuals with moderately higher initial but decreasing sexual risk behaviour showed the steepest decline in alcohol use, but their drinking at time 3 was still higher than individuals reporting low sexual risk at time 1. On average, men drank more than women, except among women in one of the highest sexual risk categories at time 1—they seemed to drink as much, if not more, than men. Undocumented men reported more frequent drinking than documented men. In contrast, undocumented women reported lower alcohol use than documented women. PMID:27545840

  15. Migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV risk: a general population cohort in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Nuala; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Newell, Marie-Louise; Hosegood, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Increased sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence have been reported in migrants compared with non-migrants in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the association of residential and migration patterns with sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence in an open, general population cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods In a mainly rural demographic surveillance area in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we collected longitudinal demographic, migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV status data through household surveillance twice per year and individual surveillance once per year. All resident household members and a sample of non-resident household members (stratified by sex and migration patterns) were eligible for participation. Participants reported sexual risk behaviours, including data for multiple, concurrent, and casual sexual partners and condom use, and gave a dried blood spot sample via fingerprick for HIV testing. We investigated population-level differences in sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence with respect to migration indicators using logistic regression models. Findings Between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2011, the total eligible population at each surveillance round ranged between 21 129 and 22 726 women (aged 17–49 years) and between 20 399 and 22 100 men (aged 17–54 years). The number of eligible residents in any round ranged from 24 395 to 26 664 and the number of eligible non-residents ranged from 17 002 to 18 891 between rounds. The stratified sample of non-residents included between 2350 and 3366 individuals each year. Sexual risk behaviours were significantly more common in non-residents than in residents for both men and women. Estimated differences in sexual risk behaviours, but not HIV prevalence, varied between the migration indicators: recent migration, mobility, and migration type. HIV prevalence was significantly increased in current residents with a recent history of

  16. Migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV risk: a general population cohort in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Nuala; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Newell, Marie-Louise; Hosegood, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Increased sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence have been reported in migrants compared with nonmigrants in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the association of residential and migration patterns with sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence in an open, general population cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In a mainly rural demographic surveillance area in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we collected longitudinal demographic, migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV status data through household surveillance twice per year and individual surveillance once per year. All resident household members and a sample of non-resident household members (stratified by sex and migration patterns) were eligible for participation. Participants reported sexual risk behaviours, including data for multiple, concurrent, and casual sexual partners and condom use, and gave a dried blood spot sample via fingerprick for HIV testing. We investigated population-level differences in sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence with respect to migration indicators using logistic regression models. Between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2011, the total eligible population at each surveillance round ranged between 21 129 and 22 726 women (aged 17-49 years) and between 20 399 and 22 100 men (aged 17-54 years). The number of eligible residents in any round ranged from 24 395 to 26 664 and the number of eligible non-residents ranged from 17 002 to 18 891 between rounds. The stratified sample of non-residents included between 2350 and 3366 individuals each year. Sexual risk behaviours were significantly more common in non-residents than in residents for both men and women. Estimated differences in sexual risk behaviours, but not HIV prevalence, varied between the migration indicators: recent migration, mobility, and migration type. HIV prevalence was significantly increased in current residents with a recent history of migration compared with other residents in the study area in

  17. Has the HIV/AIDS epidemic changed sexual behaviour of high risk groups in Uganda?

    PubMed

    Ntozi, James P M; Najjumba, Innocent Mulindwa; Ahimbisibwe, Fred; Ayiga, Natal; Odwee, Jonathan

    2003-12-01

    Uganda, was the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to reverse its HIV/AIDS epidemic. Long distance drivers, prostitutes and barmaids have been identified as the groups that engage in risky sex, which promotes HIV transmission in Uganda and other countries across the continent. This paper investigates whether and why there were changes of sexual behaviour and practices among five risky groups in Uganda as a consequence of HIV/AIDS epidemic. The paper is based on data generated from a survey on 'resistance to sexual behaviour change in the African AIDS epidemic', which was conducted in the districts of Kabale, Kampala and Lira in 1999. For purposes of this paper, only data from the focus group discussions with high-risk groups have been analysed. These include commercial sex workers, street children, long haul truck drivers, bar maids and adolescents in three towns of Uganda (Kabale, Kampala, Lira). Results indicate that despite the HIV/AIDS epidemic, these groups had only changed their sexual behaviour a little, and they reported to be continuing with multiple sexual partners for a variety of reasons. The adolescents and street children were under peer pressure and a lot of sexual urge; commercial sex workers and bar maids attributed their risky behaviour to the need to survive due to the existing poverty; and the truck drivers reflected on the need for female company to reduce their stress while on the long lonely travels across Africa. Nevertheless, they are all aware and perceive people with multiple sexual partners as being highly vulnerable to contracting HIV and they all reported to have adopted condom use as an HIV preventive strategy. They also observed that married people were at a high risk of contracting HIV due to non-use of condoms in marital relationships and unfaithfulness of spouses. CONCLUSIONS Females engage in high-risk sexual relations as a means of economic survival, and perceive their acts as a strategy to improve their socio-economic well

  18. Sexual risk behaviour of rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a cross-sectional behavioural survey.

    PubMed

    Roy, T; Anderson, C; Evans, C; Rahman, M S

    2010-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) research in Bangladesh has mainly focused on key vulnerable groups (e.g. sex workers, drug users). In order to develop appropriate HIV prevention strategies in an evolving epidemic, there is a need for evidence on sexual practices in other population groups. This research aims to describe the prevalence of risky behaviours and factors affecting sexual behaviour/practices among rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers in Dhaka. Cross-sectional study. This paper reports on the cross-sectional survey component of a mixed methods research study amongst migrant workers in Bangladesh. The sample (n = 437) comprised rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers in Dhaka (aged 18-35 years). The survey data were analysed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Very high levels of pre- and extramarital sexual behaviour were found (84% and 51%, respectively) amongst the sample (n = 437). The reported sexual activity included high levels of risky/unsafe sex in the past year: 64% of the sample reported sex with multiple commercial sex partners (mean = 13.21), and 21.7% reported sex with other males/transgenders (mean = 2.53). Protection against risk was low: 78.2% reported that their last commercial sexual encounter was unprotected, and only 5.6% used condoms consistently. Multivariate analysis revealed that the odds of risky sexual behaviour were higher in migrant men who were not married (odds ratio 35.3, P < 0.001) and married men who were living apart from their spouses (odds ratio 41.7, P < 0.001). Additionally, reported risk behaviours were significantly associated with frequency of home visits, duration of separation from spouse and alcohol consumption. Thus, male migration without family or spouse appears to be a key driver of risky sexual practices. This study provides important new information for understanding the dynamics of sexual behaviour in Bangladesh, and suggests that migrant men should be a key

  19. South Africa youths' higher-risk sexual behaviour: an eco-developmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Makiwane, Monde; Mokomane, Zitha

    2010-04-01

    Despite their high levels of knowledge about HIV and AIDS, young people ages 15-24 years in South Africa remain disproportionately affected by the epidemic. Young people's continued susceptibility to HIV infection has been consistently linked to intractable higher-risk sexual behaviours. This paper uses multivariate techniques and secondary data from two nationally representative surveys to illuminate individual and socio-structural factors that play a significant role in youths' continued engagement in higher-risk behaviour, despite their high awareness about HIV and AIDS. The findings show that notwithstanding progress in terms of increased condom use and reduced incidence of other sexually transmitted infections, the average age of sexual debut remains low, multiple sexual partnerships are prevalent, and inconsistent condom use is widespread among young people. Factors significantly associated with these risk behaviours occur at the individual and structural levels and include issues of race, gender, poverty and susceptibility to peer pressure. The paper concludes by recommending that future HIV-prevention interventions in South Africa should aim at building resilience among youths by promoting affirmative, supportive interventions that emphasize the potentials of young people.

  20. [High-risk sexual behaviour by partner type among men who have sex with men].

    PubMed

    Folch, Cinta; Fernández-Dávila, Percy; Ferrer, Laia; Soriano, Raúl; Díez, Mercedes; Casabona, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors associated with high risk sexual practices among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Spain. An online survey was conducted in 2010, which included, among others, questions on HIV/STI sexual behaviours and prevention needs. Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a partner of unknown or discordant HIV status in the past year was defined as a high risk sexual behaviour. Of the 13,111 participants, 49.4% had had sex with steady partners (SP) and 73.4% with non-steady partners (NSP) in the last 12months; and the prevalence of high risk UAI was 25.4% and 29.4%, respectively. Factors associated with high risk UAI with SP were: living in a city of less than 500,000 inhabitants (OR=1.42 <100,000 inhabitants), being out to no-one or only a few people (OR=1.42), and being HIV-positive with undetectable viral load among those with a high level of HIV/STI knowledge (OR=3.18). Factors associated with high risk UAI with NSP were mainly: having a higher number of sexual partners (OR=4.31 >50 partners), having used drugs for sex (OR=1.33), and at parties (OR=1.19), having a medium (OR=1.82) or low (OR=1.33) level of HIV/STI knowledge, and being HIV-positive (OR=1.56). Among MSM, the prevalence of high risk sexual practices is high with both SP and NSP. Factors associated with high risk UAI vary by type of sexual partner (e.g., having HIV with an undetectable viral load). These must be taken into account when planning strategies for primary and secondary prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexual risk and HIV prevention behaviours among African-American and Latino MSM social networking users.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Szekeres, Greg; Coates, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This study explores the feasibility of recruiting minority men who have sex with men Facebook users for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies and notes demographic and sexual risk behaviours. Facebook-registered men who have sex with men (MSM; N = 118) were recruited using online and offline methods. Participants validated Facebook-user status through using a Facebook Connect (computer science) application. Participants were primarily Latino (60.2%) and African-American (28.0%), with 33.1% using social media to find sex partners. Black MSM social networking users reported engaging in a lower frequency (coefficient = -0.48, p < 0.05) of unprotected receptive anal intercourse compared to Latino MSM. Results suggest that minority social media users can be recruited for HIV studies and that sexual risk behavioural differences exist among minority social networking users. Findings highlight the importance of incorporating technologies into population-focused HIV interventions.

  2. Sexual and Alcohol Risk Behaviours of Immigrant Latino Men in the South-eastern USA

    PubMed Central

    RHODES, SCOTT D.; HERGENRATHER, KENNETH C.; GRIFFITH, DEREK; YEE, LELAND J.; ZOMETA, CARLOS S.; MONTAÑO, JAIME; VISSMAN, ARRON T.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the intersections of immigration, masculinity, and sexual risk behaviours among recently arrived Latino men in the United States (USA). Nine immigrant Latino men from three urban housing communities in the South-eastern USA used photovoice to identify and explore their lived experiences. From the participants’ photographs and words, thirteen themes emerged within four domains. The immigration experience and sociocultural norms and expectations of masculinity were factors identified decreasing Latino men’s sense of power and increasing stress, which lead to sexual risk. Latino community strengths and general community strengths were factors that participants identified as promoting health and preventing risk. These themes influenced the development of a conceptual model to explain risk among immigrant Latino men. This model requires further exploration and may prove useful in intervention development. PMID:19234948

  3. Sexual and alcohol risk behaviours of immigrant Latino men in the South-eastern USA.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Griffith, Derek M; Yee, Leland J; Zometa, Carlos S; Montaño, Jaime; Vissman, Aaron T

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the intersections of immigration, masculinity and sexual risk behaviours among recently arrived Latino men in the USA. Nine immigrant Latino men from three urban housing communities in the South-eastern USA used photovoice to identify and explore their lived experiences. From the participants' photographs and words, thirteen themes emerged within four domains. The immigration experience and sociocultural norms and expectations of masculinity were factors identified decreasing Latino men's sense of power and increasing stress, which lead to sexual risk. Latino community strengths and general community strengths were factors that participants identified as promoting health and preventing risk. These themes influenced the development of a conceptual model to explain risk among immigrant Latino men. This model requires further exploration and may prove useful in intervention development.

  4. Somnambulistic sexual behaviour (sexsomnia).

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Irshaad Osman

    2006-05-01

    Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a viable defence on the basis of automatism. The behaviours that occur during sleepwalking can be highly complex and include sexual behaviour of all types. Somnambulistic sexual behaviour (also called sexsomnia, sleep sex) is considered a variant of sleepwalking disorder as the overwhelming majority of people with Sexsomnia have a history of parasomnia and a family history of sleepwalking. Sexual behaviour during a sleep automatism can vary from explicit sexual vocalisations, to violent masturbation, to complex sexual acts including anal, oral and vaginal penetration. A recent case in England is reported where the defendant was acquitted on 3 charges of rape on the basis of automatism due to somnambulistic sexual behaviour.

  5. Sexual risk related behaviour among youth living with HIV in central Uganda: implications for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ankunda, Racheal; Atuyambe, Lynn Muhimbuura; Kiwanuka, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As young people living with HIV grow their sexual behaviour and it's implication on HIV prevention is of concern. This study describes the sexual risk related-behaviours and factors associated with abstinence among Youth Living with HIV in central Uganda. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 338 unmarried youth between 15 and 24 years accessing HIV care in central Uganda. Data was collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaires. Adjusted prevalence proportion ratios (adj. PPRs) of factors associated with sexual abstinence for at least six months were determined by multivariable log-binomial regression. Results Overall, 79% (269/338) of respondents were abstaining from sexual intercourse for atleast six months, although, 45% (150/338) had ever been sexually active. Of the 283 respondents who desired to get married in future, 40% preferred negative marriage partners. Only 31% (39/126) of respondents in boy/girl relationships had disclosed their HIV status to their partners. Among those currently sexually active (n = 69), 57% did not consistently use condoms and 30% had more than one sexual partner in the past six months. The adj.PRR of abstinence was higher among youth between 15 and 19 years compared to those between 20 and 24 years (adj. PPR = 1.26, 95% CI; 1.08-1.46). The prevalence of abstinence was significantly lower among respondent who consumed alcohol (adj. PPR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.16-0.61). Conclusion Tailored interventions promoting disclosure, consistent condoms use and discouraging alcohol consumption among sero-positive youth could reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:27642390

  6. Association between periodontal disease, bacterial vaginosis, and sexual risk behaviours.

    PubMed

    Zabor, Emily Craig; Klebanoff, Mark; Yu, Kai; Zhang, Jun; Nansel, Tonja; Andrews, William; Schwebke, Jane; Jeffcoat, Marjorie

    2010-10-01

    Both periodontal disease and bacterial vaginosis may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study evaluated the association between periodontal disease and bacterial vaginosis. Data from 3569 women enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora were used. Periodontal disease, defined as greater than three sites with ≥4 mm attachment loss, was assessed by specially calibrated hygienists at baseline. Positive bacterial vaginosis status was based on a Nugent Gram stain score ≥7. Pairs of independent variables were compared with Pearson's χ(2) and risk ratios were calculated through log-binomial regression. Twenty-eight per cent of women with bacterial vaginosis had periodontal disease compared with 22% without , corresponding to 1.29 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.47) times greater risk of periodontal disease among women with bacterial vaginosis. In adjusted analysis the risk ratio dropped to 1.23 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.40). Receptive oral sex with an uncircumcised partner was associated with 1.28 times (95% CI: 0.97, 1.69) the risk for periodontal disease compared with receptive oral sex with a circumcised partner, though the association is not statistically significant. In this population, there is a small but significant association between periodontal disease and bacterial vaginosis and a possible trend between receptive oral sex with an uncircumcised partner and periodontal disease. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. HIV infection, sexual risk behaviour and condom use in the Belize defense force.

    PubMed

    Anastario, M; Manzanero, R; Blanco, R; Reyes, E; Jaramillo, R; Black, L; Dann, G E; Leonard, E; Boryc, K; Chun, H

    2011-02-01

    This study is the first Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey to be conducted among personnel in the Belize Defense Force. The purpose of the study was to understand the prevalence of HIV infection and risk behaviours, and to identify key correlates of sexual risk behaviours. A representative sample of personnel underwent serological testing and an Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview. Of those sampled, 351 completed a blood test and 334 completed a behavioural interview. The prevalence of HIV was 1.14%. Twelve percent had ever reported being diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or screened positive for HIV infection. The odds of ever having an STI/HIV were higher among those who had less education, those who had sex with a commercial sex worker (CSW), those who ever engaged in receptive anal sex and those with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Alcohol abuse and PTSD were prevalent and associated with HIV risk behaviours. These results are being used to inform current prevention efforts.

  8. High‐risk sexual behaviour in men attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N; Morison, L; Moodley, P; Pillay, K; Vanmali, T; Quigley, M; Sturm, A W

    2007-01-01

    Objectives A study of men with genital ulcer disease (GUD) in Durban, South Africa, at the start of the local HIV epidemic in 1988/1989 found that 36% of men with GUD continued with sexual intercourse despite symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether this high‐risk behaviour was still prevalent and to enquire about similar risk behaviours with other sexually transmitted infection (STI)‐related problems. Methods 650 Men attending the main Durban STI clinic with a new complaint were enrolled. A standard questionnaire was administered. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were performed to diagnose genital herpes from ulcer specimens and gonorrhoea and chlamydia from those with urethral discharge and/or dysuria. Serology tests were performed for HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV‐2) and syphilis. Results Sex since the start of symptoms was reported by between 33.3% and 43.9% of men with GUD, herpetic ulcers, gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia or dysuria. The incidence of condom use was very low in all groups having sex despite symptoms. In 87 men with genital ulcers confirmed positive for genital herpes by PCR testing, 30 (34.4%) had had sex since the start of symptoms, 28 (93.3%) of whom had had unprotected sex. Conclusions There is a high level of risk behaviour in this group of men in whom genital herpes is the most common cause of GUD. This risky sexual behaviour could reflect disinhibition, possibly because so many have already been infected with HSV‐2, lack of education or other unknown factors. Syndromic STI management should be strengthened with intensive health education to promote community awareness of both genital ulceration and genital herpes and their role in facilitating HIV transmission. The low level of condom use indicates that condom promotion programmes still have much to achieve. PMID:17971375

  9. Club drug use and associated high-risk sexual behaviour in six provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Min; Li, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Rui-Min; Hao, Wei; Zhao, Min; Shi, Jie; McGoogan, Jennifer M; Lu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the different club drugs and associated high-risk sexual behaviours in China. Multicentre cross-sectional study. Drug Detoxification and Rehabilitation Centres in six provinces, China. A total of 1434 eligible club drug users were included. Participants were investigated by trained interviewers using a self-designed structured questionnaire to collect information on club drug use and associated behaviours. Methamphetamine was the most commonly abused drug in participants (73.92%), who used it in their or their friends' homes by non-injection for the purpose of feeling euphoria. Among participants with sexual behaviours after club drug use, 75.21% reported having engaged in sex with multiple partners after club drug use during the past year and 79.84% had unprotected sex after using club drug during the past year. A two-level logistic model showed that male gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=7.14; 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.17-12.5], unmarried (AOR=1.71, 95% CI=1.04-2.79), long duration of club drug use during their life-time (AOR=1.76, 95% CI=1.28-2.42) and severe acute intoxication after using club drugs during the past year (AOR=2.11, 95% CI=1.07-4.15) were independent risk factors of multiple sex partners during the past year. Another two-level model showed that the club drug users who were female (AOR=1.79, 95% CI=1.03-3.11) and had polydrug use during their lifetime (AOR=1.55, 95% CI=1.01-2.34) had more risk for unprotected sex during the past year than without these characteristics. High-risk sexual behaviours are common among club drug users in China. The prevention and intervention of club drug use could decrease the risk of sexual behaviours which further prevent HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections in China. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. [The impact of family characteristics in sexual risk behaviour of teens].

    PubMed

    Lavielle-Sotomayor, Pilar; Jiménez-Valdez, Fanianel; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Arturo; Aguirre-García, María del Carmen; Castillo-Trejo, Martha; Vega-Mendoza, Santa

    2014-01-01

    To assess risk sexual behaviour in adolescents and its relationship with family characteristics. In a representative and random sample of 909 teenagers, their sex life, structure, satisfaction and family dynamics were evaluated. It was used chi-squared test, in order to compare the frequency of family negative characteristics between the groups of adolescents with and without risky sexual behaviors. The early onset of sexual life was more frequent in adolescents with dysfunctional expression of affection in their families, and single-parent or nuclear family structure. The lack of condom use was associated with a lack of affection, and a poor comunication within the family. Having more than three partners was related to the expression of affection and the degree of satisfaction of the teenager with his family. Unplanned pregnancies and sex transmission diseases were most frequent in adolescents belonging to extended families with a poor expression of affection. The level of communication, the monitoring of conduct, the warmth and proximity play a very important role as protectors of sexual risk behaviour in teens.

  11. Teen dating violence perpetration and relation to STI and sexual risk behaviours among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Miller, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-06-01

    To investigate teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration (physical, sexual or psychological violence) and association with STI and related sexual risk behaviours among urban male adolescents. Adolescent male survey participants (N=134) were aged 14-20 years, recruited from urban health centres. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression, TDV perpetration was examined in relation to self-reported: STI, having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner, and consistent condom use. Over one-third of males (45%) reported any TDV; 42% reported sexual violence perpetration, 13% reported perpetrating physical violence against a dating/sexual partner and 11% reported psychological violence, including threats of physical or sexual violence. Approximately 15% of males reported having ever had an STI, one quarter reported having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner and 36% reported consistent condom use (past 3 months). In adjusted logistic regression models, TDV perpetration was significantly associated with self-reports of an STI (OR=3.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2) and having sex with another person when they were supposed to be only having sex with their main partner (OR=4.8; 95% CI 2.0 to 11.4). There was no significant association between TDV perpetration and consistent condom use. Current study findings are the first within the literature on adolescents to suggest that greater STI and sexual risk behaviours among male adolescents perpetrating TDV may be one mechanism explaining increased STI among female adolescents reporting TDV victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Focus-on-Teens, sexual risk-reduction intervention for high-school adolescents: impact on knowledge, change of risk-behaviours, and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, C A; Hsieh, Y-H; Galbraith, J S; Barnes, M; Waterfield, G; Stanton, B

    2008-10-01

    A community-based intervention, Focus-on-Kids (FOK) has demonstrated risk-behaviour reduction of urban youth. We modified FOK to Focus-on-Teens (FOT) for high schools. High school adolescents (n=1190) were enrolled over successive school semesters. The small-group sessions were presented during the school-lunch hours. Confidential surveys were conducted at baseline, immediate, six-, and 12-month postintervention for demographics, parental communication/monitoring, sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV/condom-usage knowledge. Sexually active participants were encouraged to volunteer for urine-based STDs testing at the School-Based Health Centres. Many (47.4%) students reported having had sexual intercourse at baseline. Overall behaviours changed towards 'safer' sex behaviours (intent-to-use and using condoms, communicating with partner/parents about sex/condoms/STDs) with time (P<0.05). Proportion of students with complete correct knowledge of STDs/HIV increased to 88% at time 4 from 80% at baseline after adjusting for age, gender and sexual activity (P<0.05). High prevalence of STDs was detected in 875 participants who reported for urine testing at time 1: trichomonas, 11.8%; chlamydia, 10.1% and gonorrhoea, 4.1%. Prevalence decreased significantly for 310 participants who re-tested; chlamydia: 27.4% to 6.1% and gonorrhoea: 11.3% to 3.2%. FOT was successfully implemented as an STDs/HIV risk-reduction intervention. Sustained improvements of knowledge about STDs/HIV/condom usage, decreases in sexual risk behaviours supported the effectiveness of this intervention.

  13. Sexual relationships, risk behaviour, and condom use in the spread of sexually transmitted infections to heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Evans, B A; Bond, R A; MacRae, K D

    1997-10-01

    To examine the effect of patient defined non-regular sexual relationships and other risk behaviours on the incidence of sexually transmitted infections in heterosexual men and the role of condom use in the prevention of their spread. A prospective cross sectional study of sexual behaviour reported by a standardised self administered questionnaire in new patients who presented for screening and diagnosis. A genitourinary medicine clinic in west London. 957 consecutive newly attending heterosexual men who completed a sexual behaviour questionnaire in 1993/94. Variables relating to sociodemographic status, sexual behaviour, condom use, sexually transmitted infections and testing for HIV infection, stratified by the reporting of non-regular partners. We found that the 65% of men who reported non-regular sexual partners were more likely to be white collar class (d = 7.5%, 95% CI = 1.3, 13.7) and to have had sexual intercourse with non-United Kingdom born women (d = 7.8%, 95% CI = 3.5, 12.2). They also reported coitarche before 16 years of age (d = 13.4%, 95% CI = 8.0, 18.8) and many more sexual partners both in the last year (d = 13.1%, 95% CI = 10.2, 16.0) and in their lifetime (d = 27.9%, 95% CI = 21.6, 34.2). They were significantly more likely to practise anal intercourse (d = 8.7%, 95% CI = 3.3, 14.1), to smoke (d = 16.3%, 95% CI = 9.8, 22.6), to drink alcohol (d = 4.9%, 95% CI = 1.2, 8.6), and to have chlamydial infection (d = 5.7%, 95% CI = 2.2, 9.2), of which 30% was subclinical. Increasing condom use with regular partners correlated with decreasing incidence of urethral infection (gonorrhoeal and/or chlamydial infection) (p < 0.03) and candidal balanitis (p < 0.03) and a greater likelihood of no infection being detected (p = 0.0002). Use of condoms with non-regular partners was much more frequent than with regular partners (d = 21.4%, 95% CI = 16.7, 26.1). However, we found evidence of oral transmission of urethral gonorrhoea and chlamydial infection among men

  14. Risk behaviours of an interrelated syphilis-infected sexual network of men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Diesterheft, Richie; Brady, John P; Shattell, Mona

    2016-12-01

    We examined the risk behaviours in an interrelated sexual network of 33 syphilis-infected men who have sex with men on the use of condoms, substances and websites to meet sexual partners. Our study used a descriptive exploratory design to investigate co-occurring high-risk behaviours in this interrelated sexual network to inform future health interventions and research directions. Although the risk behaviours for human immunodeficiency virus transmission in men who have sex with men have been studied, few have studied the high-risk population of men who already have syphilis, and even fewer have studied the risk behaviours in sexual networks of syphilis-infected men who have sex with men who were identified using contact tracing. The data were collected from semi-structured, individual interviews at a not-for-profit lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health centre in a large city in the Midwestern USA. Inconsistent condom use was substantial during both insertive (92%) and receptive (88%) anal intercourse. Most participants (97%) reported using one or more substances prior to or during anal intercourse, and Internet websites were the most common place to meet sexual partners (88%). High-risk behaviours were significant within this syphilis-infected sexual network of men who have sex with men. The majority of our 33 participants were non-Hispanic Whites (n = 27, 82%), possessed a baccalaureate degree or higher (n = 23, 70%), and actively sought out unprotected anal intercourse [21 participants (64%) used BareBackRT.com, a website to seek out unprotected anal intercourse]. Nurses should be more informed about the risk factors of a high-risk sexual network of syphilis-infected men who have sex with men. Interrelated sexual networks have high levels of similarity among participants' high-risk behaviours; contact tracing may be used to identify individual participants for relevant risk-reduction interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Risk factors, healthcare-seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with genital ulcers in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genital ulcers (GU) are associated with an increased risk of HIV transmission. Understanding risk factors for genital ulcers and sexual behaviour patterns after onset of symptoms and health seeking behaviour among GU-patients can provide useful information to aid design effective prevention strategies for genital ulcers. We investigated risk factors of self-reported GUs and care-seeking in the general population, and assessed GU patients regarding past care-seeking, recent sexual behaviour and partner awareness of the disease. Methods We analysed national data on genital ulcers from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, and data from a cross-sectional survey of genital ulcer patients from primary health care facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. Results The prevalence of GU in 2007 in the general population of Lusaka was 3.6%. Important predictors for genital ulcers were age 25–29 years, being widowed/separated/divorced and having a high number of life-time sexual partners. No differences in care-seeking were observed by residence, wealth and gender, and 60% of the respondents sought care from public health facilities. Among patients with GUs in Lusaka, 14% sought care >2 weeks after symptom onset. Forty-two percent were not aware of their HIV status, 57% reported sex after onset of symptoms and only 15% reported consistent condom use. Conclusions Low awareness of HIV status despite high probability of being infected and low condom use after onset of genital ulcer symptoms leads to a high potential for transmission to sexual partners. This, combined with the fact that many patients with GUs delayed seeking care, shows a need for awareness campaigns about GUs and the importance of abstinence or use of condoms when experiencing such symptoms. PMID:22672697

  16. Alcohol consumption and high risk sexual behaviour among female sex workers in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Martin; Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Weiss, Helen; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of Kampala city. We conducted 3 in-depth interviews with 40 female sex workers between 2010 and 2011. Data were analysed thematically, focusing on alcohol use within the context of sex work. Alcohol consumption was very high with only seven women reporting that they did not drink. Alcohol consumption was driven by the emotional and economic needs of the participants, but also promoted by clients who encouraged consumption. Many sex workers only started drinking alcohol when they joined sex work on the advice of more experienced peers, as a way to cope with the job. Alcohol was blamed for unsafe sex, acts of violence and poor decision making which increased sexual and physical violence. Alcohol was reported to affect medication adherence for HIV-positive women who forgot to take medicine. The findings suggest that the drivers of alcohol consumption are multifaceted in this group and require both individual and structural interventions. Alcohol reduction counselling can be supportive at the individual level and should be an integral part of HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers and others such as patrons in bars. The counselling should be addressed in a sensitive manner to bar owners and managers.

  17. Sexual behaviour and HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behaviours in the general population of Slovenia, a low HIV prevalence country in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Klavs, I; Rodrigues, L C; Wellings, K; Weiss, H A; Hayes, R

    2009-04-01

    To describe sexual and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk behaviours in Slovenia. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the general population aged 18-49 years in 1999-2001 was conducted. The data were collected by face-to-face interviews and anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Statistical methods for complex survey data were used. 849 men and 903 women were interviewed. In the past 5 years, both men and women reported a median of one heterosexual partner (means 3.2, 1.5, respectively), concurrent heterosexual partnerships were reported by 24.4% of men and 8.2% of women, heterosexual sex with non-Slovenian partners by 12.6% of men and 12.2% of women, forced sex by 4.8% of women, paid heterosexual sex by 2.6% of men, sex with another man by 0.6% of men and heterosexual sex with an injecting drug user by 1.2% of men and 1.3% of women. In the past year, 22.7% of men and 9.5% of women reported forming at least one new heterosexual partnership. The mean numbers of episodes of heterosexual sex in the previous 4 weeks were 6.1 for men and 6.0 for women. Consistent and inconsistent condom use was reported more frequently among men reporting multiple female partners and those not married or cohabiting. Recent patterns of reported sexual behaviour are consistent with a low risk of HIV and STI transmission in Slovenia. The results will inform Slovenian sexual health policies including HIV/STI prevention, and are particularly valuable because population-based data on HIV/STI risk behaviour have not previously been available in low HIV prevalence countries of central Europe.

  18. Residential racial segregation and racial differences in sexual behaviours: an 11-year longitudinal study of sexual risk of adolescents transitioning to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Biello, Katie Brooks; Niccolai, Linda; Kershaw, Trace S; Lin, Haiqun; Ickovics, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Background Determining the underlying causes of racial disparities in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is important. In the USA, rates of the most common STIs range from 5 to 20 times higher for African–Americans compared to Caucasians, and the health consequences of STIs can be serious. Residential racial segregation results in very different contexts for individuals and may be an important determinant of sexual risk. The purpose of this study was to examine how segregation and race interact to impact the age trajectory of sexual risk behaviours. Methods Using 11 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (1997–2007) and 2000 Census data, the authors performed three-level hierarchical linear regression to examine the associations between hypersegregation, race and a sexual risk behaviour index among black and white non-Hispanic adolescents as they transition to adulthood. Results Through most of the teenage years, African–Americans are at higher sexual risk than Caucasians. However, by age 19, Caucasians are at higher risk. Hypersegregation was not associated with increased sexual risk index score on average and did not impact the trajectory of the race–sexual risk association. Conclusions The authors did not find any evidence that hypersegregation was associated with the sex risk index or that it modified the race–sex risk association as individuals got older. Future studies should examine whether segregation is associated with other causes of STI/HIV acquisition risk, such as sexual network patterns. PMID:22760218

  19. Risk perceptions of STIs/HIV and sexual risk behaviours among sexually experienced adolescents in the Northern part of Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young people in Laos are more vulnerable to STIs/HIV due to their sexual risk behaviours, low perceptions of risk and their socio-cultural environments. Perceived risk of contracting STIs/HIV is crucial for the assessment of their risk regarding their actual sexual risk behaviors. Thus, the objective of this paper is to explore perceptions of risk related to STIs/HIV and identify factors associated with this perceived risk among adolescents. Methods This was a cross sectional study of sexually experienced adolescents aged 14 to 19 years old in the Luangnamtha province. The multistage sampling techniques were used for selecting 1008 adolescents aged 14-19 years old. Of these, 483 respondents reported having had sexual experience was selected for analysis. Univariate and Logistic regression were performed. Result Six per cent of respondents reported ever having had anal sex. Slightly less than two thirds initiated their first sexual intercourse before age 15. Two thirds of the sexually experienced males reported two or more sexual partners during their lifetime with the mean 3.1 + 3.65 while only twelve per cent of girls reported this cumulative number of partners. Slightly more than half (57.6%) regarded themselves to have no risk at all with 17.2 per cent considered themselves to have low risk. Respondents had poor knowledge on STIs/HIV. Factors associated with risk perception of getting STIs were: being male, high level of knowledge about STIs and having had symptoms of STIs in last six months. Perceived risk of getting HIV was significantly associated with being male, having more knowledge about STIs and HIV. Conclusion Adolescents in this study engaged in sexual risk behaviours, but they have low perception of risk getting STI/HIV. Socio-demographic factors, knowledge of STIs/HIV, and the level of exposure to STIs were the main determinants of the risk perception of STIs/HIV. Our finding supports the need to target adolescents in Luangnamtha

  20. Risk perception of sexually transmitted diseases and teenage sexual behaviour: attitudes towards in a sample of Italian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, M; Cucchi, A; Guidi, E; Stefanati, A; Bonato, B; Lupi, S; Gregorio, P

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study is to determine awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their prevention in people aged 14-19 of Ferrara and province. The study was carried out using a self-administered standardised anonymous questionnaire in a sample of students attending to three upper secondary schools. Total number of collected questionnaires was 2695, the average age of interviewed was 17.1. Only 52.3% of respondents correctly recognized STD definition. Over 95% of subjects identified acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), while properly classification of Hepatitis B increased with age and lowest degree of knowledge concerned herpes infection and Candidiasis. Sex without condom (95.97%) and needle exchange in drugs abusers (94.9%) are considered high risk behaviours. 80.3% of interviewed, without distinction of school attendance, sex, and age considered lack of information as a situation of high risk. Condoms are not used by 46.4% of the subjects in case of sex with a regular partner and by 9.5% with casual partner. Majority of students declared condoms very safe in preventing STDs but an important percentage indicated also contraception methods; correct answers were higher among females and increased with age. Main sources of information were TV (21.6%), school (21.1%) and friends (14.8%) and a few sought information from family doctor (7.4%) and web (4.8%). The study suggests, as priority, to improve teenagers' awareness about risk behaviours and prevention of STDs. School can play an important role in reinforcement of sexual education programmes and directing young people to general practitioners and primary sexual health care services.

  1. Gender and class differences in young people's sexuality and HIV/AIDS risk-taking behaviours in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2004-05-01

    This study examines gender and class differences in young people's beliefs about sexuality and HIV/AIDS risk-taking behaviours in Thailand. Sixty young people aged 15-19, divided equally by gender and socioeconomic background, participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews. Four topics were explored: the differences between 'good' and 'bad' girls/boys; young people's perceptions of sexuality; social class variations in young people's knowledge of HIV/AIDS and perceptions of risk; and the most influential institutions shaping young people's sexual attitudes. Results showed that young people screened potential sexual partners utilizing an image of 'good girls/boys' as potential HIV/AIDS-free partners; young people defined sexuality in terms of love/sexual relationships, premarital sex, promiscuity, and virginity; and HIV/AIDS awareness varied according to class. Young people of all classes failed to demonstrate an in-depth understanding of how they can contract AIDS. They neither viewed themselves as being in an at-risk group, nor considered their sexual behaviours to be at-risk behaviours. Finally, family, friends, and mass media were reported to be among the most influential institutions shaping young people's sexual attitudes. In the struggle against HIV/AIDS, these institutions together with health education not only protect but also can empower young people in Thailand.

  2. Adolescent methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in secondary school students in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Plüddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J; Mathews, Catherine; Carney, Tara; Lombard, Carl

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated involvement in substance use and sexual activities among adolescents in Cape Town, and specifically the associations between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviours. Data were collected from 15 randomly selected and 15 matched schools in Cape Town via quantitative questionnaires. Students used hand-held computers (PDAs) to answer the questions. A total of 4605 grade 9 students were sampled. Male and female students were almost equally likely to have used methamphetamine at least once (13% versus 12%). Students who had used methamphetamine in the past 30 days were significantly more likely to have had vaginal, anal or oral sex than students who had never used it, to have been pregnant/been responsible for a pregnancy and to have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression analysis indicated significant associations between methamphetamine use in the past 12 months and engaging in vaginal and anal sex. Drug abuse and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention services should incorporate the link between drugs and STI into their prevention and education strategies, especially those aimed at school-going adolescents.

  3. Social determinants of syphilis in South China: the effect of sibling position on syphilis and sexual risk behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph D; Young, Darwin; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Adimora, Adaora A

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the relationship between sibling position and sexual risk based on behavioural and syphilis infection data from sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients in South China. Design A cross-sectional study examining sexual behaviours and syphilis infection. Setting 4 STI clinics in the Pearl River Delta of South China. Participants 1792 Chinese men and women attending STI clinics. Primary outcome measures STI history, syphilis infection defined as positive non-treponemal and treponemal tests. Results Among all clinic patients, 824 (46.3%) were first-born, 354 (19.9%) were middle-born and 602 (33.8%) were final-born. Middle-born individuals had a higher percentage of reported STI history (44.7% compared to 34.7%, p<0.001) and syphilis infection (9.7% compared to 4.9%, p=0.01) among men (n=1163) compared to other sibling positions in bivariate analyses, but not in the final multivariate model. The relationship between sibling position and syphilis was independent of income and education level. There was no trend observed between middle-born position and female sexual risk behaviours (n=626). Higher education was significantly associated with syphilis among women and men in respective multivariate models. Conclusions This study suggests that middle-born men in China may have an increased sexual risk compared to other sibling positions. As Chinese family and social structures change, a more thorough understanding of how demographic factors influence sexual risk behaviours is needed. PMID:23793689

  4. Usefulness of an educational leaflet to modify sexual risk behaviour in women with external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Bordoy, Javier; Vidart, José A; Coll-Capdevila, Carme; Colombo, José A; Ramírez, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational leaflet to modify sexual risk behaviour in women with external genital warts. Women with genital warts who attended in daily gynecological practice participated in a 12-month prospective randomised observational study. Randomisation was carried out by centres. At the initial visit, patients underwent complete gynecological examination, including an acetic acid test. Those assigned to the intervention group received an educational leaflet to improve patient's knowledge about warts (counselled group). Only patients with complete clearance after 6 months of initial therapy continued the study. The counselled group included 114 women and the non-counselled group 97. A significant increase in the use of condoms at visit 3 as compared with baseline (83.2% vs 66.1%, P < 0.05) was observed in the counselled group. The mean number of sexual partners was also significantly lower in the counselled group at each follow-up visit. Recurrences were documented in 9 of the 145 patients who completed the study (recurrence rate 6.2%). Recurrences occurred in 7 patients in the counselled group and in 2 in the non-counselled group (8.6% vs 3.1%, P = 0.299), and in all cases occurred at 9 months after initiation of treatment. In conclusion, the educational leaflet, which is simple and easy to implement in routine daily practice, proved to be effective in modifying sexual risk behaviour in women with external genital warts. This educational strategy did not seem to affect recurrence if an acetic acid test is routinely performed during the initial work-up studies.

  5. Sexually transmitted infections and risk behaviours in women who have sex with women

    PubMed Central

    Fethers, K.; Marks, C.; Mindel, A.; Estcourt, C.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and blood borne viruses, risk behaviours, and demographics in women who have sex with women (WSW). Methods: Retrospective cross sectional study using a multivariate model. Demographic, behavioural, and morbidity data were analysed from standardised medical records of patients attending a public STI and HIV service in Sydney between March 1991 and December 1998. All women with any history of sex with a woman were compared with women who denied ever having sex with another woman (controls). Results: 1408 WSW and 1423 controls were included in the study. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was significantly more common among WSW (OR 1.7, p<0.001). Abnormalities on cervical cytology were equally prevalent in both groups, except for the higher cytological BV detection rate in WSW (OR 5.3, p=0.003). Genital herpes and genital warts were common in both groups, although warts were significantly less common in WSW (OR 0.7, p=0.001). Prevalence of gonorrhoea and chlamydia were low and there were no differences between the groups. The prevalence of hepatitis C was significantly greater in WSW (OR 7.7, p<0.001), consistent with the more frequent history of injecting drug use in this group (OR 8.0, p<0.001). WSW were more likely to report previous sexual contact with a homo/bisexual man (OR 3.4, p<0.001), or with an injecting drug user (OR 4.2, p<0.001). Only 7% of the WSW reported never having had sexual contact with a male. Conclusion: We demonstrated a higher prevalence of BV, hepatitis C, and HIV risk behaviours in WSW compared with controls. A similar prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities was found in both groups. Measures are required to improve our understanding of STI/HIV transmission dynamics in WSW, to facilitate better health service provision and targeted education initiatives. Key Words: sexually transmitted infections; lesbians; HIV PMID:11141849

  6. Relationship dynamics and sexual risk behaviour of male partners of female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Martin; Siu, Godfrey E; Kiwanuka, Thadeus; Seeley, Janet

    2016-07-01

    Regular male partners of female sex workers (FSWs) represent an important population to reach with HIV-prevention interventions. This paper discusses the relationship dynamics and HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behaviour of men involved with self-identified FSWs in Kampala. Between 2011 and 2014 we conducted repeat in-depth interviews with 42 male partners of FSWs attending a clinic for women at high risk of HIV-infection in Kampala. Men publicly struggled with the stigma of dating women who are considered to be engaged in a shamed profession, but privately saw meaning in these relationships. In coping with the stigma, some described the work of their partners in terms that distanced them from sex work, while others struggled to have the control that "being a man" demanded since they could not monitor all movements of their partners. Dealing with HIV disclosure was hard and seeking support was difficult for some of the men, leading to missed opportunities and guilt. Despite challenges, relationships with sex workers offered men some benefits such as access to much needed care and treatment. A few men also admitted to being motivated by material and financial benefits from sex workers who they perceived as being rich and this was one factor that helped them sustain the relationships. These findings offer insights into the complex relationship dynamics within high risk sexual partnerships. However, the findings suggest that effective interventions that are couple centred can be established to promote better health.

  7. Drug use and risk behaviour among regular ecstasy users: Does sexuality make a difference?

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, Louisa

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to compare homo/bisexual men and women with their heterosexual counterparts who were regular ecstasy users, to consider whether patterns of drug use or risk differed across these groups. Respondents (n = 852 ecstasy users) were recruited via advertisements in entertainment street press, gay and lesbian newspapers, music and clothing stores and at university campuses. Interviewer contacts and 'snowball' sampling were also utilized. In total, 23% of females in the sample self-identified as lesbian or bisexual and 13% of males interviewed self-identified as homo/bisexual. Rates of use of 'newer' drugs on the dance scene--crystal methamphetamine and ketamine--were higher among homo/bisexual men and women. Self-reported risk behaviours such as unprotected sex and needle sharing (among those who had injected drugs) did not differ according to sexuality. However, homo/bisexual men and women were significantly more likely than heterosexual men and women to report a greater number of sexual partners and higher rates of injecting drug use. These findings suggest that among a group of people who were selected because they were regularly involved in the party drug market, initiatives designed to reduce harms related to injecting and sex risk may be needed for a greater proportion of homo/bisexual males and females who are involved in the dance/nightclub scene.

  8. Injecting and sexual risk behaviours, sexually transmitted infections and HIV prevalence in injecting drug users in three states in India.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Jagadish; Medhi, Gajendra Kumar; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Roy, Nandan; Kohli, Anjalee; Akoijam, Brogen S; Dzuvichu, Bernice; Das, Hiranya Kumar; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Thongamba, Gay

    2008-12-01

    To describe and compare sexual and injecting risk behaviours and sexually transmitted infections (STI), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV prevalence in injecting drug users (IDU) in six districts in three states of India: Manipur, Nagaland, and Maharashtra. The respondent-driven sample consisted of 2075 IDU. Consenting participants were administered a structured questionnaire and samples of blood and urine were collected to test for HIV and STI. Data were analysed using RDSAT. In two districts in Manipur, 77 and 98% of IDU injected heroin, whereas the main injecting drug in Nagaland was dextropropoxyphene (99%). In Mumbai/Thane, Maharashtra, the majority of respondents reported using chlorpheniramine (87%) and heroin (99%). In all districts, almost half of IDU reported generally sharing needles and syringes; consistent condom use with non-paid female partners was also low. Approximately one-quarter of IDU in Mumbai/Thane visited a paid partner in the past year. IDU with reactive syphilis serology were higher in Nagaland (7 and 19%) than in Manipur and Maharashtra. HIV in two districts of Manipur (23%, 32%) and Mumbai/Thane (16%) was greater than Nagaland (<2%). HCV prevalence was more than 50% in Mumbai/Thane and Manipur. Irrespective of regional differences, high-risk behaviour of needle sharing and low condom use makes IDU a critical subpopulation for HIV prevention interventions. Interventions need to address the differing drug use patterns in the regions and transmission prevention among non-paid regular and casual female partners of IDU in the northeast districts and paid female partners in Mumbai/Thane.

  9. General hygiene, sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence in truck drivers from Andhra Pradesh, South India: implications for prevention interventions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J A; Dude, A; Dinaker, M; Kumar, V; Laumann, E O; Holloway-Beth, A; Oruganti, G; Saluja, G S; Chundi, V; Yeldandi, V; Mayer, K H

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between hygiene, sexual behaviour and HIV infection are poorly understood. We examine these relationships in Indian truck drivers, a group at high risk for HIV infection. Truck drivers (n = 189) were recruited into an integrated HIV and hygiene Information Motivation (IM) programme. Sociodemographic characteristics, sexual and hygiene behaviour and HIV prevalence were determined. Multivariate logistic regression and linear generalized estimating equation models were utilized. At baseline, 2.1% of drivers were HIV infected and 34% who reported having contact with female sex workers (FSWs) had contact within the previous six months. Those who washed their hands postdefecation were less likely to report genital symptoms (OR 0.02; P = 0.01) and have sex with an FSW (OR [odds ratio] 0.21; P = 0.05). After an IM intervention, there were no changes in sexual risk-taking behaviour (coefficient -0.15 to -0.02; P = 0.13-0.75); however, hygiene behaviour improved from baseline (coefficient 0.09-0.31; P < 0.01 to P = 0.03). Personal hygiene habits, like handwashing, seem to be a modifiable behaviour after a modest intervention, whereas HIV risk-taking behaviour was not. The association between hygiene and HIV risk-taking suggests the need for further evaluation of the relationship and that of other hygiene practices in high-risk men in India.

  10. Sexual behaviour among youths at high risk for HIV-1 infection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwakagile, D; Mmari, E; Makwaya, C; Mbwana, J; Biberfeld, G; Mhalu, F; Sandstrom, E

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate sex specific sexual behaviour in youths visiting a youth clinic for sexual and reproductive health in Dar es Saalam. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of youths between 10 and 24 years of age attending the youth health clinic in Dar es Saalam. The clinical investigation included testing for syphilis and HIV-1 antibodies Results: 1423 youths attended the clinic between September 1997 and August 1998. The study population comprised 213 (53.5%) males and 185 (46.5%) females. 97 (24.4%) were below 20 years. The mean age at coitarche was 16.5 and 17.0 years of age for males and females, respectively. The coitarche was involuntary in 15 females (8.6%). 49.5% males reported more than five lifetime partners compared with 14.1% for females (p<0.0001). Males reported recent partners to be 2.5 years younger, while females reported them to be 5.0 years older. No contraceptive use was reported by 29.7% of the males and 40.3% of females. 52.7% females had been pregnant and 26 (14.1%) reported induced abortions. Genital discharge was found in 69.5% and 73.9% and GUD in 36.6% and 27.1% of males and females respectively. 12 males (5.9%) and 43 females (24.6%) were found to be HIV-1 infected. 13.8% of the females with only one lifetime partner were HIV-1 infected compared with 40.9% with more than five partners (p = 0.028). Conclusions: Many youths in Dar es Salaam engage in sexual behaviours that put them at risk of unwanted pregnancies and STIs including HIV infection. Female youths were more likely to contract HIV infection than males. In African urban areas youth oriented clinics can have a pivotal role in HIV/STI prevention and control Key Words: youth; sexual behaviour; HIV PMID:11463924

  11. Sexual risk behaviour for transmission of HIV in men who have sex with men: recent findings and potential interventions.

    PubMed

    McDaid, Lisa M; Hart, Graham J

    2010-07-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain one of the groups most at risk of HIV, particularly in countries with concentrated epidemics. Here, we review findings from behavioural research with MSM and discuss the potential of behavioural interventions. Increasing sexual risk behaviour and HIV transmission among MSM is apparent. Although risk reduction strategies, including serosorting and strategic positioning, are being widely reported, these appear to offer limited protection to HIV-negative MSM. There are emerging HIV epidemics among MSM in low-income and middle-income countries, with reported high levels of HIV and sexual risk behaviour. Studies of African MSM report higher HIV prevalence than that in the adult male general population. Evidence of effective behavioural interventions is growing. However, further trials, incorporating biological endpoints, are required. Reducing HIV transmission among MSM remains a significant challenge. Risk reduction strategies, other than condom use, could reduce the risk, but their efficacy is questionable, particularly when knowledge of HIV status may be inaccurate. Behaviour change alone is unlikely to produce the sustained reductions in HIV transmission necessary to change the course of the epidemic. 'Combination prevention', which incorporates biomedical, behavioural, social and structural interventions, should be explored further.

  12. Enacted Stigma and HIV Risk Behaviours among Sexual Minority Indigenous Youth in Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Saewyc, Elizabeth; Clark, Terryann; Barney, Lucy; Brunanski, Dana; Homma, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Enacted stigma has been linked to increased HIV risk behaviours among sexual minority youth, but despite higher rates of HIV and other STIs, there is very little research with Indigenous youth. In this study, secondary analyses of three population-based, school surveys were conducted to explore the associations between HIV risk and enacted stigma among sexual minority Indigenous youth in Canada, the US, and New Zealand. Data were analyzed and interpreted with guidance from Indigenous and sexual minority research team members, Indigenous advisory groups, and community consultations. In all three countries, Indigenous sexual minority youth were more likely to experience enacted stigma (such as bullying, discrimination, exclusion, harassment, or school-based violence) and report increased HIV risk behaviours (such as lack of condom use, multiple sexual partners, pregnancy involvement, and injection drug use) compared to heterosexual peers. Data were analyzed by age, gender, and sexual orientation, and for some groups, higher levels of enacted stigma was associated with higher HIV risk. The findings highlight the need for more research, including identifying protective factors, and developing interventions that focus on promoting resilience, addressing the levels of stigma and homophobic violence in school, and restoring historical traditions of positive status for Indigenous sexual minority people. PMID:26793243

  13. Gender relations, sexual behaviour, and risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections among women in union in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nankinga, Olivia; Misinde, Cyprian; Kwagala, Betty

    2016-05-26

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major reproductive and public health concern, especially in the era of HIV/AIDS. This study examined the relationship between sexual empowerment and STI status of women in union (married or cohabiting) in Uganda, controlling for sexual behaviour, partner factors, and women's background characteristics. The study, based on data from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS), analysed 1307 weighted cases of women age 15-49 in union and selected for the domestic violence module. Chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the predicators of STI status. The main explanatory variables included sexual empowerment, involvement in decision making on own health, experience of any sexual violence, condom use during last sex with most recent partner, number of lifetime partners and partner control behaviours. Sexual empowerment was measured with three indicators: a woman's reported ability to refuse sex, ability to ask her partner to use a condom, and opinion regarding whether a woman is justified to refuse sex with her husband if he is unfaithful. Results show that 28 % of women in union reported STIs in the last 12 months. Sexual violence and number of lifetime partners were the strongest predictors of reporting STIs. Women's sexual empowerment was a significant predictor of their STI status, but, surprisingly, the odds of reporting STIs were greater among women who were sexually empowered. Reporting of STIs was negatively associated with a woman's participation in decision-making with respect to her own health, and was positively associated with experience of sexual violence, partner's controlling behaviour, and having more than one life partner. Our findings suggest that, with respect to STIs, sexual empowerment as measured in the study does not protect women who have sexually violent and controlling partners. Interventions promoting sexual health must effectively address negative

  14. Drug and sexual HIV risk behaviours related to knowledge of HIV serostatus among injection drug users in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Noor, Syed W B; Ross, Michael W; Lai, Dejian; Risser, Jan M

    2014-02-01

    This study examines the association between drug and sexual HIV risk behaviours and knowledge of HIV serostatus among a sample of injection drug users, recruited into the 2009 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance project. We calculated prevalence ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals of reporting a given risk behaviour comparing injection drug users unaware of their serostatus and HIV-negative to HIV-positive injection drug users. Of 523 participants, 21% were unaware of their HIV serostatus. The three groups were not different from each other in terms of drug-use behaviours; however, injection drug users unaware of their HIV serostatus were 33% more likely to report having more than three sexual partners in the past 12 months and 45% more likely to report having unprotected sex compared to HIV-positive injection drug users. We observed markedly higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviours among injection drug users unaware of their serostatus, but drug-use risk behaviours were similar across the groups.

  15. Mother's and father's monitoring is more important than parental social support regarding sexual risk behaviour among 15-year-old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Ondrej; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Klein, Daniel; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-04-01

    There is strong evidence that parental processes such as monitoring and social support play an important role with regard to sexual risk behaviour among adolescents. We wished to explore the influence of both parents' monitoring and support on sexual risk behaviour among adolescent boys and girls. Questionnaires concerning sexual risk behaviour, parental support and parental monitoring were administered to 15-year-old students (n = 1343; 628 boys). Crude and adjusted logistic regression models were used to explore the effect of parents' monitoring and support on sexual risk behaviour among adolescent boys and girls. Parental monitoring was more strongly associated with sexual risk behaviour than parental social support. In particular, less monitoring by the father was significantly linked to early first sexual intercourse among girls and to not using a condom during last intercourse among boys. Less monitoring by the mother was associated only with not using a condom at last intercourse among boys. Parental monitoring, even more than parental support, may delay the onset of sexual activity and increase the frequency of condom use among adolescents. The effects of mothers' and fathers' parenting processes on sexual risk behaviour of adolescents differ. Paternal monitoring affects condom use among boys, and initiation of sexual activity in girls.

  16. Parents, peers and pornography: the influence of formative sexual scripts on adult HIV sexual risk behaviour among Black men in the USA.

    PubMed

    Hussen, Sophia A; Bowleg, Lisa; Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Malebranche, David J

    2012-01-01

    Black men in the USA experience disproportionately high rates of HIV infection, particularly in the Southeastern part of the country. We conducted 90 qualitative in-depth interviews with Black men living in the state of Georgia and analysed the transcripts using Sexual Script Theory to: (1) characterise the sources and content of sexual scripts that Black men were exposed to during their childhood and adolescence and (2) describe the potential influence of formative scripts on adult HIV sexual risk behaviour. Our analyses highlighted salient sources of cultural scenarios (parents, peers, pornography, sexual education and television), interpersonal scripts (early sex- play, older female partners, experiences of child abuse) and intrapsychic scripts that participants described. Stratification of participant responses based on sexual-risk behaviour revealed that lower- and higher-risk men described exposure to similar scripts during their formative years; however, lower-risk men reported an ability to cognitively process and challenge the validity of risk-promoting scripts that they encountered. Implications for future research are discussed.

  17. The theory of planned behaviour as a framework for predicting sexual risk behaviour in sub-Saharan African youth: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Protogerou, Cleo; Flisher, Alan J; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Mathews, Catherine

    2012-07-01

    Amongst the psychological theories that have been used to help understand why people have unprotected sex, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB: Ajzen 1991) has earned a prominent position. This article is a critical review of 11 peer-reviewed studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa during 2001 to 2009, which used the TPB as a model of predicting sexual risk behaviour in young people. All the studies revealed the predictive ability of the TPB in urban, rural, and traditional African settings, with R (2) coefficients ranging between 0.14 and 0.67. With data comparing favourably to those obtained in the international literature, these studies indicate that the TPB can be used to study sexual risk intentions and behaviour in sub-Saharan African youth, and question arguments against the theory's use in non-Western settings.

  18. Sexual identity, same-sex partners and risk behaviour among a community-based sample of young people in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowring, Anna L; Vella, Alyce M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S C

    2015-02-01

    Young people who are same-sex attracted report higher rates of substance use, sexual risk behaviour, and mental health problems. Numerous studies have shown that sexual identity, sexual behaviour and sexual attraction do not always correspond, particularly among young people. We describe sexual identity, sexual partners, and associations between sexual identity and risk in a community-based sample of young people. From 2011 to 2013, young people (16-29 years) were recruited at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia to self-complete a questionnaire. We describe sexual identity and gender of anal/vaginal sex partners in the past year. Secondly, we assess associations between risk behaviours, health outcomes and gay/lesbian/bisexual/queer/questioning (GLBQQ)-identity using multivariable logistic regression. Among 3793 (91%) participants with complete data, 115 (9%) males and 266 (11%) females were GLBQQ-identifying. Among GLBQQ-identifying males, 23% reported only same-sex partners, 34% reported both sex partners, 26% reported only opposite-sex partners, 5% reported no sex partners in the past year, and 12% had never had sex. Among GLBQQ-identifying females, 10% reported only same-sex partners, 22% reported both sex partners, 48% reported only opposite-sex partners, 3% reported no sex partners in the past year, and 17% had never had sex. Controlling for age and sex, significant (p<0.05) associations with GLBQQ-identity included: recent drug use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.7, 95%CI 1.3-2.2); ever injected drugs (AOR 5.7, 95%CI 3.3-9.7); young age at first sex (AOR 1.8, 95%CI 1.3-2.3); ≥11 lifetime sex partners (AOR 1.5, 95%CI 1.1-2.0); multiple sex partners in the past year (AOR 1.9, 95%CI 1.5-2.5); and rating mental health as fair/poor (AOR 3.0, 95%CI 1.9-4.6). Young people with GLBQQ-identity commonly engage in high risk behaviours and are more at risk relative to their heterosexual-identifying peers. Targeted interventions to promote the health and wellbeing of

  19. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities at Risk of Sexual Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Background: For non-disabled men, group cognitive-behaviour therapy is a successful form of treatment when men have committed sexual offences. However, men with intellectual disabilities and sexually abusive behaviour are rarely offered treatment for their sexual behaviour and little research data on the effectiveness of such treatment has been…

  20. Sex and the community: the implications of neighbourhoods and social networks for sexual risk behaviours among urban gay men.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian C; Carpiano, Richard M; Easterbrook, Adam; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2012-09-01

    Gay neighbourhoods have historically served as vital places for gay socialising, and gay social networks are important sources of social support. Yet, few studies have examined the influence of these forms of community on sexual health. Informed by theoretical frameworks on neighbourhoods and networks, we employ multi-level modelling to test hypotheses concerning whether gay neighbourhoods and social network factors are associated with five sexual risk behaviours: receptive and insertive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), barebacking identity, recent internet use for finding sexual partners, and 'Party and Play' (PnP). Our analyses of a community-based sample of gay men in New York City reveal little evidence for the direct effect of gay enclaves on sexual risk with the exception of PnP, which was more likely among gay enclave residents. Having a network composed predominantly of other gay men was associated with insertive UAI, PnP, and internet use for meeting sexual partners. This network type also mediated the association between gay neighbourhoods and higher odds of insertive UAI as well as PnP. Our findings highlight the sexual health implications of two important facets of gay community and, in doing so, indicate the need to better contextualise the sexual health risks faced by gay men. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The Impacts of Using Smartphone Dating Applications on Sexual Risk Behaviours in College Students in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dating applications (apps) on smartphones have become increasingly popular. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of dating apps and risky sexual behaviours. Data were collected in four university campuses in Hong Kong. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire asking about the use of dating apps, sexual behaviours, and sociodemographics. Multiple linear and logistics regressions were used to explore factors associated with sexual risk behaviours. Six hundred sixty-six subjects were included in the data analysis. Factors associated with having unprotected sexual intercourse with more lifetime sexual partners included use of dating apps (β = 0.93, p<0.01), having one’s first sexual intercourse before 16 years of age (β = 1.74, p<0.01), being older (β = 0.4, p<0.01), currently being in a relationship (= 0.69, p<0.05), having a monthly income at least HKD$5,000 (β = 1.34, p<0.01), being a current smoker (β = 1.52, p<0.01), and being a current drinker (β = 0.7, p<0.01). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis found that users of dating apps (adjust odds ratio: 0.52, p<0.05) and current drinkers (adjust odds ratio: 0.40, p<0.01) were less likely to have consistent condom use. Users of dating apps (adjust odds ratio: 1.93, p<0.05), bisexual/homosexual subjects (adjust odds ratio: 2.57, p<0.01) and female subjects (adjust odds ratio: 2.00, p<0.05) were more likely not to have used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse. The present study found a robust association between using dating apps and sexual risk behaviours, suggesting that app users had greater sexual risks. Interventions that can target app users so that they can stay safe when seeking sexual partners through dating apps should be developed. PMID:27828997

  2. The Impacts of Using Smartphone Dating Applications on Sexual Risk Behaviours in College Students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Choi, Edmond Pui-Hang; Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Lo, Herman Hay-Ming; Wong, Wendy; Chio, Jasmine Hin-Man; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak

    2016-01-01

    Dating applications (apps) on smartphones have become increasingly popular. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of dating apps and risky sexual behaviours. Data were collected in four university campuses in Hong Kong. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire asking about the use of dating apps, sexual behaviours, and sociodemographics. Multiple linear and logistics regressions were used to explore factors associated with sexual risk behaviours. Six hundred sixty-six subjects were included in the data analysis. Factors associated with having unprotected sexual intercourse with more lifetime sexual partners included use of dating apps (β = 0.93, p<0.01), having one's first sexual intercourse before 16 years of age (β = 1.74, p<0.01), being older (β = 0.4, p<0.01), currently being in a relationship (= 0.69, p<0.05), having a monthly income at least HKD$5,000 (β = 1.34, p<0.01), being a current smoker (β = 1.52, p<0.01), and being a current drinker (β = 0.7, p<0.01). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis found that users of dating apps (adjust odds ratio: 0.52, p<0.05) and current drinkers (adjust odds ratio: 0.40, p<0.01) were less likely to have consistent condom use. Users of dating apps (adjust odds ratio: 1.93, p<0.05), bisexual/homosexual subjects (adjust odds ratio: 2.57, p<0.01) and female subjects (adjust odds ratio: 2.00, p<0.05) were more likely not to have used condoms the last time they had sexual intercourse. The present study found a robust association between using dating apps and sexual risk behaviours, suggesting that app users had greater sexual risks. Interventions that can target app users so that they can stay safe when seeking sexual partners through dating apps should be developed.

  3. Attachment orientation and sexual risk behaviour among young Black gay and bisexual men

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Stephanie H.; Watkins, Daphne C.; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City (n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM’s sexual behavior. PMID:27570578

  4. Attachment orientation and sexual risk behaviour among young Black gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Cook, Stephanie H; Watkins, Daphne C; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A

    This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City (n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM's sexual behavior.

  5. Concurrent sexual and substance-use risk behaviours among female sex workers in Kenya's Coast Province: findings from a behavioural monitoring survey.

    PubMed

    Tegang, S P; Abdallah, S; Emukule, G; Luchters, S; Kingola, N; Baras, M; Mucheke, S; Mwarogo, P

    2010-12-01

    While many studies confirm the association between HIV, alcohol and injecting drug use by female sex workers (FSWs), little is known about their use of marijuana, khat and other substances and the association of these substances with HIV, risky sexual behaviour, and sexual violence. To better understand this association, data were analysed from a cross-sectional, behavioural survey of 297 FSWs in Mombasa, a well-known tourist destination and the second largest port in Africa and capital city of the Coast Province in Kenya. Among the FSWs, lifetime use of different substances was reported by 91% for alcohol, 71% for khat, 34% for marijuana, and 6% for heroin, cocaine, glue or petrol. The majority (79%) used more than one substance, and multiple-substance use was reported by all respondents who ever used marijuana, heroin, cocaine, glue and petrol. The risk of HIV acquisition was perceived as medium to high by 41% of respondents, 75% of whom attributed this risk to multiple partners. Sexual violence was reported by 48% of respondents, and 30% indicated that this happened several times. Despite HIV prevention programmes targeting FSWs in Mombasa, most of them continue to engage in risky sexual behaviours. This suggests that harm reduction strategies for substance use should be coupled with efforts to promote consistent condom use and partner reduction.

  6. Sexual risk behaviour of Canadian participants in the first efficacy trial of a preventive HIV-1 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Lampinen, Thomas M.; Chan, Keith; Remis, Robert S.; Fikre Merid, Maraki; Rusch, Melanie; Vincelette, Jean; Logue, Ken; Popovic, Vladimir; Alary, Michel; Schechter, Martin T.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    Background Phase I and phase II HIV-1 vaccine trials have revealed increases in risky sexual activity among study subjects during the trials, perhaps because the subjects believe that the vaccine being tested is efficacious; subjects may thus suffer harm from their participation. We evaluated the sexual behaviour of Canadian men who have sex with men (MSM) who participated in the phase III Vax004 trial of an HIV-1 vaccine. Methods Using self-reports of sexual behaviours during the 6 months before trial entry as a baseline, we determined changes in reported sexual behaviour after 6, 12 and 18 months of participation in the trial. Results Of 291 HIV-seronegative MSM enrolled from July to October 1999, 260 (89%) completed 18 months of follow-up, 19 (7%) experienced seroconversion, and 12 (4%) did not complete follow-up. Unprotected receptive anal intercourse during the previous 6 months with partners whose HIV-1 serostatus was positive or unknown was reported by 21% of men at enrolment and by 27% at any point during 18 months of follow-up. No increase in this behaviour from baseline was reported by participants, including among men who were motivated to enrol because of expected protection from HIV-1 infection, men who believed they had received the vaccine, men who believed that the vaccine had greater than 50% efficacy, or men who believed that they had received the vaccine and that vaccine efficacy was greater than 50%. Interpretation MSM can be successfully enrolled in HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials without evident increases in those sexual behaviours most associated with HIV-1 risk. PMID:15710939

  7. HIV sexual transmission risks in the context of clinical care: a prospective study of behavioural correlates of HIV suppression in a community sample, Atlanta, GA, USA

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Seth C; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O; Washington, Christopher; Grebler, Tamar; Merely, Cindy; Welles, Brandi; Pellowski, Jennifer; Kegler, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the health of people living with HIV and has the potential to reduce HIV infectiousness, thereby preventing HIV transmission. However, the success of ART for HIV prevention hinges on sustained ART adherence and avoiding sexually transmitted infections (STI). Objectives To determine the sexual behaviours and HIV transmission risks of individuals with suppressed and unsuppressed HIV replication (i.e., viral load). Methods Assessed HIV sexual transmission risks among individuals with clinically determined suppressed and unsuppressed HIV. Participants were 760 men and 280 women living with HIV in Atlanta, GA, USA, who completed behavioural assessments, 28-daily prospective sexual behaviour diaries, one-month prospective unannounced pill counts for ART adherence, urine screening for illicit drug use and medical record chart abstraction for HIV viral load. Results Individuals with unsuppressed HIV demonstrated a constellation of behavioural risks for transmitting HIV to uninfected sex partners that included symptoms of STI and substance use. In addition, 15% of participants with suppressed HIV had recent STI symptoms/diagnoses, indicating significant risks for sexual infectiousness despite their HIV suppression in blood plasma. Overall, 38% of participants were at risk for elevated sexual infectiousness and just as many engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse with non-HIV-infected partners. Conclusions Implementation strategies for using HIV treatments as HIV prevention requires enhanced behavioural interventions that extend beyond ART to address substance use and sexual health that will otherwise undermine the potential preventive impact of early ART. PMID:26249127

  8. Sexual activity and adolescent health risk behaviours amongst high school students in three ethnic Chinese urban populations.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jason; Wong, William; Lee, Albert; Holroyd, Eleanor; Huang, Song Yuen

    2013-12-01

    To compare sexually active Chinese high school students in three major Asian cities with their non-sexually active counterparts in order to determine prevalence and associations with selected health outcomes. There have been limited studies to date on the association between sexual activity and substance use in Chinese high schools. While the role of the school nurse in the development of sexual health and harm reduction education in secondary schools has been well documented in international studies, this has received little attention in Asia. Cross-sectional survey. This study was administered in 2003/2004 to 13,895 Grades 6 to 12 high school students in Hong Kong (3498), Macau (6286) and Taipei (4111). Descriptive analysis was conducted followed by univariate analysis comparing sexual behaviour with (1) substance use including alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs; (2) feeling depressed for greater than or equal to two weeks in last 12 months; contemplating suicide during the last 12 months; and (3) perception of poor health/academic performance. The students (8%) reported being sexually active had marked differences in selected health outcomes when compared with the nonsexually experienced students. More than 90% of the sexually active students had tried alcohol, with more than 50% being regular drinkers, more than 30% testifying to binge drinking and nearly 50% reported depression in the past 12 months. Substance use, poorer perception of health and academic performance were also significantly higher in the sexually experienced students relative to their nonexperienced counterparts. Sexually experienced Chinese high school students surveyed were at higher risk of substance abuse, poorer psychological health and academic performance. Community and public health nursing needs to address Asian adolescent sexual health education needs, in particular provide culturally targeted interventions for associated substance abuse and psychological health within the context of

  9. Sexual risk behaviour among people living with HIV according to the biomedical risk of transmission: results from the ANRS-VESPA2 survey

    PubMed Central

    Suzan-Monti, Marie; Lorente, Nicolas; Demoulin, Baptiste; Marcellin, Fabienne; Préau, Marie; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People living with HIV (PLHIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART), with sustained undetectable viral load (sUVL) and no history of sexually transmitted infections for at least six months, are considered to have a low risk of HIV transmission (LRT). We aimed to characterize, in a representative sample of French PLHIV, the sexual behaviour of LRT PLHIV compared with non-LRT PLHIV. Methods The cross-sectional ANRS-VESPA2 survey was conducted on adult PLHIV attending French hospitals in 2011. The LRT PLHIV group included participants with sUVL and no sexually transmitted infection for at least 12 months. Socio-behavioural and medical data were collected. Chi-square tests helped compare sexual risk indicators between LRT and non-LRT PLHIV. The survey's retrospective nature allowed us to perform complementary category-based analyses of LRT PLHIV according to whether they had sUVL for at least 18, 24 or 36 months in three socio-epidemiological groups: men who have sex with men (MSM), other men and women. Results Analysis included 2638 PLHIV diagnosed >12 months with available viral load data. The proportion of LRT PLHIV varied from 58% (≥12 months sUVL) to 38% (≥36 months sUVL). Irrespective of sUVL duration, we found the following: 1) LRT men (MSM and other men) were more likely to report having no sexual partner than their non-LRT counterparts. Among men having sexual partners in the previous 12 months, no significant difference was seen between LRT and non-LRT men in the number of sexual partners. LRT women were less likely to report having more than one sexual partner than non-LRT women; 2) LRT MSM were more likely to report being in sexually inactive couples than their non-LRT counterparts; 3) among sexually active participants, no difference was observed between LRT and non-LRT PLHIV concerning condom use with their serodiscordant steady partner or with their most recent casual sexual partners. Conclusions LRT PLHIV with sUVL ≥12 months did not

  10. Drug use and sexual risk behaviours among female Russian IDUs who exchange sex for money or drugs.

    PubMed

    Benotsch, E G; Somlai, A M; Pinkerton, S D; Kelly, J A; Ostrovski, D; Gore-Felton, C; Kozlov, A P

    2004-05-01

    Countries of the former Soviet Union are experiencing the steepest increases in annual HIV incidence in the world. Over 80% of registered HIV cases in Russia have occurred among intravenous drug users (IDUs), but current conditions set the stage for a heterosexually-transmitted epidemic. IDUs who also trade sex for money or drugs may serve as a conduit, or 'bridge' group, through which HIV could make inroads into the general Russian population. The present study examined the prevalence of sex trading among female Russian IDUs, and further examined drug use, sexual behaviour, and perceived vulnerability in this group. Female IDUs (n=100) in St Petersburg, Russia participated; 37% reported a history of sex trading. This group reported a mean of 49.5 male sexual partners in the previous month and an average of 15.4 unprotected vaginal intercourse acts in the previous 30 days. A significant minority (44%) also reported sharing injection equipment with others. Mathematical models to calculate risk estimates for HIV seroconversion indicated that participants were at significant risk of contracting HIV and infecting sexual partners. Despite significant rates of risk behaviours, most participants perceived themselves to be at little risk of contracting HIV. Effective HIV prevention programmes targeted at this group are urgently needed and are likely to be a cost-effective step in curtailing the spread of HIV in the region.

  11. HIV/STI RISK-TAKING SEXUAL BEHAVIOURS AND RISK PERCEPTION AMONG MALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN TEHRAN: IMPLICATIONS FOR HIV PREVENTION AMONG YOUTH.

    PubMed

    Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mahdi; Shirzad, Mehdi; Azin, Ali

    2017-03-13

    Recent evidence indicates a rising trend in premarital sexual activity among young people in Iran. However, little is known about the extent to which young people's sexual behaviours expose them to HIV and STI risks. This study aimed to assess HIV/STI-related sexual risk-taking behaviours (correlates and determinants) and HIV/STI risk perception among male university students in Tehran. A representative sample of male university students (N=1322) studying in government and private Tehran universities completed an anonymous questionnaire survey in 2013-14. Respondents were selected using two-stage stratified cluster sampling. About 35% of respondents had ever had premarital sex (n=462). The majority (about 85%) of the sexually experienced students reported having multiple sexual partners in their lifetime. More than half (54%) reported inconsistent condom use over the previous month. Despite this exposure to HIV/STI risk, the respondents had a very low level of HIV/STI risk perception. Only 6.5% were highly concerned about contracting HIV over the previous year, and an even lower percentage (3.4%) were concerned about contracting STIs in the near future. Early sexual debut (<18 years), studying in a private university, ever watching pornography and work experience were found to be significant predictors of having multiple sexual partners. Younger age at sexual debut, having one lifetime sexual partner and poor HIV knowledge were significant predictors of inconsistent condom use over the preceding month. HIV prevention programmes among Iranian youth need to focus on the postponement of first sex and enhancement of HIV/STI knowledge in the light of increasing access of young people to pornography.

  12. Parental Communication and Youth Sexual Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; McLeroy, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The role of parental communication and instruction concerning sexual behaviour were studied in a community-based sample of 1083 youth aged 13-17 (mean age of 15 years; 51% girls, 49% White). The Youth Asset Survey was administered along with items measuring demographics and youth risk behaviours. After controlling for demographic factors,…

  13. Parental Communication and Youth Sexual Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; McLeroy, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The role of parental communication and instruction concerning sexual behaviour were studied in a community-based sample of 1083 youth aged 13-17 (mean age of 15 years; 51% girls, 49% White). The Youth Asset Survey was administered along with items measuring demographics and youth risk behaviours. After controlling for demographic factors,…

  14. Let's talk about sex: A qualitative study exploring the experiences of HIV nurses when discussing sexual risk behaviours with HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    de Munnik, S; den Daas, C; Ammerlaan, H S M; Kok, G; Raethke, M S; Vervoort, S C J M

    2017-09-06

    Despite prevention efforts, the incidence of sexually transmitted infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men remains high, which is indicative of unchanged sexual risk behaviour. Discussing sexual risk behaviour has been shown to help prevent sexually transmitted infections among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence whether - and how - specialised HIV nurses discuss sexual risk behaviour with HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Identifying these factors could indicate how best to improve the frequency and quality of discussions about sexual risk behaviour, thereby reducing sexual risk behaviour and sexually transmitted infections. Qualitative study, focus groups among HIV nurses. Dutch HIV treatment centres. A purposive sample was taken of 25 out of 87 HIV nurses working in one of the 26 specialised HIV treatment centres in the Netherlands. Of the 25 HIV nurses we approached, 22 participate in our study. Three semi-structured focus group interviews were held with 22 HIV nurses from 17 hospitals. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was performed. HIV nurses agreed that discussing sexual risk behaviour is important, but barriers were experienced in relation to doing so. In accordance with the theory of planned behaviour, attitudes, perceived norms and perceived behavioural control were all found to be relevant variables. Barriers to discussing sexual risk behaviour were identified as: dealing with embarrassment, the changing professional role of an HIV nurse, time constraints, and the structure of the consultation. To improve the frequency and quality of discussions about sexual risk behaviour with HIV-positive men who have sex with men, our data suggests it would be beneficial to support HIV nurses by developing tools and guidelines addressing what to discuss and how. Using a related topic as a conversational 'bridge' may help nurses to broach this subject with

  15. Teenage sexual behaviour: attitudes towards and declared sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Burack, R

    1999-01-01

    Although the teenage pregnancy rates in the UK are falling in the 16 to 19 year old range, they are still rising in the 13 to 15 year olds. Overall, they remain one of the highest within Western Europe. Teenagers continue to present a challenge to the health services due to the increase in their sexual risk taking behaviour, the earlier age at which they are starting sexual activity and a reluctance to utilise services available to them. In an attempt to develop current services and make them more 'user friendly', a sexual health needs assessment was carried out on teenagers, part of which looked at their attitudes towards risk taking sexual behaviour and their declared sexual behaviour. A quantitative survey, using a questionnaire in schools, was answered by 1500 pupils aged between 13 and 18 years old, and showed that the majority of teenagers had declared some form of sexual contact with a partner with a degree of sexual activity increasing with age. Twenty per cent of 13 year olds reported that they had already had either full or oral sexual intercourse with a partner. Feeling peer pressure, not knowing the facts about sexual risk taking and a declared intent that would increase the likelihood of putting themselves or others at risk sexually were significantly more likely in the younger teenage boys surveyed. This study confirms that there remain many different factors involved in teenagers' decision-making processes, about their developing attitudes towards sex and their resultant behaviour. Despite a lack of maturity, such opinions and attitudes are bringing about definite views and sexual behaviour patterns in teenagers as young as 12 or 13 years old who are becoming fully sexually active. In particular teenage boys are becoming fully sexually active at a younger age than the girls and are taking risks in doing so. They are being influenced by peer pressure, condoning promiscuity and are declaring the intent to practice unsafe sexual intercourse. Their level

  16. Is sexual risk taking behaviour changing in rural south-west Uganda? Behaviour trends in a rural population cohort 1993-2006.

    PubMed

    Biraro, S; Shafer, L A; Kleinschmidt, I; Wolff, B; Karabalinde, A; Nalwoga, A; Musinguzi, J; Kirungi, W; Opio, A; Whitworth, J; Grosskurth, H

    2009-04-01

    To describe sexual behaviour trends in a rural Ugandan cohort in the context of an evolving HIV epidemic, 1993-2006. Sexual behaviour data were collected annually from a population cohort in which HIV serological surveys were also conducted. Behaviour trends were determined using survival analysis and logistic regression. Trends are reported based on the years in which the respective indicators were collected. Between 1993 and 2006, median age at first sex increased from 16.7 years to 18.2 years among 17-20-year-old girls and from 18.5 years to 19.9 years among boys. Both sexes reported a dip in age at sexual debut between 1998 and 2001. One or more casual partners in the past 12 months among men rose from 11.6% in 1997 to 12.7% in 2004 and then declined to 10.2% in 2006. Among women it increased from 1.4% in 1997 to 3.7% in 2004 and then reduced to 1.4% in 2006. The rise in casual partners between 1997 and 2004 was driven mainly by older age groups. Trends in condom use with casual partners varied by age, increasing among those aged 35+ years, declining in the middle age groups and presenting a dip and then a rise in the youngest aged group (13-19 years). Among youth, risky behaviour declined but increased in the late 1990s/early 2000s. Among those aged 35+ years, condom use rose but casual partners also rose. Several indicators portrayed a temporary increase in risk taking behaviour from 1998 to 2002.

  17. HIV testing, perceived vulnerability and correlates of HIV sexual risk behaviours of Latino and African American young male gang members.

    PubMed

    Brooks, R A; Lee, S-J; Stover, G N; Barkley, T W

    2011-01-01

    This study examined HIV testing behaviours, perceived vulnerability to HIV and correlates of sexual risk behaviours of young adult Latino and African American male gang members in Los Angeles, California. Data were collected from 249 gang members aged 18-26 years. The majority (59%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the past 12 months. Only one-third (33.2%) of gang members had ever been tested for HIV. In our multivariate analysis, gang members who reported UVI were more likely to have engaged in the following behaviours: had sex with someone they just met (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.51), had sex with someone they think or know had a sexually transmitted infection (STI; AOR = 4.67) or had sex while incarcerated (AOR = 8.92). In addition, gang members with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI in the previous 12 months (AOR = 0.75). These findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for young Latino and African American male gang members.

  18. Young Australians' use of pornography and associations with sexual risk behaviours.

    PubMed

    Lim, Megan S C; Agius, Paul A; Carrotte, Elise R; Vella, Alyce M; Hellard, Margaret E

    2017-08-01

    Amid public health concern that rising pornography use may have a negative impact on young people's health and wellbeing, we report prevalence of pornography viewing and explore factors associated with viewing frequency and age at first viewing. Cross-sectional online survey in a convenience sample of Victorians aged 15 to 29 years recruited via social media. Ever viewing pornography was reported by 815 of 941 (87%) participants. The median age at first pornography viewing was 13 years for men and 16 years for women. More frequent pornography viewing was associated with male gender, younger age, higher education, non-heterosexual identity, ever having anal intercourse and recent mental health problems. Younger age at first pornography viewing was associated with male gender, younger current age, higher education, non-heterosexual identity, younger age at first sexual contact and recent mental health problems. Pornography use is common and associated with some health and behavioural outcomes. Longitudinal research is needed to determine the causal impact of pornography on these factors. Implications for public health: Viewing pornography is common and frequent among young people from a young age and this needs to be considered in sexuality education. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Sexual Behaviour of Men and Women within Age-Disparate Partnerships in South Africa: Implications for Young Women's HIV Risk

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Evans, Meredith; George, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-disparate partnerships are hypothesized to increase HIV-risk for young women. However, the evidence base remains mixed. Most studies have focused only on unprotected sex among women in the partnership. Consequently, little is known about other risky behaviours, such as transactional sex, alcohol use, and concurrency, as well as the behaviours of the men who partner with young women. We therefore examined differences in various sexual behaviours of both young women and their male partners by partnership age difference. Methods We used nationally representative data from South Africa (2012) on partnerships reported by 16–24 year old black African women (n = 818) and by black African men in partnerships with 16–24 year old women (n = 985). We compared sexual behaviours in age-disparate partnerships and age-similar partnerships, using multiple logistic regression to control for potential confounders and to assess rural/urban differences. Results Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to report unprotected sex than young women in similar-aged partnerships (aOR:1.51; p = 0.014; 95%CI:1.09–2.11). Men in partnerships with young women were more likely to report unprotected sex (aOR:1.92; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.31–2.81), transactional sex (aOR:2.73; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.64–4.56), drinking alcohol before sex (aOR:1.60; p = 0.062; 95%CI:0.98–2.61), and concurrency (aOR:1.39; p = 0.097; 95%CI:0.94–2.07) when their partners were five or more years younger. The association between age-disparate partnerships and transactional sex (aOR:4.14; p<0.01; 95%CI: 2.03–8.46) and alcohol use (aOR:2.24; p<0.013; 95%CI:1.20–4.19) was only found in urban areas. Conclusions Results provide evidence that young women’s age-disparate partnerships involve greater sexual risk, particularly through the risky behaviours of their male partners, with the risk amplified for young women in urban areas. PMID:27526116

  20. Masculinity and male sexual behaviour in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Macia, Manuel; Maharaj, Pranitha; Gresh, Ashley

    2011-11-01

    Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Mozambique is facing a severe HIV epidemic. Evidence suggests that male sexual behaviour is one of the driving forces behind the epidemic. Yet, there is limited understanding of how notions of masculinity influence such behaviour in the context of HIV. Using data collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with sexually active men and women, this paper investigates how notions of masculinity influence the risk of HIV infection among men. The study findings suggest that traditional norms of masculinity, the man as the main provider and figure of authority, continue to exert a strong influence on male attitudes and behaviour. Alternative approaches are urgently needed in HIV programming that take into consideration notions of masculinity in order to reduce risky sexual behaviour.

  1. Behavioural interventions to reduce sexual risk for HIV in heterosexual couples: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    LaCroix, Jessica M; Pellowski, Jennifer A; Lennon, Carter A; Johnson, Blair T

    2013-12-01

    The current study was conducted to synthesise evaluations of couple-based HIV prevention interventions, assess the efficacy of these interventions in reducing sexual risk, and identify moderators of intervention efficacy. A comprehensive literature search identified 29 interventions (22 reports; N=5168 couples) that met the inclusion criteria, including enrolment of both members of a heterosexual couple, measurement of condom use at baseline and follow-up, and sufficient statistical information to calculate effect sizes. Effect sizes were analysed using fixed-effects and random-effects assumptions; factors related to intervention efficacy were identified using metaregression. Overall, there were significant increases in condom use from baseline to follow-up (d+=0.78, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.09) and significant decreases in partner concurrency (d+=0.37, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.60). Condom use increased to a greater extent when studies were conducted toward the beginning of the epidemic, were located in countries scoring lower on the Human Development Index, enrolled serodiscordant couples, and delivered intervention content in multiple contexts. Couples who had been together longer, reported higher incidence of sexually transmitted infection, were provided voluntary counselling and testing, and provided outcome measures during face-to-face interviews also reported larger increases in condom use. Couple-based interventions are efficacious in reducing unprotected sex within the context of romantic relationships. Future research should continue to improve risk reduction for couples.

  2. Parental communication and youth sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Aspy, Cheryl B; Vesely, Sara K; Oman, Roy F; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; McLeroy, Ken

    2007-06-01

    The role of parental communication and instruction concerning sexual behaviour were studied in a community-based sample of 1083 youth aged 13-17 (mean age of 15 years; 51% girls, 49% White). The Youth Asset Survey was administered along with items measuring demographics and youth risk behaviours. After controlling for demographic factors, multivariate analysis revealed that youth were much less likely to have initiated sexual intercourse if their parents taught them to say no, set clear rules, talked about what is right and wrong and about delaying sexual activity. If youth were sexually active, they were more likely to use birth control if taught at home about delaying sexual activity and about birth control. Having only one sexual partner was associated with having an adult role model who supports abstinence, being taught at home about birth control, and being taught at home how to say no. If parents reported talking with youth about birth control and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, youth were significantly more likely to use birth control. Our conclusion is that parents have the opportunity and ability to influence their children's sexual behaviour decisions.

  3. Together we have fun: native-place networks and sexual risk behaviours among Chinese male rural-urban migrants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaozhao Yousef; Kelly, Brian C; Yang, Tingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Some scholars argue that the maintenance of social networks contributes to the lower prevalence of deviant behaviours and fewer adverse health effects among migrants. But others suggest that if migrants are embedded in homogeneous networks, such networks may enable the formation of a deviant subculture that promotes risk taking. Facing this dilemma, the present study investigates how native-place networks influence sexual risk behaviours (SRBs), specifically the pursuit of commercial sex and condomless sex with sex workers, for male rural-urban migrants. Using a multi-stage sample of 1,591 male rural-urban migrants from two major migrant-influx cities within China, we assessed migrants' general friend network ties and native place networks (townsmen in migrants' local networks) and tested their associations with SRBs. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicate that native-place network ties are associated with paying for sex (OR = 1.33, p < 0.001) and condomless sex with sex workers (OR = 1.33, p < 0.001), while general friendship network ties reduce such risks (OR = 0.74, p < 0.001; OR = 0.84, p < 0.01) even after controlling for demographic background, housing conditions, length of stay, health beliefs and behaviours, and spousal companionship. Our findings suggest that native-place networks among Chinese male rural-urban migrants are associated with SRBs because homogenous networks may serve as a platform for the emergence of a deviant subculture that promotes risk behaviours. A Virtual Abstract of this paper is available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Wg20I6j8XQ.

  4. Prospective Dynamic Assessment of Risk of Sexual Reoffending in Individuals with an Intellectual Disability and a History of Sexual Offending Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofthouse, Rachael E.; Lindsay, William R.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Boer, Douglas P.; Haaven, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to add to the literature on the predictive accuracy of a dynamic intellectual disability specific risk assessment tool. Method: A dynamic risk assessment for sexual reoffending (ARMIDILO-S), a static risk assessment for sexual offending (STATIC-99), and a static risk assessment for violence…

  5. Prospective Dynamic Assessment of Risk of Sexual Reoffending in Individuals with an Intellectual Disability and a History of Sexual Offending Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofthouse, Rachael E.; Lindsay, William R.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Boer, Douglas P.; Haaven, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to add to the literature on the predictive accuracy of a dynamic intellectual disability specific risk assessment tool. Method: A dynamic risk assessment for sexual reoffending (ARMIDILO-S), a static risk assessment for sexual offending (STATIC-99), and a static risk assessment for violence…

  6. The sexual behaviour of physically disabled adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maart, Soraya; Jelsma, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour is a major factor contributing to the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS in South Africa. A large national survey of adolescent's sexual behaviour was undertaken in 2002, however adolescents with disabilities were excluded from this study. The aim of this study is to compare the sexual behaviours of adolescents with physical disabilities to those of their non-disabled peers. A cross-sectional sample was drawn from learners with physical disabilities between grades 8 and 9 in Cape Town. Data were collected using the South African youth risk behaviour survey adapted by the medical research council of South Africa. There were responses from 91 participants, of which 56% were males. Approximately, one quarter of the special school sample reported sexual activity compared with one third of the national sample; the difference approached significance. As with the national sample, relatively few adolescents thought they were likely to contract HIV in their lifetime (12%). Fifty percent of the sample claimed that they were able to protect themselves against contracting HIV compared with 66% of the adolescents without disability. The percentage reporting two or more sexual partners in the special schools (27%) was about half that of the national sample (53%). There was little difference in the percentages reporting substance abuse related to sexual activity (14% compared with 15%) and the national sample reported more regularly use of condoms (Special school 18% compared with 25%). Disabled adolescents are indulging in risky sexual behaviours, and are at equal risk as their non-disabled peers of developing HIV. Adolescents with disability must not be excluded from main stream research and health promotion activities specifically related to sex education.

  7. Vulnerabilities, health needs and predictors of high-risk sexual behaviour among female adolescent sex workers in Kunming, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Dong; Temmerman, Marleen; Li, Yan; Luo, Wei; Luchters, Stanley

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed social and behavioural predictors for sexual risk taking and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among adolescent female sex workers (FSWs) from Kunming, China. Additionally, health services needs and use were assessed. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010. Using snowball and convenience sampling, self-identified FSWs were recruited from four urban areas in Kunming. Women consenting to participate were administered a semi-structured questionnaire by trained interviewers identified from local peer-support organisations. Following interview, a gynaecological examination and biological sampling to identify potential STIs were undertaken. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Adolescent FSWs had a mean age of 18.2 years and reported numerous non-paying sexual partners with very low rate of consistent condom use (22.2%). Half (50.3%) the respondents had sex while feeling drunk at least once in the past week, of whom 56.4% did not use condom protection. STI prevalence was high overall (30.4%) among this group. Younger age, early sexual debut, being isolated from schools and family, short duration in sex work, and use of illicit drugs were found to be strong predictors for unprotected sex and presence of an STI. Conversely, having access to condom promotion, free HIV counselling and testing, and peer education were associated with less unprotected sex. The majority reported a need for health knowledge, free condoms and low-cost STI diagnosis and treatment. There is an urgent need to improve coverage, accessibility and efficiency of existing interventions targeting adolescent FSWs.

  8. Decrease in sexual risk behaviours after early initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a 24-month prospective study in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Kévin; Gabillard, Delphine; Moh, Raoul; Danel, Christine; Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel; N'takpe, Jean-Baptiste; Carrou, Jérôme Le; Badjé, Anani; Eholié, Serge; Lert, France; Anglaret, Xavier; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Whether early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation could impact sexual risk behaviours remains to be documented. We aimed to investigate changes in sexual behaviours within the 24 months following an early versus standard ART initiation in HIV-positive adults with high CD4 counts. Methods We used data from a prospective behavioural study nested in a randomized controlled trial of early ART (Temprano-ANRS12136). Time trends in sexual behaviours from enrolment in the trial (M0) to 12-month (M12) and 24-month (M24) visits were measured and compared, using Generalized Estimating Equations models, between participants randomly assigned either to initiate ART immediately (early ART) or to defer ART initiation until on-going WHO starting criteria are met (standard ART). Indicators of sexual behaviours included 1) sexual activity in the past year, 2) multiple partnership in the past year, 3) unprotected sex at last intercourse and 4) risky sex (i.e. unprotected sex with a partner of HIV negative/unknown status) at last intercourse. Results Analyses included 1952 participants (975 with early ART and 977 with standard ART; overall median baseline CD4 count: 469/mm3). Among participants with early ART, significant decreases were found between M0 and M24 in sexual activity (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.72, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 0.57–0.92), multiple partnership (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.41–0.79), unprotected sex (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.47–0.75) and risky sex (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.45–0.76). Among participants with standard ART, sexual behaviours showed similar trends over time. These decreases mostly occurred within the 12 months following enrolment in the trial in both groups and prior to ART initiation in participants with standard ART. For unprotected sex and risky sex, decreases were or tended to be more pronounced among patients reporting that their last sexual partner was non-cohabiting. Conclusions In these sub-Saharan adults with high CD4 counts, entry into HIV

  9. Qualitative evaluation of selected social factors that impact sexual risk-taking behaviour among African students in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ngidi, Ndumiso Daluxolo; Moyo, Sibusiso; Zulu, Thobile; Adam, Jamila Khatoon; Krishna, Suresh Babu Naidu

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of HIV and AIDS continues to be a source of great concern within universities in South Africa. Furthermore, university students constitute an important community in the intervention against the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Students in the age group of 15-24 years are at a greater risk of HIV infection than any other group in the country; yet, little is known about why they continue to engage in risky sexual practices. This study was designed to explore the sexual behaviour of students in a metropolitan Durban University of Technology in KwaZulu-Natal to understand the social factors underlying their risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study that used cluster sampling where the population was stratified by campus and faculty. The study population was selected using a standard randomization technique. This was a part of a multi-phased research project aimed at providing a sero-prevalence baseline and an analysis of risk-taking behaviour at a Durban University of Technology in the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality area. The study highlights peer pressure among students as an influence in promoting high-risk sexual behaviour. Within this context, the findings revealed that university students lack the ability to negotiate risk-aware decisions especially regarding sexual relationships. This study draws attention to the perspectives of African university students regarding their risk-taking sexual practices and selected factors which influence such behaviour. The findings are not exhaustive in exploring contextual antecedents that shape students' sexual practices. However, they provide an important basis in understanding key factors which expose students to HIV infections. The study provides insights into opportunities for further studies as well as preventative implications.

  10. Individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use, sexual risk behaviours on sexually transmitted infections among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: results from the GOANNA survey.

    PubMed

    Wand, Handan; Ward, James; Bryant, Joanne; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Worth, Heather; Pitts, Marian; Kaldor, John M

    2016-07-19

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been increasing among Australian Indigenous young people for over two decades. Little is known about the association between alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviours and diagnosis of STIs among this population. A cross-sectional, community based self-administered survey was conducted among young Aboriginal people aged 16-29 years of age. Questionnaires included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, sexual risk behaviours alcohol and other drug use and health service access including self-reported history of diagnosis with a STI. Logistic regression models and population attributable risks were used to assess individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use on high risk sexual behaviours and ever reported diagnosis of an STI. Of the 2877 participants, 2320 (81 %) identified as sexually active and were included in this study. More than 50 % of the study population reported that they had used at least one illicit drug in past year. Cannabis, ecstasy and methamphetamines were the three most commonly used illicit drugs in the past year. The prevalence of self-reported STI diagnosis was 25 %. Compared with people who did not report using illicit drugs, risky alcohol use and sexual behaviours including inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners in the past year and sex with casual partners were all significantly higher among illicit drug users. In adjusted analysis, participants who reported using illicit drugs were significantly more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviours and to ever have been diagnosed with an STI. Adjusted Odds Ratios ranged from 1.86 to 3.00 (males) and from 1.43 to 2.46 (females). At the population level, more than 70 % of the STI diagnoses were attributed to illicit drug-use and sexual risk behaviours for males and females. Illicit drug use in this population is relatively high compared to other similar aged populations in Australia. Illicit drug use was

  11. Gym exercising patterns, lifestyle and high-risk sexual behaviour in men who have sex with men and in heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Mor, Z; Parfionov, K; Davidovitch, N; Grotto, I

    2014-11-24

    Lifestyle may be associated with risk behaviours. This study compares gym exercise and sexual risk behaviour between men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men. The research was based on the assumption that men who become muscular and physically attractive increase their number of sex partners and consequently their risk of HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Five gyms in central Tel Aviv, Israel. In 2012, a sample of 182 (48%) MSM and 197 (52%) heterosexual men who train in gyms completed anonymous questionnaires regarding their training, health and sexual behaviours. Participants in this cross-sectional study who exercised more than the median number of anaerobic training hours were defined as performing intensive anaerobic training (IAT), and those who had performed more than one act of unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse in the preceding 6 months with a partner whose HIV status was unknown were defined as high risk. MSM showed a stronger desire to become muscular than heterosexual men, were more likely to perform IAT, and used protein powders or anabolic steroids. They reported that improving their body shape and increasing their self-confidence were their main reasons for training, whereas heterosexual men indicated weight loss and health improvement as the main reasons for training. MSM engaged in riskier sexual behaviour than heterosexual men. Of all the high-risk men, 61.9% (N=70) performed IAT, while 38.1% (N=43) performed moderate anaerobic training (p<0.01). The association between IAT and sexual risk was stronger in MSM than in heterosexual men (p<0.01 vs p=0.05, respectively). The interaction between MSM and IAT in high-risk participants was multiplicative. MSM practised more IAT than heterosexual men, and their interaction between IAT and sexual risk was multiplicative. The MSM community could benefit from a holistic approach to sexual health and its association with body image and IAT. The gym MSM culture demonstrates how

  12. Gym exercising patterns, lifestyle and high-risk sexual behaviour in men who have sex with men and in heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Z; Parfionov, K; Davidovitch, N; Grotto, I

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lifestyle may be associated with risk behaviours. This study compares gym exercise and sexual risk behaviour between men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men. The research was based on the assumption that men who become muscular and physically attractive increase their number of sex partners and consequently their risk of HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Setting Five gyms in central Tel Aviv, Israel. Participants In 2012, a sample of 182 (48%) MSM and 197 (52%) heterosexual men who train in gyms completed anonymous questionnaires regarding their training, health and sexual behaviours. Outcomes Participants in this cross-sectional study who exercised more than the median number of anaerobic training hours were defined as performing intensive anaerobic training (IAT), and those who had performed more than one act of unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse in the preceding 6 months with a partner whose HIV status was unknown were defined as high risk. Results MSM showed a stronger desire to become muscular than heterosexual men, were more likely to perform IAT, and used protein powders or anabolic steroids. They reported that improving their body shape and increasing their self-confidence were their main reasons for training, whereas heterosexual men indicated weight loss and health improvement as the main reasons for training. MSM engaged in riskier sexual behaviour than heterosexual men. Of all the high-risk men, 61.9% (N=70) performed IAT, while 38.1% (N=43) performed moderate anaerobic training (p<0.01). The association between IAT and sexual risk was stronger in MSM than in heterosexual men (p<0.01 vs p=0.05, respectively). The interaction between MSM and IAT in high-risk participants was multiplicative. Conclusions MSM practised more IAT than heterosexual men, and their interaction between IAT and sexual risk was multiplicative. The MSM community could benefit from a holistic approach to sexual health and its association

  13. The impact of the transmission dynamics of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on sexual behaviour: a new hypothesis to explain recent increases in risk taking-behaviour among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Boily, Marie-Claude; Godin, G; Hogben, M; Sherr, L; Bastos, F I

    2005-01-01

    Increases in sexually transmitted infections and related high-risk behaviours have been reported among men who have sex with men (MSM) in industrialised countries when effective antiretroviral therapy against HIV infection has become widely available, in the mid-nineties. The reasons for these increases are not fully understood and often conflicting. Prevention fatigue, relapses to unsafe sex, as well as optimism toward the risk of developing AIDS among people living with HIV are not unique to the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This has led researchers to highlight the need to investigate other potential reasons that could explain the increase in high-risk taking following the ART introduction. We put forward the hypothesis that the change in the transmission dynamics of the HIV/AIDS epidemic before and after the introduction of ART has contributed to this change in high-risk behaviour. It is suggested that a decline in sexual risk activities has occurred at the population-level following the initial spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic because AIDS mortality and severe morbidity disproportionately depleted the pool of high-risk taking individuals. As a result, non-volitional changes may have occurred at the individual-level over time because the depletion of this pool of high-risk individuals made it more difficult for the remaining high-risk taking individuals to find partners to engage in risky sex with. Following its introduction, ART has facilitated the differential replenishment of the pool of individuals willing to engage in high-risk taking behaviours because ART reduces AIDS mortality, and morbidity. Consequently, high-risk taking individuals who had previously reduced their level of risky sex non-volitionally (i.e., as a result of the reduced availability of high-risk partners) were able to resume their initial high-risk practices as the pool of high-risk taking individuals replenished over time. Thus, a fraction of the recently reported increase in high-risk

  14. Is sexual content in new media linked to sexual risk behaviour in young people? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lucy Watchirs; Liu, Bette; Degenhardt, Louisa; Richters, Juliet; Patton, George; Wand, Handan; Cross, Donna; Hocking, Jane S; Skinner, S Rachel; Cooper, Spring; Lumby, Catharine; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca

    2016-08-11

    Background: Social networking and digital media increasingly have an impact on the lives of young people. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that examined the relationship between exposure to sexually explicit websites (SEWs) and 'sexting' (i.e. sending semi-nude or nude photos from a mobile phone) and the sexual attitudes and practices of young people. Methods: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses statement, Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO were searched for papers that described the statistical association between viewing SEWs or sexting by young people (defined as 10-24 years) and their sexual attitudes and behaviours. Results: Fourteen studies, all cross-sectional in design, met the inclusion criteria. Six studies (10352 participants) examined young people's exposure to SEWs and eight (10429 participants) examined sexting. There was substantial variation across studies in exposure and outcome definitions. Meta-analyses found that SEW exposure was correlated with condomless sexual intercourse (odds ratio (OR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.38, two studies); sexting was correlated with ever having had sexual intercourse (OR 5.58, 95% CI: 4.46-6.71, five studies), recent sexual activity (OR 4.79, 95% CI: 3.55-6.04, two studies), alcohol and other drug use before sexual intercourse (OR 2.65, 95% CI: 1.99-3.32, two studies) and multiple recent sexual partners (OR 2.79, 95% CI: 1.95-3.63, two studies). Most studies had limited adjustment for important potential confounders. Conclusions: Cross-sectional studies show a strong association between self-reported exposure to sexual content in new media and sexual behaviours in young people. Longitudinal studies would provide a greater opportunity to adjust for confounding, and better insight into the causal pathways underlying the observed associations.

  15. University students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards, HIV and AIDS, homosexuality and sexual risk behaviour: a questionnaire survey in two Finnish universities.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Teija; Kylmä, Jari; Houtsonen, Jarmo; Välimäki, Maritta; Suominen, Tarja

    2012-11-01

    This study describes Finnish university students' knowledge and attitudes towards HIV and AIDS, homosexuality and sexual risk behaviour. Finnish-speaking students were randomly selected from all registered students at two universities in Finland (N = 9715, n = 950). The data were collected by using a modified version of the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Nursing AIDS Study Questionnaire on sexual risk behaviour developed by Held and Chng. The total response rate was 35% (n = 333). The data were analysed using quantitative statistical methods. Normally distributed data were analysed by t-test and one-way ANOVA, with Bonferroni corrections. Non-normally distributed data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by a post-hoc test. The majority of students were familiar with HIV and AIDS, including its mode of transmission. However, there were still some misconceptions concerning HIV and AIDS. The oldest students and women had a more positive attitude towards people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). Of patients with HIV or AIDS, intravenous drug users were perceived most negatively. Male students had more homophobic attitudes. Students who reported that religion had an important role in their lives had significantly stricter attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour. Students' knowledge correlated positively with general attitudes towards HIV and AIDS. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS will lead to more positive attitudes towards HIV and AIDS as a disease, towards those infected as well as homosexual people. There is a need to focus on preventive health care and sexual health promotion by educating young people and changing their attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour.

  16. The Fallacy of Intimacy: Sexual Risk Behaviour and Beliefs about Trust and Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Justin; Yi, Huso; Reddy, Vasu; Maimane, Senkhu; Sandfort, Theo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess (1) whether beliefs about trust and condom use affect sexual risk behaviour, and (2) if beliefs about trust and condom use impact sexual risk behaviour directly or if this relationship is mediated by other determinants. The Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills model was used as a framework for the mediation analysis. A diverse cohort of three hundred 18–40 year old men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in Pretoria, South Africa, were recruited and surveyed for this project. Findings indicate that men who report a high frequency of past unprotected anal intercourse are more likely to believe that it is not necessary to use condoms with a trusted or steady partner regardless of their current partnership status. This fallacy of intimacy appears to affect sexual risk behaviour through intentions and attitudes regarding safer sex practices. Based on these findings, we recommend that more attention be given to gaining a better understanding of how beliefs about trust and condom use are formed and how they can be changed among MSM in South Africa. PMID:21154019

  17. Patterns of risk behaviour for patients with sexually transmitted diseases and surveillance for human immunodeficiency virus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lye, M S; Archibald, C; Ghazali, A A; Low, B T; Teoh, B H; Sinniah, M; Rus, S C; Singh, J; Nair, R C

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of establishing a sentinel human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance system involving patients with sexually transmitted diseases attending private clinics and a government sexually transmitted disease clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Information on risk behaviours for HIV infection were also collected. A total of 84 female and 91 male patients were interviewed and tested for HIV infection; 41.7% of the women reported working as prostitutes, other occupations included masseuses, hairdressers, waitresses, salesgirls, receptionists, factory workers, and others. The most common diagnosis was gonorrhoea. Other diagnoses included non-specific genital infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, genital herpes and syphilis. 58.3% of the women had a hundred or more sex partners during the previous month; 99% had 6 or more sex partners. Only 4.8% of female patients had their male partners using condoms most of the time, 11.9% hardly used condoms at all. Of the males, 93.3% were heterosexual, while 6.7% were bisexuals, 41.1% had between 6-20 different partners in the previous year. 78.0% of them had prostitutes as their sex partners most of the time. 41.8% had experiences in Thailand and the Philippines. 73.6% never used condoms, while 19.8% only used condoms rarely. Although all patients were tested negative for HIV antibodies, lot quality assurance sampling methods indicate that the upper limits of prevalences for females and males were 3.5% and 3.3% respectively, at a 5% type I error. The study has shown that it is feasible to carry out a sentinel surveillance programme among STD patients and provided useful baseline data for future comparisons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Does online dating lead to higher sexual risk behaviour? A cross-sectional study among MSM in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Heijman, Titia; Stolte, Ineke; Geskus, Ronald; Matser, Amy; Davidovich, Udi; Xiridou, Maria; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten

    2016-06-14

    Men having sex with men (MSM) frequently use the Internet to find sex partners. We examined the association between unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with partners dated online and with partners dated offline (met elsewhere), and examined whether differences can be explained by self-perceived HIV status of the index and knowledge of partnership characteristics. MSM were recruited at the Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic in Amsterdam, in 2008-2009. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning sexual behaviour. Only men reporting both online and offline casual sex partners were included. We assessed the association between online/offline partner dating and UAI, using random-effects logistic regression analysis. Five hundred seventy-seven men (351 HIV-negative, 153 HIV-positive, and 73 HIV-unaware) reported UAI in 26 % of 878 online, and 23 % of 903 offline casual partnerships. The crude OR of online dating for UAI was 1.36 (95 % CI 1.03-1.81). HIV-positive men were more likely to report UAI than HIV-negative men (49 % vs. 28 % of partnerships). Adjusted for demographic characteristics, online dating had no significant effect on UAI among HIV-negative and HIV status-unaware men, but HIV-positive men were more likely to have UAI with online partners (aOR = 1.65 [95 % CI 1.05-2.57]). After correction for partner and partnership characteristics the effect of online/offline dating on UAI among HIV-positive MSM was reduced and no longer significant. Online dating was not significantly associated with UAI among HIV-negative MSM. HIV-positive MSM were more likely to practise UAI with partners dated online; however, after correction for partner and partnership characteristics, online partnership acquisition was not associated with a significantly increased risk of UAI.

  19. Cultural practices and sexual risk behaviour among adolescent orphans and non-orphans: a qualitative study on perceptions from a community in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study explored community perceptions of cultural beliefs and practices that may increase sexual risk behaviour of adolescents, to understand more about meaning they hold within the culture and how they expose adolescent orphans and non-orphans to higher risks in a high HIV and teenage pregnancy prevalence context. Methods Using a qualitative descriptive cross-sectional design 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 78 adolescents and 68 parents/guardians purposively selected to represent their communities. Thirteen key informant interviews were also conducted with community leaders, health care and child welfare workers, and adolescents who were also selected purposively. The two methods were used to explore how cultural beliefs and practices predispose adolescent orphans and non- orphans to risky sexual behaviours. Data were analysed through line-by-line coding, grouped into families and retrieved as themes and sub-themes. Results Identified cultural practices that predisposed adolescents orphans and non-orphans to risky sexual behaviours included: adolescent sleeping arrangements, funeral ceremonies, replacing a deceased married daughter with her younger sister in marriage, widow inheritance among boys, early marriage among girls, and preference for boys/sons. Cultural risks perceived to equally affect both orphans and non-orphans were sleeping arrangements, funeral ceremonies, and sister replacement. Factors associated more with orphans than non-orphans were widow inheritance among boys and a preference for boy over girl children. Conclusions Adolescent sexual risk reduction programs should be developed considering the specific cultural context, using strategies that empower communities to challenge the widely accepted cultural norms that may predispose young people in general to sexual risks while targeting those that unequally influence orphans. PMID:24467940

  20. HIV, syphilis and sexual risk behaviours among men who have sex with men in Agadir and Marrakesh, Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Alami, Kamal; El Rhilani, M Houssine; Karkouri, Mehdi; Mellouk, Othoman; Abadie, Alise; Rafif, Nadia; Ouarsas, Lahoucine; Bennani, Aziza; Omari, Boutaina El

    2013-01-01

    Objective To collect baseline measurements of HIV and syphilis prevalence and sexual risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Agadir and Marrakech, Morocco, and provide strategic information to improve outreach programmes. Methods and Design Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit men who reported having anal sex with another man in the last 6 months, aged 18 years and older and living in either Agadir or Marrakech for the past 6 months, regardless of nationality. Data were analysed with the multiplicity estimator using respondent-driven sampling analysis tool V.6.0. Results 323 MSM in Agadir and 346 in Marrakech were recruited into the survey. Most MSM in both cities reported being < 25 years, being unemployed, bisexual and in a couple with both a man and a woman. Most reported selling sex and having sex with women. HIV prevalence was 5.6% in Agadir and 2.8% in Marrakesh; syphilis was 7.0% in Agadir and 10.8% in Marrakesh. Among MSM who tested positive for HIV, 31.6% in Agadir and 56.4% in Marrakesh were co-infected with syphilis. Conclusions HIV and syphilis findings coupled with high risk activities indicate the need for expanding programmes targeting MSM throughout Morocco. Selling sex and sex with women may be a strategy to cope with extreme stigma towards MSM. Criminalisation and discrimination of MSM in Morocco underscores the urgent need for long-term and sustainable risk reduction through legal reforms and promotion and protection of human rights. PMID:23620132

  1. Decline in Sexual Risk Behaviours among Young People in Zambia (2000–2009): Do Neighbourhood Contextual Effects Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Kayeyi, Nkomba; Fylkesnes, Knut; Wiium, Nora; Sandøy, Ingvild F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined trends in premarital sex, multiple partnership and condom use among young people (15–24 years) in Zambia from 2000 to 2009, and assessed the effects of individual and neighbourhood variables on these sexual behaviour indicators in 2000 and 2009. Methodology We analysed data from the Zambia Sexual Behaviour Survey, conducted in 2000, 2003, 2005 and 2009. Multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select 385 neighbourhoods, giving a population sample of 6,500 young people. Using linear-by-linear trend test, trends in the three indicators were examined. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the effects of individual and neighbourhood variables on the indicators. Results Premarital sex among young people decreased significantly from 51 to 42% between 2000 and 2009. Multiple partnerships of men also decreased from 26 to 14% during the same period. The use of condoms by young people remained stable during this period. Full multilevel regression models explained 29 and 34% of the neighbourhood variance of premarital sex in 2000 and 2009. For multiple partnerships and condom use, the explained variance was 29 and 18% in 2000; whereas in 2009 it was extremely low. Urban residence and living in neighbourhood with higher average duration of residence were associated with low premarital sex and higher condom use. Living in a neighbourhood with higher average level of comprehensive knowledge of HIV was associated with less risky sexual behaviour. Conclusion Declining trends in premarital sex and multiple partnerships are among the factors that might explain the decrease in HIV incidence in Zambia among young people. However, condom use among young people has remained low and stable over the years. The results also suggest that behaviour change interventions should take stock of the social context when introducing individual-level programmes because neighbourhood factors play a considerable role in influencing sexual behaviour. PMID

  2. Exposure to pornographic videos and its effect on HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in southern India.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007-08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. Two-fifths (40%) of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25-29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-4.8) and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7-4.7), report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0) and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5-1.8) than their counterparts. The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours.

  3. Exposure to Pornographic Videos and Its Effect on HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviours among Male Migrant Workers in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007–08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. Results Two-fifths (40%) of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25–29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7–4.8) and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7–4.7), report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7–3.0) and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5–1.8) than their counterparts. Conclusions The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours. PMID:25423311

  4. Sexual behaviour in context: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Wellings, Kaye; Collumbien, Martine; Slaymaker, Emma; Singh, Susheela; Hodges, Zoé; Patel, Dhaval; Bajos, Nathalie

    2006-11-11

    Research aimed at investigating sexual behaviour and assessing interventions to improve sexual health has increased in recent decades. The resulting data, despite regional differences in quantity and quality, provide a historically unique opportunity to describe patterns of sexual behaviour and their implications for attempts to protect sexual health at the beginning of the 21st century. In this paper we present original analyses of sexual behaviour data from 59 countries for which they were available. The data show substantial diversity in sexual behaviour by region and sex. No universal trend towards earlier sexual intercourse has occurred, but the shift towards later marriage in most countries has led to an increase in premarital sex, the prevalence of which is generally higher in developed countries than in developing countries, and is higher in men than in women. Monogamy is the dominant pattern everywhere, but having had two or more sexual partners in the past year is more common in men than in women, and reported rates are higher in industrialised than in non-industrialised countries. Condom use has increased in prevalence almost everywhere, but rates remain low in many developing countries. The huge regional variation indicates mainly social and economic determinants of sexual behaviour, which have implications for intervention. Although individual behaviour change is central to improving sexual health, efforts are also needed to address the broader determinants of sexual behaviour, particularly those that relate to the social context. The evidence from behavioural interventions is that no general approach to sexual-health promotion will work everywhere and no single-component intervention will work anywhere. Comprehensive behavioural interventions are needed that take account of the social context in mounting individual-level programmes, attempt to modify social norms to support uptake and maintenance of behaviour change, and tackle the structural factors

  5. Understanding internet sex-seeking behaviour and sexual risk among young men who have sex with men: evidences from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Abara, Winston; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S Melinda; Fairchild, Amanda Jane; Billings, Debbie

    2014-12-01

    Internet sex-seeking is common among young men who have sex with men (MSM). However, research examining its association with risky sexual behaviour has produced mixed findings, possibly due to various operational definitions of internet sex-seeking which fail to account for its multi-dimensionality. This study purposed to: (1) examine if the way internet sex-seeking behaviour is operationalised influences its association with risky sexual behaviour (unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and casual sex) and (2) determine the association of each operational definition with sexual risk. We recruited 263 sexually-experienced young MSM (18-29 years) and operationalised internet sex-seeking behaviour in four ways: (i) ever used the internet to meet other men, (ii) currently own a profile on a website dedicated to meeting other men, (iii) ever physically met a man you initially met online and (iv) ever had sex with a man you met online. Using binomial regression, we examined the association of each operationalisation with UAI and casual sex. Only MSM who reported physically meeting a man they met online and those who ever had sex with a man they met online were more likely to report a history of UAI (p<0.05), while MSM who engaged in all forms of internet sex-seeking were more likely to engage in casual sex (p<0.05). However, the strength of these associations varied according to the mode of operationalisation. The way internet sex-seeking is operationalised in research is differentially associated with sexual risk. Against this backdrop, the utility of these operational definitions in future research and inferences drawn from such research must be interpreted with caution. Findings have important implications for sexual health research and methodology, survey development, sexual health prevention interventions, and evaluating sexual risk among young MSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  6. Online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth: associations to background factors, behaviours and abuse.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Linda S; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-10-01

    Sexual activity online may result in positive experiences for young people, or lead them to engage in risky behaviours possibly resulting in sexual assault or abuse. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth and background factors as well as aspects of well-being. The behaviours investigated were: having sex online with a contact met online, having sex with an online contact offline, posting sexual pictures online, and selling sex online. We used data from a representative sample of 3,432 Swedish youth who were asked about their lifetime experiences as well as their experiences within the previous year. We hypothesized that more advanced online sexual behaviours were associated with more problematic background factors, worse psychosocial well-being and riskier behaviours in general. Bivariate relationships were evaluated followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Our data suggested that most Swedish youth do not perform any of the assessed online sexual behaviours. Young people who reported online sexual behaviour showed a more problematic background, rated their health as poorer, had a more sexualized life and had experienced more sexual or physical abuse. Professionals who work with young people need to help them better evaluate potential risks online and offer support when needed. Youths who sell sex online are especially at risk and need extra attention, as they might be in greater need of protection and therapeutic support.

  7. Sexual risk behaviours and HIV seroprevalence among male sex workers who have sex with men and non-sex workers in Campinas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tun, W; de Mello, M; Pinho, A; Chinaglia, M; Diaz, J

    2008-11-01

    To compare population-based prevalence estimates of sexual risk behaviours and HIV seroprevalence of male sex workers who have sex with men (MSM) and those not engaged in sex work in Campinas, Brazil. MSM (n = 658) were recruited for a cross-sectional study through respondent-driven sampling. Audio-assisted computer self-interview was used to collect information on sexual behaviours and HIV testing (optional) was performed. Population-based prevalence estimates with 95% CI of characteristics and behaviours of MSM sex workers and non-sex workers are reported. One-quarter reported ever receiving payment for sex and 14.8% (95% CI 11.1 to 19.0) had been paid in the previous 2 months; most exclusively with men. MSM sex workers were significantly more likely than non-sex workers to report being transgendered (40.5% vs 8.1%), to practise unprotected receptive (22.4% vs 4.6%) and insertive (20.5% vs 5.0%) anal intercourse with > or =2 male partners and to have unprotected vaginal sex with women (22.7% vs 5.6%). MSM sex workers experienced significantly greater rates of psychological abuse (80.9% vs 58.4%) and physical abuse (48.2% vs 15.2%). MSM sex workers have higher sexual risk behaviours as well as social vulnerabilities than the general population of MSM. HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention efforts should be targeted to this riskier subgroup. Programmes should be transgender sensitive, should recognise that MSM sex workers have sex with men and women and address other factors that influence risk, such as homophobic abuse.

  8. Sexual violence from police and HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive women who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia – a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Results Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Conclusions Sexual violence

  9. Sexual violence from police and HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive women who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia - a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Sexual violence from police was common in this cohort of

  10. A new meeting place: chatting on the Internet, e-dating and sexual risk behaviour among Dutch men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Hospers, Harm J; Kok, Gerjo; Harterink, Paul; de Zwart, Onno

    2005-07-01

    To describe the process of Internet chatting, and subsequent dating and sexual (risk) behaviour among Dutch men who have sex with men (MSM), and to compare the demographic profile of the Internet sample with a traditional Dutch MSM sample. A self-selected anonymous Internet sample. Enrolment via a prominent gay chat room. Potential respondents were asked to complete an online questionnaire about chatting and dating, and sexual (risk) behaviour with their last date via chatting (e-date). In 26 days, 5302 questionnaires were returned. Of these, 4984 were evaluated as reliable and were used in the analyses. Eighty-two per cent chatted at least once a week, 88% had ever dated through chatting, and of these 89% had had sex with one or more e-dates. With respect to the last e-date, almost 50% had had anal sex with their last e-date, and 15% reported unprotected anal sex. Especially among HIV-positive men, a high percentage of unprotected anal sex was reported (39%). After correcting for the disclosure of HIV status, this percentage remained twice as high compared with HIV-negative and never-tested men (28 versus 14%). Compared with a traditional MSM sample, the Internet sample was significantly younger, and comprised more non-Dutch and bisexual men, whereas the level of sexual risk behaviour with casual partners was comparable. The Internet is a popular new meeting place for MSM, and attracts men with a different demographic profile. The level of risk behaviour warrants that opportunities for interventions on the Internet are explored, with special attention to HIV-positive chatters.

  11. The relationship between pornography use and sexual behaviours among at-risk HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria N; Pope, Howard; Garcia, Jonathan; Cherry, Chauncey

    2012-05-01

    Although pornography is widely available and frequently used among many adults in the USA, little is known about the relationship between pornography and risk factors for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men. Baseline assessments from a behavioural intervention trial for at-risk men who have sex with men were conducted in Atlanta, GA in 2009. Univariate and multivariate generalised linear models were used to assess the relationships between known risk factors for HIV infection, time spent viewing pornography, and sex behaviours. One hundred forty-nine men reporting HIV-negative status and two or more unprotected anal sex partners in the past 6 months were enrolled in an intervention trial and completed survey assessments. Time spent viewing pornography was significantly associated with having more male sexual partners (B=0.45, SE=0.04, P<0.001) and unprotected insertive anal sex acts (B=0.28, SE=0.04, P<0.001). Moreover, increased substance use (drug use, B=0.61, SE=0.14, P<0.001; alcohol use, B=0.03, SE=0.01, P<0.01) and decreased perception of risk for HIV infection (B=-0.09, SE=0.04, P<0.05) were found to be significantly associated with greater time spent viewing pornography. This exploratory study is novel in that it sheds light on the associations between viewing pornography and sexual risk taking for HIV infection. Future studies in this area should focus on understanding how the content of pornography; in particular, the viewing of unprotected and protected sex acts, may affect sexual risk taking behaviour.

  12. Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town, South Africa: a review of data from 8 studies conducted between 2004 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Parry, C D H; Plüddemann, A; Myers, B; Wechsberg, W M; Flisher, A J

    2011-11-01

    Community studies and studies of admissions to drug treatment centers indicate a dramatic increase in the prevalence of methamphetamine use in Cape Town since 2003. There has also been a substantial increase over this time period in the prevalence of HIV infection among women attending public antenatal clinics in the Western Cape province. This study aimed to review research conducted in Cape Town on the link between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour. A review of published research conducted in Cape Town between 2004 and 2007 was undertaken using PubMed, EBSCOhost and Science Direct. Eight studies were identified, both quantitative and qualitative, and focusing on diverse populations, such as learners in school, out of school youth, adults in the community, men who have sex with men and sex workers. The total sample across the studies was 8153. Across multiple studies methamphetamine was fairly consistently associated with early vaginal sex, condom use during sex, having casual sex and other HIV risk behaviours. For some sub-groups the direction of the relationship was in an unexpected direction. The consistency of the findings across studies highlights the increased risk for contracting HIV among methamphetamine users, and reinforces the importance of interventions addressing both methamphetamine use and unsafe sexual behaviour among young people and other sectors of the population. The need for further research is also considered, particularly research that will explain some of the racial differences that were found.

  13. I am not "umqwayito'': a qualitative study of peer pressure and sexual risk behaviour among young adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Selikow, Terry-Ann; Ahmed, Nazeema; Flisher, Alan J; Mathews, Catherine; Mukoma, Wanjiru

    2009-06-01

    Young people in South Africa are susceptible to HIV infection. They are vulnerable to peer pressure to have sex, but little is known about how peer pressure operates. The aim of the study was to understand how negative peer pressure increases high risk sexual behaviour among young adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa. Qualitative research methods were used. Eight focus groups were conducted with young people between the ages of 13 and 14 years. Peer pressure among both boys and girls undermines healthy social norms and HIV prevention messages to abstain, be faithful, use a condom and delay sexual debut. HIV prevention projects need to engage with peer pressure with the aim of changing harmful social norms into healthy norms. Increased communication with adults about sex is one way to decrease the impact of negative peer pressure. Peer education is a further mechanism by which trained peers can role model healthy social norms and challenge a peer culture that promotes high risk sexual behaviour. Successful HIV prevention interventions need to engage with the disconnect between educational messages and social messages and to exploit the gaps between awareness, decision making, norms, intentions and actions as spaces for positive interventions.

  14. [Associations between partner-seeking activities through Internet and sexual risk behaviours related to HIV/AIDS among men who have sex with men in China].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-fang; Zhang, Bei-chuan; Chu, Quan-sheng; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yan-fei; Yu, Zeng-zhao

    2008-07-01

    To explore the associations between partner-seeking activities through internet and HIV/AIDS related risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM). Target sampling, anonymous questionnaires were adopted and analyzed with SPSS 11.0. Data from 45.6% of the 2178 valid questionnaires showed that most partner-seeking activities was through internet. 73.1% of them landed on gay website, in which 83.0% looked for sexual partners and 91.7% of them had intercourse with other men met through internet when compared with MSM who did not seek sex activities through internet. The internet group obviously had fewer numbers of partners (5.73 vs. 10.3), oral sex partners (5.13 vs. 8.71), passive anus sex partners (4.67 vs. 8.26) and active anus sex partners (3.51 vs. 6.06) in the past 6 months (P < 0.01 respectively) and obviously had fewer group sex (16.7% vs. 20.5%) activities in the past one year but had more activities on oral sex (94.7% vs. 89.6%), anus sex (95.1% vs. 86.5%), regular sexual partner (52.6% vs. 46.7%) in the past 6 months (83.4% vs. 75.5%) (P < 0.01 respectively) and more likely to have finger intercourse (52.2% vs. 38.5%), hemorrhage sexual intercourse (36.4% vs. 21.9%, OR = 2.04), non-local sexual intercourse (28.1% vs. 22.7%) (P < 0.01 respectively). Seeking sexual partners through internet had positive and double effects on MSM's risk behaviours, suggesting that it is of urgent need to take the advance of internet and gay website to disseminate HIV/AIDS prevention message.

  15. Predictors of AIDS knowledge, condom use and high-risk sexual behaviour among women in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kapiga, S H; Lwihula, G K; Shao, J F; Hunter, D J

    1995-01-01

    Reducing the number of sex partners and using condoms are the major means for individuals to protect themselves from STDs and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. To identify predictors of having only one sex partner in the last year and to assess knowledge and use of condoms among women of reproductive age in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, we interviewed 2285 women at 3 representative family planning clinics between February 1991 and June 1992. After interview, blood and genital specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Although knowledge of sexual transmission of AIDS was very high, less than a half of the respondents (42.8%) mentioned use of condoms as an AIDS preventive measure. Younger and more educated women were more likely to mention use of condoms for AIDS prevention, however only 4.6% of women interviewed were regular users of condoms, while 19.8% were occasional users. The majority of women who had never used a condom (57.5%) reported not using condoms because 'men did not like them'. Condom use was positively associated with increasing level of education and increasing number of sexual partners. 14.8% of women reported having more than one sex partner in the last year; this behaviour was more likely among cohabiting women (increased by 210%); HIV-positives (increased by 120%); and among women with STDs (increased by 50%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Health and sexual behaviour among exchange students.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Carina; Peterson, Ulla; Swahnberg, Katarina; Oscarsson, Marie

    2016-08-26

    The objective was to describe the exchange students' health and sexual behaviour associated with their exchange studies, and examine the extent to which they had received preventive efforts against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) and safer sex before departure. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a web survey with questions about sexual behaviour, self-esteem and psychological well-being. Data were analysed using descriptive and analytical statistics. A total of 136 outgoing exchange students from a Swedish University participated. Most of the exchange students rated their health as good, had psychological well-being and rated their self-esteem as being high. Approximately half of the exchange students had sex with a new partner during the exchange semester, and 87% of them had sexually risky behaviour. More than half (61%) of the exchange students had received preventive efforts before departure. No statistically significant difference regarding preventive information was found between those who reported sexually risky behaviour and those who did not. The group that had sexually risky behaviour desired free condoms and access to clinics for sexual health. CONCLUSIONS EXCHANGE STUDENTS RATED THEIR HEALTH AS GOOD, AND THE MAJORITY OF THEM PARTICIPATED IN INFORMATION SESSIONS THAT ADDRESSED PREVENTIVE EFFORTS ON HIV/STI AND SAFER SEX BEFORE DEPARTURE SEXUALLY RISKY BEHAVIOUR DURING EXCHANGE STUDIES WAS REPORTED AND HIGHLIGHTS THE NEED FOR MORE EFFECTIVE PREVENTIVE MEASURES; FOR EXAMPLE, A RECOLLECTION OF READING STI INFORMATION. © Author(s) 2016.

  17. Sexual behaviours and the risk of head and neck cancers: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Berthiller, Julien; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Winn, Deborah M; Smith, Elaine M; Shan'gina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M; Purdue, Mark P; Pilarska, Agnieszka; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Menezes, Ana; McClean, Michael D; Matos, Elena; Koifman, Sergio; Kelsey, Karl T; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernández, Leticia; Daudt, Alexander W; Curado, Maria Paula; Chen, Chu; Castellsagué, Xavier; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexual contact may be the means by which head and neck cancer patients are exposed to human papillomavirus (HPV). Methods We undertook a pooled analysis of four population-based and four hospital-based case–control studies from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, with participants from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, India, Italy, Spain, Poland, Puerto Rico, Russia and the USA. The study included 5642 head and neck cancer cases and 6069 controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) of associations between cancer and specific sexual behaviours, including practice of oral sex, number of lifetime sexual partners and oral sex partners, age at sexual debut, a history of same-sex contact and a history of oral–anal contact. Findings were stratified by sex and disease subsite. Results Cancer of the oropharynx was associated with having a history of six or more lifetime sexual partners [OR = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01, 1.54] and four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.42, 3.58). Cancer of the tonsil was associated with four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32, 8.53), and, among men, with ever having oral sex (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.09, 2.33) and with an earlier age at sexual debut (OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.37, 5.05). Cancer of the base of the tongue was associated with ever having oral sex among women (OR = 4.32, 95% CI 1.06, 17.6), having two sexual partners in comparison with only one (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.19, 3.46) and, among men, with a history of same-sex sexual contact (OR = 8.89, 95% CI 2.14, 36.8). Conclusions Sexual behaviours are associated with cancer risk at the head and neck cancer subsites that have previously been associated with HPV infection. PMID:20022926

  18. How do HIV-negative individuals in sub-Saharan Africa change their sexual risk behaviour upon learning their serostatus? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Sanjeev; Mishra, Sharmistha; Condie, Natalie; Pickles, Michael

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether, and how, sexual behaviour of HIV-negative individuals in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) changes upon learning their serostatus. We systematically reviewed the published literature using EMBASE and Medline to search for publications between 2004 and 2014. We included studies that quantified behaviour change (condom use, number of sexual partners or sex acts) following an HIV test in HIV-negative adults in SSA, and extracted relevant data including study characteristics and measurement type. From 2185 unique citations, n=14 studies representing 22 390 participants met our inclusion criteria. We did not pool data due to marked heterogeneity in study outcome measures. The proportion of participants reporting consistent condom use (n=6) post-testing ranged from 7.6% greater, to 10.6% fewer, while 'no condom use' (n=5) ranged from 40.0% less, to 0.7% more. Condom use in serodiscordant couples increased (n=3). Five studies measured the proportion reporting abstinence, finding an increase of 10.9% to a decrease of 5.3% post-testing. The post-testing change in the mean number of sex acts (n=3) ranged from a relative decrease of 15.7% to a relative increase of 9.4%. Two studies reported relative decreases in the mean number of sexual partners of 35.2% and 14.0%. Three studies examining serodiscordant primary relationships specifically all showed increases in extrarelational sex. With the exception of serodiscordant couples, there is variable evidence that awareness of one's serostatus leads to substantial changes in risk behaviour among HIV-negative individuals. Further research is needed to estimate the behavioural impact of learning one's serostatus in SSA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. HIV prevalence and high-risk sexual behaviours among MSM repeat and first-time testers in China: implications for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xue; Xu, Jie; Yang, Jie; Yang, Bo; Yu, Maohe; Gao, Yongjun; Dong, Willa M; Wu, Zunyou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about HIV testing, HIV infection and sexual behaviour among bathhouse patrons in China. This study aims to assess differences in HIV prevalence and high-risk sexual behaviours between repeat and first-time testers among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending bathhouse in Tianjin, China. Methods Between March 2011 and September 2012, a HIV voluntary counselling and testing station was established in a gay bathhouse, which provided HIV testing and conducted a survey among participants recruited through snowball sampling. Differences in demographic and high-risk sexual behaviours between repeat and first-time testers were assessed using the chi-square test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors for HIV infection. Results Of the 1642 respondents, 699 (42.6%) were repeat testers and 943 (57.4%) were first-time testers. Among repeat testers, a higher proportion were men aged 18 to 25, single, better educated, had a history of STIs and worked as male sex workers or “money boys” (MBs). Repeat testers were less likely to report having unprotected anal intercourse in the past six months. The overall HIV prevalence was 12.4% (203/1642). There was no difference in HIV prevalence between repeat (11.2%, 78/699) and first-time (13.3%, 125/943) testers. The HIV prevalence increased with age among first-time testers (χtrend2=9.816, p=0.002). First-time MB testers had the highest HIV prevalence of 34.5%. Conclusions MSM attending bathhouse had an alarmingly high HIV infection rate, particularly in MB. Targeted interventions are urgently needed especially focusing on older MSM and MBs. PMID:24993457

  20. HIV prevalence and high-risk sexual behaviours among MSM repeat and first-time testers in China: implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Xu, Jie; Yang, Jie; Yang, Bo; Yu, Maohe; Gao, Yongjun; Dong, Willa M; Wu, Zunyou

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about HIV testing, HIV infection and sexual behaviour among bathhouse patrons in China. This study aims to assess differences in HIV prevalence and high-risk sexual behaviours between repeat and first-time testers among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending bathhouse in Tianjin, China. Between March 2011 and September 2012, a HIV voluntary counselling and testing station was established in a gay bathhouse, which provided HIV testing and conducted a survey among participants recruited through snowball sampling. Differences in demographic and high-risk sexual behaviours between repeat and first-time testers were assessed using the chi-square test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors for HIV infection. Of the 1642 respondents, 699 (42.6%) were repeat testers and 943 (57.4%) were first-time testers. Among repeat testers, a higher proportion were men aged 18 to 25, single, better educated, had a history of STIs and worked as male sex workers or "money boys" (MBs). Repeat testers were less likely to report having unprotected anal intercourse in the past six months. The overall HIV prevalence was 12.4% (203/1642). There was no difference in HIV prevalence between repeat (11.2%, 78/699) and first-time (13.3%, 125/943) testers. The HIV prevalence increased with age among first-time testers (χ(2)trend=9.816, p=0.002). First-time MB testers had the highest HIV prevalence of 34.5%. MSM attending bathhouse had an alarmingly high HIV infection rate, particularly in MB. Targeted interventions are urgently needed especially focusing on older MSM and MBs.

  1. A comparison of sexual risk behaviours and HIV seroprevalence among circumcised and uncircumcised men before and after implementation of the safe male circumcision programme in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kibira, Simon Peter Sebina; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Daniel, Marguerite; Atuyambe, Lynn Muhimbuura; Makumbi, Fredrick Edward

    2016-01-05

    Although male circumcision reduces the heterosexual HIV transmission risk, its effect may be attenuated if circumcised men increase sexual risk behaviours (SRB) due to perceived low risk. In Uganda information about the protective effects of circumcision has been publicly disseminated since 2007. If increased awareness of the protection increases SRB among circumcised men, it is likely that differences in prevalence of SRB among circumcised versus uncircumcised men will change over time. This study aimed at comparing SRBs and HIV sero-status of circumcised and uncircumcised men before and after the launch of the safe male circumcision programme. Data from the 2004 and 2011 Uganda AIDS Indicator Surveys (UAIS) were used. The analyses were based on generalized linear models, obtaining prevalence ratios (PR) as measures of association between circumcision status and multiple sexual partners, transactional sex, sex with non-marital partners, condom use at last non-marital sex, and HIV infection. In addition we conducted multivariate analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, and the multivariate models for HIV status were also adjusted for SRB. Twenty six percent of men were circumcised in 2004 and 28% in 2011. Prevalence of SRB was higher among circumcised men in both surveys. In the unadjusted analysis, circumcision was associated with having multiple sexual partners and non-marital partners. Condom use was not associated with circumcision in 2004, but in 2011 circumcised men were less likely to report condom use with the last non-marital partner. The associations between the other sexual risk behaviours and circumcision status were stable across the two surveys." In both surveys, circumcised men were less likely to be HIV positive (Adj PR 0.55; CI: 0.41-0.73 in 2004 and Adj PR 0.64; CI: 0.49-0.83 in 2011). There was higher prevalence of SRBs among circumcised men in both surveys, but the only significant change from 2004 to 2011 was a lower prevalence

  2. Social and psychosocial factors associated with high-risk sexual behaviour among university students in the United Kingdom: a web-survey.

    PubMed

    Chanakira, E; Goyder, E C; Freeman, J V; O'Cathain, A; Kinghorn, G; Jakubovic, M

    2015-05-01

    In the UK there are limited data about university students' risky sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional web-survey was conducted to investigate factors associated with high-risk sex among students at two UK universities. High-risk sex was reported by 25% of 1108. High personal sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk perception and permissive attitudes towards casual sex were associated with high-risk sex for both men (odds ratio [OR]: 12.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.10-35.81; OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.11-5.56, respectively) and women (OR: 22.31; 95% CI: 9.34-53.26; OR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.82-5.01, respectively). For men, drinking alcohol (OR: 17.67; 95% CI: 1.90-164.23) and for women age and frequent drinking (OR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.05-3.89; OR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.08-3.31, respectively) were associated with high-risk sex. However, perceiving an average student as more likely to contract STIs (men, OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.16-0.75) or HIV (men, OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20-0.96; women, OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28-0.63) and finding it difficult to discuss sexual matters (women, OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.39-0.91) were negatively associated with high-risk sex. Most of the factors found were similar to other populations, but some psychosocial factors showed complex patterns of association that require further investigation. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. High-risk sexual offenders: an examination of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, psychopathy, and offence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Michael; Freimuth, Tabatha; Hutton, Erin L; Carpenter, Tara; Agar, Ava D; Logan, Matt

    2013-01-01

    High-risk sexual offenders are a complex and heterogeneous group of offenders about whom researchers, clinicians, and law enforcement agencies still know relatively little. In response to the paucity of information that is specifically applicable to high-risk offenders, the present study investigated the potential influence of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, and psychopathy on the offending behaviour of 139 of the highest risk sexual offenders in one province of Canada. The sample included 41 child molesters, 42 rapists, 18 rapist/molesters, 30 mixed offenders, and 6 "other" sexual offenders. Two offenders could not be categorized by type due to insufficient file information. Data analyses revealed significant differences between offender types for a number of criminal history variables including past sexual and nonsexual convictions, number of victims, weapon use, and age of offending onset. Further, there were significant differences between offender types for sexual fantasy themes, paraphilia diagnoses, and levels of psychopathy. For example, results revealed that offenders' sexual fantasies were significantly more likely to correspond with the specific type of index sexual offence that they had committed. Further, offenders scoring high in psychopathy were significantly more likely to have a sadistic paraphilia than offenders with either low or moderate psychopathy scores. Results from the current study provide a refined and informed understanding of sexual offending behaviour with important implications for future research, assessment, and treatment, as well as law enforcement practices when working with high-risk sexual offenders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Do stigma, blame and stereotyping contribute to unsafe sexual behaviour? A test of claims about the spread of HIV/AIDS arising from social representation theory and the AIDS risk reduction model.

    PubMed

    Riley, Gerard Anthony; Baah-Odoom, Dinah

    2010-08-01

    In the context of social representation theory and the AIDS risk reduction model, it has been claimed that stigmatizing, blaming and stereotyping attitudes make people feel less at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS, and that this, in turn, results in them taking fewer precautions in their sexual behaviour. Previous research has failed to provide convincing evidence to support these claims. The present study provided a test of the claims that addressed some of the methodological issues identified in the earlier research. A sample of 460 young people from Ghana, ranging in age from 15 to 28 years (mean=18), completed a questionnaire that measured the relevant constructs. The results supported the claims in relation to stigmatizing and intended sexual risk behaviour, but not stigmatizing and actual sexual risk behaviour. Although the latter two were correlated, this was not mediated by reduced perceptions of vulnerability. Claims in relation to blaming and stereotyping were not supported. Contrary to expectation, specific blaming and stereotyping attitudes that constructed HIV/AIDS as a sexual disease were associated with safer intended sexual behaviour, and this relationship was mediated by feeling at greater risk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexual risk behaviours and their correlates among gay and non-gay identified men who have sex with men and women in Chengdu and Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Dandan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Jun; Han, Delin; Dai, Liping; Liu, Qi; Yu, Fei; Operario, Don; She, Min; Zaller, Nickolas

    2013-10-01

    To better understand the behavioural characteristics and the factors associated with high risky behaviours among men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) with different orientation, we analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 600 MSMW in two large cities in China. Participants completed a questionnaire and underwent serological testing. Overall, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence was 26%. In multivariable analysis of risk factors for unprotected anal intercourse in the past six months, factors associated with unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) were as follows: gay-identified orientation, having anal sex with a boyfriend, having multiple male partners, and never or sometimes using a condom for vaginal intercourse. In multivariate analyses of risk factors for UVI in the past 12 months, factors associated with UVI were as follows: non-gay-identified MSMW, having multiple male partners, having multiple female partners, and never or sometimes using a condom for anal intercourse. This study revealed a high prevalence of HIV and risky sexual behaviours.

  6. Exposure to the 'SIDA dans la Cité' AIDS prevention television series in Côte' d'Ivoire, sexual risk behaviour and condom use.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, D; Meekers, D; Tambashe, B

    2003-06-01

    This study assesses factors associated with viewing of 'SIDA dans la Cite', a weekly television soap opera on AIDS in Côte d'Ivoire, and the relationship between 'SIDA dans la Cite' viewing, sexual risk behaviour and condom use. The study uses across-sectional survey of 2150 respondents aged 15-49 in three regions. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of'SIDA dans la Cite' exposure on condom use. The results show that 65% of the sample had seen at least one 'SIDA dans la Cite' episode. Among viewers, 27% of males and 41% of females had seen ten or more episodes. Persons who had risky sexual partners were particularly likely to watch the programme. Women who had seen ten or more episodes were 1.4 times more likely than non-viewers to have used a condom in last sex. Men who had seen ten or more episodes were 2. 7 times more likely to have used a condom. We conclude that television soap operas on AIDS, such as 'SIDA dans la Cite',can be an important tool for promoting condom use. The programme was most appealing to viewers who engaged in risky behaviour, who are the core transmitters of the virus. HIV prevention programmes that provide continuous information, through multiple media channels or through series of broadcasts, are likely to have the greatest impact on condom use.

  7. Sexual risk behaviour for women working in recreational venues in Mwanza, Tanzania: considerations for the acceptability and use of vaginal microbicide gels.

    PubMed

    Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola; Allen, Caroline; Bugeke, Gilbert; Vallely, Andrew; Ross, David

    2009-08-01

    Qualitative research was conducted to explore the social context of sexual-risk behaviour among women working in recreational occupations, during a feasibility study in preparation for the Phase III clinical trial of vaginal microbicides in Mwanza, Tanzania. Participant observation was conducted in 68 recreational venues. Six focus group discussions were conducted with women working in recreational occupations and two with male customers at these venues. Findings revealed that these women are at risk of HIV due their dependence on sexual transactions to improve their economic circumstances, which take place in environments and relationships where condom use is difficult. However, the findings revealed that, in spite of constraints, women did take actions to prevent HIV by negotiating for condom use or avoiding perceived risky practices or partnerships, in particular moving to more casual partnerships where condom negotiation is more acceptable. This indicates that, given their perception of their own risk, women working in recreational occupations will welcome an effective microbicide. However, sustained use will depend on how formulations overcome the difficulties women currently experience with condom negotiation and the specific environments and relationships in which they engage in sex.

  8. Reducing substance use and risky sexual behaviour among drug users in Durban, South Africa: Assessing the impact of community-level risk-reduction interventions.

    PubMed

    Parry, C D H; Carney, T; Petersen Williams, P

    2017-12-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) use is increasingly recognised as having a direct and indirect effect on the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, there is evidence to suggest that drug- and sex-related HIV risk-reduction interventions targeted at drug users within drug treatment centres or via community outreach efforts can lead to positive health outcomes. This study aimed to test whether a community-level intervention aimed at AOD users has an impact on risky AOD use and sexual risk behaviour. In 2007, in collaboration with a local non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Durban, an initiative was begun to implement a number of harm reduction strategies for injection and non-injection drug users. The NGO recruited peer outreach workers who received intensive initial training, which was followed by six-monthly monitoring and evaluation of their performance. Participants had to be 16 years of age or older, and self-reported alcohol and/or drug users. Peer outreach workers completed a face-to-face baseline questionnaire with participants which recorded risk behaviours and a risk-reduction plan was developed with participants which consisted of reducing injection (if applicable) and non-injection drug use and sex-related risks. Other components of the intervention included distribution of condoms, risk-reduction counselling, expanded access to HIV Testing Services, HIV/sexually transmitted infection care and treatment, and referrals to substance abuse treatment and social services. At follow-up, the baseline questionnaire was completed again and participants were also asked the frequency of reducing identified risk behaviours. Baseline information was collected from 138 drug users recruited into the study through community-based outreach, and who were subsequently followed up between 2010 and 2012. No injection drug users were reached. The data presented here are for first contact (baseline) and the final follow-up contact with the participants

  9. Sexual and reproductive health risk behaviours among South African university students: results from a representative campus-wide survey.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Susie; Levasseur, Michael; Mantell, Joanne E; Beksinska, Mags; Mabude, Zonke; Ngoloyi, Claudia; Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Exner, Theresa; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Pillay, Lavanya; Smit, Jennifer A

    2017-03-01

    Among South African university students, HIV prevalence is lower than in age-peers, but at 3.8% it is not negligible. We examined prevalence of factors potentially associated with HIV risk, focusing on partnership characteristics and consistent condom use. We hypothesised that contraceptive-related factors, for example, desire to prevent pregnancy and not using hormonal contraceptives, would be positively associated with consistent condom use. Data were drawn from a representative interviewer-administered survey of 2nd to 4th year students conducted during registration at a university campus in KwaZulu-Natal. Of 576 students, 218 (83 women, 135 men) reported vaginal intercourse in the past 2 months. Of these, 7% of women and 43% of men reported past-year concurrent partnerships, and 24% knew/ suspected partner non-monogamy. Although reported condom use at last intercourse was 90%, 2-month consistent use was 53% (women) and 73% (men). Reported hormonal contraception use was low (women: 36.8%; men: 16.7%), and 68% used condoms for dual protection. In gender-stratified multivariable analyses, consistent condom use was higher for men who reported their partner did not use (vs. used) hormonal contraception (aOR = 5.84; 95%CI = 2.71, 12.57; p < 0.001) and who reported using condoms for dual protection (vs. single protection) (aOR = 2.46; 95%CI = 1.43, 4.25; p = 0.001). No contraception-related factors were associated with consistent condom use among women. Sexual partnership characteristics potentially place sexually active university students at high HIV risk and should be investigated further. Among men, but not women, contraceptive concerns were associated with consistent condom use. Promoting condoms for dual protection may resonate with students and should be continued.

  10. Reckless Behaviour and Sexual Practices of Emerging Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Byno, Lucy H.; Shriner, Michael; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between reckless behaviour and sexual practices of emerging adult women (ages 18-25) within a social cognitive theoretical perspective were examined. In addition, relations between self esteem, sexual attitudes and sexual behaviour were also examined. The Sexual Experience Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hendrick Sexual Attitude…

  11. Risk behaviour, sexually transmitted infections and HIV among long-distance truck drivers: a cross-sectional survey along national highways in India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Arvind; Benara, Sudhir Kumar; Roy, Nandini; Sahu, Damodar; Thomas, Mariamma; Joshi, Dhirendra Kumar; Sengupta, Utpal; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Bhalla, Aparajita; Prakash, Ajay

    2008-12-01

    To report HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and sexual behaviour of long-distance truckers on four national highway routes from a large, cross-sectional, national-level trucker survey in India. Seven trans-shipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes, north-west (NW), north-south (NS), north-east (NE) and south-east (SE) were identified as survey sites. A total of 2066 long-distance truckers were selected using a two-stage, time-location cluster sampling approach and, after consent, interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Urine and blood sample were tested for selected STIs. Overall, HIV prevalence among truckers was found to be 4.6%, with prevalence highest on the SE route (6.8%) and lowest on the NS (2.4%). Positive HSV-2 serology, which was tested in a 10% subsample, was low along three routes, 10.0%, 12.8% and 6.7% for the NE, NS and NW, respectively, but 38.7% in the SE. The truckers from the SE were found to be more likely to have sex with paid partners than the NE route. Moreover, truckers who owned their trucks were more likely than those who did not use condoms consistently with paid partners, and truckers who drive trucks owned by their relatives/friends are more likely than others to have any STI. Low self-risk perception for HIV (9.9%), low consistent condom use with non-paid partners (18.6%) and wives (3%), low reported exposure to any interventions (25.6%) and low levels of ever having taken an HIV test (16.5%) make truckers an important bridge population requiring strengthened interventions.

  12. Risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in a group of Dominican gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Maximo O; Hodge, David; Donastorg, Yeycy; Khosla, Shaveta; Lerebours, Leonel; Pope, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to estimate the point prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and to investigate the sexual practices and behaviours associated with STIs in a group of gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women (GMT) in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic. Design A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of GMT persons. Setting The study was conducted in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic, in June–July 2013. Participants Out of 117 GMT persons screened, a total of 100 completed the study. Participants had to be at least 18 years of age, reside in La Romana and have had sex with another man in the preceding 12 months. All participants were interviewed and tested for STI. Primary outcome measure The main outcome of interest was the detection of any STI (HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), syphilis, hepatitis B or C) by serology. Results Among 100 participants, the median age was 22 years (range 18–65). One-third had consumed illicit drugs the preceding year and only 43% consistently used condoms. Prevalence was 38% for HSV-2, 5% for HIV and 13% for syphilis. There were no cases of hepatitis B or C. Factors associated with the odds of a STI were age >22 years (OR=11.1, 95% CI 3.6 to 34.5), receptive anal intercourse (OR=4.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 13.6) and having ≥2 male sexual partners during the preceding month (OR=4, 95% CI 1.3 to 12.5). Conclusions In this group of GMT persons, seroprevalence of STI was high, and a number of risk behaviours were associated with STI. These preliminary data will help inform policy and programmes to prevent HIV/STI in GMT persons in the region. PMID:25926151

  13. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Willcox, R R

    1981-06-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses.

  14. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1981-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Images PMID:6894558

  15. Vulnerability to high risk sexual behaviour (HRSB) following exposure to war trauma as seen in post-conflict communities in eastern uganda: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Much of the literature on the relationship between conflict-related trauma and high risk sexual behaviour (HRSB) often focuses on refugees and not mass in-country displaced people due to armed conflicts. There is paucity of research about contexts underlying HRSB and HIV/AIDS in conflict and post-conflict communities in Uganda. Understanding factors that underpin vulnerability to HRSB in post-conflict communities is vital in designing HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. We explored the socio-cultural factors, social interactions, socio-cultural practices, social norms and social network structures that underlie war trauma and vulnerability to HRSB in a post-conflict population. Methods We did a cross-sectional qualitative study of 3 sub-counties in Katakwi district and 1 in Amuria in Uganda between March and May 2009. We collected data using 8 FGDs, 32 key informant interviews and 16 in-depth interviews. We tape-recorded and transcribed the data. We followed thematic analysis principles to manage, analyse and interpret the data. We constantly identified and compared themes and sub-themes in the dataset as we read the transcripts. We used illuminating verbatim quotations to illustrate major findings. Results The commonly identified HRSB behaviours include; transactional sex, sexual predation, multiple partners, early marriages and forced marriages. Breakdown of the social structure due to conflict had resulted in economic destruction and a perceived soaring of vulnerable people whose propensity to HRSB is high. Dishonour of sexual sanctity through transactional sex and practices like incest mirrored the consequence of exposure to conflict. HRSB was associated with concentration of people in camps where idleness and unemployment were the norm. Reports of girls and women who had been victims of rape and defilement by men with guns were common. Many people were known to have started to display persistent worries, hopelessness, and suicidal ideas and to abuse

  16. Evaluating the Need for Sex Education in Developing Countries: Sexual Behaviour, Knowledge of Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections/HIV and Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Woog, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    Young people's need for sex education is evidenced by their typically early initiation of sexual activity, the often involuntary context within which they have sexual intercourse, high-risk sexual behaviours and the inadequate levels of knowledge of means of protecting their sexual health. The earliness of initiation of sexual intercourse has…

  17. Evaluating the Need for Sex Education in Developing Countries: Sexual Behaviour, Knowledge of Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections/HIV and Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Woog, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    Young people's need for sex education is evidenced by their typically early initiation of sexual activity, the often involuntary context within which they have sexual intercourse, high-risk sexual behaviours and the inadequate levels of knowledge of means of protecting their sexual health. The earliness of initiation of sexual intercourse has…

  18. Social characteristics and sexual behaviour of women at high risk of HIV infection in a town in Central Province of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Katsivo, M N; Muthami, L N

    1991-01-01

    Forty seven women food handlers who were considered to be at high risk of HIV infection in Thika town of Central Province of Kenya were studied. The women were interviewed individually for information related to their social characteristics and sexual behaviour. The study showed that 91% were bar attendants, 58% had less than 7 years of formal education and 95% were either unmarried or divorced. All the women had at least one child. One of them practised anal sex but the rest practised vaginal sex. Their opinions on condom use revealed that they lacked knowledge on the advantages of condom use. Certain issues have been raised by this study, which call for in depth studies or incorporation into ongoing studies.

  19. Brief report: sexual sensation seeking and its relationship to risky sexual behaviour among African-American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Spitalnick, Joshua S; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sales, Jessica M; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N

    2007-02-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a clinic-based sample of African-American adolescent females (N=715) enrolled in an STD/HIV prevention intervention. Participants (ages 15-21) endorsing higher levels of sexual sensation seeking reported higher levels of sexual risk-taking behaviours (e.g. frequency of vaginal intercourse, number of sexual partners, and poorer condom use). Results remained significant after controlling for known covariates associated with sexual risk-taking behaviours. Results are consistent with the adult literature and highlight the need for future investigations examining sexual sensation seeking among adolescents. These results, though preliminary, could be used to better inform prevention interventions and clinicians/health educators who provide direct services to adolescents.

  20. [Disruptive sexual behaviour among patients with dementia].

    PubMed

    Kämpf, C; Abderhalden, C

    2012-10-01

    In addition to diagnostically decisive cognitive problems, behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) are frequent among people with dementia, including sexually related behavioural problems. This paper provides an overview on the state of knowledge about these problems. Research on this topic is hampered by the absence of unanimous definitions, aetiological classifications, and diagnostic instruments. The wide range of prevalence rates reported (1.8 - 18 %) originate from the heterogenity of study samples as well as in the variety of definitions and instruments employed. Regarding aetiology, dysfunctions in various cortical regions are being discussed. Sexually related behavioural problems are more prevalent in men and among patients with vascular, frontotemporal and Parkinson-associated forms of dementia, as compared with dementias of the Alzheimer type. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment strategies published to date have not been sufficiently studied.

  1. Development of sexually abusive behaviour in sexually victimised males: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Salter, Daniel; McMillan, Dean; Richards, Mark; Talbot, Tiffany; Hodges, Jill; Bentovim, Arnon; Hastings, Richard; Stevenson, Jim; Skuse, David

    2003-02-08

    Sexual maltreatment is one of the most common forms of child abuse. To identify risk factors for sexually abusive behaviour by adults, we prospectively assessed childhood experiences and personal characteristics of male child victims who became abusers in later life. In a longitudinal study (7-19 years duration), we included 224 former male victims of sexual abuse. Risk factors contemporaneous with the abuse, and putative protective influences, were identified from social service and clinical records. Evidence of later criminal acts was obtained from a nationwide search of official records. Of the 224 former victims, 26 had subsequently committed sexual offences (victim-abusers), in almost all cases with children, mainly outside their families. Risk factors during childhood for later offending included material neglect (odds ratio 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-9.7), lack of supervision (3.0, 1.1-8.3), and sexual abuse by a female person (3.0, 1.1-8.7). Victim-abusers had more frequently witnessed serious intrafamilial violence (3.1, 1.0-10.0). Six (29%) of 21 victim-abusers on whom we had relevant data had been cruel to animals (7.9, 2.0-31.4). No single putative protective factor, nor a composite protective index, significantly reduced the risk of paedophilic behaviour. Most male victims of child sexual abuse do not become paedophiles, but particular experiences and patterns of childhood behaviour are associated with an increased risk of victims becoming abusers in later life. Our findings have implications for the design of selective interventions with a vulnerable subgroup of male victims, aimed at reducing the risk of paedophilic behaviour in later life.

  2. Sexuality, sexual behaviour and contraception in East Germany.

    PubMed

    Starke, K; Visser, A P

    1994-07-01

    Social factors may influence sexual health and its related behaviour. The political changes in East Germany have revealed a positive attitude towards sexuality and the use of family planning methods. A study on sexual behaviour and the use of contraceptives was undertaken recently, at the end of the old regime and the beginning of the new one. The survey was performed among 3103 male and female respondents (pupils, students and workers) of between 16 and 48 years of age. The results show a decreased number of stable partner relationships among young people, however, love and sexuality are considered to be central values. Before the age of 19 years, the majority of girls (80%) and boys (68%) had had sexual intercourse for the first time, a rate which has not changed during the last decade. There is a tendency to postpone having a first child. Modern contraception is widely accepted and used. There is a growing number of condom users, however, the pill is still the most popular method. Family planning is much more advanced than in the other countries of Eastern Europe. Sex education and counselling should sustain this situation.

  3. Interventions for encouraging sexual behaviours intended to prevent cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jonathan P; Frampton, Geoff K; Harris, Petra

    2011-04-13

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the key risk factor for cervical cancer. Continuing high rates of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young people demonstrate the need for effective behavioural interventions. To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for young women to encourage safer sexual behaviours to prevent transmission of STIs (including HPV) and cervical cancer. Systematic literature searches were performed on the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 4, 2009) Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group (CGCRG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Social Science Citation Index and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) up to the end of 2009. All references were screened for inclusion against selection criteria. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for young women up to the age of 25 years that included, amongst other things, information provision about the transmission and prevention of STIs. Trials had to measure behavioural outcomes (e.g. condom use) and/or biological outcomes (e.g. incidence of STIs, cervical cancer). A narrative synthesis was conducted. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to heterogeneity between the interventions and trial populations. A total of 5271 references were screened and of these 23 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most were conducted in the USA and in health-care clinics (e.g. family planning).The majority of interventions provided information about STIs and taught safer sex skills (e.g. communication), occasionally supplemented with provision of resources (e.g. free sexual health services). They were heterogeneous in duration, contact time, provider, behavioural aims and outcomes. A variety of STIs were addressed including HIV and chlamydia. None of the trials explicitly mentioned HPV or cervical cancer prevention.Statistically significant effects for behavioural

  4. Urbanisation, poverty and sexual behaviour: the tale of five African cities.

    PubMed

    Greif, Meredith J; Dodoo, F Nii-Amoo; Jayaraman, Anuja

    2011-01-01

    The question of how urbanisation and poverty are linked in sub-Saharan Africa is an increasingly pressing one. The urban character of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa exacerbates concern about the urbanisation - poverty relationship. Recent empirical work has linked urban poverty, and particularly slum residence, to risky sexual behaviour in Kenya's capital city, Nairobi. This paper explores the generalisability of these assertions about the relationship between urban poverty and sexual behaviour using Demographic and Health Survey data from five African cities: Accra (Ghana), Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania), Harare (Zimbabwe), Kampala (Uganda) and Nairobi (Kenya). The study affirms that, although risky behaviour varies across the five cities, slum residents demonstrate riskier sexual behaviour compared with non-slum residents. There is earlier sexual debut, lower condom usage and more multiple sexual partners among women residing in slum households regardless of setting, suggesting a relatively uniform effect of urban poverty on sexual risk behaviour.

  5. Reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections in genitourinary medicine clinic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of behavioural interventions.

    PubMed

    Ward, D J; Rowe, B; Pattison, H; Taylor, R S; Radcliffe, K W

    2005-10-01

    Are behavioural interventions effective in reducing the rate of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic patients? Systematic review and meta-analysis of published articles. Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsychINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cochrane Library Controlled Clinical Trials Register, National Research Register (1966 to January 2004). Randomised controlled trials of behavioural interventions in sexual health clinic patients were included if they reported change to STI rates or self reported sexual behaviour. Trial quality was assessed using the Jadad score and results pooled using random effects meta-analyses where outcomes were consistent across studies. 14 trials were included; 12 based in the United States. Experimental interventions were heterogeneous and most control interventions were more structured than typical UK care. Eight trials reported data on laboratory confirmed infections, of which four observed a greater reduction in their intervention groups (in two cases this result was statistically significant, p < 0.05). Seven trials reported consistent condom use, of which six observed a greater increase among their intervention subjects. Results for other measures of sexual behaviour were inconsistent. Success in reducing STIs was related to trial quality, use of social cognition models, and formative research in the target population. However, effectiveness was not related to intervention format or length. While results were heterogeneous, several trials observed reductions in STI rates. The most effective interventions were developed through extensive formative research. These findings should encourage further research in the United Kingdom where new approaches to preventing STIs are urgently required.

  6. Sexual behaviour of young people in international tourist resorts

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, M; Hughes, K; Thomson, R; Bennett, A

    2004-01-01

    Background/objectives: Increasingly, young people travel abroad to experience nightlife in international resorts. Although media coverage of such resorts suggests high levels of sexual activity, little empirical data are currently available. We have measured: 3 year trends in sexual behaviour of young people visiting Ibiza, levels of sexual risk taking, and their relation to substance use. Additionally, in 2002 we identified levels of homosexual sex and sexual interactions between UK residents and individuals from other countries. Methods: Data were collected from visitors to Ibiza between 2000 and 2002 just before they left the island. Information on sexual health was surveyed using a short anonymous questionnaire. Results: Over half of individuals (56.0%) visiting Ibiza had sex with at least one person, with 26.2% of males and 14.5% of females having sex with more than one individual. However, of those arriving without sexual partners (75.5%) just under half (47.5%) have sex in Ibiza and most of these (62.4%) always used condoms. Having any sex abroad was associated with using illicit drugs and having more sexual partners in the 6 months before visiting Ibiza. However, having unprotected sex or sex with more than one person was associated with smoking as well as having higher numbers of sexual partners before their visit. Overall, 8.6% of individuals had sex with a non-UK resident in Ibiza although such individuals were no more likely to have sex without condoms. Conclusions: Substantial numbers of individuals visiting international nightlife resorts have unprotected sex with people they meet while abroad. This poses an increasing threat to the sexual health of UK residents but as yet little attention has been paid to developing interventions that might reduce sexual risk taking among young people holidaying abroad. PMID:14755035

  7. Sexual behaviour of young people in international tourist resorts.

    PubMed

    Bellis, M A; Hughes, K; Thomson, R; Bennett, A

    2004-02-01

    Increasingly, young people travel abroad to experience nightlife in international resorts. Although media coverage of such resorts suggests high levels of sexual activity, little empirical data are currently available. We have measured: 3 year trends in sexual behaviour of young people visiting Ibiza, levels of sexual risk taking, and their relation to substance use. Additionally, in 2002 we identified levels of homosexual sex and sexual interactions between UK residents and individuals from other countries. Data were collected from visitors to Ibiza between 2000 and 2002 just before they left the island. Information on sexual health was surveyed using a short anonymous questionnaire. Over half of individuals (56.0%) visiting Ibiza had sex with at least one person, with 26.2% of males and 14.5% of females having sex with more than one individual. However, of those arriving without sexual partners (75.5%) just under half (47.5%) have sex in Ibiza and most of these (62.4%) always used condoms. Having any sex abroad was associated with using illicit drugs and having more sexual partners in the 6 months before visiting Ibiza. However, having unprotected sex or sex with more than one person was associated with smoking as well as having higher numbers of sexual partners before their visit. Overall, 8.6% of individuals had sex with a non-UK resident in Ibiza although such individuals were no more likely to have sex without condoms. Substantial numbers of individuals visiting international nightlife resorts have unprotected sex with people they meet while abroad. This poses an increasing threat to the sexual health of UK residents but as yet little attention has been paid to developing interventions that might reduce sexual risk taking among young people holidaying abroad.

  8. High-risk behaviour in hypomanic states.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Kathryn; Parker, Gordon; Paterson, Amelia; Synnott, Howe

    2013-08-15

    Risk-taking behaviours during hypomanic states are recognised, however the high-risk nature of some behaviours-including the potential for harm to both the individual and others-has not been detailed in the research literature. The current study examines risk-taking behaviours and their consequences (including their potential for impairment) in those with a bipolar II condition. Participants were recruited from the Sydney-based Black Dog Institute Depression Clinic. Diagnostic assignment of bipolar II disorder was based on clinician judgement and formal DSM-IV criteria. Participants completed a series of detailed questions assessing previous risk-taking behaviours during hypomanic states. The sample comprised a total of 93 participants. Risk-taking behaviours during hypomania included spending significant amounts of money, excessive alcohol or drug use, dangerous driving and endangering sexual activities. Key consequences included interpersonal conflict, substantial financial burden and feelings of guilt, shame and remorse. Despite recognition of the risks and consequences associated with hypomanic behaviours, less than one-fifth of participants agreed that hypomania should be treated because of the associated risks. Study limitations included a cross-sectional design, reliance on self-report information, lack of controlling for current mood state, and comprised a tertiary referral sample that may be weighted to more severe cases. Findings may therefore not be generalisable and require replication. Risk-taking behaviours during hypomania are common, and often linked with serious consequences. Whilst hypomania is often enjoyed and romanticised by patients-leading to ambivalence around treatment of such states-careful consideration of the impact of risk-taking behaviour is necessary, while the study raises the question as to what is 'impairment' in hypomania. Findings should advance clinical management by identifying those high-risk behaviours that would benefit from

  9. Adolescent sexual behaviour, knowledge and attitudes to sexuality among school girls in Transkei, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Buga, G A; Amoko, D H; Ncayiyana, D J

    1996-02-01

    Teenagers make up a quarter of all mothers in Transkei, South Africa, and well over 75% of them are unmarried. Such a high rate of teenage pregnancy is indicative of a high level of unprotected adolescent sexual activity. We examined sexual behaviour, knowledge and attitudes to sexuality among adolescent school girls in Transkei, using a self-administered questionnaire, in order to establish the incidence of sexual activity, and associated risk factors. Of the 1072 respondents, 74.6% were already sexually experienced, and 21.0% were not. The majority of sexually experienced girls (SEGs) and sexually inexperienced girls (SIGs) were living with both their parents. There were no religious differences between the two groups of girls. The age of SEGs at first coitus correlated positively with the age of menarche, and the age at the first date, suggesting that sexual maturation and onset of dating were possible risk factors for initiation of sexual activity. Contraceptive use was low, and a third of SEGs had been pregnant at least once. The knowledge of reproductive biology among both groups of girls was generally poor, although SEGs were significantly more knowledgeable than SIGs. The majority of girls in both groups did not approve of premarital sex, and adolescent pregnancy. They also did not approve of the idea of introducing sex education in schools, or the provision of contraceptives by schools. Nearly a third of the respondents in both groups did not wish to get married in future. In conclusion, there is a high level of unprotected sexual activity among school girls in Transkei. The risk factors for this include early sexual maturation, early onset of dating, and poor knowledge of reproductive biology and contraceptives.

  10. Predictive validity of the HCR-20 for violent and non-violent sexual behaviour in a secure mental health service.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Laura E; Thaker, Dev-Kishan; Picchioni, Marco M; Mason, Fiona L; Knight, Caroline; Dickens, Geoffrey L

    2016-12-01

    Violent and non-violent sexual behaviour is a fairly common problem among secure mental health service patients, but specialist sexual violence risk assessment is time-consuming and so performed infrequently. We aimed to establish whether a commonly used violence risk assessment tool, the Health Clinical Risk management 20(HCR-20), has predictive validity specifically for inappropriate sexual behaviour. A pseudo-prospective cohort design was used for a study in the adult wards of a large provider of specialist secure mental health services. Routine clinical team HCR-20 assessments were extracted from records, and incidents involving inappropriate sexual behaviour were recorded for the 3 months following assessment. Of 613 patients, 104 (17%) had engaged in at least one inappropriate sexual behaviour; in 65 (10.6%), the sexual act was violent. HCR-20 total score, clinical and risk management subscales, predicted violent and non-violent sexual behaviour. The negative predictive value of the HCR-20 for inappropriate sexual behaviour was over 90%. Prediction of violent sexual behaviour may be regarded as well within the scope of the HCR-20 as a structured professional judgement tool to aid violence risk prediction, but we found that it also predicts behaviours that may be of concern but fall below the violence threshold. High negative predictive values suggest that HCR-20 scores may have some utility for screening out patients who do not require more specialist assessment for inappropriate sexual behaviour. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and perception of AIDS in rural Senegal: relationship to sexual behaviour and behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, E; Pison, G; Enel, C

    1996-03-01

    To describe the determinants of 'at risk' sexual behaviour and perception of AIDS-related prevention messages in rural Africa. A rural area in Southern Senegal. Cross-sectional study using a standardized questionnaire administered by local interviewers to 240 men and 242 women aged 15-59 years, randomly selected among the general population. Twenty-eight per cent of the sexually active men and 27% of the sexually active women declared at least one casual sexual partner in the 12 months preceding the interview. Among these, 27% of men and 30% of women declared having used a condom in most acts of casual intercourse. Seasonal migrants and divorced or widowed women were more likely to declare casual sex. Causal sex was motivated by material needs for 66% of the women who experienced it, and those of the women who reported casual sexual intercourse were less likely to feel at risk of AIDS [odds ratio (OR), 3.9; P = 0.01] and were more optimistic about their future (OR, 3.6; P = 0.03). For men, the motivations explaining a change in sexual behaviour in order to avoid HIV infection included the perception of AIDS as a health problem (OR, 11; P = 0.004), the perception of the disease as serious (OR, 5.4; P = 0.001) and the feeling of personal risk of becoming HIV-infected (OR, 3.2; P = 0.02). Perceived skill in changing one's behaviour was strongly associated with declaration of past behaviour change for both men and women (men: OR, 3.4; P = 0.02; women: OR, 6.3; P = 0.0001). Men and women exhibit two different patterns regarding their behaviour and perception towards AIDS. Material needs appear to be of importance for women, whereas perception of a real threat lead men to adopt protective behaviours. In the very area of this study, widowed and divorced women as well as male seasonal migrants are particularly exposed to HIV infection. They are characterized by a higher risk behaviour, a low rate of condom use and seldom declared any protective measures to avoid HIV

  12. Youths Who Sexually Harm: A Multivariate Model of Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Louise; Canter, David

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the variations in behaviour displayed by young people who sexually harm, as previous research has shown that they are not a homogeneous sample. Three conceptually distinct sets of behaviour were hypothesized, relating to various modes of interaction between the young people with harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) and their…

  13. Youths Who Sexually Harm: A Multivariate Model of Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Louise; Canter, David

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the variations in behaviour displayed by young people who sexually harm, as previous research has shown that they are not a homogeneous sample. Three conceptually distinct sets of behaviour were hypothesized, relating to various modes of interaction between the young people with harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) and their…

  14. Mediators of sexual revictimization risk in adult sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E; Vasquez, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse, emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which child sexual abuse severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to child sexual abuse severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the child sexual abuse severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women.

  15. Wealth and sexual behaviour among men in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kongnyuy, Eugene J; Wiysonge, Charles S; Mbu, Robinson E; Nana, Philip; Kouam, Luc

    2006-09-11

    The 2004 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in Cameroon revealed a higher prevalence of HIV in richest and most educated people than their poorest and least educated compatriots. It is not certain whether the higher prevalence results partly or wholly from wealthier people adopting more unsafe sexual behaviours, surviving longer due to greater access to treatment and care, or being exposed to unsafe injections or other HIV risk factors. As unsafe sex is currently believed to be the main driver of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, we designed this study to examine the association between wealth and sexual behaviour in Cameroon. We analysed data from 4409 sexually active men aged 15-59 years who participated in the Cameroon DHS using logistic regression models, and have reported odds ratios (OR) with confidence intervals (CI). When we controlled for the potential confounding effects of marital status, place of residence, religion and age, men in the richest third of the population were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.32-0.56) and more likely to have had at least two concurrent sex partners in the last 12 months (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12-1.19) and more than five lifetime sex partners (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.60-2.43). However, there was no difference between the richest and poorest men in the purchase of sexual services. Regarding education, men with secondary or higher education were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.16-0.38) and more likely to have started sexual activity at age 17 years or less (OR 2.73, 95% CI 2.10-3.56) and had more than five lifetime sexual partners (OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.02-3.31). There was no significant association between education and multiple concurrent sexual partnerships in the last 12 months or purchase of sexual services. Wealthy men in Cameroon are more likely to start sexual activity

  16. Sexual attitudes, behaviours and acculturation among young migrants in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Sudhinaraset, May; Mmari, Kristin; Go, Vivan; Blum, Robert Wm

    2012-10-01

    China's rates of internal migration increased to an all-time high of over 200 million individuals at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Yet, there is a dearth of information on the lives of young migrant populations. The aim of this study was to explore how migration influences the sexual attitudes and behaviours of 18-24-year-old migrant men and women in Shanghai, China. A total of 64 migrants participated in 10 focus-group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews. Guided by acculturation theory, coded data were organised into analytic matrices to compare themes across participants. Factors associated with increased sexual-risk behaviours include acculturative stress, discrimination leading to social isolation, conflicts between traditional and modern city values and increased sexual opportunities. Premarital sex, cohabitation, unprotected sex and visiting sex workers are common among this population. Reasons for not using condoms included being unprepared, lack of knowledge and barriers in accessing reproductive services due to not having urban documentation. Local family planning programmes should help migrants negotiate traditional and modern values and partner with work-sites to provide comprehensive sexual education and services and train health professionals in the specific healthcare needs of young migrant populations.

  17. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  18. HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and risk behaviours in male sex workers in London over a 10 year period.

    PubMed

    Sethi, G; Holden, B M; Gaffney, J; Greene, L; Ghani, A C; Ward, H

    2006-10-01

    To describe changing characteristics of men who sold sex in London between 1994 and 2003. A baseline survey of 823 male sex workers attending a specialist clinic, plus follow up of 628 men for 1379 person years. Men recruited earlier (1994 to 1996) were more likely than those recruited later (2000 to 2003) to be UK born and to self define as homosexual. Later recruits included more men from South/Central America and eastern Europe and a higher proportion reported regular female partners. Baseline prevalence of HIV was 9% (59/636), and multivariate analysis showed an associated with injecting drug use and unprotected sex with a casual partner. During follow up there were 49 incident cases of HIV. Survival analysis showed earlier recruitment (1994-6) to be associated with a higher incidence of HIV. The prevalence of gonorrhoea increased over time. Men who sell sex are at risk of HIV and other STIs, but these risks do not appear to be directly linked to sex work. The changing demographics of these men is associated with different patterns of infection and poses challenges for service delivery.

  19. Sexual self-concept as influencing intended sexual health behaviour of young adolescent Taiwanese girls.

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a process model that assesses the relationship of sexual health knowledge and normative beliefs to sexual health behavioural intention, with sexual self-concept as a mediating variable. The model is intended to assist in the prediction of which adolescents would exhibit a lower intention to engage in protective sexual health behaviour. Previous research has shown that sexual-related behaviours are associated with sexual self-concept, sexual health knowledge and perceived parental/peer approval of sexual behaviour. This study is a cross-sectional research. This study was conducted with 545 adolescent girls, aged 12-15 years, from eight junior high schools in Taiwan. Participants were assessed using the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory, the Sexual Health Behavior Intention Scale, the Parental Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (PASB), the Friends' Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale and the Sexual Health Knowledge Scale. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling, with the maximum likelihood estimate determined by the LISREL 8.52 program. The model exhibited adequate fit (goodness-of-fit index = 0.96, adjusted goodness-of-fit index = 0.94, normed fit index = 0.96, comparative fit index = 0.98, standardised root mean square residual = 0.049 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.048) and the findings indicate that sexual self-concept was a significant influence on the relationship of sexual health knowledge and normative beliefs to sexual health behavioural intention. The results of this study revealed the importance of sexual self-concept for adolescent girls' sexual health behaviour. Evidence-based strategies that reinforce and clarify sexual self-concept as a mediating factor may aid in adolescent females' intention to engage in protective sexual health behaviour. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Early sexual debut among young men in rural South Africa: heightened vulnerability to sexual risk?

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, A; Cleland, J; Gouws, E; Frohlich, J

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Analysis of sexual behaviour data for men 15–24 years (n = 314) from representative cross sectional household survey. Results: 13.1% of 15–24 year old men experienced sexual debut before age 15. Men with sexual debut at less than age 15 were more likely to report risk behaviours at first sexual experience: no condom use (19%), a casual partner (26.8%), and not feeling they had been "ready and wanted to have sex" (19.5%). In multivariate analysis, early sexual debut was strongly associated with ⩾3 partners in the past 3 years (OR = 10.26, p<0.01). Conclusions: Men who initiate sex before age 15 form a distinct risk group in this setting. Specific interventions are needed for young men in the preteen years, before sexual debut. PMID:15923298

  1. Managing Sexually Harmful Behaviour in a Residential Special School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Graham, Nicola; Ikin, Annette; Penney, Heather; Kovacs, Lisa; Mercer, Dawn; Edwards, Richard; Jones, Dylan; Mace, Floyd Charles

    2012-01-01

    Children and young people with learning disabilities who present sexually harmful behaviour are marginalised and do not always participate in community activities. This case study describes a multi-component intervention that successfully reduced the sexually harmful behaviour of a 16-year-old boy with a mild learning disability. The intervention…

  2. Managing Sexually Harmful Behaviour in a Residential Special School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Graham, Nicola; Ikin, Annette; Penney, Heather; Kovacs, Lisa; Mercer, Dawn; Edwards, Richard; Jones, Dylan; Mace, Floyd Charles

    2012-01-01

    Children and young people with learning disabilities who present sexually harmful behaviour are marginalised and do not always participate in community activities. This case study describes a multi-component intervention that successfully reduced the sexually harmful behaviour of a 16-year-old boy with a mild learning disability. The intervention…

  3. Mediators of Sexual Revictimization Risk in Adult Sexual Assault Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  4. Internalised homophobia is differentially associated with sexual risk behaviour by race/ethnicity and HIV serostatus among substance-using men who have sex with men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mansergh, Gordon; Spikes, Pilgrim; Flores, Stephen A; Koblin, Beryl A; McKirnan, David; Hudson, Sharon M; Colfax, Grant N

    2015-08-01

    There is a continuing need to identify factors associated with risk for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), including a need for further research in the ongoing scientific debate about the association of internalised homophobia and sexual risk due partly to the lack of specificity in analysis. We assess the association of internalised homophobia by race/ethnicity within HIV serostatus for a large sample of substance-using MSM at high risk of HIV acquisition or transmission. Convenience sample of substance-using (non-injection) MSM reporting unprotected anal sex in the prior 6 months residing in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York and San Francisco. The analytic sample included HIV-negative and HIV-positive black (n=391), Latino (n=220), and white (n=458) MSM. Internalised homophobia was assessed using a published four-item scale focusing on negative self-perceptions and feelings of their own sexual behaviour with men, or for being gay or bisexual. Analyses tested associations of internalised homophobia with recent risk behaviour, stratified by laboratory-confirmed HIV serostatus within race/ethnicity, and controlling for other demographic variables. In multivariate analysis, internalised homophobia was inversely associated (p<0.05) with recent unprotected anal sex among black MSM, and not significantly associated with sexual risk behaviour among white and Latino MSM. More research is needed to further identify nuanced differences in subpopulations of MSM, but these results suggest differentially targeted intervention messages for MSM by race/ethnicity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Interventions for encouraging sexual behaviours intended to prevent cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Jonathan P; Frampton, Geoff K; Harris, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the key risk factor for cervical cancer. Continuing high rates of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young people demonstrate the need for effective behavioural interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for young women to encourage safer sexual behaviours to prevent transmission of STIs (including HPV) and cervical cancer. Search methods Systematic literature searches were performed on the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 4, 2009) Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group (CGCRG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Social Science Citation Index and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) up to the end of 2009. All references were screened for inclusion against selection criteria. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for young women up to the age of 25 years that included, amongst other things, information provision about the transmission and prevention of STIs. Trials had to measure behavioural outcomes (e.g. condom use) and/or biological outcomes (e.g. incidence of STIs, cervical cancer). Data collection and analysis A narrative synthesis was conducted. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to heterogeneity between the interventions and trial populations. Main results A total of 5271 references were screened and of these 23 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most were conducted in the USA and in health-care clinics (e.g. family planning). The majority of interventions provided information about STIs and taught safer sex skills (e.g. communication), occasionally supplemented with provision of resources (e.g. free sexual health services). They were heterogeneous in duration, contact time, provider, behavioural aims and outcomes. A variety of STIs were addressed including HIV and chlamydia. None of the trials explicitly

  6. Audio computer-assisted survey instrument versus face-to-face interviews: optimal method for detecting high-risk behaviour in pregnant women and their sexual partners in the south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K

    2013-04-01

    Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use.

  7. Audio computer-assisted survey instrument versus face-to-face interviews: optimal method for detecting high-risk behaviour in pregnant women and their sexual partners in the south of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K

    2016-01-01

    Summary Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use. PMID:23970659

  8. The influence of biological factors on students' sexual behaviour at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutinta, Given; Govender, Kaymarlin; George, Gavin; Gow, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Studies in South African universities reveal that the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour is very high, putting many students at high risk of HIV infection. This study explored the biological influences on students' sexual taking behaviour at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A qualitative approach was used, comprising a total of 80 in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions. These were conducted between late 2008 and early 2010. The research had equal representation of male and female students, different races, two campuses and different levels of study. Factors associated with students' sexual behaviour were identified. The data were analysed using thematic analysis, and the themes identified form the basis for discussion in this paper. Students' sexual behaviour was positively associated with the influence of a range of biological factors. Factors such as age, judgement of the health of the partner by looking at appearances, pursuit of physical beauty, sexual debut, sexual fit, and search for sexual pleasure encouraged students to engage in sexual behaviour. Most students are young and lack experience in assessing the influence of biological factors on their sexual behaviours, and need education on biological factors. This poses a big challenge to controlling students' sexual behaviour, especially if HIV and sexually transmitted diseases prevention interventions are to be successful.

  9. No evidence that HPV vaccination leads to sexual risk compensation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bo T

    2016-06-02

    Uptake of the HPV vaccine has been lower than the uptake of most other childhood vaccines offered in public programs. Since the HPV vaccine protects against a sexually transmitted virus, one barrier to uptake specific to the HPV vaccine may be the concern that vaccination may encourage risky sexual behaviour. Unanimous findings from recent studies show that HPV vaccination does not lead to sexual risk compensation, which is an important message to parents, clinicians and other decision-makers regarding HPV vaccination. Some issues remain to be investigated, like HPV vaccination and sexual risk compensation among boys.

  10. The sexual behaviour of young people.

    PubMed

    Persson, E

    1993-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is currently the major sexually transmitted disease (STD) in Sweden. In the early 1980s 20% of young clinic attenders were infected. Treatment policies, including partner tracing, instituted in 1988 reduced the prevalence to less than 5%. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has also declined with the decrease of gonorrhea and chlamydia. The improvements can be associated with policy: the introduction of compulsory sex education at school in 1956 and the establishment of youth clinics in the 1970s with contraceptive counselling, screening, and treatment for STDs. a 1992 study of more than 9000 sexually active Swedish teenagers revealed that 99% considered the condom the most effective means against STDs, and 84% recognized chlamydia, HIV/AIDS, gonorrhea, and genital warts as STDs. 75% of the subjects had engaged in coitus at first intercourse and 82% at the most recent encounter. 17% had had an STD, and 9% had been or had made somebody pregnant, mostly ending in abortion. In 1975, when the new abortion law was adopted, the teenage abortion rate was high at 30/1000 teenagers aged 15-19. Counseling and free contraceptives reduced the rate by 30% in the next 10 years. However, news about the possible risks of oral contraceptives in the 1980s again boosted the rate from 18 to 25/1000. Recent concerted efforts cut the rate anew. Preventive policies need to convey a positive attitude about sexuality and deal with the basic teenage problems of multiple partners and stress the importance of condom use. Condoms are effective only in stable relationships, and those with less education or those unemployed take more risks, using condoms and contraceptives less frequently. Girls from emotionally poor environments often engage in sex for emotional satisfaction. Openness and further knowledge is needed to ensure the safe sexual behavior of young people.

  11. Do family factors protect against sexual risk behaviour and teenage pregnancy among multiply disadvantaged young people? Findings from an English longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bonell, Chris; Wiggins, Meg; Fletcher, Adam; Allen, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    Background Structure and parenting within family of origin have been found to be determinants of sexual risk and teenage pregnancy in the general youth population. Few studies have examined determinants of sexual risk among disadvantaged young people; those that do have not examined teenage pregnancy outcomes. Longitudinal data from a cohort of multiply disadvantaged at-risk young people aged 13-15 years living in deprived neighbourhoods in England (n=1285) were analysed to examine how family structure, communication with parents and parental interest in education were associated with heterosexual debut, contraception use, expectation of teenage pregnancy and teenage pregnancy. At follow-up, young women living with both biological parents were less likely than other young women to become pregnant (odds ratio (OR)=0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.97). Young women who could talk to their mothers about private things were less likely to expect to become a teenage parent (OR=0.61, 95% CI: 0.37-0.99). Those whose parents cared very much how they did at school were less likely to report contraception nonuse (OR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.21-0.93). After adjustment, no associations between any family factors and sexual health outcomes were found for young men. We found limited evidence for family-related effects on sexual health risk or teenage pregnancy among disadvantaged young women in England and no evidence of risk factors within the home environment for young men's outcomes. This suggests that targeted family-based interventions may not be appropriate for addressing these outcomes.

  12. Contribution of dihydrotestosterone to male sexual behaviour.

    PubMed Central

    Mantzoros, C. S.; Georgiadis, E. I.; Trichopoulos, D.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To document the relative importance of endogenous sex steroids in modulating the frequency of orgasms, the dominant aspect of sexual behaviour in healthy eugonadal men. DESIGN--Measurement of adrenal and testicular sex steroids in a sample of army recruits and study of their relation to frequency of orgasms ascertained by questionnaire after potential confounding variables were controlled for. SETTING--Military campus and military hospital laboratories in Athens, Greece. SUBJECTS--92 consecutively enrolled healthy male recruits aged 18-22 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Weekly number of orgasms. Serum concentrations of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, dihydrotestosterone, oestradiol, oestrone, delta-4-androstenedione, and sex hormone binding globulin. RESULTS--Serum dihydrotestosterone concentration was the only independent hormonal predictor of the frequency of orgasms; an increase in concentration of 1.36 nmol/l (about 2 SD) corresponded to an average increase of one orgasm a week. CONCLUSIONS--Differences in concentrations of circulating dihydrotestosterone within the normal range may represent a major predictor of sexual activity in healthy young men. PMID:7773040

  13. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  14. Male gender identity and sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chused, J F

    1999-12-01

    One consequence of a heightened interest in intersubjectivity in the current psychoanalytic literature has been a relative neglect of the examination of unconscious fantasies. Presenting material from the analysis of three males, each of whom, in childhood and/or adolescence, hid his penis between his legs and looked at himself in a mirror naked, the author demonstrates the importance of attending to both unconscious fantasies and their manifestations within the interactive field of analysis. The first patient is a young child with a gender identity disorder, whose wish to be like his mother was a response to the emotional loss of her during early childhood. The second patient is an adolescent, whose behaviour in front of a mirror was a manifestation of his desire to possess his mother and be her, to humiliate and sadistically control her, and at the same time, to experience the masochistic sexual gratification of being a seemingly helpless victim. The third patient, a 48-year-old male, came to analysis filled with suicidal impulses and self-hatred related to homosexual impulses. His repeated examination of himself in a mirror, with penis hidden, reflected severe castration anxiety, related to an ambivalent relationship with an angry mother and a longing for attention from an unavailable father. The article closes with a description of the similarities and differences in the dynamics of these three males as well as a discussion of the meaning of similar behaviour in other males seen in consultation.

  15. Sexual behaviour in Zulu men and women with genital ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, N; Hoosen, A A; Coetzee, K D; van den Ende, J

    1992-08-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate patterns of sexual behaviour in men and women with genital ulcer disease (GUD) and their relevance to HIV-1 transmission. METHODS--A sexual behaviour questionnaire was administered by the same interviewer to all participants who were also entered into a study of the microbial aetiology of GUD. SETTING--City Health Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic, King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa. PARTICIPANTS--100 Zulu men and 100 Zulu women. RESULTS--36 (%) of men and 36 (%) of women had continued with sexual intercourse despite GUD. Patients with donovanosis and secondary syphilis were more likely than those with other causes of GUD to have intercourse despite ulcers. During swab collection bleeding was observed from ulcers in 59 women and 26 men. Prostitutes were not identified and were rarely named as source contacts. Men had more sexual partners (190) than women (122) during the previous three months. Condom use was minimal. Men who migrated between urban and rural areas appeared to have the most sexual partners. Urban women had more partners than women from rural areas. CONCLUSIONS--Men and women with GUD are practising riskful sexual behaviour and could benefit from behaviour modification programmes. In this community men who travel between urban and rural areas and who present late with GUD that bleeds easily are probably the most important high-frequency HIV transmitter core group. A significant potential risk of blood to blood contact during sexual intercourse exists in patients with GUD.

  16. Workplace and HIV-related sexual behaviours and perceptions among female migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Li, X; Stanton, B; Fang, X; Lin, D; Mao, R; Liu, H; Chen, X; Severson, R

    2005-10-01

    Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in 'stalls' or 'domestic service' tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors.

  17. Workplace and HIV-related sexual behaviours and perceptions among female migrant workers

    PubMed Central

    YANG, H.; LI, X.; STANTON, B.; FANG, X.; LIN, D.; MAO, R.; LIU, H.; CHEN, X.; SEVERSON, R.

    2007-01-01

    Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in ‘stalls’ or ‘domestic service’ tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors. PMID:16120499

  18. The concentration of sexual behaviours in the USA: a closer examination of subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Leichliter, Jami S; Chesson, Harrell W; Sternberg, Maya; Aral, Sevgi O

    2010-12-01

    To examine the frequency of three sexual behaviours from the most active to the least active members of the population in various subpopulations using measures of inequality. Data from a US national probability sample of the population aged 15-44 years (National Survey of Family Growth) were used. Gini coefficients and Lorenz curves were calculated in order to examine the concentration of three sexual behaviours: vaginal sex acts (past 4 weeks) and number of opposite-sex partners (past 12 months; lifetime). Analyses were conducted separately for men and women and subpopulations of interest (by age, race/ethnicity, educational level and poverty level). The sexual behaviours examined were concentrated within the most active members of the population. This concentration was most pronounced for vaginal sex acts in the past 4 weeks and lifetime opposite-sex partners, with the top 5% of each population accounting for more of the sexual behaviour than the bottom 50% of the population. Sexual behaviours were most concentrated among adolescents, the least educated and the most impoverished. Some subpopulations had similar mean or median numbers of sex acts (or sex partners), but had different degrees of concentration of these behaviours. Finally, the most impoverished men and women had the highest concentration levels for two of the three sexual behaviours (vaginal sex acts, opposite-sex partners in past 12 months). Given that sexual behaviours tended to be highly concentrated in subpopulations that are often at the highest risk of sexually transmitted infections, targeted interventions may be the most efficient method to reduce risk in these groups while minimising potential unintended consequences.

  19. Sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge among Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic attendees, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Choon, S E; Sapiah, W; Ismail, Z; Balan, V

    1997-12-01

    A study was conducted in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru to determine a local population's knowledge of HIV and their sexual behaviour in relation to it. A total of 231 men and 217 women were interviewed. The sexual culture seen is one of relatively late age of first sexual intercourse, low level of partner change and low level of condom use. Men reported a higher involvement in risk behaviour. Nearly all the respondents (95.8%) have heard of HIV/AIDS but had incorrect perceptions of its mode of transmission and its associations with risk groups. This study enable us to gain background information about our patients sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge. There is a need to continue HIV education to improve our public's HIV knowledge and the results of this study provides a baseline against which future educational interventions can be gauged.

  20. Values and sexual behaviour in central and eastern europe.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robin; Realo, Anu; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Kozlova, Alexandra; Luu, Lan Anh Nguyen; Nizharadze, George

    2002-01-01

    Despite the profusion of social cognitive models for the prediction of sexual behaviour, we have only limited knowledge as to the role of individual values in predicting risky sexual activity. This study assessed the relationship between a recently developed value structure and sexual behaviour in the context of rising HIV infection in central and eastern Europe. Five hundred and three respondents (business people, doctors and nurses) from Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Poland and Russia completed Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire and reported their condom use, partnership history and record of sexual disease. Results indicated that values had a moderate but consistent relationship with sexual behaviour, with riskier sexual activity reported by those high on Openness to Change, Hedonism and Self-Enhancement. These findings are discussed in the context of the need for culturally sensitive interventions in order to tackle the growing HIV epidemic in this region.

  1. Reported Physical and Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adult HIV Risk Behaviour in Three African Countries: Findings from Project Accept (HPTN-043)

    PubMed Central

    Komárek, Arnošt; Desmond, Chris; Celentano, David; Morin, Steve; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chingono, Alfred; Gray, Glenda; Mbwambo, Jessie; Coates, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked to adolescent and adult risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debut, an increased number of sexual partners, unprotected sex, alcohol and drug use during sex and sexual violence. This paper explores these relationships among both men and women who report histories of childhood abuse from representative samples of communities in three countries in southern and eastern Africa (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). Data were collected as part of a 3-year randomized community trial to rapidly increase knowledge of HIV status and to promote community responses through mobilisation, mobile testing, provision of same-day HIV test results and post-test support for HIV. The results indicate that reported childhood sexual and physical abuse is high in all three settings, also among men, and shows strong relationships with a range of sexual risk behaviors, including age at first sex (OR −0.6 (CI: −0.9, −0.4, p<0.003)—among men, OR −0.7 (CI: −0.9, −0.5, p<0.001)—among women), alcohol (OR 1.43 (CI: 1.22, 1.68, p<0.001)—men,OR1.83 (CI: 1.50, 2.24, p<0.001)— women) and drug use (OR 1.65 (CI: 1.38, 1.97, p<0.001)— men, OR 3.14 (CI: 1.95, 5.05, p<0.001)—women) and two forms of partner violence—recent forced sex (OR 2.22 (CI: 1.66, 2.95, p<0.001)—men, OR 2.76 (CI: 2.09, 3.64, p<0.001)—women) and ever being hurt by a partner (OR 3.88 (CI: 2.84, 5.29, p<0.001)—men, OR 3.06 (CI: 2.48, 3.76, p<0.001)—women). Individuals abused in childhood comprise between 6 and 29 % of young adult men and women living in these African settings and constitute a population at high risk of HIV infection. PMID:23474641

  2. Reported physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adult HIV risk behaviour in three African countries: findings from Project Accept (HPTN-043).

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Komárek, Arnošt; Desmond, Chris; Celentano, David; Morin, Steve; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chingono, Alfred; Gray, Glenda; Mbwambo, Jessie; Coates, Tom

    2014-02-01

    Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked to adolescent and adult risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debut, an increased number of sexual partners, unprotected sex, alcohol and drug use during sex and sexual violence. This paper explores these relationships among both men and women who report histories of childhood abuse from representative samples of communities in three countries in southern and eastern Africa (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). Data were collected as part of a 3-year randomized community trial to rapidly increase knowledge of HIV status and to promote community responses through mobilisation, mobile testing, provision of same-day HIV test results and post-test support for HIV. The results indicate that reported childhood sexual and physical abuse is high in all three settings, also among men, and shows strong relationships with a range of sexual risk behaviors, including age at first sex (OR -0.6 (CI: -0.9, -0.4, p < 0.003)-among men, OR -0.7 (CI: -0.9, -0.5, p < 0.001)-among women), alcohol (OR 1.43 (CI: 1.22, 1.68, p < 0.001)-men, OR 1.83 (CI: 1.50, 2.24, p < 0.001)-women) and drug use (OR 1.65 (CI: 1.38, 1.97, p < 0.001)-men, OR 3.14 (CI: 1.95, 5.05, p < 0.001)-women) and two forms of partner violence-recent forced sex (OR 2.22 (CI: 1.66, 2.95, p < 0.001)-men, OR 2.76 (CI: 2.09, 3.64, p < 0.001)-women) and ever being hurt by a partner (OR 3.88 (CI: 2.84, 5.29, p < 0.001)-men, OR 3.06 (CI: 2.48, 3.76, p < 0.001)-women). Individuals abused in childhood comprise between 6 and 29 % of young adult men and women living in these African settings and constitute a population at high risk of HIV infection.

  3. Attention HIV: older African American women define sexual risk.

    PubMed

    McCord, Laneshia R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding sexual-risk behaviours as defined by a culture presents new challenges for human service professionals. Older African American women constitute the fastest growing group of new cases of HIV in the USA. With heterosexual sex as the primary mode of transmission among this group, there exist minimal programmes that are culture and age-specific in terms of primary and secondary prevention. In an attempt to address this gap in knowledge, this study examined how a group of older African American women defined sexual-risk behaviour. A focus group was conducted with seven women age 45 and older, who were recruited from a community centre. This paper examines the way that sexual-risk behaviour was defined through thematic analysis and conceptualises the locus of sexual risk behaviour as defined by the participants. The major theme of the study was social prescription, how to behave sexually as an ageing adult. Underlying ideas that arose were that unprotected sex occurred out of habit, that impulsivity was associated with risky sex and that older women needed to be aware of warning signs and behaviours of potential mates. Micro- and macro-level implications for human service professionals are discussed.

  4. Effects of PREPARE, a Multi-component, School-Based HIV and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Prevention Programme on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviour and IPV: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Catherine; Eggers, Sander M; Townsend, Loraine; Aarø, Leif E; de Vries, Petrus J; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; De Koker, Petra; McClinton Appollis, Tracy; Mtshizana, Yolisa; Koech, Joy; Wubs, Annegreet; De Vries, Hein

    2016-09-01

    Young South Africans, especially women, are at high risk of HIV. We evaluated the effects of PREPARE, a multi-component, school-based HIV prevention intervention to delay sexual debut, increase condom use and decrease intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adolescents. We conducted a cluster RCT among Grade eights in 42 high schools. The intervention comprised education sessions, a school health service and a school sexual violence prevention programme. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Regression was undertaken to provide ORs or coefficients adjusted for clustering. Of 6244 sampled adolescents, 55.3 % participated. At 12 months there were no differences between intervention and control arms in sexual risk behaviours. Participants in the intervention arm were less likely to report IPV victimisation (35.1 vs. 40.9 %; OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.61-0.99; t(40) = 2.14) suggesting the intervention shaped intimate partnerships into safer ones, potentially lowering the risk for HIV.

  5. Sexual Risk Taking: For Better or Worse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment can be an effective pedagogical strategy for sexuality education. Objectives: After learning about the modes of transmission and prevention strategies of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), students engaged in this teaching technique will define sexual intercourse and sexual activity, assess the level of STI risk associated…

  6. A behaviour risk factor survey in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, J P; Fox, K; Minor, K

    1999-03-01

    A population based probability sample of 958 persons (454 males and 504 females) aged 15 to 49 years was surveyed in Jamaica in late 1993 for lifestyle and behaviour risk factors. Demographic characteristics of the sample were comparable to the general population, 60% of persons visited a private doctor the last time that they were ill. Based on self-reporting, 18% of the women and 8% of the men were hypertensive and 4.8% of the women and 3.3% of the men were diabetic. 26% of the men and 8% of the women had never had their blood pressure taken. 40% of the women had never had a Papanicolaou smear, 29% had never had a breast examination and 33% said that they were overweight compared with 18% of men. Smoking cigarettes and marijuana was more common among men (36%) than women (11%), as were drinking alcohol (79% of men, 41% of women) and heavy alcohol use (30% of men, 9% of women). Injuries requiring medical attention in the previous five years were reported by 40% of the men and 15% of the women. 34% of the men and 12% of the women regularly carried a weapon and 18% of the sample had participated in or witnessed at least one violent act in the previous month. Most of the people interviewed used a contraceptive method; 10% were not sexually active. Significantly more men than women had two or more sexual partners in the previous year (54% vs 17%, p < 0.001) or reported ever having a sexually transmitted disease (29% vs 9%, p < 0.001). Younger persons were more sexually active and more likely to use condoms during their most recent sexual intercourse. Higher socio-economic status and educational level generally had a more positive effect on health behaviour. This survey provides vital information relevant to planning health promotion campaigns and assessing their success.

  7. Prevalence of syphilis infection and associations with sexual risk behaviours among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    He, Huan; Wang, Min; Zaller, Nickolas; Wang, Jun; Song, Dandan; Qu, Yuhuang; Sui, Xin; Dong, Zhengxin; Operario, Don; Zhang, Hongbo

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to understand the prevalence and correlates of syphilis infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Shanghai, China. A total of 200 HIV-positive MSM participants were recruited using "snowball" sampling. Participants were tested for syphilis and completed a one-time questionnaire which included demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours with male and female sexual partners, substance use, and use of antiretroviral medications. Prevalence of syphilis infection was 16.5%. Among HIV/syphilis co-infected participants, 63.6% reported having anal sex with male partners and 24.2% did not use condoms consistently during the past six months; 66.7% reported having oral sex with male partners and 51.5% reported unprotected oral sex during the past six months. Factors associated with testing seropositive for syphilis infection included receptive anal sex with a male partner in the past six months (AOR = 12.61, 90% CI = 2.38-66.89), illicit drug use in the past six months (AOR = 11.47, 90% CI = 2.47-53.45), and use of antiretroviral medication (AOR = 4.48, 90% CI = 1.43-14.05). These data indicate a need for "positive prevention" interventions targeting HIV-positive MSM in China.

  8. Influence of family type and parenting behaviours on teenage sexual behaviour and conceptions.

    PubMed

    Bonell, C; Allen, E; Strange, V; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Johnson, A; Stephenson, J

    2006-06-01

    Longitudinal data were used to explore relations between teenage pregnancy, sexual behaviour, and family type. The study examined whether students from lone parent and/or teenage mother initiated families more commonly report sex, lack of contraception at first sex, and/or conceptions by age 15/16, and whether such associations can be explained by low parental strictness, difficult parent-child communication, and/or low parental input into sex education. Up to date longitudinal UK research on family influences on conceptions is lacking, as is longitudinal research on family influences on sexual behaviour. No previous studies have comprehensively examined effects of parenting behaviours. Unlike previous research, this study tested theories suggesting that parenting deficits among lone parent and teenage initiated families increase risk of teenage pregnancy among their children. Secondary analysis of data from a trial of sex education. Girls and boys from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born were more likely to report sex but not lack of contraception at first sex by age 15/16. Girls and boys with mothers having them as teenagers, and boys but not girls from lone parent families, were more likely to report being involved in conceptions by age 15/16. Only the association between teenage mother family and girls' conceptions was reduced by adjusting for a parenting behaviour measure. Students from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born are more likely to report early sexual debut and conceptions by age 15/16, but this is not generally explained by parenting style.

  9. Influence of family type and parenting behaviours on teenage sexual behaviour and conceptions

    PubMed Central

    Bonell, C; Allen, E; Strange, V; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Johnson, A; Stephenson, J

    2006-01-01

    Background Longitudinal data were used to explore relations between teenage pregnancy, sexual behaviour, and family type. The study examined whether students from lone parent and/or teenage mother initiated families more commonly report sex, lack of contraception at first sex, and/or conceptions by age 15/16, and whether such associations can be explained by low parental strictness, difficult parent‐child communication, and/or low parental input into sex education. Up to date longitudinal UK research on family influences on conceptions is lacking, as is longitudinal research on family influences on sexual behaviour. No previous studies have comprehensively examined effects of parenting behaviours. Unlike previous research, this study tested theories suggesting that parenting deficits among lone parent and teenage initiated families increase risk of teenage pregnancy among their children. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a trial of sex education. Results Girls and boys from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born were more likely to report sex but not lack of contraception at first sex by age 15/16. Girls and boys with mothers having them as teenagers, and boys but not girls from lone parent families, were more likely to report being involved in conceptions by age 15/16. Only the association between teenage mother family and girls' conceptions was reduced by adjusting for a parenting behaviour measure. Conclusions Students from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born are more likely to report early sexual debut and conceptions by age 15/16, but this is not generally explained by parenting style. PMID:16698980

  10. Sexual behaviour: related adverse health burden in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, S; McKenna, M; Marks, J

    2005-01-01

    As part of an analysis of the burden of disease and injury in the United States, we identified and quantified the incidence of adverse health events, deaths, and disability adjusted life years (DALY) attributed to sexual behaviour. In 1998, about 20 million such events (7532/100 000 people) and 29 782 such deaths (1.3% of all US deaths) occurred, contributing to 2 161 417 DALYs (6.2% of all US DALYs). The majority of incident health events (62%) and DALYs (57%) related to sexual behaviour were among females, and curable infections and their sequelae contributed to over half of these. Viral infections and their sequelae accounted for nearly all sexual behaviour related deaths—mostly HIV/AIDS. Sexual behaviour attributed DALYs in the United States are threefold higher than that in overall established market economies. PMID:15681721

  11. Gendered Perceptions of Sexual Behaviour in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ndinda, C.; Uzodike, U. O.; Chimbwete, C.; Mgeyane, M. T. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses sexual behaviour findings collected through eleven homogenous focus group discussions conducted among women and men in a predominantly Zulu population in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The objective of this paper is to shed light on sexual behaviour in a rural community. The findings suggest that sex is a taboo subject and the discussion around it is concealed in the use of polite language, euphemisms, and gestures. There are gender and generational dimensions to the discussion of sex. The contribution of this paper lies in the identification of what rural people discuss about sex and the influence of cultural practices and urban or global forces on sexual behaviour in rural areas. The paper adds to the growing body of literature on the use of focus groups in understanding sexual behaviour in rural contexts. PMID:22295199

  12. Number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness predict sexual victimization: do more partners equal more risk?

    PubMed

    Walker, Dave P; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness were examined as independent risk factors for sexual victimization among college women. Using a sample of 335 college women, this study examined the interaction of number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness on verbal sexual coercion and rape. Approximately 32% of the sample reported unwanted sexual intercourse, 6.9% (n = 23) experienced verbal sexual coercion, 17.9% (n = 60) experienced rape, and 7.2% (n = 24) experienced both. As number of sexual partners increased, instances of verbal sexual coercion increased for women low in relational sexual assertiveness but not for women high in relational sexual assertiveness. A similar relationship was not found for rape. Among women who experienced both verbal sexual coercion and rape, increases in number of partners in the context of low refusal and relational assertiveness were associated with increases in verbal sexual coercion and rape. Findings suggest sexual assertiveness is related to fewer experiences of sexual coercion.

  13. Perceived quality of the parental relationship and divorce effects on sexual behaviour in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Orgilés, Mireia; Carratalá, Elena; Espada, José P

    2015-01-01

    Parental divorce has been linked to some risky sexual behaviour in previous studies. Here we examine whether the sexual behaviour of adolescents is related more to the perceived quality of the interparental relationship or to the parents' divorce in a sample from Spain, the country that has experienced the greatest recent increase in marital break-ups in the European Union. Participants were 801 adolescents aged between 14 and 17, who completed questionnaires anonymously. Adolescents who perceive high conflict in their parents' marriages have more sexual activity and engage in more risk practices in some sexual behaviours compared to adolescents with divorced parents and low interparental conflict. When adolescents perceive low conflict, those with divorced parents are more sexually active than adolescents with married parents, but they do not engage in more risk practices. The perceived quality of the parental relationship has a greater negative impact on adolescents than does the type of family structure. The study highlights the need to address the parents' marital relationship in the implementation of prevention programmes of sexual risk behaviours in Spanish adolescents.

  14. Drug users' sexual relationships and the social organisation of risk: the sexual relationship as a site of risk management.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, T; Quirk, A

    1998-01-01

    Research on "risk behaviour" in the time of AIDS has emphasised how social relationships influence individuals' responses to risk. Yet the social relationship remains an under-utilised unit of analysis in risk behaviour research. Drawing on qualitative research with illicit drug users in London, this paper illustrates how drug users' sexual relationships act as key sites of risk management in individuals' drug use and everyday lifestyles. First, while recent research has almost exclusively focused on the dangers of disease transmission, our findings show that drug users perceived their sexual relationships as influencing a variety of risks associated with heroin and other opioid drugs. Here, two types of relationships--"gear" and "straight" relationships--were perceived to be particularly important. Second, while research has tended to focus on drug and health risks as an outcome of relationships, drug users' accounts emphasise that managing risks to their relationships is an important facet of everyday risk management made complicated by drug use. It is argued that risk is a product of social interactions, and that the sexual relationship is an important site of risk management in this process. Future interventions should target drug users' sexual relationships as agents of risk management and behaviour change.

  15. Parental Influences on Young People's Sexual Behaviour: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Daniel; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Both family structure and processes have been associated with young people's sexual behaviour, but most studies are cross-sectional and focus on only one outcome: age at first intercourse. This paper uses longitudinal data from a survey of Scottish teenagers (N=5041) to show how low parental monitoring predicts early sexual activity for both sexes…

  16. Associations between relational sexual behaviour, pornography use, and pornography acceptance among US college students.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian J; Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, Larry J; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    Pornography use among emerging adults in the USA has increased in recent decades, as has the acceptance of such consumption. While previous research has linked pornography use to both positive and negative outcomes in emerging adult populations, few studies have investigated how attitudes toward pornography may alter these associations, or how examining pornography use together with other sexual behaviours may offer unique insights into the outcomes associated with pornography use. Using a sample of 792 emerging adults, the present study explored how the combined examination of pornography use, acceptance, and sexual behaviour within a relationship might offer insight into emerging adults' development. Results suggested clear gender differences in both pornography use and acceptance patterns. High male pornography use tended to be associated with high engagement in sex within a relationship and was associated with elevated risk-taking behaviours. High female pornography use was not associated with engagement in sexual behaviours within a relationship and was general associated with negative mental health outcomes.

  17. Human papillomavirus in virgins and behaviour at risk.

    PubMed

    Frega, Antonio; Cenci, Maria; Stentella, Patrizia; Cipriano, Luca; De Ioris, Andrea; Alderisio, Mauro; Vecchione, Aldo

    2003-05-08

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexual transmitted diseases (STDs). We compared two groups of virgins with genital HPV lesions to evaluate the behaviour at risk in the transmission of HPV infection. Partners were also examined. HPV lesions were detected in 88 virgins, who have never had sexual intercourse. This can be due to vertical transmission, fomities and skin-to-skin contact. Many other hypothesis can be proposed to explain HPV genital infection, however, further studies are required.

  18. Long-term health outcomes of childhood sexual abuse and peer sexual contact among an urban sample of behaviourally bisexual Latino men.

    PubMed

    Mattera, Brian; Levine, Ethan C; Martinez, Omar; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Bauermeister, José; Fernandez, M Isa; Operario, Don; Rodriguez-Diaz, Carlos

    2017-09-20

    While previous research indicates high rates of childhood sexual abuse among Latino men who have sex with men, few studies have examined the long-term health outcomes of childhood sexual abuse specifically among behaviourally bisexual Latino men. In a sample of 148 behaviourally bisexual Latino men in New York City, we examined associations between childhood sexual abuse and multiple dimensions of adult health: sexual risk behaviours; sexually transmitted infections incidence; polydrug use; depressive symptoms; and perceived stress. We compared outcomes between those with histories of childhood sexual abuse, those reporting peer sexual contact prior to age 13 and those with no sexual contact prior to age 13. Over one-fifth (22.3%) reported a history of childhood sexual abuse, which was significantly associated with engaging in receptive condomless anal intercourse (aOR = 3.59, p < .01, SE = 2.0), high perceived stress (aOR = 2.48, p < .06, SE = 1.13) and clinically significant depressive symptoms (aOR = 2.7, p < .05, SE = 1.25). Across all variables, peer sexual contact did not impact these outcomes, underscoring a key distinction between abusive and non-abusive early sexual experiences. We recommend that sexual abuse prevention policies and programmes better engage Latino youth, and that practitioners serving this population across diverse areas of practice incorporate childhood sexual abuse screening and culturally appropriate treatment and care into practice.

  19. Sexually Inappropriate or Abusive Behaviour among Pupils in Special Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyson, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, Rachel Fyson of the Centre for Social Work in the School of Sociology and Social Policy at the University of Nottingham reports the findings of a study into sexually inappropriate or abusive behaviour occurring between pupils in special schools in four local authorities in England. The behaviours identified ranged from relatively…

  20. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  1. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  2. The correlates and course of multiple health risk behaviour in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hale, Daniel R; Viner, Russell M

    2016-05-31

    Health risk behaviours often co-occur in adolescence. This may be partially explained by a set of common risk and protective factors. The current study examines the association between risk behaviours throughout adolescence and identifies common risk factors for multiple risk behaviour in late adolescence. We use data from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. We examined the association between risk behaviours at age 14 (n = 15,588), age 16 (n = 12,416) and age 19 (n = 9,548). The associations between age 19 risk behaviour and earlier risk behaviours and risk and protective factors were assessed longitudinally. Health risk behaviours included smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug use, delinquency and unsafe sexual behaviour. All risk behaviours were found to be associated with other risk behaviours with associations weakening through adolescence. A number of sociodemographic, interpersonal, school and family factors at age 14 predicted risk behaviour and multiple risk behaviour at 19, though predictors for heavy alcohol use often differed from other health risk behaviours. Past risk behaviour was a strong predictor of age 19 risk behaviour though many involved in only one form of risk behaviour in mid-adolescence do not progress to multiple risk behaviour. Our findings reaffirm the links between health risk behaviours, but these diminish throughout adolescence with multiple risk behaviour usually initiated in mid-adolescence. Multiple risk behaviour is initiated in early or mid adolescence with a number of common risk factors explaining the co-occurrence of risk behaviours.

  3. Relationships between risky sexual behaviour, dysexecutive problems, and mental health in the years following interdisciplinary TBI rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jhon Alexander; McKerral, Michelle

    2016-02-12

    Little is known about the long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) regarding risky sexual behaviour. The objectives of the study were (1) to compare risky sexual behaviour in a sample of individuals with TBI having received interdisciplinary rehabilitation with that of healthy controls, and (2) to explore the relationships between risky sexual behaviour, executive functions, and mental health in individuals with TBI. The study group consisted of 42 individuals with TBI with a mean age of 37.9 years (SD = 9.7), 12.8 years of education (SD = 3.3), and 3.3 years post-injury (SD = 4.3). Healthy controls consisted of 47 participants, with a mean age of 37.6 years (SD = 10.7), and 13 years of education (SD = 3). Risky sexual behaviour was measured with the Sexual Risk Survey and executive function with the Dysexecutive Questionnaire. Mental health measures included the Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression. Compared to healthy controls, individuals with TBI reported more dysexecutive and mental health problems, without differences in risky sexual behaviour. In individuals with TBI, risky sexual behaviour was associated with behavioural, cognitive and emotional dysexecutive problems, but not with anxiety or depression. It was concluded that special attention should be given to individuals with TBI showing difficulties in executive functions given their association with risky sexual behaviour.

  4. Comparing 3-month recall to daily reporting of sexual behaviours.

    PubMed

    Mark, Kristen P; Smith, Rachel V; Young, April M; Crosby, Richard

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to examine discrepancies between self-report methods and methodological issues related to sexual risk taking. We examined sexual behaviour assessed via 3-month electronic recall and by daily electronic reporting among a large cohort of patients attending STI clinics. STI clinic attenders (N= 628) aged 15 to 60 years reported on demographic information (at baseline), penile-vaginal sex acts, condom-unprotected penile-vaginal sex and STI history using 3-month recall and daily reports. Additionally, interviewer-participant match related to race and gender, as well as study site were considered as covariates. Concordance between recall and daily reports on penile-vaginal sex was moderately strong (Spearman's r (rs)=0.62; p<0.001). Comparison for reports for condom-unprotected penile-vaginal sex resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.61 (p<0.001), also indicating moderately strong agreement between the two methods. Two generalised logit models were conducted to explain lack of strong concordance in penile-vaginal sex acts and condom-unprotected penile-vaginal sex. The odds of a female reporting higher frequency of sex in daily reports compared with recall were more than two times that of a male. Every five person increase in the number of lifetime sexual partners was associated with five times the odds of a discrepancy in reporting methods. Age was also significantly associated with unequal daily versus recall sex frequency reporting. Shifting focus to methodological considerations of technological reports can help ensure better investment of resources into sexual health research due to greater understanding of the methodological properties of data collection methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Violence against wives, sexual risk and sexually transmitted infection among Bangladeshi men.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Kapur, Nitin A; Gupta, Jhumka; Raj, Anita

    2007-06-01

    To assess the relationship between men's reported violence against wives and their sexual risk behaviours and sexual health. Cross-sectional analyses of a survey of a nationally representative household-based sample of married men in Bangladesh (n = 3096). Physical and sexual violence against wives during the previous 12 months was assessed and examined for relations to men's extramarital sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms or diagnosis during this same period, as well as to men's disclosure of such infection to wives and condom use while infected. More than 1 in 3 (36.84%) married Bangladeshi men reported physically and/or sexually abusing their wives in the past year. Men perpetrating such violence were more likely to report both premarital and extramarital sex partners (OR(adj)s 1.80-3.45; 95% CI 1.20 to 8.23); those reporting physical violence were more likely to report STI symptoms or diagnosis in the past year (OR(adj)s 1.68-2.52; 95% CI 1.24 to 3.73). Men perpetrating physical violence and contracting an STI were somewhat more likely to fail to disclose infection status to wives (OR(adj) 1.58; 95% CI 0.93 to 2.70) than infected men not reporting such abuse. Violence against wives is common among Bangladeshi men. Men who perpetrate such abuse represent increased risk regarding their wives' sexual health because they are more likely to both participate in extramarital sexual behaviour and contract an STI compared with non-abusive husbands. Given the growing epidemic of HIV infection among monogamous South Asian women based on intercourse with infected non-monogamous husbands, research and intervention regarding men's violence in marriage and implications of such behaviour for women's sexual health should be prioritised.

  6. Factors that shape young people's sexual behaviour: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marston, Cicely; King, Eleanor

    2006-11-04

    Since nearly half of new HIV infections worldwide occur among young people aged 15-24 years, changing sexual behaviour in this group will be crucial in tackling the pandemic. Qualitative research is starting to reveal how social and cultural forces shape young people's sexual behaviour and can help explain why information campaigns and condom distribution programmes alone are often not enough to change it. We undertook a systematic review to identify key themes emerging from such research, to help inform policymakers developing sexual health programmes, and guide future research. We reviewed 268 qualitative studies of young people's sexual behaviour published between 1990 and 2004. We developed a method of comparative thematic analysis in which we coded each document according to themes they contained. We then identified relations between codes, grouping them accordingly into broader overall themes. Documents were classified as either primary or secondary depending on their quality and whether they contained empirical data. From the 5452 reports identified, we selected 246 journal articles and 22 books for analysis. Seven key themes emerged: young people assess potential sexual partners as "clean" or "unclean"; sexual partners have an important influence on behaviour in general; condoms are stigmatising and associated with lack of trust; gender stereotypes are crucial in determining social expectations and, in turn, behaviour; there are penalties and rewards for sex from society; reputations and social displays of sexual activity or inactivity are important; and social expectations hamper communication about sex. The themes do not seem to be exclusive to any particular country or cultural background, and all themes were present, in varying degrees, in all countries assessed. This study summarises key qualitative findings that help in understanding young people's sexual behaviour and why they might have unsafe sex; policymakers must take these into account when

  7. Alcohol Involvement in Sexual Behaviour and Adverse Sexual Health Outcomes from 26 to 38 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jennie L.; Kydd, Robyn M.; Dickson, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research on alcohol and sexual behaviour has focused on young adults or high-risk groups, showing alcohol use contributing to riskier sexual choices. Adults now in their late thirties have been exposed to heavier drinking norms than previously, raising questions about effects on sexual wellbeing. We examined self-reported use and consequences of alcohol in sexual contexts, and its association with usual drinking pattern at age 38, and also associations of heavy drinking occasion (HDO) frequency with number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and terminations of pregnancy (TOPs), from 26–32 and 32–38 years of age. Methods Members of the Dunedin Study birth cohort answered computer-presented questions about sexual behaviour and outcomes, and interviewer-administered alcohol consumption questions, at age 26, 32 and 38 years. Results Response level was >90% at each assessment. At 38, drinking before or during sex in the previous year was common (8.2% of men; 14.6% of women reported “usually/always”), and unwanted consequences were reported by 13.5% of men and 11.9% of women, including regretted sex or failure to use contraception or condoms. Frequent heavy drinkers were more likely to “use alcohol to make it easier to have sex” and regret partner choice, particularly women. Heavy drinking frequency was strongly associated with partner numbers for men and women at 32, but only for women at 38. Significantly higher odds of STIs amongst the heaviest drinking men, and TOPs amongst the heaviest drinking women were seen at 32–38. Conclusions Alcohol involvement in sex continues beyond young adulthood where it has been well documented, and is common at 38. Women appear to be more affected than men, and heavy drinking is associated with poorer outcomes for both. Improving sexual health and wellbeing throughout the life course needs to take account of the role of alcohol in sexual behaviour. PMID:26267272

  8. Gender differences in the association between childhood sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviours: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Maravilla, Joemer Calderon; Williams, Gail; Najman, Jake Moses

    2017-01-01

    This meta-analytic review examines the association between childhood sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviours with sub-group analyses by gender. Systematic searches of electronic databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were performed using key terms. We used a priori criteria to include high quality studies and control for heterogeneities across eligible studies. The review was registered with PROSPERO and used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The final meta-analysis applied fixed-effects model to generate pooled odds ratio (OR). Subgroup analyses were conducted to identify potential methodological moderators. The meta-analysis included 8 eligible studies (N=38,989, females=53.1%). The overall syndemic of risky sexual behaviors at adulthood was 1.59 times more common in childhood sexual abuse victims. There was a similar association between childhood sexual abuse in general and subsequent risky sexual behaviors in both females and males. However, in cases of substantiated childhood sexual abuse, there was a greater odds of risky sexual behaviors in females (OR=2.72) than males (OR=1.69). The magnitude of association of childhood sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviors was similar for males and females regardless of study time, study quality score and method of childhood sexual abuse measurement. There were nonsignificant overall and subgroup differences between males and females. Childhood sexual abuse is a significant risk factor for a syndemic of risky sexual behaviors and the magnitude is similar both in females and males. More research is needed to explore possible mechanisms of association.

  9. HIV testing, risk perception, and behaviour in the British population.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Soazig; Nardone, Anthony; Field, Nigel; Mercer, Catherine H; Tanton, Clare; Macdowall, Wendy; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2016-03-27

    To examine the relationship between HIV risk behaviour, risk perception and testing in Britain. A probability sample survey of the British population. We analyzed data on sexual behaviour, self-perceived HIV risk and HIV testing (excluding testing because of blood donation) from 13 751 sexually experienced men and women aged 16-74, interviewed between 2010 and 2012 using computer-assisted face-to-face and self-interviewing. Altogether, 3.5% of men and 5.4% of women reported having an HIV test in the past year. Higher perceived risk of HIV was associated with sexual risk behaviours and with HIV testing. However, the majority of those rating themselves as 'greatly' or 'quite a lot' at risk of HIV (3.4% of men, 2.5% of women) had not tested in the past year. This was also found among the groups most affected by HIV: MSM and black Africans. Within these groups, the majority reporting sexual risk behaviours did not perceive themselves as at risk and had not tested for HIV. Overall, 29.6% of men and 39.9% of women who tested for HIV in the past year could be classified as low risk across a range of measures. Most people who perceive themselves as at risk of HIV have not recently tested, including among MSM and black Africans. Many people tested in Britain are at low risk, reflecting current policy that aims to normalize testing. Strategies to further improve uptake of testing are needed, particularly in those at greatest risk, to further reduce undiagnosed HIV infection at late diagnoses.

  10. HIV testing, risk perception, and behaviour in the British population

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Soazig; Nardone, Anthony; Field, Nigel; Mercer, Catherine H.; Tanton, Clare; Macdowall, Wendy; Johnson, Anne M.; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between HIV risk behaviour, risk perception and testing in Britain. Design: A probability sample survey of the British population. Methods: We analyzed data on sexual behaviour, self-perceived HIV risk and HIV testing (excluding testing because of blood donation) from 13 751 sexually experienced men and women aged 16–74, interviewed between 2010 and 2012 using computer-assisted face-to-face and self-interviewing. Results: Altogether, 3.5% of men and 5.4% of women reported having an HIV test in the past year. Higher perceived risk of HIV was associated with sexual risk behaviours and with HIV testing. However, the majority of those rating themselves as ‘greatly’ or ‘quite a lot’ at risk of HIV (3.4% of men, 2.5% of women) had not tested in the past year. This was also found among the groups most affected by HIV: MSM and black Africans. Within these groups, the majority reporting sexual risk behaviours did not perceive themselves as at risk and had not tested for HIV. Overall, 29.6% of men and 39.9% of women who tested for HIV in the past year could be classified as low risk across a range of measures. Conclusion: Most people who perceive themselves as at risk of HIV have not recently tested, including among MSM and black Africans. Many people tested in Britain are at low risk, reflecting current policy that aims to normalize testing. Strategies to further improve uptake of testing are needed, particularly in those at greatest risk, to further reduce undiagnosed HIV infection at late diagnoses. PMID:26963528

  11. Social and Sexual Risk Factors among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…

  12. Social and Sexual Risk Factors among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…

  13. Penile cancer: is there an epidemiological role for smoking and sexual behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Hellberg, D; Valentin, J; Eklund, T; Nilsson, S

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to determine whether penile cancer, like cervical cancer, was associated with smoking and sexual behaviour. Altogether 244 men with penile cancer and 232 matched controls completed a questionnaire by post or telephone. Data on marital state, socioeconomic group, occupation, history of phimosis and balanitis, sexual behaviour, and smoking were obtained. The results of statistical analyses confirmed that phimosis and balanitis were risk factors for penile cancer, but there was no epidemiological evidence for it being a sexually transmitted disease. Smoking was a risk factor with a dose-response relation and remained associated with penile cancer even after adjustment for confounding factors. Penile cancer is associated with smoking independently of phimosis; treatment of phimosis alone does not remove the risk caused by smoking. PMID:3120988

  14. The Role of Sexual Images in Online and Offline Sexual Behaviour With Minors.

    PubMed

    Quayle, Ethel; Newman, Emily

    2015-06-01

    Sexual images have long been associated with sexual interest and behaviour with minors. The Internet has impacted access to existing content and the ability to create content which can be uploaded and distributed. These images can be used forensically to determine the legality of the behaviour, but importantly for psychiatry, they offer insight into motivation, sexual interest and deviance, the relationship between image content and offline sexual behaviour, and how they might be used in online solicitation and grooming with children and adolescents. Practitioners will need to consider the function that these images may serve, the motivation for their use and the challenges of assessment. This article provides an overview of the literature on the use of illegal images and the parallels with existing paraphilias, such as exhibitionism and voyeurism. The focus is on recent research on the Internet and sexual images of children, including the role that self-taken images by youth may play in the offending process.

  15. Sexual debut before the age of 14 leads to poorer psychosocial health and risky behaviour in later life

    PubMed Central

    Kastbom, Åsa A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl-Göran

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study investigated the relationship between sexual debut before 14 years of age and socio-demographics, sexual experience, health, experience of child abuse and behaviour at 18 years of age. Methods A sample of 3432 Swedish high school seniors completed a survey about sexuality, health and abuse at the age of 18. Results Early debut was positively correlated with risky behaviours, such as the number of partners, experience of oral and anal sex, health behaviours, such as smoking, drug and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviour, such as being violent, lying, stealing and running away from home. Girls with an early sexual debut had significantly more experience of sexual abuse. Boys with an early sexual debut were more likely to have a weak sense of coherence, low self-esteem and poor mental health, together with experience of sexual abuse, selling sex and physical abuse. A multiple logistic regression model showed that a number of antisocial acts and health behaviours remained significant, but early sexual debut did not increase the risk of psychiatric symptoms, low self-esteem or low sense of coherence at 18 years of age. Conclusion Early sexual debut was associated with problematic behaviours during later adolescence, and this vulnerability requires attention from parents and healthcare providers. PMID:25213099

  16. Sexual debut before the age of 14 leads to poorer psychosocial health and risky behaviour in later life.

    PubMed

    Kastbom, Åsa A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl-Göran

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between sexual debut before 14 years of age and socio-demographics, sexual experience, health, experience of child abuse and behaviour at 18 years of age. A sample of 3432 Swedish high school seniors completed a survey about sexuality, health and abuse at the age of 18. Early debut was positively correlated with risky behaviours, such as the number of partners, experience of oral and anal sex, health behaviours, such as smoking, drug and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviour, such as being violent, lying, stealing and running away from home. Girls with an early sexual debut had significantly more experience of sexual abuse. Boys with an early sexual debut were more likely to have a weak sense of coherence, low self-esteem and poor mental health, together with experience of sexual abuse, selling sex and physical abuse. A multiple logistic regression model showed that a number of antisocial acts and health behaviours remained significant, but early sexual debut did not increase the risk of psychiatric symptoms, low self-esteem or low sense of coherence at 18 years of age. Early sexual debut was associated with problematic behaviours during later adolescence, and this vulnerability requires attention from parents and healthcare providers. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Stress Mediates the Relationship Between Past Drug Addiction and Current Risky Sexual Behaviour Among Low-income Women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z Helen; Tennen, Howard; Hosain, G M Monawar; Coman, Emil; Cullum, Jerry; Berenson, Abbey B

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the role of stress as a mediator of the relationship between prior drug addiction and current high-risk sexual behaviour. Eight hundred twenty women aged 18 to 30 years, who received care at community-based family planning clinics, were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Sexual Risk Behavior Assessment Schedule. They also completed the brief version of the Self-Control Scale as a measure of problem-solving strategies and measures of recent stressful events, daily hassles and ongoing chronic stress. Regardless of addiction history, stress exposure during the previous 12 months was associated with risky sexual behaviour during the previous 12 months. Structural equation modelling revealed that 12-month stress levels mediated the relationship between past drug addiction and 12-month high-risk sexual behaviours, as well as the negative relationship between problem-solving strategies and high-risk sexual behaviours. Problem-solving strategies did not moderate the relationship between drug addiction and high-risk sexual behaviours. These findings suggest that stress management training may help reduce risky behaviour among young, low-income women.

  18. Disentangling Adolescent Pathways of Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors aimed to describe the pathways of risk within sexual risk taking, alcohol use, and delinquency, and then identify how the trajectory of sexual risk is linked to alcohol use and delinquency. Risk trajectories were measured with adolescents aged 15-24 years (N = 1,778). Using…

  19. Disentangling Adolescent Pathways of Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors aimed to describe the pathways of risk within sexual risk taking, alcohol use, and delinquency, and then identify how the trajectory of sexual risk is linked to alcohol use and delinquency. Risk trajectories were measured with adolescents aged 15-24 years (N = 1,778). Using…

  20. Poverty, risky sexual behaviour, and vulnerability to HIV infection: evidence from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Booysen, Frederik le R; Summerton, Joy

    2002-12-01

    This paper explores the relationship among poverty, risky sexual behaviour, and vulnerability to HIV infection, using data from the 1998 South African Demographic and Health Survey. Asset index was employed as proxy of socioeconomic status. Inequalities in health were measured using concentration index. Women in poorer households were slightly less knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS, while the socioeconomic inequalities in risky sexual behaviour were negligible. These small health gradients may reflect the limitations of population-based surveys in collection of information on sexual behaviour. The results may also mean that women in general are equally at risk of HIV infection, which means that more work is required to establish how factors other than knowledge on HIV/ AIDS and socioeconomic status stand to enhance the vulnerability of women to HIV/AIDS.

  1. Sexual Scripts and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Black Heterosexual Men: Development of the Sexual Scripts Scale

    PubMed Central

    Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J.; Noar, Seth M.; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (α = .86), Condom Scripts (α = .82), Alcohol Scripts (α = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (α = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (α = .84), Marijuana Scripts (α = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (α = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men’s HIV risk. PMID:24311105

  2. Neural correlates of sexual cue reactivity in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Mole, Thomas B; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Morris, Laurel; Mitchell, Simon; Lapa, Tatyana R; Karr, Judy; Harrison, Neil A; Potenza, Marc N; Irvine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) has been conceptualized as a "behavioural" addiction and common or overlapping neural circuits may govern the processing of natural and drug rewards, little is known regarding the responses to sexually explicit materials in individuals with and without CSB. Here, the processing of cues of varying sexual content was assessed in individuals with and without CSB, focusing on neural regions identified in prior studies of drug-cue reactivity. 19 CSB subjects and 19 healthy volunteers were assessed using functional MRI comparing sexually explicit videos with non-sexual exciting videos. Ratings of sexual desire and liking were obtained. Relative to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects had greater desire but similar liking scores in response to the sexually explicit videos. Exposure to sexually explicit cues in CSB compared to non-CSB subjects was associated with activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate, ventral striatum and amygdala. Functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate-ventral striatum-amygdala network was associated with subjective sexual desire (but not liking) to a greater degree in CSB relative to non-CSB subjects. The dissociation between desire or wanting and liking is consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying CSB as in drug addictions. Neural differences in the processing of sexual-cue reactivity were identified in CSB subjects in regions previously implicated in drug-cue reactivity studies. The greater engagement of corticostriatal limbic circuitry in CSB following exposure to sexual cues suggests neural mechanisms underlying CSB and potential biological targets for interventions.

  3. Ethnicity and HIV risk behaviour, testing and knowledge in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tory M; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Data on 16,205 women aged 15-49 and 6822 men aged 15-59 from the 2008-2009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes.

  4. Ethnicity and HIV risk behaviour, testing and knowledge in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tory M.; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Design. Data on 16,205 women aged 15–49 and 6822 men aged 15–59 from the 2008–2009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). Results. The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. Conclusions. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24834462

  5. Sexual behaviour and use of electronic media among undergraduates in the University of Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Salawu, A T; Reis, S O; Fawole, O I; Dairo, M D

    2015-12-01

    Sexual behaviour among the youth contributes largely to the burden of reproductive health problems in Nigeria. This may have been worsened by the introduction of electronic media like internet and television (TV). However, little is known about the effects of electronic media on sexual behaviour of youth in Nigeria. Therefore, exploring the influence of effect of electronic media on sexual behaviour of youth may help policy maker to provide interventions to these problems. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing the effect of electronic media on sexual behaviour of Undergraduates in the University of Ibadan. This was an analytical cross-sectional study, using a multistage sampling method and data were collected through self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Variables measured are socio-demographic characteristics, exposure to electronic media and sexual practices of youths. Frequency tables were generated, and data analyzed by logistic regression. Four hundred and thirty three questionnaires were returned out of 456 distributed, giving a response rate of 95%. Mean age of respondents was 18.75 (SD = 2.5) years. About 58.4% of males use the internet and 58.6% watch TV while 41.6% of female use the Internet and 41.4% watch TV. Watching sexually explicit program on internet increases risk of having premarital sex (OR = 3.1; CI = 1.2-7.7) while watching non sexually explicit programmes on T.V protects from having premarital sex (OR = 0.4 CI = 0.2-0.8). These observed influence of exposure to sexually charged materials on the internet and electronic media indicates the need for efforts to be directed to controlling access, of youths to these sexually explicit programmes on the internet and television programmes.

  6. Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities and Sexually Abusive Behaviour: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Glynis; Powell, Simon; Guzman, Ana-Maria; Hays, Sarah-Jane

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) seems to be becoming the treatment of choice for non-disabled sex offenders. Nevertheless, there have been relatively few evaluations of such treatment for men with intellectual disabilities (ID) and sexually abusive behaviour. Method: A pilot study providing CBT for two groups of men with ID is…

  7. Alcohol and drug abuse and risky sexual behaviours in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Branco, Camil; Parera, Nuria; Mendoza, Nicolás; Pérez-Campos, Ezequiel; Lete, Iñaki

    2014-08-01

    To assess alcohol abuse as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adult women, a high-risk population for unintended pregnancies. Totally 3163 adolescent and young adult women, 18-29 years, were assessed on sociodemographics, alcohol and drug use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants answered a structured questionnaire on their leisure habits, drug and alcohol consumption, contraception and sexual behaviors. Most of the young adult women perceive that sexuality is an important part of their life but not a main concern (77.6%) and that alcohol removes the barriers to have sex (62.3%). Additionally, 77.0% claimed that contraception had "a lot" (53.4%) and "quite" (23.6%) influence on the quality of their sexuality. However, up to a 38.4% of the interviewed women had had sex without using any contraception and 29.6% of them acknowledged that had taken alcohol and of these, 40.7% said that alcohol was responsible for not using contraception. Alcohol abuse predicted an increase in risky sexual behaviours (4.45 CI: 2.01-9.75, p < 0.0001). The effect of alcohol was independent of age. These findings suggest that contraception-related behavioural interventions for young adult women should discuss the link between alcohol and sexual risk behavior.

  8. Young adolescents' perceptions of peer sexual behaviours: the role of television viewing.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, S

    2005-07-01

    To investigate whether young adolescents' perceptions of peers' sexual activity is related to the amount of television viewing, and whether this relationship may be moderated by young adolescents' pubertal development. This study used a sample of 12- and a sample of 15-year-olds; 2127 respondents in a targeted sample of nine schools in Flanders (the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium), completed a questionnaire with questions about their television viewing behaviour, the estimated prevalence of given sexual activities in peers, and self-reports on pubertal development and sexual experience. In the sample of 12-year-olds, results demonstrated that a quadratic regression equation provides the best description for the relationship between television viewing and perceptions of peer sexual behaviours, indicating that the 'effect' of television only starts off after a level of about 45 h of television viewing per week. Further exploration showed that this relationship remains significant when controlling for gender and sexual experience, and is stronger at more advanced levels of pubertal development. In the sample of 15-year-olds, linear and unmoderated relationships were found. Irrespective of their pubertal status, gender, or level of sexual experience, television viewing is related to higher expectations of peers' sexual activities. Concerns about the impact of television viewing on sexual health should not be limited to older adolescents. This research has identified 12-year-olds who display a higher level of pubertal development and generally spend much time with television viewing as a category of viewers-at-risk.

  9. Sexually explicit racialised media targeting men who have sex with men online: A content analysis of high-risk behaviour depicted in online advertisements

    PubMed Central

    White, Jaclyn M.; Dunham, Emilia; Rowley, Blake; Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit media may perpetuate racial and sexual norms among men who have sex with men. While men may be exposed to sexually explicit media in the online settings where they seek sex with other men, no studies to our knowledge have explored the relationship between the racial and sexual content of advertisements appearing in these spaces. In 2011, 217 sexually explicit advertisements on a male sex-seeking website were coded for themes, actor characteristics, and sexual acts depicted using a detailed codebook. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the association between skin colour, theme, sexual acts, and condomless sex acts. Nearly half (45%) featured a ‘thug’ theme (style emphasising Black masculinity/hip-hop culture), 21% featured a college theme, and 44% featured condomless sex. Ads featuring only Black men, ads featuring Black men with men of other skin tones, and ads depicting a thug theme were positively associated with depictions of condomless sex. Online sexually explicit ads featuring Black themes and actors more frequently depicted risky sex than ads with White men alone. Future research should examine whether risky depictions of Black men in online ads influence the sexual norms and cognitions of Black men who have sex with men and their partners. PMID:25891135

  10. Sexually explicit racialised media targeting men who have sex with men online: a content analysis of high-risk behaviour depicted in online advertisements.

    PubMed

    White, Jaclyn M; Dunham, Emilia; Rowley, Blake; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit media may perpetuate racial and sexual norms among men who have sex with men. While men may be exposed to sexually explicit media in the online settings where they seek sex with other men, no studies to our knowledge have explored the relationship between the racial and sexual content of advertisements appearing in these spaces. In 2011, using a detailed codebook, 217 sexually explicit advertisements on a male sex-seeking website were coded for themes, actor characteristics and sexual acts depicted. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the association between skin colour, theme, sexual acts and condomless sex acts. Nearly half (45%) featured a 'thug' theme (a style emphasising Black masculinity/hip-hop culture), 21% featured a college theme and 44% featured condomless sex. Advertisements featuring only Black men, advertisements featuring Black men with men of other skin tones and advertisements depicting a thug theme were positively associated with depictions of condomless sex. Online sexually explicit advertisements featuring Black themes and actors more frequently depicted condomless sex than advertisements with White men alone. Future research should examine whether depictions of Black men engaging in condomless sex in online advertisements influence the sexual norms and cognitions of Black men who have sex with men and their partners.

  11. Illegal yet developmentally normative: a descriptive analysis of young, urban adolescents’ dating and sexual behaviour in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In South Africa, it is illegal for adolescents under age 16 years to engage in any sexual behaviour whether kissing, petting, or penetrative sex, regardless of consent. This cross-sectional study investigated the extent to which young adolescents engage in various sexual behaviours and the associations between dating status and sexual behaviours. Method Grade 8 adolescents (N = 474, ages 12–15 years, mean = 14.14 years) recruited from Cape Town schools completed surveys providing information about their sociodemographic backgrounds, dating experience, sexual behaviour, and substance use. Results Lower hierarchy sexual behaviours, such as kissing (71.4% of girls; 88.4% of boys), were more common than oral (3.9% of girls; 13.8% of boys), vaginal (9.3% of girls; 30.0% of boys), or anal (1.4% of girls; 10.5% of boys) sex. Currently dating girls and boys were more likely to engage in sexual behaviours including several risk behaviours in comparison to their currently non-dating counterparts. These risk behaviours included penetrative sex (21.1% of dating vs. 4.5% of non-dating girls; 49.4% of dating vs. 20.2% of non-dating boys), sex with co-occurring substance use (22.2% of dating vs. 0 non-dating girls; 32.1% of dating vs. 40% of non-dating boys), and no contraceptive use (26.1% of sexually experienced girls; 44.4% of sexually experienced boys). Among girls, there were significant associations between ever having penetrative sex and SES (OR = 2.592, p = 0.017) and never dating (OR = 0.330, p = 0.016). Among boys, there were significant associations between ever having penetrative sex and never dating (OR = 0.162, p = 0.008). Although the currently dating group of young adolescents appear to be a precocious group in terms of risk behaviour relative to the currently non-dating group, teenagers in both groups had experience in the full range of sexual behaviours. Conclusions Many young adolescents are engaging in a variety

  12. Sexual Behaviour and Interest in Using a Sexual Health Mobile App to Help Improve and Manage College Students' Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Alice R.; Webb, Monica C.; Brinkley, Jason; Martin, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Many US college students are reported to engage in risky sexual behaviour. Smartphone applications are a popular way to provide users with information in real time. We explored the potential for mobile technology to be used in promoting the sexual health of college students. Using findings from an online survey among a random sample of 5000…

  13. Sexual Behaviour and Interest in Using a Sexual Health Mobile App to Help Improve and Manage College Students' Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Alice R.; Webb, Monica C.; Brinkley, Jason; Martin, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Many US college students are reported to engage in risky sexual behaviour. Smartphone applications are a popular way to provide users with information in real time. We explored the potential for mobile technology to be used in promoting the sexual health of college students. Using findings from an online survey among a random sample of 5000…

  14. Association between age at first sexual relation and some indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yode, Miangotar; LeGrand, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    This study explores the relationship between age at first sexual intercourse and four indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescents aged 14 to 19 years in Burkina Faso, Malawi and Uganda. Analyses are conducted using data from National Surveys of Adolescents, organized in 2004. Multivariate analyses are performed using dichotomous logistic regression and ordered polychotomic logistic regression. Analyses show that initiation of sexual activity before age 14 is more likely to be associated with having a casual sex partner. It is less likely to be associated with condom use at first sexual relation or with systematic condom use in the past 12 months. These associations vary depending on adolescents' country and gender. Delaying onset of sexuality could be a surer and safer way to protect health during adolescence. However, sexual and reproductive health programs that advocate abstinence only are likely to have few positive effects on young people. To better implement this strategy, sexual education for adolescents should be integrated.

  15. Sexual health and life experiences: Voices from behaviourally bisexual Latino men in the Midwestern USA

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Reece, Michael; Schnarrs, Philip; Rhodes, Scott; Goncalves, Gabriel; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Kelle, Guadalupe; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Research on behaviourally bisexual Latino men in the USA has not yet examined sexual health issues among men living in diverse areas of the nation, including the Midwest. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was used to engage a diverse sample of 75 behaviourally bisexual men (25 White, 25 Black, and 25 Latino). Semi-structured interviews were conducted and, in this paper, standard qualitative analysis procedures were used to explore data from the 25 Latino participants. Men described their unique migration experiences as behaviourally bisexual men in this area of the USA, as well as related sexual risk behaviours and health concerns. Lack of culturally congruent public health and community resources for behaviourally bisexual men in the Midwestern USA were identified as significant barriers. As in other studies, familial and community relationships were significant for the participants, especially in terms of the decision to disclose or not disclose their bisexuality. Additionally, alcohol and other drugs were often used while engaging in sexual behaviours particularly with male and transgender, as well as female, partners. Behaviourally bisexual Latino men may benefit from receiving positive and affirmative individual- and structural-level support in regards to their unique experiences in this and other settings. PMID:21815839

  16. Chronic amantadine treatment enhances the sexual behaviour of male rats.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Marcia Martins Dias; Fontanella, Julia Cordeiro; Damasceno, Fabio; Silva de Almeida, Olga Maria Martins; Ferraz, Marcos Rochedo

    2007-04-01

    The acute administration of amantadine (AMA), a dopaminomimetic and NMDA glutamatergic receptor antagonist also used as an anti-Parkinsonian agent, stimulates male rat sexual behaviour. However it remains unclear whether long term AMA supplementation might also provoke a similar increase in male rat sexual conduct. In the present study, male rats were administered AMA (5-50 mg/kg/day) or vehicle daily for 21 days and their sexual response was monitored weekly. Chronic treatment with AMA effectively increased the sexual response of male rats, similarly to what had been observed before with acute amantadine treatment. The main effect of chronic AMA treatment occurs in arousal and in ejaculatory response, whilst the excitatory component was not affected. The 21-day treatment with AMA did not lead to tolerance, suggesting that perhaps AMA could be used in male human patients to prevent sexual inhibition caused by anti-depressant and anti-psychotic agents.

  17. Sexual behaviour in preschool children in the context of intra-parental violence and sexual coercion.

    PubMed

    Cale, Jesse; Lussier, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Very little is understood about the developmental antecedents of sexual behaviour prior to adolescence. Our aim was to examine the impact of different forms of intimate partner violence on early childhood sexual development. We used data from an ongoing prospective longitudinal cohort study of Canadian families. Intimate partner violence of various kinds was measured using a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Measures of child sexual development were based on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Both measures relied on parental report. Sexual coercion between parental figures, but not physical violence or emotional aggression, was significantly associated with intrusive sexual behaviours shown by 3- to 5-year-old children. It may seem unlikely that 3- to 5- year-old children can understand that their parents are in a sexually coercive relationship, but our findings suggest that they are sufficiently aware of such behaviours when they occur that they may start to model their own behaviour on them. Clinicians and social workers may need to be more aware of this possibility. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and risk behaviours among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya: results of a respondent driven sampling study.

    PubMed

    Musyoki, Helgar; Kellogg, Timothy A; Geibel, Scott; Muraguri, Nicholas; Okal, Jerry; Tun, Waimar; Fisher Raymond, H; Dadabhai, Sufia; Sheehy, Meredith; Kim, Andrea A

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Women aged 18 years and older who reported selling sex to a man at least once in the past 3 months were eligible to participate. Consenting FSWs completed a behavioral questionnaire and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adjusted population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS analysis tool. Factors significantly associated with HIV infection were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. A total of 596 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was 29.5 % (95 % CI 24.7-34.9). Median age was 30 years (IQR 25-38 years); median duration of sex work was 12 years (IQR 8-17 years). The most frequent client-seeking venues were bars (76.6 %) and roadsides (29.3 %). The median number of clients per week was seven (IQR 4-18 clients). HIV testing was high with 86.6 % reported ever been tested for HIV and, of these, 63.1 % testing within the past 12 months. Of all women, 59.7 % perceived themselves at 'great risk' for HIV infection. Of HIV-positive women, 51.0 % were aware of their infection. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, inconsistent condom use with paying clients, and use of a male condom as a method of contraception were independently associated with unrecognized HIV infection. Prevalence among STIs was low, ranging from 0.9 % for syphilis, 1.1 % for gonorrhea, and 3.1 % for Chlamydia. The data suggest high prevalence of HIV among FSWs in Nairobi. Targeted and routine HIV and STI combination prevention strategies need to be scaled up or established to meet the needs of this population.

  19. The Risks and Rewards of Sexual Debut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Rachel Lynn; Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    The sex-positive framework of sexual development hypothesizes that healthy sexual experiences can be developmentally appropriate and rewarding for adolescents despite the risks involved. Research has not examined whether risky behaviors and rewarding cognitions actually change with sexual debut at a normative or late age. This study measured the…

  20. The Risks and Rewards of Sexual Debut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Rachel Lynn; Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    The sex-positive framework of sexual development hypothesizes that healthy sexual experiences can be developmentally appropriate and rewarding for adolescents despite the risks involved. Research has not examined whether risky behaviors and rewarding cognitions actually change with sexual debut at a normative or late age. This study measured the…

  1. Demographic changes and trends in risk behaviours, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Bangalore, India involved in a focused HIV preventive intervention.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Gayatri C; Kumar, Shiv; Isac, Shajy; Javalkar, Prakash; Gowda, Pushpalatha Rama Narayana; Raghunathan, N; Gowda, Chandra Shekhar; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2013-12-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to assess the changing demographic characteristics of female sex workers (FSWs) in the urban Bangalore district, India, and trends in programme coverage, HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevalence rates and condom use. Cross-sectional, integrated behavioural and biological assessments of FSWs were conducted in 2006, 2009 and 2011. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to describe trends over time. The results indicate the mean age of initiation into sex work has increased (26.9 years in 2006 vs 27.6 years in 2011, p<0.01), a higher proportion of FSWs reported being in 'stable' relationships in 2011 (70.2% vs 43.2% in 2006, p<0.01) and having conducted sex work outside the district in the past 6 months (10.0% in 2011 vs 16.0% in 2006 p=0.01). There was an increase in the proportion of FSWs using cellphones to solicit clients (4.4% in 2006 vs 57.5% in 2011, p<0.01) and their homes for sex work (61.4% in 2006 vs 77.8% in 2011, p<0.01). Reactive syphilis prevalence declined (12.6% in 2006 to 4% in 2011, p=0.02), as did high-titre syphilis prevalence (9.5% in 2006 to 2.5% in 2011, p=0.01). HIV prevalence declined but not significantly (12.7% in 2006 and 9.3% in 2011, p=0.39). Condom use remained above 90% increasing significantly among repeat (paying) clients (66.6% in 2006 to 93.6% in 2011, p<0.01). However, condom use remained low with non-paying partners when compared with occasional paying partners (17.6% vs 97.2% in 2011, p<0.01). Given the changing dynamics in the FSW population at multiple levels, there is a need to develop and customise strategies to meet local needs.

  2. Teenage sexual attitudes and behaviour in China: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juping

    2012-11-01

    China is the most populated of any country in the world. Social norms and values pertaining to love and marriage have changed considerably since the launch of its open-door policy and economic reforms of the 1980s. Attitudes to sex have become more open, while the negative consequences of early sexual intercourse have become issues of health and social concern. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the teenage sexual attitudes and behaviour in contemporary China. A literature review was conducted between 2000 and 2010, using both English (Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA) and Chinese language databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database). Thirty-six studies were included and reviewed. It was found that young people reported poor sexual knowledge, especially in relation to reproductive matters and sexually transmitted infections. The media, such as television, magazines and the Internet, were seen as their main sources of information on sex. Despite the frequently reported liberal attitudes to sexual behaviour, only a small number of young people had already lost their virginity or been involved in pregnancies. Young men were more likely than young women to report having had sex, while respondents at vocational high schools were less likely to remain virgins than those at common/key high schools. Although the prevalence of sexual intercourse among Chinese teenagers was still lower than that reported in studies conducted in most western countries, the findings do reflect some changes in sexual values and behaviour of young people within the country. They also suggest the need to develop more comprehensive sex education programmes in co-operation with young people, schools, health organisations, families and communities and to make sexual and reproductive health services accessible to teenagers and unmarried young people throughout China.

  3. [Sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus testing in university students from Cuzco (Peru)].

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, M Paz; Ramiro, M Teresa; Teva, Inmaculada; Ramiro-Sánchez, Tamara; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2017-09-15

    To analyse sexual behaviour, HIV testing, HIV testing intentions and reasons for not testing for HIV in university students from Cuzco (Peru). The sample comprised 1,377 university students from several institutions from Cuzco (Peru). The size of the sample was set according to a maximum 3% error estimation and a 97% confidence interval. Ages ranged from 16 to 30 years old. The data were collected through a self-administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire regarding sexual behaviour and HIV testing. The data were collected in classrooms during teaching hours. A higher percentage of males than females reported having had vaginal, anal and oral sex, a higher number of sexual partners and an earlier age at first vaginal and oral sex. A higher percentage of females than males did not use condoms when they first had anal sex and had a higher anal sex-risk index. Most of the participants had never been HIV tested. The main reason was that they were sure that they were not HIV infected. It seems that there was a low HIV risk perception in these participants despite the fact that they had been involved in sexual risk behaviours. Prevention campaigns focused on the general population as well as the at-risk populations and young people are needed. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. [Sexual risk factors among European young people].

    PubMed

    Calatrava, María; López-Del Burgo, Cristina; de Irala, Jokin

    2012-05-05

    The sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Europe are still rising. In order to prioritize STI prevention strategies in Europe, it is important to describe the prevalence of different sexual risk factors for STIs among European young people. We carried out a systematic review of published articles and studies performed by European institutions. A total of 21 articles and 10 studies were identified. The data shows an increase in early sexual initiation and the number of sexual partners. Young people who use condoms inconsistently ranged from 15 to 20%. The observed risk factors are: unawareness about other STIs different from HIV, being in favour of casual sex, wrongly believing that some measures are effective in avoiding HIV, not being aware of the risks from having multiple sexual partners and unawareness about the sexual transmission of HIV. The data suggests the need to improve the information addressed to youth.

  5. Alcohol and drug usage; and adolescents' sexual behaviour in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwagu, Evelyn N

    2016-06-01

    This study determined students' perception of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a researcher-made questionnaire. The population for the study comprised all students in government secondary schools in Enugu state, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 600 students randomly selected from the population. Means, t-test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The result of the study revealed that there were significant differences at 0.05 level of significance in the mean perception of the students of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours when they were classified by gender and class. All the students irrespective of age agreed that alcohol and drug usage negatively influence sexual behaviour. The students perceived that students who do not take alcohol usually control their sexual desires while rape is common with students who are drug users. It was recommended among others that preventive health programmes meant to address adolescents' sexuality should be combined with appropriate drug education for maximum benefit. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Sexual abuse history, alcohol intoxication, and women's sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Rebecca L; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2010-08-01

    We examined potential differences in women's likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as non-sexually abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06, .08, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette. Dependent measures included vaginal pulse amplitude, self-reported sexual arousal, likelihood of engaging in condom use and risky sexual behaviors described in the vignette, and mood. NSA and ASA women did not differ significantly on any dependent measures. CSA women reported significantly lower likelihood of condom use and unprotected intercourse relative to NSA and ASA women. Intoxicated women reported significantly greater sexual arousal, positive mood, and likelihood of risky sex relative to sober women. Intoxicated CSA women reported significantly more likelihood of unprotected oral sex and less likelihood of condom use relative to intoxicated NSA and ASA and sober CSA women. CSA women's increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be driven by non-condom use and behavioral changes while intoxicated. These findings provide preliminary insight into situational influences affecting CSA women's increased STI risk.

  7. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and subsequent sexual behaviour: evidence from a large survey of Nordic women.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bo T; Kjær, Susanne K; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Liaw, Kai-Li; Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Munk, Christian; Nygård, Mari

    2014-09-03

    To assess whether recipients and non-recipients of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine subsequently differ in terms of sexual risk taking behaviour. Cross-sectional survey. Sequential analyses constructed from self-reported age at vaccination, age at first intercourse and age at response. A random selection of women aged 18-46 years living in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2011-2012, eligible for opportunistic or organized catch-up HPV vaccination. A total of 3805 women reported to have received the HPV vaccine and 40,247 reported not to have received it. Among vaccinees, 1539 received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut, of which 476 and 1063 were eligible for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccination, respectively. Self-reported sexual behaviour, compared by hazard ratios and odds ratios for women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut versus women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. HPV vaccination did not result in younger age at first intercourse. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not have more sexual partners than did non-vaccinees. Non-use of contraception during first intercourse was more common among non-vaccinees than among HPV vaccinees. The results were similar for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccinees. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not subsequently engage more in sexual risk taking behaviour than women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic dissection of neural circuits underlying sexually dimorphic social behaviours.

    PubMed

    Bayless, Daniel W; Shah, Nirao M

    2016-02-19

    The unique hormonal, genetic and epigenetic environments of males and females during development and adulthood shape the neural circuitry of the brain. These differences in neural circuitry result in sex-typical displays of social behaviours such as mating and aggression. Like other neural circuits, those underlying sex-typical social behaviours weave through complex brain regions that control a variety of diverse behaviours. For this reason, the functional dissection of neural circuits underlying sex-typical social behaviours has proved to be difficult. However, molecularly discrete neuronal subpopulations can be identified in the heterogeneous brain regions that control sex-typical social behaviours. In addition, the actions of oestrogens and androgens produce sex differences in gene expression within these brain regions, thereby highlighting the neuronal subpopulations most likely to control sexually dimorphic social behaviours. These conditions permit the implementation of innovative genetic approaches that, in mammals, are most highly advanced in the laboratory mouse. Such approaches have greatly advanced our understanding of the functional significance of sexually dimorphic neural circuits in the brain. In this review, we discuss the neural circuitry of sex-typical social behaviours in mice while highlighting the genetic technical innovations that have advanced the field.

  9. Genetic dissection of neural circuits underlying sexually dimorphic social behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Bayless, Daniel W.; Shah, Nirao M.

    2016-01-01

    The unique hormonal, genetic and epigenetic environments of males and females during development and adulthood shape the neural circuitry of the brain. These differences in neural circuitry result in sex-typical displays of social behaviours such as mating and aggression. Like other neural circuits, those underlying sex-typical social behaviours weave through complex brain regions that control a variety of diverse behaviours. For this reason, the functional dissection of neural circuits underlying sex-typical social behaviours has proved to be difficult. However, molecularly discrete neuronal subpopulations can be identified in the heterogeneous brain regions that control sex-typical social behaviours. In addition, the actions of oestrogens and androgens produce sex differences in gene expression within these brain regions, thereby highlighting the neuronal subpopulations most likely to control sexually dimorphic social behaviours. These conditions permit the implementation of innovative genetic approaches that, in mammals, are most highly advanced in the laboratory mouse. Such approaches have greatly advanced our understanding of the functional significance of sexually dimorphic neural circuits in the brain. In this review, we discuss the neural circuitry of sex-typical social behaviours in mice while highlighting the genetic technical innovations that have advanced the field. PMID:26833830

  10. Youth risk behaviour in a Chinese population: a territory-wide youth risk behavioural surveillance in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Tsang, C K K

    2004-03-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence rates of different categories of youth risk behaviour by age, sex and parental education. The study population consisted of 26,111 Hong Kong students, aged 10-19 years, recruited from 48 primary (primary grades 4-6) and secondary schools (secondary grades 1-7). Less than one-third of subjects participated in vigorous exercise regularly, about one-third consumed an unhealthy diet frequently, 18% had tried smoking, and 14.5% had seriously considered attempting suicide. Although only 3.4% of students reported experience of sexual intercourse, less than half used a contraceptive device. Older students had higher prevalence rates of health-compromising behaviours than younger students. Female students were more likely to report suicide-related behaviour, attempting weight loss, and non-participation in vigorous physical activities. Students with parents of a lower educational background were more likely to report rarely or never wearing seat belts and bicycle helmets, suicide-related behaviour, smoking, sexual intercourse before 13 years of age, and attempting weight loss. The availability of data on youth health risk behaviours would enable health educators, public health practitioners and clinicians to plan appropriate screening and counselling for risk behaviours in early adolescents.

  11. Sexsomnia: parasomnia associated with sexual behaviour during sleep.

    PubMed

    Ariño, H; Iranzo, A; Gaig, C; Santamaria, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of our study is to describe 4 cases of sexsomnia, a form of parasomnia characterised by sexual behaviour during sleep. Clinical history and video-polysomnography recordings from patients diagnosed with sexsomnia in the Multidisciplinary Sleep Unit at Hospital Clínic in Barcelona. Three men and one woman between 28 and 43 years of age reported sexual behaviours during sleep with progression times ranging from 9 months to 7 years. Episodes consisted of masturbation without seeking the participation of a sleeping partner (2 cases) and attempts at sexual intercourse with inappropriate and uncharacteristic vocalizations and behaviours (3 cases). The frequency of the episodes ranged from 4 isolated episodes to 2-3 per week. Patients were amnestic of these events and surprised by their partners' accounts of their behaviour. Medical histories revealed that 1 patient was a somnambulist, 2 had confusional arousals, and 1 experienced somniloquy. Video-polysomnography did not disclose sexual behaviours during sleep but revealed sleep apnoea in 2 cases and periodic leg movements in sleep in another. The only patient treated with clonazepam reported decreased frequency of both confusional arousals and sexsomnia episodes. Sexsomnia occurs in young adults and is characterised by masturbation and inappropriate attempts at achieving sexual intercourse followed by total amnesia of the events. It can be associated with other parasomnias such as sleepwalking and confusional arousals. Other sleep disorders, including sleep apnoea and periodic leg movement disorder, may trigger episodes of sexsomnia. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. A systematic review on the clustering and co-occurrence of multiple risk behaviours.

    PubMed

    Meader, Nick; King, Kristelle; Moe-Byrne, Thirimon; Wright, Kath; Graham, Hilary; Petticrew, Mark; Power, Chris; White, Martin; Sowden, Amanda J

    2016-07-29

    Risk behaviours, such as smoking and physical inactivity account for up to two-thirds of all cardiovascular deaths, and are associated with substantial increased mortality in many conditions including cancer and diabetes. As risk behaviours are thought to co-occur in individuals we conducted a systematic review of studies addressing clustering or co-occurrence of risk behaviours and their predictors. As the main aim of the review was to inform public health policy in England we limited inclusion to studies conducted in the UK. Key databases were searched from 1990 to 2016. We included UK based cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that investigated risk behaviours such as smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet. High heterogeneity precluded meta-analyses. Thirty-seven studies were included in the review (32 cross-sectional and five longitudinal). Most studies investigated unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, alcohol misuse, and smoking. In general adult populations, there was relatively strong evidence of clustering between alcohol misuse and smoking; and unhealthy diet and smoking. For young adults, there was evidence of clustering between sexual risk behaviour and smoking, sexual risk behaviour and illicit drug use, and sexual risk behaviour and alcohol misuse. The strongest associations with co-occurrence and clustering of multiple risk behaviours were occupation (up to 4-fold increased odds in lower SES groups) and education (up to 5-fold increased odds in those with no qualifications). Among general adult populations, alcohol misuse and smoking was the most commonly identified risk behaviour cluster. Among young adults, there was consistent evidence of clustering found between sexual risk behaviour and substance misuse. Socio-economic status was the strongest predictor of engaging in multiple risk behaviours. This suggests the potential for interventions targeting multiple risk behaviours either sequentially or concurrently particularly where there is

  13. The epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis in relation to sexual behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been most consistently linked to sexual behaviour, and the epidemiological profile of BV mirrors that of established sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It remains a matter of debate however whether BV pathogenesis does actually involve sexual transmission of pathogenic micro-organisms from men to women. We therefore made a critical appraisal of the literature on BV in relation to sexual behaviour. Discussion G. vaginalis carriage and BV occurs rarely with children, but has been observed among adolescent, even sexually non-experienced girls, contradicting that sexual transmission is a necessary prerequisite to disease acquisition. G. vaginalis carriage is enhanced by penetrative sexual contact but also by non-penetrative digito-genital contact and oral sex, again indicating that sex per se, but not necessarily coital transmission is involved. Several observations also point at female-to-male rather than at male-to-female transmission of G. vaginalis, presumably explaining the high concordance rates of G. vaginalis carriage among couples. Male antibiotic treatment has not been found to protect against BV, condom use is slightly protective, whereas male circumcision might protect against BV. BV is also common among women-who-have-sex-with-women and this relates at least in part to non-coital sexual behaviours. Though male-to-female transmission cannot be ruled out, overall there is little evidence that BV acts as an STD. Rather, we suggest BV may be considered a sexually enhanced disease (SED), with frequency of intercourse being a critical factor. This may relate to two distinct pathogenetic mechanisms: (1) in case of unprotected intercourse alkalinisation of the vaginal niche enhances a shift from lactobacilli-dominated microflora to a BV-like type of microflora and (2) in case of unprotected and protected intercourse mechanical transfer of perineal enteric bacteria is enhanced by coitus. A similar mechanism of mechanical

  14. Risky sexual behaviour among unmarried young people in Cameroon: another look at family environment.

    PubMed

    Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of the association between family structure and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents and young adults have employed a risk perspective which assumes that, compared with other types, two-parent families are protective. Drawing from a positive-oriented approach in this study, it is hypothesized that within each family type some influential factors may mitigate such anticipated deleterious effects of non-intact families and decrease sexual risk-taking. The paper examines specifically the effects of risk and protective factors with an emphasis on family processes associated with resilience, using data from a pooled sample of 1025 females and males aged 12-24 years from Bandjoun (West Cameroon). Findings show that the quality of parent/guardian-youth relationships significantly decreases the odds of risky sexual behaviour by 36%, 65% and 50% in neither-, one- and two-parent families, respectively. For two-parent families only, parental control acts as a significant protective factor; it decreased by 41% the odds of risky sexual behaviour. Programmatically, protective family factors such as parent/guardian-youth interactions need to be promoted to improve the efficiency of reproductive health and HIV interventions in sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…

  16. Sexual Compulsivity and Sexual Risk in Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Bimbi, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Much of our understanding of the association between the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS; Kalichman et al., 1994) and sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) has been limited to samples of HIV positive MSM only. Using data from a community-based survey of gay and bisexual men (n = 1214), this analysis sought to further evaluate the association between the SCS and sexual risk behavior. The SCS was significantly associated with a variety of sexual risk behaviors, including having sex under the influence of club drugs, engaging in unprotected anal sex (receptive or insertive) with partners of the same and/or different HIV serostatus, identity as a barebacker, intentions to have bareback sex, number of recent sex partners, and temptation for unsafe sex. The SCS was also significantly associated with having engaged in a variety of specialized sexual behaviors (i.e., fetishes), many of which can increase HIV transmission risks. Finally, in multivariate analyses, the SCS significantly predicted unprotected sex with a non-main partner even when controlling for race, HIV serostatus, age, identity as a barebacker, and club drug use. These data indicate that the SCS may be able to serve as an indicator to detect HIV-associated sexual risk behavior in community-based samples of gay and bisexual men. PMID:19308715

  17. Cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress is greater in sexual risk takers

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Claire; Ratcliffe, Joanne M.; Mitchell, Melanie; Smith, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have reported an association between deviant behaviour and cortisol reactivity to stress. However, relatively few studies have investigated the relationship between psychobiological stress reactivity and sexual risk-taking behaviours. In this study, cortisol reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was measured in 26 healthy young adults prior to the administration of a sexual health and behaviour questionnaire. The cortisol response to the TSST was greater in those individuals who reported that at least one of their previous two sexual partners was someone whom they had just met. Results are discussed in the context of a model which suggests that early life stress dysregulates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and increases the likelihood of later life risk-taking behaviour. The findings have implications in terms of improving our understanding of psychobiological factors which predispose individuals to engage in adverse sexual health behaviours. PMID:25750779

  18. Recidivism Risk Assessment for Adult Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Holoyda, Brian J; Newman, William J

    2016-02-01

    Sexual offending is a significant public health problem in the USA due to its prevalence and the substantial impact it has on victims, victims' families, and the legal and mental health systems. The assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk is an important aspect of developing effective management strategies for sexual offenders in terms of placement, treatment, and other interventions. Researchers have developed numerous tools to aid in the assessment of sexual violence recidivism risk, including actuarial measures, structured professional judgment methods, and psychophysiologic assessment of sexual interests. The Static-99R and Sexual Violence Risk-20 are two instruments that have received substantial research attention for their ability to accurately compare offenders' risk of recidivism to normative group data. Penile plethysmography and visual reaction time are used to evaluate subjects' responses to sexual stimuli in an effort to characterize offenders' sexual arousal and interest, respectively. Though current research has focused on risk assessment tools' predictive utility, future research will need to examine the impact that actuarial and structured professional judgment tools have on reducing recidivism if they are to have relevance in the management of sexual offenders.

  19. The association of human papillomavirus vaccination with sexual behaviours and human papillomavirus knowledge: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Coles, Victoria A H; Patel, Ajay S; Allen, Felicity L; Keeping, Sam T; Carroll, Stuart M

    2015-10-01

    Since the 2008 introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme for adolescent girls in the UK, parents and other groups have expressed fears that immunisation condones sexual activity, promotes promiscuity and encourages risky sexual behaviour. This study aimed to explore whether HPV vaccination programmes have increased knowledge surrounding HPV and associated disease and whether uptake has influenced sexual behaviour. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO electronic databases were interrogated. Studies of behaviour, attitudes and knowledge associated with HPV vaccination (or vaccination intent) in subjects of any age and gender in programmes reflective of UK practice were included in the review (n = 58). The evidence regarding the association of HPV vaccination with high-risk sexual behaviour was varied, primarily due to the heterogeneous nature of the included studies. Young females typically exhibited better knowledge than males, and vaccinated respondents (or those with vaccination intent) had higher levels of knowledge than the unvaccinated. However, knowledge surrounding HPV and genital warts was generally poor. This review highlights the need to provide effective education regarding the HPV vaccine and HPV-associated disease to adolescents of vaccination age, nurses, teachers, parents and guardians to ultimately allow informed decisions to be made regarding receipt of the HPV vaccine.

  20. HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour among youth in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Kalunde, W K

    1997-01-01

    This study was carried out in selected urban areas in Zambia; its objective was to examine the sexual networking and activities of urban youth in Zambia: specifically to determine how sexual behaviour among young people might influence the course of the AIDS epidemic and also to suggest policy interventions. Sexual behaviour among young people both in-school and out-of-school, aged between 12 and 25, may be vital in influencing the spread of AIDS in Zambia. The results indicate that sexual matters are discussed with close friends of the same sex and peer group, or with cousins who are of the same age. Sometimes grandmothers are consulted for advice by co-resident grand-daughters. Girls and boys engaged in sex or thought about engaging in sex at quite an early age. Girls discussed their intentions about sex with their close friends, many of whom appeared poorly informed about sex themselves. The general views of both sexes about STDs should be a source of concern. The youth do not seem to take STDs seriously basically because most of them, aside from AIDS, are curable. Many young people do not regard AIDS as a threat to their lives and do not even consider it as a hindrance to sexual relationships. A number of recommendations are made for information and education of young people, parents and teachers.

  1. Risk behaviour and noise exposure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Margareta C; Erlandsson, Soly I

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents in Western society often expose themselves to high levels of sound in gyms, rock concerts, discotheques etc. As these behaviours are as threatening to young people's health as more traditional risk behaviours are, our aim in the present study was to analyze the relationship between self-exposure to noise, risk behaviours and risk judgements among 310 Swedish adolescents aged 15-20 (167 men; 143 women). Adolescents' behaviour in different traditional risk situations correlated with behaviour in noisy environments, while judgements about traditional risks correlated with judgements regarding noise exposure. It is an interesting finding that although young women judge risk situations as generally more dangerous than young men do, they nevertheless behave in the same way. We suggest that this difference is a social and cultural phenomenon which underscores the importance of adopting a gender perspective in the analysis of risk factors. Adolescents reporting permanent tinnitus judged loud music as more risky than adolescents with no symptoms and they did not listen to loud music as often as those with occasional tinnitus. Research on hearing prevention for young people needs to acknowledge and make use of theories on risk behaviour, especially due to the existence of a relationship between adolescents' risk-taking in noisy environments and other types of risk-taking. Similarly, theories on risk behaviour should acknowledge noise as a risk factor.

  2. Protocol of a cluster randomised stepped-wedge trial of behavioural interventions targeting amphetamine-type stimulant use and sexual risk among female entertainment and sex workers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kimberly; Stein, Ellen S; Carrico, Adam W; Evans, Jennifer L; Sokunny, Muth; Nil, Ean; Ngak, Song; Sophal, Chhit; McCulloch, Charles; Maher, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV risk among female entertainment and sex workers (FESW) remains high and use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) significantly increases this risk. We designed a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial (The Cambodia Integrated HIV and Drug Prevention Implementation (CIPI) study) to test sequentially delivered behavioural interventions targeting ATS use. Methods and analysis The trial combines a 12-week Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) intervention with 4 weeks of cognitive-behavioural group aftercare (AC) among FESW who use ATS. The primary goal is to reduce ATS use and unprotected sex among FESW. The CCT+AC intervention is being implemented in 10 provinces where order of delivery was randomised. Outcome assessments (OEs) including biomarkers and self-reported measures of recent sexual and drug use behaviours are conducted prior to implementation, and at three 6-month intervals after completion. Consultation with multiple groups and stakeholders on implementation factors facilitated acceptance and operationalisation of the trial. Statistical power and sample size calculations were based on expected changes in ATS use and unprotected sex at the population level as well as within subjects. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approvals were granted by the Cambodia National Ethics Committee; University of New Mexico; University of California, San Francisco; and FHI360. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov. Dissemination of process indicators during the multiyear trial is carried out through annual in-country Stakeholder Meetings. Provincial ‘Close-Out’ forums are held at the conclusion of data collection in each province. When analysis is completed, dissemination meetings will be held in Cambodia with stakeholders, including community-based discussion sessions, policy briefs and results published and presented in the HIV prevention scientific journals and conferences. Conclusions CIPI is the first trial of an intervention to reduce ATS use

  3. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  4. Sexual behaviour among Italian adolescents: knowledge and use of contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Simona; Simeone, Serena; Scaravilli, Giuseppina; Raimondo, Daniele; Balbi, C

    2009-08-01

    Comprehensive data concerning the sexual behaviour of Italian adolescents are lacking; the planning of prevention programmes is therefore difficult. The current study evaluates the knowledge of Italian adolescents about sexuality and their use of methods to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. The age at first intercourse in the current sample was compared to that found in past samples to ascertain whether sex education was needed at an earlier age. The efficacy of one school-based sex education programme was analysed. Overall 630 students in three Italian cities were surveyed. Just over half the students were sexually active. Among these, the mean age at first intercourse was 15.6 years (SD +/- 1.3). The contraception most widely used was the condom although 'coitus interruptus', 'natural family planning' and 'no method' were also mentioned. The knowledge among students from Latina, after they had received sex education, was significantly better. Our data show a lower mean age at first intercourse than has been reported for earlier periods by other authors. School-based sexual education is effective in improving knowledge. Sexual health services for young people must be available and counselling services improved.

  5. Sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour of deploying shipboard US military personnel: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Harbertson, Judith; Scott, Paul T; Moore, John; Wolf, Michael; Morris, James; Thrasher, Scott; D'Onofrio, Michael; Grillo, Michael P; Jacobs, Marni B; Tran, Bonnie R; Tian, Jun; Ito, Stanley I; McAnany, Jennifer; Michael, Nelson; Hale, Braden R

    2015-12-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and risk behaviour may differ at different phases of deployment. We examined STI prevalence and sexual behaviour in the predeployment time period (12 months prior) among recently deployed shipboard US Navy and Marine Corps military personnel. Data were collected from 1938 male and 515 female service members through an anonymous, self-completed survey assessing sexual behaviours and STI acquisition characteristics in the past 12 months. Cross-sectional sex-stratified descriptive statistics are reported. Overall, 67% (n=1262/1896) reported last sex with a military beneficiary (spouse, n=931, non-spouse service member, n=331). Among those with a sexual partner outside their primary partnership, 24% (n=90/373) reported using a condom the last time they had sex and 30% (n=72/243) reported their outside partner was a service member. In total, 90% (n=210/233) reported acquiring their most recent STI in the USA (88%, n=126/143 among those reporting ≥1 deployments and an STI ≥1 year ago) and a significantly higher proportion (p<0.01) of women than men acquired the STI from their regular partner (54% vs 21%) and/or a service member (50% vs 26%). Findings suggest a complex sexual network among service members and military beneficiaries. Findings may extend to other mobile civilian and military populations. Data suggest most STI transmission within the shipboard community may occur in local versus foreign ports but analyses from later time points in deployment are needed. These data may inform more effective STI prevention interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Gay men, sexual risk and therapy.

    PubMed

    Fishman, J M; Holt, T

    1995-05-01

    Risk reduction must go beyond safe sex guidelines and encompass the ongoing process of sexual negotiation. Therapists can play a role in assisting clients to safely navigate sexual activity. Several case scenarios of therapy related to sexual risk, particularly among gay and bisexual men, are discussed. For the sexually compulsive client, sex often camouflages depression, hopelessness, anxiety, or rage. Alan, a 41-year old seronegative lawyer, presents with complaints about compulsive, high-risk sex. His therapist might negotiate a contract around sexual acting out, interpret and explore the specific meanings of acting out, and suggest the possibility of couples' counseling. The second case scenario involves an uninfected couple, Phil and Tom, who are exploring non-monogamy. The therapist can assist the couple in negotiating a relationship contract that requires the trust that partners will keep their agreements and disclose breaches in sexual behavior. Sam and Peter, a second couple, are having a problem with sexual negotiation. Sam wants to have unprotected sex with Peter. Peter is angry that unsafe sex is so important to Sam. Their therapist needs to explore individual and relationship issues, educate them about the meanings of sexual behaviors, and address the level and history of trust in the relationship. Overall, to help clients navigate sexual activity, therapists must blend together their clients' psychodynamic histories, the social meaning of sex for gay men, and the medical and ethical context in which particular behaviors take place.

  7. Sexual Victimization, Alcohol Intoxication, Sexual-Emotional Responding, and Sexual Risk in Heavy Episodic Drinking Women

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N. Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Andrasik, Michele P.

    2013-01-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women’s sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10%) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol’s effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

  8. Factors perceived to influence risky sexual behaviours among university students in the United Kingdom: a qualitative telephone interview study.

    PubMed

    Chanakira, Elton; O'Cathain, Alicia; Goyder, Elizabeth C; Freeman, Jennifer V

    2014-10-09

    In the United Kingdom people under the age of 25 years are at increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections. Most university students belong to this age group but little is known about their sexual behaviours. The aim of the study was to explore university students' perspectives of factors and mechanisms that influence risky sexual behaviours among university students in the United Kingdom. All students at a university in a northern city of England were invited via email to participate in qualitative telephone interviews. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Framework analytical approach was used. Twenty interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of students. The social context of university lifestyle was perceived to affect risky sex through high levels of alcohol consumption, increased sexual opportunities, liberation from moral surveillance and expectations of the stereotypical highly sexually active student. Individual and cultural differences were also perceived to account for some patterns of risky sex with older students, overseas students and religious students perceived to be less likely to engage in risky sex due to academic priorities and a tendency to be more likely to adhere to moral values. Risk denial was also a key factor that led students to engage in risky sex. Poor access to sexual health services including inconvenient opening times, lack of confidentiality and stigma were perceived to contribute to the limited use of sexually transmitted infections testing and contraceptive services. Lifestyle, individual and structural factors seem to play an important role in influencing the risky sexual behaviours of university students. Therefore preventive interventions that focus on these factors could be very useful in this sub-population of young people. This study provides useful baseline information that helps us understand how and why some United Kingdom university students engage in risky sexual behaviours

  9. Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Voon, Valerie; Mole, Thomas B.; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Morris, Laurel; Mitchell, Simon; Lapa, Tatyana R.; Karr, Judy; Harrison, Neil A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Irvine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) has been conceptualized as a “behavioural” addiction and common or overlapping neural circuits may govern the processing of natural and drug rewards, little is known regarding the responses to sexually explicit materials in individuals with and without CSB. Here, the processing of cues of varying sexual content was assessed in individuals with and without CSB, focusing on neural regions identified in prior studies of drug-cue reactivity. 19 CSB subjects and 19 healthy volunteers were assessed using functional MRI comparing sexually explicit videos with non-sexual exciting videos. Ratings of sexual desire and liking were obtained. Relative to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects had greater desire but similar liking scores in response to the sexually explicit videos. Exposure to sexually explicit cues in CSB compared to non-CSB subjects was associated with activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate, ventral striatum and amygdala. Functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate-ventral striatum-amygdala network was associated with subjective sexual desire (but not liking) to a greater degree in CSB relative to non-CSB subjects. The dissociation between desire or wanting and liking is consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying CSB as in drug addictions. Neural differences in the processing of sexual-cue reactivity were identified in CSB subjects in regions previously implicated in drug-cue reactivity studies. The greater engagement of corticostriatal limbic circuitry in CSB following exposure to sexual cues suggests neural mechanisms underlying CSB and potential biological targets for interventions. PMID:25013940

  10. Pharmacological interventions for those who have sexually offended or are at risk of offending

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Omer; Ferriter, Michael; Huband, Nick; Smailagic, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To evaluate the effects of pharmacological interventions on target sexual behaviour for people who have been convicted or at risk of sexual offending. PMID:25267896

  11. Seasonal variations in socially and legally unacceptable sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bicakova-Rocher, A; Smolensky, M; Reinberg, A; De Prins, J

    1985-01-01

    The calendar dates, over the 15-year span 1966-1980, of committed rapes by eight male recidivists and offences of sexually indecent or immoral behaviour by eight other male recidivists were gathered from the files of the Préfecture de Police, Paris, France. Each offender of the first group had committed from two to six rapes, while each offender of the second had committed from two to 16 incidences of indecent behaviour. Although the reported rapes took place during several calendar years, almost all, 18 out of 22 offences, were committed by the eight rape-recidivists during the 4-month span of July-October. Single cosinor analysis of these data revealed a circannual rhythmicity (P less than 0.03) with luminal diameter being 10 August +/- 34 days (the 95% CL). The peak time of indecent sexual behaviour, exclusive of rape, against females occurred during September with secondary peaks in February and June; such offences directed against males peaked in October. 'Bootstrap' and 'Jackknife' methods confirmed seasonality within all data sets, except for the offences of indecent behaviour.

  12. Exploring urban male non-marital sexual behaviours in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mir, Ali M; Wajid, Abdul; Pearson, Stephen; Khan, Mumraiz; Masood, Irfan

    2013-04-11

    In Pakistan, sexual practices outside marriage are proscribed by law. We aimed to assess the range and magnitude of non-marital sexual behaviours of urban men, focusing on men having sex with men. In this cross sectional survey undertaken in six cities of Pakistan, we interviewed 2400 men aged 16-45 years selected through a multistage systematic sampling design. Sexual behaviours were assessed through a structured questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was used to identify association between various individual level characteristics and probability of engaging in sexual activities involving men. Nearly one-third (29 percent) reported having had non-marital sex in their lifetime. Of these men 16 percent reported premarital sex, while 11 percent reported engaging in both pre- and extramarital sex. Only two percent reported exclusive extramarital sex. In total 211 respondents, 9 percent reported ever having had sexual relations with men. While 62 respondents, 2.6 percent reported exclusive sex with males. Factors that were significantly associated with MSM behaviours were being less than 27 years (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 3.8-7.7, p < 0.000), less than 10 years of schooling (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.2, p < 0.000), being unemployed (adjusted OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6-4.3, p < 0.000), being exposed to pornographic materials (adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 3.0-7.7, p < 0.000) and being a migrant (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4, p < 0.002). Factors significantly associated with exclusive homosexual behaviour were having sexual debut at a younger age i.e. 16-22 years (adjusted OR 12.5, 95% CI: 3.8-40.7, p < 0.000), being unemployed (adjusted OR 8.8, 95% CI: 3.0-26.0, p = 0.000), having had exposure to pornographic materials (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.5-7.2, p = 0.002). To prevent the spread of STI's in Pakistan, preventive interventions should focus on reaching out to young uneducated men offering them with appropriate counselling and skills to adopt "safe sex practices" through

  13. Genetic and environmental influences on risky sexual behaviour and its relationship with personality.

    PubMed

    Zietsch, B P; Verweij, K J H; Bailey, J M; Wright, M J; Martin, N G

    2010-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour is a major health issue in society, and it is therefore important to understand factors that may predispose individuals to such behaviour. Research suggests a link between risky sexual behaviour and personality, but the basis of this link remains unknown. Hans Eysenck proposed that personality is related to sexual behaviour via biological underpinnings of both. Here we test the viability of this perspective by analysing data from identical and non-identical twins (N = 4,904) who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attitudes and behaviour as well as personality. Using genetic modelling of the twin data, we found that risky sexual behaviour was significantly positively correlated with Impulsivity (r = .27), Extraversion (r = .24), Psychoticism (r = .20), and Neuroticism (r = .09), and that in each case the correlation was due primarily to overlapping genetic influences. These findings suggest that the genetic influences that shape our personality may also predispose us to risky sexual behaviour.

  14. Male students' behaviour, knowledge, attitudes, and needs in sexual and reproductive health matters.

    PubMed

    Makenzius, Marlene; Gådin, Katja Gillander; Tydén, Tanja; Romild, Ulla; Larsson, Margareta

    2009-08-01

    To investigate young male students' behaviour, knowledge, attitudes, and needs related to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Differences between students on vocational and academic study programmes were also investigated. A questionnaire consisting of 87 multiple choice questions was distributed to 253 male students attending three upper secondary schools in a single Swedish county. A response rate of 76% (n = 192) was achieved. Vocational students displayed more risk behaviour than those in academic study programmes regarding use of tobacco and sexual behaviour. Eighteen percent of those who were sexually experienced had suggested or provided the emergency contraception pill (ECP) to a girl. Insufficient knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was identified, especially among the vocational students. No one reported the upper secondary school as their main source of knowledge and both groups requested more information about both genders' reproductive systems, and STIs. Some discriminatory attitudes regarding gender equality in SRH matters were identified. Both groups stated that male-friendly Youth Health Clinics (YHCs), easier access to condoms and Internet-service for Chlamydia test are important. Improvements in the quality and quantity of sex education in upper secondary schools are needed; they should be tailored to the spectrum of students' situations and needs. A structure of the YHC adapted to male youths' needs and alternative, easily accessible STI tests are important factors for reaching young men and having them participate in a responsible way in protecting their own and their partners' SRH.

  15. Hostility and childhood sexual abuse as predictors of suicidal behaviour in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Liliana; Portella, Maria J; Vállez, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Subirà, Susana

    2013-12-30

    Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct and has been previously associated with suicidal behaviour in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study examined the associations between suicidal behaviour and impulsivity-related personality traits, as well as history of childhood sexual abuse, in 76 patients diagnosed with BPD using both the Structured Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III (DSM-III) Axis-II diagnoses and the self-personality questionnaire. Impulsivity-related traits were measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). We found that hostility and childhood sexual abuse, but not impulsivity or other temperament traits, significantly predicted the presence, number and severity of previous suicide attempts. Hostility traits and childhood sexual abuse showed an impact on suicide attempts in BPD. Our results support previous findings indicating that high levels of hostility and having suffered sexual abuse during childhood lead to an increased risk for suicidal behaviour in BPD.

  16. Treatment of Adult Sexual Offenders: A Therapeutic Cognitive-Behavioural Model of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research indicates that, of the various forms of treatment available to sexual offenders, cognitive-behavioural methods are likely to have the greatest impact in reducing rates of sexual re-offending. Cognitive-behavioural treatment typically targets attitudes that support sexual offending, anger management, victim empathy, deviant sexual…

  17. Social and sexual risk factors for bacterial vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Smart, S; Singal, A; Mindel, A

    2004-01-01

    Background: A number of sexual and social risk factors for bacterial vaginosis (BV) have been identified. However, many previous studies have used small numbers of patients, or highly selected or convenience samples, or poorly defined populations. This study aims to clarify potential sexual and non-sexual risk factors for BV. Methods: Women attending the Sydney Sexual Health Centre with BV, between March 1991 and July 1999, were included. Controls were randomly selected women without BV. Information on the demographics, clinical findings, and sexual and non-sexual risk behaviours were extracted from the clinic database and analysed using SPSS and SAS. A logistic regression model was used to establish which associations with BV persisted. Results: 890 women with BV and 890 controls were studied. Factors that were independently associated with BV were ⩾3 male sexual partners in the past 12 months (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.04), at least one female sexual partner in the past 12 months (OR = 2.1, p = 0.003), a past pregnancy (OR = 1.5, p<0.0006), and smoking. In contrast, women with BV were significantly less likely to have used hormonal contraception (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.81) or to have used condoms consistently (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.71) than controls. Conclusion: Our findings may be important for planning a preventive strategy for BV by discouraging smoking and increasing condom use and hormonal contraception among women. PMID:14755039

  18. The social context of gender-based violence, alcohol use and HIV risk among women involved in high-risk sexual behaviour and their intimate partners in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Schulkind, Jasmine; Mbonye, Martin; Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper explores the interaction between gender-based violence and alcohol use and their links to vulnerability to HIV-infection in a population of women and their regular male partners in Kampala, Uganda. Data derive from 20 life history interviews (10 women and 10 men). Participants were drawn from a cohort of women at high risk of sexually transmitted infection (including HIV). Six of the women were current or former sex workers. Findings reveal that life histories are characterised by recurrent patterns of gender inequity related to violence, limited livelihood options and socioeconomic disadvantage. Overall, findings suggest women are able to negotiate safer sex and protect themselves better against abuse and violence from clients than from their intimate partners, although the status of men as ‘client’ or ‘partner’ is transitory and fluid. Among male respondents, alcohol led to intimate partner violence and high levels of sexual-risk taking, such as engagement with sex workers and reduced condom use. However, male partners are a heterogeneous group, with distinct and contrasting attitudes towards alcohol, condom use and violence. Actions to address gender-based violence need to be multi-pronged in order to respond to different needs and circumstances, of both women and men. PMID:26786739

  19. Sexuality Education among Latinas: Experiences, Preferences, Attitudes and Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…

  20. A five-city trial of a behavioural intervention to reduce sexually transmitted disease/HIV risk among sex workers in China.

    PubMed

    Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou; Sullivan, Sheena G; Li, Fan; Guan, Jihui; Xu, Chen; Liu, Wei; Liu, Dahua; Yin, Yueping

    2007-12-01

    To explore and evaluate a sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV intervention program targeting female sex workers working in entertainment establishments in five different settings in China. A prospective, community-based, pre/post, intervention trial set in entertainment establishments (karaoke bars, massage parlours, dance halls, beauty parlours) where sex workers operate at sites in five provinces of China: Anhui, Beijing, Fujian, Guangxi and Xinjiang. The participants were all sex workers working in targeted entertainment establishments. A Women's Health Clinic was set up near participants' places of work at each site. Clinic-based outreach activities, including awareness-raising, condom promotion, and sexual health care, were developed and delivered to sex workers. Cross-sectional surveys at baseline and post-intervention were used to evaluate changes in condom use with the last three clients, and the prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea. In total, 907 sex workers were surveyed at baseline and 782 at 12 months post-intervention. Outreach teams made 2552 visits to the target entertainment establishments, approached 13,785 female sex workers, and distributed 33,575 copies of education material and 5102 packets of condoms. The rate of condom use with the most recent three clients increased from 55.2% at baseline to 67.5% at 12 months evaluation. The prevalence of gonorrhoea fell from 26% at baseline to 4% after intervention, and that of chlamydia fell from about 41 to 26%. The intervention was effective for increasing condom use and reducing STD among sex workers. The results were used to develop national guidelines on sex worker interventions for nationwide scale up.

  1. Factors Influencing Sexual Behaviour Between Tourists and Tourism Employees: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Aditi; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Beanland, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased travel abroad has a significant impact on the incidence and prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Previous reviews have focused on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of tourists and acquisition of STIs. Less is known about the impact on tourism operators in countries visited by tourists. The aim of this review is to ascertain factors influencing sexual behaviour between workers in the tourism industry and tourists; exploring the prevalence of sexual behaviour between the two populations, their perceptions of sexual risk while engaging in sexual activities and the knowledge of tourism operators regarding STIs. Methods: A systematic review was conducted. Database searches were performed in Medline/Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane library and CINAHL for studies published between 2000 and March 2016. Grey literature searches were completed in the NHS database and Google Scholar between 2000 and December 2013. Papers were independently selected by two researchers. Data were extracted and critically appraised using a pre-designed extraction form and adapted CASP checklist. Results: The search identified 1,602 studies and 16 were included after review of the full text. Studies were conducted in nine countries. Findings suggest that STI knowledge, attitude and practice were fairly good among tourists and tourism workers, but there is a need for pre-travel advice for travellers, especially those travelling to low and middle-income countries. Greater importance was given to tourists than to tourism operators and locals interacting with tourists. Studies suggest that as a group both tourist and tourist workers were likely to engage in sexual activities. Overall, both condom use and STI screening were low, among tourists as well as tourism operators. Furthermore, studies reported links between drug and alcohol use and sexual behaviour and risk taking. Conclusion: Although less research appeared to have been conducted among tourism workers than

  2. Factors Influencing Sexual Behaviour Between Tourists and Tourism Employees: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Simkhada, Padam P; Sharma, Aditi; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Beanland, Rachel L

    2016-03-01

    Increased travel abroad has a significant impact on the incidence and prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Previous reviews have focused on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of tourists and acquisition of STIs. Less is known about the impact on tourism operators in countries visited by tourists. The aim of this review is to ascertain factors influencing sexual behaviour between workers in the tourism industry and tourists; exploring the prevalence of sexual behaviour between the two populations, their perceptions of sexual risk while engaging in sexual activities and the knowledge of tourism operators regarding STIs. A systematic review was conducted. Database searches were performed in Medline/Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane library and CINAHL for studies published between 2000 and March 2016. Grey literature searches were completed in the NHS database and Google Scholar between 2000 and December 2013. Papers were independently selected by two researchers. Data were extracted and critically appraised using a pre-designed extraction form and adapted CASP checklist. The search identified 1,602 studies and 16 were included after review of the full text. Studies were conducted in nine countries. Findings suggest that STI knowledge, attitude and practice were fairly good among tourists and tourism workers, but there is a need for pre-travel advice for travellers, especially those travelling to low and middle-income countries. Greater importance was given to tourists than to tourism operators and locals interacting with tourists. Studies suggest that as a group both tourist and tourist workers were likely to engage in sexual activities. Overall, both condom use and STI screening were low, among tourists as well as tourism operators. Furthermore, studies reported links between drug and alcohol use and sexual behaviour and risk taking. Although less research appeared to have been conducted among tourism workers than tourists, it does demonstrate the need for

  3. The evolution of risky behaviour in the presence of a sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed Central

    Boots, Michael; Knell, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are widespread in nature, often sterilizing their hosts or causing other pathogenic effects. Despite this, there is a widespread occurrence of behaviours that are likely to increase the risk to an individual of contracting an STD. Here, we examine the evolution of behaviours such as promiscuity or mate choice that increase the risk of contracting an STD, but also provide a fitness benefit. As might be expected, the balance between risk and fitness benefit defines the optimal strategy, but this relationship is not straightforward. In particular, we often predict the coexistence of highly risky and highly risk-averse individuals. Surprisingly, very safe strategists that only suffer a small cost will tend to coexist with highly risky strategists rather than outcompete them as might have been expected. Rather than selecting for monogamy or for reduced mate choice, therefore, the presence of an STD may often lead to variability in either promiscuity or mate choice. PMID:11916474

  4. The Drinkers Degree: Risk Taking Behaviours amongst Undergraduate Student Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Gillian; Martin, Neil; Birch, Jennifer; Oldam, Alison; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine risk taking behaviours associated with alcohol consumption amongst UK undergraduate students. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional web survey was used to assess attitudes and health behaviours. The survey included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Students were also asked about why they drank alcohol; about their preferred alcoholic beverage; and if they had experienced any consequences associated with drinking alcohol as well as questions relating to sexual risk taking, drug use, and smoking. Results. 2779 (65% female; 84% White British) students completed some part of the survey. Of these, 98% (n = 2711) completed the AUDIT. Of the 92% that drank 66% (n = 1,643) were categorised as being AUDIT positive. 8% (n = 224) were categorised as probably alcohol dependent. Higher AUDIT scores were significantly associated with negative consequences such as unplanned sexual activity, physical injuries, and arguments. Other risk taking behaviours such as drug use and smoking were also found to be positively correlated with higher AUDIT scores; drug use; and smoking. Conclusions. The results from this study provide insight into students' alcohol consumption and associated risk taking. University policies need to protect students' overall health and wellbeing to ensure academic potential is maximised. PMID:26713168

  5. The use of medroxyprogesterone acetate for the treatment of sexually inappropriate behaviour in patients with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Light, Stacy Anderson; Holroyd, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Sexually inappropriate behaviour in a patient with dementia can be a problem for caregivers. Little research has been done concerning treatment for this behavioural disorder. The hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is a known, but infrequently used, treatment option. We describe a series of 5 cases in which MPA was used successfully to control inappropriate sexual behaviours in men with dementia. PMID:16575429

  6. HIV Risk Behaviour among Psychiatric Inpatients: Results from a Hospital-Wide Screening Study in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, P. S.; Carey, M. P.; Carey, K. B.; Rao, P.S.D.V.Prasada; Jairam, K. R.; Thomas, T.

    2008-01-01

    Summary This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviour among psychiatric inpatients in India. Consecutive inpatients (n = 618) were assessed using a structured interview and standardized measures. Women were more likely to be sexually active (50%) than men (36%), but equally likely (6% v. 5%) to engage in risky behaviour. Common risk behaviours included having a risky partner, having multiple partners, and exchanging money for sex. Being sexually active was associated with younger age, being married, being diagnosed with a disorder other than schizophrenia, and a history of drug use problems. Engaging in risky sexual behaviour was associated with being male, using tobacco products, and screening positive for either drug use or alcohol problems. Screening psychiatric patients for HIV risk behaviour can identify those who may benefit from risk reduction programs. PMID:12935383

  7. Religiosity and Health Risk Behaviour Among University Students in 26 Low, Middle and High Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Amuleru-Marshall, Omowale; Mufune, Pempelani; Zeid, Alaa Abou

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess religiosity and health risk behaviours among university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 20,222 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD = 2. 8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Among all students, 41.1 % engaged at least once a week in organized religious activity, 35.8 % practised a non-organized religious activity daily or more than once daily, and more or less two-thirds of the students agreed to the three different statements on intrinsic of subjective religiosity. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher reported involvement in organized religious activity was associated with addictive, injury, sexual and oral health risk behaviour, while lower reported involvement in organized religious activity was associated with physical inactivity and oral health risk behaviour. Lower reported involvement in non-organized religious activity was associated with addictive, nutrition risk, injury, sexual and oral health risk behaviour, while higher reported involvement in non-organized religious activity was associated with physical inactivity. Finally, lower reported intrinsic religiosity was associated with addictive and sexual risk behaviour, while higher reported intrinsic religiosity was associated with nutrition risk behaviour, physical inactivity and oral health risk behaviour.

  8. The prevalence of sexual activity, and sexual dysfunction and behaviours in postmenopausal woman in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Lew-Starowicz, Zbigniew; Szymańska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the aging of the population, there is limited data available about sexual life and behaviours among of postmenopausal and late postmenopausal women. Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of sexual dysfunction, behaviours, and preferences in the Polish population in 2015. Material and methods This observational survey study involved 538 women, of whom 220 were over 50 years old. The main focus was on the differences and changes between older age groups, mainly 50-59 years and over 60 years. Results For 80.9% of the women above 50 years old, sex played at least a moderately important role in life. Sex was definitely important and very important for 40.45% of them. Most women over 50 years old (65.5%) were sexually active. Regardless of age, the respondents were more likely to have sexual intercourse several times a month. Less than half of the women over 50 years old (42.7%) realised their sexual fantasies. Women in the group of 50-59 years old statistically less often than younger women declared that the frequency of intercourse they had was too small. There was a statistical tendency showing that women up to 49 years old declared more sexual problems than older women. Women over 50 years old reported fewer problems in comparison to younger women, e.g. less often they claimed that sex is not pleasurable (p = 0.064). Conclusions The prevalence of sexual activity declines with age, yet a substantial number of woman engage in vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and masturbation even past the seventh decade of life. PMID:27980527

  9. Seeking trust and transcendence: sexual risk-taking among Vietnamese youth.

    PubMed

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2002-08-01

    This paper contends that sexuality research has paid far too limited attention to the phenomenology of sexual experience, thus failing to recognize the importance of embodied sensory experience for sexual perceptions and practices in general and for sexual risk-taking in particular. In order to comprehend the cultural rationales of sexual risk-taking among urban Vietnamese youth, the author presents an analysis which combines a detailed attention to the phenomenology of sexual experience with a social analysis of the wider socio-economic contexts within which sexual practices are embedded. It is demonstrated that the sexual encounters of Vietnamese youth involve much more than strivings for intimacy and pleasure: at stake are also fundamental questions of the moral integrity of the self and the socio-political shaping of intimate relations. Moreover, obstacles to safer sex stem not only from individual choices or intimate interpersonal interactions, but also from larger systems of moral meaning and social constraint. While the acknowledgement of individual capacities for action in the sexual sphere is important, it is equally important to recognize the responsibility of communities and political systems for the shaping of sexual interactions. Current limitations in the understanding of sexual experience and practice have consequences which seriously affect health interventions and education programmes targeting high-risk sexual behaviour. In order to develop more appropriate sexual health interventions, cultural transformations at the levels of both individual practice and societal organization are needed.

  10. Poverty, food insufficiency and HIV infection and sexual behaviour among young rural Zimbabwean women.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Sophie J S; Langhaug, Lisa F; Mavhu, Webster; Hargreaves, James; Jaffar, Shabbar; Hayes, Richard; Cowan, Frances M

    2015-01-01

    Despite a recent decline, Zimbabwe still has the fifth highest adult HIV prevalence in the world at 14.7%; 56% of the population are currently living in extreme poverty. Cross-sectional population-based survey of 18-22 year olds, conducted in 30 communities in south-eastern Zimbabwe in 2007. To examine whether the risk of HIV infection among young rural Zimbabwean women is associated with socio-economic position and whether different socio-economic domains, including food sufficiency, might be associated with HIV risk in different ways. Eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a finger-prick blood sample tested for antibodies to HIV and HSV-2. The relationship between poverty and HIV was explored for three socio-economic domains: ability to afford essential items; asset wealth; food sufficiency. Analyses were performed to examine whether these domains were associated with HIV infection or risk factors for infection among young women, and to explore which factors might mediate the relationship between poverty and HIV. 2593 eligible females participated in the survey and were included in the analyses. Overall HIV prevalence among these young females was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.7-8.7); HSV-2 prevalence was 11.2% (95% CI: 9.9-12.4). Lower socio-economic position was associated with lower educational attainment, earlier marriage, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders and increased reporting of higher risk sexual behaviours such as earlier sexual debut, more and older sexual partners and transactional sex. Young women reporting insufficient food were at increased risk of HIV infection and HSV-2. This study provides evidence from Zimbabwe that among young poor women, economic need and food insufficiency are associated with the adoption of unsafe behaviours. Targeted structural interventions that aim to tackle social and economic constraints including insufficient food should be developed and evaluated alongside behaviour and biomedical

  11. Heterosexual sexual behaviour in a sample of homosexually active men.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, R; Hart, G; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Dawson, J

    1989-08-01

    Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4% of men in the last month and 10% for the last year. Sixteen per cent of heterosexually active men reported anal sex with a female partner. Fewer men described themselves as bisexual than would be expected from the sample's recent sexual histories. More attention is needed to the definition and measurement of "bisexuality" to understand its role in HIV transmission.

  12. Heterosexual sexual behaviour in a sample of homosexually active men.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, R; Hart, G; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Dawson, J

    1989-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4% of men in the last month and 10% for the last year. Sixteen per cent of heterosexually active men reported anal sex with a female partner. Fewer men described themselves as bisexual than would be expected from the sample's recent sexual histories. More attention is needed to the definition and measurement of "bisexuality" to understand its role in HIV transmission. PMID:2807286

  13. Sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour among youth clients of hotel-based female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Haseen, F; Chawdhury, F A H; Hossain, M E; Huq, M; Bhuiyan, M U; Imam, H; Rahman, D M M; Gazi, R; Khan, S I; Kelly, R; Ahmed, J; Rahman, M

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among youth clients of hotel-based female sex workers (YCHBFSWs) in nine randomly selected hotels in Bangladesh to examine sexual-risk behaviour, condom use and determinants of condom use in last sex, knowledge of HIV, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and STI care-seeking behaviour. A prestructured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical information; urine specimens (before sex) and blood were collected for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) infection. One thousand and thirteen participants were enroled in the study. Approximately half of them reported visiting female sex workers (FSWs) at least once a month and 25% visited FSWs at least once a week. Only 12% of participants reported regular condom use. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis and HSV2 was 2.2%, 3.9%, 7.2%, 2.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Only 15.3% of the YCHBFSW sought STI care in the past year. Negotiation of condom use with FSWs was the main determinant (odds ratio = 17.95) for condom use at last sex. Male clients of FSWs, including YCHBFSW, are an important bridge population for HIV transmission in Bangladesh and HIV interventions should be designed and implemented for them.

  14. Personality, sexuality, and substance use as predictors of sexual risk taking in college students.

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Garske, John P; Probst, Danielle R; Irvin, Clinton R

    2010-09-01

    Sexual risk taking among college students is common and can lead to serious consequences, such as unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. This study utilized responses from 310 undergraduate psychology students aged 18 to 23 to examine personality, sexuality, and substance use predictors of sexual risk behaviors over a six-month period. Data were collected from 2005 to 2006 at a medium-sized Midwestern U.S. university. Results indicated that greater alcohol and recreational drug use, higher extraversion, and lower agreeableness were related to sexual risk taking in men. For women, greater alcohol and drug use, higher sexual excitation, and lower sexual inhibition were predictive of sexual risk taking. Among women, but not men, sensation seeking was found to mediate the relationship between the four significant substance use, personality, and sexuality variables and sexual risk taking. Implications for sexual risk behavior prevention and intervention programming are discussed.

  15. Behavioural and neurophysiological aspects of sexual imprinting in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Bischof, H J; Rollenhagen, A

    1999-02-01

    Sexual imprinting has been defined as the process by which young animals learn the characteristics of their future sexual partners. It is a two stage process including an acquisition period where features of the social environment are learnt, and a stabilization process by which, under the guidance of the previously acquired social information, a preference for a sexual partner is established and stabilized, so that it cannot be altered again subsequently. The stabilization process is short (1 h) and can be controlled experimentally. This allows for the design of experiments to examine the physiological events accompanying the imprinting process. During the stabilization process, four areas of the forebrain are more activated than in any other behavioural context. These are the hyperstriatum accessorium/dorsale (HAD), the archi-neostriatum caudale (ANC), the medial neo/hyperstriatum (MNH) and the lateral neo/hyperstriatum (LNH). Isolation during development reduces the spine density of neurons in HAD and ANC and enhances it in MNH and LNH. Subsequent exposure to a female (which stabilizes the previously acquired preference in behavioural experiments) for 1 week leads to an enhancement of spine densities in HAD and ANC, and to a reduction in MNH and LNH. The enhancement in HAD and ANC is reversible by a second isolation period after the exposure to a female, the reduction within MNH and LNH is not. This irreversibility indicates that the reduction process within MNH and LNH may be the anatomical manifestation of the imprinting process. The examination of spine densities in the four brain areas after two experiments which have been shown previously to affect the stabilization process in behavioural experiments, confirms this idea.

  16. Monitoring trends in sexual behaviour and HIV/STIs in Peru: are available data sufficient?

    PubMed Central

    Caceres, C; Mendoza, W

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To review and summarise various types of Peruvian evidence on sexual behaviour, HIV/STI exposure and risk, and discuss how to increase its usefulness for HIV/STI risk trend monitoring in Peru. Methods: Review HIV sentinel surveillance conducted by the Ministry of Health; data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS); and academic publications on sexual behaviour in combination with biological markers. Changes over time, quality of data, size of studies, and intended audience are discussed. Results: Data from HIV sentinel surveillance showed very high (8–23%) HIV seroprevalence among men having sex with men, but stable, relatively low figures among female sex workers (1%) and antenatal clinic patients (under 0.5%). DHS data suggest that single women increased their sexual activity throughout the 1990s but did not raise their contraceptive use accordingly, resulting in increased early conceptions. The contribution of condoms to overall contraceptive protection increased threefold in 1992–2000. According to the 1996 survey, men become sexually active 2.5 years earlier than women, but marry or cohabit four years later than women; women marry or cohabit 1.5–2.5 years after first sex, whereas men take eight years to do so. Finally, published studies confirmed dramatic differences in HIV prevalence between men who have sex with men and other populations, and also suggested patterns of bridging from men to women. Conclusions: Data available from the three sources are numerous, although limitations of each approach reduce their monitoring utility: Ministry of Health studies should select better sentinel populations and timely process behavioural data. Future demographic surveys should incorporate an AIDS risk perspective and include men. PMID:15572646

  17. From Sexual Assault to Sexual Risk: A Relational Pathway?

    PubMed

    Wells, Brooke E; Starks, Tyrel J; Robel, Erika; Kelly, Brian C; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

    2016-12-01

    Among women and gay and bisexual men, sexual assault is associated with increased rates of sexual risk behavior and negative sexual health outcomes. Although the mechanisms of these effects are potentially myriad, the current analyses examine the role of perceived partner pressure for condomless sex in mediating the association between adult sexual assault (ASA) and recent anal or vaginal sex without a condom. In a sample of 205 young adult women and gay and bisexual men, ASA was indirectly associated with condomless anal and/or vaginal sex via perceptions of partner pressure for condomless sex, χ(2)(1) = 5.66, p = .02, after controlling for race, age, gender and sexual identity, and relationship status. The elucidation of this relational mechanism points to several potential intervention and prevention strategies that may reduce actual and perceived pressure for sex without a condom, including strategies designed to facilitate the prioritization of health and safety over relational goals and the improvement of partner selection and perceptions of partner pressure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted diseases in Dutch marines and naval personnel on a United Nations mission in Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Hopperus Buma, A P; Veltink, R L; van Ameijden, E J; Tendeloo, C H; Coutinho, R A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the sexual risk behaviour and the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among Dutch marines and naval personnel during a United Nations (UN) deployment. METHODS--Surveillance by post deployment questionnaire, administered to 2289 persons in three successive battalions who served for 6 months on a UN deployment in Cambodia during June 1992-November 1993. On site the medical history of all individuals was kept up to date in a database. All personnel received extra education on STD prevention prior to deployment. Condoms were freely obtainable during deployment. RESULTS--1885 persons (82%) handed in the questionnaire of whom 842 (45%) reported to have had sexual contacts with prostitutes or local population. Being younger and single were independent risk factors for having contact. Out of these 842 persons, 750 (89.1%) reported condom use at all times, while 82 (9.7%) reported inconsistent use and 10 persons (1.2%) reported not to have used condoms. Risk factors for inconsistent and non use were being 40 years or older and a higher number of contacts. From the 832 (750 + 82) condom users, 248 (30%) reported condom failure. Risk factors for failure were: inconsistent condom use, having had more than six contacts and being in the second battalion. The patient recording database showed 43 STD cases registered in the total population of 2289 persons (1.9%). CONCLUSIONS--A low STD incidence was found despite a considerable number of reported sexual contacts. The reported condom use was high but the failure rate was considerable and needs further attention. PMID:7635494

  19. Risky business or not? FIFOs, sexual risk taking and the Australian mining industry.

    PubMed

    O'Mullan, Cathy; Debattista, Joseph; Browne, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed The fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) and drive-in, drive-out (DIDO) models of mining in Australia have led to concerns about adverse health and psychosocial impacts. Despite speculation that increased levels of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Australia, including HIV, are associated with FIFO/DIDO work, we know little about sexual risk-taking behaviours in mining populations. This study explores differences in sexual risk taking and perceptions of risk between FIFO/DIDO miners and residential miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to a sample (n=444) of male miners working in Queensland, Australia. The self-completed survey contained 49 questions relating to knowledge, attitudes and behaviour and included demographic information and specific items related to sex and relationships. Results FIFO/DIDO status was not associated with any differential sexual risk-taking behaviours, except for an increased probability of reporting 'ever being diagnosed with an STI'; 10.8% of FIFO/DIDO respondents versus 3.6% of others (x(2) (1)=4.43, P=0.35). Conclusions Our results appear to counter anecdotal evidence that FIFO/DIDO miners engage in higher sexual risk behaviours when compared with residential miners. So what? Anecdotal evidence linking the rise of sexually transmitted infections with the FIFO/DIDO mining workforce could drive costly and unnecessary approaches to prevention. Further research, surveillance and monitoring are required to inform health promotion interventions.

  20. Poverty, sexual behaviour, gender and HIV infection among young black men and women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nattrass, Nicoli; Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Seekings, Jeremy; Whiteside, Alan

    2012-12-01

    This article contributes methodologically and substantively to the debate over the importance of poverty, sexual behaviour and circumcision in relation to HIV infection, using panel data on young black men and women in Cape Town, South Africa. Methodological challenges included problems of endogeneity and blunt indicator variables, especially for the measurement of sexual behaviour. Noting these difficulties, we found that the importance of socioeconomic and sexual-behavioural factors differed between men and women. While we found a clear association between the number of years of sexual activity and HIV status among both men and women, we found that past participation in a concurrent sexual partnership increased the odds of HIV infection for men but not women. Women, but not men, who made the transition from school to tertiary education (our key indicator of socioeconomic status) were less likely to be HIV-positive than those who made the transition from school to unemployment. Both poverty and sexual behaviour matter to individuals' HIV risk, but in gendered ways.

  1. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  2. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  3. Scaling sexual behavior or "sexual risk propensity" among men at risk for HIV in Kisumu, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mattson, C L; Campbell, Richard T; Karabatsos, George; Agot, Kawango; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Moses, Stephen; Bailey, Robert C

    2010-02-01

    We present a scale to measure sexual risk behavior or "sexual risk propensity" to evaluate risk compensation among men engaged in a randomized clinical trial of male circumcision. This statistical approach can be used to represent each respondent's level of sexual risk behavior as the sum of his responses on multiple dichotomous and rating scale (i.e. ordinal) items. This summary "score" can be used to summarize information on many sexual behaviors or to evaluate changes in sexual behavior with respect to an intervention. Our 18 item scale demonstrated very good reliability (Cronbach's alpha of 0.87) and produced a logical, unidimensional continuum to represent sexual risk behavior. We found no evidence of differential item function at different time points (except for reporting a concurrent partners when comparing 6 and 12 month follow-up visits) or with respect to the language with which the instrument was administered. Further, we established criterion validity by demonstrating a statistically significant association between the risk scale and the acquisition of incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at the 6 month follow-up and HIV at the 12 month follow-up visits. This method has broad applicability to evaluate sexual risk behavior in the context of other HIV and STI prevention interventions (e.g. microbicide or vaccine trials), or in response to treatment provision (e.g., anti-retroviral therapy).

  4. Enhanced attentional bias towards sexually explicit cues in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours.

    PubMed

    Mechelmans, Daisy J; Irvine, Michael; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Mitchell, Simon; Mole, Tom B; Lapa, Tatyana R; Harrison, Neil A; Potenza, Marc N; Voon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) is relatively common and has been associated with significant distress and psychosocial impairments. CSB has been conceptualized as either an impulse control disorder or a non-substance 'behavioural' addiction. Substance use disorders are commonly associated with attentional biases to drug cues which are believed to reflect processes of incentive salience. Here we assess male CSB subjects compared to age-matched male healthy controls using a dot probe task to assess attentional bias to sexually explicit cues. We show that compared to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects have enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues but not neutral cues particularly for early stimuli latency. Our findings suggest enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues possibly related to an early orienting attentional response. This finding dovetails with our recent observation that sexually explicit videos were associated with greater activity in a neural network similar to that observed in drug-cue-reactivity studies. Greater desire or wanting rather than liking was further associated with activity in this neural network. These studies together provide support for an incentive motivation theory of addiction underlying the aberrant response towards sexual cues in CSB.

  5. Young Risk Takers: Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Sexual Practices among a Sample of Music Festival Attendees

    PubMed Central

    Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16–29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported “binge” drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  7. [Immigration and sexually transmitted diseases: risk factors, prevention and health education].

    PubMed

    Cuniato, V; Bellitti, F; Di Martino, M; Nocera, E; Esposito, S; Noviello, S

    2001-12-01

    Assessment of behaviour at risk of HIV-infection and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) in high-risk subjects, such as illegal immigrants is the first step for successful prevention measures. In order to assess knowledge of AIDS, STDs, risk behaviour and condom use, a sexual behaviour questionnaire was administered to all illegal immigrants living in the Domitia area (north-west of naples) and coming to our ambulatory for several pathologies. The following risk markers identified were: low level of knowledge concerning HIV and STD transmission and prevention, multiple sexual partners, casual sex, low frequencies of condom use, drugs and alcohol use. Therefore prevention campaigns should include educational activities concerning AIDS and STD transmission and prevention, and condom promotion. Particular attention should be given to improve access to STD services that provide treatment and counselling. Moreover, commercial sex workers require counselling at each visit, screening and treatment.

  8. Acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviours among international migrants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the global literature regarding the relationship between acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviours among international migrants. Seventy-nine articles published in English-language journals prior to July 2012 met the criteria for inclusion. We conducted a systematic review and subset meta-analysis of correlations between acculturation and five types of sexual behaviours including condom use, multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and other unsafe sexual practices. Immigrants high in mainstream acculturation were more likely to have multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, STDs and unsafe sex (rs ranged from 0.10 to 0.16), but acculturation was not associated with condom use (r = 0.02). Gender moderated the relationships between acculturation and multiple partnerships, STDs and unsafe sex. The relationship between acculturation and unsafe sex also varied across ethnicity. These findings suggest that acculturation may serve as a risk factor towards immigrants' HIV-related sexual health. We offered a theoretical framework and suggested applying cross-cultural and longitudinal designs in future research on acculturation and health behaviours.

  9. Sexual behaviour and condom use as a protection against sexually transmitted infections in student population.

    PubMed

    Dijanić, Tomislav; Kozul, Karlo; Miskulin, Maja; Medić, Alan; Jurcev-Savicević, Anamarija; Burazin, Jelena

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the differences in sexual behaviour and condom use as a protection against sexually transmitted infections (STI) between the first-year and the last-year students. Data were collected by filling anonymous and consented questionnaire in June of 2011 at University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer in Osijek, Croatia. Out of 857 students in the planned sample, 462 (53.9%) filled out the questionnaire, and 353/462 (76.4%) were sexually active. Data from sexually active students were processed and statistically significant results between first-year and the last-year students were presented. Studied sample consisted of 192/353 (54.4%) first-year students and 161/353 (45.6%) last-year students. Average age of sexual initiation for the first-year students was 17.28 +/- 1.29 years, a for the last-year students 18.45 +/- 2.14 years, and the difference is significant (Man-Whitney test = 10335.00, p < 0.01). First-year students have lower number of sexual partners (chi2 = 28.005, p < 0.01), during relationship they had lower number of intercourses with the third person (2 = 17.947, p < 0.01), and feel that lower number of their friends were already sexually active at the time of their own sexual initiation (chi2 = 18.350, p < 0.01). First-year students more often inform their partners about existing or previous STI (chi2 = 14.476, p < 0.01) and curiosity significantly influenced their decision regarding sexual initiation (chi2 = 8.689, p < 0.05). First-year students more often used condom at their first sexual intercourse (chi2 = 7.275, p < 0.01), and more rarely used withdrawal (chi2 = 6.380, p < 0.05). At their last sexual intercourse, first-year students more often used any kind of protection (chi2 = 3.853, p < 0.05),more often used condom (chi2 = 11.110, p < 0.01) and withdrawal (chi2 = 5.156, p < 0.05), and more rarely used contraceptive pills (chi2 = 4.405, p < 0.05). First-year students more often use condom in a permanent relationship

  10. Female Sexual Victimization Among College Students: Assault Severity, Health Risk Behaviors, and Sexual Functioning.

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hassija, Christina M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between college women's sexual victimization experiences, health risk behaviors, and sexual functioning. A sample of 309 college women at a mid-sized Midwestern university completed measures assessing sexual victimization, sexual risk taking, substance use behaviors, sexual desire, sexual functioning, prior sexual experiences, and social desirability. Severity of sexual victimization was measured using a multi-item, behaviorally specific, gender-neutral measure, which was divided into four categories based on severity (none, sexual contact, sexual coercion, rape). Within the sample, 72.8% (n = 225) of women reported at least one experience of sexual victimization since age 16. Results from MANCOVAs and a multinomial logistic regression, controlling for social desirability and prior sexual experience, revealed that sexual victimization among female students was related to increased drug use, problematic drinking behaviors, sexual risk taking, sexual dysfunction, and dyadic sexual desire. In addition, findings indicated that women exposed to more severe forms of sexual victimization (i.e., rape) were most likely to report these risk-taking behaviors and sexual functioning issues. Implications for sexual assault risk reduction programming and treatment are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The role of gender and sexual experience in predicting adolescent condom use intentions using the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rich, Antonia; Mullan, Barbara A; Sainsbury, Kirby; Kuczmierczyk, Andrzej R

    2014-08-01

    To examine how the prediction of condom-related cognitions, intentions, and behaviour amongst adolescents may differ according to gender and sexual experience within a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework. Adolescents (N = 306) completed questionnaires about sexual experience, condom use, TPB variables, perceived risk, and safe sex knowledge. Significant differences in TPB variables, perceived risk, and knowledge were found; males and sexually experienced participants were generally less positive about condom use. Twenty percent of the variance in attitudes was accounted for by four variables; specifically, female gender, no previous sexual experience, better safe sex knowledge, and greater risk perceptions were associated with more positive attitudes. The prediction of intentions separately amongst sexually experienced (R(2) = 0.468) and inexperienced (R(2) = 0.436) participants revealed that, for the former group, attitudes and subjective norms were the most important considerations. In contrast, among the inexperienced participants, attitudes and the gender-by-perceived risk interaction term represented significant influences. The results suggest that interventions designed to improve adolescents' intentions to use condoms and rates of actual condom use should consider differences in gender and sexual experience.

  12. Sexual behaviour reported by a sample of Italian MSM before and after HIV diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Camoni, Laura; Dal Conte, Ivano; Regine, Vincenza; Colucci, Anna; Chiriotto, Monica; Vullo, Vincenzo; Sebastiani, Marina; Cordier, Laura; Beretta, Rosangela; Fiore, Josè Ramon; Tateo, Mariagrazia; Affronti, Mario; Cassarà, Giuseppina; Suligoi, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 we conducted a cross-sectional study involving hospital clinical centres in five Italian cities to compare the sexual behaviour of HIV-positive MSM (men who have sex with men) before and after the diagnosis of HIV infection. Each centre was asked to enrol 30 HIV-positive persons aged ≥ 18 years. The questionnaire was administered to 143 MSM on average 9 years after HIV diagnosis. After diagnosis there was a decrease in the number of sexual partners: the percentage of persons who reported having had more than 2 partners decreased from 95.8% before diagnosis to 76.2% after diagnosis. After diagnosis, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of persons who had never (or not always) used a condom with their stable partner for anal sex from 69.2% before diagnosis to 26.6% after diagnosis and for oral-genital sex from 74.8% before diagnosis to 51.7% after diagnosis. Though at-risk behaviour seems to decrease after diagnosis, seropositive MSM continue to engage in at-risk practices: one fourth of them did not use a condom during sexually transmitted infections (STI) episodes, 12.5% of the participants had had sex for money, and 8.4% had paid for sex. The study shows that our sample of Italian HIV-positive MSM, though aware of being infected, engage in sexual behaviours that could sustain transmission of HIV and other STIs. The results could constitute the first step in implementing national prevention programs for persons living with HIV.

  13. Risk compensation behaviours in construction workers' activities.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yingbin; Wu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the construction workers have the tendency of engaging in risk compensation behaviours, and identify the demographic variables, which may influence the extent to which the construction workers may show risk compensation behaviours. Both quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interviews) approaches were used in this study. A questionnaire survey was conducted with all the construction workers on three building construction sites of a leading construction company in Australia. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted to validate the findings of the quantitative research. The findings indicate that workers tend to show risk compensation behaviours in the construction environment. The workers with more working experience, higher education, or having never been injured at work before have a higher tendency to show risk compensation in their activities than the others. The implication is that contractors need to assess the potential influence of workers' risk compensation behaviours when evaluating the effect of risk control measures. It is recommended that supervisors pay more attention to the behavioural changes of those workers who have more experience, higher education, and have never been injured before after the implementation of new safety control measures on construction site.

  14. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  15. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  16. Greater Exposure to Sexual Content in Popular Movies Predicts Earlier Sexual Debut and Increased Sexual Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Early sexual debut is associated with risky sexual behavior and an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections later in life. The relations among early movie sexual exposure (MSE), sexual debut, and risky sexual behavior in adulthood (i.e., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use) were examined in a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents. MSE was measured using the Beach method, a comprehensive procedure for media content coding. Controlling for characteristics of adolescents and their families, analyses showed that MSE predicted age of sexual debut, both directly and indirectly through changes in sensation seeking. MSE also predicted engagement in risky sexual behaviors both directly and indirectly via early sexual debut. These results suggest that MSE may promote sexual risk taking both by modifying sexual behavior and by accelerating the normal rise in sensation seeking during adolescence. PMID:22810165

  17. Greater exposure to sexual content in popular movies predicts earlier sexual debut and increased sexual risk taking.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2012-09-01

    Early sexual debut is associated with risky sexual behavior and an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections later in life. The relations among early movie sexual exposure (MSE), sexual debut, and risky sexual behavior in adulthood (i.e., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use) were examined in a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents. MSE was measured using the Beach method, a comprehensive procedure for media content coding. Controlling for characteristics of adolescents and their families, analyses showed that MSE predicted age of sexual debut, both directly and indirectly through changes in sensation seeking. MSE also predicted engagement in risky sexual behaviors both directly and indirectly via early sexual debut. These results suggest that MSE may promote sexual risk taking both by modifying sexual behavior and by accelerating the normal rise in sensation seeking during adolescence.

  18. Trajectories of Sexual Risk from Middle Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Jones, Bobby L.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental trajectories of risky sexual behavior were identified in a multiethnic sample of 1,121 youth drawn from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data set (NLSY79). Group-based trajectory modeling of a composite index of sexual risk taking revealed four sexual risk groups from ages 16 to 22: low risk, decreasing risk,…

  19. Trajectories of Sexual Risk from Middle Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Jones, Bobby L.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental trajectories of risky sexual behavior were identified in a multiethnic sample of 1,121 youth drawn from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data set (NLSY79). Group-based trajectory modeling of a composite index of sexual risk taking revealed four sexual risk groups from ages 16 to 22: low risk, decreasing risk,…

  20. Child Sexual Abuse Reporting Behaviour by School Counsellors and Their Need for Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Padayachi, Usha K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine a statewide sample of school counsellors' reporting behaviour of suspected cases of child sexual abuse, and their need for further education in this area. Design: A questionnaire using four hypothetical vignettes on child sexual abuse requested information on the degree of suspicion, reporting behaviour and familiarity with…

  1. A Comparison Between Girls' and Boys' Experiences of Unwanted Sexual Behaviour in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, Greetje

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examines gender differences (and similarities) in the context, meaning and effects of unwanted sexual behaviour in secondary schools. Purpose First, the study's purpose is exploration of variables that discriminate between girls' and boys' experiences of unwanted sexual behaviour. Secondly, the aim is to find empirical…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse Reporting Behaviour by School Counsellors and Their Need for Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Padayachi, Usha K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine a statewide sample of school counsellors' reporting behaviour of suspected cases of child sexual abuse, and their need for further education in this area. Design: A questionnaire using four hypothetical vignettes on child sexual abuse requested information on the degree of suspicion, reporting behaviour and familiarity with…

  3. Protective behaviours among young African American women with non-monogamous sexual partners.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ashley C; Hilyard, Karen; Davis, Teaniese Latham; de Marrais, Kathleen; Jeffries, William L; Muilenburg, Jessica Legge

    2017-08-10

    In the USA, partner non-monogamy is reported to be more common among African American women than White women and may contribute to African American women's increased risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Few studies have explicitly and comprehensively described the protective behaviours that African American women employ with non-monogamous partners to reduce their HIV risk. We conducted interviews to examine protective behaviours among 11 African American women aged 18-24 years who perceived that a partner in the preceding 12 months had another sex partner. Participants described three types of partnerships with 29 non-monogamous men; these partnerships clustered into three categories. Narrative analysis revealed an overall paucity of protective behaviours with non-monogamous partners. Protective behaviours (i.e. communication and condom use) were informed by partnership type, rather than perceptions of non-monogamy. There were few instances in which partner non-monogamy motivated women to terminate sex partnerships. Rather, these decisions were often motivated by changes in other relationship dynamics. To address HIV/STI risk related to partner non-monogamy, HIV prevention strategies for young African American women should emphasise the importance of condom use in all non-marital partnership types. Interventions where testing is available may be effective for women who frequently test for HIV/STIs but do not use condoms.

  4. Male sexual behaviour and ethanol consumption from an evolutionary perspective: A comment on "Sexual Deprivation Increases Ethanol Intake in Drosophila".

    PubMed

    Guevara-Fiore, Palestina; Endler, John A

    2014-01-01

    Shohat-Ophir et al. (1) demonstrate a connection between sexual behaviour and ethanol consumption in male Drosophila flies, and how the neuropeptide F system regulates ethanol preference. Their results are rightly discussed only in a physiological context, but this has facilitated erroneous anthropomorphic interpretations by the media. Here we discuss the link between male sexual behaviour and ethanol consumption from an evolutionary perspective, providing a broader context to interpret their results.

  5. Patterns of sexual behaviour of male patients before testing HIV-positive in a Cambodian hospital, Phnom Penh

    PubMed Central

    Sok, Phan; Harwell, Joseph I.; Dansereau, Lynne; McGarvey, Stephen; Lurie, Mark; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexual behaviours among HIV-positive male patients in Cambodia have not been fully evaluated. Objectives The patterns of sexual behaviours and social factors were compared between married and single men. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional survey of 174 male HIV patients was undertaken during March 1999–June 2000 in Phnom Penh. Results Many participants (61%) reported that they were unaware that their sexual behaviours may have put them at risk of HIV infection. Sexual behaviours included having sex with a sex worker (90%), multiple sexual partners (41%), and both of these behaviours (37%). Two-thirds (69%) reported using a condom when having sex with a sex worker. Condom use with multiple sexual partners was low (24%). A history of condom use with a sex worker was less likely to be reported among married men than single men (P = 0.008). Always using condoms with a sex worker did not differ between married men and single men. Social factors that influenced visiting a sex worker included invitation by a friend (88%), alcohol consumption (74%), and having extra spending money (72%). Multivariate analysis suggests that alcohol consumption (P = 0.008) and having extra spending money (P = 0.02) were strongly associated with visiting a sex worker. Conclusions In Cambodia, HIV-infected men frequently reported a history of using sex workers. Having multiple sex partners or using a sex worker and multiple sexual partners were not rare. Interventions should target men in settings where alcohol is consumed and to encourage married men to use condoms. PMID:19061555

  6. Developmental risk factors for sexual offending.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph K P; Jackson, Henry J; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the general, common, and specific developmental risk factors for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, and multiple paraphilia, and to address five methodological issues observed in this area of research. This study involved 64 sex offenders and 33 nonsex, nondrug-related, and nonviolent property offenders. The group of 64 sex offenders was further divided into eight subgroups, some of which overlapped in memberships because of multiple diagnoses. To overcome the methodological problem associated with overlapping group memberships, a special approach involving comparisons of sets of logistic regression analyses was adopted. Offenders were clinically assessed for evidence of paraphilias, and their adverse childhood experiences were measured by a battery of tests. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Family Dysfunction, Childhood Behavior Problems, and Childhood Sexual Abuse were found to be general developmental risk factors for paraphilias. Furthermore, Childhood Emotional Abuse and Family Dysfunction was found to be a common developmental risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple paraphilia. Additional analyses revealed that childhood emotional abuse contributed significantly as a common developmental risk factor compared to family dysfunction. Besides, Childhood Sexual Abuse was found to be a specific developmental risk factor for pedophilia. The study has supported the value of conceptualizing certain childhood adversities as developmental risk factors for paraphilic behaviors. The role of childhood emotional abuse as an important developmental risk contributor, and the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and pedophilia are of theoretical significance. Furthermore, the results have significant implications for the prevention of childhood abuse and treatment of sex offenders.

  7. Social Environment and Sexual Risk-Taking among Gay and Transgender African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B.

    2014-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern U.S. city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual risk behaviour. PMID:23889233

  8. Social environment and sexual risk-taking among gay and transgender African American youth.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B

    2013-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern US city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual-risk behaviour.

  9. Happiness, rather than depression, is associated with sexual behaviour in partnered older adults.

    PubMed

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; De Castro Lima, Gustavo; Direk, Nese; Jaspers, Loes; Pitts, Marian; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-01-19

    The relation between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and sexual behaviour is understudied in older adult groups. To examine the relation between PPWB (positive affect and life satisfaction) and sexual behaviour (sexual activity and physical tenderness) in older adults, and whether it is independent from depressive symptoms and uniform across older age groups. Cross-sectional. Community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Sexual behaviour, the Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and partner status were assessed in 2,373 dementia-free older adults from the Rotterdam Study. For partnered participants, greater positive affect and life satisfaction was associated with more sexual activity and physical tenderness. Although CES-D was negatively associated with sexual behaviour within partnered older adults, there was no association between the negative affect sub-scale and sexual behaviour. The relations were independent of depressive symptoms, physical health and chronic disease status and were observed for both sexes at all older ages. For unpartnered participants, greater life satisfaction and was associated with more physical tenderness. There was low prevalence of sexual behaviour in unpartnered participants, limiting further stratification. Greater PPWB was associated with more sexual behaviour in partnered, community-dwelling older adults. We are the first to demonstrate that sexual behaviour is associated with PPWB, rather than lack of depressive symptoms; and that the association was present at all ages for partnered older adults. Limited conclusions can be drawn for unpartnered older adults as their sexual behaviour was infrequent.

  10. Enhanced Attentional Bias towards Sexually Explicit Cues in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Mechelmans, Daisy J.; Irvine, Michael; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Mitchell, Simon; Mole, Tom B.; Lapa, Tatyana R.; Harrison, Neil A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Voon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) is relatively common and has been associated with significant distress and psychosocial impairments. CSB has been conceptualized as either an impulse control disorder or a non-substance ‘behavioural’ addiction. Substance use disorders are commonly associated with attentional biases to drug cues which are believed to reflect processes of incentive salience. Here we assess male CSB subjects compared to age-matched male healthy controls using a dot probe task to assess attentional bias to sexually explicit cues. We show that compared to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects have enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues but not neutral cues particularly for early stimuli latency. Our findings suggest enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues possibly related to an early orienting attentional response. This finding dovetails with our recent observation that sexually explicit videos were associated with greater activity in a neural network similar to that observed in drug-cue-reactivity studies. Greater desire or wanting rather than liking was further associated with activity in this neural network. These studies together provide support for an incentive motivation theory of addiction underlying the aberrant response towards sexual cues in CSB. PMID:25153083

  11. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths.

    PubMed

    Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas.

  12. Sexually Transmitted Infections - Prevalence, Knowledge and Behaviours among Professional Defence Forces in Estonia: a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Parker, R. David; Rüütel, Kristi

    2017-03-01

    Our study assessed sexually transmitted infections (STI) occurrence and risk behaviours from a sample of the defence forces of Estonia. Previous research on military personnel yields various results on the prevalence of STIs and high risk behaviours. The increasing recognition of high risk behaviours among military personnel is evident given increased programmes that focus on education of drug use and risky sexual behaviours. Many militaries conduct routine, periodic screening for diseases such as HIV and viral hepatitis at entry and pre-foreign deployment. Protecting deployed forces from secondary infections is important as persons with chronic viral infections are living longer, healthier lives and are more frequently serving in military forces. A cross sectional study used convenient sampling among professional defence forces. Participation was both voluntary and anonymous. Of 186 participants accounting for 7.3% of all forces (86.6% male, mean age 30 years) at selected bases, there were four cases of chlamydia. No cases of gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, hepatitis C, hepatitis B, or HIV were found. One person reported ever injecting drugs. These findings indicate a lower STI occurrence among professional defence forces in Estonia compared with the non-military population. While these rates were lower than expected, as a voluntary study, people suspicious of having an STI might opt not to participate, limiting generalizability to the remainder of the military. Militaries without regular screening programmes could consider regular scheduled testing for STIs, HIV and blood borne pathogens, even if voluntary, especially prior to foreign deployment. Consistent testing would align across many militaries who deploy international peace keepers.

  13. Verbal Sexual Coercion Experiences, Sexual Risk, and Substance Use in Women

    PubMed Central

    GILMORE, AMANDA K.; SCHACHT, REBECCA L.; GEORGE, WILLIAM H.; DAVIS, KELLY CUE; NORRIS, JEANETTE; HEIMAN, JULIA R.

    2016-01-01

    Research has linked sexual assault, substance use, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk in women. Sexual assault by means of verbal sexual coercion (VSC) is more common than sexual assault by means of physical tactics, but VSC is rarely assessed independently. In addition, past work has established global connections among substance use, sexual assault history, and STI risk; however, assessing substance use during sexual behavior is less common. This study examined the relations among VSC, STI risk behavior, and substance use and attitudes. We hypothesized that women with larger numbers of VSC experiences would report more frequent sexual risk behaviors and substance use and attitudes. Participants with larger numbers of VSC experiences reported larger numbers of anal sex partners, more frequent penile–vaginal sex and sexual activity after substance use, and stronger sex-related alcohol expectancies. These findings suggest that VSC is associated with higher levels of STI risk in women. PMID:26941549

  14. Sexually transmitted infection testing among heterosexual Maritime Canadian university students engaging in different levels of sexual risk taking.

    PubMed

    Cragg, Amber; Steenbeek, Audrey; Asbridge, Mark; Andreou, Pantelis; Langille, Donald

    2016-08-15

    Individuals aged 15-29 years have the highest rates of diagnosed sexually transmitted infection (STI), and in Canada routine STI testing is recommended for sexually active individuals under 25 years of age. Despite its being readily available to most Canadian university students, testing is not accessed by all sexually active students. This study examines correlates of STI testing among sexually active heterosexual university students. Specifically, we sought to determine: i) the lifetime incidence of STI testing overall and stratified by biological sex; ii) whether those most at risk of STI are being tested; and iii) which other characteristics are associated with ever having been tested for STI. A cross-sectional survey of undergraduate students at eight universities in Maritime Canada was carried out in 2012, gathering information on student demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours and use of sexual health services. We conducted a sex-stratified descriptive analysis of each covariate and of STI testing at three levels of STI risk. We then performed multiple logistic regressions to determine the factors associated with lifetime STI testing. Only 34% of the study population and 51% of those at higher risk of STI acquisition had ever been tested for STI. Individuals at moderate or higher risk of STI were more likely to be tested than those at lower risk. In both sexes, older students, those who reported experiencing non-consensual sex while enrolled at university and those with more sexual health knowledge were more likely to be tested. Higher perceived risk was associated with STI testing only among females. Individuals at higher risk of STI acquisition are more likely to be tested; however, STI testing rates are low in this sample. Health promotion with campaigns designed to increase general sexual health knowledge may be more effective in increasing testing when targeting younger students.

  15. Sexual behaviour and early coitarche in a national sample of 17 year old Swedish girls

    PubMed Central

    Edgardh, K.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate sexual behaviour in 17 year old girls, using data from a national survey on adolescent sexuality. Method: The study was based on two samples of 17 year olds, comprising 2% of the population born in 1973 and carried out in 1990. A school sample and a sample of school non-attenders were recruited in a two step procedure. Data were collected by anonymous self administered questionnaires. 2583 questionnaires were distributed. Response rates from students was 92%, for school non-attenders 44%. 1121 female students and 118 female school dropouts responded. Results: 64% of the student girls had experienced their first intercourse; 16% were "early starters" with coitarche before age 15. STD and pregnancy were reported by 15% of early starters and pregnancy by 14%, p<0.001 and 0.002 respectively when compared with later starters. The number of coital partners, experience of first date intercourse, and of oral and anal sex was higher in the early starters, p<0.001. Early starters reported menarche at age 11 or earlier more often than the later starters (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.48–3.56), as well as a perceived social age exceeding the chronological by 2 years (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.34–2.80). Sexual abuse was reported by 20% of the early and 11% of the later starters, p=0.002. Among school non-attenders no significant differences were found with regard to age for coitarche. A majority of 83% of the girls had experienced voluntary intercourse, and 49% were early starters. Five girls were mothers. STD was reported by 19% and induced abortion by 14%. Sexual abuse was alleged by 28%. Conclusion: Coitarche before age 15 is related to early menarche and high perceived social age. High number of partners and first date intercourse make early starters at increased risk for STD and unintended pregnancy. Sexual abuse is alleged more often by early starters. Key Words: adolescent sexuality; sex; coitarche; sexual behaviour; sexual abuse PMID:10858710

  16. Neuropeptides and central control of sexual behaviour from the past to the present: a review.

    PubMed

    Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Of the numerous neuropeptides identified in the central nervous system, only a few are involved in the control of sexual behaviour. Among these, the most studied are oxytocin, adrenocorticotropin, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone and opioid peptides. While opioid peptides inhibit sexual performance, the others facilitate sexual behaviour in most of the species studied so far (rats, mice, monkeys and humans). However, evidence for a sexual role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, galanin and galanin-like peptide, cholecystokinin, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, vasopressin, angiotensin II, hypocretins/orexins and VGF-derived peptides are also available. Corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, vasopressin and angiotensin II inhibit, while substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, hypocretins/orexins and some VGF-derived peptide facilitate sexual behaviour. Neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour by acting mainly in the hypothalamic nuclei (i.e., lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus), in the medial preoptic area and in the spinal cord. However, it is often unclear whether neuropeptides influence the anticipatory phase (sexual arousal and/or motivation) or the consummatory phase (performance) of sexual behaviour, except in a few cases (e.g., opioid peptides and oxytocin). Unfortunately, scarce information has been added in the last 15 years on the neural mechanisms by which neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour, most studied neuropeptides apart. This may be due to a decreased interest of researchers on neuropeptides and sexual behaviour or on sexual behaviour in general. Such a decrease may be related to the discovery of orally effective, locally acting type V phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the therapy of erectile dysfunction.

  17. Sexual assertiveness mediates the effect of social interaction anxiety on sexual victimization risk among college women.

    PubMed

    Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2013-03-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques. This study examined social interaction anxiety as a risk factor for sexual victimization. College women (n=672) completed online measures of social interaction anxiety, sexual assertiveness, and sexual victimization experiences. Social interaction anxiety was significantly positively related to likelihood of experiencing coerced sexual intercourse, and significant indirect effects, via decreased sexual refusal assertiveness, were found for both coerced sexual intercourse and rape. Social anxiety may be an important psychological barrier to assertive resistance during risky sexual situations, and developers of risk reduction programs for college women should consider including methods to help women overcome their social anxiety in order to successfully use assertive resistance techniques. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. An overview of prevention of multiple risk behaviour in adolescence and young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Caroline A; Henderson, Marion; Frank, John W; Haw, Sally J

    2012-03-01

    The observed clustering, and shared underlying determinants, of risk behaviours in young people has led to the proposition that interventions should take a broader approach to risk behaviour prevention. In this review we synthesized the evidence on 'what works' to prevent multiple risk behaviour (focusing on tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use and sexual risk behaviour) for policy-makers, practitioners and academics. We aimed to identify promising intervention programmes and to give a narrative overview of the wider influences on risk behaviour, in order to help inform future intervention strategies and policies. The most promising programme approaches for reducing multiple risk behaviour simultaneously address multiple domains of risk and protective factors predictive of risk behaviour. These programmes seek to increase resilience and promote positive parental/family influences and/or healthy school environments supportive of positive social and emotional development. However, wider influences on risk behaviour, such as culture, media and social climate also need to be addressed through broader social policy change. Furthermore, the importance of positive experiences during transition periods of the child-youth-adult phase of the life course should be appropriately addressed within intervention programmes and broader policy change, to reduce marginalization, social exclusion and the vulnerability of young people during transition periods.

  19. Epigenetic mechanisms in sexual differentiation of the brain and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Forger, Nancy G.

    2016-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence alone argues that the establishment and maintenance of sex differences in the brain depend on epigenetic modifications of chromatin structure. More direct evidence has recently been obtained from two types of studies: those manipulating a particular epigenetic mechanism, and those examining the genome-wide distribution of specific epigenetic marks. The manipulation of histone acetylation or DNA methylation disrupts the development of several neural sex differences in rodents. Taken together, however, the evidence suggests there is unlikely to be a simple formula for masculine or feminine development of the brain and behaviour; instead, underlying epigenetic mechanisms may vary by brain region or even by dependent variable within a region. Whole-genome studies related to sex differences in the brain have only very recently been reported, but suggest that males and females may use different combinations of epigenetic modifications to control gene expression, even in cases where gene expression does not differ between the sexes. Finally, recent findings are discussed that are likely to direct future studies on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in sexual differentiation of the brain and behaviour. PMID:26833835

  20. Epigenetic mechanisms in sexual differentiation of the brain and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Forger, Nancy G

    2016-02-19

    Circumstantial evidence alone argues that the establishment and maintenance of sex differences in the brain depend on epigenetic modifications of chromatin structure. More direct evidence has recently been obtained from two types of studies: those manipulating a particular epigenetic mechanism, and those examining the genome-wide distribution of specific epigenetic marks. The manipulation of histone acetylation or DNA methylation disrupts the development of several neural sex differences in rodents. Taken together, however, the evidence suggests there is unlikely to be a simple formula for masculine or feminine development of the brain and behaviour; instead, underlying epigenetic mechanisms may vary by brain region or even by dependent variable within a region. Whole-genome studies related to sex differences in the brain have only very recently been reported, but suggest that males and females may use different combinations of epigenetic modifications to control gene expression, even in cases where gene expression does not differ between the sexes. Finally, recent findings are discussed that are likely to direct future studies on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in sexual differentiation of the brain and behaviour. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Characteristics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adolescence Influence Sexual Risk Behavior in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite

    2006-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of sexual abuse as well as lifetime and current sexual behavior. Participants were considered sexually abused if they reported a sexual experience (1) before age 13 with someone 5 or more years older, (2) between the ages of 13 and 16 with someone 10 or more years older, or (3) before the age of 17 involving force or coercion. Participants who were sexually abused were further categorized based on two abuse characteristics, namely, use of penetration and force. Analyses included 1177 participants (n=534 women; n=643 men). Those who reported sexual abuse involving penetration and/or force reported more adult sexual risk behavior, including the number of lifetime partners and number of previous STD diagnoses, than those who were not sexually abused and those who were abused without force or penetration. There were no significant differences in sexual risk behavior between nonabused participants and those who reported sexual abuse without force and without penetration. Gender of the child/adolescent moderated the association between sexual abuse characteristics and adult sexual risk behavior; for men, sexual abuse with force and penetration was associated with the greatest number of episodes of sex trading, whereas for women, those who were abused with penetration, regardless of whether the abuse involved force, reported the most episodes of sex trading. These findings indicate that more severe sexual abuse is associated with riskier adult sexual behavior. PMID:17192833

  2. Does substance use moderate the effects of parents and peers on risky sexual behaviour?

    PubMed

    Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Bryant, Fred B; King, Scott

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the moderating effects of drug/alcohol use in the past 3 months on the relationships of peer influence, parental permissiveness, and teen disposition (i.e., achievement motivation, attitude toward school, and value placed on health) with adolescent risky sexual behaviour. Participants were 207 adolescents receiving psychiatric care. Substance use did not moderate the relationship between adolescent disposition and risky sex. By contrast, peer influence and parental permissiveness were linked to risky sex but only for teens who reported using drugs/alcohol. Controlling for other predictors in the model, negative peer influence explained 21% and parental permissiveness explained 13% of the variance in risky sex among substance users, but less than half of 1% of the variance among non-substance users. The disinhibiting effects of substance use on decision-making and the need for effective parental monitoring to reduce opportunities for risk behaviour are discussed.

  3. Does substance use moderate the effects of parents and peers on risky sexual behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    DONENBERG, GERI R.; EMERSON, ERIN; BRYANT, FRED B.; KING, SCOTT

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the moderating effects of drug/alcohol use in the past 3 months on the relationships of peer influence, parental permissiveness, and teen disposition (i.e., achievement motivation, attitude toward school, and value placed on health) with adolescent risky sexual behaviour. Participants were 207 adolescents receiving psychiatric care. Substance use did not moderate the relationship between adolescent disposition and risky sex. By contrast, peer influence and parental permissiveness were linked to risky sex but only for teens who reported using drugs/alcohol. Controlling for other predictors in the model, negative peer influence explained 21% and parental permissiveness explained 13% of the variance in risky sex among substance users, but less than half of 1% of the variance among non-substance users. The disinhibiting effects of substance use on decision-making and the need for effective parental monitoring to reduce opportunities for risk behaviour are discussed. PMID:16546778

  4. Investigating the relationship between substance use and sexual behaviour in young people in Britain: findings from a national probability survey

    PubMed Central

    Khadr, S N; Jones, K G; Mann, S; Hale, D R; Johnson, A M; Viner, R M; Mercer, C H; Wellings, K

    2016-01-01

    Background Health risk behaviours are prominent in late adolescence and young adulthood, yet UK population-level research examining the relationship between drug or alcohol use and sexual health and behaviour among young people is scarce, despite public health calls for an integrated approach to health improvement. Our objective was to further our understanding of the scale of and nature of any such relationship, using contemporary data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Methods Analyses of data from Natsal-3, a stratified probability survey of 15 162 men and women (3869 aged 16–24 years), undertaken in 2010–2012, using computer-assisted personal interviewing, were carried out. Logistic regression was used to explore associations between reporting (1) frequent binge drinking (≥weekly), (2) recent drug use (within past 4 weeks) or (3) multiple (both types of) substance use, and key sexual risk behaviours and adverse sexual health outcomes. We then examined the sociodemographic profile, health behaviours and attitudes reported by ‘risky’ young people, defined as those reporting ≥1 type of substance use plus non-condom use at first sex with ≥1 new partner(s), last year. Results Men and women reporting frequent binge drinking or recent drug use were more likely to report: unprotected first sex with ≥1 new partner(s), last year; first sex with their last partner after only recently meeting; emergency contraception use (last year) and sexually transmitted infection diagnosis/es (past 5 years). Associations with sexual risk were frequently stronger for those reporting multiple substance use, particularly among men. The profile of ‘risky’ young people differed from that of other 16–24 years old. Conclusions In this nationally representative study, substance use was strongly associated with sexual risk and adverse sexual health outcomes among young people. Qualitative or event-level research is

  5. Influence of risk-taking health behaviours of adolescents on cervical cancer prevention: a Hungarian survey.

    PubMed

    Marek, E; Berenyi, K; Dergez, T; Kiss, I; D'Cruz, G

    2016-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among the Hungarian adolescents to establish their use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs in relation to sexual behaviours, knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and beliefs and attitudes towards screening and vaccination. Results indicated that adolescent risk-taking health behaviours correlate with risky sexual behaviours. As risk-taking behaviours do not correlate with a better awareness of the risk associated with HPV infection, it is of crucial importance that HPV/cervical cancer preventing educational programmes shall be sensitive to this 'vulnerable' population and draw the attention of these adolescents to their increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases and undesired pregnancies. Well-designed behavioural change interventions may be effective when in addition to providing adolescents (both men and women) with clear information about the implications of an HPV infection, they also aim to improve safer sex behaviours: consistent condom usage, limiting the number of sex partners, as well as encouraging regular participation in gynaecological screenings and uptake of the HPV vaccine. As this study population demonstrated positive attitudes towards the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer, the free HPV vaccination for the 12-13-year-old girls in Autumn 2014 will hopefully increase the currently low uptake of the vaccine in Hungary.

  6. Perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in rural Uganda: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Musoke, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Medical male circumcision is currently recognized as an additional important HIV preventive intervention to reduce the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men. However, sexual behaviours after medical circumcision can potentially reduce the expected benefits of the practice. This study explored the perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in Kayunga district, Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 393 respondents using a semi structured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions were conducted. Quantitative data was analysed using STATA 12. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. Results The study established various perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours. Majority 247 (64.5%) did not perceive circumcision as a practice that can lead men to have multiple sexual partners. Males were 3 times more likely to think that circumcision would lead to having multiple sexual partners than females (AOR=2.99, CI: 1.93-4.61). Only 89 (23.2%) believed that circumcision would lead to complacency and compromise the use of condoms to prevent against infection with HIV. Respondents who had education above primary were less likely to think that circumcision would compromise the use of condoms (AOR=0.49, CI: 0.31- 0.79). The perception that circumcised youths were less likely to abstain from sexual intercourse was less held among those with education above primary (AOR=0.58, CI: 0.37-0.91) and those older than 30 years (AOR=0.59, CI: 0.38-0.92). Conclusion There were gaps in knowledge and negative perceptions about MMC in the study community. Measures are needed to avert the negative perceptions by equipping communities with sufficient, accurate and consistent information about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviour. PMID:26985272

  7. Perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in rural Uganda: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Musoke, David

    2015-01-01

    Medical male circumcision is currently recognized as an additional important HIV preventive intervention to reduce the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men. However, sexual behaviours after medical circumcision can potentially reduce the expected benefits of the practice. This study explored the perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in Kayunga district, Uganda. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 393 respondents using a semi structured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions were conducted. Quantitative data was analysed using STATA 12. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. The study established various perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours. Majority 247 (64.5%) did not perceive circumcision as a practice that can lead men to have multiple sexual partners. Males were 3 times more likely to think that circumcision would lead to having multiple sexual partners than females (AOR=2.99, CI: 1.93-4.61). Only 89 (23.2%) believed that circumcision would lead to complacency and compromise the use of condoms to prevent against infection with HIV. Respondents who had education above primary were less likely to think that circumcision would compromise the use of condoms (AOR=0.49, CI: 0.31- 0.79). The perception that circumcised youths were less likely to abstain from sexual intercourse was less held among those with education above primary (AOR=0.58, CI: 0.37-0.91) and those older than 30 years (AOR=0.59, CI: 0.38-0.92). There were gaps in knowledge and negative perceptions about MMC in the study community. Measures are needed to avert the negative perceptions by equipping communities with sufficient, accurate and consistent information about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviour.

  8. Child sexual assault: risk factors for girls.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2013-09-01

    To identify prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads. The data were collected from the girls' first year of life through their early twenties. Factors measured during childhood were used to predict whether the girls experienced a subsequent first sexual assault before the age of 18. Prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault. Research on behavioral health consequences of SA should control for preexisting SA risk factors to more accurately estimate the impact of child SA on subsequent behavioral health.

  9. Evidence that Neural Aromatization of Androgen Regulates the Expression of Sexual Behaviour in Female Musk Shrews.

    PubMed

    Rissman, E F

    1991-08-01

    Abstract The experiments reported on here were conducted to test the hypothesis that sexual behaviour in the female musk shrew (Suncus murinus) is regulated by the neural aromatization of testosterone to oestradiol. In the first experiment ovariectomized animals received subcutaneous hormone implants containing either an aromatizable androgen (testosterone or androstenedione), a non-aromatizable androgen (dihydrotestosterone or methyltrienolone), or cholesterol. Only females that received an aromatizable androgen exhibited significant amounts of sexual behaviour as compared with controls (cholesterol). To examine the role of the oestrogen receptor, the anti-oestrogen, tamoxifen (200 or 400 mug daily) was given to ovary intact or ovariectomized females treated with testosterone. Tamoxifen treatment had significant negative effects both on female sexual behaviour and on the weights of several peripheral tissues as compared with control treatments. A similar set of experiments was conducted to examine the effect of an anti-androgen on female sexual behaviour. The androgen receptor blocker, flutamide, had no effect on sexual behaviour or weights of peripheral tissues. To determine whether flutamide can act as an anti-androgen in this species two final experiments were conducted in male musk shrews. Flutamide treatment in males did affect several measures of sexual behaviour. In summary, these data demonstrate that the oestrogen receptor is involved in the control of female copulatory behaviour. The androgen receptor plays a role in the expression of male, but not female, sexual behaviour. Female musk shrews display copulatory behaviour in advance of follicular development when oestradiol concentrations in plasma are very low. Thus, they may have evolved a strategy of aromatizing peripherally produced androgens in the brain to concentrate the oestrogen required for the expression of sexual behaviour.

  10. Poverty, Food Insufficiency and HIV Infection and Sexual Behaviour among Young Rural Zimbabwean Women

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Sophie J. S.; Langhaug, Lisa F.; Mavhu, Webster; Hargreaves, James; Jaffar, Shabbar; Hayes, Richard; Cowan, Frances M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a recent decline, Zimbabwe still has the fifth highest adult HIV prevalence in the world at 14.7%; 56% of the population are currently living in extreme poverty. Design Cross-sectional population-based survey of 18–22 year olds, conducted in 30 communities in south-eastern Zimbabwe in 2007. Objective To examine whether the risk of HIV infection among young rural Zimbabwean women is associated with socio-economic position and whether different socio-economic domains, including food sufficiency, might be associated with HIV risk in different ways. Methods Eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a finger-prick blood sample tested for antibodies to HIV and HSV-2. The relationship between poverty and HIV was explored for three socio-economic domains: ability to afford essential items; asset wealth; food sufficiency. Analyses were performed to examine whether these domains were associated with HIV infection or risk factors for infection among young women, and to explore which factors might mediate the relationship between poverty and HIV. Results 2593 eligible females participated in the survey and were included in the analyses. Overall HIV prevalence among these young females was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.7–8.7); HSV-2 prevalence was 11.2% (95% CI: 9.9–12.4). Lower socio-economic position was associated with lower educational attainment, earlier marriage, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders and increased reporting of higher risk sexual behaviours such as earlier sexual debut, more and older sexual partners and transactional sex. Young women reporting insufficient food were at increased risk of HIV infection and HSV-2. Conclusions This study provides evidence from Zimbabwe that among young poor women, economic need and food insufficiency are associated with the adoption of unsafe behaviours. Targeted structural interventions that aim to tackle social and economic constraints including insufficient food should

  11. Sexual risk behavior in young adulthood: broadening the scope beyond early sexual initiation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A; Manhart, Lisa E; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

    2014-01-01

    A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation was a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. Early predictors (ages 10 to 15) and sexual risk taking (ages 21 to 24 and 30 to 33) were assessed prospectively. Early sexual initiation (before age 15) was entered into a series of probit regressions that also included family, neighborhood, peer, and individual risk factors. Although a positive bivariate relation between early sexual initiation and sexual risk taking was observed at both ages, the link did not persist when co-occurring risk factors were included. Behavioral disinhibition and antisocial peer influences emerged as the strongest predictors of sexual risk over and above early sexual initiation. These results suggest that early sexual initiation must be considered in the context of common antecedents; public health policy aimed at delaying sexual intercourse alone is unlikely to substantially reduce sexual risk behavior in young adulthood.

  12. Lifetime mating opportunities and male mating behaviour in sexually cannibalistic praying mantids.

    PubMed

    Maxwell

    1998-04-01

    I examined the number of lifetime mating opportunities and mating behaviour of males in two sexually cannibalistic species, the Mediterranean, Iris oratoria, and bordered, Stagmomantis limbata, praying mantids (Mantodea: Mantidae). Two approaches estimated the number of lifetime mating opportunities: direct observations of intersexual encounters in the field, and an encounter model. I collected behavioural observations, together with ecological data for use in the model, over three field seasons. The ecological data included an assessment of the feeding condition of S. limbata females in nature; the females fed at a level comparable to females maintained on an abundant diet in the laboratory. As for the number of mating opportunities, individual males of both species encountered two or more females, as predicted by the model. I observed no male, however, in more than one copulation. This result could reflect individual variation in the times and places of sexual activity or an actual low number of mating opportunities in the field. Furthermore, a higher percentage of I. oratoria males encountered two or more females than S. limbata males, as the model indicates. Fewer mating opportunities could lead to greater selection upon S. limbata males to ensure paternity at each mating, which can explain the longer copulation times observed for S. limbata males. I considered two hypotheses about male behaviour in light of the number of lifetime encounters with females: male suicide and male reduction of the risk of cannibalism. Behavioural observations do not strongly support male suicide in either species. Certain male behaviours, such as the nature of copulatory position and, in captivity, mounting females from the rear, are consistent with the idea that males behave so as to reduce the probability that they are cannibalized during intersexual encounters. Moreover, male I. oratoria preferentially mount well-fed, fecund females in captivity. Taken together, these results

  13. Sexual behaviour, drugs and alcohol use of international students at a British university: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Vivancos, R; Abubakar, I; Hunter, P R

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether international students have greater risk-taking behaviours that could lead to importing novel and resistant strains of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a cross-sectional web-based survey of university students' sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and self-reported diagnosis of STIs and compared these between British and international students. In all, 827 students completed the survey, of whom 123 (15%) were international students. International students were less likely to have ever drunk alcohol (95.4% versus 87.8%, P = 0.002) and used drugs (56.4% versus 41.5%, P = 0.002). International students were on average almost two years older at first intercourse (18.7 versus 17 years; P < 0.001). There were no differences in the number of sexual partners between national and international students. On a discriminant analysis model, international students were characterized by being older and from a non-white background, less likely to use cocaine, they drank alcohol less frequently and were more likely to have had unprotected intercourse with two or more partners in the previous year. In conclusion, international students tend to drink more moderately and use fewer recreational drugs than British students. However, they exhibit higher sexual risk behaviours that could lead to importing novel and resistant strains of STIs.

  14. Associations among Adolescent Risk Behaviours and Self-Esteem in Six Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Bhana, Arvin; Lombard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study investigated associations among adolescents' self-esteem in 6 domains (peers, school, family, sports/athletics, body image and global self-worth) and risk behaviours related to substance use, bullying, suicidality and sexuality. Method: A multistage stratified sampling strategy was used to select a representative sample of…

  15. Associations among Adolescent Risk Behaviours and Self-Esteem in Six Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Bhana, Arvin; Lombard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study investigated associations among adolescents' self-esteem in 6 domains (peers, school, family, sports/athletics, body image and global self-worth) and risk behaviours related to substance use, bullying, suicidality and sexuality. Method: A multistage stratified sampling strategy was used to select a representative sample of…

  16. The inappropriateness of psycho-social models of risk behaviour for understanding HIV-related risk practices among Glasgow male prostitutes.

    PubMed

    Bloor, M J; McKeganey, N P; Finlay, A; Barnard, M A

    1992-01-01

    Much the most common models of HIV-related risk behaviour are those psychosocial models derived from studies of health behaviour and tested on large interview samples of American gay men. These models were not appropriate for understanding risk behaviour among 32 Glasgow male prostitutes. Whereas psycho-social models conceive of risk behaviour as volitional and individualistic, ethnographic data indicate that the male prostitutes' risk practices were constrained and emergent from the immediate circumstances of the sexual encounter. Unsafe sex was associated with client control. Safer sex was associated with countervailing prostitute strategies of influence. These data confirm the utility of self-empowerment approaches to health education.

  17. Examining links between sexual risk behaviors and dating violence involvement as a function of sexual orientation

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, A.E.; Stepp, S.D.; Keenan, K.; Allen, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Rottingen, L.; McAloon, R.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Design Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors and risk-taking, and their use of and experience with dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Setting Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. Participants 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one third of the sample lived in poverty. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure Sexual risk-taking. Results Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model, and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Conclusions Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls’ risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. PMID:23726138

  18. Examining links between sexual risk behaviors and dating violence involvement as a function of sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Hipwell, A E; Stepp, S D; Keenan, K; Allen, A; Hoffmann, A; Rottingen, L; McAloon, R

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, and risk-taking, and their use of, and experience with, dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one-third of the sample lived in poverty. None. Sexual risk-taking. Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Demographic, psychosocial, and contextual factors associated with sexual risk behaviors among young sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Amy; Kuhns, Lisa; Kinsky, Suzanne; Johnson, Amy; Garofalo, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Young sexual minority women are at risk for negative sexual health outcomes, including sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies, yet little is known about these risks. We examined factors that may influence sexual risk from a psychosocial and contextual perspective. Analyses were conducted to examine within group relationships between sexual behaviors, negative outcomes, and related factors in a sample of young sexual minority women. Participants (N = 131) were young (mean = 19.8) and diverse in terms of race/ethnicity (57% non-White). Sex under the influence, having multiple partners, and having unprotected sex were common behaviors, and pregnancy (20%) and sexually transmitted infection (12%) were common outcomes. Risk behaviors were associated with age, alcohol abuse, and older partners. Results support the need for further research to understand how these factors contribute to risk in order to target risk reduction programs for this population.

  20. HIV/AIDS and cultural practices in western Kenya: the impact of sexual cleansing rituals on sexual behaviours.

    PubMed

    Ayikukwei, Rose; Ngare, Duncan; Sidle, John; Ayuku, David; Baliddawa, Joyce; Greene, James

    2008-08-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study examining the role of sexual cleansing rituals in the transmission of HIV among the Luo community in western Kenya. Data were collected using both in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The study population consisted of 38 widows, 12 community elders and 44 cleansers. Data were collected on non-behavioural causes, behavioural causes and behavioural indicators associated with sexual rituals. Content analysis revealed five central themes: the effect of the ritual on sexual behaviours; factors contributing to the continued practice of the ritual, including a sub-theme on the commercialization of the ritual; the inseparable relationship between the sanctity of sex, prosperity and fertility of the land; and the effects of modernization on the ritual, including a sub-theme on the effects of mass media on HIV-prevention awareness campaigns. Causal factors of unchanging sexual behaviours are deeply rooted in traditional beliefs, which the community uphold strongly. These beliefs encourage men and women to have multiple sexual partners in a context where the use of condoms is rejected and little HIV testing is carried out.

  1. Comparison of Measures of Risk for Recidivism in Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Data for both sexual and violent recidivism for the Static-99, Risk Matrix 2000 (RM 2000), Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offense Recidivism (RRASOR), and Static-2002 are reported for 419 released sexual offenders assessed at the Regional Treatment Centre Sexual Offender Treatment Program. Data are analyzed by offender type as well as the group as…

  2. HIV-Positive Men Sexually Active with Women: Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Risks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gunjeong; Howard, Joyce Moon; Caban, Maria; Abramson, David; Messeri, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study examines patterns of sexual behavior, sexual relating, and sexual risk among HIV-positive men sexually active with women. A total of 278 HIV-positive men were interviewed every 6–12 months between 1994 and 2002 and reported considerable variability in sexual behaviors over time. Many were not sexually active at all for months at a time; many continued to have multiple female and at times male partners. Over one-third of the cohort had one or more periods when they had engaged in unprotected sex with a female partner who was HIV-negative or status unknown (unsafe sex). Periods of unsafe sex alternated with periods of safer sex. Contextual factors such as partner relations, housing status, active drug use, and recently exchanging sex showed the strongest association with increased odds of unsafe sex. A number of predictors of unsafe sex among African American men were not significant among the Latino sub-population, suggesting race/ethnic differences in factors contributing to heterosexual transmission. Implications for prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:16770702

  3. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools. PMID:27089354

  4. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-04-13

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  5. Evaluation of a sexual health approach to reducing HIV/STD risk in the transgender community.

    PubMed

    Bockting, W O; Robinson, B E; Forberg, J; Scheltema, K

    2005-04-01

    Despite reports of high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among the transgender community, very little prevention education has targeted this population. To fill this gap, we developed and evaluated a transgender-specific intervention, All Gender Health, which incorporates prevention strategies into comprehensive sexuality education. Transgender participants (N=181) attended the two-day seminar in community-based venues. The curriculum was delivered via lectures, panel discussions, videos, music, exercises and small group discussions. Attitudes toward condom use, safer sex self-efficacy and sexual risk behaviour were evaluated before participation in the intervention (pre-test), immediately after participation (post-test) and at three-month follow-up. Compared to pre-test values, significant improvements were seen in attitudes toward condom use and in safer sex self-efficacy at post-test, and in attitudes toward condom use, increased monogamy and decreased sexual risk behaviour at three-month follow-up. Pre-test data identified unprotected anal, vaginal and oral sex as the most commonly reported risk behaviours. Many respondents also indicated problems with social discrimination, depression, suicidal ideation and sexual functioning. Future interventions should address these risk co-factors. Alternative interventions need to be developed to target those who, as a result of social marginalization, are less likely to be reached with an intensive seminar-based intervention.

  6. Sexual behavior and STDs: men at risk.

    PubMed

    Kalish, S

    1993-06-01

    The National Survey of Men is the first nationally representative survey which makes a detailed investigation of sexual and health behavior in US men aged 20-39 years. 3321 men were interviewed in the national longitudinal survey in which Blacks were oversampled. The study found that one-third had engaged in sexual behavior such as multiple partners, anal intercourse, one-night stands, and bisexual/homosexual orientation which might put them at risk of HIV infection; 47% of Black men had engaged in such behavior. 27% of sexually active men used a condom during the 4 weeks prior to the interview. Never-married men, Blacks, Hispanics, and younger men were more likely to report using condoms, as are those with a regular sex partner but not cohabiting, those who have had a sexually transmitted disease in the past few years, and those reporting having engaged in risky behavior. 75% agreed that condom use shows one's concern and care, yet 25% were embarrassed to buy condoms and 1 out of 7 think suggesting condom use sends unwanted messages. 71% reported having 1 partner in the past 18 months; almost 10% reported 4 or more partners; and 4% reported none. 50% reported having up to 7 partners in their lifetime; 28% reported 1-3; and 23% reported 20 or more. Formerly married men, Blacks, and those currently cohabiting reported having substantially more partners. Respondents exhibited relatively high knowledge on AIDS risk factors, but 60% assessed their personal risk as none, while 24% frequently worry about it.

  7. Sexual behaviour and self-reported sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): comparison between White and Chinese American young people.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wen-Hung; St Lawrence, Janet S

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the sexual behaviour and self-reported incidence of STDs of White and Chinese American young people in a nationally representative US sample. 10,419 White and 340 self-identified Chinese American young people in grade 7 through 12 were selected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence of sex initiation, ever having casual sex partners, number of lifetime sex partners, age of first sexual intercourse, and history of self-reported STD diagnoses were compared between these two groups. Chinese American young people reported significantly lower rates of sexual intercourse than Whites. Among sexually active young people, Chinese Americans were also less likely to report non-regular sexual partners and to report having a lower number of such sexual partners in the past year. There was no difference in self-reported STDs between the two groups. Ever having been romantically involved, older age, not living in a two-parent household, having more relaxed attitudes about sex, and reported substance use were associated with a higher likelihood of sexual intercourse in both groups. Being native-born was not associated with patterns of sexual behaviour among Chinese Americans.

  8. HIV vulnerability and sexual risk among African youth in Windsor, Canada.

    PubMed

    Omorodion, Francisca; Gbadebo, Kenny; Ishak, Philippine

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study of the sexual behaviour of young Africans living in Windsor, Canada. Twenty-five face-to-face interviews were conducted with thirteen men and twelve women aged 18 to 25 years. Data analysis enabled the identification of four main themes: awareness and concerns about STIs/HIV; partner's influence on negotiating sex or discussing sexual matters; effects of migration and availability of healthcare on perceptions of own risk and assumptions about HIV prevalence in Canada; and discomfort talking about sex. Findings highlight the influence of gender power in determining the nature of sexual activities and outcomes, as well as risky sexual behaviours. Future actions to decrease HIV transmission in Canada should address these issues in ways that are culturally sensitive and culturally inclusive.

  9. Regulation of human sexual behaviour, sex revolution and emergence of AIDS: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, A

    1997-01-01

    No Society in the World permits fully free sexual behaviour. All societies utilize a variety of ways for regulation of sexual behaviour. This has been happening since antiquity. Culture also affects sexual behaviour. In western civilization there was a healthly outlook towards sexuality during Greco-Roman era. In Indian civilization also human sexuality was considered an inseparable part of life and was given a higher place in human life. Many treatises on human sexuality were written. Sex was considered as an art and was given an exalted status through the medium of sculpture work in temples of Konark & Khajuraho. But in Christian civilization sexual acts and related areas were considered immoral, debasing, dirty and abhoring. Sex-related ideas/thoughts were considered immoral in Churches and were given low status in society. Rapidly occurring social changes in 20th century- World wars I & II, urbanization, modernization, industrialization, women emancipation and strong reaction to unprecedented suppression of 19th century suppression of sexuality led to advent of sexual revolution in America & other western countries. Liberal-sex spread throughout the society. Sexual promiscuity, prostitution, homosexuality, group-sex were socially accepted on a wide scale. Presumably as a result of these tendencies a disease like AIDS has now spread from America to the whole world. Present article is an effort of analysis of historical perspective of this problem.

  10. Multiple risk behaviour in adolescence and socio-economic status: findings from a UK birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kipping, Ruth R; Smith, Michèle; Hickman, Matthew; Campbell, Rona

    2015-01-01

    Background. Patterns of risk behaviour during teenage years may vary by socio-economic status (SES). We aimed to examine possible associations between individual and multiple risk behaviours and three measures of SES in mid-adolescence. Methods. The sample (n = 6406) comprised participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK birth cohort. Thirteen risk behaviours spanning sexual health, substance use, self-harm, vehicle-related injury, criminality and physical inactivity were assessed in mid-adolescence (age 15–16 years). Associations between three measures of SES (maternal education, household income and parental social class) and (i) individual risk behaviours and (ii) the total number of risk behaviours were examined. Results. For a one-category reduction in social class, maternal education or income, the odds of having a greater number of multiple risk behaviours increased by 22, 15 and 12%, respectively. At the individual level, there was evidence of a strong relationship with decreasing SES across all three measures of SES and criminality, car passenger risk, TV viewing, scooter risk, early sexual behaviour and weekly tobacco use but insufficient evidence of a relationship for physical inactivity, cycling without a helmet and illicit substance use. There was weak evidence of association between SES and hazardous drinking, self-harm, cannabis use and unprotected sex, but this was not consistent across the SES measures. Conclusion. The association between multiple risk behaviours and SES suggests that prevention strategies should apply the principal of proportionate universalism with a focus on more deprived populations, within a population-wide strategy, to prevent widening of social inequalities. PMID:24963150

  11. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  12. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  13. Ethnic differences in sexual behaviour among unmarried adolescents and young adults in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sambisa, William; Curtis, Sian L; Stokes, C Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the social and cultural contextual determinants of sexual behaviour of adolescents and young adults is an essential step towards curtailing the spread of HIV. This study examined the effects of one cultural factor, ethnicity, on sexual abstinence, faithfulness, condom use at last sex, and risky sex among young people in Zimbabwe. Data from the cross-sectional, population-based 2005-06 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey were used. Net of the effect of sociodemographic and social-cognitive factors, and using multinomial logistic regression, ethnicity was found to have a strong and consistent effect on sexual behaviour among youth. In addition, the study found that there were ethnic-specific and within-gender differences in sexual behaviour, for both men and women. Shona youth were more likely to be abstinent than Ndebele youth. Compared with Shona youth, Ndebele youth were more likely to have engaged in risky sex. However, Ndebele men were more likely have used condoms at last sex, compared with Shona men. For both men and women, sexual behaviour was more socially controlled. School attendance and religion exerted protective effects on sexual abstinence. For men only, those living in rural areas were less likely to be faithful and more likely to have engaged in risky sexual behaviour than those living in urban areas. The study attests to the fact that ethnic norms and ideologies of sexuality need to be identified and more thoroughly understood. In addition, the study provides evidence that in order to promote safe and healthy sexuality among young people in Zimbabwe, cultural, social and gender-specific approaches to the development of HIV prevention strategies should be seriously considered. Current success in the Abstinence, Being faithful and Condom use (ABC) approach could be strengthened by recognizing and responding to cultural forces that reproduce and perpetuate risky sexual behaviours.

  14. Sexual behaviour of women in rural South Africa: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Dubbink, Jan Henk; van der Eem, Lisette; McIntyre, James A; Mbambazela, Nontembeko; Jobson, Geoffrey A; Ouburg, Sander; Morre, Servaas A; Struthers, Helen E; Peters, Remco P H

    2016-07-12

    Sexual behaviour is a core determinant of the HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics in women living in rural South Africa. Knowledge of sexual behaviour in these areas is limited, but constitutes essential information for a combination prevention approach of behavioural change and biomedical interventions. This descriptive study was conducted in rural Mopani District, South Africa, as part of a larger study on STI. Women of reproductive age (18-49 years) who reported sexual activity were included regardless of the reason for visiting the facility. Questionnaires were administered to 570 women. We report sexual behaviour by age group, ethnic group and self-reported HIV status. Young women (<25 years) were more likely to visit bars, practice fellatio, have concurrent sexual partners and report a circumcised partner than older women (>34 years); there was no difference for condom use during last sex act (36 % overall). Sotho women were more likely to report concurrent sexual partners whereas Shangaan women reported more frequent intravaginal cleansing and vaginal scarring practice in our analysis. HIV-infected women were older, had a higher number of lifetime sexual partners, reported more frequent condom use during the last sex act and were more likely to have a known HIV-infected partner than women without HIV infection; hormonal contraceptive use, fellatio, and a circumcised partner were less often reported. This study provides insight into women's sexual behaviour in a rural South African region. There are important differences in sexual behaviour by age group and ethnicity and HIV status; these should be taken into account when designing tailor-made prevention packages.

  15. Changing sexual attitudes and behaviour in China: implications for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, K; Li, D; Li, H; Beck, E J

    1999-10-01

    In Imperial China sexual behaviour was regarded as an indispensable activity to reach harmony with the universe, through the unity of the interaction of two opposing forces: yin and yang. Sexual intercourse was accepted when linked to procreation within a family context, while an individual's sexuality was not considered important. Homosexuality was tolerated although not advocated, while masturbation was denounced. Since the One Child Family and Open Door policies in the 1970s and the economic reforms of the 1980s, attitudes towards sexuality in China have changed. Premarital sex has become widely accepted among young people and people in China are now more tolerant toward extramarital sex. Nowadays young people consider that love should dominate marriage and the quality of an individual's sex life is currently more valued than it used to be. Attitudes towards masturbation have become more tolerant and though homosexuality has been hidden by society for a long time, in recent years it has begun to be considered as a legitimate lifestyle choice. Attitudes towards sex and sexual behaviour have become recognized as an individuals' responsibility as long as no offence occurs against society or the interests of other individuals, resulting in the recognition of diversity of sexual behaviour. As part of the changing attitudes to sex and sexual behaviour, heterosexual transmission is becoming the most important route of HIV transmission in China. This is complicated by the internal migration of an estimated 120 million labourers moving from the countryside to the cities as the result of economic reforms, most of whom are sexually active young men. Unless addressed directly, these factors may add to the estimated 300,000 HIV-infected Chinese, further fuelling an already rapidly spreading epidemic. The ramifications of the Chinese HIV epidemic will not only be felt within China, but also within the surrounding Asian countries thereby fuelling the HIV pandemic.

  16. The influence of religion on sexual HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Stacey A; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-08-01

    This systematic review examines the relationship between religion and sexual HIV risk behavior. It focuses primarily on how studies have conceptualized and defined religion, methodologies, and sexual risk outcomes. We also describe regions where studies were conducted and mechanisms by which religion may be associated with sexual risk. We included 137 studies in this review, classifying them as measuring: (1) only religious affiliation (n = 57), (2) only religiosity (n = 48), and (3) both religious affiliation and religiosity (n = 32). A number of studies identified lower levels of sexual HIV risk among Muslims, although many of these examined HIV prevalence rather than specific behavioral risk outcomes. Most studies identified increased religiosity to be associated with lower levels of sexual HIV risk. This finding persists but is weaker when the outcome considered is condom use. The paper reviews ways in which religion may contribute to increase and reduction in sexual HIV risk, gaps in research, and implications for future research on religion and HIV.

  17. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  18. Sexual Behaviour Profiles of HIV-Positive Youth in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Knaap, Linda; Jedeloo, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Young people living with HIV are challenged when it comes to exploring their sexuality. Their sex education is hampered by the fact that their preferences and attitudes towards sexual behaviour are little known about. In this study from the Netherlands, Q-methodology was used to identify sizeable and meaningful sub-groups sharing common attitudes…

  19. Sexually Abusive Behaviour in Juveniles: Deviant and Non-Deviant Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Outsem, Ron

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a theoretical framework is presented in an attempt to find an answer to the question of why some juveniles display sexually abusive behaviour and others do not. Until recently, this question has been approached mainly in terms of the presence of psychiatric illness, deviant sexual interests and/or impaired psychosocial development.…

  20. Sexual Behaviour Profiles of HIV-Positive Youth in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Knaap, Linda; Jedeloo, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Young people living with HIV are challenged when it comes to exploring their sexuality. Their sex education is hampered by the fact that their preferences and attitudes towards sexual behaviour are little known about. In this study from the Netherlands, Q-methodology was used to identify sizeable and meaningful sub-groups sharing common attitudes…

  1. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  2. Sexually Abusive Behaviour in Juveniles: Deviant and Non-Deviant Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Outsem, Ron

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a theoretical framework is presented in an attempt to find an answer to the question of why some juveniles display sexually abusive behaviour and others do not. Until recently, this question has been approached mainly in terms of the presence of psychiatric illness, deviant sexual interests and/or impaired psychosocial development.…

  3. The effect of sexual self-concept on sexual health behavioural intentions: a test of moderating mechanisms in early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan; Yen, Wen-Jiuan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether normative beliefs would act as a moderator of the main relationship between sexual self-concept and sexual heath behavioural intentions. Sexual self-concept has been defined as an individual's evaluation of his or her own sexual feelings and actions. Research has shown that sexually related behaviours are associated with sexual self-concept and perceived parental/peer approval of sexual behaviour. We conducted cross-sectional research, using face-to-face interviews, to assess sexual self-concept, normative beliefs and sexual health behavioural intention. This study was conducted with 534 adolescent female participants, aged 12-15 years, in Taiwan. Data was collected between September and December 2009. We conducted structural equation modelling to examine the proposed conceptual model. We found that individuals with a high score on sexual self-concept (i.e. who had stronger erotic feelings) were less likely to believe that they would behave in ways that would protect their sexual health (i.e. low behavioural intention, β = -0·44, t = -8·43, P < 0·001). The hypothesized moderating role of normative beliefs was also supported. Those with a greater tendency to believe that their parents/peers approved of sex (i.e. normative beliefs) were more likely to have a positive sexual self-concept (β = 0·57, P < 0·001), and were less likely to protect their sexual health (β = -0·19, P < 0·01). The findings showed that, together, normative beliefs and sexual self-concept accounted for 24·9% of the variance in girls' sexual health behavioural intentions. We recommend that interventions that target sexual health behavioural intentions for this population would be more effective if such interventions targeted normative beliefs and helped adolescent females to clarify their sexual self-concept. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Candidate Bacteria: Associations with BV and Behavioural Practices in Sexually-Experienced and Inexperienced Women

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, Christopher K.; Fowkes, Freya J. I.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Fehler, Glenda; Morton, Anna M.; Hocking, Jane S.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years several new fastidious bacteria have been identified that display a high specificity for BV; however no previous studies have comprehensively assessed the behavioural risk associations of these bacterial vaginosis-candidate organisms (BV-COs). Methods We examined the associations between 8 key previously described BV-COs and BV status established by Nugent's score (NS). We also examined the sexual practices associated with each BV-CO. We incorporated 2 study populations: 193 from a sexually-inexperienced university population and 146 from a highly sexually-active clinic population. Detailed behavioural data was collected by questionnaire and vaginal smears were scored by the Nugent method. Stored samples were tested by quantitative PCR assays for the 8 BV-COs: Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Leptotrichia spp., Megasphaera type I, Sneathia spp., and the Clostridia-like bacteria BVAB1, BVAB2 and BVAB3. Associations between BV-COs and BV and behaviours were examined by univariate and multivariable analyses. Results On univariate analysis, all BV-COs were more common in BV compared to normal flora. However, only Megasphaera type I, BVAB2, A. vaginae and G. vaginalis were significantly independently associated with BV by multivariable analysis. Six of the eight BV-COs (Megasphaera type I, BVAB2, BVAB3, Sneathia, Leptotrichia and G. vaginalis) were rare or absent in sexually-unexposed women, and demonstrated increasing odds of detection with increasing levels of sexual activity and/or numbers of lifetime sexual partners. Only G. vaginalis and A. vaginae were commonly detected in sexually-unexposed women. Megasphaera type I was independently associated with women-who-have-sex-with women (WSW) and lifetime sexual partner numbers, while unprotected penile-vaginal-sex was associated with BVAB2 detection by multivariate analysis. Conclusions Four of eight key BV-COs were significantly associated with BV after adjusting for the presence of

  5. Diet, lifestyle and behavioural risk: can behavioural modification change future risk of cancer?

    PubMed

    Oluwatosin, A

    2009-06-01

    There is ample evidence in the literature that supports the notion that diet, lifestyle and behaviour influence the risk of developing cancer. It was opined that the most dramatic reduction in cancer incidence and mortality are likely to result from population shift in unhealthy behaviour such as smoking, intake of high fat and high calorie food, physical inactivity and unprotected exposure to the sun or unprotected sex. In this paper, I will discuss different strategies that have been used in the control of cancer in the past and at present. I will also explore different concepts of health education and health promotion, as well as various applications of theories and models for ensuring behavioural modifications. In conclusion, I suggest strategies for influencing health promotion and health education for effective behavioural modification that could change the future risk of cancer particularly in the West African sub region.

  6. Psychological interventions for adults who have sexually offended or are at risk of offending.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Jane A; Khan, Omer; Ferriter, Michael; Huband, Nick; Powney, Melanie J; Duggan, Conor

    2012-12-12

    powerful id (increased sexual impulses and libido) and a weak superego (a low level of moral probation), which are also impacted by early environment.This updates a previous Cochrane review but is based on a new protocol. To assess the effects of psychological interventions on those who have sexually offended or are at risk of offending. In September 2010 we searched: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), Biosis Previews, CINAHL, COPAC, Dissertation Abstracts, EMBASE, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS), ISI Proceedings, Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), National Criminal Justice Reference Service Abstracts Database, PsycINFO, OpenSIGLE, Social Care Online, Sociological Abstracts, UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio Database and ZETOC. We contacted numerous experts in the field. Randomised trials comparing psychological intervention with standard care or another psychological therapy given to adults treated in institutional or community settings for sexual behaviours that have resulted in conviction or caution for sexual offences, or who are seeking treatment voluntarily for behaviours classified as illegal. At least two authors, working independently, selected studies, extracted data and assessed the studies' risk of bias. We contacted study authors for additional information including details of methods and outcome data. We included ten studies involving data from 944 adults, all male.Five trials involved primarily cognitive behavioural interventions (CBT) (n = 664). Of these, four compared CBT with no treatment or wait list control, and one compared CBT with standard care. Only one study collected data on the primary outcome. The largest study (n = 484) involved the most complex intervention versus no treatment. Long-term outcome data are reported for groups in which the mean years 'at risk' in the community are similar (8

  7. Adolescent sexual risk-taking in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya: understanding the contributions of religion.

    PubMed

    Obeng Gyimah, Stephen; Kodzi, Ivy; Emina, Jacques; Adjei, Jones; Ezeh, Alex

    2014-02-01

    Young people in sub-Saharan Africa are at the centre of the global HIV epidemic as they account for a disproportionate share of new infections. Their vulnerability to HIV has been attributed to a myriad of factors, in particular, risky sexual behaviours. While economic factors are important, increasing attention has been devoted to religion on the discourse on sexual decision-making because religious values provide a perspective on life that often conflicts with risky sexual behaviours. Given the centrality of religion in the African social fabric, this study assesses the relationship between adolescent religiousness and involvement in risky sexual behaviours using data from the informal settlements of Nairobi. Guided by social control theory, the paper explores if and how religion and religiosity affect sexual risk-taking among adolescents.

  8. Sexual behaviour and sexual and reproductive health education: a cross-sectional study in Romania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    sexual activity and poor SRH education from schools, experts and parents require a multidisciplinary approach within prevention programmes, especially among the populations at risk: rural residents, those with low levels of education and youth. PMID:24957900

  9. Sexual behaviour and sexual and reproductive health education: a cross-sectional study in Romania.

    PubMed

    Rada, Cornelia

    2014-06-23

    Up-to-date, genuine sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education programmes have been possible in Romania only since communism collapsed in 1990. Since 2006, Romania has had no national strategy in this field. Under current global circumstances (high labour mobility, internationally mixed marriages), issues previously considered solely national have become worldwide concerns. In 2011-2012, 1215 respondents homogeneously distributed on background, gender, educational level and age group (18-74) were sampled. This article uses a 96-item questionnaire about family and SRH, presenting results on nine items: first intercourse (FI), virginity, knowing first sexual partner, safe sex, number of sexual partners and sexual education. The data were analysed using Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. Some participants (7.2%) engaged in FI at age 15 or earlier. The average age at FI was lower for men (18.08), for individuals with a lower education level (18.07) and for those in rural areas (18.27), compared with that for women, those with more education and those in urban areas, respectively. The average age at FI was over 2.5 years lower for people aged 18-24 (16.99) than for those aged 60-74 (p < 0.001). More than 60% were not married or partnered with their FI partner, and 17.8% engaged in FI less than a month after meeting their partner. Less than one-fourth practiced safe sex at FI, with higher proportions for the urban sample, those with an average level of education and those aged 18-35 (p < 0.001). Higher average numbers of sexual partners were found among men (6.56, compared with 2.37 among women), in urban areas (5.07, compared with 3.75 in rural areas) and among those with higher levels of education (p < 0.005). On average, subjects first received information on SRH at 15.39 years of age, with only 10% listing the school, doctors or medics as a source. Unsafe sex, early initiation of sexual activity and poor SRH education from schools

  10. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Effect of Social Interaction Anxiety on Sexual Victimization Risk among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schry, Amie R.; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques.…

  11. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Effect of Social Interaction Anxiety on Sexual Victimization Risk among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schry, Amie R.; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques.…

  12. Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors and School-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the…

  13. Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors and School-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the…

  14. Adolescent sexual victimization: a prospective study on risk factors for first time sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P; Elklit, Ask; Banner, Jytte

    2012-09-01

    The present study set out to investigate predictors of first time adolescent peer-on-peer sexual victimization (APSV) among 238 female Grade 9 students from 30 schools in Denmark. A prospective research design was utilized to examine the relationship among five potential predictors as measured at baseline and first time APSV during a 6-month period. Data analysis was a binary logistic regression analysis. Number of sexual partners and displaying sexual risk behaviors significantly predicted subsequent first time peer-on-peer sexual victimization, whereas a history of child sexual abuse, early sexual onset and failing to signal sexual boundaries did not. The present study identifies specific risk factors for first time sexual victimization that are potentially changeable. Thus, the results may inform prevention initiatives targeting initial experiences of APSV.

  15. Random Behaviour or Rational Choice? Family Planning, Teenage Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, David

    2006-01-01

    Rational choice models of teenage sexual behaviour lead to radically different predictions than do models that assume such behaviour is random. Existing empirical evidence has not been able to distinguish conclusively between these competing models. I use regional data from England between 1998 and 2001 to examine the impact of recent increases in…

  16. Random Behaviour or Rational Choice? Family Planning, Teenage Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, David

    2006-01-01

    Rational choice models of teenage sexual behaviour lead to radically different predictions than do models that assume such behaviour is random. Existing empirical evidence has not been able to distinguish conclusively between these competing models. I use regional data from England between 1998 and 2001 to examine the impact of recent increases in…

  17. The Moderating Role of Purging Behaviour in the Relationship Between Sexual/Physical Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Youth "At Risk"? Young People, Sexual Health and Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    In Australia, there is a growing expectation that sexuality education should reduce the risks associated with youth sex by providing young people with information on protecting their sexual health. However, this information may be insufficient to ensure that young people make choices that support their sexual safety and autonomy. This paper…

  19. Improving Sexual Risk Communication with Adolescents Using Event History Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…

  20. Improving Sexual Risk Communication with Adolescents Using Event History Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…

  1. A Revised Sexual Knowledge Assessment Tool for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Is Sexual Knowledge Related to Sexual Offending Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, T. J.; Langdon, Peter E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of the current study was to update an existing short measure of sexual knowledge and generate some initial reliability and normative data. Comparisons of sexual knowledge across several groups were made to examine whether or not a lack of sexual knowledge is related to sexual offending. Methods: The Bender Sexual Knowledge…

  2. The impact of migration on the sexual health, behaviours and attitudes of Central and East European gay/bisexual men in London

    PubMed Central

    Mole, Richard C.M.; Parutis, Violetta; Gerry, Christopher J.; Burns, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Building on an earlier quantitative study which found that gay/bisexual men from Central and Eastern Europe were at greater risk of sexual ill health following migration to the UK, the aim of this qualitative study is to explore how the process of migration itself may have influenced the migrants’ sexual behaviour and attitudes. Methods To address these questions, we conducted 17 in-depth interviews in London with gay/bisexual male migrants from Central and Eastern Europe, drawing on Fisher and Fisher's Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model as an interpretive framework. Results We find that the sexual behaviours of our respondents have been significantly influenced by the process of migration itself. In particular, extricating themselves from the traditional systems of social control in their home societies and having greater access to gay venues in London resulted in their increased sexual activity, particularly in the first phase of migration. High-risk sexual behaviour was found to be a factor of sexual mixing, the use of commercial sex and perceptions of risk in the UKvis-á-vis Central and Eastern Europe, with each of these factors also influenced by the process of migration. Risk-prevention behaviour depended upon the possession of appropriate risk-prevention information, motivation to use condoms and appropriate behavioural skills, with the latter two factors in particular influenced by social mores in the home country and the UK. Conclusions The interviews suggested a number of migration-related factors that increased the STI and HIV risk for these migrants. A number of potentially important policy recommendations stem from our analysis. PMID:23597207

  3. Gender differences in HIV risk behaviours among intravenous drug users in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Folch, Cinta; Casabona, Jordi; Espelt, Albert; Majó, Xavier; Meroño, Mercè; Gonzalez, Victoria; Brugal, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    To describe gender differences in injection and sexual risks behaviours, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence among injecting drug users (IDU) in Catalonia, Spain. Cross-sectional studies in 2008-2009 (n=748) and 2010-2011 (n=597) in the network of harm reduction centres. Face to face interviews were conducted and oral fluid samples were collected to estimate HIV/HCV prevalence. Female were more likely than male IDU to have had a steady sexual partner (68.2% versus 44.9%), to have had an IDU steady sexual partner (46.6% versus 15.1%) and to have exchanged sex for money or drugs in the last 6 months (25.5% versus 2.3%). There were no gender differences in injecting risk behaviours. HIV prevalence was 38.7% (91/235) in women and 31.5% (347/1103) in men (p=0.031). HIV prevalence among female IDU who reported having exchange sex for money or drugs was 53.3% (32/60). The prevalence of HCV was 67.4% (159/236) and 73.6% (810/1101) in female and male IDU, respectively (p=0.053). After adjustment by immigrant status, age and years of injection, differences among HIV/HCV prevalence by gender were not significant. This study demonstrated differences in sexual risk behaviours between male and female IDU, but failed to find gender differences in injecting risk behaviours. Apart from that, the higher prevalence of HIV among women than among men, together with a lower prevalence of HCV, provides evidence that sexual transmission of HIV is important among female IDU. Additional studies are needed to analyze in-depth these specific risk factors for women in order to develop appropriate prevention and health education programs. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. [Use of psychoactive substances and risk sexual behavior].

    PubMed

    Vavrinková, B

    2011-02-01

    Present influence of illicit drug and alcohol on risk sexual behavior of young women in Prague and Central Bohemia. Prospective study. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Teaching Hospital and 2nd Medical Faculty of Charles University in Prague. The study participants were 400 sexual active women between 16 and 35 years of age living in Prague and Central Bohemia. All participants were asked via questionnaire illicit drugs and alcohol experience, number of sexual partners, sexual behavior and use condom. Women using illicit drugs or alcohol had higher number of sexual partners. 1/3 said that drinking or drug use has influenced their decisions about sex and sexual behavior and unprotected sex. Use of psychoactive substances including alcohol influence negative sexual behavior. Cause escalated sexual activity and promiscuity, more frequently have risk and unprotected sex.

  5. A qualitative study on the sexual behaviour of people living with HIV in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nam T; Keithly, Sarah C

    2012-01-01

    Understanding HIV-related behaviours and the factors that influence these behaviours among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is critical to the design of effective HIV-prevention strategies; however, this subject has yet to receive the attention it deserves in Vietnam. Given that greater proportions of new HIV infections in the country stem from heterosexual transmission, it is essential to examine the sexual behaviours of Vietnamese PLHIV. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the sexual behaviour of individuals following HIV diagnosis and to gain insight into how and why HIV diagnosis affects sexual practices and relationships. Seventy PLHIV in Thaibinh province participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Qualitative data were supported by a quantitative questionnaire on demographics and sexual and drug use history. Nearly all of the participants reported adopting safer sexual practices following HIV diagnosis by using condoms consistently and reducing the number of sex partners. This was true for injecting drug users, female sex workers, unmarried individuals and participants in both HIV serodiscordant and seroconcordant marriages. Motivations for adopting these preventive measures included avoiding HIV transmission, reinfection or cross-resistance as well as preservation of one's own health. Due to stigma, depression, fear of transmission, health status and/or drug addiction, HIV diagnosis dramatically impacted the sexual health of most participants by reducing sexual desire, pleasure and frequency. Implications for HIV prevention and care programmes and policies in Vietnam are discussed.

  6. [Parental Monitoring and its Relation to Behaviour Problems and Risk Behaviour in an Adolescent School Sample].

    PubMed

    Trick, Sarah; Jantzer, Vanessa; Haffner, Johann; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz

    2016-10-01

    Parental Monitoring and its Relation to Behaviour Problems and Risk Behaviour in an Adolescent School Sample Numerous research studies emphasize parental monitoring as a protective factor for adolescent problem behaviour. The purpose of the study presented was to use Stattin and Kerr's (2000) monitoring subscales for the first time in a German-speaking area and to explore the relations to behaviour problems in an adolescent school sample. The two active monitoring strategies "parental control" and "parental solicitation" as well as "parental knowledge" and "child disclosure" relating to behaviour problems and risk behaviour were examined. A sample of 494 pupils, grades 5, 7 and 9, of German secondary schools and their parents answered questions on "parental knowledge", "control", "solicitation" and "child disclosure". Adolescents also answered the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and items about risk behaviour like frequency of violence, delinquency, substance abuse, self-injuring behaviour and school absenteeism. Behaviour problems in terms of the SDQ could be predicted sufficiently by "parental knowledge", but for the prediction of risk behaviour, the active parental monitoring strategies were of importance, too. More "parental knowledge", more "control" and less "solicitation" could predict less risk behaviour. Results confirm "parental knowledge" as a general protective factor for problem behaviour. However, they show the importance of "parental control" for adolescent risk behaviour.

  7. Sexual Pleasure and Sexual Risk among Women who Use Methamphetamine: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Lorvick, Jennifer; Bourgois, Philippe; Wenger, Lynn D.; Arreola, Sonya G.; Lutnick, Alexandra; Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Kral, Alex H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The intersection of drug use, sexual pleasure and sexual risk behavior is rarely explored when it comes to poor women who use drugs. This paper explores the relationship between sexual behavior and methamphetamine use in a community-based sample of women, exploring not only risk, but also desire, pleasure and the challenges of overcoming trauma. Methods Quantitative data were collected using standard epidemiological methods (N=322) for community-based studies. In addition, using purposive sampling, qualitative data were collected among a subset of participants (n=34). Data were integrated for mixed methods analysis. Results While many participants reported sexual risk behavior (unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse) in the quantitative survey, sexual risk was not the central narrative pertaining to sexual behavior and methamphetamine use in qualitative findings. Rather, desire, pleasure and disinhibition arose as central themes. Women described feelings of power and agency related to sexual behavior while high on methamphetamine. Findings were mixed on whether methamphetamine use increased sexual risk behavior. Conclusion The use of mixed methods afforded important insights into the sexual behavior and priorities of methamphetamine-using women. Efforts to reduce sexual risk should recognize and valorize the positive aspects of methamphetamine use for some women, building on positive feelings of power and agency as an approach to harm minimization. PMID:22954501

  8. Evaluation of multisystemic therapy pilot services in Services for Teens Engaging in Problem Sexual Behaviour (STEPS-B): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fonagy, Peter; Butler, Stephen; Baruch, Geoffrey; Byford, Sarah; Seto, Michael C; Wason, James; Wells, Charles; Greisbach, Jessie; Ellison, Rachel; Simes, Elizabeth

    2015-11-02

    Clinically effective and cost-effective methods for managing problematic sexual behaviour in adolescents are urgently needed. Adolescents who show problematic sexual behaviour have a range of neg