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Sample records for sexually deceptive orchid

  1. Orchid pollination by sexual deception: pollinator perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gaskett, A C

    2011-02-01

    The extraordinary taxonomic and morphological diversity of orchids is accompanied by a remarkable range of pollinators and pollination systems. Sexually deceptive orchids are adapted to attract specific male insects that are fooled into attempting to mate with orchid flowers and inadvertently acting as pollinators. This review summarises current knowledge, explores new hypotheses in the literature, and introduces some new approaches to understanding sexual deception from the perspective of the duped pollinator. Four main topics are addressed: (1) global patterns in sexual deception, (2) pollinator identities, mating systems and behaviours, (3) pollinator perception of orchid deceptive signals, and (4) the evolutionary implications of pollinator responses to orchid deception, including potential costs imposed on pollinators by orchids. A global list of known and putative sexually deceptive orchids and their pollinators is provided and methods for incorporating pollinator perspectives into sexual deception research are provided and reviewed. At present, almost all known sexually deceptive orchid taxa are from Australia or Europe. A few sexually deceptive species and genera are reported for New Zealand and South Africa. In Central and Southern America, Asia, and the Pacific many more species are likely to be identified in the future. Despite the great diversity of sexually deceptive orchid genera in Australia, pollination rates reported in the literature are similar between Australian and European species. The typical pollinator of a sexually deceptive orchid is a male insect of a species that is polygynous, monandrous, haplodiploid, and solitary rather than social. Insect behaviours involved in the pollination of sexually deceptive orchids include pre-copulatory gripping of flowers, brief entrapment, mating, and very rarely, ejaculation. Pollinator behaviour varies within and among pollinator species. Deception involving orchid mimicry of insect scent signals is

  2. Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids (Cryptostylis).

    PubMed

    Gaskett, A C; Herberstein, M E

    2010-01-01

    Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic (Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids' single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids' bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects' innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background.

  3. Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids ( Cryptostylis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskett, A. C.; Herberstein, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic ( Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids’ single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids’ bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects’ innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background.

  4. Evidence for progenitor–derivative speciation in sexually deceptive orchids

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Philipp M.; Ruas, Paulo M.; Kohl, Gudrun; Ruas, Claudete F.; Stuessy, Tod F.; Paulus, Hannes F.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys use mimicry of pollinator females to attract specific pollinators. Pollinator shifts may drive speciation in Ophrys, since novel pollinators may in principle act as isolating factors immediately. It is thus possible that evolution of novel species occurs rapidly and with a progenitor–derivative pattern. The aims of this study are to compare genetic structure and diversity among widespread and geographically restricted Ophrys taxa, to test whether genetic structure is associated with specific pollinators, and to investigate whether any widespread species may have acted as a progenitor for the evolution of more restricted taxa. Methods Genetic differentiation and diversity were investigated in O. leucadica and O. cinereophila, the two taxa of the Ophrys fusca sensu lato complex widespread in the Aegean, and three geographically restricted taxa from Rhodes, O. attaviria, O. parvula and O. persephonae, all differing in their specific pollinators. This was done using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA fingerprinting, and sequencing of the low-copy nuclear gene LEAFY (LFY). Key Results All taxa were found to be separate genetic entities, with O. leucadica forming two geographic groups from the west and east of the Aegean. Genetic structure was significantly shaped by pollinators and geography, and comparison of sequence and AFLP data revealed ancestral polymorphisms shared among several taxa. Among the sampled taxa, O. leucadica harbours the greatest genetic differentiation and geographic structure, and the highest genetic diversity. Part of the genome of O. parvula, endemic to Rhodes, may be derived from O. leucadica. Conclusions Pollinators probably influence the genetic structure of the investigated Ophrys species. The genetic pattern identified is consistent with O. leucadica being the oldest of the sampled taxa, making O. leucadica a candidate progenitor species from which more

  5. Evolutionary relationships among pollinators and repeated pollinator sharing in sexually deceptive orchids.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R D; Brown, G R; Dixon, K W; Hayes, C; Linde, C C; Peakall, R

    2017-09-01

    The mechanism of pollinator attraction is predicted to strongly influence both plant diversification and the extent of pollinator sharing between species. Sexually deceptive orchids rely on mimicry of species-specific sex pheromones to attract their insect pollinators. Given that sex pheromones tend to be conserved among related species, we predicted that in sexually deceptive orchids, (i) pollinator sharing is rare, (ii) closely related orchids use closely related pollinators and (iii) there is strong bias in the wasp lineages exploited by orchids. We focused on species that are pollinated by sexual deception of thynnine wasps in the distantly related genera Caladenia and Drakaea, including new field observations for 45 species of Caladenia. Specialization was extreme with most orchids using a single pollinator species. Unexpectedly, seven cases of pollinator sharing were found, including two between Caladenia and Drakaea, which exhibit strikingly different floral morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of pollinators using four nuclear sequence loci demonstrated that although orchids within major clades primarily use closely related pollinator species, up to 17% of orchids within these clades are pollinated by a member of a phylogenetically distant wasp genus. Further, compared to the total diversity of thynnine wasps within the study region, orchids show a strong bias towards exploiting certain genera. Although these patterns may arise through conservatism in the chemical classes used in sex pheromones, apparent switches between wasp clades suggest unexpected flexibility in floral semiochemical production. Alternatively, wasp sex pheromones within lineages may exhibit greater chemical diversity than currently appreciated. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Structure-Activity Studies of Semiochemicals from the Spider Orchid Caladenia plicata for Sexual Deception.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Bjorn; Karton, Amir; Flematti, Gavin R; Scaffidi, Adrian; Peakall, Rod

    2018-05-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids attract specific pollinators by mimicking insect sex pheromones. Normally this mimicry is very specific and identical compounds have been identified from orchids and matching females of the pollinators. In this study, we conduct a detailed structure-activity investigation on isomers of the semiochemicals involved in the sexual attraction of the male pollinator of the spider orchid Caladenia plicata. This orchid employs an unusual blend of two biosynthetically unrelated compounds, (S)-β-citronellol and 2-hydroxy-6-methylacetophenone, to lure its Zeleboria sp. thynnine wasp pollinator. We show that the blend is barely attractive when (S)-β-citronellol is substituted with its enantiomer, (R)-β-citronellol. Furthermore, none of the nine-possible alternative hydroxy-methylacetophenone regioisomers of the natural semiochemical are active when substituted for the natural 2-hydroxy-6-methylacetophenone. Our results were surprising given the structural similarity between the active compound and some of the analogues tested, and results from previous studies in other sexually deceptive orchid/wasp systems where substitution with analogues was possible. Interestingly, high-level ab initio and density functional theory calculations of the hydroxy-methylacetophenones revealed that the active natural isomer, 2-hydroxy-6-methylacetophenone, has the strongest intramolecular hydrogen bond of all regioisomers, which at least in part may explain the specific activity.

  7. Transcriptome and proteome data reveal candidate genes for pollinator attraction in sexually deceptive orchids.

    PubMed

    Sedeek, Khalid E M; Qi, Weihong; Schauer, Monica A; Gupta, Alok K; Poveda, Lucy; Xu, Shuqing; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Schiestl, Florian P; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2013-01-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys mimic the mating signals of their pollinator females to attract males as pollinators. This mode of pollination is highly specific and leads to strong reproductive isolation between species. This study aims to identify candidate genes responsible for pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation between three closely related species, O. exaltata, O. sphegodes and O. garganica. Floral traits such as odour, colour and morphology are necessary for successful pollinator attraction. In particular, different odour hydrocarbon profiles have been linked to differences in specific pollinator attraction among these species. Therefore, the identification of genes involved in these traits is important for understanding the molecular basis of pollinator attraction by sexually deceptive orchids. We have created floral reference transcriptomes and proteomes for these three Ophrys species using a combination of next-generation sequencing (454 and Solexa), Sanger sequencing, and shotgun proteomics (tandem mass spectrometry). In total, 121 917 unique transcripts and 3531 proteins were identified. This represents the first orchid proteome and transcriptome from the orchid subfamily Orchidoideae. Proteome data revealed proteins corresponding to 2644 transcripts and 887 proteins not observed in the transcriptome. Candidate genes for hydrocarbon and anthocyanin biosynthesis were represented by 156 and 61 unique transcripts in 20 and 7 genes classes, respectively. Moreover, transcription factors putatively involved in the regulation of flower odour, colour and morphology were annotated, including Myb, MADS and TCP factors. Our comprehensive data set generated by combining transcriptome and proteome technologies allowed identification of candidate genes for pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among sexually deceptive orchids. This includes genes for hydrocarbon and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation, and the development of

  8. Transcriptome and Proteome Data Reveal Candidate Genes for Pollinator Attraction in Sexually Deceptive Orchids

    PubMed Central

    Sedeek, Khalid E. M.; Qi, Weihong; Schauer, Monica A.; Gupta, Alok K.; Poveda, Lucy; Xu, Shuqing; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Schiestl, Florian P.; Schlüter, Philipp M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys mimic the mating signals of their pollinator females to attract males as pollinators. This mode of pollination is highly specific and leads to strong reproductive isolation between species. This study aims to identify candidate genes responsible for pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation between three closely related species, O. exaltata, O. sphegodes and O. garganica. Floral traits such as odour, colour and morphology are necessary for successful pollinator attraction. In particular, different odour hydrocarbon profiles have been linked to differences in specific pollinator attraction among these species. Therefore, the identification of genes involved in these traits is important for understanding the molecular basis of pollinator attraction by sexually deceptive orchids. Results We have created floral reference transcriptomes and proteomes for these three Ophrys species using a combination of next-generation sequencing (454 and Solexa), Sanger sequencing, and shotgun proteomics (tandem mass spectrometry). In total, 121 917 unique transcripts and 3531 proteins were identified. This represents the first orchid proteome and transcriptome from the orchid subfamily Orchidoideae. Proteome data revealed proteins corresponding to 2644 transcripts and 887 proteins not observed in the transcriptome. Candidate genes for hydrocarbon and anthocyanin biosynthesis were represented by 156 and 61 unique transcripts in 20 and 7 genes classes, respectively. Moreover, transcription factors putatively involved in the regulation of flower odour, colour and morphology were annotated, including Myb, MADS and TCP factors. Conclusion Our comprehensive data set generated by combining transcriptome and proteome technologies allowed identification of candidate genes for pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among sexually deceptive orchids. This includes genes for hydrocarbon and anthocyanin biosynthesis and

  9. Orchid sexual deceit provokes ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Gaskett, A C; Winnick, C G; Herberstein, M E

    2008-06-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators by mimicking female insects. Male insects fooled into gripping or copulating with orchids unwittingly transfer the pollinia. The effect of deception on pollinators has been considered negligible, but we show that pollinators may suffer considerable costs. Insects pollinating Australian tongue orchids (Cryptostylis species) frequently ejaculate and waste copious sperm. The costs of sperm wastage could select for pollinator avoidance of orchids, thereby driving and maintaining sexual deception via antagonistic coevolution or an arms race between pollinator learning and escalating orchid mimicry. However, we also show that orchid species provoking such extreme pollinator behavior have the highest pollination success. How can deception persist, given the costs to pollinators? Sexually-deceptive-orchid pollinators are almost exclusively solitary and haplodiploid species. Therefore, female insects deprived of matings by orchid deception could still produce male offspring, which may even enhance orchid pollination.

  10. (Methylthio)phenol semiochemicals are exploited by deceptive orchids as sexual attractants for Campylothynnus thynnine wasps.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Björn; Phillips, Ryan D; Flematti, Gavin R; Peakall, Rod

    2018-04-01

    Until recently, (methylthio)phenols as natural products had only been reported from bacteria. Now, four representatives of this class of sulfurous aromatic compounds have been discovered as semiochemicals in the orchid Caladenia crebra, which secures pollination by sexual deception. In this case, field bioassays confirmed that a 10:1 blend of 2-(methylthio)benzene-1,4-diol (1) and 4-hydroxy-3-(methylthio)benzaldehyde (2) sexually attracts the male thynnine wasp Campylothynnus flavopictus (Tiphiidae:Thynnineae), the exclusive pollinator of C. crebra. Here we show with field bioassays that another undescribed species of Campylothynnus (sp. A) is strongly sexually attracted to a 1:1 blend of compounds 1 and 2, which elicits very high attempted copulation rates (88%). We also confirm that this Campylothynnus species is a pollinator of Caladenia attingens subsp. attingens. Chemical analysis of the flowers of this orchid revealed two (methylthio)phenols, compound 2 and 2-(methylthio)phenol (3), as candidate semiochemicals involved in pollinator attraction. Thus, (methylthio)phenols are likely to be more widely used than presently known. The confirmation of this Campylothynnus as a pollinator of C. attingens subsp. attingens at our study sites was unexpected, since elsewhere this orchid is pollinated by a different thynnine wasp (Thynnoides sp). In general, sexually deceptive Caladenia only use a single species of pollinator, and as such, this unusual case may offer a tractable study system for understanding the chemical basis of pollinator switching in sexually deceptive orchids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Floral visual signal increases reproductive success in a sexually deceptive orchid

    PubMed Central

    Streinzer, Martin; Paulus, Hannes F.; Spaethe, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids mimic signals emitted by female insects in order to attract mate-searching males. Specific attraction of the targeted pollinator is achieved by sex pheromone mimicry, which constitutes the major attraction channel. In close vicinity of the flower, visual signals may enhance attraction, as was shown recently in the sexually deceptive orchid Ophrys heldreichii. Here, we conducted an in situ manipulation experiment in two populations of O. heldreichii on Crete to investigate whether the presence/absence of the conspicuous pink perianth affects reproductive success in two natural orchid populations. We estimated reproductive success of three treatment groups (with intact, removed and artificial perianth) throughout the flowering period as pollinaria removal (male reproductive success) and massulae deposition (female reproductive success). Reproductive success was significantly increased by the presence of a strong visual signal—the conspicuous perianth—in one study population, however, not in the second, most likely due to the low pollinator abundance in the latter population. This study provides further evidence that the coloured perianth in O. heldreichii is adaptive and thus adds to the olfactory signal to maximise pollinator attraction and reproductive success. PMID:23750181

  12. Floral visual signal increases reproductive success in a sexually deceptive orchid.

    PubMed

    Rakosy, Demetra; Streinzer, Martin; Paulus, Hannes F; Spaethe, Johannes

    2012-12-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids mimic signals emitted by female insects in order to attract mate-searching males. Specific attraction of the targeted pollinator is achieved by sex pheromone mimicry, which constitutes the major attraction channel. In close vicinity of the flower, visual signals may enhance attraction, as was shown recently in the sexually deceptive orchid Ophrys heldreichii . Here, we conducted an in situ manipulation experiment in two populations of O. heldreichii on Crete to investigate whether the presence/absence of the conspicuous pink perianth affects reproductive success in two natural orchid populations. We estimated reproductive success of three treatment groups (with intact, removed and artificial perianth) throughout the flowering period as pollinaria removal (male reproductive success) and massulae deposition (female reproductive success). Reproductive success was significantly increased by the presence of a strong visual signal-the conspicuous perianth-in one study population, however, not in the second, most likely due to the low pollinator abundance in the latter population. This study provides further evidence that the coloured perianth in O. heldreichii is adaptive and thus adds to the olfactory signal to maximise pollinator attraction and reproductive success.

  13. Pollination by sexual deception promotes outcrossing and mate diversity in self-compatible clonal orchids.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, M R; Linde, C C; Peakall, R

    2015-08-01

    The majority of flowering plants rely on animals as pollen vectors. Thus, plant mating systems and pollen dispersal are strongly influenced by pollinator behaviour. In Australian sexually deceptive orchids pollinated by male thynnine wasps, outcrossing and extensive pollen flow is predicted due to floral deception, which minimizes multiple flower visitations within patches, and the movement of pollinators under mate-search rather than foraging behaviours. This hypothesis was tested using microsatellite markers to reconstruct and infer paternity in two clonal, self-compatible orchids. Offspring from naturally pollinated Chiloglottis valida and C. aff. jeanesii were acquired through symbiotic culture of seeds collected over three seasons. In both species, outcrossing was extensive (tm  = 0.924-1.00) despite clone sizes up to 11 m wide. The median pollen flow distance based on paternity for both taxa combined was 14.5 m (n = 18, range 0-69 m), being larger than typically found by paternity analyses in other herbaceous plants. Unexpectedly for orchids, some capsules were sired by more than one father, with an average of 1.35 pollen donors per fruit. This is the first genetic confirmation of polyandry in orchid capsules. Further, we report a possible link between multiple paternity and increased seed fitness. Together, these results demonstrate that deceptive pollination by mate-searching wasps enhances offspring fitness by promoting both outcrossing and within-fruit paternal diversity. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Patterns of reproductive isolation in Mediterranean deceptive orchids.

    PubMed

    Scopece, Giovanni; Musacchio, Aldo; Widmer, Alex; Cozzolino, Salvatore

    2007-11-01

    The evolution of reproductive isolation is of central interest in evolutionary biology. In plants, this is typically achieved by a combination of pre- and postpollination mechanisms that prevent, or limit, the amount of interspecific gene flow. Here, we investigated and compared two ecologically defined groups of Mediterranean orchids that differ in pollination biology and pollinator specificity: sexually deceptive orchids versus food-deceptive orchids. We used experimental crosses to assess the strength of postmating prezygotic, and postzygotic reproductive isolation, and a phylogenetic framework to determine their relative rates of evolution. We found quantitative and qualitative differences between the two groups. Food-deceptive orchids have weak premating isolation but strong postmating isolation, whereas the converse situation characterizes sexually deceptive orchids. Only postzygotic reproductive isolation among food-deceptive orchids was found to evolve in a clock-like manner. Comparison of evolutionary rates, within a common interval of genetic distance, showed that the contribution of postmating barriers was more relevant in the food-deceptive species than in the sexually deceptive species. Asymmetry in prezygotic isolation was found among food-deceptive species. Our results indicate that postmating barriers are most important for reproductive isolation in food-deceptive orchids, whereas premating barriers are most important in sexually deceptive orchids. The different rate of evolution of reproductive isolation and the relative strength of pre- and postmating barriers may have implication for speciation processes in the two orchid groups.

  15. Genic rather than genome-wide differences between sexually deceptive Ophrys orchids with different pollinators.

    PubMed

    Sedeek, Khalid E M; Scopece, Giovanni; Staedler, Yannick M; Schönenberger, Jürg; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Schiestl, Florian P; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2014-12-01

    High pollinator specificity and the potential for simple genetic changes to affect pollinator attraction make sexually deceptive orchids an ideal system for the study of ecological speciation, in which change of flower odour is likely important. This study surveys reproductive barriers and differences in floral phenotypes in a group of four closely related, coflowering sympatric Ophrys species and uses a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach to obtain information on the proportion of the genome that is differentiated between species. Ophrys species were found to effectively lack postpollination barriers, but are strongly isolated by their different pollinators (floral isolation) and, to a smaller extent, by shifts in flowering time (temporal isolation). Although flower morphology and perhaps labellum coloration may contribute to floral isolation, reproductive barriers may largely be due to differences in flower odour chemistry. GBS revealed shared polymorphism throughout the Ophrys genome, with very little population structure between species. Genome scans for FST outliers identified few markers that are highly differentiated between species and repeatable in several populations. These genome scans also revealed highly differentiated polymorphisms in genes with putative involvement in floral odour production, including a previously identified candidate gene thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of pseudo-pheromones by the orchid flowers. Taken together, these data suggest that ecological speciation associated with different pollinators in sexually deceptive orchids has a genic rather than a genomic basis, placing these species at an early phase of genomic divergence within the 'speciation continuum'. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. An informational diversity framework, illustrated with sexually deceptive orchids in early stages of speciation.

    PubMed

    Smouse, Peter E; Whitehead, Michael R; Peakall, Rod

    2015-11-01

    Reconstructing evolutionary history for emerging species complexes is notoriously difficult, with newly isolated taxa often morphologically cryptic and the signature of reproductive isolation often restricted to a few genes. Evidence from multiple loci and genomes is highly desirable, but multiple inputs require 'common currency' translation. Here we deploy a Shannon information framework, converting into diversity analogue, which provides a common currency analysis for maternally inherited haploid and bi-parentally inherited diploid nuclear markers, and then extend that analysis to construction of minimum-spanning networks for both genomes. The new approach is illustrated with a quartet of cryptic congeners from the sexually deceptive Australian orchid genus Chiloglottis, still in the early stages of speciation. Divergence is more rapid for haploid plastids than for nuclear markers, consistent with the effective population size differential (N(ep) < (N(en)), but divergence patterns are broadly correlated for the two genomes. There are nevertheless intriguing discrepancies between the emerging plastid and nuclear signals of early phylogenetic radiation of these taxa, and neither pattern is entirely consistent with the available information on the sexual cues used by the orchids to lure the pollinators enforcing reproductive isolation. We describe possible extensions of this methodology to multiple ploidy levels and other types of markers, which should increase the range of application to any taxonomic assemblage in the very early stages of reproductive isolation and speciation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Multiple shifts to different pollinators fuelled rapid diversification in sexually deceptive Ophrys orchids.

    PubMed

    Breitkopf, Hendrik; Onstein, Renske E; Cafasso, Donata; Schlüter, Philipp M; Cozzolino, Salvatore

    2015-07-01

    Episodes of rapid speciation provide unique insights into evolutionary processes underlying species radiations and patterns of biodiversity. Here we investigated the radiation of sexually deceptive bee orchids (Ophrys). Based on a time-calibrated phylogeny and by means of ancestral character reconstruction and divergence time estimation, we estimated the tempo and mode of this radiation within a state-dependent evolutionary framework. It appears that, in the Pleistocene, the evolution of Ophrys was marked by episodes of rapid diversification coinciding with shifts to different pollinator types: from wasps to Eucera bees to Andrena and other bees. An abrupt increase in net diversification rate was detected in three clades. Among these, two phylogenetically distant lineages switched from Eucera to Andrena and other bees in a parallel fashion and at about the same time in their evolutionary history. Lack of early radiation associated with the evolution of the key innovation of sexual deception suggests that Ophrys diversification was mainly driven by subsequent ecological opportunities provided by the exploitation of novel pollinator groups, encompassing many bee species slightly differing in their sex pheromone communication systems, and by spatiotemporal fluctuations in the pollinator mosaic. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Pollinator specificity, floral odour chemistry and the phylogeny of Australian sexually deceptive Chiloglottis orchids: implications for pollinator-driven speciation.

    PubMed

    Peakall, Rod; Ebert, Daniel; Poldy, Jacqueline; Barrow, Russell A; Francke, Wittko; Bower, Colin C; Schiestl, Florian P

    2010-10-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids are predicted to represent a special case of plant speciation where strong reproductive isolation may be achieved by differences in floral scent. • In this study of Australian sexually deceptive Chiloglottis orchids, we performed choice experiments to test for wasp pollinator specificity in the field; identified the compounds involved in pollinator attraction by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass selective detection (GC-MS), chemical synthesis and behavioural bioassays; and mapped our chemical findings on to a phylogeny of the orchids. • Field experiments confirmed pollination is a highly specific interaction, but also revealed a pool of nonpollinating 'minor responder' wasps. Six novel compounds, all 2,5-dialkylcyclohexan-1,3-diones, called 'chiloglottones', were discovered to be involved in pollinator attraction. Bioassays confirmed that pollinator specificity has a strong chemical basis, with specificity among sympatric orchids maintained by either different single compounds or a variation in a blend of two compounds. The phylogenetic overlay confirmed that speciation is always associated with pollinator switching and usually underpinned by chemical change. • If the chemical differences that control reproductive isolation in Chiloglottis have a strong genetic basis, and given the confirmed pool of potential pollinators, we conclude that pollinator-driven speciation appears highly plausible in this system. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  19. Mismatch in the distribution of floral ecotypes and pollinators: insights into the evolution of sexually deceptive orchids.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R D; Bohman, B; Anthony, J M; Krauss, S L; Dixon, K W; Peakall, R

    2015-03-01

    Plants are predicted to show floral adaptation to geographic variation in the most effective pollinator, potentially leading to reproductive isolation and genetic divergence. Many sexually deceptive orchids attract just a single pollinator species, limiting opportunities to experimentally investigate pollinator switching. Here, we investigate Drakaea concolor, which attracts two pollinator species. Using pollinator choice tests, we detected two morphologically similar ecotypes within D. concolor. The common ecotype only attracted Zaspilothynnus gilesi, whereas the rare ecotype also attracted an undescribed species of Pogonothynnus. The rare ecotype occurred at populations nested within the distribution of the common ecotype, with no evidence of ecotypes occurring sympatrically. Surveying for pollinators at over 100 sites revealed that ecotype identity was not correlated with wasp availability, with most orchid populations only attracting the rare Z. gilesi. Using microsatellite markers, genetic differentiation among populations was very low (GST = 0.011) regardless of ecotype, suggestive of frequent gene flow. Taken together, these results may indicate that the ability to attract Pogonothynnus has evolved recently, but this ecotype is yet to spread. The nested distribution of ecotypes, rather than the more typical formation of ecotypes in allopatry, illustrates that in sexually deceptive orchids, pollinator switching could occur throughout a species' range, resulting from multiple potentially suitable but unexploited pollinators occurring in sympatry. This unusual case of sympatric pollinators highlights D. concolor as a promising study system for further understanding the process of pollinator switching from ecological, chemical and genetic perspectives. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Mechanisms and evolution of deceptive pollination in orchids.

    PubMed

    Jersáková, Jana; Johnson, Steven D; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2006-05-01

    The orchid family is renowned for its enormous diversity of pollination mechanisms and unusually high occurrence of non-rewarding flowers compared to other plant families. The mechanisms of deception in orchids include generalized food deception, food-deceptive floral mimicry, brood-site imitation, shelter imitation, pseudoantagonism, rendezvous attraction and sexual deception. Generalized food deception is the most common mechanism (reported in 38 genera) followed by sexual deception (18 genera). Floral deception in orchids has been intensively studied since Darwin, but the evolution of non-rewarding flowers still presents a major puzzle for evolutionary biology. The two principal hypotheses as to how deception could increase fitness in plants are (i) reallocation of resources associated with reward production to flowering and seed production, and (ii) higher levels of cross-pollination due to pollinators visiting fewer flowers on non-rewarding plants, resulting in more outcrossed progeny and more efficient pollen export. Biologists have also tried to explain why deception is overrepresented in the orchid family. These explanations include: (i) efficient removal and deposition of pollinaria from orchid flowers in a single pollinator visit, thus obviating the need for rewards to entice multiple visits from pollinators; (ii) efficient transport of orchid pollen, thus requiring less reward-induced pollinator constancy; (iii) low-density populations in many orchids, thus limiting the learning of associations of floral phenotypes and rewards by pollinators; (iv) packaging of pollen in pollinaria with limited carry-over from flower to flower, thus increasing the risks of geitonogamous self-pollination when pollinators visit many flowers on rewarding plants. All of these general and orchid-specific hypotheses are difficult to reconcile with the well-established pattern for rewardlessness to result in low pollinator visitation rates and consequently low levels of fruit

  1. On the success of a swindle: pollination by deception in orchids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiestl, Florian P.

    2005-06-01

    A standing enigma in pollination ecology is the evolution of pollinator attraction without offering reward in about one third of all orchid species. Here I review concepts of pollination by deception, and in particular recent findings in the pollination syndromes of food deception and sexual deception in orchids. Deceptive orchids mimic floral signals of rewarding plants (food deception) or mating signals of receptive females (sexual deception) to attract pollen vectors. In some food deceptive orchids, similarities in the spectral reflectance visible to the pollinator in a model plant and its mimic, and increased reproductive success of the mimic in the presence of the model have been demonstrated. Other species do not mimic specific model plants but attract pollinators with general attractive floral signals. In sexually deceptive orchids, floral odor is the key trait for pollinator attraction, and behaviorally active compounds in the orchids are identical to the sex pheromone of the pollinator species. Deceptive orchids often show high variability in floral signals, which may be maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection, since pollinators can learn and subsequently avoid common deceptive morphs more quickly than rare ones. The evolution of obligate deception in orchids seems paradoxical in the light of the typically lower fruit set than in rewarding species. Pollination by deception, however, can reduce self-pollination and encourage pollen flow over longer distances, thus promoting outbreeding. Although some food deceptive orchids are isolated through postzygotic reproductive barriers, sexually deceptive orchids lack post-mating barriers and species isolation is achieved via specific pollinator attraction. Recent population genetic and phylogenetic investigations suggest gene-flow within subgeneric clades, but pollinator-mediated selection may maintain species-specific floral traits.

  2. Modeling the two-locus architecture of divergent pollinator adaptation: how variation in SAD paralogs affects fitness and evolutionary divergence in sexually deceptive orchids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuqing; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2015-01-01

    Divergent selection by pollinators can bring about strong reproductive isolation via changes at few genes of large effect. This has recently been demonstrated in sexually deceptive orchids, where studies (1) quantified the strength of reproductive isolation in the field; (2) identified genes that appear to be causal for reproductive isolation; and (3) demonstrated selection by analysis of natural variation in gene sequence and expression. In a group of closely related Ophrys orchids, specific floral scent components, namely n-alkenes, are the key floral traits that control specific pollinator attraction by chemical mimicry of insect sex pheromones. The genetic basis of species-specific differences in alkene production mainly lies in two biosynthetic genes encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases (SAD) that are associated with floral scent variation and reproductive isolation between closely related species, and evolve under pollinator-mediated selection. However, the implications of this genetic architecture of key floral traits on the evolutionary processes of pollinator adaptation and speciation in this plant group remain unclear. Here, we expand on these recent findings to model scenarios of adaptive evolutionary change at SAD2 and SAD5, their effects on plant fitness (i.e., offspring number), and the dynamics of speciation. Our model suggests that the two-locus architecture of reproductive isolation allows for rapid sympatric speciation by pollinator shift; however, the likelihood of such pollinator-mediated speciation is asymmetric between the two orchid species O. sphegodes and O. exaltata due to different fitness effects of their predominant SAD2 and SAD5 alleles. Our study not only provides insight into pollinator adaptation and speciation mechanisms of sexually deceptive orchids but also demonstrates the power of applying a modeling approach to the study of pollinator-driven ecological speciation.

  3. Floral scent and species divergence in a pair of sexually deceptive orchids.

    PubMed

    Gervasi, Daniel D L; Selosse, Marc-Andre; Sauve, Mathieu; Francke, Wittko; Vereecken, Nicolas J; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Schiestl, Florian P

    2017-08-01

    Speciation is typically accompanied by the formation of isolation barriers between lineages. Commonly, reproductive barriers are separated into pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms that can evolve with different speed. In this study, we measured the strength of different reproductive barriers in two closely related, sympatric orchids of the Ophrys insectifera group, namely Ophrys insectifera and Ophrys aymoninii to infer possible mechanisms of speciation. We quantified pre- and post-pollination barriers through observation of pollen flow, by performing artificial inter- and intraspecific crosses and analyzing scent bouquets. Additionally, we investigated differences in mycorrhizal fungi as a potential extrinsic factor of post-zygotic isolation. Our results show that floral isolation mediated by the attraction of different pollinators acts apparently as the sole reproductive barrier between the two orchid species, with later-acting intrinsic barriers seemingly absent. Also, the two orchids share most of their fungal mycorrhizal partners in sympatry, suggesting little or no importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis in reproductive isolation. Key traits underlying floral isolation were two alkenes and wax ester, present predominantly in the floral scent of O. aymoninii . These compounds, when applied to flowers of O. insectifera , triggered attraction and a copulation attempt of the bee pollinator of O. aymoninii and thus led to the (partial) breakdown of floral isolation. Based on our results, we suggest that adaptation to different pollinators, mediated by floral scent, underlies species isolation in this plant group. Pollinator switches may be promoted by low pollination success of individuals in dense patches of plants, an assumption that we also confirmed in our study.

  4. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases are associated with floral isolation in sexually deceptive orchids

    SciTech Connect

    Schluter, P.M.; Shanklin, J.; Xu, S.

    The orchids Ophrys sphegodes and O. exaltata are reproductively isolated from each other by the attraction of two different, highly specific pollinator species. For pollinator attraction, flowers chemically mimic the pollinators sex pheromones, the key components of which are alkenes with different double-bond positions. This study identifies genes likely involved in alkene biosynthesis, encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) homologs. The expression of two isoforms, SAD1 and SAD2, is flower-specific and broadly parallels alkene production during flower development. SAD2 shows a significant association with alkene production, and in vitro assays show that O. sphegodes SAD2 has activity both asmore » an 18:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 9} and a 16:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 4} desaturase. Downstream metabolism of the SAD2 reaction products would give rise to alkenes with double-bonds at position 9 or position 12, matching double-bond positions observed in alkenes in the odor bouquet of O. sphegodes. SAD1 and SAD2 show evidence of purifying selection before, and positive or relaxed purifying selection after gene duplication. By contributing to the production of species-specific alkene bouquets, SAD2 is suggested to contribute to differential pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among these species. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that SAD2 is a florally expressed barrier gene of large phenotypic effect and, possibly, a genic target of pollinator-mediated selection.« less

  5. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases are associated with floral isolation in sexually deceptive orchids

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Philipp M.; Xu, Shuqing; Gagliardini, Valeria; Whittle, Edward; Shanklin, John; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Schiestl, Florian P.

    2011-01-01

    The orchids Ophrys sphegodes and O. exaltata are reproductively isolated from each other by the attraction of two different, highly specific pollinator species. For pollinator attraction, flowers chemically mimic the pollinators’ sex pheromones, the key components of which are alkenes with different double-bond positions. This study identifies genes likely involved in alkene biosynthesis, encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) homologs. The expression of two isoforms, SAD1 and SAD2, is flower-specific and broadly parallels alkene production during flower development. SAD2 shows a significant association with alkene production, and in vitro assays show that O. sphegodes SAD2 has activity both as an 18:0-ACP Δ9 and a 16:0-ACP Δ4 desaturase. Downstream metabolism of the SAD2 reaction products would give rise to alkenes with double-bonds at position 9 or position 12, matching double-bond positions observed in alkenes in the odor bouquet of O. sphegodes. SAD1 and SAD2 show evidence of purifying selection before, and positive or relaxed purifying selection after gene duplication. By contributing to the production of species-specific alkene bouquets, SAD2 is suggested to contribute to differential pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among these species. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that SAD2 is a florally expressed barrier gene of large phenotypic effect and, possibly, a genic target of pollinator-mediated selection. PMID:21436056

  6. The Genetic Basis of Pollinator Adaptation in a Sexually Deceptive Orchid

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuqing; Schlüter, Philipp M.; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Schiestl, Florian P.

    2012-01-01

    In plants, pollinator adaptation is considered to be a major driving force for floral diversification and speciation. However, the genetic basis of pollinator adaptation is poorly understood. The orchid genus Ophrys mimics its pollinators' mating signals and is pollinated by male insects during mating attempts. In many species of this genus, chemical mimicry of the pollinators' pheromones, especially of alkenes with different double-bond positions, plays a key role for specific pollinator attraction. Thus, different alkenes produced in different species are probably a consequence of pollinator adaptation. In this study, we identify genes that are likely involved in alkene biosynthesis, encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases (SAD), in three closely related Ophrys species, O. garganica, O. sphegodes, and O. exaltata. Combining floral odor and gene expression analyses, two SAD homologs (SAD1/2) showed significant association with the production of (Z)-9- and (Z)-12-alkenes that were abundant in O. garganica and O. sphegodes, supporting previous biochemical data. In contrast, two other newly identified homologs (SAD5/6) were significantly associated with (Z)-7-alkenes that were highly abundant only in O. exaltata. Both molecular evolutionary analyses and pollinator preference tests suggest that the alkenes associated with SAD1/2 and SAD5/6 are under pollinator-mediated divergent selection among species. The expression patterns of these genes in F1 hybrids indicate that species-specific expression differences in SAD1/2 are likely due to cis-regulation, while changes in SAD5/6 are likely due to trans-regulation. Taken together, we report a genetic mechanism for pollinator-mediated divergent selection that drives adaptive changes in floral alkene biosynthesis involved in reproductive isolation among Ophrys species. PMID:22916031

  7. Review. Specificity in pollination and consequences for postmating reproductive isolation in deceptive Mediterranean orchids.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Salvatore; Scopece, Giovanni

    2008-09-27

    The type of reproductive isolation prevalent in the initial stages of species divergence can affect the nature and rate of emergence of additional reproductive barriers that subsequently strengthen isolation between species. Different groups of Mediterranean deceptive orchids are characterized by different levels of pollinator specificity. Whereas food-deceptive orchid species show weak pollinator specificity, the sexually deceptive Ophrys species display a more specialized pollination strategy. Comparative analyses reveal that orchids with high pollinator specificity mostly rely on premating reproductive barriers and have very little postmating isolation. In this group, a shift to a novel pollinator achieved by modifying the odour bouquet may represent the main isolation mechanism involved in speciation. By contrast, orchids with weak premating isolation, such as generalized food-deceptive orchids, show strong evidence for intrinsic postmating reproductive barriers, particularly for late-acting postzygotic barriers such as hybrid sterility. In such species, chromosomal differences may have played a key role in species isolation, although strong postmating-prezygotic isolation has also evolved in these orchids. Molecular analyses of hybrid zones indicate that the types and strength of reproductive barriers in deceptive orchids with contrasting premating isolation mechanisms directly affect the rate and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and the nature of species differentiation.

  8. Mate-Searching Behaviour of Common and Rare Wasps and the Implications for Pollen Movement of the Sexually Deceptive Orchids They Pollinate

    PubMed Central

    Menz, Myles H. M.; Phillips, Ryan D.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Peakall, Rod; Didham, Raphael K.

    2013-01-01

    Pollinator behaviour directly affects patterns of pollen movement and outcrossing rates in plants. In orchids pollinated by sexual deception of insects, patterns of pollen movement are primarily determined by the mate-searching behaviour of the deceived males. Here, using a capture-mark-recapture study (CMR) and dietary analysis, we compare mate-searching behaviour in relation to local abundance of two pollinator species and explore the implications for pollen movement in sexually deceptive Drakaea (Orchidaceae). Drakaea are pollinated solely by the sexual deception of male thynnine wasps. The rare Drakaea elastica and widespread D. livida occur sympatrically and are pollinated by the rare but locally common Zaspilothynnus gilesi, and the widespread and abundant Z. nigripes, respectively. Local abundance was significantly different with Z. nigripes twice as abundant as Z. gilesi. For the 653 marked wasps, there was no significant difference in median movement distance between Z. gilesi and Z. nigripes. However, the maximum movement distance was twice as high for Z. gilesi (556 m) compared with Z. nigripes (267 m). This is up to three times greater than previously reported for thynnines in CMR studies. Recapture rates were six times higher in Z. gilesi (57%) compared to Z. nigripes (9%). Pollen loads and wasp longevity were similar, suggesting that this difference in recapture rate arises due to differences in the number of males moving at a scale >500 m rather than through diet or mortality. Differences in the frequency of longer movements may arise due to variation in the spatial distribution of the wingless females. We predict that pollen movement will largely be restricted to within populations of Drakaea (<500 m), with few movements between populations (>500 m). PMID:23536860

  9. The production of a key floral volatile is dependent on UV light in a sexually deceptive orchid

    PubMed Central

    Falara, Vasiliki; Amarasinghe, Ranamalie; Poldy, Jacqueline; Pichersky, Eran; Barrow, Russell A.; Peakall, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants use a diverse range of visual and olfactory cues to advertize to pollinators. Australian Chiloglottis orchids employ one to three related chemical variants, all 2,5-dialkylcyclohexane-1,3-diones or ‘chiloglottones’ to sexually attract their specific male pollinators. Here an investigation was made of the physiological aspects of chiloglottone synthesis and storage that have not previously been examined. Methods The location of chiloglottone production was determined and developmental and diurnal changes by GC-MS analysis of floral tissue extracts was monitored in two distantly related Chiloglottis species. Light treatment experiments were also performed using depleted flowers to evaluate if sunlight is required for chiloglottone production; which specific wavelengths of light are required was also determined. Key Results Chiloglottone production only occurs in specific floral tissues (the labellum calli and sepals) of open flowers. Upon flower opening chiloglottone production is rapid and levels remain more or less stable both day and night, and over the 2- to 3-week lifetime of the flower. Furthermore, it was determined that chiloglottone production requires continuous sunlight, and determined the optimal wavelengths of sunlight in the UV-B range (with peak of 300 nm). Conclusions UV-B light is required for the synthesis of chiloglottones – the semiochemicals used by Chiloglottis orchids to sexually lure their male pollinators. This discovery appears to be the first case to our knowledge where plant floral odour production depends on UV-B radiation at normal levels of sunlight. In the future, identification of the genes and enzymes involved, will allow us to understand better the role of UV-B light in the biosynthesis of chiloglottones. PMID:23091095

  10. Cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromone of the bee Colletes cunicularius and the key to its mimicry by the sexually deceptive orchid, Ophrys exaltata.

    PubMed

    Mant, Jim; Brändli, Christoph; Vereecken, Nicolas J; Schulz, Claudia M; Francke, Wittko; Schiestl, Florian P

    2005-08-01

    Male Colletes cunicularius bees pollinate the orchid, Ophrys exaltata, after being sexually deceived by the orchid's odor-mimicry of the female bee's sex pheromone. We detected biologically active volatiles of C. cunicularius by using gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) with simultaneous flame ionization detection. After identification of the target compounds by coupled gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we performed behavioral tests using synthetic blends of the active components. We detected 22 EAD active compounds in cuticular extracts of C. cunicularius females. Blends of straight chain, odd-numbered alkanes and (Z)-7-alkenes with 21-29 carbon atoms constituted the major biologically active compounds. Alkenes were the key compounds releasing mating behavior, especially those with (Z)-7 unsaturation. Comparison of patterns of bee volatiles with those of O. exaltata subsp. archipelagi revealed that all EAD-active compounds were also found in extracts of orchid labella. Previous studies of the mating behavior in C. cunicularius showed linalool to be an important attractant for patrolling males. We confirmed this with synthetic linalool but found that it rarely elicited copulatory behavior, in accordance with previous studies. A blend of active cuticular compounds with linalool elicited both attraction and copulation behavior in patrolling males. Thus, linalool appears to function as a long-range attractant, whereas cuticular hydrocarbons are necessary for inducing short-range mating behavior.

  11. Pollination by sexual deception-it takes chemistry to work.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Björn; Flematti, Gavin R; Barrow, Russell A; Pichersky, Eran; Peakall, Rod

    2016-08-01

    Semiochemicals are of paramount importance in sexually deceptive plants. These plants sexually lure specific male insects as pollinators by chemical and physical mimicry of the female of the pollinator. The strategy has evolved repeatedly in orchids, with a wide diversity of insect groups exploited. Chemical communication systems confirmed by field bioassays include: alkenes and alkanes in bee pollinated Ophrys species, keto-acid and hydroxy-acids in scoliid wasp pollinated O. speculum, and cyclohexanediones and pyrazines in thynnine wasp pollinated Chiloglottis and Drakaea orchids, respectively. In Ophrys, stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD) enzymes have been confirmed to control species level variation in alkene double bond position. The production of cyclohexanediones in Chiloglottis unexpectedly depends on UVB light, a phenomenon unknown for other plant specialised metabolites. Potential biosynthetic pathways for other systems are explored, and alternative approaches to further accelerate chemical discovery in sexually deceptive plants are proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluctuating selection across years and phenotypic variation in food-deceptive orchids.

    PubMed

    Scopece, Giovanni; Juillet, Nicolas; Lexer, Christian; Cozzolino, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Nectarless flowers that deceive pollinators offer an opportunity to study asymmetric plant-insect interactions. Orchids are a widely used model for studying these interactions because they encompass several thousand species adopting deceptive pollination systems. High levels of intra-specific phenotypic variation have been reported in deceptive orchids, suggesting a reduced consistency of pollinator-mediated selection on their floral traits. Nevertheless, several studies report on widespread directional selection mediated by pollinators even in these deceptive orchids. In this study we test the hypothesis that the observed selection can fluctuate across years in strength and direction thus likely contributing to the phenotypic variability of this orchid group. We performed a three-year study estimating selection differentials and selection gradients for nine phenotypic traits involved in insect attraction in two Mediterranean orchid species, namely Orchis mascula and O. pauciflora , both relying on a well-described food-deceptive pollination strategy. We found weak directional selection and marginally significant selection gradients in the two investigated species with significant intra-specific differences in selection differentials across years. Our data do not link this variation with a specific environmental cause, but our results suggest that pollinator-mediated selection in food-deceptive orchids can change in strength and in direction over time. In perennial plants, such as orchids, different selection differentials in the same populations in different flowering seasons can contribute to the maintenance of phenotypic variation often reported in deceptive orchids.

  13. Pollinator Behaviour on a Food-Deceptive Orchid Calypso bulbosa and Coflowering Species

    PubMed Central

    Tuomi, Juha; Lämsä, Juho; Wannas, Lauri; Abeli, Thomas; Jäkäläniemi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Food deception as a pollination strategy has inspired many studies over the last few decades. Pollinator deception has evolved in many orchids possibly to enhance outcrossing. Food-deceptive orchids usually have low pollinator visitation rates as compared to rewarding species. They may benefit in visitations from the presence (magnet-species hypothesis) or, alternatively, absence of coflowering rewarding species (competition hypothesis). We present data on pollinator visitations on a deceptive, terrestrial orchid Calypso bulbosa, a species with a single flower per plant and whose flowering period partly overlaps with rewarding, early flowering willows (Salix sp.) and later-flowering bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus). When surveying inactive bumblebee queens on willows in cool weather, about 7% of them carried Calypso pollinia. Most common bumblebee species appeared to visit and thus pollinate Calypso. Bumblebees typically visited one to three Calypso flowers before flying away, providing some support for the outcrossing hypothesis. We conclude that, regarding the pollinations strategy, both magnet-species and competition hypotheses have a role in the pollination of Calypso, but on different spatial scales. On a large scale rewarding species are important for attracting pollinators to a given region, but on a small scale absence of competition ensures sufficient pollination rate for the deceptive orchid. PMID:25861675

  14. Rain pollination provides reproductive assurance in a deceptive orchid.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xu-Li; Barrett, Spencer C H; Lin, Hua; Chen, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Xiang; Gao, Jiang-Yun

    2012-10-01

    Abiotic pollination by wind or water is well established in flowering plants. In some species pollination by rain splashes, a condition known as ombrophily, has been proposed as a floral strategy. However, evidence for this type of abiotic pollination has remained controversial and many reported cases have subsequently been shown to be false. This study investigates ombrophily in the deceptive orchid Acampe rigida to determine the mechanism by which this species is able to maintain high fecundity, despite flowering during the rainy season in south-west China when pollinators are scarce. The floral mechanisms promoting rain pollination in A. rigida were observed and described in detail. Controlled pollination experiments and observations of floral visitors were conducted. A field experiment using rain shelters at 14 sites in Guangxi, south-west China, evaluated the contribution of rain pollination to fruit-set. During rainfall, raindrops physically flicked away the anther cap exposing the pollinarium. Raindrops then caused pollinia to be ejected upwards with the strap-like stipe pulling them back and causing them to fall into the stigmatic cavity, resulting in self-pollination. Neither flower nor pollen function were damaged by water. Although A. rigida is self-compatible, it is incapable of autonomous self-pollination without the assistance of rain splashes. The results of the rain-sheltering experiment indicated that rain pollination contributed substantially to increasing fruit-set, although there was variation among sites in the intensity of this effect. A. rigida flowers during the rainy season, when pollinators are scarce, and ombrophily functions to provide reproductive assurance without compromising opportunities for outcrossing.

  15. Rain pollination provides reproductive assurance in a deceptive orchid

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xu-Li; Barrett, Spencer C. H.; Lin, Hua; Chen, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Xiang; Gao, Jiang-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Abiotic pollination by wind or water is well established in flowering plants. In some species pollination by rain splashes, a condition known as ombrophily, has been proposed as a floral strategy. However, evidence for this type of abiotic pollination has remained controversial and many reported cases have subsequently been shown to be false. This study investigates ombrophily in the deceptive orchid Acampe rigida to determine the mechanism by which this species is able to maintain high fecundity, despite flowering during the rainy season in south-west China when pollinators are scarce. Methods The floral mechanisms promoting rain pollination in A. rigida were observed and described in detail. Controlled pollination experiments and observations of floral visitors were conducted. A field experiment using rain shelters at 14 sites in Guangxi, south-west China, evaluated the contribution of rain pollination to fruit-set. Key Results During rainfall, raindrops physically flicked away the anther cap exposing the pollinarium. Raindrops then caused pollinia to be ejected upwards with the strap-like stipe pulling them back and causing them to fall into the stigmatic cavity, resulting in self-pollination. Neither flower nor pollen function were damaged by water. Although A. rigida is self-compatible, it is incapable of autonomous self-pollination without the assistance of rain splashes. The results of the rain-sheltering experiment indicated that rain pollination contributed substantially to increasing fruit-set, although there was variation among sites in the intensity of this effect. Conclusions A. rigida flowers during the rainy season, when pollinators are scarce, and ombrophily functions to provide reproductive assurance without compromising opportunities for outcrossing. PMID:22851311

  16. Pre-adaptations and the evolution of pollination by sexual deception: Cope's rule of specialization revisited.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, Nicolas J; Wilson, Carol A; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Banketov, Sergey A; Mardulyn, Patrick

    2012-12-07

    Pollination by sexual deception is arguably one of the most unusual liaisons linking plants and insects, and perhaps the most illustrative example of extreme floral specialization in angiosperms. While considerable progress has been made in understanding the floral traits involved in sexual deception, less is known about how this remarkable mimicry system might have arisen, the role of pre-adaptations in promoting its evolution and its extent as a pollination mechanism outside the few groups of plants (primarily orchids) where it has been described to date. In the Euro-Mediterranean region, pollination by sexual deception is traditionally considered to be the hallmark of the orchid genus Ophrys. Here, we introduce two new cases outside of Ophrys, in plant groups dominated by generalized, shelter-mimicking species. On the basis of phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral pollination strategies, we provide evidence for independent and bidirectional evolutionary transitions between generalized (shelter mimicry) and specialized (sexual deception) pollination strategies in three groups of flowering plants, and suggest that pseudocopulation has evolved from pre-adaptations (floral colours, shapes and odour bouquets) that selectively attract male pollinators through shelter mimicry. These findings, along with comparative analyses of floral traits (colours and scents), shed light on particular phenotypic changes that might have fuelled the parallel evolution of these extraordinary pollination strategies. Collectively, our results provide the first substantive insights into how pollination sexual deception might have evolved in the Euro-Mediterranean region, and demonstrate that even the most extreme cases of pollinator specialization can reverse to more generalized interactions, breaking 'Cope's rule of specialization'.

  17. Pre-adaptations and the evolution of pollination by sexual deception: Cope's rule of specialization revisited

    PubMed Central

    Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Wilson, Carol A.; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Banketov, Sergey A.; Mardulyn, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Pollination by sexual deception is arguably one of the most unusual liaisons linking plants and insects, and perhaps the most illustrative example of extreme floral specialization in angiosperms. While considerable progress has been made in understanding the floral traits involved in sexual deception, less is known about how this remarkable mimicry system might have arisen, the role of pre-adaptations in promoting its evolution and its extent as a pollination mechanism outside the few groups of plants (primarily orchids) where it has been described to date. In the Euro-Mediterranean region, pollination by sexual deception is traditionally considered to be the hallmark of the orchid genus Ophrys. Here, we introduce two new cases outside of Ophrys, in plant groups dominated by generalized, shelter-mimicking species. On the basis of phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral pollination strategies, we provide evidence for independent and bidirectional evolutionary transitions between generalized (shelter mimicry) and specialized (sexual deception) pollination strategies in three groups of flowering plants, and suggest that pseudocopulation has evolved from pre-adaptations (floral colours, shapes and odour bouquets) that selectively attract male pollinators through shelter mimicry. These findings, along with comparative analyses of floral traits (colours and scents), shed light on particular phenotypic changes that might have fuelled the parallel evolution of these extraordinary pollination strategies. Collectively, our results provide the first substantive insights into how pollination sexual deception might have evolved in the Euro-Mediterranean region, and demonstrate that even the most extreme cases of pollinator specialization can reverse to more generalized interactions, breaking ‘Cope's rule of specialization’. PMID:23055065

  18. Variability in Floral Scent in Rewarding and Deceptive Orchids: The Signature of Pollinator-imposed Selection?

    PubMed Central

    Salzmann, Charlotte C.; Nardella, Antonio M.; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Schiestl, Florian P.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims A comparative investigation was made of floral scent variation in the closely related, food-rewarding Anacamptis coriophora and the food-deceptive Anacamptis morio in order to identify patterns of variability of odour compounds in the two species and their role in pollinator attraction/avoidance learning. Methods Scent was collected from plants in natural populations and samples were analysed via quantitative gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Combined gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection was used to identify compounds that are detected by the pollinators. Experimental reduction of scent variability was performed in the field with plots of A. morio plants supplemented with a uniform amount of anisaldehyde. Key Results Both orchid species emitted complex odour bouquets. In A. coriophora the two main benzenoid compounds, hydroquinone dimethyl ether (1,4-dimethoxybenzene) and anisaldehyde (methoxybenzaldehyde), triggered electrophysiological responses in olfactory neurons of honey-bee and bumble-bee workers. The scent of A. morio, however, was too weak to elicit any electrophysiological responses. The overall variation in scent was significantly lower in the rewarding A. coriophora than in the deceptive A. morio, suggesting pollinator avoidance-learning selecting for high variation in the deceptive species. A. morio flowers supplemented with non-variable scent in plot experiments, however, did not show significantly reduced pollination success. Conclusions Whereas in the rewarding A. coriophora stabilizing selection imposed by floral constancy of the pollinators may reduce scent variability, in the deceptive A. morio the emitted scent seems to be too weak to be detected by pollinators and thus its high variability may result from relaxed selection on this floral trait. PMID:17684024

  19. The Biosynthesis of Unusual Floral Volatiles and Blends Involved in Orchid Pollination by Deception: Current Progress and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Wong, Darren C J; Pichersky, Eran; Peakall, Rod

    2017-01-01

    Flowers have evolved diverse strategies to attract animal pollinators, with visual and olfactory floral cues often crucial for pollinator attraction. While most plants provide reward (e.g., nectar, pollen) in return for the service of pollination, 1000s of plant species, particularly in the orchid family, offer no apparent reward. Instead, they exploit their often specific pollinators (one or few) by mimicking signals of female insects, food source, and oviposition sites, among others. A full understanding of how these deceptive pollination strategies evolve and persist remains an open question. Nonetheless, there is growing evidence that unique blends that often contain unusual compounds in floral volatile constituents are often employed to secure pollination by deception. Thus, the ability of plants to rapidly evolve new pathways for synthesizing floral volatiles may hold the key to the widespread evolution of deceptive pollination. Yet, until now the biosynthesis of these volatile compounds has been largely neglected. While elucidating the biosynthesis in non-model systems is challenging, nonetheless, these cases may also offer untapped potential for biosynthetic breakthroughs given that some of the compounds can be exclusive or dominant components of the floral scent and production is often tissue-specific. In this perspective article, we first highlight the chemical diversity underpinning some of the more widespread deceptive orchid pollination strategies. Next, we explore the potential metabolic pathways and biosynthetic steps that might be involved. Finally, we offer recommendations to accelerate the discovery of the biochemical pathways in these challenging but intriguing systems.

  20. The Biosynthesis of Unusual Floral Volatiles and Blends Involved in Orchid Pollination by Deception: Current Progress and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Darren C. J.; Pichersky, Eran; Peakall, Rod

    2017-01-01

    Flowers have evolved diverse strategies to attract animal pollinators, with visual and olfactory floral cues often crucial for pollinator attraction. While most plants provide reward (e.g., nectar, pollen) in return for the service of pollination, 1000s of plant species, particularly in the orchid family, offer no apparent reward. Instead, they exploit their often specific pollinators (one or few) by mimicking signals of female insects, food source, and oviposition sites, among others. A full understanding of how these deceptive pollination strategies evolve and persist remains an open question. Nonetheless, there is growing evidence that unique blends that often contain unusual compounds in floral volatile constituents are often employed to secure pollination by deception. Thus, the ability of plants to rapidly evolve new pathways for synthesizing floral volatiles may hold the key to the widespread evolution of deceptive pollination. Yet, until now the biosynthesis of these volatile compounds has been largely neglected. While elucidating the biosynthesis in non-model systems is challenging, nonetheless, these cases may also offer untapped potential for biosynthetic breakthroughs given that some of the compounds can be exclusive or dominant components of the floral scent and production is often tissue-specific. In this perspective article, we first highlight the chemical diversity underpinning some of the more widespread deceptive orchid pollination strategies. Next, we explore the potential metabolic pathways and biosynthetic steps that might be involved. Finally, we offer recommendations to accelerate the discovery of the biochemical pathways in these challenging but intriguing systems. PMID:29181016

  1. Strong pollinator-mediated selection for increased flower brightness and contrast in a deceptive orchid.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Trunschke, Judith; Smit, Mart; Verbeek, Jeffrey; Ågren, Jon

    2016-03-01

    Contrasting flower color patterns that putatively attract or direct pollinators toward a reward are common among angiosperms. In the deceptive orchid Anacamptis morio, the lower petal, which makes up most of the floral display, has a light central patch with dark markings. Within populations, there is pronounced variation in petal brightness, patch size, amount of dark markings, and contrast between patch and petal margin. We tested whether pollinators mediate selection on these color traits and on morphology (plant height, number of flowers, corolla size, spur length), and whether selection is consistent with facilitated or negative frequency-dependent pollination. Pollinators mediated strong selection for increased petal brightness (Δβpoll = 0.42) and contrast (Δβpoll = 0.51). Pollinators also tended to mediate stabilizing selection on brightness (Δγpoll = -0.27, n.s.) favoring the most common phenotype in the population. Selection for reduced petal brightness among hand-pollinated plants indicated a fitness cost associated with brightness. The results demonstrate that flower color traits influence pollination success and seed production in A. morio, indicating that they affect attractiveness to pollinators, efficiency of pollen transfer, or both. The documented selection is consistent with facilitated pollination and selection for color convergence toward cooccurring rewarding species. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Effect of nectar supplementation on male and female components of pollination success in the deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jersáková, Jana; Johnson, Steven D.; Kindlmann, Pavel; Pupin, Anne-Charlotte

    2008-05-01

    Many orchids lack floral nectar rewards and therefore rely on deception to attract pollinators. To determine the effect that a mutation for nectar production would have on overall pollination success of the deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina, we recorded pollen deposition and removal in flowers of plants that had either been supplemented with an artificial nectar solution or left unmanipulated as controls. Nectar supplementation resulted in significant increases in the proportion of flowers pollinated, regardless of morph colour and the density of plants supplemented in the population. However, nectar supplementation had a significant positive effect on pollinaria removal only for the yellow morph in one experiment in which a low proportion of plants were supplemented. Thus a mutation for nectar production would have a positive effect on overall pollination success in D. sambucina, particularly the female component. The observed patterns are discussed in relation to other factors, such as cross-pollination and the reallocation of nectar resources for other plant functions, which are traditionally considered to shape the rewardless strategies of orchids.

  3. Caught in the act: pollination of sexually deceptive trap-flowers by fungus gnats in Pterostylis (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ryan D.; Scaccabarozzi, Daniela; Retter, Bryony A.; Hayes, Christine; Brown, Graham R.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Peakall, Rod

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Pterostylis is an Australasian terrestrial orchid genus of more than 400 species, most of which use a motile, touch-sensitive labellum to trap dipteran pollinators. Despite studies dating back to 1872, the mechanism of pollinator attraction has remained elusive. This study tested whether the fungus gnat-pollinated Pterostylis sanguinea secures pollination by sexual deception. Methods The literature was used to establish criteria for confirming sexual deception as a pollination strategy. Observations and video recordings allowed quantification of each step of the pollination process. Each floral visitor was sexed and DNA barcoding was used to evaluate the degree of pollinator specificity. Following observations that attraction to the flowers is by chemical cues, experimental dissection of flowers was used to determine the source of the sexual attractant and the effect of labellum orientation on sexual attraction. Fruit set was quantified for 19 populations to test for a relationship with plant density and population size. Key Results A single species of male gnat (Mycetophilidae) visited and pollinated the rewardless flowers. The gnats often showed probing copulatory behaviour on the labellum, leading to its triggering and the temporary entrapment of the gnat in the flower. Pollen deposition and removal occurred as the gnat escaped from the flower via the reproductive structures. The labellum was the sole source of the chemical attractant. Gnats always alighted on the labellum facing upwards, but when it was rotated 180 ° they attempted copulation less frequently. Pollination rate showed no relationship with orchid population size or plant density. Conclusions This study confirms for the first time that highly specific pollination by fungus gnats is achieved by sexual deception in Pterostylis. It is predicted that sexual deception will be widespread in the genus, although the diversity of floral forms suggests that other mechanisms may also

  4. Pollen transfer efficiency and its effect on inflorescence size in deceptive pollination strategies.

    PubMed

    Scopece, G; Schiestl, F P; Cozzolino, S

    2015-03-01

    Pollination systems differ in pollen transfer efficiency, a variable that may influence the evolution of flower number. Here we apply a comparative approach to examine the link between pollen transfer efficiency and the evolution of inflorescence size in food and sexually deceptive orchids. We examined pollination performance in nine food-deceptive, and eight sexually deceptive orchids by recording pollen removal and deposition in the field. We calculated correlations between reproductive success and flower number (as a proxy for resources allocated during reproductive process), and directional selection differentials were estimated on flower number for four species. Results indicate that sexually deceptive species experience decreased pollen loss compared to food-deceptive species. Despite producing fewer flowers, sexually deceptive species attained levels of overall pollination success (through male and female function) similar to food-deceptive species. Furthermore, a positive correlation between flower number and pollination success was observed in food-deceptive species, but this correlation was not detected in sexually deceptive species. Directional selection differentials for flower number were significantly higher in food compared to sexually deceptive species. We suggest that pollination systems with more efficient pollen transfer and no correlation between pollination success and number of flowers produced, such as sexual deception, may allow the production of inflorescences with fewer flowers that permit the plant to allocate fewer resources to floral displays and, at the same time, limit transpiration. This strategy can be particularly important for ecological success in Mediterranean water-deprived habitats, and might explain the high frequency of sexually deceptive species in these specialised ecosystems. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing. Methodology To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment. Results Nectar addition increased (p<0.0001) self-pollination and pollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (p<0.0001) numbers of non-self pollinia deposited and lower rates of pollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645) trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export. Conclusions This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit

  6. Evolution of sexual mimicry in the orchid subtribe orchidinae: the role of preadaptations in the attraction of male bees as pollinators.

    PubMed

    Schiestl, Florian P; Cozzolino, Salvatore

    2008-01-28

    Within the astonishing diversity of orchid pollination systems, sexual deception is one of the most stunning. An example is the genus Ophrys, where plants attract male bees as pollinators by mimicking female mating signals. Unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes) are often the key signal for this chemical mimicry. Here we investigate the evolution of these key compounds within Orchidinae by mapping their production in flowers of selected species onto their estimated phylogeny. We found that alkenes, at least in trace amounts, were present in 18 of 20 investigated species together representing 10 genera. Thus, the reconstruction of ancestral state for alkene-production showed that this is a primitive character state in Ophrys, and can be interpreted as a preadaptation for the evolution of sexual deception. Four of the investigated species, namely Ophrys sphegodes, Serapias lingua, S. cordigera, and Anacamptis papilionacea, that are pollinated primarily by male bees, produced significantly larger amounts and a greater number of different alkenes than the species pollinated either primarily by female bees or other insects. We suggest that high amounts of alkenes evolved for the attraction of primarily male bees as pollinators by sensory exploitation, and discuss possible driving forces for the evolution of pollination by male bees.

  7. Evolution of sexual mimicry in the orchid subtribe orchidinae: the role of preadaptations in the attraction of male bees as pollinators

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Within the astonishing diversity of orchid pollination systems, sexual deception is one of the most stunning. An example is the genus Ophrys, where plants attract male bees as pollinators by mimicking female mating signals. Unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes) are often the key signal for this chemical mimicry. Here we investigate the evolution of these key compounds within Orchidinae by mapping their production in flowers of selected species onto their estimated phylogeny. Results We found that alkenes, at least in trace amounts, were present in 18 of 20 investigated species together representing 10 genera. Thus, the reconstruction of ancestral state for alkene-production showed that this is a primitive character state in Ophrys, and can be interpreted as a preadaptation for the evolution of sexual deception. Four of the investigated species, namely Ophrys sphegodes, Serapias lingua, S. cordigera, and Anacamptis papilionacea, that are pollinated primarily by male bees, produced significantly larger amounts and a greater number of different alkenes than the species pollinated either primarily by female bees or other insects. Conclusion We suggest that high amounts of alkenes evolved for the attraction of primarily male bees as pollinators by sensory exploitation, and discuss possible driving forces for the evolution of pollination by male bees. PMID:18226206

  8. Evidence for mixed sexual and asexual reproduction in the rare European mycoheterotrophic orchid Epipogium aphyllum, Orchidaceae (ghost orchid)

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Emilia; Rojek, Joanna; Kowalkowska, Agnieszka K.; Kapusta, Małgorzata; Znaniecka, Joanna; Minasiewicz, Julita

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite their significant capacity to propagate vegetatively, most orchids reproduce via seeds. Sexual reproduction via seed is commonly reported, in contrast to apomixis, whereby seeds are clones of the mother. Although insect pollination and autonomous self-pollination exist in mycoheterotrophic plants, the reproductive embryology of these plants remains under-studied. This paper provides evidence for the co-occurrence of both sexual and apomictic reproduction in a population of mycoheterotrophic plants – Epipogium aphyllum. We investigated seed formation via open pollination, induced autogamy, autogamy sensu stricto and autonomous apomixis. Methods The study was performed on a population of E. aphyllum located in northern Poland. The research included studies of the micromorphology, histochemistry and embryology of four types of reproductive systems. Scanning, fluorescence and light microscopy accompanied by graphical and statistical analyses were employed. Key Results We observed gametophyte development, from the one-nucleate stage to maturity, in unpollinated flower buds. The lack of zygotes in flower buds indicated that fertilization did not occur at this stage. Manual self-pollination led to a zygote, followed by embryo formation. Fertilization and embryo development derived from embryogenesis via open pollination is delayed compared with hand pollination. Isolation from external pollination resulted only in structures resembling zygotes that may originate either sexually or independent of fertilization. Parthenogenetic structures that resembled zygotes were observed in flowers that were emasculated and isolated from pollination. Zygotes formed at significantly higher frequencies via open pollination and induced autogamy in comparison to the parthenogenetic structures formed in other treatments. Conclusions We showed the absence of pre-zygotic barriers for autogamy in E. aphyllum. Self-pollination and self-fertilization are possible

  9. Evidence for mixed sexual and asexual reproduction in the rare European mycoheterotrophic orchid Epipogium aphyllum, Orchidaceae (ghost orchid).

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Emilia; Rojek, Joanna; Kowalkowska, Agnieszka K; Kapusta, Małgorzata; Znaniecka, Joanna; Minasiewicz, Julita

    2016-07-01

    Despite their significant capacity to propagate vegetatively, most orchids reproduce via seeds. Sexual reproduction via seed is commonly reported, in contrast to apomixis, whereby seeds are clones of the mother. Although insect pollination and autonomous self-pollination exist in mycoheterotrophic plants, the reproductive embryology of these plants remains under-studied. This paper provides evidence for the co-occurrence of both sexual and apomictic reproduction in a population of mycoheterotrophic plants - Epipogium aphyllum We investigated seed formation via open pollination, induced autogamy, autogamy sensu stricto and autonomous apomixis. The study was performed on a population of E. aphyllum located in northern Poland. The research included studies of the micromorphology, histochemistry and embryology of four types of reproductive systems. Scanning, fluorescence and light microscopy accompanied by graphical and statistical analyses were employed. We observed gametophyte development, from the one-nucleate stage to maturity, in unpollinated flower buds. The lack of zygotes in flower buds indicated that fertilization did not occur at this stage. Manual self-pollination led to a zygote, followed by embryo formation. Fertilization and embryo development derived from embryogenesis via open pollination is delayed compared with hand pollination. Isolation from external pollination resulted only in structures resembling zygotes that may originate either sexually or independent of fertilization. Parthenogenetic structures that resembled zygotes were observed in flowers that were emasculated and isolated from pollination. Zygotes formed at significantly higher frequencies via open pollination and induced autogamy in comparison to the parthenogenetic structures formed in other treatments. We showed the absence of pre-zygotic barriers for autogamy in E. aphyllum Self-pollination and self-fertilization are possible; however, natural self-pollination is unlikely or rare due

  10. Floral trait variation and integration as a function of sexual deception in Gorteria diffusa

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Allan G.; Brockington, Samuel F.; de Jager, Marinus L.; Mellers, Gregory; Walker, Rachel H.; Glover, Beverley J.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic integration, the coordinated covariance of suites of morphological traits, is critical for proper functioning of organisms. Angiosperm flowers are complex structures comprising suites of traits that function together to achieve effective pollen transfer. Floral integration could reflect shared genetic and developmental control of these traits, or could arise through pollinator-imposed stabilizing correlational selection on traits. We sought to expose mechanisms underlying floral trait integration in the sexually deceptive daisy, Gorteria diffusa, by testing the hypothesis that stabilizing selection imposed by male pollinators on floral traits involved in mimicry has resulted in tighter integration. To do this, we quantified patterns of floral trait variance and covariance in morphologically divergent G. diffusa floral forms representing a continuum in the levels of sexual deception. We show that integration of traits functioning in visual attraction of male pollinators increases with pollinator deception, and is stronger than integration of non-mimicry trait modules. Consistent patterns of within-population trait variance and covariance across floral forms suggest that integration has not been built by stabilizing correlational selection on genetically independent traits. Instead pollinator specialization has selected for tightened integration within modules of linked traits. Despite potentially strong constraint on morphological evolution imposed by developmental genetic linkages between traits, we demonstrate substantial divergence in traits across G. diffusa floral forms and show that divergence has often occurred without altering within-population patterns of trait correlations. PMID:25002705

  11. Floral trait variation and integration as a function of sexual deception in Gorteria diffusa.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Allan G; Brockington, Samuel F; de Jager, Marinus L; Mellers, Gregory; Walker, Rachel H; Glover, Beverley J

    2014-08-19

    Phenotypic integration, the coordinated covariance of suites of morphological traits, is critical for proper functioning of organisms. Angiosperm flowers are complex structures comprising suites of traits that function together to achieve effective pollen transfer. Floral integration could reflect shared genetic and developmental control of these traits, or could arise through pollinator-imposed stabilizing correlational selection on traits. We sought to expose mechanisms underlying floral trait integration in the sexually deceptive daisy, Gorteria diffusa, by testing the hypothesis that stabilizing selection imposed by male pollinators on floral traits involved in mimicry has resulted in tighter integration. To do this, we quantified patterns of floral trait variance and covariance in morphologically divergent G. diffusa floral forms representing a continuum in the levels of sexual deception. We show that integration of traits functioning in visual attraction of male pollinators increases with pollinator deception, and is stronger than integration of non-mimicry trait modules. Consistent patterns of within-population trait variance and covariance across floral forms suggest that integration has not been built by stabilizing correlational selection on genetically independent traits. Instead pollinator specialization has selected for tightened integration within modules of linked traits. Despite potentially strong constraint on morphological evolution imposed by developmental genetic linkages between traits, we demonstrate substantial divergence in traits across G. diffusa floral forms and show that divergence has often occurred without altering within-population patterns of trait correlations. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Deceived by orchids: sex, science, fiction and Darwin.

    PubMed

    Endersby, Jim

    2016-06-01

    Between 1916 and 1927, botanists in several countries independently resolved three problems that had mystified earlier naturalists - including Charles Darwin: how did the many species of orchid that did not produce nectar persuade insects to pollinate them? Why did some orchid flowers seem to mimic insects? And why should a native British orchid suffer 'attacks' from a bee? Half a century after Darwin's death, these three mysteries were shown to be aspects of a phenomenon now known as pseudocopulation, whereby male insects are deceived into attempting to mate with the orchid's flowers, which mimic female insects; the males then carry the flower's pollen with them when they move on to try the next deceptive orchid. Early twentieth-century botanists were able to see what their predecessors had not because orchids (along with other plants) had undergone an imaginative re-creation: Darwin's science was appropriated by popular interpreters of science, including the novelist Grant Allen; then H.G. Wells imagined orchids as killers (inspiring a number of imitators), to produce a genre of orchid stories that reflected significant cultural shifts, not least in the presentation of female sexuality. It was only after these changes that scientists were able to see plants as equipped with agency, actively able to pursue their own, cunning reproductive strategies - and to outwit animals in the process. This paper traces the movement of a set of ideas that were created in a context that was recognizably scientific; they then became popular non-fiction, then popular fiction, and then inspired a new science, which in turn inspired a new generation of fiction writers. Long after clear barriers between elite and popular science had supposedly been established in the early twentieth century, they remained porous because a variety of imaginative writers kept destabilizing them. The fluidity of the boundaries between makers, interpreters and publics of scientific knowledge was a highly

  13. Selection for predation, not female fecundity, explains sexual size dimorphism in the orchid mantises.

    PubMed

    Svenson, Gavin J; Brannoch, Sydney K; Rodrigues, Henrique M; O'Hanlon, James C; Wieland, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Here we reconstruct the evolutionary shift towards floral simulation in orchid mantises and suggest female predatory selection as the likely driving force behind the development of extreme sexual size dimorphism. Through analysis of body size data and phylogenetic modelling of trait evolution, we recovered an ancestral shift towards sexual dimorphisms in both size and appearance in a lineage of flower-associated praying mantises. Sedentary female flower mantises dramatically increased in size prior to a transition from camouflaged, ambush predation to a floral simulation strategy, gaining access to, and visually attracting, a novel resource: large pollinating insects. Male flower mantises, however, remained small and mobile to facilitate mate-finding and reproductive success, consistent with ancestral male life strategy. Although moderate sexual size dimorphisms are common in many arthropod lineages, the predominant explanation is female size increase for increased fecundity. However, sex-dependent selective pressures acting outside of female fecundity have been suggested as mechanisms behind niche dimorphisms. Our hypothesised role of predatory selection acting on females to generate both extreme sexual size dimorphism coupled with niche dimorphism is novel among arthropods.

  14. Selection for predation, not female fecundity, explains sexual size dimorphism in the orchid mantises

    PubMed Central

    Svenson, Gavin J.; Brannoch, Sydney K.; Rodrigues, Henrique M.; O’Hanlon, James C.; Wieland, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Here we reconstruct the evolutionary shift towards floral simulation in orchid mantises and suggest female predatory selection as the likely driving force behind the development of extreme sexual size dimorphism. Through analysis of body size data and phylogenetic modelling of trait evolution, we recovered an ancestral shift towards sexual dimorphisms in both size and appearance in a lineage of flower-associated praying mantises. Sedentary female flower mantises dramatically increased in size prior to a transition from camouflaged, ambush predation to a floral simulation strategy, gaining access to, and visually attracting, a novel resource: large pollinating insects. Male flower mantises, however, remained small and mobile to facilitate mate-finding and reproductive success, consistent with ancestral male life strategy. Although moderate sexual size dimorphisms are common in many arthropod lineages, the predominant explanation is female size increase for increased fecundity. However, sex-dependent selective pressures acting outside of female fecundity have been suggested as mechanisms behind niche dimorphisms. Our hypothesised role of predatory selection acting on females to generate both extreme sexual size dimorphism coupled with niche dimorphism is novel among arthropods. PMID:27905469

  15. The Threat of Captivity: Hollywood and the Sexualization of Race Relations in "The Girls of the White Orchid" and "The Bitter Tea of General Yen."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Gina

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the captivity tale as an outgrowth of two fundamental contradictions within patriarchal ideology. Considers American popular thought in relation to this tale. Relates xenophobia in the 1980s to the sexual and racial politics of "The Girls of the White Orchid." Discusses the racial, sexual, and textual ambivalence in "The…

  16. Continent-wide distribution in mycorrhizal fungi: implications for the biogeography of specialized orchids

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Belinda J.; Phillips, Ryan D.; Wright, Magali; Linde, Celeste C.; Dixon, Kingsley W.

    2015-01-01

    requirements and a high incidence of pollination by sexual deception may explain biogeographic patterns in southern Australian orchids. PMID:26105186

  17. Continent-wide distribution in mycorrhizal fungi: implications for the biogeography of specialized orchids.

    PubMed

    Davis, Belinda J; Phillips, Ryan D; Wright, Magali; Linde, Celeste C; Dixon, Kingsley W

    2015-09-01

    Although mycorrhizal associations are predominantly generalist, specialized mycorrhizal interactions have repeatedly evolved in Orchidaceae, suggesting a potential role in limiting the geographical range of orchid species. In particular, the Australian orchid flora is characterized by high mycorrhizal specialization and short-range endemism. This study investigates the mycorrhizae used by Pheladenia deformis, one of the few orchid species to occur across the Australian continent. Specifically, it examines whether P. deformis is widely distributed through using multiple fungi or a single widespread fungus, and if the fungi used by Australian orchids are widespread at the continental scale. Mycorrhizal fungi were isolated from P. deformis populations in eastern and western Australia. Germination trials using seed from western Australian populations were conducted to test if these fungi supported germination, regardless of the region in which they occurred. A phylogenetic analysis was undertaken using isolates from P. deformis and other Australian orchids that use the genus Sebacina to test for the occurrence of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in eastern and western Australia. With the exception of one isolate, all fungi used by P. deformis belonged to a single fungal OTU of Sebacina. Fungal isolates from eastern and western Australia supported germination of P. deformis. A phylogenetic analysis of Australian Sebacina revealed that all of the OTUs that had been well sampled occurred on both sides of the continent. The use of a widespread fungal OTU in P. deformis enables a broad distribution despite high mycorrhizal specificity. The Sebacina OTUs that are used by a range of Australian orchids occur on both sides of the continent, demonstrating that the short-range endemism prevalent in the orchids is not driven by fungal species with narrow distributions. Alternatively, a combination of specific edaphic requirements and a high incidence of pollination by sexual

  18. Taxonomic turmoil down-under: recent developments in Australian orchid systematics

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    most clades enable comparative biological studies of Australian orchids to be conducted as never before. Outstanding subjects exist for exploring pollination by sexual deception and understanding the intricacies of mycorrhizal relationships and orchid conservation biology. PMID:19398445

  19. Integrative taxonomy of the fly orchid group: insights from chemical ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffard, Nina; Buatois, Bruno; Schatz, Bertrand

    2016-10-01

    Several authors have recently stressed the need to develop an integrative approach in taxonomy, but studies applying such an approach to Mediterranean orchids are scarce. In sexually deceptive orchids from the taxonomically difficult genus Ophrys, pollination is specific and performed by male insects attracted to the flowers by sex pheromone-mimicking floral scents. Floral compounds are therefore of primary importance for reproductive isolation and species delimitations in this genus. In the fly orchid group, molecular, morphological, and ecological characters have been extensively studied, but a comprehensive survey of floral scents is still lacking. In the present study, the blends of floral compounds of its three members, Ophrys insectifera, Ophrys aymoninii, and Ophrys subinsectifera, were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 107 compounds were found, with a majority of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Significant differentiation, both qualitative and quantitative, was found among the three taxa. This result, pooled with those from the literature, forms a comprehensive and congruent dataset that allows us to elucidate the taxonomic rank of the three members of the fly orchid group.

  20. Orchid Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    Exotic, captivating, and seductive, orchids have long fascinated plant lovers. They first attracted the attention of Westerners in the 17th century, when explorers brought back samples from South America and Asia. By the mid-1800s, orchid collecting had reached a fever pitch, not unlike that of the Dutch tulip craze of the 1630s, with rich (and…

  1. Evidence for pollinator sharing in Mediterranean nectar-mimic orchids: absence of premating barriers?

    PubMed Central

    Cozzolino, Salvatore; Schiestl, Florian P; Müller, Andreas; De Castro, Olga; Nardella, Antonio Marco; Widmer, Alex

    2005-01-01

    Pollinator specificity has traditionally been considered the main reproductive isolation mechanism in orchids. Among Mediterranean orchids, however, many species attract and deceive pollinators by mimicking nectar-rewarding plants. To test the extent to which deceptive orchid species share pollinators, we collected and identified hemipollinaria-carrying insects, and used ribosomal sequences to identify the orchid species from which hemipollinaria were removed. We found that social and solitary bees, and also flies, carried hemipollinaria belonging to nine orchid species with different degrees of specialization. In particular, Anacamptis morio, Dactylorhiza romana and Orchis mascula used a large set of pollinator species, whereas others such as Orchis quadripunctata seemed to be pollinated by one pollinator species only. Out of the insects with hemipollinaria, 19% were found to carry hemipollinaria from more than one orchid species, indicating that sympatric food-deceptive orchids can share pollinators. This sharing was apparent even among orchid sister-species, thus revealing an effective overlap in pollinator sets among closely related species. These results suggest varying degrees of pollinator specificity in these orchids, and indicate that pollinator specificity cannot always act as the main isolation mechanism in food-deceptive temperate orchids. PMID:16024392

  2. Phoretic nest parasites use sexual deception to obtain transport to their host's nest.

    PubMed

    Saul-Gershenz, Leslie S; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2006-09-19

    Cooperative behaviors are common among social insects such as bees, wasps, ants, and termites, but they have not been reported from insect species that use aggressive mimicry to manipulate and exploit prey or hosts. Here we show that larval aggregations of the blister beetle Meloe franciscanus, which parasitize nests of the solitary bee Habropoda pallida, cooperate to exploit the sexual communication system of their hosts by producing a chemical cue that mimics the sex pheromone of the female bee. Male bees are lured to larval aggregations, and upon contact (pseudocopulation) the beetle larvae attach to the male bees. The larvae transfer to female bees during mating and subsequently are transported to the nests of their hosts. To mimic the chemical and visual signals of female bees effectively, the parasite larvae must cooperate, emphasizing the adaptive value of cooperation between larvae. The aggressive chemical mimicry by the beetle larvae and their subsequent transport to their hosts' nests by the hosts themselves provide an efficient solution to the problem of locating a critical but scarce resource in a harsh environment.

  3. Mutilation, deception, and sex changes.

    PubMed Central

    Lavin, M

    1987-01-01

    The paper considers and rejects two arguments against the performance of sexual reassignment surgery. First, it is argued that the operation is not mutilating, but functionally enabling. Second, it is argued that the operation is not objectionably deceptive, since, if there is such a thing as our 'real sex', we do not know (ordinarily) what it is. The paper is also intended to shed light on what our sexual identity is and on what matters in sexual relations. PMID:3612700

  4. Carrion mimicry in a South African orchid: flowers attract a narrow subset of the fly assemblage on animal carcasses

    PubMed Central

    van der Niet, Timotheüs; Hansen, Dennis M.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Although pollination of plants that attract flies by resembling their carrion brood and food sites has been reported in several angiosperm families, there has been very little work done on the level of specificity in carrion mimicry systems and the importance of plant cues in mediating such specialization. Specificity may be expected, as carrion-frequenting flies often exploit different niches, which has been interpreted as avoidance of interspecific competition. Interactions between the orchid Satyrium pumilum and a local assemblage of carrion flies were investigated, and the functional significance of floral traits, especially scent, tested. Pollination success and the incidence of pollinator-mediated self-pollination were measured and these were compared with values for orchids with sexual- and food-deceptive pollination systems. Methods and Key Results Observations of insect visitation to animal carcasses and to flowers showed that the local assemblage of carrion flies was dominated by blow flies (Calliphoridae), house flies (Muscidae) and flesh flies (Sarcophagidae), but flowers of the orchid were pollinated exclusively by flesh flies, with a strong bias towards females that sometimes deposited live larvae on flowers. A trend towards similar partitioning of fly taxa was found in an experiment that tested the effect of large versus small carrion quantities on fly attraction. GC-MS analysis showed that floral scent is dominated by oligosulfides, 2-heptanone, p-cresol and indole, compounds that also dominate carrion scent. Flesh flies did not distinguish between floral and carrion scent in a choice experiment using olfactory cues only, which also showed that scent alone is responsible for fly attraction. Pollination success was relatively high (31·5 % of flowers), but tracking of stained pollinia also revealed that a relatively high percentage (46 %) of pollen deposited on stigmas originates from the same plant. Conclusions Satyrium pumilum

  5. Carrion mimicry in a South African orchid: flowers attract a narrow subset of the fly assemblage on animal carcasses.

    PubMed

    van der Niet, Timotheüs; Hansen, Dennis M; Johnson, Steven D

    2011-05-01

    Although pollination of plants that attract flies by resembling their carrion brood and food sites has been reported in several angiosperm families, there has been very little work done on the level of specificity in carrion mimicry systems and the importance of plant cues in mediating such specialization. Specificity may be expected, as carrion-frequenting flies often exploit different niches, which has been interpreted as avoidance of interspecific competition. Interactions between the orchid Satyrium pumilum and a local assemblage of carrion flies were investigated, and the functional significance of floral traits, especially scent, tested. Pollination success and the incidence of pollinator-mediated self-pollination were measured and these were compared with values for orchids with sexual- and food-deceptive pollination systems. Observations of insect visitation to animal carcasses and to flowers showed that the local assemblage of carrion flies was dominated by blow flies (Calliphoridae), house flies (Muscidae) and flesh flies (Sarcophagidae), but flowers of the orchid were pollinated exclusively by flesh flies, with a strong bias towards females that sometimes deposited live larvae on flowers. A trend towards similar partitioning of fly taxa was found in an experiment that tested the effect of large versus small carrion quantities on fly attraction. GC-MS analysis showed that floral scent is dominated by oligosulfides, 2-heptanone, p-cresol and indole, compounds that also dominate carrion scent. Flesh flies did not distinguish between floral and carrion scent in a choice experiment using olfactory cues only, which also showed that scent alone is responsible for fly attraction. Pollination success was relatively high (31·5 % of flowers), but tracking of stained pollinia also revealed that a relatively high percentage (46 %) of pollen deposited on stigmas originates from the same plant. Satyrium pumilum selectively attracts flesh flies, probably because its

  6. Fusarium Wilt of Orchids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium wilt of orchids is highly destructive and economically limiting to the production of quality orchids that has steadily increased in many production facilities. Important crops such as phalaenopsis, cattleyas, and oncidiums appear to be especially susceptible to certain Fusarium species. Fu...

  7. Deceptively Small

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-02

    Tiny Epimetheus is dwarfed by adjacent slivers of the A and F rings. But is it really? Looks can be deceiving! There is approximately 10 to 20 times more mass in that tiny dot than in the piece of the A ring visible in this image! In total, Saturn's rings have about as much mass as a few times the mass of the moon Mimas. (This mass estimate comes from measuring the waves raised in the rings by moons like Epimetheus.) The rings look physically larger than any moon because the individual ring particles are very small, giving them a large surface area for a given mass. Epimetheus (70 miles or 113 kilometers across), on the other hand, has a small surface area per mass compared to the rings, making it look deceptively small. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 19 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Dec. 5, 2014. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.2 million miles (2 million kilometers) from Epimetheus and at a Sun-Epimetheus-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 40 degrees. Image scale is 7 miles (12 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18302

  8. Mathematical analysis of deception.

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Deanna Tamae Koike; Durgin, Nancy Ann

    This report describes the results of a three year research project about the use of deception in information protection. The work involved a collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) and at the University of California at Davis. This report includes a review of the history of deception, a discussion of some cognitive issues, an overview of previous work in deception, the results of experiments on the effects of deception on an attacker, and a mathematical model of error types associated with deception in computer systems.

  9. Sex and the Catasetinae (Darwin's favourite orchids).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Gottschling, Marc; Whitten, W Mark; Salazar, Gerardo; Gerlach, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Two sexual systems are predominant in Catasetinae (Orchidaceae), namely protandry (which has evolved in other orchid lineages as well) and environmental sex determination (ESD) being a unique trait among Orchidaceae. Yet, the lack of a robust phylogenetic framework for Catasetinae has hampered deeper insights in origin and evolution of sexual systems. To investigate the origins of protandry and ESD in Catasetinae, we sequenced nuclear and chloroplast loci from 77 species, providing the most extensive data matrix of Catasetinae available so far with all major lineages represented. We used Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships and evolution of sexual systems. Irrespectively of the methods used, Catasetinae were monophyletic in molecular phylogenies, with all established generic lineages and their relationships resolved and highly supported. According to comparative reconstruction approaches, the last common ancestor of Catasetinae was inferred as having bisexual flowers (i.e., lacking protandry and ESD as well), and protandry originated once in core Catasetinae (comprising Catasetum, Clowesia, Cycnoches, Dressleria and Mormodes). In addition, three independent gains of ESD are reliably inferred, linked to corresponding loss of protandry within core Catasetinae. Thus, prior gain of protandry appears as the necessary prerequisite for gain of ESD in orchids. Our results contribute to a comprehensive evolutionary scenario for sexual systems in Catasetinae and more generally in orchids as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of floral mimicry in orchids.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Philipp M; Schiestl, Florian P

    2008-05-01

    Deceptive plants do not produce floral rewards, but attract pollinators by mimicking signals of other organisms, such as food plants or female insects. Such floral mimicry is particularly common in orchids, in which flower morphology, coloration and odour play key roles in deceiving pollinators. A better understanding of the molecular bases for these traits should provide new insights into the occurrence, mechanisms and evolutionary consequences of floral mimicry. It should also reveal the molecular bases of pollinator-attracting signals, in addition to providing strategies for manipulating insect behaviour in general. Here, we review data on the molecular bases for traits involved in floral mimicry, and we describe methodological advances helpful for the functional evaluation of key genes.

  11. Amino Acid Change in an Orchid Desaturase Enables Mimicry of the Pollinator’s Sex Pheromone

    DOE PAGES

    Sedeek, Khalid E. M.; Whittle, Edward; Guthörl, Daniela; ...

    2016-05-19

    Here, we show that mimicry illustrates the power of selection to produce phenotypic convergence in biology. A striking example is the imitation of female insects by plants that are pollinated by sexual deception of males of the same insect species. This involves mimicry of visual, tactile, and chemical signals of females, especially their sex pheromones. The Mediterranean orchid Ophrys exaltata employs chemical mimicry of cuticular hydrocarbons, particularly the 7-alkenes, in an insect sex pheromone to attract and elicit mating behavior in its pollinators, males of the cellophane bee Colletes cunicularius. A difference in alkene double-bond positions is responsible for reproductivemore » isolation between O. exaltata and closely related species, such as O. sphegodes. We show that these 7-alkenes are likely determined by the action of the stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase (SAD) homolog SAD5. After gene duplication, changes in subcellular localization relative to the ancestral housekeeping desaturase may have allowed proto-SAD5’s reaction products to undergo further biosynthesis to both 7- and 9-alkenes. Such ancestral coproduction of two alkene classes may have led to pollinator-mediated deleterious pleiotropy. Despite possible evolutionary intermediates with reduced activity, amino acid changes at the bottom of the substrate-binding cavity have conferred enzyme specificity for 7-alkene biosynthesis by preventing the binding of longer-chained fatty acid (FA) precursors by the enzyme. In conclusion, this change in desaturase function enabled the orchid to perfect its chemical mimicry of pollinator sex pheromones by escape from deleterious pleiotropy, supporting a role of pleiotropy in determining the possible trajectories of adaptive evolution.« less

  12. Amino Acid Change in an Orchid Desaturase Enables Mimicry of the Pollinator's Sex Pheromone.

    PubMed

    Sedeek, Khalid E M; Whittle, Edward; Guthörl, Daniela; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Shanklin, John; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2016-06-06

    Mimicry illustrates the power of selection to produce phenotypic convergence in biology [1]. A striking example is the imitation of female insects by plants that are pollinated by sexual deception of males of the same insect species [2-4]. This involves mimicry of visual, tactile, and chemical signals of females [2-7], especially their sex pheromones [8-11]. The Mediterranean orchid Ophrys exaltata employs chemical mimicry of cuticular hydrocarbons, particularly the 7-alkenes, in an insect sex pheromone to attract and elicit mating behavior in its pollinators, males of the cellophane bee Colletes cunicularius [11-13]. A difference in alkene double-bond positions is responsible for reproductive isolation between O. exaltata and closely related species, such as O. sphegodes [13-16]. We show that these 7-alkenes are likely determined by the action of the stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase (SAD) homolog SAD5. After gene duplication, changes in subcellular localization relative to the ancestral housekeeping desaturase may have allowed proto-SAD5's reaction products to undergo further biosynthesis to both 7- and 9-alkenes. Such ancestral coproduction of two alkene classes may have led to pollinator-mediated deleterious pleiotropy. Despite possible evolutionary intermediates with reduced activity, amino acid changes at the bottom of the substrate-binding cavity have conferred enzyme specificity for 7-alkene biosynthesis by preventing the binding of longer-chained fatty acid (FA) precursors by the enzyme. This change in desaturase function enabled the orchid to perfect its chemical mimicry of pollinator sex pheromones by escape from deleterious pleiotropy, supporting a role of pleiotropy in determining the possible trajectories of adaptive evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Amino Acid Change in an Orchid Desaturase Enables Mimicry of the Pollinator’s Sex Pheromone

    SciTech Connect

    Sedeek, Khalid E. M.; Whittle, Edward; Guthörl, Daniela

    Here, we show that mimicry illustrates the power of selection to produce phenotypic convergence in biology. A striking example is the imitation of female insects by plants that are pollinated by sexual deception of males of the same insect species. This involves mimicry of visual, tactile, and chemical signals of females, especially their sex pheromones. The Mediterranean orchid Ophrys exaltata employs chemical mimicry of cuticular hydrocarbons, particularly the 7-alkenes, in an insect sex pheromone to attract and elicit mating behavior in its pollinators, males of the cellophane bee Colletes cunicularius. A difference in alkene double-bond positions is responsible for reproductivemore » isolation between O. exaltata and closely related species, such as O. sphegodes. We show that these 7-alkenes are likely determined by the action of the stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase (SAD) homolog SAD5. After gene duplication, changes in subcellular localization relative to the ancestral housekeeping desaturase may have allowed proto-SAD5’s reaction products to undergo further biosynthesis to both 7- and 9-alkenes. Such ancestral coproduction of two alkene classes may have led to pollinator-mediated deleterious pleiotropy. Despite possible evolutionary intermediates with reduced activity, amino acid changes at the bottom of the substrate-binding cavity have conferred enzyme specificity for 7-alkene biosynthesis by preventing the binding of longer-chained fatty acid (FA) precursors by the enzyme. In conclusion, this change in desaturase function enabled the orchid to perfect its chemical mimicry of pollinator sex pheromones by escape from deleterious pleiotropy, supporting a role of pleiotropy in determining the possible trajectories of adaptive evolution.« less

  14. Bumble-bee learning selects for both early and long flowering in food-deceptive plants

    PubMed Central

    Internicola, Antonina I.; Harder, Lawrence D.

    2012-01-01

    Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive and fewer competing plant species are flowering, and/or flowering for extended periods to enhance the chance of pollinator visits. We tested these hypotheses by manipulating flowering time and duration in a natural population of Calypso bulbosa and quantifying pollinator visitation based on pollen removal. Both early and long flowering increased bumble-bee visitation compared with late and brief flowering, respectively. To identify the cause of reduced visitation during late flowering, we tested whether negative experience with C. bulbosa (avoidance learning) and positive experience with a rewarding species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, (associative learning) by captive bumble-bees could reduce C. bulbosa's competitiveness. Avoidance learning explained the higher visitation of early- compared with late-flowering C. bulbosa. The resulting pollinator-mediated selection for early flowering may commonly affect GFD orchids, explaining their tendency to flower earlier than rewarding orchids. For dissimilar deceptive and rewarding sympatric species, associative learning may additionally favour early flowering by GFD species. PMID:22090384

  15. Bumble-bee learning selects for both early and long flowering in food-deceptive plants.

    PubMed

    Internicola, Antonina I; Harder, Lawrence D

    2012-04-22

    Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive and fewer competing plant species are flowering, and/or flowering for extended periods to enhance the chance of pollinator visits. We tested these hypotheses by manipulating flowering time and duration in a natural population of Calypso bulbosa and quantifying pollinator visitation based on pollen removal. Both early and long flowering increased bumble-bee visitation compared with late and brief flowering, respectively. To identify the cause of reduced visitation during late flowering, we tested whether negative experience with C. bulbosa (avoidance learning) and positive experience with a rewarding species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, (associative learning) by captive bumble-bees could reduce C. bulbosa's competitiveness. Avoidance learning explained the higher visitation of early- compared with late-flowering C. bulbosa. The resulting pollinator-mediated selection for early flowering may commonly affect GFD orchids, explaining their tendency to flower earlier than rewarding orchids. For dissimilar deceptive and rewarding sympatric species, associative learning may additionally favour early flowering by GFD species.

  16. Orchid conservation: further links.

    PubMed

    Fay, Michael F

    2016-07-01

    Due in great part to their often complex interactions with mycorrhizal fungi, pollinators and host trees, Orchidaceae present particular challenges for conservation. Furthermore, orchids, as potentially the largest family of angiosperms with >26000 species, species complexes and frequent hybrid formation, are complex to catalogue. Following a highlight in 2015, a further seven papers focusing on orchids, their interactions with beneficial organisms, pollinators and mycorrhiza, and other factors relating to their conservation, including threats from human utilization and changing land use, are presented here. The production of an online flora of all known plants and an assessment of the conservation status of all known plant species as far as possible, to guide conservation action are the first two targets of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation Without knowing how many species there are and how they should be circumscribed, neither of these targets is achievable. Orchids are a fascinating subject for fundamental research with rapid species evolution, specific organ structure and development, but they also suffer from high levels of threat. Effective orchid conservation must take account of the beneficial interactions with fungi and pollinators and the potentially detrimental effects of over-collection and changes in land use. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Convergent evolution of floral signals underlies the success of Neotropical orchids

    PubMed Central

    Papadopulos, Alexander S. T.; Powell, Martyn P.; Pupulin, Franco; Warner, Jorge; Hawkins, Julie A.; Salamin, Nicolas; Chittka, Lars; Williams, Norris H.; Whitten, W. Mark; Loader, Deniz; Valente, Luis M.; Chase, Mark W.; Savolainen, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The great majority of plant species in the tropics require animals to achieve pollination, but the exact role of floral signals in attraction of animal pollinators is often debated. Many plants provide a floral reward to attract a guild of pollinators, and it has been proposed that floral signals of non-rewarding species may converge on those of rewarding species to exploit the relationship of the latter with their pollinators. In the orchid family (Orchidaceae), pollination is almost universally animal-mediated, but a third of species provide no floral reward, which suggests that deceptive pollination mechanisms are prevalent. Here, we examine floral colour and shape convergence in Neotropical plant communities, focusing on certain food-deceptive Oncidiinae orchids (e.g. Trichocentrum ascendens and Oncidium nebulosum) and rewarding species of Malpighiaceae. We show that the species from these two distantly related families are often more similar in floral colour and shape than expected by chance and propose that a system of multifarious floral mimicry—a form of Batesian mimicry that involves multiple models and is more complex than a simple one model–one mimic system—operates in these orchids. The same mimetic pollination system has evolved at least 14 times within the species-rich Oncidiinae throughout the Neotropics. These results help explain the extraordinary diversification of Neotropical orchids and highlight the complexity of plant–animal interactions. PMID:23804617

  18. Convergent evolution of floral signals underlies the success of Neotropical orchids.

    PubMed

    Papadopulos, Alexander S T; Powell, Martyn P; Pupulin, Franco; Warner, Jorge; Hawkins, Julie A; Salamin, Nicolas; Chittka, Lars; Williams, Norris H; Whitten, W Mark; Loader, Deniz; Valente, Luis M; Chase, Mark W; Savolainen, Vincent

    2013-08-22

    The great majority of plant species in the tropics require animals to achieve pollination, but the exact role of floral signals in attraction of animal pollinators is often debated. Many plants provide a floral reward to attract a guild of pollinators, and it has been proposed that floral signals of non-rewarding species may converge on those of rewarding species to exploit the relationship of the latter with their pollinators. In the orchid family (Orchidaceae), pollination is almost universally animal-mediated, but a third of species provide no floral reward, which suggests that deceptive pollination mechanisms are prevalent. Here, we examine floral colour and shape convergence in Neotropical plant communities, focusing on certain food-deceptive Oncidiinae orchids (e.g. Trichocentrum ascendens and Oncidium nebulosum) and rewarding species of Malpighiaceae. We show that the species from these two distantly related families are often more similar in floral colour and shape than expected by chance and propose that a system of multifarious floral mimicry--a form of Batesian mimicry that involves multiple models and is more complex than a simple one model-one mimic system--operates in these orchids. The same mimetic pollination system has evolved at least 14 times within the species-rich Oncidiinae throughout the Neotropics. These results help explain the extraordinary diversification of Neotropical orchids and highlight the complexity of plant-animal interactions.

  19. Macroevolution of perfume signalling in orchid bees.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marjorie G; Mitko, Lukasz; Eltz, Thomas; Ramírez, Santiago R

    2016-11-01

    Theory predicts that both stabilising selection and diversifying selection jointly contribute to the evolution of sexual signalling traits by (1) maintaining the integrity of communication signals within species and (2) promoting the diversification of traits among lineages. However, for many important signalling traits, little is known about whether these dynamics translate into predictable macroevolutionary signatures. Here, we test for macroevolutionary patterns consistent with sexual signalling theory in the perfume signals of neotropical orchid bees, a group well studied for their chemical sexual communication. Our results revealed both high species-specificity and elevated rates of evolution in perfume signals compared to nonsignalling traits. Perfume complexity was correlated with the number of congeners in a species' range, suggesting that perfume evolution may be tied to the remarkably high number of orchid bee species coexisting together in some neotropical communities. Finally, sister-pair comparisons were consistent with both rapid divergence at speciation and character displacement upon secondary contact. Together, our results provide new insight into the macroevolution of sexual signalling in insects. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Deception: Theory and Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    original ] on the enemy is made by surprise obtained by deception and ambush…. By feint and demonstration… by spreading false information, the...Cover and Deception Training (Fort Monroe, VA: Department of the Army, 1948). 39 Alfred Paddock Jr, US Army Special Warfare. Its Origins ...desires are frequently reflected in U.S. Army doctrine. For example, FM 100-5 (1939) states: The ultimate objective [emphasis in original ] of all

  1. Floral scent emitted by white and coloured morphs in orchids.

    PubMed

    Dormont, L; Delle-Vedove, R; Bessière, J-M; Schatz, B

    2014-04-01

    Polymorphism of floral signals, such as colour and odour, is widespread in flowering plants and often considered to be adaptive, reflecting various pollinator preferences for particular floral traits. Several authors have recently hypothesized that particular associations exist between floral colour and scent, which would result from shared biochemistry between these two floral traits. In this study, we compared the chemical composition of floral volatiles emitted by white- and purple-flowered morphs of three different orchid species, including two food-deceptive species (Orchis mascula and Orchis simia) and a food-rewarding species (Anacamptis coriophora fragrans). We found clear interspecific differences in floral odours. As expected from their pollination strategy, the two deceptive orchids showed high inter-individual variation of floral volatiles, whereas the food-rewarding A. c. fragrans showed low variation of floral scent. Floral volatiles did not differ overall between white- and coloured-flowered morphs in O. mascula and A. c. fragrans, while O. simia exhibited different volatile profiles between the two colour morphs. However, a detailed analysis restricted to benzenoid compounds (which are associated with the production of floral anthocyanin pigments) showed that white inflorescences emitted more volatiles of the shikimic pathway than coloured ones, both for O. mascula and O. simia. These results are consistent with the current hypothesis that shared biochemistry creates pleiotropic links between floral colour and scent. Whether intraspecific variation of floral signals actually affects pollinator attraction and influences the reproductive success of these orchids remains to be determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Therapeutic orchids: traditional uses and recent advances--an overview.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Musharof

    2011-03-01

    Orchids have been used as a source of medicine for millennia to treat different diseases and ailments including tuberculosis, paralysis, stomach disorders, chest pain, arthritis, syphilis, jaundice, cholera, acidity, eczema, tumour, piles, boils, inflammations, menstrual disorder, spermatorrhea, leucoderma, diahorrhea, muscular pain, blood dysentery, hepatitis, dyspepsia, bone fractures, rheumatism, asthma, malaria, earache, sexually transmitted diseases, wounds and sores. Besides, many orchidaceous preparations are used as emetic, purgative, aphrodisiac, vermifuge, bronchodilator, sex stimulator, contraceptive, cooling agent and remedies in scorpion sting and snake bite. Some of the preparations are supposed to have miraculous curative properties but rare scientific demonstration available which is a primary requirement for clinical implementations. Incredible diversity, high alkaloids and glycosides content, research on orchids is full of potential. Meanwhile, some novel compounds and drugs, both in phytochemical and pharmacological point of view have been reported from orchids. Linking of the indigenous knowledge to the modern research activities will help to discover new drugs much more effective than contemporary synthetic medicines. The present study reviews the traditional therapeutic uses of orchids with its recent advances in pharmacological investigations that would be a useful reference for plant drug researches, especially in orchids. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Perspectives on MADS-box expression during orchid flower evolution and development.

    PubMed

    Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The diverse morphology of orchid flowers and their complex, often deceptive strategies to become pollinated have fascinated researchers for a long time. However, it was not until the 20th century that the ontogeny of orchid flowers, the genetic basis of their morphology and the complex phylogeny of Orchidaceae were investigated. In parallel, the improvement of techniques for in vitro seed germination and tissue culture, together with studies on biochemistry, physiology, and cytology supported the progress of what is now a highly productive industry of orchid breeding and propagation. In the present century both basic research in orchid flower evo-devo and the interest for generating novel horticultural varieties have driven the characterization of many members of the MADS-box family encoding key regulators of flower development. This perspective summarizes the picture emerging from these studies and discusses the advantages and limitations of the comparative strategy employed so far. I address the growing role of natural and horticultural mutants in these studies and the emergence of several model species in orchid evo-devo and genomics. In this context, I make a plea for an increasingly integrative approach.

  4. Perspectives on MADS-box expression during orchid flower evolution and development

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The diverse morphology of orchid flowers and their complex, often deceptive strategies to become pollinated have fascinated researchers for a long time. However, it was not until the 20th century that the ontogeny of orchid flowers, the genetic basis of their morphology and the complex phylogeny of Orchidaceae were investigated. In parallel, the improvement of techniques for in vitro seed germination and tissue culture, together with studies on biochemistry, physiology, and cytology supported the progress of what is now a highly productive industry of orchid breeding and propagation. In the present century both basic research in orchid flower evo-devo and the interest for generating novel horticultural varieties have driven the characterization of many members of the MADS-box family encoding key regulators of flower development. This perspective summarizes the picture emerging from these studies and discusses the advantages and limitations of the comparative strategy employed so far. I address the growing role of natural and horticultural mutants in these studies and the emergence of several model species in orchid evo-devo and genomics. In this context, I make a plea for an increasingly integrative approach. PMID:24065980

  5. Medicine, lies and deceptions.

    PubMed

    Benn, P

    2001-04-01

    This article offers a qualified defence of the view that there is a moral difference between telling lies to one's patients, and deceiving them without lying. However, I take issue with certain arguments offered by Jennifer Jackson in support of the same conclusion. In particular, I challenge her claim that to deny that there is such a moral difference makes sense only within a utilitarian framework, and I cast doubt on the aptness of some of her examples of non-lying deception. But I argue that lies have a greater tendency to damage trust than does non-lying deception, and suggest that since many doctors do believe there is a moral boundary between the two types of deception, encouraging them to violate that boundary may have adverse general effects on their moral sensibilities.

  6. Vulnerable users: deceptive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Emily C.

    2017-07-01

    The Principles of Robotics were outlined by the EPSRC in 2010. They are aimed at regulating robots in the real world. This paper represents a response to principle number four which reads: "Robots are manufactured artefacts. They should not be designed in a deceptive way to exploit vulnerable users; instead their machine nature should be transparent". The following critique questions the principle's validity by asking whether it is correct as a statement about the nature of robots, and the relationship between robots and people. To achieve this, the principle is broken down into the following two main component statements: (1) "Robots should not be designed in a deceptive way to exploit vulnerable users", and, (2) "Machine nature should be transparent". It is argued that both of the component statements that make up this principle are fundamentally flawed because of the undefined nature of the critical terms: "deceptive", "vulnerable", and "machine nature", and that as such the principle as a whole is misleading.

  7. Deception Creek Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Theresa B. Jain; Russell T. Graham

    1996-01-01

    Deception Creek Experimental Forest is in one of the most productive forests in the Rocky Mountains. When the forest was established in 1933, large, old-age western white pine (Pinus monticola) were important for producing lumber products. The forest, located in the Coeur d'Alene Mountains, is in the heart of the western white pine forest type. Therefore, research...

  8. Military Deception Reconsidered

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    operations through media channels to receive real benefits . If information advantage is properly formulated, carried out, and secured, it is a...timeliness, security, objective, and centralized control. However, I propose that operational advantage , consisting of surprise, information advantage ... Advantage , Surprise, Operational Advantage , Military Tactics, Deception Campaigns 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified

  9. The pollination of a self-incompatible, food-mimic orchid, Coelogyne fimbriata (Orchidaceae), by female Vespula wasps

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jin; Shi, Jun; Shangguan, Fa-Zhi; Dafni, Amots; Deng, Zhen-Hai; Luo, Yi-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The study of specialized interactions between species is crucial to our understanding of processes in evolutionary ecology due to their profound effect on life cycles and diversification. Obligate pollination by a single wasp species is rare in Orchidaceae except in species with sexually deceptive flowers that are pollinated exclusively by male insects. The object of this study was to document pollination of the food-deceptive flowers of Coelogyne fimbriata, a species pollinated exclusively by female wasps. Methods Field observations and experiments were conducted in two populations of C. fimbriata. Floral phenology was recorded, and functional floral architecture was measured. Insect visitors to flowers were observed from 2005 to 2007. Bioassay experiments were conducted to check whether the floral odour attracted pollinators. Natural (insect-mediated) rates of pollinarium removal, pollinium deposition on stigmas, and fruit set were recorded. To determine the importance of cross-pollination, the breeding system was assessed via controlled, hand-pollination experiments. Key Results Two populations of C. fimbriata with fragrant, nectarless flowers are pollinated by females of the same Vespula species (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Experiments on wasps show that they crawl towards the source of the odour. The flowering period appears to coincide with an annual peak in Vespula colony expansion when additional workers forage for carbohydrates. Rates of pollinarium removal (0·069–0·918) and pollinium deposition on stigmas (0·025–0·695) are extremely variable. However, fruit set in C. fimbriata is always low (0·014–0·069) and appears to be based on self-incompatibility coupled with intraclonal (geitonogamous) deposition of pollinia. Conclusions Coelogyne fimbriata and Steveniella satyrioides are now the only orchid species known to have food-deceptive flowers that are pollinated exclusively by eusocial, worker wasps. In C. fimbriata, floral

  10. Germination failure is not a critical stage of reproductive isolation between three congeneric orchid species.

    PubMed

    De Hert, Koen; Honnay, Olivier; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2012-11-01

    In food-deceptive orchid species, postmating reproductive barriers (fruit set and embryo mortality) have been shown to be more important for reproductive isolation than premating barriers (pollinator isolation). However, currently there is very little knowledge about whether germination failure acts as a reproductive barrier in hybridizing orchid species. In this study, we investigated germination and protocorm development of pure and hybrid seeds of three species of the orchid genus Dactylorhiza. To test the hypothesis that germination failure contributed to total reproductive isolation, reproductive barriers based on germination were combined with already available data on early acting barriers (fruit set and embryo mortality) to calculate the relative and absolute contributions of these barriers to reproductive isolation. Protocorms were formed in all crosses, indicating that both hybrid and pure seeds were able to germinate and grow into protocorms. Also, the number of protocorms per seed packet was not significantly different between hybrid and pure seeds. High fruit set, high seed viability, and substantial seed germination resulted in very low reproductive isolation (average RI = 0.05). In two of six interspecific crosses, hybrids performed even better than the intraspecific crosses. Very weak postmating reproductive barriers were observed between our study species and may explain the frequent occurrence of first-generation hybrids in mixed Dactylorhiza populations. Germination failure, which is regarded as one of the most important bottlenecks in the orchid life cycle, was not important for reproductive isolation.

  11. Deceptive Advertising: Unprotected and Unknown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducoffe, Robert Hal

    The Supreme Court tentatively extended First Amendment protection to commercial speech, but left the issue of defining and regulating deceptive advertising to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which has employed tools such as the cease-and-desist order, affirmative disclosure, and corrective advertising. The FTC Act did not define deception, but…

  12. Deception Creek Experimental Forest (Idaho)

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2004-01-01

    Deception Creek Experimental Forest is located in one of the most productive forests of the Rocky Mountains. When the forest was established in 1933, large, old western white pines were important for producing lumber products, matches, and toothpicks. Deception Creek is located in the heart of the western white pine forest type, allowing researchers to focus on the...

  13. Perspectives on orchid conservation in botanic gardens.

    PubMed

    Swarts, Nigel D; Dixon, Kingsley W

    2009-11-01

    Orchids, one of the largest families of flowering plants, face an uncertain future through overexploitation, habitat loss and impacts of climate change. With their intricate abiotic and biotic dependencies, orchids typify the plight of global plant resources and, thus, provide ideal model species for ecological tracking and focussing conservation programs. Botanic gardens worldwide have traditionally been major centres of excellence in orchid horticulture, research and conservation as orchids generate wide public and educational appeal. Here, we highlight the role of botanic gardens in areas key to orchid conservation. With pristine habitats under threat globally, the challenge for orchid conservation programs will ultimately depend upon developing ecological restoration technologies, whereby orchids are reinstated into sustainably restored habitats.

  14. Role of Auxin in Orchid Development

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Stacey D.; Luna, Lila J.; Gamage, Roshan N.

    2014-01-01

    Auxin's capacity to regulate aspects of plant development has been well characterized in model plant systems. In contrast, orchids have received considerably less attention, but the realization that many orchid species are endangered has led to culture-based propagation studies which have unveiled some functions for auxin in this system. This mini-review summarizes the many auxin-mediated developmental responses in orchids that are consistent with model systems; however, it also brings to the forefront auxin responses that are unique to orchid development, namely protocorm formation and ovary/ovule maturation. With regard to shoot establishment, we also assess auxin's involvement in orchid germination, PLB formation, and somatic embryogenesis. Further, it makes evident that auxin flow during germination of the undifferentiated, but mature, orchid embryo mirrors late embryogenesis of typical angiosperms. Also discussed is the use of orchid protocorms in future phytohormone studies to better understand the mechanisms behind meristem formation and organogenesis. PMID:25482818

  15. Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both the male song and bat calls by “freezing”, which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept males (true courtship song). Here, we propose a hypothesis that deceptive and true signals evolved independently from slightly different precursory sounds; deceptive/true courtship songs in moths evolved from the sounds males incidentally emitted in a sexual context, which females could not/could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls. PMID:23788180

  16. Efficient and heritable transformation of Phalaenopsis orchids.

    PubMed

    Hsing, Hong-Xian; Lin, Yi-Jyun; Tong, Chii-Gong; Li, Min-Jeng; Chen, Yun-Jin; Ko, Swee-Suak

    2016-12-01

    Phalaenopsis orchid (Phal. orchid) is visually attractive and it is important economic floriculture species. Phal. orchids have many unique biological features. However, investigation of these features and validation on their biological functions are limited due to the lack of an efficient transformation method. We developed a heritable and efficient Agrobacterium- mediated transformation using protocorms derived from tetraploid or diploid Phal. orchids. A T-DNA vector construct containing eGFP driven by ubiquitin promoter was subjected to transformation. An approximate 1.2-5.2 % transformation rate was achieved. Genomic PCR confirmed that hygromycin selection marker, HptII gene and target gene eGFP were integrated into the orchid genome. Southern blotting indicated a low T-DNA insertion number in the orchid genome of the transformants. Western blot confirmed the expression of eGFP protein in the transgenic orchids. Furthermore, the GFP signal was detected in the transgenic orchids under microscopy. After backcrossing the pollinia of the transgenic plants to four different Phal. orchid varieties, the BC1 progenies showed hygromycin resistance and all surviving BC1 seedlings were HptII positive in PCR and expressed GFP protein as shown by western blot. This study demonstrated a stable transformation system was generated for Phal. orchids. This useful transformation protocol enables functional genomics studies and molecular breeding.

  17. Information asymmetry and deception.

    PubMed

    Clots-Figueras, Irma; Hernán-González, Roberto; Kujal, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Situations such as an entrepreneur overstating a project's value, or a superior choosing to under or overstate the gains from a project to a subordinate are common and may result in acts of deception. In this paper we modify the standard investment game in the economics literature to study the nature of deception. In this game a trustor (investor) can send a given amount of money to a trustee (or investee). The amount received is multiplied by a certain amount, k, and the investee then decides on how to divide the total amount received. In our modified game the information on the multiplier, k, is known only to the investee and she can send a non-binding message to the investor regarding its value. We find that 66% of the investees send false messages with both under and over, statement being observed. Investors are naive and almost half of them believe the message received. We find greater lying when the distribution of the multiplier is unknown by the investors than when they know the distribution. Further, messages make beliefs about the multiplier more pessimistic when the investors know the distribution of the multiplier, while the opposite is true when they do not know the distribution.

  18. Information asymmetry and deception

    PubMed Central

    Clots-Figueras, Irma; Hernán-González, Roberto; Kujal, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Situations such as an entrepreneur overstating a project's value, or a superior choosing to under or overstate the gains from a project to a subordinate are common and may result in acts of deception. In this paper we modify the standard investment game in the economics literature to study the nature of deception. In this game a trustor (investor) can send a given amount of money to a trustee (or investee). The amount received is multiplied by a certain amount, k, and the investee then decides on how to divide the total amount received. In our modified game the information on the multiplier, k, is known only to the investee and she can send a non-binding message to the investor regarding its value. We find that 66% of the investees send false messages with both under and over, statement being observed. Investors are naive and almost half of them believe the message received. We find greater lying when the distribution of the multiplier is unknown by the investors than when they know the distribution. Further, messages make beliefs about the multiplier more pessimistic when the investors know the distribution of the multiplier, while the opposite is true when they do not know the distribution. PMID:26257615

  19. Web of Deception: Social Media and Implications for Military Deception

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    additional deception and OPSEC concerns. 35 Beyond just the open source intelligence ( OSINT ) that can be collected by other entities, there is also a...witting participants, in an effort to mislead or confuse the enemy. Just as the United States would be monitoring social media for OSINT , the...deception. Exploiting adversary use of social media OSINT through DISO is another lower threat avenue to examine as a starting point. As previously

  20. Do chlorophyllous orchids heterotrophically use mycorrhizal fungal carbon?

    PubMed

    Selosse, Marc-André; Martos, Florent

    2014-11-01

    The roots of orchids associate with mycorrhizal fungi, the rhizoctonias, which are considered to exchange mineral nutrients against plant carbon. The recent discovery that rhizoctonias grow endophytically in non-orchid plants raises the possibility that they provide carbon to orchids, explaining why some orchids differ in isotopic abundances from autotrophic plants.

  1. Tracking rare orchids (Orchidaceae) in Arizona

    Treesearch

    Ronald A. Coleman

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-six native orchid species occur in Arizona, and 14 are considered rare with fewer than 100 occurrences in the state. The author is conducting three studies covering four of the wild orchids: Stenorrhynchos michuacanum, Hexalectris revoluta, Malaxis porphyry, and M. tenuis. The studies are ongoing so only interim results are available. Interim results indicate...

  2. The folklore medicinal orchids of Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Mandal, Debasis

    2013-01-01

    Background: Orchids are well-known for decorative and aromatic values than its medicinal properties. Jīvantī, Jīvaka, Ṛṣabhaka, Rāsnā, Mānakanda, Pañcagula are used in Ayurveda are said to be orchids. There are 50 species of orchids in medicine. Sikkim has identified 523 species of wild orchids so far. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the folklore medicinal use of orchids in Sikkim. Materials and Methods: To assess the traditional medicinal uses of orchid species, close contacts were made with native people particularly, traditional healers, religious leaders, nursery growers and villagers of Sikkim. The information was gathered with the help of the questionnaire and personal interviews with various knowledgeable respondents during the field visit in between August 2009 and December 2011. Results and Conclusion: We found that 36 species of orchids are used as medicines for different purposes of health. The botanical and ayurvedic name, phenology, parts used and medicinal uses of 36 orchids are presented in this paper along with its local distribution. PMID:25284941

  3. The folklore medicinal orchids of Sikkim.

    PubMed

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Mandal, Debasis

    2013-10-01

    Orchids are well-known for decorative and aromatic values than its medicinal properties. Jīvantī, Jīvaka, Ṛṣabhaka, Rāsnā, Mānakanda, Pañcagula are used in Ayurveda are said to be orchids. There are 50 species of orchids in medicine. Sikkim has identified 523 species of wild orchids so far. The aim of this study is to determine the folklore medicinal use of orchids in Sikkim. To assess the traditional medicinal uses of orchid species, close contacts were made with native people particularly, traditional healers, religious leaders, nursery growers and villagers of Sikkim. The information was gathered with the help of the questionnaire and personal interviews with various knowledgeable respondents during the field visit in between August 2009 and December 2011. We found that 36 species of orchids are used as medicines for different purposes of health. The botanical and ayurvedic name, phenology, parts used and medicinal uses of 36 orchids are presented in this paper along with its local distribution.

  4. An Analysis of Trust in Deception Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    presents an overview of deception, both from the military and academic perspectives. The importance of the adversarial mind to a successful deception is...to most literature on deception. This section will introduce both military and academic theories of deception and discuss their relevance to trust...claim, faking documentation, plagiarism , and purchasing one (p. 226). A doctorate is regarded as a valuable item for establishing reputational

  5. Testing simple deceptive honeypot tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyaoui, Aymen; Rowe, Neil C.

    2015-05-01

    Deception can be a useful defensive technique against cyber-attacks; it has the advantage of unexpectedness to attackers and offers a variety of tactics. Honeypots are a good tool for deception. They act as decoy computers to confuse attackers and exhaust their time and resources. This work tested the effectiveness of two free honeypot tools in real networks by varying their location and virtualization, and the effects of adding more deception to them. We tested a Web honeypot tool, Glastopf and an SSH honeypot tool Kippo. We deployed the Web honeypot in both a residential network and our organization's network and as both real and virtual machines; the organization honeypot attracted more attackers starting in the third week. Results also showed that the virtual honeypots received attacks from more unique IP addresses. They also showed that adding deception to the Web honeypot, in the form of additional linked Web pages and interactive features, generated more interest by attackers. For the purpose of comparison, we used examined log files of a legitimate Web-site www.cmand.org. The traffic distributions for the Web honeypot and the legitimate Web site showed similarities (with much malicious traffic from Brazil), but the SSH honeypot was different (with much malicious traffic from China). Contrary to previous experiments where traffic to static honeypots decreased quickly, our honeypots received increasing traffic over a period of three months. It appears that both honeypot tools are useful for providing intelligence about cyber-attack methods, and that additional deception is helpful.

  6. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception generally. 20.1 Section 20.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or deceptive...

  7. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception generally. 20.1 Section 20.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or deceptive...

  8. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deception generally. 20.1 Section 20.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or deceptive...

  9. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception generally. 20.1 Section 20.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or deceptive...

  10. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception generally. 20.1 Section 20.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS INDUSTRY § 20.1 Deception generally. (a) It is unfair or deceptive...

  11. 16 CFR 24.1 - Deception (general).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception (general). 24.1 Section 24.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR SELECT LEATHER AND IMITATION LEATHER PRODUCTS § 24.1 Deception (general). It is unfair or deceptive to misrepresent, directly...

  12. Attributions of Deception in Dating Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benz, Joseph J.; Anderson, Mary K.; Miller, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Mate selection criteria for humans, and the concept of deception as a mating strategy, have both been demonstrated by past research. This study provides evidence that men and women believe that the mate selection criteria used by one sex corresponds to the deceptive tactics used by the opposite sex. A survey of the deceptive techniques used by men…

  13. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    PubMed

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Australian orchids and the doctors they commemorate.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John H

    2013-01-21

    Botanical taxonomy is a repository of medical biographical information. Such botanical memorials include the names of some indigenous orchids of Australia. By searching reference texts and journals relating to Australian botany and Australian orchidology, as well as Australian and international medical and botanical biographical texts, I identified 30 orchids indigenous to Australia whose names commemorate doctors and other medical professionals. Of these, 24 have names that commemorate a total of 16 doctors who worked in Australia. The doctors and orchids I identified include: doctor-soldiers Richard Sanders Rogers (1862-1942), after whom the Rogers' Greenhood (Pterostylis rogersii) is named, and Robert Brown (1773-1858), after whom the Purple Enamel Orchid (Elythranthera brunonis) is named; navy surgeon Archibald Menzies (1754-1842), after whom the Hare Orchid (Leptoceras menziesii) is named; radiologist Hugo Flecker (1884-1957) after whom the Slender Sphinx Orchid (Cestichis fleckeri) is named; and general medical practitioner Hereward Leighton Kesteven (1881-1964), after whom the Kesteven's Orchid (Dendrobium kestevenii) is named. Biographic references in scientific names of plants comprise a select but important library of Australian medical history. Such botanical taxonomy commemorates, in an enduring manner, clinicians who have contributed to biology outside clinical practice.

  15. Deception and Retribution in Repeated Ultimatum Bargaining.

    PubMed

    Boles; Croson; Murnighan

    2000-11-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated ultimatum bargaining. Anonymous dyads exchanged messages and offers in a series of four ultimatum bargaining games that had prospects for relatively large monetary outcomes. Variations in each party's knowledge of the other's resources and alternatives created opportunities for deception. Revelation of prior unknowns exposed deceptions and created opportunities for retribution in subsequent interactions. Results showed that although proposers and responders chose deceptive strategies almost equally, proposers told more outright lies. Both were more deceptive when their private information was never revealed, and proposers were most deceptive when their potential profits were largest. Revelation of proposers' lies had little effect on their subsequent behavior even though responders rejected their offers more than similar offers from truthful proposers or proposers whose prior deceit was never revealed. The discussion and conclusions address the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated bargaining interactions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  16. Deceptive Business Practices: State Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Although much has been done at the federal level to control deceptive advertising practices, many states have no criminal laws designed to regulate advertising, and several states recently repealed such laws. This paper examines states' efforts to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with the consumer's need for information about products by…

  17. Deceptive Business Practices: Federal Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    Federal regulations to prevent deceptive advertising seek to balance the advertiser's freedom of speech with protection of the consumer. This paper discusses what the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has done to regulate advertising and evaluates the adequacy of its controls. The commission uses cease-and-desist orders, affirmative disclosure,…

  18. Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Orchids (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Sut, Stefania; Maggi, Filippo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    The Orchidaceae family is the largest group of flowering plants in the Angiosperm monocotyledons spread on our planet. Its members, called orchids, are herbs or epiphytes with showy flowers distributed mainly in tropical regions. Several classes of phytoconstituents have been so far isolated from therapeutically-used orchids showing a great chemical diversity. Among them, phenolic derivatives have been studied for their biological activities, especially in the field of cancer, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. On the other hand, limited information has been so far obtained on the numerous alkaloids and terpenoids isolated from several orchid species. Recent articles revealed pronounced effects of some alkaloids on the CNS. Published literature on orchids that are used in traditional medicine has been reviewed in this work indicating a great potential of such organisms as source of chemical entities for the development of new drugs. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Frozen beauty: The cryobiotechnology of orchid diversity.

    PubMed

    Popova, Elena; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Saxena, Praveen Kumar; Engelmann, Florent; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2016-01-01

    Orchids (Orchidaceae) are one of the most diverse plant groups on the planet with over 25,000 species. For over a century, scientists and horticulturalists have been fascinated by their complex floral morphology, pollinator specificity and multiple ethnobotanical uses, including as food, flavourings, medicines, ornaments, and perfumes. These important traits have stimulated world-wide collection of orchid species, often for the commercial production of hybrids and leading to frequent overexploitation. Increasing human activities and global environmental changes are also accelerating the threat of orchid extinction in their natural habitats. In order to improve gene conservation strategies for these unique species, innovative developments of cryopreservation methodologies are urgently needed based on an appreciation of low temperature (cryo) stress tolerance, the stimulation of recovery growth of plant tissues in vitro and on the 'omics' characterization of the targeted cell system (biotechnology). The successful development and application of such cryobiotechnology now extends to nearly 100 species and commercial hybrids of orchids, underpinning future breeding and species conservation programmes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the progress in cryobanking of a range of orchid tissues, including seeds, pollen, protocorms, protocorm-like bodies, apices excised from in vitro plants, cell suspensions, rhizomes and orchid fungal symbionts. We also highlight future research needs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Orchids (Cymbidium spp., Oncidium, and Phalaenopsis).

    PubMed

    Chan, Ming-Tsair; Chan, Yuan-Li; Sanjaya

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic engineering have made the transformation and regeneration of plants into a powerful tool for orchid improvement. This chapter presents a simple and reproducible Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol and molecular screening technique of transgenics for two orchid species, Oncidium and Phalaenopsis. The target tissues for gene transfer were protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) derived from protocorms, into which constructed foreign genes were successfully introduced. To establish stable transformants, two stages of selection were applied on the PLBs co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens. About 10% transformation efficiency was achieved in Oncidium orchid, as 108 antibiotic resistant independent PLBs were proliferated from 1000 infected PLBs. In Phalaenopsis orchid about 11 to 12% of transformation efficiency was achieved by using the present protocol. Different molecular methods and GUS-staining used to screen putative transgenic plants to confirm the integration of foreign DNA into the orchid genome were also described in detail. The methods described would also be useful for transformation of desired genes into other orchid species.

  1. Interpersonal Deception Theory: Examining Deception From a Communication Perspective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    4 (type of response) within-subjects factorial de’sign. As expected, deceptive resposes contained more indirect, noniramediate, isnd vague language...framework, with emphasis on the dynamics of interpersonal exchanges. 2. To examine how deceivers’ motivations and locus of benefit ( self or other) influence...replaced by positive signals that foster a favorable image, and performance decrements such as nonfluencies, long response latencies, and self

  2. Toward detecting deception in intelligent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Johnson, Gregory, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Contemporary decision makers often must choose a course of action using knowledge from several sources. Knowledge may be provided from many diverse sources including electronic sources such as knowledge-based diagnostic or decision support systems or through data mining techniques. As the decision maker becomes more dependent on these electronic information sources, detecting deceptive information from these sources becomes vital to making a correct, or at least more informed, decision. This applies to unintentional disinformation as well as intentional misinformation. Our ongoing research focuses on employing models of deception and deception detection from the fields of psychology and cognitive science to these systems as well as implementing deception detection algorithms for probabilistic intelligent systems. The deception detection algorithms are used to detect, classify and correct attempts at deception. Algorithms for detecting unexpected information rely upon a prediction algorithm from the collaborative filtering domain to predict agent responses in a multi-agent system.

  3. On deception detection in multi-agent systems and deception intent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Li, Deqing; Yuan, Xiuqing

    2008-04-01

    Deception detection plays an important role in the military decision-making process, but detecting deception is a challenging task. The deception planning process involves a number of human factors. It is intent-driven where intentions are usually hidden or not easily observable. As a result, in order to detect deception, any adversary model must have the capability to capture the adversary's intent. This paper discusses deception detection in multi-agent systems and in adversary modeling. We examined psychological and cognitive science research on deception and implemented various theories of deception within our approach. First, in multi-agent expert systems, one detection method uses correlations between agents to predict reasonable opinions/responses of other agents (Santos & Johnson, 2004). We further explore this idea and present studies that show the impact of different factors on detection success rate. Second, from adversary modeling, our detection method focuses on inferring adversary intent. By combining deception "branches" with intent inference models, we can estimate an adversary's deceptive activities and at the same time enhance intent inference. Two major kinds of deceptions are developed in this approach in different fashions. Simulative deception attempts to find inconsistency in observables, while dissimulative deception emphasizes the inference of enemy intentions.

  4. The effects of nectar addition on pollen removal and geitonogamy in the non-rewarding orchid Anacamptis morio.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven D.; Peter, Craig I.; Agren, Jon

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the absence of floral rewards in many orchid species causes pollinators to probe fewer flowers on a plant, and thus reduces geitonogamy, i.e. self-pollination between flowers, which may result in inbreeding depression and reduced pollen export. We examined the effects of nectar addition on pollinator visitation and pollen transfer by tracking the fate of colour-labelled pollen in Anacamptis morio, a non-rewarding orchid species pollinated primarily by queen bumble-bees. Addition of nectar to spurs of A. morio significantly increased the number of flowers probed by bumble-bees, the time spent on an inflorescence, pollinarium removal and the proportion of removed pollen involved in self-pollination through geitonogamy, but did not affect pollen carryover (the fraction of a pollinarium carried over from one flower to the next). Only visits that exceeded 18 s resulted in geitonogamy, as this is the time taken for removed pollinaria to bend into a position to strike the stigma. A mutation for nectar production in A. morio would result in an initial 3.8-fold increase in pollinarium removal per visit, but also increase geitonogamous self-pollination from less than 10% of pollen depositions to ca. 40%. Greater efficiency of pollen export will favour deceptive plants when pollinators are relatively common and most pollinaria are removed from flowers or when inbreeding depression is severe. These findings provide empirical support both for Darwin's contention that pollinarium bending is an anti-selfing mechanism in orchids and for the idea that floral deception serves to maximize the efficiency of pollen export. PMID:15255098

  5. Identifying Deceptive Speech Across Cultures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-25

    34 Interspeech 2016. 2016. G. An, S. I. Levitan, R. Levitan, A. Rosenberg, M. Levine, J. Hirschberg, "Automatically Classifying Self -Rated Personality Scores from...law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB...correlations of deception ability with personality factors (extraversion, conscientiousness). Using acoustic-prosodic features, gender, ethnicity and

  6. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites.

  7. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  8. Cooperation and deception in primates.

    PubMed

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2017-08-01

    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pollination: sexual mimicry abounds.

    PubMed

    Schiestl, Florian P

    2010-12-07

    Why do plants mimic female insects to attract males for pollination? A new study gives insights into the advantages of sexual mimicry and documents this pollination system for the first time outside the orchid family, in a South African daisy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Weak trophic links between a crab-spider and the effective pollinators of a rewardless orchid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, Carolina; Corley, Juan C.; Aizen, Marcelo A.

    2015-01-01

    Sit and wait predators hunting on flowers are considered to be exploiters of plant-pollinator mutualisms. Several studies have shown that plant-pollinator interactions can be highly susceptible to the impact of a third trophic level, via consumptive (direct) and non-consumptive (indirect) effects that alter pollinator behavior and, ultimately, plant fitness. However, most flowering plants attract a wide array of flower visitors, from which only a subset will be effective pollinators. Hence, a negative effect of an ambush predator on plant fitness should be expected only when: (i) the effective pollinators are part of the predators' diet and/or (ii) the non-consumptive effects of predator presence (e.g. dead prey) alter the behavior of effective pollinators and pollen movement among individual plants. We analyzed the direct and indirect effects of a crab-spider (Misumenops pallidus), on the pollination and reproductive success of Chloraea alpina, a Patagonian rewardless orchid. Our results indicate that most of the flower visitors do not behave as effective pollinators and most effective pollinators were not observed as prey for the crab-spider. In terms of non-consumptive effects, inflorescences with and without spiders and/or dead-prey did not vary the frequency of flower visitors, nor pollinia removal or deposition. Hence, it is not surprising that M. pallidus has a neutral effect on pollinia removal and deposition as well as on fruit and seed set. Similar to other rewardless orchids, the low reproductive success of C. alpina (∼6% fruit set) was associated with the limited number of visits by effective pollinators. Negative top-down effects of a flower-visitor predator on plant pollination may not be anticipated without studying the direct and indirect effects of this predator on the effective pollinators. In pollination systems where effective pollinators visited flowers erratically, such as in deceptive orchids, we expect weak or no effect of predators on

  11. Fusarium species as pathogen on orchids.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shikha; Kadooka, Chris; Uchida, Janice Y

    2018-03-01

    The recent surge in demand for exotic ornamental crops such as orchids has led to a rise in international production, and a sharp increase in the number of plant and plant products moving between countries. Along with the plants, diseases are also being transported and introduced into new areas. Fusarium is one of the major diseases causing pathogens infecting orchids that is spreading through international trade. Studies have identified several species of Fusarium associated with orchids, some are pathogenic and cause symptoms such as leaf and flower spots, leaf or sheath blights, pseudostem or root rots, and wilts. Infection and damage caused by Fusarium reduces the quality of plants and flowers, and can cause severe economic losses. This review documents the current status of the Fusarium-orchid interaction, and illustrates challenges and future perspectives based on the available literature. This review is the first of Fusarium and orchid interactions, and integrates diverse results that both furthers the understanding and knowledge of this disease complex, and will enable the development of effective disease management practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Linnaean sources and concepts of orchids.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Charlie; Cribb, Phillip

    2009-08-01

    Linnaeus developed a robust system for naming plants and a useful, if mechanical, system for classifying them. His binomial nomenclature proved the catalyst for the rapid development of our knowledge of orchids, with his work on the family dating back to 1737 in the first edition of his Genera Plantarum. His first work devoted to orchids, indeed the first monograph of the family, was published in 1740 and formed the basis for his account in Species Plantarum, published in 1753, in which he gave a binomial name to each species. Given the overwhelming number of orchids, he included surprisingly few - only 62 mostly European species - in Species Plantarum, his seminal work on the plants of the world. This reflects the European origin of modern botany and the concentration of extra-European exploration on other matters, such as conquest, gold and useful plants. Nevertheless, the scope of Linnaeus' work is broad, including plants from as far afield as India, Japan, China and the Philippines to the east, and eastern Canada, the West Indies and northern South America to the west. In his later publications he described and named a further 45 orchids, mostly from Europe, South Africa and the tropical Americas. The philosophical basis of Linnaeus' work on orchids is discussed and his contribution to our knowledge of the family assessed. His generic and species concepts are considered in the light of current systematic ideas, but his adoption of binomial nomenclature for all plants is his lasting legacy.

  13. Linnaean sources and concepts of orchids

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Charlie; Cribb, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Background Linnaeus developed a robust system for naming plants and a useful, if mechanical, system for classifying them. His binomial nomenclature proved the catalyst for the rapid development of our knowledge of orchids, with his work on the family dating back to 1737 in the first edition of his Genera Plantarum. His first work devoted to orchids, indeed the first monograph of the family, was published in 1740 and formed the basis for his account in Species Plantarum, published in 1753, in which he gave a binomial name to each species. Given the overwhelming number of orchids, he included surprisingly few – only 62 mostly European species – in Species Plantarum, his seminal work on the plants of the world. This reflects the European origin of modern botany and the concentration of extra-European exploration on other matters, such as conquest, gold and useful plants. Nevertheless, the scope of Linnaeus' work is broad, including plants from as far afield as India, Japan, China and the Philippines to the east, and eastern Canada, the West Indies and northern South America to the west. In his later publications he described and named a further 45 orchids, mostly from Europe, South Africa and the tropical Americas. Scope The philosophical basis of Linnaeus' work on orchids is discussed and his contribution to our knowledge of the family assessed. His generic and species concepts are considered in the light of current systematic ideas, but his adoption of binomial nomenclature for all plants is his lasting legacy. PMID:19182221

  14. Consumer Frauds and Deceptions: A Learning Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Fred E.; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist helping professionals responsible for developing consumer education programs for older adults on the topic of consumer fraud and deception. In a modular presentation format, the materials address the following areas of concern: (1) types of frauds and deceptions such as money schemes, mail order fraud,…

  15. Cues to Deception in an Interview Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Alberta A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Interviewees were secretly instructed to answer six questions honestly and six deceptively. Deceptive answers were hesitant and lengthy. Visual presence of the interviewer increased variability in verbal response time and decreased the length of response. Interviewers were able to discriminate between truth and falsehood. Increased hesitation and…

  16. Nonverbal Cues to Deception in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimmin, Harold; Noel, Richard C.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nonverbal facial, body, and paralanguage cues to deception in children. A sample of 31 Hispanic and Black second and third grade students were videotaped while playing a color identification that required six honest and six deceptive verbal responses to a randomized stimulus presentation. Frame-by-frame…

  17. Online deception: prevalence, motivation, and emotion.

    PubMed

    Caspi, Avner; Gorsky, Paul

    2006-02-01

    This research has three goals: first, to find out how prevalent online deception is within a sample of Israeli users, second, to explore the underlying motivations to deceive online, and third, to discover the emotions that accompany online deception. A web-based survey was distributed in 14 discussion groups, and the answers of 257 respondents were analyzed. It was found that, while most of the respondents believe that online deception is very widespread, only about one-third of them reported engaging in online deception. Frequent users deceive online more than infrequent users, young users more than old, and competent users more than non-competent. The most common motivations to deceive online were "play" on the one hand and privacy concerns on the other. Most people felt a sense of enjoyment while engaging in online deception. The results are discussed in light of a possible mechanism for changing personal moral standards.

  18. Debriefing and accountability in deceptive research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G; Gluck, John P; Wendler, David

    2008-09-01

    Debriefing is a standard ethical requirement for human research involving the use of deception. Little systematic attention, however, has been devoted to explaining the ethical significance of debriefing and the specific ethical functions that it serves. In this article, we develop an account of debriefing as a tool of moral accountability for the prima facie wrong of deception. Specifically, we contend that debriefing should include a responsibility to promote transparency by explaining the deception and its rationale, to provide an apology to subjects for infringing the principle of respect for persons, and to offer subjects an opportunity to withdraw their data. We also present recommendations concerning the discussion of deception in scientific articles reporting the results of research using deception.

  19. Quantifying anthropogenic threats to orchids using the IUCN Red List.

    PubMed

    Wraith, Jenna; Pickering, Catherine

    2018-04-01

    Orchids are diverse, occur in a wide range of habitats and dominate threatened species lists, but which orchids are threatened, where and by what? Using the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we assessed the range and diversity of threats to orchids globally including identifying four threat syndromes: (1) terrestrial orchids in forests that are endemic to a country and threatened by illegal collecting; (2) orchids threatened by climate change, pollution, transportation and disturbance/development for tourism, and recreation activities, often in East Asia; (3) epiphytic orchids in Sub-Saharan Africa including Madagascar with diverse threats; and (4) South and Southeast Asia orchids threatened by land clearing for shifting agriculture. Despite limitations in the Red List data, the results highlight how conservation efforts can focus on clusters of co-occurring threats in regions while remaining aware of the trifecta of broad threats from plant collecting, land clearing and climate change.

  20. An Exploration of Multiple Channel Evaluations in Attributions of Deception.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-24

    11. REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE.................1 An Overview of Human Communication Theory Relating to Detecting Deception...Hocking, "The Truth-Deception Attribution: Effects of Familiarity onl tile Ability of Observers to Detect Deception," Human Communication Research...behavior. An Overview of Human Communication Theory Relating to Detecting Deception While it is impossible to cover all the related literature on human

  1. Collection and trade of wild-harvested orchids in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Abishkar; Kunwar, Bimal; Choi, Young; Dai, Yuntao; van Andel, Tinde; Chaudhary, Ram P; de Boer, Hugo J; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2013-08-31

    Wild orchids are illegally harvested and traded in Nepal for use in local traditional medicine, horticulture, and international trade. This study aims to: 1) identify the diversity of species of wild orchids in trade in Nepal; 2) study the chain of commercialization from collector to client and/or export; 3) map traditional knowledge and medicinal use of orchids; and 4) integrate the collected data to propose a more sustainable approach to orchid conservation in Nepal. Trade, species diversity, and traditional use of wild-harvested orchids were documented during field surveys of markets and through interviews. Trade volumes and approximate income were estimated based on surveys and current market prices. Orchid material samples were identified to species level using a combination of morphology and DNA barcoding. Orchid trade is a long tradition, and illegal export to China, India and Hong Kong is rife. Estimates show that 9.4 tons of wild orchids were illegally traded from the study sites during 2008/2009. A total of 60 species of wild orchids were reported to be used in traditional medicinal practices to cure at least 38 different ailments, including energizers, aphrodisiacs and treatments of burnt skin, fractured or dislocated bones, headaches, fever and wounds. DNA barcoding successfully identified orchid material to species level that remained sterile after culturing. Collection of wild orchids was found to be widespread in Nepal, but illegal trade is threatening many species in the wild. Establishment of small-scale sustainable orchid breeding enterprises could be a valuable alternative for the production of medicinal orchids for local communities. Critically endangered species should be placed on CITES Appendix I to provide extra protection to those species. DNA barcoding is an effective method for species identification and monitoring of illegal cross-border trade.

  2. Collection and trade of wild-harvested orchids in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wild orchids are illegally harvested and traded in Nepal for use in local traditional medicine, horticulture, and international trade. This study aims to: 1) identify the diversity of species of wild orchids in trade in Nepal; 2) study the chain of commercialization from collector to client and/or export; 3) map traditional knowledge and medicinal use of orchids; and 4) integrate the collected data to propose a more sustainable approach to orchid conservation in Nepal. Methods Trade, species diversity, and traditional use of wild-harvested orchids were documented during field surveys of markets and through interviews. Trade volumes and approximate income were estimated based on surveys and current market prices. Orchid material samples were identified to species level using a combination of morphology and DNA barcoding. Results Orchid trade is a long tradition, and illegal export to China, India and Hong Kong is rife. Estimates show that 9.4 tons of wild orchids were illegally traded from the study sites during 2008/2009. A total of 60 species of wild orchids were reported to be used in traditional medicinal practices to cure at least 38 different ailments, including energizers, aphrodisiacs and treatments of burnt skin, fractured or dislocated bones, headaches, fever and wounds. DNA barcoding successfully identified orchid material to species level that remained sterile after culturing. Conclusions Collection of wild orchids was found to be widespread in Nepal, but illegal trade is threatening many species in the wild. Establishment of small-scale sustainable orchid breeding enterprises could be a valuable alternative for the production of medicinal orchids for local communities. Critically endangered species should be placed on CITES Appendix I to provide extra protection to those species. DNA barcoding is an effective method for species identification and monitoring of illegal cross-border trade. PMID:24004516

  3. Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Corinne

    2018-01-01

    Sexuality is both everywhere and nowhere in children's literature since it collides with an ideology of childhood innocence that works to erase childhood sexuality altogether. Debates about identity, self-expression, the boundary between childhood and adulthood--and attempts to police that boundary--often center on sexuality. Anxiety around…

  4. Anatomy of deception: a behavioral contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Mechner, Francis

    2010-05-01

    Deception, a basic and pervasive biological phenomenon, takes many forms, variously referred to as mimicry, trickery, seduction, pretense, feigning, masquerading, impersonation, distraction, or false promises, and these share certain common distinguishing behavioral elements that permit them to be classified into categories. A symbolic language for the codification and analysis of behavioral contingencies shows that all instances of deception are based on a misperception, misprediction, non-perception, or non-prediction by the deceived party, and can be further categorized based on features of the contingencies that define them. Instances of particular interest are those in which a deceiving party predicts (and in that sense "intends") the deception. In those instances, the effect of the deception is usually to the deceiving party's benefit and to the deceived party's detriment. In economics, finance, business, military operations, public affairs, education, and everyday social interaction, deception takes numerous forms. Special forms, usually involving obfuscation, concealment, counterfeiting, and misrepresentation, occur in certain prevalent types of property transfer, including securitization, the creation of derivatives, and various types of Ponzi schemes. Such property transfers tend to be driven by opportunities for deception. They all involve blurring and clouding of the contingencies that defined the transferred properties, thus permitting their obfuscation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. "The orchids have been a splendid sport"--an alternative look at Charles Darwin's contribution to orchid biology.

    PubMed

    Yam, Tim Wing; Arditti, Joseph; Cameron, Kenneth M

    2009-12-01

    Charles Darwin's work with orchids and his thoughts about them are of great interest and not a little pride for those who are interested in these plants, but they are generally less well known than some of his other studies and ideas. Much has been published on what led to his other books and views. However, there is a paucity of information in the general literature on how Darwin's orchid book came about. This review will describe how The Various Contrivances by Which Orchids Are Fertilised by Insects came into being and will discuss the taxonomy of the orchids he studied. It also will concentrate on some of the less well-known aspects of Darwin's work and observations on orchids-namely, rostellum, seeds and their germination, pollination effects, and resupination-and their influence on subsequent investigators, plant physiology, and orchid science.

  6. Orchid seed removal by ants in Neotropical ant-gardens.

    PubMed

    Morales-Linares, J; García-Franco, J G; Flores-Palacios, A; Valenzuela-González, J E; Mata-Rosas, M; Díaz-Castelazo, C

    2018-05-01

    Most plants that inhabit ant-gardens (AGs) are cultivated by the ants. Some orchids occur in AGs; however, it is not known whether their seeds are dispersed by AG ants because most orchid seeds are tiny and dispersed by wind. We performed in situ seed removal experiments, in which we simultaneously provided Azteca gnava ants with seeds of three AG orchid species and three other AG epiphyte species (Bromeliaceae, Cactaceae and Gesneriaceae), as well as the non-AG orchid Catasetum integerrimum. The seeds most removed were those of the bromeliad Aechmea tillandsioides and the gesneriad Codonanthe uleana, while seeds of AG orchids Coryanthes picturata, Epidendrum flexuosum and Epidendrum pachyrachis were less removed. The non-AG orchid was not removed. Removal values were positively correlated with the frequency of the AG epiphytes in the AGs, and seeds of AG orchids were larger than those of non-AG orchids, which should favour myrmecochory. Our data show that Azt. gnava ants discriminate and preferentially remove seeds of the AG epiphytes. We report for the first time the removal of AG orchid seeds by AG ants in Neotropical AGs. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. The Apostasia genome and the evolution of orchids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Liu, Ke-Wei; Li, Zhen; Lohaus, Rolf; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Niu, Shan-Ce; Wang, Jie-Yu; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Xu, Qing; Chen, Li-Jun; Yoshida, Kouki; Fujiwara, Sumire; Wang, Zhi-Wen; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Wang, Meina; Liu, Guo-Hui; Pecoraro, Lorenzo; Huang, Hui-Xia; Xiao, Xin-Ju; Lin, Min; Wu, Xin-Yi; Wu, Wan-Lin; Chen, You-Yi; Chang, Song-Bin; Sakamoto, Shingo; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Yagi, Masafumi; Zeng, Si-Jin; Shen, Ching-Yu; Yeh, Chuan-Ming; Luo, Yi-Bo; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Van de Peer, Yves; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2017-09-21

    Constituting approximately 10% of flowering plant species, orchids (Orchidaceae) display unique flower morphologies, possess an extraordinary diversity in lifestyle, and have successfully colonized almost every habitat on Earth. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Apostasia shenzhenica, a representative of one of two genera that form a sister lineage to the rest of the Orchidaceae, providing a reference for inferring the genome content and structure of the most recent common ancestor of all extant orchids and improving our understanding of their origins and evolution. In addition, we present transcriptome data for representatives of Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae and Orchidoideae, and novel third-generation genome data for two species of Epidendroideae, covering all five orchid subfamilies. A. shenzhenica shows clear evidence of a whole-genome duplication, which is shared by all orchids and occurred shortly before their divergence. Comparisons between A. shenzhenica and other orchids and angiosperms also permitted the reconstruction of an ancestral orchid gene toolkit. We identify new gene families, gene family expansions and contractions, and changes within MADS-box gene classes, which control a diverse suite of developmental processes, during orchid evolution. This study sheds new light on the genetic mechanisms underpinning key orchid innovations, including the development of the labellum and gynostemium, pollinia, and seeds without endosperm, as well as the evolution of epiphytism; reveals relationships between the Orchidaceae subfamilies; and helps clarify the evolutionary history of orchids within the angiosperms.

  8. Defining western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara) habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudson, Michael David

    Terrestrial orchids are at the forefront of the discussion about anthropogenically-driven extinction with more species threatened globally than any other plant family, mostly because of loss of habitat. The Western Prairie Fringed Orchid ( Platanthera praeclara) is a threatened species found on the Sheyenne National Grassland in southeast North Dakota, USA. This conservation area that is a vital refuge for this species is subject to management for multiple uses including livestock grazing and recreation. Orchids are subject to continuous monitoring, but knowledge of the relationship between landscape indicators and orchid locations is limited. Research is needed to provide a greater understanding of the landscape relative to orchid habitat to develop conservation management strategies suited to dealing with threats arising from future interactions between land management and use, and climate change. The spatial distribution of orchid habitat was defined using a suite of indicators that characterize topography, moisture, and vegetation cover and compared with orchid point-based field observations. High resolution infrared imagery, a LiDAR-derived DEM, and well observations were used to characterize landscape properties. The NDVI (a measure of vegetation cover), the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI: a measure of moisture on the landscape), the Topographic Position Index (TPI: a measure of position on the landscape), and the depth to groundwater (a measure of the depth from the land surface to the groundwater surface) provided the best set of indicators of orchid habitat. Comparison between orchid locations and landscape indicators identified orchid metrics (+/-2 sigma) used to classify landscape indicators which were combined to create orchid habitat maps. This study supports that distribution of orchid habitat are influenced by the selected landscape indicators, each providing important information to the analysis. Comparison of orchid metrics with groundwater

  9. Are there keystone mycorrhizal fungi associated to tropical epiphytic orchids?

    PubMed

    Cevallos, Stefania; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Decock, Cony; Declerck, Stéphane; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2017-04-01

    In epiphytic orchids, distinctive groups of fungi are involved in the symbiotic association. However, little is known about the factors that determine the mycorrhizal community structure. Here, we analyzed the orchid mycorrhizal fungi communities associated with three sympatric Cymbidieae epiphytic tropical orchids (Cyrtochilum flexuosum, Cyrtochilum myanthum, and Maxillaria calantha) at two sites located within the mountain rainforest of southern Ecuador. To characterize these communities at each orchid population, the ITS2 region was analyzed by Illumina MiSeq technology. Fifty-five mycorrhizal fungi operational taxonomic units (OTUs) putatively attributed to members of Serendipitaceae, Ceratobasidiaceae and Tulasnellaceae were identified. Significant differences in mycorrhizal communities were detected between the three sympatric orchid species as well as among sites/populations. Interestingly, some mycorrhizal OTUs overlapped among orchid populations. Our results suggested that populations of studied epiphytic orchids have site-adjusted mycorrhizal communities structured around keystone fungal species. Interaction with multiple mycorrhizal fungi could favor orchid site occurrence and co-existence among several orchid species.

  10. Saprotrophic fungal mycorrhizal symbionts in achlorophyllous orchids

    PubMed Central

    Martos, Florent; Perry, Brian A; Padamsee, Mahajabeen; Roy, Mélanie; Pailler, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Mycoheterotrophic plants are achlorophyllous plants that obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi. They are usually considered to associate with fungi that are (1) specific of each mycoheterotrophic species and (2) mycorrhizal on surrounding green plants, which are the ultimate carbon source of the entire system. Here we review recent works revealing that some mycoheterotrophic plants are not fungal-specific, and that some mycoheterotrophic orchids associate with saprophytic fungi. A re-examination of earlier data suggests that lower specificity may be less rare than supposed in mycoheterotrophic plants. Association between mycoheterotrophic orchids and saprophytic fungi arose several times in the evolution of the two partners. We speculate that this indirectly illustrates why transition from saprotrophy to mycorrhizal status is common in fungal evolution. Moreover, some unexpected fungi occasionally encountered in plant roots should not be discounted as ‘molecular scraps’, since these facultatively biotrophic encounters may evolve into mycorrhizal symbionts in some other plants. PMID:20061806

  11. Ravines and Sugar Pills: Defending Deceptive Placebo Use

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that deceptive placebo use can be morally permissible, on the grounds that the deception involved in the prescription of deceptive placebos can differ in kind to the sorts of deception that undermine personal autonomy. In order to argue this, I shall first delineate two accounts of why deception is inimical to autonomy. On these accounts, deception is understood to be inimical to the deceived agent’s autonomy because it either involves subjugating the deceived agent’s will to another’s authority or because it precludes the agent from acting effectively in pursuit of their ends. I shall argue that providing an agent with false beliefs is not inimical to their autonomy if they are only able to effectively pursue their autonomously chosen ends by virtue of holding those particular false beliefs. Finally, I show that deceptive placebo use need only involve this latter sort of deception. PMID:25503607

  12. Anther Cap Retention Prevents Self-pollination by Elaterid Beetles in the South African Orchid Eulophia foliosa

    PubMed Central

    PETER, CRAIG I.; JOHNSON, STEVEN D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Pollination by insects that spend long periods visiting many flowers on a plant may impose a higher risk of facilitated self-pollination. Orchids and asclepiads are particularly at risk as their pollen is packaged as pollinia and so can be deposited on self-stigmas en masse. Many orchids and asclepiads have adaptations to limit self-deposition of pollinia, including gradual reconfiguration of pollinaria following removal. Here an unusual mechanism—anther cap retention—that appears to prevent self-pollination in the South African orchid Eulophia foliosa is examined. • Methods Visits to inflorescences in the field were observed and pollinators collected. Visitation rates to transplanted inflorescences were compared between a site where putative pollinators were abundant and a site where they were rare. Anther cap retention times were determined for removed pollinaria and atmospheric vapour pressure deficit was recorded concurrently. Anther cap anatomy was examined using light microscopy. • Key Results Eulophia foliosa is pollinated almost exclusively by Cardiophorus obliquemaculatus (Elateridae) beetles, which remain on the deceptive inflorescences for on average 301 s (n = 18). The anther cap that covers the pollinarium is retained for an average of 512 s (n = 24) after pollinarium removal by beetles. In all populations measured, anther cap dimensions are greater than those of the stigmatic cavity, thus precluding the deposition of self-pollinia until after the anther cap has dropped. An anatomical investigation of this mechanism suggests that differential water loss from regions of the anther cap results in opening of the anther cap flaps. This is supported by observations that as atmospheric vapour pressure deficits increased, the duration of anther cap retention was reduced. • Conclusions Flowers of E. foliosa are specialized for pollination by elaterid beetles. Retention of anther caps for a period exceeding average visit times

  13. Multiple Geographical Origins of Environmental Sex Determination enhanced the diversification of Darwin's Favourite Orchids.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Chomicki, Guillaume; Condamine, Fabien L; de Vos, Jurriaan M; Martins, Aline C; Smidt, Eric C; Klitgård, Bente; Gerlach, Günter; Heinrichs, Jochen

    2017-10-10

    Environmental sex determination (ESD) - a change in sexual function during an individual life span driven by environmental cues - is an exceedingly rare sexual system among angiosperms. Because ESD can directly affect reproduction success, it could influence diversification rate as compared with lineages that have alternative reproductive systems. Here we test this hypothesis using a solid phylogenetic framework of Neotropical Catasetinae, the angiosperm lineage richest in taxa with ESD. We assess whether gains of ESD are associated with higher diversification rates compared to lineages with alternative systems while considering additional traits known to positively affect diversification rates in orchids. We found that ESD has evolved asynchronously three times during the last ~5 Myr. Lineages with ESD have consistently higher diversification rates than related lineages with other sexual systems. Habitat fragmentation due to mega-wetlands extinction, and climate instability are suggested as the driving forces for ESD evolution.

  14. Observation: Leafy spurge control in western prairie fringed orchid habitat

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Kirby; Rodney G. Lym; John J. Sterling; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2003-01-01

    The western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara Sheviak and Bowles) is a threatened species of the tallgrass prairie. Invasion by leafy spurge (Euphorbiaes esula L.) is a serious threat to western prairie fringed orchid habitat. The obiectives of this study were to develop a herbicide treatment to control leafy spurge...

  15. Turkish graveyards as refuges for orchids against tuber harvest.

    PubMed

    Molnár V, Attila; Nagy, Timea; Löki, Viktor; Süveges, Kristóf; Takács, Attila; Bódis, Judit; Tökölyi, Jácint

    2017-12-01

    Harvest of orchid tubers for salep production is widespread in southwestern Asia and the Balkans and constitutes a major conservation risk for wild orchid populations. Synanthropic habitats, such as graveyards, are important refuges for orchids and other organisms and could offer protection from salep harvesting because of their special cultural role. However, little is known about the occurrence and factors influencing harvesting of salep in graveyards. During field surveys of 474 graveyards throughout Turkey, we observed 333 graveyards with orchids, 311 graveyards with tuberous orchids, and salep harvest in 14 graveyards. Altogether, 530 individuals of 17 orchid species were collected, representing 9% of the individuals recorded. Harvesting intensity was relatively low, and populations were usually not wholly destroyed. However, some species were clearly more affected than others. Salep harvesting risk of orchid species was significantly associated with flowering time, with early-flowering species being more affected. A marginally significant positive relationship between harvesting risk and species-specific tuber size was also detected. Our data suggest that graveyards might offer some protection against salep harvesting in Turkey, but they also show that some orchid taxa are much more affected than others. Overall, our observations add more weight to the conservation value of these special habitats.

  16. Dynamics of a threatened orchid in flooded wetlands

    Treesearch

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Paige M. Wolken

    1999-01-01

    One of the three largest metapopulations of the western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara) occurs on the Sheyenne National Grassland, in southeastern North Dakota. Our study was initiated in 1993 to quantify the effect of flooding on individual orchid plants. In 1993, 66 plants (33 flowering and 33 vegetative) growing in standing water...

  17. Epiphytism and pollinator specialization: drivers for orchid diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Gravendeel, Barbara; Smithson, Ann; Slik, Ferry J W; Schuiteman, Andre

    2004-01-01

    Epiphytes are a characteristic component of tropical rainforests. Out of the 25,000 orchid species currently known to science, more than 70% live in tree canopies. Understanding when and how these orchids diversified is vital to understanding the history of epiphytic biomes. We investigated whether orchids managed to radiate so explosively owing to their predominantly epiphytic habit and/or their specialized pollinator systems by testing these hypotheses from a statistical and phylogenetic standpoint. For the first approach, species numbers of 100 randomly chosen epiphytic and terrestrial genera were compared. Furthermore, the mean number of pollinators per orchid species within the five subfamilies was calculated and correlated with their time of diversification and species richness. In the second approach, molecular epiphytic orchid phylogenies were screened for clades with specific suites of epiphytic adaptations. Epiphytic genera were found to be significantly richer in species than terrestrial genera both for orchids and non-orchids. No evidence was found for a positive association between pollinator specialization and orchid species richness. Repeated associations between a small body size, short life cycle and specialized clinging roots of twig epiphytes in Bulbophyllinae and Oncidiinae were discovered. The development of twig epiphytism in the first group seems repeatedly correlated with speciation bursts. PMID:15519970

  18. Need for Social Approval: Impression Management or Self-Deception?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millham, Jim; Kellogg, Richard W.

    1980-01-01

    The self- and the other-deceptive components of social desirability responding were independent of each other, but positively and independently related to individual differences in need for approval score. Self-deceptive persons demonstrated diminished recall, while other-deceptive persons exhibited enhanced recall of negatively evaluative…

  19. Deception in Advertising: A Receiver Oriented Approach to Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David M.

    The purpose of this paper is to examine deception in advertising from a behavioral perspective, and to attempt to formulate a definition that can guide both research and governmental regulation. Whether or not an advertisement is said to be "deceptive" depends on the definition of deception being used. The position advocated here is that…

  20. Orchid conservation in the biodiversity hotspot of southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Jin; Corlett, Richard T; Fan, XuLi; Yu, DongLi; Yang, HongPei; Gao, JiangYun

    2015-12-01

    Xishuangbanna is on the northern margins of tropical Asia in southwestern China and has the largest area of tropical forest remaining in the country. It is in the Indo-Burma hotspot and contains 16% of China's vascular flora in <0.2% of the country's total area (19,690 km(2) ). Rapid expansion of monoculture crops in the last 20 years, particularly rubber, threatens this region's exceptional biodiversity. To understand the effects of land-use change and collection on orchid species diversity and determine protection priorities, we conducted systematic field surveys, observed markets, interviewed orchid collectors, and then determined the conservation status of all orchids. We identified 426 orchid species in 115 genera in Xishuangbanna: 31% of all orchid species that occur in China. Species richness was highest at 1000-1200 m elevation. Three orchid species were assessed as possibly extinct in the wild, 15 as critically endangered, 82 as endangered, 124 as vulnerable, 186 as least concern, and 16 as data deficient. Declines over 20 years in harvested species suggested over-collection was the major threat, and utility value (i.e., medicinal or ornamental value) was significantly related to endangerment. Expansion of rubber tree plantations was less of a threat to orchids than to other taxa because only 75 orchid species (17.6%) occurred below the 1000-m-elevation ceiling for rubber cultivation, and most of these (46) occurred in nature reserves. However, climate change is projected to lift this ceiling to around 1300 m by 2050, and the limited area at higher elevations reduces the potential for upslope range expansion. The Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden is committed to achieving zero plant extinctions in Xishuangbanna, and orchids are a high priority. Appropriate in and ex situ conservation strategies, including new protected areas and seed banking, have been developed for every threatened orchid species and are being implemented. © 2015 Society for

  1. Expression analysis of fertilization/early embryogenesis-associated genes in Phalaenopsis orchids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jhun-Chen; Wei, Miao-Ju; Fang, Su-Chiung

    2016-10-02

    One of the distinct reproductive programs in orchid species is pollination-triggered ovule development and megasporogenesis. During sexual reproduction, fertilization occurs days to months after pollination. The molecular mechanisms evolved to carry out this strategic reproductive program remain unclear. In the August issue of Plant Physiology 1 , we report comprehensive studies of comparative genome-wide gene expression in various reproductive tissues and the molecular events associated with developmental transitions unique to sexual reproduction of Phalaenopsis aphrodite. Transcriptional factors and signaling components whose expression is specifically enriched in interior ovary tissues when fertilization occurs and embryos start to develop have been identified. Here, we report verification of additional fertilization-associated genes, DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (PaDRM1), CHROMOMETHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (PaCMT1), SU(VAR)3-9 RELATED PROTEIN 1 (PaSUVR1), INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID inducible 30-like 1 (PaIAA30L1), and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3-like 1 (PaEIN3L1), and discuss their potential roles in gametophyte development, epigenetic reprogramming, and hormone regulation during fertilization and establishment of embryo development in Phalaenopsis orchids.

  2. Pollination Ecology of Four Epiphytic Orchids of New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    LEHNEBACH, CARLOS A.; ROBERTSON, ALASTAIR W

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims In New Zealand epiphytic orchids are represented by four genera and eight species. The genera Earina (three species) and Winika (one species) are the most conspicuous and widespread. These are likely to be some of the southernmost distributed genera of epiphytic orchids in the world. • Methods To identify the pollination strategies that have evolved in these orchids, hand‐pollination treatments were done and floral visitors were observed in several wild populations at two areas of southern North Island (approx. 40°S). Pollen : ovule ratio and osmophores were also studied and the total carbohydrate content of the nectar produced by each species was measured. • Key results Earina autumnalis and Earina mucronata are self‐compatible, whereas Earina aestivalis and Winika cunninghamii appear to be partially self‐incompatible. All four orchids are incapable of autonomous selfing and therefore completely dependent on pollinators to set fruits. Floral visitors observed in the genus Earina belong to Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera and to Diptera and Hymenoptera in W. cunninghamii. • Conclusions Contrary to many epiphytic orchids in the tropics, the orchid–pollinator relationship in these orchids is unspecialized and flowers are visited by a wide range of insects. Putative pollinators are flies of the families Bibionidae, Calliphoridae, Syrphidae and Tachinidae. All four orchids display anthecological adaptations to a myophilous pollination system such as simple flowers, well‐exposed reproductive structures, easily accessed nectar and high pollen : ovule ratios. PMID:15113741

  3. Online Deception Detection Using BDI Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritts, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    This research has two facets within separate research areas. The research area of Belief, Desire and Intention (BDI) agent capability development was extended. Deception detection research has been advanced with the development of automation using BDI agents. BDI agents performed tasks automatically and autonomously. This study used these…

  4. Increasing Deception Detection Accuracy with Strategic Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Shaw, Allison; Shulman, Hillary C.

    2010-01-01

    One explanation for the finding of slightly above-chance accuracy in detecting deception experiments is limited variance in sender transparency. The current study sought to increase accuracy by increasing variance in sender transparency with strategic interrogative questioning. Participants (total N = 128) observed cheaters and noncheaters who…

  5. Germination and seedling establishment in orchids: a complex of requirements

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Hanne N.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Jersáková, Jana; Těšitelová, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Background Seedling recruitment is essential to the sustainability of any plant population. Due to the minute nature of seeds and early-stage seedlings, orchid germination in situ was for a long time practically impossible to observe, creating an obstacle towards understanding seedling site requirements and fluctuations in orchid populations. The introduction of seed packet techniques for sowing and retrieval in natural sites has brought with it important insights, but many aspects of orchid seed and germination biology remain largely unexplored. Key Considerations The germination niche for orchids is extremely complex, because it is defined by requirements not only for seed lodging and germination, but also for presence of a fungal host and its substrate. A mycobiont that the seedling can parasitize is considered an essential element, and a great diversity of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota have now been identified for their role in orchid seed germination, with fungi identifiable as imperfect Rhizoctonia species predominating. Specificity patterns vary from orchid species employing a single fungal lineage to species associating individually with a limited selection of distantly related fungi. A suitable organic carbon source for the mycobiont constitutes another key requirement. Orchid germination also relies on factors that generally influence the success of plant seeds, both abiotic, such as light/shade, moisture, substrate chemistry and texture, and biotic, such as competitors and antagonists. Complexity is furthermore increased when these factors influence seeds/seedling, fungi and fungal substrate differentially. Conclusions A better understanding of germination and seedling establishment is needed for conservation of orchid populations. Due to the obligate association with a mycobiont, the germination niches in orchid species are extremely complex and varied. Microsites suitable for germination can be small and transient, and direct observation is difficult

  6. Germination and seedling establishment in orchids: a complex of requirements.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Hanne N; Dixon, Kingsley W; Jersáková, Jana; Těšitelová, Tamara

    2015-09-01

    Seedling recruitment is essential to the sustainability of any plant population. Due to the minute nature of seeds and early-stage seedlings, orchid germination in situ was for a long time practically impossible to observe, creating an obstacle towards understanding seedling site requirements and fluctuations in orchid populations. The introduction of seed packet techniques for sowing and retrieval in natural sites has brought with it important insights, but many aspects of orchid seed and germination biology remain largely unexplored. The germination niche for orchids is extremely complex, because it is defined by requirements not only for seed lodging and germination, but also for presence of a fungal host and its substrate. A mycobiont that the seedling can parasitize is considered an essential element, and a great diversity of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota have now been identified for their role in orchid seed germination, with fungi identifiable as imperfect Rhizoctonia species predominating. Specificity patterns vary from orchid species employing a single fungal lineage to species associating individually with a limited selection of distantly related fungi. A suitable organic carbon source for the mycobiont constitutes another key requirement. Orchid germination also relies on factors that generally influence the success of plant seeds, both abiotic, such as light/shade, moisture, substrate chemistry and texture, and biotic, such as competitors and antagonists. Complexity is furthermore increased when these factors influence seeds/seedling, fungi and fungal substrate differentially. A better understanding of germination and seedling establishment is needed for conservation of orchid populations. Due to the obligate association with a mycobiont, the germination niches in orchid species are extremely complex and varied. Microsites suitable for germination can be small and transient, and direct observation is difficult. An experimental approach using several

  7. Metagenomic Analyses of the Viruses Detected in Mycorrhizal Fungi and Their Host Orchid.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Hanako; Masuta, Chikara; Koda, Yasunori

    2018-01-01

    In nature, mycorrhizal association with soilborne fungi is indispensable for orchid families. Fungal structures from compatible endo-mycorrhizal fungi in orchid cells are digested in cells to be supplied to orchids as nutrition. Because orchid seeds lack the reserves for germination, they keep receiving nutrition through mycorrhizal formation from seed germination until shoots develop (leaves) and become photoautotrophic. Seeds of all orchid species surely geminate with the help of their own fungal partners, and this specific partnership has been acquired for a long evolutional history between orchids and fungi.We have studied the interactions between orchids and mycorrhizal fungi and recently conducted transcriptome analyses (RNAseq) by a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. It is possible that orchid RNA isolated form naturally grown plants is contaminated with RNAs derived from mycorrhizal fungi in the orchid cells. To avoid such contamination, we here prepared aseptically germinated orchid plants (i.e., fungus-free plants) together with a pure-cultured fungal isolate and field-growing orchid samples. In the cDNA library prepared from orchid and fungal tissues, we found that partitivirus-like sequences were common in an orchid and its mycorrhizal fungus. These partitivirus-like sequences were closely related by a phylogenetic analysis, suggesting that transmission of an ancestor virus between the two organisms occurred through the specific relation of the orchid and its associated fungus.

  8. Molecular characterization of natural orchid in South slopes of Mount Merapi, Sleman regency, Yogyakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdiani, Defika I.; Devi, Fera L.; Koentjana, Johan P.; Milasari, Asri F.; Nur'aini, Indah; Semiarti, Endang

    2015-09-01

    Natural orchid is one of the most important tropical biodiversity. In Indonesia there are ± 6000 species out of 30000 orchids species in the world, of which there are ± 60 species at Mount Merapi. Repetitive eruption of Merapi have wiped out the biodiversity of orchids, therefore the efforts to conserve the orchids and to establish the database of natural orchids in Mount Merapi are needed. The orchid's database can be created based on DNA analysis, and establish barcoding DNA. DNA-barcodes can be used as molecular markers. The different character of morphology usually shows different pattern in DNA fragments. This research aims to characterize the phenotype and genotype of natural orchids of Mt. Merapi based on morphology and the structure of DNA in trnL-F intergenic region of chloroplasts DNA of orchid. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) technique was used to characterize the molecular types of orchids in silico of intergenic space area of orchid chloroplast. In this study, 11 species of orchids were characterized based on morphological and molecular characters. The molecular characters were obtained from trnL-F intergenic region of leaves chloroplasts. The data indicates that there is a conserve DNA pattern in all orchids and the distinctive characters of some orchids. In this study, based on trnL-F intergenic region of chloroplast genome, the phylogenetic tree revealed that 11 species of orchids at Mt. Merapi can be grouped into 2 clades, that matched with morphological characters.

  9. Terrestrial orchid conservation in the age of extinction

    PubMed Central

    Swarts, Nigel D.; Dixon, Kingsley W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Conservation through reserves alone is now considered unlikely to achieve protection of plant species necessary to mitigate direct losses of habitat and the pervasive impact of global climate change. Assisted translocation/migration represent new challenges in the face of climate change; species, particularly orchids, will need artificial assistance to migrate from hostile environments, across ecological barriers (alienated lands such as farmlands and built infrastructure) to new climatically buffered sites. The technology and science to underpin assisted migration concepts are in their infancy for plants in general, and orchids, with their high degree of rarity, represent a particularly challenging group for which these principles need to be developed. It is likely that orchids, more than any other plant family, will be in the front-line of species to suffer large-scale extinction events as a result of climate change. Scope The South West Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR) is the only global biodiversity hotspot in Australia and represents an ideal test-bed for development of orchid conservation principles. Orchids comprise 6 % of all threatened vascular plants in the SWAFR, with 76 out of the 407 species known for the region having a high level of conservation risk. The situation in the SWAFR is a portent of the global crisis in terrestrial orchid conservation, and it is a region where innovative conservation solutions will be required if the impending wave of extinction is to be averted. Major threatening processes are varied, and include land clearance, salinity, burning, weed encroachment, disease and pests. This is compounded by highly specialized pollinators (locally endemic native invertebrates) and, in the most threatened groups such as hammer orchids (Drakaea) and spider orchids (Caladenia), high levels of mycorrhizal specialization. Management and development of effective conservation strategies for SWAFR orchids require a wide range of

  10. Hazard of deceptive advertising of athletic footwear.

    PubMed

    Robbins, S; Waked, E

    1997-12-01

    Athletic footwear are associated with frequent injury that are thought to result from repetitive impact. No scientific data suggest they protect well. Expensive athletic shoes are deceptively advertised to safeguard well through "cushioning impact", yet account for 123% greater injury frequency than the cheapest ones. This study tested the hypothesis that deceptive advertising creates a false sense of security with users of expensive athletic shoes, inducing attenuation of impact moderating behaviour, increased impact, and injury. Fifteen young healthy male volunteers confronted four surfaces: a bare force moment platform, and three with this platform covered by identical shoe sole material made to appear different and advertised divergently. Advertising messages suggested superior impact absorption and protection (deceptive message), poor impact absorption and high injury risk (warning message), and unknown impact absorption and safety (neutral message). Ground reaction forces were recorded for 10 barefoot footfalls, according to a protocol requiring stepping forward from perch to a surface 4.5 cm below. Impact varied as a function of advertising message (p < 0.001). Deceptive message equalled neutral message in eliciting higher impact than the warning message and the bare platform. Differences grew with repetitions (p < 0.001). These data provide a plausible mechanism explaining higher injury frequency in users of expensive athletic shoes. This is the first report to suggest: (1) deceptive advertising of protective devices may represent a public health hazard and may have to be eliminated presumably through regulation; (2) a tendency in humans to be less cautious when using new devices of unknown benefit because of overly positive attitudes associated with new technology and novel devices.

  11. Exploring the movement dynamics of deception

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Nicholas D.; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T.; Street, Chris N. H.; Richardson, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Both the science and the everyday practice of detecting a lie rest on the same assumption: hidden cognitive states that the liar would like to remain hidden nevertheless influence observable behavior. This assumption has good evidence. The insights of professional interrogators, anecdotal evidence, and body language textbooks have all built up a sizeable catalog of non-verbal cues that have been claimed to distinguish deceptive and truthful behavior. Typically, these cues are discrete, individual behaviors—a hand touching a mouth, the rise of a brow—that distinguish lies from truths solely in terms of their frequency or duration. Research to date has failed to establish any of these non-verbal cues as a reliable marker of deception. Here we argue that perhaps this is because simple tallies of behavior can miss out on the rich but subtle organization of behavior as it unfolds over time. Research in cognitive science from a dynamical systems perspective has shown that behavior is structured across multiple timescales, with more or less regularity and structure. Using tools that are sensitive to these dynamics, we analyzed body motion data from an experiment that put participants in a realistic situation of choosing, or not, to lie to an experimenter. Our analyses indicate that when being deceptive, continuous fluctuations of movement in the upper face, and somewhat in the arms, are characterized by dynamical properties of less stability, but greater complexity. For the upper face, these distinctions are present despite no apparent differences in the overall amount of movement between deception and truth. We suggest that these unique dynamical signatures of motion are indicative of both the cognitive demands inherent to deception and the need to respond adaptively in a social context. PMID:23543852

  12. Hazard of deceptive advertising of athletic footwear.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, S; Waked, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Athletic footwear are associated with frequent injury that are thought to result from repetitive impact. No scientific data suggest they protect well. Expensive athletic shoes are deceptively advertised to safeguard well through "cushioning impact", yet account for 123% greater injury frequency than the cheapest ones. This study tested the hypothesis that deceptive advertising creates a false sense of security with users of expensive athletic shoes, inducing attenuation of impact moderating behaviour, increased impact, and injury. METHODS: Fifteen young healthy male volunteers confronted four surfaces: a bare force moment platform, and three with this platform covered by identical shoe sole material made to appear different and advertised divergently. Advertising messages suggested superior impact absorption and protection (deceptive message), poor impact absorption and high injury risk (warning message), and unknown impact absorption and safety (neutral message). Ground reaction forces were recorded for 10 barefoot footfalls, according to a protocol requiring stepping forward from perch to a surface 4.5 cm below. RESULTS: Impact varied as a function of advertising message (p < 0.001). Deceptive message equalled neutral message in eliciting higher impact than the warning message and the bare platform. Differences grew with repetitions (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a plausible mechanism explaining higher injury frequency in users of expensive athletic shoes. This is the first report to suggest: (1) deceptive advertising of protective devices may represent a public health hazard and may have to be eliminated presumably through regulation; (2) a tendency in humans to be less cautious when using new devices of unknown benefit because of overly positive attitudes associated with new technology and novel devices. PMID:9429006

  13. Exploring the movement dynamics of deception.

    PubMed

    Duran, Nicholas D; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T; Street, Chris N H; Richardson, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    BOTH THE SCIENCE AND THE EVERYDAY PRACTICE OF DETECTING A LIE REST ON THE SAME ASSUMPTION: hidden cognitive states that the liar would like to remain hidden nevertheless influence observable behavior. This assumption has good evidence. The insights of professional interrogators, anecdotal evidence, and body language textbooks have all built up a sizeable catalog of non-verbal cues that have been claimed to distinguish deceptive and truthful behavior. Typically, these cues are discrete, individual behaviors-a hand touching a mouth, the rise of a brow-that distinguish lies from truths solely in terms of their frequency or duration. Research to date has failed to establish any of these non-verbal cues as a reliable marker of deception. Here we argue that perhaps this is because simple tallies of behavior can miss out on the rich but subtle organization of behavior as it unfolds over time. Research in cognitive science from a dynamical systems perspective has shown that behavior is structured across multiple timescales, with more or less regularity and structure. Using tools that are sensitive to these dynamics, we analyzed body motion data from an experiment that put participants in a realistic situation of choosing, or not, to lie to an experimenter. Our analyses indicate that when being deceptive, continuous fluctuations of movement in the upper face, and somewhat in the arms, are characterized by dynamical properties of less stability, but greater complexity. For the upper face, these distinctions are present despite no apparent differences in the overall amount of movement between deception and truth. We suggest that these unique dynamical signatures of motion are indicative of both the cognitive demands inherent to deception and the need to respond adaptively in a social context.

  14. Current progress in orchid flowering/flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsin-Mei; Tong, Chii-Gong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic pathways relevant to flowering of Arabidopsis are under the control of environmental cues such as day length and temperatures, and endogenous signals including phytohormones and developmental aging. However, genes and even regulatory pathways for flowering identified in crops show divergence from those of Arabidopsis and often do not have functional equivalents to Arabidopsis and/or existing species- or genus-specific regulators and show modified or novel pathways. Orchids are the largest, most highly evolved flowering plants, and form an extremely peculiar group of plants. Here, we briefly summarize the flowering pathways of Arabidopsis, rice and wheat and present them alongside recent discoveries/progress in orchid flowering and flower developmental processes including our transgenic Phalaenopsis orchids for LEAFY overexpression. Potential biotechnological applications in flowering/flower development of orchids with potential target genes are also discussed from an interactional and/or comparative viewpoint. PMID:28448202

  15. Sympatric speciation: perfume preferences of orchid bee lineages.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Duncan E

    2008-12-09

    Female attraction to an environmentally derived mating signal released by male orchid bees may be tightly linked to shared olfactory preferences of both sexes. A change in perfume preference may have led to divergence of two morphologically distinct lineages.

  16. The comparative chloroplast genomic analysis of photosynthetic orchids and developing DNA markers to distinguish Phalaenopsis orchids.

    PubMed

    Jheng, Cheng-Fong; Chen, Tien-Chih; Lin, Jhong-Yi; Chen, Ting-Chieh; Wu, Wen-Luan; Chang, Ching-Chun

    2012-07-01

    The chloroplast genome of Phalaenopsis equestris was determined and compared to those of Phalaenopsis aphrodite and Oncidium Gower Ramsey in Orchidaceae. The chloroplast genome of P. equestris is 148,959 bp, and a pair of inverted repeats (25,846 bp) separates the genome into large single-copy (85,967 bp) and small single-copy (11,300 bp) regions. The genome encodes 109 genes, including 4 rRNA, 30 tRNA and 75 protein-coding genes, but loses four ndh genes (ndhA, E, F and H) and seven other ndh genes are pseudogenes. The rate of inter-species variation between the two moth orchids was 0.74% (1107 sites) for single nucleotide substitution and 0.24% for insertions (161 sites; 1388 bp) and deletions (189 sites; 1393 bp). The IR regions have a lower rate of nucleotide substitution (3.5-5.8-fold) and indels (4.3-7.1-fold) than single-copy regions. The intergenic spacers are the most divergent, and based on the length variation of the three intergenic spacers, 11 native Phalaenopsis orchids could be successfully distinguished. The coding genes, IR junction and RNA editing sites are relatively more conserved between the two moth orchids than between those of Phalaenopsis and Oncidium spp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Untangling above- and belowground mycorrhizal fungal networks in tropical orchids.

    PubMed

    Leake, J R; Cameron, D D

    2012-10-01

    Orchids typically depend on fungi for establishment from seeds, forming mycorrhizal associations with basidiomycete fungal partners in the polyphyletic group rhizoctonia from early stages of germination, sometimes with very high specificity. This has raised important questions about the roles of plant and fungal phylogenetics, and their habitat preferences, in controlling which fungi associate with which plants. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Martos et al. (2012) report the largest network analysis to date for orchids and their mycorrhizal fungi, sampling a total of over 450 plants from nearly half the 150 tropical orchid species on Reunion Island, encompassing its main terrestrial and epiphytic orchid genera. The authors found a total of 95 operational taxonomic units of mycorrhizal fungi and investigated the architecture and nestedness of their bipartite networks with 73 orchid species. The most striking finding was a major ecological barrier between above- and belowground mycorrhizal fungal networks, despite both epiphytic and terrestrial orchids often associating with closely related taxa across all three major lineages of rhizoctonia fungi. The fungal partnerships of the epiphytes and terrestrial species involved a diversity of fungal taxa in a modular network architecture, with only about one in ten mycorrhizal fungi partnering orchids in both groups. In contrast, plant and fungal phylogenetics had weak or no effects on the network. This highlights the power of recently developed ecological network analyses to give new insights into controls on plant-fungal symbioses and raises exciting new hypotheses about the differences in properties and functioning of mycorrhiza in epiphytic and terrestrial orchids. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Deception in medical and behavioral research: is it ever acceptable?

    PubMed

    Wendler, D

    1996-01-01

    Ethicists argue that deception is unacceptable, whereas researchers regard it as a necessary part of (certain kinds of) research. This impasse could be resolved by establishing the specific conditions under which deception in medical and behavioral research can be tolerated. An approach based on a consideration of the "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," one of the few writings on this topic, would satisfy the needs of both parties. It takes the form of a requirement that subjects be informed of the use of deception before enrolling in a deceptive study. This "second order consent" approach to acceptable deception represents our best chance for reconciling respect for subjects with the occasional scientific need for deceptive research.

  19. Orchid phylogenomics and multiple drivers of their extraordinary diversification

    PubMed Central

    Givnish, Thomas J.; Spalink, Daniel; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P.; Hunter, Steven J.; Zuluaga, Alejandro; Iles, William J. D.; Clements, Mark A.; Arroyo, Mary T. K.; Leebens-Mack, James; Endara, Lorena; Kriebel, Ricardo; Neubig, Kurt M.; Whitten, W. Mark; Williams, Norris H.; Cameron, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    Orchids are the most diverse family of angiosperms, with over 25 000 species, more than mammals, birds and reptiles combined. Tests of hypotheses to account for such diversity have been stymied by the lack of a fully resolved broad-scale phylogeny. Here, we provide such a phylogeny, based on 75 chloroplast genes for 39 species representing all orchid subfamilies and 16 of 17 tribes, time-calibrated against 17 angiosperm fossils. A supermatrix analysis places an additional 144 species based on three plastid genes. Orchids appear to have arisen roughly 112 million years ago (Mya); the subfamilies Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae diverged from each other at the end of the Cretaceous; and the eight tribes and three previously unplaced subtribes of the upper epidendroids diverged rapidly from each other between 37.9 and 30.8 Mya. Orchids appear to have undergone one significant acceleration of net species diversification in the orchidoids, and two accelerations and one deceleration in the upper epidendroids. Consistent with theory, such accelerations were correlated with the evolution of pollinia, the epiphytic habit, CAM photosynthesis, tropical distribution (especially in extensive cordilleras), and pollination via Lepidoptera or euglossine bees. Deceit pollination appears to have elevated the number of orchid species by one-half but not via acceleration of the rate of net diversification. The highest rate of net species diversification within the orchids (0.382 sp sp−1 My−1) is 6.8 times that at the Asparagales crown. PMID:26311671

  20. Appearing truthful generalizes across different deception situations.

    PubMed

    Frank, Mark G; Ekman, Paul

    2004-03-01

    The authors investigated whether the ability to appear truthful is specific to deception situations. Male participants were interrogated after they took part in 2 high-stake deception situations, one involving a mock crime and another involving a false opinion. The videotaped interrogations from each situation were shown to independent groups of undergraduate observers. The proportion of observers who judged each participant as truthful in one situation correlated highly with the proportion of observers who judged the same participant as truthful in the other situation. This was not correlated with physiognomy judgments. Follow-up studies revealed that although the participants showed consistency in their facial, body, and paralinguistic behaviors across situations, observers' judgments seemed to be driven only by the consistency of the dynamic facial behaviors. These results are discussed in terms of the evolutionary importance of the face in communication.

  1. Deception in plants: mimicry or perceptual exploitation?

    PubMed

    Schaefer, H Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2009-12-01

    Mimicry involves adaptive resemblance between a mimic and a model. However, despite much recent research, it remains contentious in plants. Here, we review recent progress on studying deception by flowers, distinguishing between plants relying on mimicry to achieve pollination and those relying on the exploitation of the perceptual biases of animals. We disclose fundamental differences between both mechanisms and explain why the evolution of exploitation is less constrained than that of mimicry. Exploitation of perceptual biases might thus be a precursor for the gradual evolution of mimicry. Increasing knowledge on the sensory and cognitive filters in animals, and on the selective pressures that maintain them, should aid researchers in tracing the evolutionary dynamics of deception in plants.

  2. A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: evidence from functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Sean A; Hunter, Mike D; Farrow, Tom F D; Green, Russell D; Leung, David H; Hughes, Catherine J; Ganesan, Venkatasubramanian

    2004-01-01

    An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation. In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques (especially functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions (particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices), while truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation (relative to deception). Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention (to deceive). While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation. PMID:15590616

  3. Deception in Soviet Military Doctrine and Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    class entitled Soviet Military Strategy, taught by Dr. Robert Bathurst at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California. 10. George Orwell , quoted...recent asslignment as the Command Tactical Deception Officer, from March 1981 to May 1984 , at Headquarters Tactical Air Command Langley Air Force Base... Revolution , has made an indelible imprint on the Soviet psyche. Even today, forty years after the war, the Soviet people and the rest of the world are

  4. Air pollution as it affects orchids at the New York Botanical Garden

    SciTech Connect

    Adderley, L.

    A general discussion of the effects of air pollution on orchids is presented, along with ameliorative measures. One orchid, Dendrobium Phalaenopsis, is suggested as an air pollution bioassay tool, in that it is extremely sensitive to air pollution.

  5. In vitro propagation of Paphiopedilum orchids.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Songjun; Huang, Weichang; Wu, Kunlin; Zhang, Jianxia; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Duan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Paphiopedilum is one of the most popular and rare orchid genera. Members of the genus are sold and exhibited as pot plants and cut flowers. Wild populations of Paphiopedilum are under the threat of extinction due to over-collection and loss of suitable habitats. A reduction in their commercial value through large-scale propagation in vitro is an option to reduce pressure from illegal collection, to attempt to meet commercial needs and to re-establish threatened species back into the wild. Although they are commercially propagated via asymbiotic seed germination, Paphiopedilum are considered to be difficult to propagate in vitro, especially by plant regeneration from tissue culture. This review aims to cover the most important aspects and to provide an up-to-date research progress on in vitro propagation of Paphiopedilum and to emphasize the importance of further improving tissue culture protocols for ex vitro-derived explants.

  6. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    2000-03-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.

  7. Limited carbon and mineral nutrient gain from mycorrhizal fungi by adult Australian orchids.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Janine; Pausch, Johanna; Brundrett, Mark C; Dixon, Kingsley W; Bidartondo, Martin I; Gebauer, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    In addition to autotrophic and fully mycoheterotrophic representatives, the orchid family comprises species that at maturity obtain C and N partially from fungal sources. These partial mycoheterotrophs are often associated with fungi that simultaneously form ectomycorrhizas with trees. This study investigates mycorrhizal nutrition for orchids from the southwestern Australian biodiversity hotspot. The mycorrhizal fungi of 35 green and one achlorophyllous orchid species were analyzed using molecular methods. Nutritional mode was identified for 27 species by C and N isotope abundance analysis in comparison to non-orchids from the same habitat. As a complementary approach, (13)CO(2) pulse labeling was applied to a subset of six orchid species to measure photosynthetic capacity. Almost all orchids associated with rhizoctonia-forming fungi. Due to much higher than expected variation within the co-occurring nonorchid reference plants, the stable isotope approach proved challenging for assigning most orchids to a specialized nutritional mode; therefore, these orchids were classified as autotrophic at maturity. The (13)CO(2) pulse labeling confirmed full autotrophy for six selected species. Nonetheless, at least three orchid species (Gastrodia lacista, Prasophyllum elatum, Corybas recurvus) were identified as nutritionally distinctive from autotrophic orchids and reference plants. Despite the orchid-rich flora in southwestern Australia, partial mycoheterotrophy among these orchids is less common than in other parts of the world, most likely because most associate with saprotrophic fungi rather than ectomycorrhizal fungi.

  8. 76 FR 78008 - Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings and Orchid Cellmark Inc.; Analysis of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 111 0155] Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings and Orchid... Comment part of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Write ``LabCorp/Orchid, File No. 111 0155... consider your comment, we must receive it on or before January 9, 2012. Write ''LabCorp/Orchid, File No...

  9. New Workflows for Born-Digital Assets: Managing Charles E. Bracker's Orchid Photographs Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurford, Amanda A.; Runyon, Carolyn F.

    2011-01-01

    Charles E. Bracker was a professor of botany and plant pathology at Purdue University from 1964 to 1999. His late wife, Anri, was an orchid enthusiast who began collecting and housing orchids in the 1980s. In 2009, Bracker's 30,000 digital orchid photographs were donated to Ball State University Libraries, where both of this article's authors…

  10. A pollinator shift explains floral divergence in an orchid species complex in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Craig I.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral diversification driven by shifts between pollinators has been one of the key explanations for the radiation of angiosperms. According to the Grant–Stebbins model of pollinator-driven speciation, these shifts result in morphologically distinct ‘ecotypes’ which may eventually become recognizable as species. The current circumscription of the food-deceptive southern African orchid Eulophia parviflora encompasses a highly variable monophyletic species complex. In this study, two forms were identified within this complex that differ in distribution, floral morphology, scent chemistry and phenology, and a test was made of whether these differences represent adaptations for different pollinators. Methods and Results Multivariate analysis of floral and vegetative traits revealed that there are at least two discrete morphological forms in the species complex. Field observations revealed that each form is pollinated by a different insect species, and thus represent distinct ecotypes. The early-flowering coastal form which has long spurs and floral scent dominated by sesquiterpene compounds is pollinated exclusively by the long-tongued bee Amegilla fallax (Apidae, Anthophorinae), while the late-flowering inland form with short spurs and floral scent dominated by benzenoid compounds is pollinated exclusively by the beetle Cyrtothyrea marginalis (Cetoniinae; Scarabaeidae). Choice experiments in a Y-maze olfactometer showed that beetles are preferentially attracted to the scent of the short-spurred form. A spur-shortening experiment showed that long spurs are required for effective pollination of the bee-pollinated form. Although it was initially thought likely that divergence occurred across a geographical pollinator gradient, plants of the long-spurred form were effectively pollinated when transplanted to an inland locality outside the natural coastal range of this form. Thus, the underlying geographical basis for the evolution of ecotypes in

  11. A pollinator shift explains floral divergence in an orchid species complex in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peter, Craig I; Johnson, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Floral diversification driven by shifts between pollinators has been one of the key explanations for the radiation of angiosperms. According to the Grant-Stebbins model of pollinator-driven speciation, these shifts result in morphologically distinct 'ecotypes' which may eventually become recognizable as species. The current circumscription of the food-deceptive southern African orchid Eulophia parviflora encompasses a highly variable monophyletic species complex. In this study, two forms were identified within this complex that differ in distribution, floral morphology, scent chemistry and phenology, and a test was made of whether these differences represent adaptations for different pollinators. Multivariate analysis of floral and vegetative traits revealed that there are at least two discrete morphological forms in the species complex. Field observations revealed that each form is pollinated by a different insect species, and thus represent distinct ecotypes. The early-flowering coastal form which has long spurs and floral scent dominated by sesquiterpene compounds is pollinated exclusively by the long-tongued bee Amegilla fallax (Apidae, Anthophorinae), while the late-flowering inland form with short spurs and floral scent dominated by benzenoid compounds is pollinated exclusively by the beetle Cyrtothyrea marginalis (Cetoniinae; Scarabaeidae). Choice experiments in a Y-maze olfactometer showed that beetles are preferentially attracted to the scent of the short-spurred form. A spur-shortening experiment showed that long spurs are required for effective pollination of the bee-pollinated form. Although it was initially thought likely that divergence occurred across a geographical pollinator gradient, plants of the long-spurred form were effectively pollinated when transplanted to an inland locality outside the natural coastal range of this form. Thus, the underlying geographical basis for the evolution of ecotypes in the E. parviflora complex remains uncertain

  12. 14 CFR 399.81 - Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. 399.81... Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. (a) It is the policy of the Board to consider unrealistic scheduling of... to the advertising of scheduled performance, it is the policy of the Board to regard as an unfair or...

  13. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2 Section 254.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is...

  14. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2 Section 254.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is...

  15. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2 Section 254.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is...

  16. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2 Section 254.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is...

  17. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deceptive trade or business names. 254.2 Section 254.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is...

  18. 16 CFR 18.2 - Deception through use of names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... distribution of an industry product, it is an unfair or deceptive act or practice for any industry member to... recognized and well-established common name, it is proper to use such name as a designation therefor, either... a generally recognized and well-established common name, it is an unfair or deceptive act or...

  19. 16 CFR 300.30 - Deceptive labeling in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deceptive labeling in general. 300.30 Section 300.30 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.30 Deceptive labeling...

  20. Deceptive Intentions: Can Cues to Deception Be Measured before a Lie Is Even Stated?

    PubMed Central

    Ströfer, Sabine; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Ufkes, Elze G.; Giebels, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Can deceitful intentions be discriminated from truthful ones? Previous work consistently demonstrated that deceiving others is accompanied by nervousness/stress and cognitive load. Both are related to increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. We hypothesized that SNS activity already rises during intentions to lie and, consequently, cues to deception can be detected before stating an actual lie. In two experiments, controlling for prospective memory, we monitored SNS activity during lying, truth telling, and truth telling with the aim of lying at a later instance. Electrodermal activity (EDA) was used as an indicator of SNS. EDA was highest during lying, and compared to the truth condition, EDA was also raised during the intention to deceive. Moreover, the switch from truth telling toward lying in the intention condition evoked higher EDA than switching toward non-deception related tasks in the lie or truth condition. These results provide first empirical evidence that increased SNS activity related to deception can be monitored before a lie is stated. This implies that cues to deception are already present during the mere intention to lie. PMID:26018573

  1. Donkey Orchid Symptomless Virus: A Viral ‘Platypus’ from Australian Terrestrial Orchids

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Stephen J.; Li, Hua; Jones, Michael G. K.

    2013-01-01

    Complete and partial genome sequences of two isolates of an unusual new plant virus, designated Donkey orchid symptomless virus (DOSV) were identified using a high-throughput sequencing approach. The virus was identified from asymptomatic plants of Australian terrestrial orchid Diuris longifolia (Common donkey orchid) growing in a remnant forest patch near Perth, western Australia. DOSV was identified from two D. longifolia plants of 264 tested, and from at least one plant of 129 Caladenia latifolia (pink fairy orchid) plants tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome revealed open reading frames (ORF) encoding seven putative proteins of apparently disparate origins. A 69-kDa protein (ORF1) that overlapped the replicase shared low identity with MPs of plant tymoviruses (Tymoviridae). A 157-kDa replicase (ORF2) and 22-kDa coat protein (ORF4) shared 32% and 40% amino acid identity, respectively, with homologous proteins encoded by members of the plant virus family Alphaflexiviridae. A 44-kDa protein (ORF3) shared low identity with myosin and an autophagy protein from Squirrelpox virus. A 27-kDa protein (ORF5) shared no identity with described proteins. A 14-kDa protein (ORF6) shared limited sequence identity (26%) over a limited region of the envelope glycoprotein precursor of mammal-infecting Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae). The putative 25-kDa movement protein (MP) (ORF7) shared limited (27%) identity with 3A-like MPs of members of the plant-infecting Tombusviridae and Virgaviridae. Transmissibility was shown when DOSV systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Structure and organization of the domains within the putative replicase of DOSV suggests a common evolutionary origin with ‘potexvirus-like’ replicases of viruses within the Alphaflexiviridae and Tymoviridae, and the CP appears to be ancestral to CPs of allexiviruses (Alphaflexiviridae). The MP shares an evolutionary history with MPs of dianthoviruses, but the other putative

  2. Australasian orchid biogeography at continental scale: molecular phylogenetic insights from the sun orchids (Thelymitra, Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Nauheimer, Lars; Schley, Rowan J; Clements, Mark A; Micheneau, Claire; Nargar, Katharina

    2018-06-02

    Australia harbours a rich and highly endemic orchid flora, with c. 90 % of species endemic to the country. Despite that, the biogeographic history of Australasian orchid lineages is only poorly understood. Here we examined evolutionary relationships and the spatio-temporal evolution of the sun orchids (Thelymitra, 119 species), which display disjunct distribution patterns frequently found in Australasian orchid lineages. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted based on one nuclear (ITS) and three plastid markers (matK, psbJ-petA, ycf1) using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. Divergence time estimations were carried out with a relaxed molecular clock in a Bayesian framework. Ancestral ranges were estimated using the dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis model and an area coding based on major disjunctions. The phylogenetic analyses clarified intergeneric relationships within Thelymitrinae, with Epiblema being sister to Thelymitra plus Calochilus, both of which were well-supported. Within Thelymitra, eight major and several minor clades were retrieved in the nuclear and plastid phylogenetic reconstructions. Five major clades corresponded to species complexes previously recognized based on morphological characters, whereas other previously recognized species groups were found to be paraphyletic. Conflicting signals between the nuclear and plastid phylogenetic reconstructions provided support for hybridization and plastid capture events both in the deeper evolutionary history of the genus and more recently. Divergence time estimation placed the origin of Thelymitra in the late Miocene (c. 10.8 Ma) and the origin of the majority of the main clades within Thelymitra during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, with the majority of extant species arising during the Pleistocene. Ancestral range reconstruction revealed that the early diversification of the genus in the late Miocene and Pliocene took place predominantly in southwest Australia, where most species with

  3. Counterfactual Consent and the Use of Deception in Research.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alan T

    2015-09-01

    The use of deception for the purposes of research is a widespread practice within many areas of study. If we want to avoid either absolute acceptance or absolute rejection of this practice then we require some method of distinguishing between those uses of deception which are morally acceptable and those which are not. In this article I discuss the concept of counterfactual consent, and propose a related distinction between counterfactual-defeating deception and counterfactual-compatible deception. The aim is to show that this proposed distinction will be useful in furthering the debate regarding the use of deception for the purposes of research. © 2014 The Authors. Bioethics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Pollination by brood-site deception.

    PubMed

    Urru, Isabella; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Hansson, Bill S

    2011-09-01

    Pollination is often regarded as a mutualistic relationship between flowering plants and insects. In such a relationship, both partners gain a fitness benefit as a result of their interaction. The flower gets pollinated and the insect typically gets a food-related reward. However, flower-insect communication is not always a mutualistic system, as some flowers emit deceitful signals. Insects are thus fooled by irresistible stimuli and pollination is accomplished. Such deception requires very fine tuning, as insects in their typically short life span, try to find mating/feeding breeding sites as efficiently as possible, and following deceitful signals thus is both costly and time-consuming. Deceptive flowers have thus evolved the ability to emit signals that trigger obligate innate or learned responses in the targeted insects. The behavior, and thus the signals, exploited are typically involved in reproduction, from attracting pheromones to brood/food-site cues. Chemical mimicry is one of the main modalities through which flowers trick their pollen vectors, as olfaction plays a pivotal role in insect-insect and insect-plant interactions. Here we focus on floral odors that specifically mimic an oviposition substrate, i.e., brood-site mimicry. The phenomenon is wide spread across unrelated plant lineages of Angiosperm, Splachnaceae and Phallaceae. Targeted insects are mainly beetles and flies, and flowers accordingly often emit, to the human nose, highly powerful and fetid smells that are conversely extremely attractive to the duped insects. Brood-site deceptive plants often display highly elaborate flowers and have evolved a trap-release mechanism. Chemical cues often act in unison with other sensory cues to refine the imitation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Independent, specialized invasions of ectomycorrhizal mutualism by two nonphotosynthetic orchids

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D. Lee; Bruns, Thomas D.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the mycorrhizal associations of two nonphotosynthetic orchids from distant tribes within the Orchidaceae. The two orchids were found to associate exclusively with two distinct clades of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous fungi over wide geographic ranges. Yet both orchids retained the internal mycorrhizal structure typical of photosynthetic orchids that do not associate with ectomycorrhizal fungi. Restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis of two ribosomal regions along with fungal isolation provided congruent, independent evidence for the identities of the fungal symbionts. All 14 fungal entities that were associated with the orchid Cephalanthera austinae belonged to a clade within the Thelephoraceae, and all 18 fungal entities that were associated with the orchid Corallorhiza maculata fell within the Russulaceae. Restriction fragment length polymorphism and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis of ectomycorrhizal tree roots collected adjacent to Cephalanthera showed that (i) the fungi associated internally with Cephalanthera also form typical external ectomycorrhizae and that (ii) ectomycorrhizae formed by other Basidiomycetes were abundant where the orchid grows but these fungi did not associate with the orchid. This is the first proof of ectomycorrhizal epiparasitism in nature by an orchid. We argue that these orchids are cheaters because they do not provide fixed carbon to associated fungi. This view suggests that mycorrhizae, like other ancient mutualisms, are susceptible to cheating. The extreme specificity in these orchids relative to other ectomycorrhizal plants agrees with trends seen in more conventional parasites. PMID:9114020

  6. Phylogenetic and microsatellite markers for Tulasnella (Tulasnellaceae) mycorrhizal fungi associated with Australian orchids.

    PubMed

    Ruibal, Monica P; Peakall, Rod; Smith, Leon M; Linde, Celeste C

    2013-03-01

    Phylogenetic and microsatellite markers were developed for Tulasnella mycorrhizal fungi to investigate fungal species identity and diversity. These markers will be useful in future studies investigating the phylogenetic relationship of the fungal symbionts, specificity of orchid-mycorrhizal associations, and the role of mycorrhizae in orchid speciation within several orchid genera. • We generated partial genome sequences of two Tulasnella symbionts originating from Chiloglottis and Drakaea orchid species with 454 genome sequencing. Cross-genus transferability across mycorrhizal symbionts associated with multiple genera of Australian orchids (Arthrochilus, Chiloglottis, Drakaea, and Paracaleana) was found for seven phylogenetic loci. Five loci showed cross-transferability to Tulasnella from other orchid genera, and two to Sebacina. Furthermore, 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed for Tulasnella from Chiloglottis. • Highly informative markers were obtained, allowing investigation of mycorrhizal diversity of Tulasnellaceae associated with a wide variety of terrestrial orchids in Australia and potentially worldwide.

  7. Somatic Embryogenesis in Two Orchid Genera (Cymbidium, Dendrobium).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Winarto, Budi

    2016-01-01

    The protocorm-like body (PLB) is the de facto somatic embryo in orchids. Here we describe detailed protocols for two orchid genera (hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon 'Day Light' and Dendrobium 'Jayakarta', D. 'Gradita 31', and D. 'Zahra FR 62') for generating PLBs. These protocols will most likely have to be tweaked for different cultivars as the response of orchids in vitro tends to be dependent on genotype. In addition to primary somatic embryogenesis, secondary (or repetitive) somatic embryogenesis is also described for both genera. The use of thin cell layers as a sensitive tissue assay is outlined for hybrid Cymbidium while the protocol outlined is suitable for bioreactor culture of D. 'Zahra FR 62'.

  8. Deception for drugs: self-reported "doctor shopping" among young adults.

    PubMed

    Stogner, John M; Sanders, Amber; Miller, Bryan Lee

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical abuse is a burgeoning problem, and various forms of drug diversion are becoming more common. At present, little is known about those who attempt to deceive physicians to receive medications, and even less is known about those who successfully avoid detection and abuse-related repercussions. The goal of this study is to assess the prevalence of attempted physician deception in a general population, explore common motives, and evaluate risk factors associated with the behavior. A stratified random sampling technique was used to obtain a locally representative sample of 2349 young adults. The sample was 48.4% male, 68.9% white, 24.4% black, and 2.8% Hispanic. Selected individuals were surveyed using a self-report instrument (80.4% response rate). Of the respondents, 93 (4.0%) self-reported having attempted to deceive a physician to obtain a pharmaceutical. Most of these indicated that they were at least partially motivated by their own abuse. Approximately half reported that selling a portion of the prescription was a motivating factor. Alcohol use, marijuana use, and pharmaceutical misuse each were risk factors associated with attempted deception. Although no traits were definitively linked to the behavior, attempted deception was more commonly reported by men, Hispanics, self-identified lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender individuals, and those at the lowest and highest extremes of the income spectrum. Logistic regression models of rare events indicated that past substance use along with sexual orientation and family income were related to attempted deception when controlling for other factors. Results suggest that attempted physician deception may be more common than previously believed. Practicing physicians should attempt to use risk factor information presented within this study, albeit very cautiously. This study identifies general characteristics of young people who might divert medications but notes that only a small minority of any patient group

  9. A Modified ABCDE Model of Flowering in Orchids Based on Gene Expression Profiling Studies of the Moth Orchid Phalaenopsis aphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ann-Ying; Chen, Chun-Yi; Chang, Yao-Chien Alex; Chao, Ya-Ting; Shih, Ming-Che

    2013-01-01

    Previously we developed genomic resources for orchids, including transcriptomic analyses using next-generation sequencing techniques and construction of a web-based orchid genomic database. Here, we report a modified molecular model of flower development in the Orchidaceae based on functional analysis of gene expression profiles in Phalaenopsis aphrodite (a moth orchid) that revealed novel roles for the transcription factors involved in floral organ pattern formation. Phalaenopsis orchid floral organ-specific genes were identified by microarray analysis. Several critical transcription factors including AP3, PI, AP1 and AGL6, displayed distinct spatial distribution patterns. Phylogenetic analysis of orchid MADS box genes was conducted to infer the evolutionary relationship among floral organ-specific genes. The results suggest that gene duplication MADS box genes in orchid may have resulted in their gaining novel functions during evolution. Based on these analyses, a modified model of orchid flowering was proposed. Comparison of the expression profiles of flowers of a peloric mutant and wild-type Phalaenopsis orchid further identified genes associated with lip morphology and peloric effects. Large scale investigation of gene expression profiles revealed that homeotic genes from the ABCDE model of flower development classes A and B in the Phalaenopsis orchid have novel functions due to evolutionary diversification, and display differential expression patterns. PMID:24265826

  10. The biology of deception: emotion and morphine.

    PubMed

    Stefano, G B; Fricchione, G L

    1995-01-01

    The biology of deception suggests that denial-like processes are at the core of the cognitive coping. In this regard, with cognitive ability, one associates or assumes that this process occurs by way of a 'rational' mind. Such a detailed cognitive process as being rational would also lead, counter intuitively, to inactivity and or major delays in conclusion reaching. Thus, our perceived rationality may also be a deceptive behavioral response. Of equal noteworthyness, man is also 'emotional'. We surmise that emotion represents the pre-cognitive short-cut to overcome this potential for excessive rationality. In this light, we may explain certain psychiatric disorders such as obsessive-compulsive behavior as emotional extremes dealing with cognitive habits used to bind anxiety operating most probably at the pre-cognitive level. Given recent discoveries in neuroimmunology and an understanding of naturally occurring morphine as both an immune and neurological down-regulatory substance we hypothesize that abnormalities associated with emotional extremes may be due, in part, to morphinergic imbalances.

  11. Effects of deception in social networks

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Govezensky, Tzipe; Dunbar, Robin; Kaski, Kimmo; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    Honesty plays a crucial role in any situation where organisms exchange information or resources. Dishonesty can thus be expected to have damaging effects on social coherence if agents cannot trust the information or goods they receive. However, a distinction is often drawn between prosocial lies (‘white’ lies) and antisocial lying (i.e. deception for personal gain), with the former being considered much less destructive than the latter. We use an agent-based model to show that antisocial lying causes social networks to become increasingly fragmented. Antisocial dishonesty thus places strong constraints on the size and cohesion of social communities, providing a major hurdle that organisms have to overcome (e.g. by evolving counter-deception strategies) in order to evolve large, socially cohesive communities. In contrast, white lies can prove to be beneficial in smoothing the flow of interactions and facilitating a larger, more integrated network. Our results demonstrate that these group-level effects can arise as emergent properties of interactions at the dyadic level. The balance between prosocial and antisocial lies may set constraints on the structure of social networks, and hence the shape of society as a whole. PMID:25056625

  12. Effects of deception in social networks.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Govezensky, Tzipe; Dunbar, Robin; Kaski, Kimmo; Barrio, Rafael A

    2014-09-07

    Honesty plays a crucial role in any situation where organisms exchange information or resources. Dishonesty can thus be expected to have damaging effects on social coherence if agents cannot trust the information or goods they receive. However, a distinction is often drawn between prosocial lies ('white' lies) and antisocial lying (i.e. deception for personal gain), with the former being considered much less destructive than the latter. We use an agent-based model to show that antisocial lying causes social networks to become increasingly fragmented. Antisocial dishonesty thus places strong constraints on the size and cohesion of social communities, providing a major hurdle that organisms have to overcome (e.g. by evolving counter-deception strategies) in order to evolve large, socially cohesive communities. In contrast, white lies can prove to be beneficial in smoothing the flow of interactions and facilitating a larger, more integrated network. Our results demonstrate that these group-level effects can arise as emergent properties of interactions at the dyadic level. The balance between prosocial and antisocial lies may set constraints on the structure of social networks, and hence the shape of society as a whole. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamics of deceptive interactions in social networks.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Rafael A; Govezensky, Tzipe; Dunbar, Robin; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kaski, Kimmo

    2015-11-06

    In this paper, we examine the role of lies in human social relations by implementing some salient characteristics of deceptive interactions into an opinion formation model, so as to describe the dynamical behaviour of a social network more realistically. In this model, we take into account such basic properties of social networks as the dynamics of the intensity of interactions, the influence of public opinion and the fact that in every human interaction it might be convenient to deceive or withhold information depending on the instantaneous situation of each individual in the network. We find that lies shape the topology of social networks, especially the formation of tightly linked, small communities with loose connections between them. We also find that agents with a larger proportion of deceptive interactions are the ones that connect communities of different opinion, and, in this sense, they have substantial centrality in the network. We then discuss the consequences of these results for the social behaviour of humans and predict the changes that could arise due to a varying tolerance for lies in society. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Getting back to the rough ground: deception and 'social living'.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vasudevi

    2007-04-29

    At the heart of the social intelligence hypothesis is the central role of 'social living'. But living is messy and psychologists generally seek to avoid this mess in the interests of getting clean data and cleaner logical explanations. The study of deception as intelligent action is a good example of the dangers of such avoidance. We still do not have a full picture of the development of deceptive actions in human infants and toddlers or an explanation of why it emerges. This paper applies Byrne & Whiten's functional taxonomy of tactical deception to the social behaviour of human infants and toddlers using data from three previous studies. The data include a variety of acts, such as teasing, pretending, distracting and concealing, which are not typically considered in relation to human deception. This functional analysis shows the onset of non-verbal deceptive acts to be surprisingly early. Infants and toddlers seem to be able to communicate false information (about themselves, about shared meanings and about events) as early as true information. It is argued that the development of deception must be a fundamentally social and communicative process and that if we are to understand why deception emerges at all, the scientist needs to get 'back to the rough ground' as Wittgenstein called it and explore the messy social lives in which it develops.

  15. Deception and the Mediterranean Campaigns of 1943-1944

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-31

    Controlling Section, Radio Deception, Indirect Approach 2a. ABSTRACT (Contifnue m re~.roo & it~aI neceoom7anywd Identify by rdock number) The thesis is...8217Stonewall’ Jackson during the Civil 8Z6 M moo War. Jackson is so important to the study of the history of deception on the battle field that any work...here is the background and events surrounding the planning and execution of deception for the landings in Sicily by the Allies on 10 July 1943. %I 49! m

  16. The slow decay and quick revival of self-deception

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Zoë; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I.; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    People demonstrate an impressive ability to self-deceive, distorting misbehavior to reflect positively on themselves—for example, by cheating on a test and believing that their inflated performance reflects their true ability. But what happens to self-deception when self-deceivers must face reality, such as when taking another test on which they cannot cheat? We find that self-deception diminishes over time only when self-deceivers are repeatedly confronted with evidence of their true ability (Study 1); this learning, however, fails to make them less susceptible to future self-deception (Study 2). PMID:26347666

  17. The western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara): monitoring and research

    Treesearch

    Ardell J. Bjugstad; William Fortune

    1989-01-01

    Western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara Sheviak and Bowles) Populations at one time extended from southwestern Missouri north to northwestern Minnesota, and from eastern Iowa to the Sandhills of north central Nebraska. It is listed as endangered in Iowa and Minnesota and candidate for threatened or endangered status in Kansas, Missouri...

  18. Limitations on orchid recruitment: not a simple picture

    Treesearch

    M.K. McCormick; D.L. Taylor; K Juhaszova; R.K Burnett; D.F. Whigham; J.P. O' Neill

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi have substantial potential to influence plant distribution, especially in specialized orchids and mycoheterotrophic plants. However, little is known about environmental factors that influence the distribution of mycorrhizal fungi. Previous studies using seed packets have been unable to distinguish whether germination patterns resulted from the...

  19. Products Claiming to "Cure" Cancer Are a Cruel Deception

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Products Claiming to "Cure" Cancer Are a Cruel Deception ... About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting ...

  20. Second thoughts about privacy, safety and deception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorell, Tom; Draper, Heather

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we point out some difficulties with interpreting three of five principles formulated at a retreat on robot ethics sponsored by the Arts and Humanities Council and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. We also attempt to iron out some conflicts between the principles. Some of the difficulties arise from the way that the autonomy of robot users - their capacity to live by their own choices - can be a goal in the design of care robots. We discuss (a) problems for Principle 2 that arise from competing legal and philosophical understandings of privacy; (b) a tension between privacy and safety (Principles 2 and 3) and (c) some scepticism about the application of Principle 4, which addresses robot design that might result in the deception of vulnerable users.

  1. Self-deception as pseudo-rational regulation of belief.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christoph; Newen, Albert

    2010-09-01

    Self-deception is a special kind of motivational dominance in belief-formation. We develop criteria which set paradigmatic self-deception apart from related phenomena of auto-manipulation such as pretense and motivational bias. In self-deception rational subjects defend or develop beliefs of high subjective importance in response to strong counter-evidence. Self-deceivers make or keep these beliefs tenable by putting prima-facie rational defense-strategies to work against their established standards of rational evaluation. In paradigmatic self-deception, target-beliefs are made tenable via reorganizations of those belief-sets that relate relevant data to target-beliefs. This manipulation of the evidential value of relevant data goes beyond phenomena of motivated perception of data. In self-deception belief-defense is pseudo-rational. Self-deceivers will typically apply a dual standard of evaluation that remains intransparent to the subject. The developed model of self-deception as pseudo-rational belief-defense is empirically anchored. So, we hope to put forward a promising candidate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. When deception influences memory: the implication of theory of mind.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean Louis

    2017-07-01

    When deceiving, one should remember to whom a falsified story was previously told; otherwise he or she may include inconsistencies, and the deception will probably be discovered. Bearing this in mind, we investigated the potential relationship between deception and the ability to remember to whom a piece of information was previously told (i.e., destination memory). Forty-one adults were given a destination memory task in which they had to decide to whom proverbs had previously been told. They were also given a questionnaire about deception (e.g., "I sometimes tell lies if I have to) and a cognitive theory of mind task in which they had to predict the behaviour of protagonists who hold a mistaken belief about the state of the world. Results showed a positive correlation between deception and destination memory (p < .001), a relationship that was further mediated by cognitive theory of mind ability (p < .01). Deception requires monitoring and inferring what targets know, suspect, and believe. This monitoring ability (i.e., cognitive theory of mind) results in better processing of the target and consequently better destination memory. By showing the involvement of deception and theory of mind in destination memory, our findings emphasize the memory variations in social and interpersonal interactions.

  3. Phylogenetic and microsatellite markers for Tulasnella (Tulasnellaceae) mycorrhizal fungi associated with Australian orchids1

    PubMed Central

    Ruibal, Monica P.; Peakall, Rod; Smith, Leon M.; Linde, Celeste C.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Phylogenetic and microsatellite markers were developed for Tulasnella mycorrhizal fungi to investigate fungal species identity and diversity. These markers will be useful in future studies investigating the phylogenetic relationship of the fungal symbionts, specificity of orchid–mycorrhizal associations, and the role of mycorrhizae in orchid speciation within several orchid genera. • Methods and Results: We generated partial genome sequences of two Tulasnella symbionts originating from Chiloglottis and Drakaea orchid species with 454 genome sequencing. Cross-genus transferability across mycorrhizal symbionts associated with multiple genera of Australian orchids (Arthrochilus, Chiloglottis, Drakaea, and Paracaleana) was found for seven phylogenetic loci. Five loci showed cross-transferability to Tulasnella from other orchid genera, and two to Sebacina. Furthermore, 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed for Tulasnella from Chiloglottis. • Conclusions: Highly informative markers were obtained, allowing investigation of mycorrhizal diversity of Tulasnellaceae associated with a wide variety of terrestrial orchids in Australia and potentially worldwide. PMID:25202528

  4. Advanced Applications of Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies to Orchid Biology.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chuan-Ming; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Tsai, Wen-Chieh

    2018-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies are revolutionizing biology by permitting, transcriptome sequencing, whole-genome sequencing and resequencing, and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism profiling. Orchid research has benefited from this breakthrough, and a few orchid genomes are now available; new biological questions can be approached and new breeding strategies can be designed. The first part of this review describes the unique features of orchid biology. The second part provides an overview of the current next-generation sequencing platforms, many of which are already used in plant laboratories. The third part summarizes the state of orchid transcriptome and genome sequencing and illustrates current achievements. The genetic sequences currently obtained will not only provide a broad scope for the study of orchid biology, but also serves as a starting point for uncovering the mystery of orchid evolution.

  5. Photosynthetic Mediterranean meadow orchids feature partial mycoheterotrophy and specific mycorrhizal associations.

    PubMed

    Girlanda, Mariangela; Segreto, Rossana; Cafasso, Donata; Liebel, Heiko Tobias; Rodda, Michele; Ercole, Enrico; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Gebauer, Gerhard; Perotto, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    We investigated whether four widespread, photosynthetic Mediterranean meadow orchids (Ophrys fuciflora, Anacamptis laxiflora, Orchis purpurea, and Serapias vomeracea) had either nutritional dependency on mycobionts or mycorrhizal fungal specificity. Nonphotosynthetic orchids generally engage in highly specific interactions with fungal symbionts that provide them with organic carbon. By contrast, fully photosynthetic orchids in sunny, meadow habitats have been considered to lack mycorrhizal specificity. We performed both culture-dependent and culture-independent ITS sequence analysis to identify fungi from orchid roots. By analyzing stable isotope ((13)C and (15)N) natural abundances, we also determined the degree of autotrophy and mycoheterotrophy in the four orchid species. Phylogenetic and multivariate comparisons indicated that Or. purpurea and Oph. fuciflora featured lower fungal diversity and more specific mycobiont spectra than A. laxiflora and S. vomeracea. All orchid species were significantly enriched in (15)N compared with neighboring non-orchid plants. Orchis purpurea had the most pronounced N gain from fungi and differed from the other orchids in also obtaining C from fungi. These results indicated that even in sunny Mediterranean meadows, orchids may be mycoheterotrophic, with correlated mycorrhizal fungal specificity.

  6. Mycorrhizal Associations and Trophic Modes in Coexisting Orchids: An Ecological Continuum between Auto- and Mixotrophy.

    PubMed

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Brys, Rein; Lallemand, Félix; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Robionek, Alicja; Selosse, Marc-André

    2017-01-01

    Two distinct nutritional syndromes have been described in temperate green orchids. Most orchids form mycorrhizas with rhizoctonia fungi and are considered autotrophic. Some orchids, however, associate with fungi that simultaneously form ectomycorrhizas with surrounding trees and derive their carbon from these fungi. This evolutionarily derived condition has been called mixotrophy or partial mycoheterotrophy and is characterized by 13 C enrichment and high N content. Although it has been suggested that the two major nutritional syndromes are clearly distinct and tightly linked to the composition of mycorrhizal communities, recent studies have challenged this assumption. Here, we investigated whether mycorrhizal communities and nutritional syndromes differed between seven green orchid species that co-occur under similar ecological conditions (coastal dune slacks). Our results showed that mycorrhizal communities differed significantly between orchid species. Rhizoctonia fungi dominated in Dactylorhiza sp., Herminium monorchis , and Epipactis palustris , which were autotrophic based on 13 C and N content. Conversely, Liparis loeselii and Epipactis neerlandica associated primarily with ectomycorrhizal fungi but surprisingly, 13 C and N content supported mixotrophy only in E. neerlandica . This, together with the finding of some ectomycorrhizal fungi in rhizoctonia-associated orchids, suggests that there exists an ecological continuum between the two syndromes. The presence of a large number of indicator species associating with individual orchid species further confirms previous findings that mycorrhizal fungi may be important factors driving niche-partitioning in terrestrial orchids and therefore contribute to orchid coexistence.

  7. Mycorrhizal Associations and Trophic Modes in Coexisting Orchids: An Ecological Continuum between Auto- and Mixotrophy

    PubMed Central

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Brys, Rein; Lallemand, Félix; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Robionek, Alicja; Selosse, Marc-André

    2017-01-01

    Two distinct nutritional syndromes have been described in temperate green orchids. Most orchids form mycorrhizas with rhizoctonia fungi and are considered autotrophic. Some orchids, however, associate with fungi that simultaneously form ectomycorrhizas with surrounding trees and derive their carbon from these fungi. This evolutionarily derived condition has been called mixotrophy or partial mycoheterotrophy and is characterized by 13C enrichment and high N content. Although it has been suggested that the two major nutritional syndromes are clearly distinct and tightly linked to the composition of mycorrhizal communities, recent studies have challenged this assumption. Here, we investigated whether mycorrhizal communities and nutritional syndromes differed between seven green orchid species that co-occur under similar ecological conditions (coastal dune slacks). Our results showed that mycorrhizal communities differed significantly between orchid species. Rhizoctonia fungi dominated in Dactylorhiza sp., Herminium monorchis, and Epipactis palustris, which were autotrophic based on 13C and N content. Conversely, Liparis loeselii and Epipactis neerlandica associated primarily with ectomycorrhizal fungi but surprisingly, 13C and N content supported mixotrophy only in E. neerlandica. This, together with the finding of some ectomycorrhizal fungi in rhizoctonia-associated orchids, suggests that there exists an ecological continuum between the two syndromes. The presence of a large number of indicator species associating with individual orchid species further confirms previous findings that mycorrhizal fungi may be important factors driving niche-partitioning in terrestrial orchids and therefore contribute to orchid coexistence. PMID:28912791

  8. Neural correlates of self-deception and impression-management.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Tom F D; Burgess, Jenny; Wilkinson, Iain D; Hunter, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Self-deception and impression-management comprise two types of deceptive, but generally socially acceptable behaviours, which are common in everyday life as well as being present in a number of psychiatric disorders. We sought to establish and dissociate the 'normal' brain substrates of self-deception and impression-management. Twenty healthy participants underwent fMRI scanning at 3T whilst completing the 'Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding' test under two conditions: 'fake good', giving the most desirable impression possible and 'fake bad' giving an undesirable impression. Impression-management scores were more malleable to manipulation via 'faking' than self-deception scores. Response times to self-deception questions and 'fake bad' instructions were significantly longer than to impression-management questions and 'fake good' instructions respectively. Self-deception and impression-management manipulation and 'faking bad' were associated with activation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Impression-management manipulation was additionally associated with activation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left posterior middle temporal gyrus. 'Faking bad' was additionally associated with activation of right vlPFC, left temporo-parietal junction and right cerebellum. There were no supra-threshold activations associated with 'faking good'. Our neuroimaging data suggest that manipulating self-deception and impression-management and more specifically 'faking bad' engages a common network comprising mPFC and left vlPFC. Shorter response times and lack of dissociable neural activations suggests that 'faking good', particularly when it comes to impression-management, may be our most practiced 'default' mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Approaching self-deception: how Robert Audi and I part company.

    PubMed

    Mele, Alfred

    2010-09-01

    This article explores fundamental differences between Robert Audi's position on self-deception and mine. Although we both depart from a model of self-deception that is straightforwardly based on stereotypical interpersonal deception, we differ in how we do that. An important difference between us might be partly explained by a difference in how we understand the kind of deceiving that is most relevant to self-deception. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Robot Deception and Squirrel Behavior: A Case Study in Bio-inspired Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    employed by doctors/ nurses among others. It is important to focus on this aspect when we consider a robot’s deceptive capabilities in human- robot ... Robot Deception and Squirrel Behavior: A Case Study in Bio-inspired Robotics Jaeeun Shim and Ronald C. Arkin Mobile Robot ...Abstract A common behavior in animals and human beings is deception. Deceptive behavior in robotics is potentially beneficial in several domains

  11. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang

    2016-01-01

    Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27649250

  12. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deception as to origin or source of industry... GUIDES FOR THE NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.8 Deception as to origin or source of industry products. (a) It is an unfair or deceptive act or practice to sell, offer for sale, or advertise an industry product by...

  13. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception as to origin or source of industry... GUIDES FOR THE NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.8 Deception as to origin or source of industry products. (a) It is an unfair or deceptive act or practice to sell, offer for sale, or advertise an industry product by...

  14. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception as to origin or source of industry... GUIDES FOR THE NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.8 Deception as to origin or source of industry products. (a) It is an unfair or deceptive act or practice to sell, offer for sale, or advertise an industry product by...

  15. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception as to origin or source of industry... GUIDES FOR THE NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.8 Deception as to origin or source of industry products. (a) It is an unfair or deceptive act or practice to sell, offer for sale, or advertise an industry product by...

  16. Executive Function and Temperamental Fear Concurrently Predict Deception in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babkirk, Sarah; Saunders, Lauren V.; Solomon, Beylul; Kessel, Ellen M.; Crossman, Angela; Gokhan, Nurper; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to intentionally withhold truthful information, or deception, is a key component of moral development and may be a precursor to more serious anti-social tendencies. Two factors, executive function (EF) and temperamental fear are each thought to influence childhood deception. Few studies, however, have explored deception in relation to…

  17. Microscopic characterization of orchid mycorrhizal fungi: Scleroderma as a putative novel orchid mycorrhizal fungus of Vanilla in different crop systems.

    PubMed

    González-Chávez, Ma Del Carmen A; Torres-Cruz, Terry J; Sánchez, Samantha Albarrán; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Carrillo-López, Luis Manuel; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    Vanilla is an orchid of economic importance widely cultivated in tropical regions and native to Mexico. We sampled three species of Vanilla (V. planifolia, V. pompona, and V. insignis) in different crop systems. We studied the effect of crop system on the abundance, type of fungi, and quality of pelotons found in the roots using light and electron microscopy and direct sequencing of mycorrhizal structures. Fungi were identified directly from pelotons obtained from terrestrial roots of vanilla plants in the flowering stage. Root samples were collected from plants in crop systems located in the Totonacapan area in Mexico (states of Puebla and Veracruz). DNA was extracted directly from 40 pelotons and amplified using ITS rRNA sequencing. Peloton-like structures were observed, presenting a combination of active pelotons characterized by abundant hyphal coils and pelotons in various stages of degradation. The most active pelotons were observed in crop systems throughout living tutors (host tree) in comparison with roots collected from dead or artificial tutors. Fungi identified directly from pelotons included Scleroderma areolatum, a common ectomycorrhizal fungus that has not been reported as a mycorrhizal symbiont in orchids. Direct amplification of pelotons also yielded common plant pathogens, including Fusarium and Pyrenophora seminiperda, especially in those sites with low colonization rates, and where large numbers of degraded pelotons were observed. This research reports for the first time the potential colonization of Vanilla by Scleroderma, as a putative orchid mycorrhizal symbiont in four sites in Mexico and the influence of crop system on mycorrhizal colonization on this orchid.

  18. Floral fragrance analysis of Prosthechea cochleata (Orchidaceae), an endangered native, epiphytic orchid, in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    South Florida is home to a number of native species of orchids. The Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge has 27 known species, including Prosthechea cochleata, the clamshell orchid, which is listed as endangered on Florida's Regulated Plant Index. In a prior study done on this species in Mexico,...

  19. Two mycoheterotrophic orchids from Thailand tropical dipterocarpacean forests associate with a broad diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mélanie; Watthana, Santi; Stier, Anna; Richard, Franck; Vessabutr, Suyanee; Selosse, Marc-André

    2009-01-01

    Background Mycoheterotrophic plants are considered to associate very specifically with fungi. Mycoheterotrophic orchids are mostly associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions, or with saprobes or parasites in tropical regions. Although most mycoheterotrophic orchids occur in the tropics, few studies have been devoted to them, and the main conclusions about their specificity have hitherto been drawn from their association with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions. Results We investigated three Asiatic Neottieae species from ectomycorrhizal forests in Thailand. We found that all were associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae and Sebacinales. Based on 13C enrichment of their biomass, they probably received their organic carbon from these fungi, as do mycoheterotrophic Neottieae from temperate regions. Moreover, 13C enrichment suggested that some nearby green orchids received part of their carbon from fungi too. Nevertheless, two of the three orchids presented a unique feature for mycoheterotrophic plants: they were not specifically associated with a narrow clade of fungi. Some orchid individuals were even associated with up to nine different fungi. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that some green and mycoheterotrophic orchids in tropical regions can receive carbon from ectomycorrhizal fungi, and thus from trees. Our results reveal the absence of specificity in two mycoheterotrophic orchid-fungus associations in tropical regions, in contrast to most previous studies of mycoheterotrophic plants, which have been mainly focused on temperate orchids. PMID:19682351

  20. Two mycoheterotrophic orchids from Thailand tropical dipterocarpacean forests associate with a broad diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mélanie; Watthana, Santi; Stier, Anna; Richard, Franck; Vessabutr, Suyanee; Selosse, Marc-André

    2009-08-14

    Mycoheterotrophic plants are considered to associate very specifically with fungi. Mycoheterotrophic orchids are mostly associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions, or with saprobes or parasites in tropical regions. Although most mycoheterotrophic orchids occur in the tropics, few studies have been devoted to them, and the main conclusions about their specificity have hitherto been drawn from their association with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions. We investigated three Asiatic Neottieae species from ectomycorrhizal forests in Thailand. We found that all were associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae and Sebacinales. Based on 13C enrichment of their biomass, they probably received their organic carbon from these fungi, as do mycoheterotrophic Neottieae from temperate regions. Moreover, 13C enrichment suggested that some nearby green orchids received part of their carbon from fungi too. Nevertheless, two of the three orchids presented a unique feature for mycoheterotrophic plants: they were not specifically associated with a narrow clade of fungi. Some orchid individuals were even associated with up to nine different fungi. Our results demonstrate that some green and mycoheterotrophic orchids in tropical regions can receive carbon from ectomycorrhizal fungi, and thus from trees. Our results reveal the absence of specificity in two mycoheterotrophic orchid-fungus associations in tropical regions, in contrast to most previous studies of mycoheterotrophic plants, which have been mainly focused on temperate orchids.

  1. Western Pairie Fringed Orchid: Its Status, Ecology, and in Vitro Propagation

    Treesearch

    Jyotsna Sharma; J. W. Van Sambeek; Christopher J. Starbuck

    2002-01-01

    Western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara Sheviak and Bowles), listed in 1989 as federally threatened, has been extirpated from 75% of historic sites throughout its range. We describe (a) threats to the orchid; (b) seed germination on synthetic medium; and (c) in vitro germination with mycorrhizal fungi. Destruction of prairies for...

  2. Deception in advertising and marketing: ethical applications in rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Banja, J D

    1994-09-01

    A much discussed issue in contemporary discussions of health care reform is the considerable competition that is anticipated to occur among providers. An inevitable aspect of this competition will be the ways health care services are presented in the marketplace through advertising and other forms of promotional literature. Considerable concern has already emerged among certain rehabilitation professionals, however, that advertising and marketing practices in rehabilitation must cohere with ethical standards. This article will discuss certain aspects of those standards, particularly as they have evolved from the Federal Trade Commission's definition of and rulings on deceptive practices in advertising. Salient aspects of the Commission's 1983 definition of deception will be related to rehabilitation by way of examining instances of rehabilitation advertising and marketing that might satisfy the Commission's definition of deception. The article will conclude with certain recommendations, principally drawn from various Federal Trade Commission rulings, that might be useful to individuals or corporate entities who advertise or market rehabilitation services.

  3. Long-term ecology of euglossine orchid-bees (Apidae: Euglossini) in Panama.

    PubMed

    Roubik, D W; Ackerman, J D

    1987-09-01

    Abundance patterns during 6-7 years and orchid visitation were determined for 51 species of the 57 local euglossine bees. Male bees were counted at 3 chemical attractants presented in the same manner each month. Sites were separated by 75 km but included wet Atlantic forest at 500 m elevation, moist forest at 180 m near Barro Colorado Island, and cloud forest at 900 m near the Pacific ocean. 1. From 15 to 30 euglossine species of 4 genera were active in each month and site; monthly species number and general bee abundance were positively correlated. Many species had 3 annual abundance peaks (range 1-4) and were active throughout the year, but peak annual abundances rarely occurred during late wet or early dry seasons. In contrast, Eufriesea generally were present as adults only 1-2 months in a year. 2. Euglossine populations were exceptionally stable. Species at each site were more stable than any known insect population, and stability and abundance were positively associated. However, year-to-year population stability and the degree of seasonality were not correlated. Among the three sites, the more diverse (species rich) bee assemblages displayed lower stability; these were the wetter and upland sites. 3. The most abundant bees visited more orchid species. Eg. and El. each visited and average of 4 orchid species (range 0-13); Ex. and Ef. visited 0-3. Stable populations did not visit more or fewer orchid species than did unstable populations. 4. Less than 68% of species at each site visited orchid flowers; less than a few dozen of the 100-800 bees counted in a day carried orchid pollinaria. Over 20% of the euglossine species never were seen with pollinaria at any site and probably seldom visit orchids in central Panama. 5. Most bee species visited 1 or no fragrance orchids in a given habitat. Orchids tended to utilize common pollinators that seldom included more than 1 species, and they utilized stable or unstable, seasonal or aseasonal bees. However, the most

  4. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying deceptive hazard evaluation: An event-related potentials investigation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huijian; Qiu, Wenwei; Ma, Haiying; Ma, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    Deceptive behavior is common in human social interactions. Researchers have been trying to uncover the cognitive process and neural basis underlying deception due to its theoretical and practical significance. We used Event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural correlates of deception when the participants completed a hazard judgment task. Pictures conveying or not conveying hazard information were presented to the participants who were then requested to discriminate the hazard content (safe or hazardous) and make a response corresponding to the cues (truthful or deceptive). Behavioral and electrophysiological data were recorded during the entire experiment. Results showed that deceptive responses, compared to truthful responses, were associated with longer reaction time (RT), lower accuracy, increased N2 and reduced late positive potential (LPP), suggesting a cognitively more demanding process to respond deceptively. The decrement in LPP correlated negatively with the increment in RT for deceptive relative to truthful responses, regardless of hazard content. In addition, hazardous information evoked larger N1 and P300 than safe information, reflecting an early processing bias and a later evaluative categorization process based on motivational significance, respectively. Finally, the interaction between honesty (truthful/deceptive) and safety (safe/hazardous) on accuracy and LPP indicated that deceptive responses towards safe information required more effort than deceptive responses towards hazardous information. Overall, these results demonstrate the neurocognitive substrates underlying deception about hazard information.

  5. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying deceptive hazard evaluation: An event-related potentials investigation

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wenwei; Ma, Haiying; Ma, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    Deceptive behavior is common in human social interactions. Researchers have been trying to uncover the cognitive process and neural basis underlying deception due to its theoretical and practical significance. We used Event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural correlates of deception when the participants completed a hazard judgment task. Pictures conveying or not conveying hazard information were presented to the participants who were then requested to discriminate the hazard content (safe or hazardous) and make a response corresponding to the cues (truthful or deceptive). Behavioral and electrophysiological data were recorded during the entire experiment. Results showed that deceptive responses, compared to truthful responses, were associated with longer reaction time (RT), lower accuracy, increased N2 and reduced late positive potential (LPP), suggesting a cognitively more demanding process to respond deceptively. The decrement in LPP correlated negatively with the increment in RT for deceptive relative to truthful responses, regardless of hazard content. In addition, hazardous information evoked larger N1 and P300 than safe information, reflecting an early processing bias and a later evaluative categorization process based on motivational significance, respectively. Finally, the interaction between honesty (truthful/deceptive) and safety (safe/hazardous) on accuracy and LPP indicated that deceptive responses towards safe information required more effort than deceptive responses towards hazardous information. Overall, these results demonstrate the neurocognitive substrates underlying deception about hazard information. PMID:28793344

  6. Good Liars Are Neither ‘Dark’ Nor Self-Deceptive

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Gordon R. T.; Berry, Christopher J.; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a central component of the personality 'Dark Triad' (Machiavellianism, Psychopathy and Narcissism). However, whether individuals exhibiting high scores on Dark Triad measures have a heightened deceptive ability has received little experimental attention. The present study tested whether the ability to lie effectively, and to detect lies told by others, was related to Dark Triad, Lie Acceptability, or Self-Deceptive measures of personality using an interactive group-based deception task. At a group level, lie detection accuracy was correlated with the ability to deceive others—replicating previous work. No evidence was found to suggest that Dark Triad traits confer any advantage either to deceive others, or to detect deception in others. Participants who considered lying to be more acceptable were more skilled at lying, while self-deceptive individuals were generally less credible and less confident when lying. Results are interpreted within a framework in which repeated practice results in enhanced deceptive ability. PMID:26083765

  7. Deception in research: distinctions and solutions from the perspective of utilitarianism.

    PubMed

    Pittenger, David J

    2002-01-01

    The use of deception in psychological research continues to be a controversial topic. Using Rawls's explication of utilitarianism, I attempt to demonstrate how professional organizations, such as the American Psychological Association, can provide more specific standards that determine the permissibility of deception in research. Specifically, I argue that researchers should examine the costs and benefits of creating and applying specific rules governing deception. To that end, I offer 3 recommendations. First, that researchers who use deception provide detailed accounts of the procedures they used to minimize the harm created by deception in their research reports. Second, that the American Psychological Association offer a definition of deception that describes techniques commonly used in research. Finally, I recommend that the informed consent procedure be revised to indicate that the researcher may use deception as part of the study.

  8. Defining body deception and its role in peer based social comparison theories of body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Shiovitz, Rachel; Alfano, Lauren; Greif, Rebecca

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to operationalize the phenomenon of body deception, describe its theoretical importance, and validate its existence in an experimental paradigm. The definition of body deception includes the intentional misrepresentation of information about appearance to others. The present study examined body deception in a controlled experimental study of male and female same-sex peer groups using a series of hierarchical linear models. Ninety male and 90 female undergraduates were randomized to an experimental same-sex peer group or individual control condition. The results suggested that both men and women used body deception among peers, but men's body deception was muscularity driven whereas women's was thinness driven. Body dissatisfaction was significantly predictive of the degree of body deception used by both genders and it was significantly related to peer group membership. An integrated model for the role of body deception in body image disturbance is proposed.

  9. Pollinator-independent orchid attracts biotic pollinators due the production of lipoidal substances.

    PubMed

    Pansarin, E R; Bergamo, P J; Ferreira-Caliman, M J

    2018-03-01

    Flowering plants often depend on the attraction of biotic pollinators for sexual reproduction. Consequently, the emergence and maintenance of selected floral attributes related to pollinator attraction and rewarding are driven by pollinator pressure. In this paper we explore the effect of pollinators, rainfall, temperature and air humidity on the reproduction of a Brazilian terrestrial orchid, Cranichis candida based on data of phenology, flower resources, olfactory and visual attraction cues, pollinators and breeding system. The flowers of C. candida are strongly protandrous and pollinated by workers of the social native bee Tetragonisca angustula. The bees collect labellar lipoidal substances (wax scales), which are transported to the nest. The lipoidal substance is composed of sterols, hydrocarbons and terpenes. The last presumably protects the bees and their nests against pathogens and other arthropods. C. candida sets fruits through biotic self- and cross-pollination, and spontaneously due the action of raindrops on flowers. Our results indicate that in C. candida, although rain-mediated spontaneous self-pollination happens, fructification mediated by biotic pollinations also occurs, which may result in fruit set by cross-pollination. A mixed pollination system must result in higher genetic variability when compared to species whose fruits are produced entirely by self-pollination. On the other hand, autogamy is a form of reproductive assurance, and has commonly evolved where pollination services are rare or absent. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Are body size and volatile blends honest signals in orchid bees?

    PubMed

    Arriaga-Osnaya, Brenda Jessica; Contreras-Garduño, Jorge; Espinosa-García, Francisco Javier; García-Rodríguez, Yolanda Magdalena; Moreno-García, Miguel; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Godínez-Álvarez, Héctor; Cueva Del Castillo, Raúl

    2017-05-01

    Secondary sexual traits may convey reliable information about males' ability to resist pathogens and that females may prefer those traits because their genes for resistance would be passed on to their offspring. In many insect species, large males have high mating success and can canalize more resources to the immune function than smaller males. In other species, males use pheromones to identify and attract conspecific mates, and thus, they might function as an honest indicator of a male's condition. The males of orchid bees do not produce pheromones. They collect and store flower volatiles, which are mixed with the volatile blends from other sources, like fungi, sap and resins. These blends are displayed as perfumes during the courtship. In this study, we explored the relationship between inter-individual variation in body size and blend composition with the males' phenoloxidase (PO) content in Euglossa imperialis . PO content is a common measure of insect immune response because melanine, its derived molecule, encapsulates parasites and pathogens. Body size and blend composition were related to bees' phenolic PO content. The inter-individual variation in body size and tibial contents could indicate differences among males in their skills to gain access to some compounds. The females may evaluate their potential mates through these compounds because some of them are reliable indicators of the males' capacity to resist infections and parasites.

  11. Detection of Deception in Adults and Children via Facial Expressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Examines the effect of age of encoder (first graders, seventh graders, and college students) on the decoding of nonverbal facial expressions indicative of verbal deception. Results showed the ratings of untrained, naive adult judges to be more accurate in decoding the first-grade stimulus persons than the older ones. (JMB)

  12. The neural basis of deception in strategic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Kirsten G.; Vogeley, Kai; Tittgemeyer, Marc; von Cramon, D. Yves; Sutter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Communication based on informational asymmetries abounds in politics, business, and almost any other form of social interaction. Informational asymmetries may create incentives for the better-informed party to exploit her advantage by misrepresenting information. Using a game-theoretic setting, we investigate the neural basis of deception in human interaction. Unlike in most previous fMRI research on deception, the participants decide themselves whether to lie or not. We find activation within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ), the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the (pre)cuneus (CUN), and the anterior frontal gyrus (aFG) when contrasting lying with truth telling. Notably, our design also allows for an investigation of the neural foundations of sophisticated deception through telling the truth—when the sender does not expect the receiver to believe her (true) message. Sophisticated deception triggers activation within the same network as plain lies, i.e., we find activity within the rTPJ, the CUN, and aFG. We take this result to show that brain activation can reveal the sender's veridical intention to deceive others, irrespective of whether in fact the sender utters the factual truth or not. PMID:25729358

  13. An Examination of Behavioral Responses to Stereotypical Deceptive Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Bill M.

    A study investigated whether receivers who detect senders behaving deceitfully will automatically become more resistent to the message being presented. By developing predictions derived from the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), the study hypothesized that only noninvolved receivers would respond negatively to deceptive nonverbal cues in a…

  14. Cognitive Biases and Nonverbal Cue Availability in Detecting Deception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Judee K.; Blair, J. Pete; Strom, Renee E.

    2008-01-01

    In potentially deceptive situations, people rely on mental shortcuts to help process information. These heuristic judgments are often biased and result in inaccurate assessments of sender veracity. Four such biases--truth bias, visual bias, demeanor bias, and expectancy violation bias--were examined in a judgment experiment that varied nonverbal…

  15. Young Children's Difficulty with Deception in a Conflict Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Hajimu

    2017-01-01

    This study examined young children's deception in a conflict situation. A puppet show was prepared involving a protagonist who went into hiding, an enemy who wanted to catch the protagonist, and a friend who was looking for the protagonist. In the no-conflict condition, the enemy asked the children about the location of the protagonist. In the…

  16. 48 CFR 2103.570 - Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising. 2103.570 Section 2103.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS...

  17. Games Con Men Play: The Semiosis of Deceptive Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankiss, Agnes

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes some of the most frequent deceptive interactions as rendered through case histories of male con artists and their victims taken from police records. Discusses the recurrent elements in both the con-games strategies and victims' way of interpreting those strategies. (JMF)

  18. Identifying Universal Linguistic Features Associated with Veracity and Deception

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-02

    involved an eyewitness testing paradigm, in which participants from three very different language groups witnessed an actual crime and write true and...statements will include significantly more indicators of deception and significantly less indicators of veracity across all languages tested ...examine possible differential carry-over effects if participants wrote both true and false statements in a within-subjects design . The findings

  19. A Cognitive Model for Exposition of Human Deception and Counterdeception

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    for understanding deception and counterdeceptlon, for developing related tactics, and for stimulating research in cognitive processes. Further...Processing Resources; Attention) BUFFER MEMORY MANAGER (Local) (Problem Solving; Learning; Procedures) BUFFER MEMORY SENSORS Visual, Auditory ...Perception and Misperception in International Politics, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1976. Key, W.B., Subliminal Seduction. New

  20. Thermal signatures of voluntary deception in ecological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Panasiti, Maria Serena; Cardone, Daniela; Pavone, Enea F.; Mancini, Alessandra; Merla, Arcangelo; Aglioti, Salvatore M.

    2016-01-01

    Deception is a pervasive phenomenon that greatly influences dyadic, groupal and societal interactions. Behavioural, physiological and neural signatures of this phenomenon have imporant implications for theoretical and applied research, but, because it is difficult for a laboratory to replicate the natural context in which deception occurs, contemporary research is still struggling to find such signatures. In this study, we tracked the facial temperature of participants who decided whether or not to deceive another person, in situations where their reputation was at risk or not. We used a high-sensitivity infrared device to track temperature changes to check for unique patterns of autonomic reactivity. Using a region-of-interest based approach we found that prior to any response there was a minimal increase in periorbital temperature (which indexes sympathetic activation, together with reduced cheek temperature) for the self-gain lies in the reputation-risk condition. Crucially, we found a rise in nose temperature (which indexes parasympathetic activation) for self-gain lies in the reputation-risk condition, not only during response preparation but also after the choice was made. This finding suggests that the entire deception process may be tracked by the nose region. Furthermore, this nasal temperature modulation was negatively correlated with machiavellian traits, indicating that sympathetic/parasympathetic regulation is less important for manipulative individuals who may care less about the consequences of lie-related moral violations. Our results highlight a unique pattern of autonomic reactivity for spontaneous deception in ecological contexts. PMID:27734927

  1. "Playing Hooky" Health Messages: Apprehension, Impression Management, and Deception.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Ashley; Murphy, Melissa; Blackburn, Kate

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates playing hooky in higher education classrooms and associates this behavior with students' communicative dispositions, instructor perceptions, and language use. We define "playing hooky" as students skipping class and explaining their absence to their instructor with deceptive health messages. The purpose of Study 1, an online survey (N = 177), is to further understand the characteristics of students who engage in this type of deceptive health communication. Study 1 measures communication apprehension and perceived instructor credibility in students who had played hooky from class and those who had not. Findings reveal that students who communicate playing hooky health messages (a) reported more instructor communication apprehension and (b) perceived the instructors with whom they had played hooky to be less credible. Study 2 uses facework theory and MEH analysis to reveal the different linguistic strategies students use to communicate (a) truthful health messages (N = 165) and (b) deceptive heath messages (N = 82) to their instructor following an absence. Results demonstrate that students' facework strategies are more geared toward saving instructors' negative face in the deceptive health message condition. Implications of both studies are offered.

  2. Strategic Deception in Modern Democracies: Ethical, Legal, and Policy Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-01

    against the use of deception. For example, one might argue―as the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant did―that lying in any form and for any purpose...Abstract guidelines, such as the Kantian Categorical Imperative, invariably fail when applied to the practical world of international politics

  3. 48 CFR 2103.570 - Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Unfair Advertising. 2103.570 Section 2103.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL..., Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising. (a) OPM, or the Contractor with the approval of OPM, makes available to..., serves as certification of the employee's coverage under the FEGLI Program. Any marketing/advertising...

  4. Detecting Deception within Small Groups: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Vernham, Zarah; Granhag, Pär-Anders; Mac Giolla, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Investigators often have multiple suspects to interview in order to determine whether they are guilty or innocent of a crime. Nevertheless, co-offending has been significantly neglected within the deception detection literature. The current review is the first of its kind to discuss co-offending and the importance of examining the detection of deception within groups. Groups of suspects can be interviewed separately (individual interviewing) or simultaneously (collective interviewing) and these differing interviewing styles are assessed throughout the review. The review emphasizes the differences between lone individuals and groups. It focuses on the theoretical implications of group deceit and the reasons why groups need to be understood in terms of investigative interviewing and deception detection if all types of crime-related incidents are to be recognized and dealt with appropriately. Group strategies, consistency within- and between-statements, joint memory, and group dynamics are referred to throughout the review and the importance of developing interview protocols specifically for groups is discussed. The review concludes by identifying the gaps in the literature and suggesting ideas for future research, highlighting that more research is required if we are to obtain a true understanding of the deception occurring within groups and how best to detect it. PMID:27445957

  5. The neural basis of deception in strategic interactions.

    PubMed

    Volz, Kirsten G; Vogeley, Kai; Tittgemeyer, Marc; von Cramon, D Yves; Sutter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Communication based on informational asymmetries abounds in politics, business, and almost any other form of social interaction. Informational asymmetries may create incentives for the better-informed party to exploit her advantage by misrepresenting information. Using a game-theoretic setting, we investigate the neural basis of deception in human interaction. Unlike in most previous fMRI research on deception, the participants decide themselves whether to lie or not. We find activation within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ), the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the (pre)cuneus (CUN), and the anterior frontal gyrus (aFG) when contrasting lying with truth telling. Notably, our design also allows for an investigation of the neural foundations of sophisticated deception through telling the truth-when the sender does not expect the receiver to believe her (true) message. Sophisticated deception triggers activation within the same network as plain lies, i.e., we find activity within the rTPJ, the CUN, and aFG. We take this result to show that brain activation can reveal the sender's veridical intention to deceive others, irrespective of whether in fact the sender utters the factual truth or not.

  6. Deception studies manipulating centrally acting performance modifiers: a review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Sparks, Sandy; Marchant, David C; Micklewright, Dominic; McNaughton, Lars R

    2014-07-01

    Athletes anticipatorily set and continuously adjust pacing strategies before and during events to produce optimal performance. Self-regulation ensures maximal effort is exerted in correspondence with the end point of exercise, while preventing physiological changes that are detrimental and disruptive to homeostatic control. The integration of feedforward and feedback information, together with the proposed brain's performance modifiers is said to be fundamental to this anticipatory and continuous regulation of exercise. The manipulation of central, regulatory internal and external stimuli has been a key focus within deception research, attempting to influence the self-regulation of exercise and induce improvements in performance. Methods of manipulating performance modifiers such as unknown task end point, deceived duration or intensity feedback, self-belief, or previous experience create a challenge within research, as although they contextualize theoretical propositions, there are few ecological and practical approaches which integrate theory with practice. In addition, the different methods and measures demonstrated in manipulation studies have produced inconsistent results. This review examines and critically evaluates the current methods of how specific centrally controlled performance modifiers have been manipulated, within previous deception studies. From the 31 studies reviewed, 10 reported positive effects on performance, encouraging future investigations to explore the mechanisms responsible for influencing pacing and consequently how deceptive approaches can further facilitate performance. The review acts to discuss the use of expectation manipulation not only to examine which methods of deception are successful in facilitating performance but also to understand further the key components used in the regulation of exercise and performance.

  7. Impact of floral traits on the reproductive success of epiphytic and terrestrial tropical orchids.

    PubMed

    Huda, Mohammed K; Wilcock, Christopher C

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between habit, population size, floral traits and natural fruit set levels of 23 tropical orchid species of south-east Bangladesh. We showed that epiphytic orchids had lower fruit set levels than terrestrial species and that habit explained much of the variation in floral traits among the orchids. We compared our results with data from 76 other species occurring in the study area and hypothesize that a suite of floral and population characteristics present in tropical orchids combine in epiphytes to reduce their reproductive success. Characteristics which, in addition to their habit, are associated with low reproductive success are small population size, small inflorescences, non-sectile pollinia and self-incompatibility. Several of these characteristics were phylogenetically conserved and we predict that epiphytes might therefore generally have lower fruit set levels than recorded in terrestrial species. Nectar rewards are uncommon in tropical orchids and nectarless species have displays of larger flowers, which may represent an adaptation to increase pollinator attraction, although other rewards such as oils, waxes and pseudo pollen may replace nectar. We suggest that, like many temperate orchids, a high proportion of tropical orchids may lack floral rewards and be pollinated by deceit.

  8. Diverse tulasnelloid fungi form mycorrhizas with epiphytic orchids in an Andean cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Juan Pablo; Weiss, Michael; Abele, Andrea; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Oberwinkler, Franz; Kottke, Ingrid

    2006-11-01

    The mycorrhizal state of epiphytic orchids has been controversially discussed, and the state and mycobionts of the pleurothallid orchids, occurring abundantly and with a high number of species on stems of trees in the Andean cloud forest, were unknown. Root samples of 77 adult individuals of the epiphytic orchids Stelis hallii, S. superbiens, S. concinna and Pleurothallis lilijae were collected in a tropical mountain rainforest of southern Ecuador. Ultrastructural evidence of symbiotic interaction was combined with molecular sequencing of fungi directly from the mycorrhizas and isolation of mycobionts. Ultrastructural analyses displayed vital orchid mycorrhizas formed by fungi with an imperforate parenthesome and cell wall slime bodies typical for the genus Tulasnella. Three different Tulasnella isolates were obtained in pure culture. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear rDNA sequences from coding regions of the ribosomal large subunit (nucLSU) and the 5.8S subunit, including parts of the internal transcribed spacers, obtained directly from the roots and from the fungal isolates, yielded seven distinct Tulasnella clades. Tulasnella mycobionts in Stelis concinna were restricted to two Tulasnella sequence types while the other orchids were associated with up to six Tulasnella sequence types. All Tulasnella sequences are new to science and distinct from known sequences of mycobionts of terrestrial orchids. The results indicate that tulasnelloid fungi, adapted to the conditions on tree stems, might be important for orchid growth and maintenance in the Andean cloud forest.

  9. Spontaneous innovation for future deception in a male chimpanzee.

    PubMed

    Osvath, Mathias; Karvonen, Elin

    2012-01-01

    The ability to invent means to deceive others, where the deception lies in the perceptually or contextually detached future, appears to require the coordination of sophisticated cognitive skills toward a single goal. Meanwhile innovation for a current situation has been observed in a wide range of species. Planning, on the one hand, and the social cognition required for deception on the other, have been linked to one another, both from a co-evolutionary and a neuroanatomical perspective. Innovation and deception have also been suggested to be connected in their nature of relying on novelty. We report on systematic observations suggesting innovation for future deception by a captive male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). As an extension of previously described behaviour--caching projectiles for later throwing at zoo visitors--the chimpanzee, again in advance, manufactured concealments from hay, as well as used naturally occurring concealments. All were placed near the visitors' observation area, allowing the chimpanzee to make throws before the crowd could back off. We observed what was likely the first instance of this innovation. Further observations showed that the creation of future-oriented concealments became the significantly preferred strategy. What is more, the chimpanzee appeared consistently to combine two deceptive strategies: hiding projectiles and inhibiting dominance display behaviour. The findings suggest that chimpanzees can represent the future behaviours of others while those others are not present, as well as take actions in the current situation towards such potential future behaviours. Importantly, the behaviour of the chimpanzee produced a future event, rather than merely prepared for an event that had been reliably re-occurring in the past. These findings might indicate that the chimpanzee recombined episodic memories in perceptual simulations.

  10. Historic hydrovolcanism at Deception Island (Antarctica): implications for eruption hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Németh, Károly; Geyer, Adelina; Álvarez-Valero, Antonio M.; Aguirre-Díaz, Gerardo; Bartolini, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    Deception Island (Antarctica) is the southernmost island of the South Shetland Archipelago in the South Atlantic. Volcanic activity since the eighteenth century, along with the latest volcanic unrest episodes in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, demonstrates that the volcanic system is still active and that future eruptions are likely. Despite its remote location, the South Shetland Islands are an important touristic destination during the austral summer. In addition, they host several research stations and three summer field camps. Deception Island is characterised by a Quaternary caldera system with a post-caldera succession and is considered to be part of an active, dispersed (monogenetic), volcanic field. Historical post-caldera volcanism on Deception Island involves monogenetic small-volume (VEI 2-3) eruptions such forming cones and various types of hydrovolcanic edifices. The scientific stations on the island were destroyed, or severely damaged, during the eruptions in 1967, 1969, and 1970 mainly due to explosive activity triggered by the interaction of rising (or erupting) magma with surface water, shallow groundwater, and ice. We conducted a detailed revision (field petrology and geochemistry) of the historical hydrovolcanic post-caldera eruptions of Deception Island with the aim to understand the dynamics of magma-water interaction, as well as characterise the most likely eruptive scenarios from future eruptions. We specifically focused on the Crimson Hill (estimated age between 1825 and 1829), and Kroner Lake (estimated age between 1829 and 1912) eruptions and 1967, 1969, and 1970 events by describing the eruption mechanisms related to the island's hydrovolcanic activity. Data suggest that the main hazards posed by volcanism on the island are due to fallout, ballistic blocks and bombs, and subordinate, dilute PDCs. In addition, Deception Island can be divided into five areas of expected activity due to magma-water interaction, providing additional

  11. Lyin’ Eyes: Ocular-motor Measures of Reading Reveal Deception

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Anne E.; Hacker, Douglas J.; Webb, Andrea K.; Osher, Dahvyn; Kristjansson, Sean; Woltz, Dan J.; Kircher, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants’ ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1, participants from a university community were randomly assigned to either a “guilty” group that committed one of two mock crimes or an “innocent” group that only learned about the crime. Participants then reported for testing, where they completed the computer-administered questionnaire that addressed their possible involvement in the crimes. Experiment 2 also manipulated participants’ incentive to pass the test and difficulty of statements on the test. In both experiments, guilty participants had increased pupil responses to statements answered deceptively; however, they spent less time fixating on, reading, and re-reading those statements than statements answered truthfully. These ocular-motor measures were optimally weighted in a discrimination function that correctly classified 85% of participants as either guilty or innocent. Findings from Experiment 2 indicated that group discrimination was improved with greater incentives to pass the test and the use of statements with simple syntax. The present findings suggest that two cognitive processes are involved in deception -- vigilance and strategy -- and that these processes are reflected in different ocular-motor measures. The ocular-motor test reported here represents a new approach to detecting deception that may fill an important need in security screening contexts. PMID:22545928

  12. Mycorrhizal preference promotes habitat invasion by a native Australian orchid: Microtis media

    PubMed Central

    De Long, Jonathan R.; Swarts, Nigel D.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Egerton-Warburton, Louise M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Mycorrhizal specialization has been shown to limit recruitment capacity in orchids, but an increasing number of orchids are being documented as invasive or weed-like. The reasons for this proliferation were examined by investigating mycorrhizal fungi and edaphic correlates of Microtis media, an Australian terrestrial orchid that is an aggressive ecosystem and horticultural weed. Methods Molecular identification of fungi cultivated from M. media pelotons, symbiotic in vitro M. media seed germination assays, ex situ fungal baiting of M. media and co-occurring orchid taxa (Caladenia arenicola, Pterostylis sanguinea and Diuris magnifica) and soil physical and chemical analyses were undertaken. Key Results It was found that: (1) M. media associates with a broad taxonomic spectrum of mycobionts including Piriformospora indica, Sebacina vermifera, Tulasnella calospora and Ceratobasidium sp.; (2) germination efficacy of mycorrhizal isolates was greater for fungi isolated from plants in disturbed than in natural habitats; (3) a higher percentage of M. media seeds germinate than D. magnifica, P. sanguinea or C. arenicola seeds when incubated with soil from M. media roots; and (4) M. media–mycorrhizal fungal associations show an unusual breadth of habitat tolerance, especially for soil phosphorus (P) fertility. Conclusions The findings in M. media support the idea that invasive terrestrial orchids may associate with a diversity of fungi that are widespread and common, enhance seed germination in the host plant but not co-occurring orchid species and tolerate a range of habitats. These traits may provide the weedy orchid with a competitive advantage over co-occurring orchid species. If so, invasive orchids are likely to become more broadly distributed and increasingly colonize novel habitats. PMID:23275632

  13. 21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. 71.22 Section 71.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE...; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. The Commissioner shall refuse to issue...

  14. Functional Expression of an Orchid Fragrance Gene in Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Adelene Ai Lian; Abdullah, Janna O.; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Shafee, Norazizah; Rahim, Raha A.

    2012-01-01

    Vanda Mimi Palmer (VMP), an orchid hybrid of Vanda tesselata and Vanda Tan Chay Yan is a highly scented tropical orchid which blooms all year round. Previous studies revealed that VMP produces a variety of isoprenoid volatiles during daylight. Isoprenoids are well known to contribute significantly to the scent of most fragrant plants. They are a large group of secondary metabolites which may possess valuable characteristics such as flavor, fragrance and toxicity and are produced via two pathways, the mevalonate (MVA) pathway or/and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. In this study, a sesquiterpene synthase gene denoted VMPSTS, previously isolated from a floral cDNA library of VMP was cloned and expressed in Lactococcus lactis to characterize the functionality of the protein. L. lactis, a food grade bacterium which utilizes the mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid production was found to be a suitable host for the characterization of plant terpene synthases. Through recombinant expression of VMPSTS, it was revealed that VMPSTS produced multiple sesquiterpenes and germacrene D dominates its profile. PMID:22408409

  15. Friendship after a friends with benefits relationship: deception, psychological functioning, and social connectedness.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jesse; Fincham, Frank D; Manthos, Megan

    2013-11-01

    Friends with benefits (FWB) relationships are formed by an integration of friendship and sexual intimacy, typically without the explicit commitments characteristic of an exclusive romantic relationship. The majority of these relationships do not transition into committed romantic relationships, raising questions about what happens to the relationship after the FWB ends. In a sample of 119 men and 189 women university students, with a median age of 19 years and the majority identified as Caucasian (63.6 %), we assessed relationship adjustment, feelings of deception, perception of the FWB relationship and friendship, social connectedness, psychological distress, and loneliness. Results demonstrated that the majority of FWB relationships continued as friendships after the sexual intimacy ceased and that about 50 % of the participants reported feeling as close or closer to their FWB partner. Those who did not remain friends were more likely to report that their FWB relationship was more sex- than friendship-based; they also reported higher levels of feeling deceived by their FWB partner and higher levels of loneliness and psychological distress, but lower levels of mutual social connectedness. Higher levels of feeling deceived were related to feeling less close to the post-FWB friend; also, more sex-based FWB relationships were likely to result in post-FWB friendships that were either more or less close (as opposed to unchanged). FWB relationships, especially those that include more attention to friendship based intimacy, do not appear to negatively impact the quality of the friendship after the "with benefits" ends.

  16. Use of Deception to Improve Client Honeypot Detection of Drive-by-Download Attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Popovsky, Barbara; Narvaez Suarez, Julia F.; Seifert, Christian

    2009-07-24

    This paper presents the application of deception theory to improve the success of client honeypots at detecting malicious web page attacks from infected servers programmed by online criminals to launch drive-by-download attacks. The design of honeypots faces three main challenges: deception, how to design honeypots that seem real systems; counter-deception, techniques used to identify honeypots and hence defeating their deceiving nature; and counter counter-deception, how to design honeypots that deceive attackers. The authors propose the application of a deception model known as the deception planning loop to identify the current status on honeypot research, development and deployment. The analysis leadsmore » to a proposal to formulate a landscape of the honeypot research and planning of steps ahead.« less

  17. Executive Function and Temperamental Fear Concurrently Predict Deception in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Babkirk, Sarah; Saunders, Lauren V.; Solomon, Beylul; Kessel, Ellen M.; Crossman, Angela; Gokhan, Nurper; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to intentionally withhold truthful information, or deception, is a key component of moral development and may be a precursor to more serious anti-social tendencies. Two factors, executive function and temperamental fear are each thought to influence childhood deception. Few studies, however, have explored deception in relation to both of these factors simultaneously. This was the goal of the present study. Executive function, as measured by a working memory task, and temperamental fear, as measured via maternal report were assessed in relation to observed deceptive behavior among 6 – 9-year-old children (N = 43). Results showed that children displaying high working memory capacity and high temperamental fear were more likely to exhibit deceptive behavior. Implications for predictors of childhood deception and applications for moral education are discussed. PMID:26880858

  18. Executive Function and Temperamental Fear Concurrently Predict Deception in School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Babkirk, Sarah; Saunders, Lauren V; Solomon, Beylul; Kessel, Ellen M; Crossman, Angela; Gokhan, Nurper; Dennis, Tracy A

    The decision to intentionally withhold truthful information, or deception, is a key component of moral development and may be a precursor to more serious anti-social tendencies. Two factors, executive function and temperamental fear are each thought to influence childhood deception. Few studies, however, have explored deception in relation to both of these factors simultaneously. This was the goal of the present study. Executive function, as measured by a working memory task, and temperamental fear, as measured via maternal report were assessed in relation to observed deceptive behavior among 6 - 9-year-old children ( N = 43). Results showed that children displaying high working memory capacity and high temperamental fear were more likely to exhibit deceptive behavior. Implications for predictors of childhood deception and applications for moral education are discussed.

  19. Neural correlates of spontaneous deception: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiao Pan; Gao, Xiaoqing; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    Deception is commonly seen in everyday social interactions. However, most of the knowledge about the underlying neural mechanism of deception comes from studies where participants were instructed when and how to lie. To study spontaneous deception, we designed a guessing game modeled after Greene and Paxton (2009), in which lying is the only way to achieve the performance level needed to end the game. We recorded neural responses during the game using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We found that when compared to truth-telling, spontaneous deception, like instructed deception, engenders greater involvement of such prefrontal regions as the left superior frontal gyrus. We also found that the correct-truth trials produced greater neural activities in the left middle frontal gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus than the incorrect-truth trials, suggesting the involvement of the reward system. Furthermore, the present study confirmed the feasibility of using NIRS to study spontaneous deception. PMID:23340482

  20. Target deception jamming method against spaceborne synthetic aperture radar using electromagnetic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qingyang; Shu, Ting; Tang, Bin; Yu, Wenxian

    2018-01-01

    A method is proposed to perform target deception jamming against spaceborne synthetic aperture radar. Compared with the traditional jamming methods using deception templates to cover the target or region of interest, the proposed method aims to generate a verisimilar deceptive target in various attitude with high fidelity using the electromagnetic (EM) scattering. Based on the geometrical model for target deception jamming, the EM scattering data from the deceptive target was first simulated by applying an EM calculation software. Then, the proposed jamming frequency response (JFR) is calculated offline by further processing. Finally, the deception jamming is achieved in real time by a multiplication between the proposed JFR and the spectrum of intercepted radar signals. The practical implementation is presented. The simulation results prove the validity of the proposed method.

  1. Strategic Interviewing to Detect Deception: Cues to Deception across Repeated Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Masip, Jaume; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Martínez, Carmen; Herrero, Carmen; Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    Previous deception research on repeated interviews found that liars are not less consistent than truth tellers, presumably because liars use a “repeat strategy” to be consistent across interviews. The goal of this study was to design an interview procedure to overcome this strategy. Innocent participants (truth tellers) and guilty participants (liars) had to convince an interviewer that they had performed several innocent activities rather than committing a mock crime. The interview focused on the innocent activities (alibi), contained specific central and peripheral questions, and was repeated after 1 week without forewarning. Cognitive load was increased by asking participants to reply quickly. The liars’ answers in replying to both central and peripheral questions were significantly less accurate, less consistent, and more evasive than the truth tellers’ answers. Logistic regression analyses yielded classification rates ranging from around 70% (with consistency as the predictor variable), 85% (with evasive answers as the predictor variable), to over 90% (with an improved measure of consistency that incorporated evasive answers as the predictor variable, as well as with response accuracy as the predictor variable). These classification rates were higher than the interviewers’ accuracy rate (54%). PMID:27847493

  2. Orchid biology: from Linnaeus via Darwin to the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Michael F.; Chase, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Orchidaceae are the largest family of flowering plants, with at least 24 000 species, and perhaps better than any other family of flowering plants, orchids represent the extreme specializations that are possible. As a result, they have long fascinated luminaries of the botanical world including Linnaeus and Darwin, but the size of the family has historically been an impediment to their study. Specifically, the lack of detailed information about relationships within the family made it difficult to formulate explicit evolutionary hypotheses for such a large group, but the advent of molecular systematics has revolutionized our understanding of the orchids. Their complex life histories make orchids particularly vulnerable to environmental change, and as result many are now threatened with extinction. In this Special Issue we present a series of 20 papers on orchid biology ranging from phylogenetics, floral evolutionary development, taxonomy, mycorrhizal associations, pollination biology, population genetics and conservation. PMID:19654223

  3. Cognitive simplicity and self-deception are crucial in martyrdom and suicide terrorism.

    PubMed

    Fink, Bernhard; Trivers, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Suicide attacks and terrorism are characterized by cognitive simplicity, which is related to self-deception. In justifying violence in pursuit of ideologically and/or politically driven commitment, people with high religious commitment may be particularly prone to mechanisms of self-deception. Related megalomania and glorious self-perception are typical of self-deception, and are thus crucial in the emergence and expression of (suicide) terrorism.

  4. Misleading or Falsification? Inferring Deceptive Strategies and Types in Online News and Social Media

    SciTech Connect

    Volkova, Svitlana; Jang, Jin Yea

    Deceptive information in online news and social media has had dramatic effect on our society in recent years. This study is the first to gain deeper insights into writers' intent behind digital misinformation by analyzing psycholinguistic signals: moral foundations and connotations extracted from different types of deceptive news ranging from strategic disinformation to propaganda and hoaxes. To ensure consistency of our findings and generalizability across domains, we experiment with data from: (1) confirmed cases of disinformation in news summaries, (2) {propaganda}, hoax, and disinformation news pages, and (3) social media news. We first contrast lexical markers of biased language, syntacticmore » and stylistic signals, and connotations across deceptive news types including disinformation, propaganda, and hoaxes, and {deceptive} strategies including misleading or falsification. We then incorporate these insights to build machine learning and deep learning predictive models to infer deception strategies and deceptive news types. Our experimental results demonstrate that unlike earlier work on deception detection, content combined with biased language markers, moral foundations, and connotations leads to better predictive performance of deception strategies compared to syntactic and stylistic signals (as reported in earlier work on deceptive reviews). Falsification strategy is easier to identify than misleading strategy. Disinformation is more difficult to predict than to propaganda or hoaxes. Deceptive news types (disinformation, propaganda, and hoaxes), unlike deceptive strategies (falsification and misleading), are more salient, and thus easier to identify in tweets than in news reports. Finally, our novel connotation analysis across deception types provides deeper understanding of writers' perspectives and therefore reveals the intentions behind digital misinformation.« less

  5. Roadside verges as habitats for endangered lizard-orchids (Himantoglossum spp.): Ecological traps or refuges?

    PubMed

    Fekete, Réka; Nagy, Timea; Bódis, Judit; Biró, Éva; Löki, Viktor; Süveges, Kristóf; Takács, Attila; Tökölyi, Jácint; Molnár V, Attila

    2017-12-31

    Alterations in traditional land use practices have led to severe declines in the area of semi-natural grasslands, thereby seriously threatening plant and animal species dependent on these habitats. Small anthropogenic managed habitats, like roadsides can act as refuges and might play an important role in conserving these species. Colonization of roadside verges by endangered lizard orchids (Himantoglossum spp.) has long been known, but few studies have systematically explored the suitability of roadside habitats for these orchids and the impact of roads on them. In this paper we present results of targeted surveys of three lizard orchid taxa on roadsides from eight European countries. During these surveys we searched for lizard orchids inhabiting roadside verges and recorded their distance from road, aspects of the roadside environment, as well as vegetative and reproductive characteristics of individual plants. We found large numbers of lizard orchids on roadside verges. Distance from roads was not uniformly distributed: orchids occurred more closely to roads than expected by chance. This suggests that regular management of roadsides (e.g. mowing) might enhance colonization and survival of lizard orchids. On the other hand, we also found that close proximity to roads negatively affects reproductive success, suggesting that the immediate vicinity of roads might act as an ecological trap (i.e. favorable in terms of colonization and survival but unfavorable in terms of reproduction). Nonetheless, the fact that significant and viable populations are maintained at roadsides suggests that traditionally managed roadside verges may allow long-term persistence of lizard orchid populations and may serve as refuges in a landscape context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Robot Lies in Health Care: When Is Deception Morally Permissible?

    PubMed

    Matthias, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Autonomous robots are increasingly interacting with users who have limited knowledge of robotics and are likely to have an erroneous mental model of the robot's workings, capabilities, and internal structure. The robot's real capabilities may diverge from this mental model to the extent that one might accuse the robot's manufacturer of deceiving the user, especially in cases where the user naturally tends to ascribe exaggerated capabilities to the machine (e.g. conversational systems in elder-care contexts, or toy robots in child care). This poses the question, whether misleading or even actively deceiving the user of an autonomous artifact about the capabilities of the machine is morally bad and why. By analyzing trust, autonomy, and the erosion of trust in communicative acts as consequences of deceptive robot behavior, we formulate four criteria that must be fulfilled in order for robot deception to be morally permissible, and in some cases even morally indicated.

  7. Communication, compassion, and computers: Adolescents' and adults' evaluations of online and face-to-face deception.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Sean; Eskritt, Michelle; Bosacki, Sandra

    2018-06-01

    We explored Canadian adolescents', emergent adults', and adults' understandings of deception in computer mediated communication (CMC) compared to face to face (FtF). Participants between 13 and 50 years read vignettes of different types of questionable behaviour that occurred online or in real life, and were asked to judge whether deception was involved, and the acceptability of the behaviour. Age groups evaluated deception similarly; however, adolescents held slightly different views from adults about what constitutes deception, suggesting that the understanding of deception continues to develop into adulthood. Furthermore, CMC behaviour was rated as more deceptive than FtF in general, and participants scoring higher on compassion perceived vignettes to be more deceptive. This study is a step towards better understanding the relationships between perceptions of deception across adolescence into adulthood, mode of communication, and compassion, and may have implications for how adults communicate with youth about deception in CMC and FtF contexts. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Makara of Hizballah: Deception in the 2006 Summer War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    networks like the Society for Internet Research are patrolling the internet on their own, without government involvement, shows another prime example...of cyber deception similar to this had worked in the past, this time it failed due to the work of networked groups like the Society for Internet ... Research , “an informal consortium of self-described ‘freelance counterterrorists’ 149 Hilary Hylton, “How

  9. Biologically-Inspired Deceptive Behavior for a Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    by sending false signals either intentionally or unintentionally, are essential for animals’ survival. For example, camouflage and mimicry are well...detection by both predators and their prey. While camouflage or mimicry are examples of unknowingly deceiving, a deceptive behavior can include...face this situation, where it is important to discourage an adversary from discovering a protected site, so the application of these bio -inspired

  10. Deception Recognition: Rethinking the Operational Commander’s Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-27

    Understanding this cultural relativism gives us insight into intent. Social norms tend to be tacitly established and maintained through body...the concept of ―face‖ in dealing with people in a personal or professional relationship is first and foremost in the Chinese culture . The western... morality ,‖5 the operational commander can be and usually is directly affected by both political deception and MILDEC and must be able to recognize and

  11. Nursing practice: compassionate deception and the Good Samaritan.

    PubMed

    Tuckett, A

    1999-09-01

    This article reviews the literature on deception to illuminate the phenomenon as a background for an appraisal within nursing. It then describes nursing as a practice of caring. The character of the Good Samaritan is recommended as indicative of the virtue of compassion that ought to underpin caring in nursing practice. Finally, the article concludes that a caring nurse, responding virtuously, acts by being compassionate, for a time recognizing the prima facie nature of the rules or principles of truth telling.

  12. Subarray-based FDA radar to counteract deceptive ECM signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Ahmed; Wang, Wen-Qin; Yuan, Zhao; Mohamed, Suhad; Bin, Tang

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the frequency diverse array (FDA) radar concept has attracted extensive attention, as it may benefit from a small frequency increment, compared to the carrier frequency across the array elements and thereby achieve an array factor that is a function of the angle, the time, and the range which is superior to the conventional phase array radar (PAR). However, limited effort on the subject of FDA in electronic countermeasure scenarios, especially in the presence of mainbeam deceptive jamming, has been published. Basic FDA is not desirable for anti-jamming applications, due to the range-angle coupling response of targets. In this paper, a novel method based on subarrayed FDA signal processing is proposed to counteract deceptive ECM signals. We divide the FDA array into multiple subarrays, each of which employs a distinct frequency increment. As a result, in the subarray-based FDA, the desired target can be distinguished at subarray level in joint range-angle-Doppler domain by utilizing the fact that the jammer generates false targets with the same ranges to each subarray without reparations. The performance assessment shows that the proposed solution is effective for deceptive ECM targets suppression. The effectiveness is verified by simulation results.

  13. Modulation of financial deprivation on deception and its neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Ling, Xiaoli; Zheng, Li; Chen, Jia; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhiyuan; Cheng, Xuemei; Guo, Xiuyan

    2017-11-01

    Deception is a universal phenomenon in human society and plays an important role in everyday life. Previous studies have revealed that people might have an internalized moral norm of keeping honest and the deceptive behavior was reliably correlated with activation in executive brain regions of prefrontal cortices to over-ride intuitive honest responses. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study sought to investigate how financial position modulated the neural responses during deceptive decision. Twenty-one participants were scanned when they played a series of adapted Dictator Game with different partners after a ball-guess game. Specifically, participants gained or lost money in the ball-guess game, and had opportunities to get more financial gains through cheating in the following adapted Dictator Game. Behavioral results indicated that participants did not cheat to the full extent; instead they were more likely to lie after losing money compared with gaining money. At the neural level, weaker activities in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices were observed when participants lied after losing money than gaining money. Together, our data indicated that, people really had an internalized norm of keeping honest, but it would be lenient when people feel financial deprivation. And suppressing the truthful response originating from moral norm of keeping honest was associated with increased level of activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, but this association became weaker when people were under financial deprivation.

  14. Deception in Covert Nuclear Weapons Development: A Framework to Identify, Analyze, and Mitigate Future Long-Term Deception Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    In March, shortly after the BJP’s electoral victory, senior foreign policy advisor N . N . Jha informed U.S. embassy officials in New Delhi that the...College, 1998. Barker, Brian, Michael Clark, Peter Davis, Mark Fisk, Michael Hedlin, Hans Israelsson, Vitaly Khalturin, et al. "Monitoring Nuclear...Pretoria, South Africa, 1981. Mihalka, Michael, German Strategic Deception in the 1930’s, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, N -1557-NA, 1980

  15. Marital Satisfaction and Physical Health: Evidence for an Orchid Effect

    PubMed Central

    South, Susan C.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Marital distress and conflict are linked to poor physical health. Here, we used behavior genetic modeling to determine the etiology of this association. Biometric moderation models were used to estimate gene-by-environment interaction in the presence of gene-environment correlation between marital satisfaction and self-reported health. Using a sample of 347 married twin pairs from the Midlife in the United States study, we found that genetic influences on the variation in self-reported health were greatest at both high (h2 = .30) and low (h2 = .38) levels of marital satisfaction, with the lowest levels of heritability estimated for participants at the average level of marital satisfaction (h2 = .10). These findings are evidence of the orchid effect: the idea that genetic influences on a phenotype such as physical health are enhanced in nonnormative—both unusually positive and unusually negative—environmental contexts. PMID:23359109

  16. Parthenogenesis maintains male sterility in a gynodioecious orchid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuang-Quan; Lu, Yang; Chen, Ying-Zhuo; Luo, Yi-Bo; Delph, Lynda F

    2009-10-01

    The invasion of male-sterile (female) individuals into hermaphroditic populations, leading to gynodioecy, is common in flowering plants. Both theoretical and empirical studies have shown that as the frequency of females increases in a population, pollen limitation reduces seed production more in females than in hermaphrodites, leading to higher fitness for hermaphrodites and a consequent decrease in female frequency. Here we show that contrary to this expectation, females of the gynodioecious orchid Satyrium ciliatum are maintained only in populations that experience high pollen limitation caused by low pollinator service and high pollen herbivory. This species avoids the typical problem of pollen limitation for seed production and can therefore maintain high frequencies of females in pollen-limited populations because females produce more seeds than hermaphrodites via facultative parthenogenesis in the absence of pollinia. Our results therefore demonstrate that parthenogenesis is a novel mechanism favoring the maintenance of gynodioecy.

  17. Species distribution modelling for conservation of an endangered endemic orchid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L; Treglia, Michael L; Grant, William E; Smeins, Fred E; Rogers, William E

    2015-04-21

    Concerns regarding the long-term viability of threatened and endangered plant species are increasingly warranted given the potential impacts of climate change and habitat fragmentation on unstable and isolated populations. Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants, but it is currently facing unprecedented risks of extinction. Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline. Spiranthes parksii (Navasota ladies' tresses) is a federally and state-listed endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to central Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor and determine suitable habitat for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. We analysed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions and landscape features to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of occurrence of S. parksii using boosted regression trees. Our model classified 97 % of the cells correctly with regard to species presence and absence, and indicated that probability of existence was correlated with climatic conditions and landscape features. The most influential variables were mean annual precipitation, mean elevation, mean annual minimum temperature and mean annual maximum temperature. The most likely suitable range for S. parksii was the eastern portions of Leon and Madison Counties, the southern portion of Brazos County, a portion of northern Grimes County and along the borders between Burleson and Washington Counties. Our model can assist in the development of an integrated conservation strategy through: (i) focussing future survey and research efforts on areas with a high likelihood of occurrence, (ii) aiding in selection of areas for conservation and restoration and (iii) framing future research questions including those necessary for predicting responses to climate change. Our model could also

  18. Anther development in tribe Epidendreae: orchids with contrasting pollination syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Victoria; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Background Epidendreae is one of the most diverse tribes among the orchids with remarkable variation in life form, floral morphology and pollination syndromes. Its circumscription was recently revised and subtribes Agrostophyllinae and Calypsoinae were transferred into this tribe. One of the principal floral characters utilized in classification of orchids is the incumbency or bending of the column. This study records and compares late stages of anther, column and lip development, and discusses anther characters in fifteen representative taxa of five of the six subtribes in Epidendreae with respect to classification and pollination biology. Methods A series of late floral stages were sampled and fixed for examination under scanning electron microscope. Results Anther incumbency or bending in this group varies from 90° to almost 180°. Incumbency in the late stages of development is reached in Bletiinae, Ponerinae, Pleurothallidinae and Laeliinae whereas incumbency is reached early in its development in Corallorhiza and Govenia of Calypsoinae. Discussion Our observations indicate that the position of Chysis in subtribe Bletiinae needs revision based on differences in a number floral, and in particular of anther characters; and that Coelia only shares the early anther incumbency with Calypsoinae members, but not the rest of floral and anther characters. Anatomical characters such as crystals around the actinocytic stomata on the anther cap and sugar crystals in Laeliinae; lack of rostellum in Bletiinae; coalescent anther with the column, lack of trichomes and papillae on lip keels, and underdeveloped rostellum in Chysis; a mechanism by which the anther cap comes off (it is joined with the grooved lip by a claw) in Isochilus are all related to pollination syndromes and reproductive biology. PMID:29503766

  19. Species distribution modelling for conservation of an endangered endemic orchid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L.; Treglia, Michael L.; Grant, William E.; Smeins, Fred E.; Rogers, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns regarding the long-term viability of threatened and endangered plant species are increasingly warranted given the potential impacts of climate change and habitat fragmentation on unstable and isolated populations. Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants, but it is currently facing unprecedented risks of extinction. Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline. Spiranthes parksii (Navasota ladies' tresses) is a federally and state-listed endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to central Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor and determine suitable habitat for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. We analysed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions and landscape features to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of occurrence of S. parksii using boosted regression trees. Our model classified 97 % of the cells correctly with regard to species presence and absence, and indicated that probability of existence was correlated with climatic conditions and landscape features. The most influential variables were mean annual precipitation, mean elevation, mean annual minimum temperature and mean annual maximum temperature. The most likely suitable range for S. parksii was the eastern portions of Leon and Madison Counties, the southern portion of Brazos County, a portion of northern Grimes County and along the borders between Burleson and Washington Counties. Our model can assist in the development of an integrated conservation strategy through: (i) focussing future survey and research efforts on areas with a high likelihood of occurrence, (ii) aiding in selection of areas for conservation and restoration and (iii) framing future research questions including those necessary for predicting responses to climate change. Our model could also

  20. Anther development in tribe Epidendreae: orchids with contrasting pollination syndromes.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Nieto, Benjamín; Sosa, Victoria; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Epidendreae is one of the most diverse tribes among the orchids with remarkable variation in life form, floral morphology and pollination syndromes. Its circumscription was recently revised and subtribes Agrostophyllinae and Calypsoinae were transferred into this tribe. One of the principal floral characters utilized in classification of orchids is the incumbency or bending of the column. This study records and compares late stages of anther, column and lip development, and discusses anther characters in fifteen representative taxa of five of the six subtribes in Epidendreae with respect to classification and pollination biology. A series of late floral stages were sampled and fixed for examination under scanning electron microscope. Anther incumbency or bending in this group varies from 90° to almost 180°. Incumbency in the late stages of development is reached in Bletiinae, Ponerinae, Pleurothallidinae and Laeliinae whereas incumbency is reached early in its development in Corallorhiza and Govenia of Calypsoinae. Our observations indicate that the position of Chysis in subtribe Bletiinae needs revision based on differences in a number floral, and in particular of anther characters; and that Coelia only shares the early anther incumbency with Calypsoinae members, but not the rest of floral and anther characters. Anatomical characters such as crystals around the actinocytic stomata on the anther cap and sugar crystals in Laeliinae; lack of rostellum in Bletiinae; coalescent anther with the column, lack of trichomes and papillae on lip keels, and underdeveloped rostellum in Chysis ; a mechanism by which the anther cap comes off (it is joined with the grooved lip by a claw) in Isochilus are all related to pollination syndromes and reproductive biology.

  1. ORCHIDS: an observational randomized controlled trial on childhood differential susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Chhangur, Rabia R; Weeland, Joyce; Overbeek, Geertjan; Matthys, Walterchj; Orobio de Castro, Bram

    2012-10-29

    A central tenet in developmental psychopathology is that childhood rearing experiences have a major impact on children's development. Recently, candidate genes have been identified that may cause children to be differentially susceptible to these experiences (i.e., susceptibility genes). However, our understanding of the differential impact of parenting is limited at best. Specifically, more experimental research is needed. The ORCHIDS study will investigate gene-(gene-)environment interactions to obtain more insight into a) moderating effects of polymorphisms on the link between parenting and child behavior, and b) behavioral mechanisms that underlie these gene-(gene-)environment interactions in an experimental design. The ORCHIDS study is a randomized controlled trial, in which the environment will be manipulated with an intervention (i.e., Incredible Years parent training). In a screening, families with children aged 4-8 who show mild to (sub)clinical behavior problems will be targeted through community records via two Dutch regional healthcare organizations. Assessments in both the intervention and control condition will be conducted at baseline (i.e., pretest), after 6 months (i.e., posttest), and after 10 months (i.e., follow-up). This study protocol describes the design of a randomized controlled trial that investigates gene-(gene-)environment interactions in the development of child behavior. Two hypotheses will be tested. First, we expect that children in the intervention condition who carry one or more susceptibility genes will show significantly lower levels of problem behavior and higher levels of prosocial behavior after their parent(s) received the Incredible Years training, compared to children without these genes, or children in the control group. Second, we expect that children carrying one or more susceptibility genes will show a heightened sensitivity to changes in parenting behaviors, and will manifest higher emotional synchronization in dyadic

  2. Phytotoxic activity of bibenzyl derivatives from the orchid Epidendrum rigidum.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Romero, Yanet; Acevedo, Laura; Sánchez, María de los Angeles; Shier, W Thomas; Abbas, Hamed K; Mata, Rachel

    2005-08-10

    A whole plant chloroform-methanol extract of the orchid Epidendrum rigidum inhibited radicle growth of Amaranthus hypochondriacus seedlings (IC50 = 300 microg/mL). Bioassay-guided fractionation furnished four phytotoxins, namely, gigantol (1), batatasin III (2), 2,3-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenathrene-4,7-diol (9), and 3,4,9-trimethoxyphenanthrene-2,5-diol (11), along with the known flavonoids apigenin, vitexin, and isovetin and the triterterpenoids 24,24-dimethyl-9,19-cyclolanostane-25-en-3beta-ol (14) and 24-methyl-9,19-cyclolanostane-25-en-3beta-ol (15). Stilbenoids 1, 2, 9, and 11 inhibited radicle growth of A. hypochondriacus with IC50 values of 0.65, 0.1, 0.12, and 5.9 microM, respectively. Foliar application of gigantol (1) at 1 microM to 4 week old seedlings of A. hypochondriacus reduced shoot elongation by 69% and fresh weight accumulation by 54%. Bibenzyls 1 and 2, as well as synthetic analogues 4'-hydroxy-3,3',5-trimethoxybibenzyl (3), 3,3',4',5-tetramethoxybibenzyl (4), 3,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxybibenzyl (5), 3'-O-methylbatatasin III (6), 3,3',5-trihydroxybibenzyl (7), and 3,4',5-trihydroxybibenzyl (8), were tested for phytotoxicity in axenic cultures of the small aquatic plant Lemna pausicostata. All bibenzyls derivatives except 7 and 8 inhibited growth and increased cellular leakage with IC50 values of 89.9-180 and 89.9-166 microM, respectively. The natural and synthetic bibenzyls showed marginal cytotoxicity on animal cells. The results suggest that orchid bibenzyls may be good lead compounds for the development of novel herbicidal agents.

  3. Orchid-pollinator interactions and potential vulnerability to biological invasion.

    PubMed

    Chupp, Adam D; Battaglia, Loretta L; Schauber, Eric M; Sipes, Sedonia D

    2015-08-17

    Mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators have played a major role in the evolution of biodiversity. While the vulnerability of these relationships to environmental change is a major concern, studies often lack a framework for predicting impacts from emerging threats (e.g. biological invasions). The objective of this study was to determine the reliance of Platanthera ciliaris (orange-fringed orchid) on Papilio palamedes (Palamedes swallowtail butterfly) for pollination and the relative availability of alternative pollinators. Recent declines of P. palamedes larval host plants due to laurel wilt disease (LWD) could endanger P. ciliaris populations that rely heavily on this butterfly for pollination. We monitored pollinator visitation and fruit set and measured nectar spur lengths of P. ciliaris flowers and proboscis lengths of its floral visitors in Jackson County, MS, USA. Papilio palamedes was the primary visitor with minimal visitation by Phoebis sennae (cloudless sulfur butterfly). Lengths of P. ciliaris nectar spurs were similar to proboscis lengths of both pollinator species. Fruit set was moderate with access to pollinators (55 ± 10.8 %), yet failed (0 %) when pollinators were excluded. Visitation increased with inflorescence size, but there was no such pattern in fruit set, indicating that fruit set was not limited by pollinator visitation within the range of visitation rates we observed. Our results are supported by historical data that suggest P. palamedes and P. sennae are important pollinators of P. ciliaris. Although P. sennae may provide supplemental pollination service, this is likely constrained by habitat preferences that do not always overlap with those of P. cilaris. Observed declines of P. palamedes due to LWD could severely limit the reproductive success and persistence of P. ciliaris and similar orchid species populations. This empirical-based prediction is among the first to document exotic forest pests and pathogens as

  4. Olfactory specialization for perfume collection in male orchid bees.

    PubMed

    Mitko, Lukasz; Weber, Marjorie G; Ramirez, Santiago R; Hedenström, Erik; Wcislo, William T; Eltz, Thomas

    2016-05-15

    Insects rely on the olfactory system to detect a vast diversity of airborne molecules in their environment. Highly sensitive olfactory tuning is expected to evolve when detection of a particular chemical with great precision is required in the context of foraging and/or finding mates. Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) collect odoriferous substances from multiple sources, store them in specialized tibial pouches and later expose them at display sites, presumably as mating signals to females. Previous analysis of tibial compounds among sympatric species revealed substantial chemical disparity in chemical composition among lineages with outstanding divergence between closely related species. Here, we tested whether specific perfume phenotypes coevolve with matching olfactory adaptations in male orchid bees to facilitate the location and harvest of species-specific perfume compounds. We conducted electroantennographic (EAG) measurements on males of 15 sympatric species in the genus Euglossa that were stimulated with 18 compounds present in variable proportions in male hind tibiae. Antennal response profiles were species-specific across all 15 species, but there was no conspicuous differentiation between closely related species. Instead, we found that the observed variation in EAG activity follows a Brownian motion model of trait evolution, where the probability of differentiation increases proportionally with lineage divergence time. However, we identified strong antennal responses for some chemicals that are present as major compounds in the perfume of the same species, thus suggesting that sensory specialization has occurred within multiple lineages. This sensory specialization was particularly apparent for semi-volatile molecules ('base note' compounds), thus supporting the idea that such compounds play an important role in chemical signaling of euglossine bees. Overall, our study found no close correspondence between antennal responses and behavioral

  5. Mycorrhizal fungi isolated from native terrestrial orchids of pristine regions in Cordoba (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Fernández Di Pardo, Agustina; Chiocchio, Viviana M; Barrera, Viviana; Colombo, Roxana P; Martinez, Alicia E; Gasoni, Laura; Godeas, Alicia M

    2015-03-01

    Orchidaceae is a highly dependent group on the Rhizoctonia complex that includes Ceratorhiza, Moniliopsis, Epulorhiza and Rhizoctonia, for seed germination and the development of new orchid plants. Thus, the isolation and identification of orchid mycorrhizal fungi are important to understand the orchid-fungus relationship, which can lead to the development of efficient conservation strategies by in vivo germination of seeds from endangered orchid plants. The aim of our work was to isolate and characterize the different mycorrhizal fungi found in roots of terrestrial orchids from Cordoba (Argentina), and, to learn about the natural habit and fungal associations in the Chaco Serrano woodland pristine region. In this study, bloomed orchid root and rhizosphere soil samples were obtained in two times from Valle de Punilla during spring of 2007; samples were kept in plastic bags until processed within 48 hours, and mycorrhizal condition confirmed assessing peloton presence. A total of 23 isolates of the orchideous mycorrhizal Rhizoctonia complex were obtained. The isolates were studied based on morphological characters and ITS-rDNA sequences. Morphological characteristics as color of colonies, texture, growth rate, hyphal diameter and length and presence of sclerotia were observed on culture media. To define the number of nuclei per cell, the isolates were grown in Petri dishes containing water-agar (WA) for three days at 25 degrees C and stained with Safranine-O solution. The mycorrhizal fungi were grouped into binucleate (MSGib, 10 isolates) and multinucleate (MSGim, 13 isolates) based on morphological characteristics of the colonies. We obtained the ITS1-5.8s-ITS4 region that was amplified using primers ITSI and ITS4. Based on DNA sequencing, isolates Q23 and Q29 were found to be related to species of Ceratobasidium. Isolates Q24 and Q4 were related to the binucleated anastomosis group AG-C of Rhizoctonia sp. The rest of the isolates grouped in the Ceratobasidium

  6. Explicit Instructions Increase Cognitive Costs of Deception in Predictable Social Context

    PubMed Central

    Falkiewicz, Marcel; Sarzyńska, Justyna; Babula, Justyna; Szatkowska, Iwona; Grabowska, Anna; Nęcka, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Convincing participants to deceive remains one of the biggest and most important challenges of laboratory-based deception research. The simplest and most prevalent method involves explicitly instructing participants to lie or tell the truth before presenting each task item. The usual finding of such experiments is increased cognitive load associated with deceptive responses, explained by necessity to inhibit default and automatic honest responses. However, explicit instructions are usually coupled with the absence of social context in the experimental task. Context plays a key role in social cognition by activating prior knowledge, which facilitates behaviors consistent with the latter. We hypothesized that in the presence of social context, both honest and deceptive responses can be produced on the basis of prior knowledge, without reliance on truth and without additional cognitive load during deceptive responses. In order to test the hypothesis, we have developed Speed-Dating Task (SDT), which is based on a real-life social event. In SDT, participants respond both honestly and deceptively to questions in order to appear similar to each of the dates. The dates are predictable and represent well-known categories (i.e., atheist or conservative). In one condition participants rely on explicit instructions preceding each question (external cue). In the second condition no explicit instructions are present, so the participants need to adapt based on prior knowledge about the category the dates belong to (internal cue). With internal cues, reaction times (RTs) are similar for both honest and deceptive responses. However, in the presence of external cues (EC), RTs are longer for deceptive than honest responses, suggesting that deceptive responses are associated with increased cognitive load. Compared to internal cues, deception costs were higher when EC were present. However, the effect was limited to the first part of the experiment, only partially confirming our

  7. The evolution of imperfect floral mimicry.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, Nicolas J; Schiestl, Florian P

    2008-05-27

    The theory of mimicry predicts that selection favors signal refinement in mimics to optimally match the signals released by their specific model species. We provide here chemical and behavioral evidence that a sexually deceptive orchid benefits from its mimetic imperfection to its co-occurring and specific bee model by triggering a stronger response in male bees, which react more intensively to the similar, but novel, scent stimulus provided by the orchid.

  8. The evolution of imperfect floral mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Schiestl, Florian P.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of mimicry predicts that selection favors signal refinement in mimics to optimally match the signals released by their specific model species. We provide here chemical and behavioral evidence that a sexually deceptive orchid benefits from its mimetic imperfection to its co-occurring and specific bee model by triggering a stronger response in male bees, which react more intensively to the similar, but novel, scent stimulus provided by the orchid. PMID:18508972

  9. Detection of deception based on fMRI activation patterns underlying the production of a deceptive response and receiving feedback about the success of the deception after a mock murder crime

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Qian; Vanman, Eric J.; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Wenjing; Jia, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The ability of a deceiver to track a victim’s ongoing judgments about the truthfulness of the deceit can be critical for successful deception. However, no study has yet investigated the neural circuits underlying receiving a judgment about one’s lie. To explore this issue, we used a modified Guilty Knowledge Test in a mock murder situation to simultaneously record the neural responses involved in producing deception and later when judgments of that deception were made. Producing deception recruited the bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), right ventral lateral prefrontal (VLPF) areas and right striatum, among which the activation of the right VLPF contributed mostly to diagnosing the identities of the participants, correctly diagnosing 81.25% of ‘murderers’ and 81.25% of ‘innocents’. Moreover, the participant’s response when their deception was successful uniquely recruited the right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral IPLs, bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and left cerebellum, among which the right IPL contributed mostly to diagnosing participants’ identities, correctly diagnosing 93.75% of murderers and 87.5% of innocents. This study shows that neural activity associated with being a successful liar (or not) is a feasible indicator for detecting lies and may be more valid than neural activity associated with producing deception. PMID:23946002

  10. The importance of associations with saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi among fully mycoheterotrophic orchids is currently under-estimated: novel evidence from sub-tropical Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yung-I; Yang, Chih-Kai; Gebauer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Most fully mycoheterotrophic (MH) orchids investigated to date are mycorrhizal with fungi that simultaneously form ectomycorrhizas with forest trees. Only a few MH orchids are currently known to be mycorrhizal with saprotrophic, mostly wood-decomposing, fungi instead of ectomycorrhizal fungi. This study provides evidence that the importance of associations between MH orchids and saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi is currently under-estimated. Methods Using microscopic techniques and molecular approaches, mycorrhizal fungi were localized and identified for seven MH orchid species from four genera and two subfamilies, Vanilloideae and Epidendroideae, growing in four humid and warm sub-tropical forests in Taiwan. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope natural abundances of MH orchids and autotrophic reference plants were used in order to elucidate the nutritional resources utilized by the orchids. Key Results Six out of the seven MH orchid species were mycorrhizal with either wood- or litter-decaying saprotrophic fungi. Only one orchid species was associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi. Stable isotope abundance patterns showed significant distinctions between orchids mycorrhizal with the three groups of fungal hosts. Conclusions Mycoheterotrophic orchids utilizing saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi as a carbon and nutrient source are clearly more frequent than hitherto assumed. On the basis of this kind of nutrition, orchids can thrive in deeply shaded, light-limiting forest understoreys even without support from ectomycorrhizal fungi. Sub-tropical East Asia appears to be a hotspot for orchids mycorrhizal with saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi. PMID:26113634

  11. How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Christina Miles

    2008-01-01

    Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…

  12. I Am an Avatar of Myself: Fantasy, Trauma, and Self-Deception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2017-01-01

    The author employs neurobiology to help explore deception in nature and self-deception in human beings. She examines activities that may appear playful but that lack such hallmark qualities of play as equality, mutual pleasure, and voluntarism and that can, therefore, prove psychologically destructive. She warns that the kind of playful…

  13. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception as to origin or source of industry products. 18.8 Section 18.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.8 Deception as to origin or source of industry products. (a) It is...

  14. 12 CFR 227.14 - Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners. 227.14 Section 227.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit...

  15. 12 CFR 227.14 - Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners. 227.14 Section 227.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule...

  16. 12 CFR 227.14 - Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners. 227.14 Section 227.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit...

  17. 12 CFR 227.14 - Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners. 227.14 Section 227.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule...

  18. Effects of Deception on Children's Understanding of Second-Order False Belief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined two questions: effects of deception on children's understanding of second-order false belief, and possible effects of number of siblings on second-order performance. Kindergarten children responded to 3 second-order problems that varied in the presence and the nature of deception. Performance was better on the problems…

  19. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception as to nature of business. 301.42 Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature of...

  20. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception as to nature of business. 301.42 Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature of...

  1. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception as to nature of business. 301.42 Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature of...

  2. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deception as to nature of business. 301.42 Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature of...

  3. 16 CFR 301.42 - Deception as to nature of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception as to nature of business. 301.42 Section 301.42 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.42 Deception as to nature of...

  4. 48 CFR 2152.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... unfair advertising. 2152.203-70 Section 2152.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF..., deceptive, or unfair advertising. As prescribed in 2103.571, insert the following clause: Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising (OCT 2005) The Contractor agrees that any advertising material authorized...

  5. Use of "um" in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Gina; Arciuli, Joanne; Mallard, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, "um," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer. The data…

  6. 12 CFR 1022.138 - Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-hosted multimedia advertising. All advertisements for free credit reports disseminated through Internet... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prevention of deceptive marketing of free... § 1022.138 Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports. (a) For purposes of this section: (1...

  7. 12 CFR 1022.138 - Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-hosted multimedia advertising. All advertisements for free credit reports disseminated through Internet... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prevention of deceptive marketing of free... § 1022.138 Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports. (a) For purposes of this section: (1...

  8. 12 CFR 1022.138 - Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-hosted multimedia advertising. All advertisements for free credit reports disseminated through Internet... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prevention of deceptive marketing of free... § 1022.138 Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports. (a) For purposes of this section: (1...

  9. 16 CFR 610.4 - Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... All advertisements for free credit reports disseminated through Internet-hosted multi-media in both... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prevention of deceptive marketing of free... REPORTING ACT FREE ANNUAL FILE DISCLOSURES § 610.4 Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports...

  10. 16 CFR 610.4 - Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... All advertisements for free credit reports disseminated through Internet-hosted multi-media in both... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prevention of deceptive marketing of free... REPORTING ACT FREE ANNUAL FILE DISCLOSURES § 610.4 Prevention of deceptive marketing of free credit reports...

  11. A Truth that's Told with Bad Intent: An ERP Study of Deception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrion, Ricardo E.; Keenan, Julian P.; Sebanz, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    Human social cognition critically relies on the ability to deceive others. However, the cognitive and neural underpinnings of deception are still poorly understood. Why does lying place increased demands on cognitive control? The present study investigated whether cognitive control processes during deception are recruited due to the need to…

  12. Teachers' Beliefs about Cues to Deception and the Ability to Detect Deceit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulatowska, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to test beliefs about cues to deception and the ability to detect lies in a group of teachers with different teaching experience. Their results were compared with the results of non-teachers matched in age and with the results of educational studies and psychology students. Both the beliefs of deception indicators and overall…

  13. In Defense of Children's Lies: On Ethics and Methods of Studying Children's Communication of Deception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.

    Studies of children's deceptive behavior have scientific merit and can be carried out in an ethically defensible manner. Many arguments against studies requiring children to deceive others in an experimental context are relatively easy to refute. It is true, though, that the debriefing phase of deception studies presents ethical problems,…

  14. Method and Apparatus Providing Deception and/or Altered Operation in an Information System Operating System

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu

    2008-10-14

    A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.

  15. A Repeated Lie Becomes a Truth? The Effect of Intentional Control and Training on Deception

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Hao; Fu, Genyue

    2012-01-01

    Deception has been demonstrated as a task that involves executive control such as conflict monitoring and response inhibition. In the present study, we investigated whether or not the controlled processes associated with deception could be trained to be more efficient. Forty-eight participants finished a reaction time-based differentiation of deception paradigm (DDP) task using self- and other-referential information on two occasions. After the first baseline DDP task, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a control group in which participants finished the same task for a second time; an instruction group in which participants were instructed to speed up their deceptive responses in the second DDP; a training group in which participants received training in speeding up their deceptive responses, and then proceeded to the second DDP. Results showed that instruction alone significantly reduced the RTs associated with participants’ deceptive responses. However, the differences between deceptive and truthful responses were erased only in the training group. The result suggests that the performance associated with deception is malleable and could be voluntarily controlled with intention or training. PMID:23162520

  16. Self-deception as self-signalling: a model and experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Mijović-Prelec, Danica; Prelec, Draz̆en

    2010-01-01

    Self-deception has long been the subject of speculation and controversy in psychology, evolutionary biology and philosophy. According to an influential ‘deflationary’ view, the concept is an over-interpretation of what is in reality an instance of motivationally biased judgement. The opposite view takes the interpersonal deception analogy seriously, and holds that some part of the self actively manipulates information so as to mislead the other part. Building on an earlier self-signalling model of Bodner and Prelec, we present a game-theoretic model of self-deception. We propose that two distinct mechanisms collaborate to produce overt expressions of belief: a mechanism responsible for action selection (including verbal statements) and an interpretive mechanism that draws inferences from actions and generates emotional responses consistent with the inferences. The model distinguishes between two modes of self-deception, depending on whether the self-deceived individual regards his own statements as fully credible. The paper concludes with a new experimental study showing that self-deceptive judgements can be reliably and repeatedly elicited with financial incentives in a categorization task, and that the degree of self-deception varies with incentives. The study also finds evidence of the two forms of self-deception. The psychological benefits of self-deception, as measured by confidence, peak at moderate levels. PMID:20026461

  17. 48 CFR 2152.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... unfair advertising. 2152.203-70 Section 2152.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF..., deceptive, or unfair advertising. As prescribed in 2103.571, insert the following clause: Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising (OCT 2005) The Contractor agrees that any advertising material authorized...

  18. Evidence for the Pinocchio Effect: Linguistic Differences between Lies, Deception by Omissions, and Truths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Swol, Lyn M.; Braun, Michael T.; Malhotra, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The study used Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count and Coh-Metrix software to examine linguistic differences with deception in an ultimatum game. In the game, the Allocator was given an amount of money to divide with the Receiver. The Receiver did not know the precise amount the Allocator had to divide, and the Allocator could use deception.…

  19. Neural correlates of deception in social contexts in normally developing children

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Susumu; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Tanaka, Mari; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Deception is related to the ability to inhibit prepotent responses and to engage in mental tasks such as anticipating responses and inferring what another person knows, especially in social contexts. However, the neural correlates of deception processing, which requires mentalizing, remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of deception, including mentalization, in social contexts in normally developing children. Healthy right-handed children (aged 8–9 years) were scanned while performing interactive games involving deception. The games varied along two dimensions: the type of reply (deception and truth) and the type of context (social and less social). Participants were instructed to deceive a witch and to tell the truth to a girl. Under the social-context conditions, participants were asked to consider what they inferred about protagonists' preferences from their facial expressions when responding to questions. Under the less-social-context conditions, participants did not need to consider others' preferences. We found a significantly greater response in the right precuneus under the social-context than under less-social-context conditions. Additionally, we found marginally greater activation in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) under the deception than under the truth condition. These results suggest that deception in a social context requires not only inhibition of prepotent responses but also engagement in mentalizing processes. This study provides the first evidence of the neural correlates of the mentalizing processes involved in deception in normally developing children. PMID:23730281

  20. 16 CFR 254.6 - Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (c) It is deceptive for an Industry Member to offer or confer a high school diploma unless the... GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.6 Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees... secondary school, and unless the student is informed, by a clear and conspicuous disclosure in writing prior...

  1. The self in conflict: the role of executive processes during truthful and deceptive responses about attitudes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ray; Henkell, Heather; Simon, Elizabeth; Zhu, John

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to extend previous results regarding deceptions about specific memories by investigating the role of executive processes in deceptions about evaluative judgments. In addition, given that previous studies of deception have not included valence manipulations, we also wanted to determine whether the goodness/badness aspect of the items would affect the processes used during deception. Thus, we compared behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) activity while participants made truthful and directed lie (i.e., press opposite of the truth) responses about attitude items with which they either strongly agreed or disagreed. Consistent with previous results, deceptive responses required greater cognitive control as indicated by slower RTs, larger medial frontal negativities (MFN) and smaller late positive components than truthful responses. Furthermore, the magnitude of these deception-related effects was dependent on the valence that participants assigned to the items (i.e., agree/disagree). Directed lie responses about attitudes also resulted in greatly reduced pre-response positivities, an indication that participants strategically monitored their responses even in the absence of explicit task demands. Item valence also differentially affected the amplitude of three ERP components in a 650 ms pre-response interval, independently of whether truthful or deceptive responses were made. Analyses using dipole locations based on results from fMRI studies of evaluative judgments and deception indicated a high degree of overlap between the ERP and fMRI results and revealed the possible temporal characteristics of the hemodynamic activations.

  2. 12 CFR 227.14 - Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive practices involving cosigners. 227.14 Section 227.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACTS OR PRACTICES (REGULATION AA) Credit Practices Rule...

  3. How to Trick Your Opponent: A Review Article on Deceptive Actions in Interactive Sports

    PubMed Central

    Güldenpenning, Iris; Kunde, Wilfried; Weigelt, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Performing deceptive actions is a wide-spread phenomenon in sports and it is of considerable practical relevance to know whether or not a fake or a disguised action decreases the opponents’ performance. Therefore, research on deceptive actions for various sport disciplines (e.g., cricket, rugby, martial arts, soccer, and basketball) has been conducted. This research is scattered, both across time and scientific disciplines. Here, we aim to systematically review the empirical work on deceptive actions in interactive sports and want to give an overview about several issues investigated in the last decades. Three main topics of the detected literature were discussed here: (1) the role of expertise for the recognition of deceptive actions, (2) the cognitive mechanisms underlying the processing of deceptive actions, and (3) the pros and cons of in situ research designs. None of these themes seems to be settled and therefore, they should be considered in future research agendas. PMID:28620336

  4. Differences in carbon source utilisation by orchid mycorrhizal fungi from common and endangered species of Caladenia (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Mehra, S; Morrison, P D; Coates, F; Lawrie, A C

    2017-02-01

    Terrestrial orchids depend on orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) as symbionts for their survival, growth and nutrition. The ability of OMF from endangered orchid species to compete for available resources with OMF from common species may affect the distribution, abundance and therefore conservation status of their orchid hosts. Eight symbiotically effective OMF from endangered and more common Caladenia species were tested for their ability to utilise complex insoluble and simple soluble carbon sources produced during litter degradation by growth with different carbon sources in liquid medium to measure the degree of OMF variation with host conservation status or taxonomy. On simple carbon sources, fungal growth was assessed by biomass. On insoluble substrates, ergosterol content was assessed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The OMF grew on all natural materials and complex carbon sources, but produced the greatest biomass on xylan and starch and the least on bark and chitin. On simple carbon sources, the greatest OMF biomass was measured on most hexoses and disaccharides and the least on galactose and arabinose. Only some OMF used sucrose, the most common sugar in green plants, with possible implications for symbiosis. OMF from common orchids produced more ergosterol and biomass than those from endangered orchids in the Dilatata and Reticulata groups but not in the Patersonii and Finger orchids. This suggests that differences in carbon source utilisation may contribute to differences in the distribution of some orchids, if these differences are retained on site.

  5. Spatial and temporal optimization in habitat placement for a threatened plant: the case of the western prairie fringed orchid

    Treesearch

    John Hof; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Michael Bevers

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates an optimization approach to determining the placement and timing of habitat protection for the western prairie fringed orchid. This plant’s population dynamics are complex, creating a challenging optimization problem. The sensitivity of the orchid to random climate conditions is handled probabilistically. The plant’s seed, protocorm and above-...

  6. Fine-scale spatial distribution of orchid mycorrhizal fungi in the soil of host-rich grasslands.

    PubMed

    Voyron, Samuele; Ercole, Enrico; Ghignone, Stefano; Perotto, Silvia; Girlanda, Mariangela

    2017-02-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the survival of orchid seedlings under natural conditions. The distribution of these fungi in soil can constrain the establishment and resulting spatial arrangement of orchids at the local scale, but the actual extent of occurrence and spatial patterns of orchid mycorrhizal (OrM) fungi in soil remain largely unknown. We addressed the fine-scale spatial distribution of OrM fungi in two orchid-rich Mediterranean grasslands by means of high-throughput sequencing of fungal ITS2 amplicons, obtained from soil samples collected either directly beneath or at a distance from adult Anacamptis morio and Ophrys sphegodes plants. Like ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycobionts, OrM fungi (tulasnelloid, ceratobasidioid, sebacinoid and pezizoid fungi) exhibited significant horizontal spatial autocorrelation in soil. However, OrM fungal read numbers did not correlate with distance from adult orchid plants, and several of these fungi were extremely sporadic or undetected even in the soil samples containing the orchid roots. Orchid mycorrhizal 'rhizoctonias' are commonly regarded as unspecialized saprotrophs. The sporadic occurrence of mycobionts of grassland orchids in host-rich stands questions the view of these mycorrhizal fungi as capable of sustained growth in soil. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Orchid Species Richness along Elevational and Environmental Gradients in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Chen, Wen-Yun; Huang, Jia-Lin; Bi, Ying-Feng; Yang, Xue-Fei

    2015-01-01

    The family Orchidaceae is not only one of the most diverse families of flowering plants, but also one of the most endangered plant taxa. Therefore, understanding how its species richness varies along geographical and environmental gradients is essential for conservation efforts. However, such knowledge is rarely available, especially on a large scale. We used a database extracted from herbarium records to investigate the relationships between orchid species richness and elevation, and to examine how elevational diversity in Yunnan Province, China, might be explained by mid-domain effect (MDE), species–area relationship (SAR), water–energy dynamics (WED), Rapoport’s Rule, and climatic variables. This particular location was selected because it is one of the primary centers of distribution for orchids. We recorded 691 species that span 127 genera and account for 88.59% of all confirmed orchid species in Yunnan. Species richness, estimated at 200-m intervals along a slope, was closely correlated with elevation, peaking at 1395 to 1723 m. The elevational pattern of orchid richness was considerably shaped by MDE, SAR, WED, and climate. Among those four predictors, climate was the strongest while MDE was the weakest for predicting the elevational pattern of orchid richness. Species richness showed parabolic responses to mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP), with maximum richness values recorded at 13.7 to 17.7°C for MAT and 1237 to 1414 mm for MAP. Rapoport’s Rule also helped to explain the elevational pattern of species richness in Yunnan, but those influences were not entirely uniform across all methods. These results suggested that the elevational pattern of orchid species richness in Yunnan is collectively shaped by several mechanisms related to geometric constraints, size of the land area, and environments. Because of the dominant role of climate in determining orchid richness, our findings may contribute to a better

  8. Presence of Spotters Improves Bench Press Performance: A Deception Study.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Andrew; Marchant, David C; Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Hewitt, Phil A; Sparks, S Andy

    2017-10-24

    Sheridan, A, Marchant, DC, Williams, EL, Jones, HS, Hewitt, PA, and Sparks, SA. Presence of spotters improves bench press performance: a deception study. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-Resistance exercise is a widely used method of physical training in both recreational exercise and athletic populations. The use of training partners and spotters during resistance exercise is widespread, but little is known about the effect of the presence of these individuals on exercise performance. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of spotter presence on bench press performance. Twelve recreationally trained participants (age, 21.3 ± 0.8 years, height, 1.82 ± 0.1 m, and weight, 84.8 ± 11.1 kg) performed 2 trials of 3 sets to failure at 60% of 1 repetition maximum on separate occasions. The 2 trials consisted of spotters being explicitly present or hidden from view (deception). During the trials, total repetitions (reps), total weight lifted, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and self-efficacy were measured. Total reps and weight lifted were significantly greater with spotters (difference = 4.5 reps, t = 5.68, p < 0.001 and difference = 209.6 kg, t = 5.65, p < 0.001, respectively). Although RPE and local RPE were significantly elevated in the deception trials (difference = 0.78, f = 6.16, p = 0.030 and difference = 0.81, f = 5.89, p = 0.034, respectively), self-efficacy was significantly reduced (difference = 1.58, f = 26.90, p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that resistance exercise is improved by the presence of spotters, which is facilitated by reduced RPE and increased self-efficacy. This has important implications for athletes and clients, who should perform resistance exercise in the proximity of others, to maximize total work performed.

  9. Deceptive-like behaviour in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Marianne T E; Manser, Marta B; Turner, Dennis C

    2017-05-01

    Deception, the use of false signals to modify the behaviour of the receiver, occurs in low frequencies even in stable signalling systems. For example, it can be advantageous for subordinate individuals to deceive in competitive situations. We investigated in a three-way choice task whether dogs are able to mislead a human competitor, i.e. if they are capable of tactical deception. During training, dogs experienced the role of their owner, as always being cooperative, and two unfamiliar humans, one acting 'cooperatively' by giving food and the other being 'competitive' and keeping the food for themselves. During the test, the dog had the options to lead one of these partners to one of the three potential food locations: one contained a favoured food item, the other a non-preferred food item and the third remained empty. After having led one of the partners, the dog always had the possibility of leading its cooperative owner to one of the food locations. Therefore, a dog would have a direct benefit from misleading the competitive partner since it would then get another chance to receive the preferred food from the owner. On the first test day, the dogs led the cooperative partner to the preferred food box more often than expected by chance and more often than the competitive partner. On the second day, they even led the competitive partner less often to the preferred food than expected by chance and more often to the empty box than the cooperative partner. These results show that dogs distinguished between the cooperative and the competitive partner, and indicate the flexibility of dogs to adjust their behaviour and that they are able to use tactical deception.

  10. Autofluorescence study and selected cyanidin quantification in the Jewel orchids Anoectochilus sp. and Ludisia discolor

    PubMed Central

    Poobathy, Ranjetta; Zakaria, Rahmad; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2018-01-01

    Anoectochilus sp. and Ludisia discolor are known as Jewel orchids. Both species are terrestrial wild orchids that grow in shaded areas of forests. The Jewel orchids are renowned for the beauty of their leaves, which are dark-green laced with silvery or golden veins. The orchids are used as a cure in various parts of Asia. Overharvesting and anthropogenic disturbances threaten the existence of the Jewel orchids in the wild, necessitating human intervention in their survival. An understanding of the structure and adaptations of a plant may assist in its survival when propagated outside of its habitat. In this study, ex vitro leaves of Anoectochilus sp. and L. discolor were subjected to freehand sectioning, and then inspected through brightfield and fluorescence microscopy. The study indicated that all parts of both plants presented typical monocotyledonous characteristics except the leaves. The leaves displayed dorsiventrality with distinct palisade and spongy mesophyll layers. The spongy mesophyll layer contained cells which fluoresced a bright red when exposed to ultraviolet, blue, and green light wavelengths, hinting at the presence of anthocyanins for photoprotection. Cyanidin was detected in the leaves of L. discolor, as enumerated through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The observations indicated that Anoectochilus sp. and L. discolor are well-adapted to live under shaded conditions with minimal exposure to light. PMID:29649288

  11. Changes in Orchid Bee Communities Across Forest-Agroecosystem Boundaries in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Landscapes.

    PubMed

    De Aguiar, Willian Moura; Sofia, Silvia H; Melo, Gabriel A R; Gaglianone, Maria Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation has dramatically reduced the extent of Atlantic Forest cover in Brazil. Orchid bees are key pollinators in neotropical forest, and many species are sensitive to anthropogenic interference. In this sense understanding the matrix permeability for these bees is important for maintaining genetic diversity and pollination services. Our main objective was to assess whether the composition, abundance, and diversity of orchid bees in matrices differed from those in Atlantic forest. To do this we sampled orchid bees at 4-mo intervals from 2007 to 2009 in remnants of Atlantic Forest, and in the surrounding pasture and eucalyptus matrices. The abundance, richness, and diversity of orchid bees diminished significantly from the forest fragment toward the matrix points in the eucalyptus and pasture. Some common or intermediate species in the forest areas, such as Eulaema cingulata (F.) and Euglossa fimbriata Moure, respectively, become rare species in the matrices. Our results show that the orchid bee community is affected by the matrices surrounding the forest fragments. They also suggest that connections between forest fragments need to be improved using friendly matrices that can provide more favorable conditions for bees and increase their dispersal between fragments. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. DOAP1 Promotes Flowering in the Orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile.

    PubMed

    Sawettalake, Nunchanoke; Bunnag, Sumontip; Wang, Yanwen; Shen, Lisha; Yu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    APETALA1 ( AP1 ) encodes a key MADS-box transcription factor that specifies the floral meristem identity on the flank of the inflorescence meristem, and determines the identity of perianth floral organs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . Orchids are members of the Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of angiosperms. Although the expression patterns of a few AP1 -like genes in orchids have been reported, their actual functions in orchid reproductive development are so far largely unknown. In this study, we isolated and characterized an AP1 ortholog, DOAP1 , from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. DOAP1 was highly expressed in reproductive tissues, including inflorescence apices and flowers at various developmental stages. Overexpression of DOAP1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis , and was able to rescue the floral organ defects of Arabidopsis ap1 mutants. Moreover, we successfully created transgenic Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile orchids overexpressing DOAP1 , which displayed earlier flowering and earlier termination of inflorescence meristems into floral meristems than wild-type orchids. Our results demonstrate that DOAP1 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in promoting flowering and floral meristem specification in the Orchidaceae family.

  13. Orchid: a novel management, annotation and machine learning framework for analyzing cancer mutations.

    PubMed

    Cario, Clinton L; Witte, John S

    2018-03-15

    As whole-genome tumor sequence and biological annotation datasets grow in size, number and content, there is an increasing basic science and clinical need for efficient and accurate data management and analysis software. With the emergence of increasingly sophisticated data stores, execution environments and machine learning algorithms, there is also a need for the integration of functionality across frameworks. We present orchid, a python based software package for the management, annotation and machine learning of cancer mutations. Building on technologies of parallel workflow execution, in-memory database storage and machine learning analytics, orchid efficiently handles millions of mutations and hundreds of features in an easy-to-use manner. We describe the implementation of orchid and demonstrate its ability to distinguish tissue of origin in 12 tumor types based on 339 features using a random forest classifier. Orchid and our annotated tumor mutation database are freely available at https://github.com/wittelab/orchid. Software is implemented in python 2.7, and makes use of MySQL or MemSQL databases. Groovy 2.4.5 is optionally required for parallel workflow execution. JWitte@ucsf.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. Autofluorescence study and selected cyanidin quantification in the Jewel orchids Anoectochilus sp. and Ludisia discolor.

    PubMed

    Poobathy, Ranjetta; Zakaria, Rahmad; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2018-01-01

    Anoectochilus sp. and Ludisia discolor are known as Jewel orchids. Both species are terrestrial wild orchids that grow in shaded areas of forests. The Jewel orchids are renowned for the beauty of their leaves, which are dark-green laced with silvery or golden veins. The orchids are used as a cure in various parts of Asia. Overharvesting and anthropogenic disturbances threaten the existence of the Jewel orchids in the wild, necessitating human intervention in their survival. An understanding of the structure and adaptations of a plant may assist in its survival when propagated outside of its habitat. In this study, ex vitro leaves of Anoectochilus sp. and L. discolor were subjected to freehand sectioning, and then inspected through brightfield and fluorescence microscopy. The study indicated that all parts of both plants presented typical monocotyledonous characteristics except the leaves. The leaves displayed dorsiventrality with distinct palisade and spongy mesophyll layers. The spongy mesophyll layer contained cells which fluoresced a bright red when exposed to ultraviolet, blue, and green light wavelengths, hinting at the presence of anthocyanins for photoprotection. Cyanidin was detected in the leaves of L. discolor, as enumerated through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The observations indicated that Anoectochilus sp. and L. discolor are well-adapted to live under shaded conditions with minimal exposure to light.

  15. Development of microsatellite markers of vandaceous orchids for species and variety identification.

    PubMed

    Peyachoknagul, S; Nettuwakul, C; Phuekvilai, P; Wannapinpong, S; Srikulnath, K

    2014-07-24

    Vandaceous orchids are a group of orchid genera in the subfamily Vandoideae. Among this group, Mokara, Phalaenopsis, and Vanda are the most popular and commercially important orchids in Thailand. Novel microsatellite markers were developed from Mokara, the intergeneric hybrid from 3 genera Vanda, Ascocentrum, and Arachnis by using enriched method. Six primers from this study plus one primer previously developed from Vanda genome, a total of 7 markers, were selected to characterize 4 orchid genera (Mokara, Vanda, Rhynchostylis, and Ascocenda). The observed and expected heterozygosities varied in the 4 genera from 0.0000-1.0000 and 0.0000-0.8765, respectively. The transferability of these primers was also investigated in 76 vandaceous orchids from 12 genera. Three primer pairs, MOK26, MOK29, and MOK62, could successfully amplify the DNA of all samples, while MOK103 could be used with most of the samples. The total number of alleles from 76 samples ranged from 3 to 19 alleles per locus, with an average of 8.5714. Therefore, these markers could be used for variety/ species identification, certification and protection, genetic diversity, and evolutionary studies.

  16. Recent origin and rapid speciation of Neotropical orchids in the world's richest plant biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Chomicki, Guillaume; Condamine, Fabien L; Karremans, Adam P; Bogarín, Diego; Matzke, Nicholas J; Silvestro, Daniele; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    The Andean mountains of South America are the most species-rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification. We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets. We find that the majority of Andean orchid lineages only originated in the last 20-15 million yr. Andean lineages are derived from lowland Amazonian ancestors, with additional contributions from Central America and the Antilles. Species diversification is correlated with Andean orogeny, and multiple migrations and recolonizations across the Andes indicate that mountains do not constrain orchid dispersal over long timescales. Our study sheds new light on the timing and geography of a major Neotropical diversification, and suggests that mountain uplift promotes species diversification across all elevational zones. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. The potential for floral mimicry in rewardless orchids: an experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Gigord, Luc D B; Macnair, M R; Stritesky, M; Smithson, Ann

    2002-01-01

    More than one-third of orchid species do not provide their pollinators with either pollen or nectar rewards. Floral mimicry could explain the maintenance of these rewardless orchid species, but most rewardless orchids do not appear to have a rewarding plant that they mimic specifically. We tested the hypothesis that floral mimicry can occur through similarity based on corolla colour alone, using naive bumble-bees foraging on arrays of plants with one rewarding model species, and one rewardless putative mimic species (Dactylorhiza sambucina) which had two colour morphs. We found that when bees were inexperienced, they visited both rewardless morphs randomly. However, after bees had gained experience with the rewarding model, and it was removed from the experiment, bees resampled preferentially the rewardless morph most similar to it in corolla colour. This is the first clear evidence, to our knowledge, that pollinators could select for floral mimicry. We suggest that floral mimicry can be a selective force acting on rewardless orchids, but only under some ecological conditions. In particular, we argue that selection on early-flowering rewardless orchids that receive visits from a large pool of naive pollinators will be weakly influenced by mimicry. PMID:12079663

  18. DOAP1 Promotes Flowering in the Orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile

    PubMed Central

    Sawettalake, Nunchanoke; Bunnag, Sumontip; Wang, Yanwen; Shen, Lisha; Yu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    APETALA1 (AP1) encodes a key MADS-box transcription factor that specifies the floral meristem identity on the flank of the inflorescence meristem, and determines the identity of perianth floral organs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Orchids are members of the Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of angiosperms. Although the expression patterns of a few AP1-like genes in orchids have been reported, their actual functions in orchid reproductive development are so far largely unknown. In this study, we isolated and characterized an AP1 ortholog, DOAP1, from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. DOAP1 was highly expressed in reproductive tissues, including inflorescence apices and flowers at various developmental stages. Overexpression of DOAP1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis, and was able to rescue the floral organ defects of Arabidopsis ap1 mutants. Moreover, we successfully created transgenic Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile orchids overexpressing DOAP1, which displayed earlier flowering and earlier termination of inflorescence meristems into floral meristems than wild-type orchids. Our results demonstrate that DOAP1 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in promoting flowering and floral meristem specification in the Orchidaceae family. PMID:28386268

  19. The potential for floral mimicry in rewardless orchids: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gigord, Luc D B; Macnair, M R; Stritesky, M; Smithson, Ann

    2002-07-07

    More than one-third of orchid species do not provide their pollinators with either pollen or nectar rewards. Floral mimicry could explain the maintenance of these rewardless orchid species, but most rewardless orchids do not appear to have a rewarding plant that they mimic specifically. We tested the hypothesis that floral mimicry can occur through similarity based on corolla colour alone, using naive bumble-bees foraging on arrays of plants with one rewarding model species, and one rewardless putative mimic species (Dactylorhiza sambucina) which had two colour morphs. We found that when bees were inexperienced, they visited both rewardless morphs randomly. However, after bees had gained experience with the rewarding model, and it was removed from the experiment, bees resampled preferentially the rewardless morph most similar to it in corolla colour. This is the first clear evidence, to our knowledge, that pollinators could select for floral mimicry. We suggest that floral mimicry can be a selective force acting on rewardless orchids, but only under some ecological conditions. In particular, we argue that selection on early-flowering rewardless orchids that receive visits from a large pool of naive pollinators will be weakly influenced by mimicry.

  20. Mycorrhizal compatibility and symbiotic reproduction of Gavilea australis, an endangered terrestrial orchid from south Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Fracchia, Sebastián; Aranda-Rickert, Adriana; Flachsland, Eduardo; Terada, Graciela; Sede, Silvana

    2014-11-01

    Gavilea australis is a terrestrial orchid endemic from insular south Argentina and Chile. Meeting aspects of mycorrhizal fungi identity and compatibility in this orchid species is essential for propagation and conservation purposes. These knowledge represent also a first approach to elucidate the mycorrhizal specificity of this species. In order to evaluate both the mycorrhizal compatibility and the symbiotic seed germination of G. australis, we isolated and identified its root endophytic fungal strains as well as those from two sympatric species: Gavilea lutea and Codonorchis lessonii. In addition, we tested two other strains isolated from allopatric terrestrial orchid species from central Argentina. All fungal strains formed coilings and pelotons inside protocorms and promoted, at varying degrees, seed germination, and protocorm development until seedlings had two to three leaves. These results suggest a low mycorrhizal specificity of G. australis and contribute to a better knowledge of the biology of this orchid as well as of other sympatric Patagonian orchid species, all of them currently under serious risk of extinction.

  1. Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): Recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Martín, R.; Cortés, G.; Alguacil, G.; Moreno, J.; Martín, B.; Martos, A.; Serrano, I.; Stich, D.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Deception Island (South Shetland Island, Antarctica) is an active volcano with recent eruptions (e.g. 1967, 1969 and 1970). It is also among the Antarctic sites most visited by tourists. Besides, there are currently two scientific bases operating during the austral summers, usually from late November to early March. For these reasons it is necessary to deploy a volcano monitoring system as complete as possible, designed specifically to endure the extreme conditions of the volcanic environment and the Antarctic climate. The Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR) performs seismic monitoring on Deception Island since 1994 during austral summer surveys. The seismicity basically includes volcano-tectonic earthquakes, long-period events and volcanic tremor, among other signals. The level of seismicity is moderate, except for a seismo-volcanic crisis in 1999. The seismic monitoring system has evolved during these years, following the trends of the technological developments and software improvements. Recent advances have been mainly focused on: (1) the improvement of the seismic network introducing broadband stations and 24-bit data acquisition systems; (2) the development of a short-period seismic array, with a 12-channel, 24-bit data acquisition system; (3) the implementation of wireless data transmission from the network stations and also from the seismic array to a recording center, allowing for real-time monitoring; (4) the efficiency of the power supply systems and the monitoring of the battery levels and power consumption; (5) the optimization of data analysis procedures, including database management, automated event recognition tools for the identification and classification of seismo-volcanic signals, and apparent slowness vector estimates using seismic array data; (6) the deployment of permanent seismic stations and the transmission of data during the winter using a satellite connection. A single permanent station is operating

  2. THREAT ANTICIPATION AND DECEPTIVE REASONING USING BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORKS

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, Glenn O; Olama, Mohammed M; Lake, Joe E

    Recent events highlight the need for tools to anticipate threats posed by terrorists. Assessing these threats requires combining information from disparate data sources such as analytic models, simulations, historical data, sensor networks, and user judgments. These disparate data can be combined in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner using a Bayesian belief network (BBN). In this paper, we develop a BBN threat anticipatory model based on a deceptive reasoning algorithm using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  3. Development of phylogenetic markers for Sebacina (Sebacinaceae) mycorrhizal fungi associated with Australian orchids.

    PubMed

    Ruibal, Monica P; Peakall, Rod; Foret, Sylvain; Linde, Celeste C

    2014-06-01

    To investigate fungal species identity and diversity in mycorrhizal fungi of order Sebacinales, we developed phylogenetic markers. These new markers will enable future studies investigating species delineation and phylogenetic relationships of the fungal symbionts and facilitate investigations into evolutionary interactions among Sebacina species and their orchid hosts. • We generated partial genome sequences for a Sebacina symbiont originating from Caladenia huegelii with 454 genome sequencing and from three symbionts from Eriochilus dilatatus and one from E. pulchellus using Illumina sequencing. Six nuclear and two mitochondrial loci showed high variability (10-31% parsimony informative sites) for Sebacinales mycorrhizal fungi across four genera of Australian orchids (Caladenia, Eriochilus, Elythranthera, and Glossodia). • We obtained highly informative DNA markers that will allow investigation of mycorrhizal diversity of Sebacinaceae fungi associated with terrestrial orchids in Australia and worldwide.

  4. Registered report: measuring unconscious deception detection by skin temperature

    PubMed Central

    van ’ t Veer, Anna E.; Stel, Mariëlle; van Beest, Ilja; Gallucci, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer’s physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers’ direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers). To test this hypothesis, participants’ finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants’ awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking) of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments. PMID:24904461

  5. Multifrequency OFDM SAR in Presence of Deception Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuerger, Jonathan; Garmatyuk, Dmitriy

    2010-12-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is considered in this paper from the perspective of usage in imaging radar scenarios with deception jamming. OFDM radar signals are inherently multifrequency waveforms, composed of a number of subbands which are orthogonal to each other. While being employed extensively in communications, OFDM has not found comparatively wide use in radar, and, particularly, in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) applications. In this paper, we aim to show the advantages of OFDM-coded radar signals with random subband composition when used in deception jamming scenarios. Two approaches to create a radar signal by the jammer are considered: instantaneous frequency (IF) estimator and digital-RF-memory- (DRFM-) based reproducer. In both cases, the jammer aims to create a copy of a valid target image via resending the radar signal at prescribed time intervals. Jammer signals are derived and used in SAR simulations with three types of signal models: OFDM, linear frequency modulated (LFM), and frequency-hopped (FH). Presented results include simulated peak side lobe (PSL) and peak cross-correlation values for random OFDM signals, as well as simulated SAR imagery with IF and DRFM jammers'-induced false targets.

  6. What if I Get Busted? Deception, Choice, and Decision-Making in Social Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Sip, Kamila E.; Skewes, Joshua C.; Marchant, Jennifer L.; McGregor, William B.; Roepstorff, Andreas; Frith, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    Deception is an essentially social act, yet little is known about how social consequences affect the decision to deceive. In this study, participants played a computerized game of deception without constraints on whether or when to attempt to deceive their opponent. Participants were questioned by an opponent outside the scanner about their knowledge of the content of a display. Importantly, questions were posed so that, in some conditions, it was possible to be deceptive, while in other conditions it was not. To simulate a realistic interaction, participants could be confronted about their claims by the opponent. This design, therefore, creates a context in which a deceptive participant runs the risk of being punished if their deception is detected. Our results show that participants were slower to give honest than to give deceptive responses when they knew more about the display and could use this knowledge for their own benefit. The condition in which confrontation was not possible was associated with increased activity in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. The processing of a question which allows a deceptive response was associated with activation in right caudate and inferior frontal gyrus. Our findings suggest the decision to deceive is affected by the potential risk of social confrontation rather than the claim itself. PMID:22529772

  7. Children's reasoning about deception and defiance as ways of resisting parents' and teachers' directives.

    PubMed

    Gingo, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    This research presented 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds (N = 120) with hypothetical situations depicting comparably aged children engaging in defiance and deception to circumvent authorities' directives that they disagreed with. The nature of the situations varied in terms of domain (personal, moral, or prudential) and type of authority figure (parent or teacher). Evaluations and justifications for the legitimacy of the directives, defiance, and deception were examined, as were general evaluations of deception. Across domains, increased age was associated with decreased acceptance of directives, and increased acceptance of defiance and deception. Participants judged that defiance and deception were legitimate ways to resist immoral directives. Directives about personal acts were also widely rejected, particularly teachers' directives. Defiance and deception were seen by some as legitimate ways to resist unwarranted control over children's personal choices. Prudential directives were widely accepted, whereas defiance and deception in those situations was generally rejected. Results indicate that children value honesty and authority but sometimes prioritize moral and personal considerations when deciding whether or not to lie. Findings are discussed in terms of the ways children coordinate multiple competing rules and motivations when making moral judgments about honesty. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. When Pinocchio's nose does not grow: belief regarding lie-detectability modulates production of deception

    PubMed Central

    Sip, Kamila E.; Carmel, David; Marchant, Jennifer L.; Li, Jian; Petrovic, Predrag; Roepstorff, Andreas; McGregor, William B.; Frith, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Does the brain activity underlying the production of deception differ depending on whether or not one believes their deception can be detected? To address this question, we had participants commit a mock theft in a laboratory setting, and then interrogated them while they underwent functional MRI (fMRI) scanning. Crucially, during some parts of the interrogation participants believed a lie-detector was activated, whereas in other parts they were told it was switched-off. We were thus able to examine the neural activity associated with the contrast between producing true vs. false claims, as well as the independent contrast between believing that deception could and could not be detected. We found increased activation in the right amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), as well as the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), during the production of false (compared to true) claims. Importantly, there was a significant interaction between the effects of deception and belief in the left temporal pole and right hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, where activity increased during the production of deception when participants believed their false claims could be detected, but not when they believed the lie-detector was switched-off. As these regions are associated with binding socially complex perceptual input and memory retrieval, we conclude that producing deceptive behavior in a context in which one believes this deception can be detected is associated with a cognitively taxing effort to reconcile contradictions between one's actions and recollections. PMID:23382715

  9. Are carbon and nitrogen exchange between fungi and the orchid Goodyera repens affected by irradiance?

    PubMed Central

    Liebel, Heiko T.; Bidartondo, Martin I.; Gebauer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The green orchid Goodyera repens has been shown to transfer carbon to its mycorrhizal partner, and this flux may therefore be affected by light availability. This study aimed to test whether the C and N exchange between plant and fungus is dependent on light availability, and in addition addressed the question of whether flowering and/or fruiting individuals of G. repens compensate for changes in leaf chlorophyll concentration with changes in C and N flows from fungus to plant. Methods The natural abundances of stable isotopes of plant C and N were used to infer changes in fluxes between orchid and fungus across natural gradients of irradiance at five sites. Mycorrhizal fungi in the roots of G. repens were identified by molecular analyses. Chlorophyll concentrations in the leaves of the orchid and of reference plants were measured directly in the field. Key Results Leaf δ13C values of G. repens responded to changes in light availability in a similar manner to autotrophic reference plants, and different mycorrhizal fungal associations also did not affect the isotope abundance patterns of the orchid. Flowering/fruiting individuals had lower leaf total N and chlorophyll concentrations, which is most probably explained by N investments to form flowers, seeds and shoot. Conclusions The results indicate that mycorrhizal physiology is relatively fixed in G. repens, and changes in the amount and direction of C flow between plant and fungus were not observed to depend on light availability. The orchid may instead react to low-light sites through increased clonal growth. The orchid does not compensate for low leaf total N and chlorophyll concentrations by using a 13C- and 15N-enriched fungal source. PMID:25538109

  10. Physiological Response of Orchids to Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infestation.

    PubMed

    Kmiec, K; Kot, I; Golan, K; Górska-Drabik, E; Lagowska, B; Rubinowska, K; Michalek, W

    2016-12-01

    The harmfulness of mealybugs resulting from sucking plant sap, secreting honeydew, and transmitting plant viruses can give them the status of serious pests. This study documents the influence of Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) infestation on alterations in selected physiological parameters of Phalaenopsis x hybridum 'Innocence'. The condition of the cytoplasmic membranes was expressed as the value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. We have determined changes in the activities of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase and measured the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (Y), photochemical quenching (qP), and nonphotochemical quenching (qN). The strongest physiological response of orchids was recorded in the initial period of mealybugs infestation. Prolonged insect feeding suppressed lipid peroxidation, peroxidase and catalase activity, as well as photosynthesis photochemistry. The pattern of changes was dependent on mealybug species. This indicated the complexity of the processes responsible for plant tolerance. Data generated in this study have provided a better understanding of the impact of two mealybug species infestation on Phalaenopsis and should be useful in developing pest management strategies. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Responses of orchids to habitat change in Corsica over 27 years.

    PubMed

    Vogt-Schilb, Hélène; Pradel, Roger; Geniez, Philippe; Hugot, Laetitia; Delage, Alain; Richard, Franck; Schatz, Bertrand

    2016-07-01

    Orchids are known to be particularly sensitive to environmental changes due to their narrow ranges of secondary successional habitats. Lack of data at the community level limits our ability to evaluate how traits of different species influence their responses to habitat change. Here, we used a diachronic survey of Mediterranean orchid communities in Corsica to examine this question. Using data from two field surveys conducted 27 years apart (1982-84 and 2009-11) at the same 45 sites in Corsica, we evaluated the impact of increase in woody plant cover (WPC) on (i) the richness and composition and (ii) the local extinction/colonization dynamics of orchids. We applied a Bayesian multispecies site-occupancy model to each of the 36 orchid species recorded at these sites to estimate the detection probability of each species, enabling us to account for under-detection in estimating their dynamics. Between 1982 and 2011, WPC changed at 82·3 % of sites (increasing at 75·6 %, decreasing at 6·7 %). Despite marked changes in composition of orchid communities at the local scale, no significant change was detected in species richness at the regional scale. Canopy closure affected the probability of new colonization of sites, but had no significant influence on the probability of local extinction. However, the abundance of shade-intolerant species declined more sharply than that of shade-requiring species. Among orchid species, the detection probability was significantly and positively correlated with population density and plant height. This study reveals contrasted dynamics of orchid communities between local and regional scales in Corsica. Although high turnover in communities was found at the local scale, regional species richness was maintained despite major land-use changes. Conserving landscape mosaics could provide locally suitable habitats for orchids of different ecologies to maintain diversity at larger spatial scales. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  12. Grafting orchids and ugly: theatre, disability and arts-based health research.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Kirsty

    2010-12-01

    Theatre-based health policy research is an emerging field, and this article investigates the work of one of its leaders. In 2005, prominent medical geneticist and playwright Jeff Nisker and his collaborators produced Orchids, his play concerning pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, to research theatre as a tool for engaging citizens in health policy development. Juxtaposing Orchids with a concurrent disability theatre production in Vancouver entitled Ugly, I argue that disability theatre suggests important means for building inclusiveness in this kind of research and complicates Nisker's own call for international guidelines to delimit how journalists, playwrights, filmmakers, physicians and other media authors share genetics-based narratives in public.

  13. The contribution of self-deceptive enhancement to display rules in the United States and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Socially desirable responding was tested as a mediator of American and Japanese college student differences in display rules. Americans endorsed the expression of anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, and surprise more than the Japanese. Americans also exhibited more self-deceptive enhancement than the Japanese, and self-deceptive enhancement partially mediated country differences on the endorsement of anger, disgust, happiness, and surprise, but not contempt and fear. These findings highlight the role of self-deceptive enhancement in contributing to expressive display rules and support the point of view that socially desirable responding is a reflection of one’s personality and culture rather than a statistical nuisance. PMID:25400501

  14. The contribution of self-deceptive enhancement to display rules in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joanne M

    2012-03-01

    Socially desirable responding was tested as a mediator of American and Japanese college student differences in display rules. Americans endorsed the expression of anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, and surprise more than the Japanese. Americans also exhibited more self-deceptive enhancement than the Japanese, and self-deceptive enhancement partially mediated country differences on the endorsement of anger, disgust, happiness, and surprise, but not contempt and fear. These findings highlight the role of self-deceptive enhancement in contributing to expressive display rules and support the point of view that socially desirable responding is a reflection of one's personality and culture rather than a statistical nuisance.

  15. C and N stable isotope signatures reveal constraints to nutritional modes in orchids from the Mediterranean and Macaronesia.

    PubMed

    Liebel, Heiko T; Bidartondo, Martin I; Preiss, Katja; Segreto, Rossana; Stöckel, Marcus; Rodda, Michele; Gebauer, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    We compared the nutritional modes and habitats of orchids (e.g., autotrophic, partially or fully mycoheterotrophic) of the Mediterranean region and adjacent islands of Macaronesia. We hypothesized that ecological factors (e.g., relative light availability, surrounding vegetation) determine the nutritional modes of orchids and thus impose restrictions upon orchid distribution. Covering habitats from dark forests to open sites, orchid samples of 35 species from 14 genera were collected from 20 locations in the Mediterranean and Macaronesia to test for mycoheterotrophy. Mycorrhizal fungi were identified via molecular analyses, and stable isotope analyses were applied to test whether organic nutrients are gained from the fungal associates. Our results show that orchids with partial or full mycoheterotrophy among the investigated species are found exclusively in Neottieae thriving in light-limited forests. Neottioid orchids are missing in Macaronesia, possibly because mycoheterotrophy is constrained by the lack of suitable ectomycorrhizal fungi. Furthermore, most adult orchids of open habitats in the Mediterranean and Macaronesia show weak or no N gains from fungi and no C gain through mycoheterotrophy. Instead isotope signatures of some of these species indicate net plant-to-fungus C transfer.

  16. Atractiellomycetes belonging to the ‘rust’ lineage (Pucciniomycotina) form mycorrhizae with terrestrial and epiphytic neotropical orchids

    PubMed Central

    Kottke, Ingrid; Suárez, Juan Pablo; Herrera, Paulo; Cruz, Dario; Bauer, Robert; Haug, Ingeborg; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2010-01-01

    Distinctive groups of fungi are involved in the diverse mycorrhizal associations of land plants. All previously known mycorrhiza-forming Basidiomycota associated with trees, ericads, liverworts or orchids are hosted in Agaricomycetes, Agaricomycotina. Here we demonstrate for the first time that Atractiellomycetes, members of the ‘rust’ lineage (Pucciniomycotina), are mycobionts of orchids. The mycobionts of 103 terrestrial and epiphytic orchid individuals, sampled in the tropical mountain rainforest of Southern Ecuador, were identified by sequencing the whole ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and part of 28S rDNA. Mycorrhizae of 13 orchid individuals were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Simple septal pores and symplechosomes in the hyphal coils of mycorrhizae from four orchid individuals indicated members of Atractiellomycetes. Molecular phylogeny of sequences from mycobionts of 32 orchid individuals out of 103 samples confirmed Atractiellomycetes and the placement in Pucciniomycotina, previously known to comprise only parasitic and saprophytic fungi. Thus, our finding reveals these fungi, frequently associated to neotropical orchids, as the most basal living basidiomycetes involved in mycorrhizal associations of land plants. PMID:20007181

  17. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective.

    PubMed

    Lammers, H B

    2000-04-01

    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects.

  18. 7 CFR 70.41 - Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Denial of Service § 70.41 Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or...

  19. 16 CFR 424.1 - Unfair or deceptive acts or practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADVERTISING AND MARKETING PRACTICES § 424.1 Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. In connection with the sale... advertisement, if those stores do not have the advertised products in stock and readily available to customers...

  20. Karyotype diversity and genome size variation in Neotropical Maxillariinae orchids.

    PubMed

    Moraes, A P; Koehler, S; Cabral, J S; Gomes, S S L; Viccini, L F; Barros, F; Felix, L P; Guerra, M; Forni-Martins, E R

    2017-03-01

    Orchidaceae is a widely distributed plant family with very diverse vegetative and floral morphology, and such variability is also reflected in their karyotypes. However, since only a low proportion of Orchidaceae has been analysed for chromosome data, greater diversity may await to be unveiled. Here we analyse both genome size (GS) and karyotype in two subtribes recently included in the broadened Maxillariinea to detect how much chromosome and GS variation there is in these groups and to evaluate which genome rearrangements are involved in the species evolution. To do so, the GS (14 species), the karyotype - based on chromosome number, heterochromatic banding and 5S and 45S rDNA localisation (18 species) - was characterised and analysed along with published data using phylogenetic approaches. The GS presented a high phylogenetic correlation and it was related to morphological groups in Bifrenaria (larger plants - higher GS). The two largest GS found among genera were caused by different mechanisms: polyploidy in Bifrenaria tyrianthina and accumulation of repetitive DNA in Scuticaria hadwenii. The chromosome number variability was caused mainly through descending dysploidy, and x=20 was estimated as the base chromosome number. Combining GS and karyotype data with molecular phylogeny, our data provide a more complete scenario of the karyotype evolution in Maxillariinae orchids, allowing us to suggest, besides dysploidy, that inversions and transposable elements as two mechanisms involved in the karyotype evolution. Such karyotype modifications could be associated with niche changes that occurred during species evolution. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Genome size diversity in orchids: consequences and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, I. J.; Kahandawala, I.; Suda, J.; Hanson, L.; Ingrouille, M. J.; Chase, M. W.; Fay, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    Background The amount of DNA comprising the genome of an organism (its genome size) varies a remarkable 40 000-fold across eukaryotes, yet most groups are characterized by much narrower ranges (e.g. 14-fold in gymnosperms, 3- to 4-fold in mammals). Angiosperms stand out as one of the most variable groups with genome sizes varying nearly 2000-fold. Nevertheless within angiosperms the majority of families are characterized by genomes which are small and vary little. Species with large genomes are mostly restricted to a few monocots families including Orchidaceae. Scope A survey of the literature revealed that genome size data for Orchidaceae are comparatively rare representing just 327 species. Nevertheless they reveal that Orchidaceae are currently the most variable angiosperm family with genome sizes ranging 168-fold (1C = 0·33–55·4 pg). Analysing the data provided insights into the distribution, evolution and possible consequences to the plant of this genome size diversity. Conclusions Superimposing the data onto the increasingly robust phylogenetic tree of Orchidaceae revealed how different subfamilies were characterized by distinct genome size profiles. Epidendroideae possessed the greatest range of genome sizes, although the majority of species had small genomes. In contrast, the largest genomes were found in subfamilies Cypripedioideae and Vanilloideae. Genome size evolution within this subfamily was analysed as this is the only one with reasonable representation of data. This approach highlighted striking differences in genome size and karyotype evolution between the closely related Cypripedium, Paphiopedilum and Phragmipedium. As to the consequences of genome size diversity, various studies revealed that this has both practical (e.g. application of genetic fingerprinting techniques) and biological consequences (e.g. affecting where and when an orchid may grow) and emphasizes the importance of obtaining further genome size data given the considerable

  2. Flower-specific KNOX phenotype in the orchid Dactylorhiza fuchsii

    PubMed Central

    Box, Mathew S.; Glover, Beverley J.

    2012-01-01

    The KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) genes are best known for maintaining a pluripotent stem-cell population in the shoot apical meristem that underlies indeterminate vegetative growth, allowing plants to adapt their development to suit the prevailing environmental conditions. More recently, the function of the KNOX gene family has been expanded to include additional roles in lateral organ development such as complex leaf morphogenesis, which has come to dominate the KNOX literature. Despite several reports implicating KNOX genes in the development of carpels and floral elaborations such as petal spurs, few authors have investigated the role of KNOX genes in flower development. Evidence is presented here of a flower-specific KNOX function in the development of the elaborate flowers of the orchid Dactylorhiza fuchsii, which have a three-lobed labellum petal with a prominent spur. Using degenerate PCR, four Class I KNOX genes (DfKN1–4) have been isolated, one from each of the four major Class I KNOX subclades and by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), it is demonstrated that DfKNOX transcripts are detectable in developing floral organs such as the spur-bearing labellum and inferior ovary. Although constitutive expression of the DfKN2 transcript in tobacco produces a wide range of floral abnormalities, including serrated petal margins, extra petal tissue, and fused organs, none of the vegetative phenotypes typical of constitutive KNOX expression were produced. These data are highly suggestive of a role for KNOX expression in floral development that may be especially important in taxa with elaborate flowers. PMID:22771852

  3. The counterfeit self: the deceptive costs of faking it.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I; Ariely, Dan

    2010-05-01

    Although people buy counterfeit products to signal positive traits, we show that wearing counterfeit products makes individuals feel less authentic and increases their likelihood of both behaving dishonestly and judging others as unethical. In four experiments, participants wore purportedly fake or authentically branded sunglasses. Those wearing fake sunglasses cheated more across multiple tasks than did participants wearing authentic sunglasses, both when they believed they had a preference for counterfeits (Experiment 1a) and when they were randomly assigned to wear them (Experiment 1b). Experiment 2 shows that the effects of wearing counterfeit sunglasses extend beyond the self, influencing judgments of other people's unethical behavior. Experiment 3 demonstrates that the feelings of inauthenticity that wearing fake products engenders-what we term the counterfeit self-mediate the impact of counterfeits on unethical behavior. Finally, we show that people do not predict the impact of counterfeits on ethicality; thus, the costs of counterfeits are deceptive.

  4. Occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a systemic endophyte of vanilla orchids.

    PubMed

    White, James F; Torres, Mónica S; Sullivan, Raymond F; Jabbour, Rabih E; Chen, Qiang; Tadych, Mariusz; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Bergen, Marshall S; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vanilla orchids (Vanilla phaeantha) and cultivated hybrid vanilla (V. planifolia × V. pompona) as a systemic bacterial endophyte. We determined with light microscopy and isolations that tissues of V. phaeantha and the cultivated hybrid were infected by a bacterial endophyte and that shoot meristems and stomatal areas of stems and leaves were densely colonized. We identified the endophyte as B. amyloliquefaciens using DNA sequence data. Since additional endophyte-free plants and seed of this orchid were not available, additional studies were performed on surrogate hosts Amaranthus caudatus, Ipomoea tricolor, and I. purpurea. Plants of A. caudatus inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens demonstrated intracellular colonization of guard cells and other epidermal cells, confirming the pattern observed in the orchids. Isolations and histological studies suggest that the bacterium may penetrate deeply into developing plant tissues in shoot meristems, forming endospores in maturing tissues. B. amyloliquefaciens produced fungal inhibitors in culture. In controlled experiments using morning glory seedlings we showed that the bacterium promoted seedling growth and reduced seedling necrosis due to pathogens. We detected the gene for phosphopantetheinyl transferase (sfp), an enzyme in the pathway for production of antifungal lipopeptides, and purified the lipopeptide "surfactin" from cultures of the bacterium. We hypothesize that B. amyloliquefaciens is a robust endophyte and defensive mutualist of vanilla orchids. Whether the symbiosis between this bacterium and its hosts can be managed to protect vanilla crops from diseases is a question that should be evaluated in future research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A tale of two orchids: comparative reproductive development in Vanilla and Phalaenopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The orchid family of flowering plants (Orchidaceae) represents the largest, most diverse, and most successful family of flowering plants in the world yet they are one of the most understudied groups from a molecular and genomic perspective. To further the long-term goal of developing enabling genom...

  6. DNA Remodeling by Strict Partial Endoreplication in Orchids, an Original Process in the Plant Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Spencer C.; Bourge, Mickaël; Maunoury, Nicolas; Wong, Maurice; Wolfe Bianchi, Michele; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Besse, Pascale; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    DNA remodeling during endoreplication appears to be a strong developmental characteristic in orchids. In this study, we analyzed DNA content and nuclei in 41 species of orchids to further map the genome evolution in this plant family. We demonstrate that the DNA remodeling observed in 36 out of 41 orchids studied corresponds to strict partial endoreplication. Such process is developmentally regulated in each wild species studied. Cytometry data analyses allowed us to propose a model where nuclear states 2C, 4E, 8E, etc. form a series comprising a fixed proportion, the euploid genome 2C, plus 2–32 additional copies of a complementary part of the genome. The fixed proportion ranged from 89% of the genome in Vanilla mexicana down to 19% in V. pompona, the lowest value for all 148 orchids reported. Insterspecific hybridization did not suppress this phenomenon. Interestingly, this process was not observed in mass-produced epiphytes. Nucleolar volumes grow with the number of endocopies present, coherent with high transcription activity in endoreplicated nuclei. Our analyses suggest species-specific chromatin rearrangement. Towards understanding endoreplication, V. planifolia constitutes a tractable system for isolating the genomic sequences that confer an advantage via endoreplication from those that apparently suffice at diploid level. PMID:28419219

  7. The Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genomes of the Facultatively Eusocial Orchid Bee Euglossa dilemma.

    PubMed

    Brand, Philipp; Saleh, Nicholas; Pan, Hailin; Li, Cai; Kapheim, Karen M; Ramírez, Santiago R

    2017-09-07

    Bees provide indispensable pollination services to both agricultural crops and wild plant populations, and several species of bees have become important models for the study of learning and memory, plant-insect interactions, and social behavior. Orchid bees (Apidae: Euglossini) are especially important to the fields of pollination ecology, evolution, and species conservation. Here we report the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of the orchid bee Euglossa dilemma Bembé & Eltz. E. dilemma was selected because it is widely distributed, highly abundant, and it was recently naturalized in the southeastern United States. We provide a high-quality assembly of the 3.3 Gb genome, and an official gene set of 15,904 gene annotations. We find high conservation of gene synteny with the honey bee throughout 80 MY of divergence time. This genomic resource represents the first draft genome of the orchid bee genus Euglossa , and the first draft orchid bee mitochondrial genome, thus representing a valuable resource to the research community. Copyright © 2017 Brand et al.

  8. The Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genomes of the Facultatively Eusocial Orchid Bee Euglossa dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Philipp; Saleh, Nicholas; Pan, Hailin; Li, Cai; Kapheim, Karen M.; Ramírez, Santiago R.

    2017-01-01

    Bees provide indispensable pollination services to both agricultural crops and wild plant populations, and several species of bees have become important models for the study of learning and memory, plant–insect interactions, and social behavior. Orchid bees (Apidae: Euglossini) are especially important to the fields of pollination ecology, evolution, and species conservation. Here we report the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of the orchid bee Euglossa dilemma Bembé & Eltz. E. dilemma was selected because it is widely distributed, highly abundant, and it was recently naturalized in the southeastern United States. We provide a high-quality assembly of the 3.3 Gb genome, and an official gene set of 15,904 gene annotations. We find high conservation of gene synteny with the honey bee throughout 80 MY of divergence time. This genomic resource represents the first draft genome of the orchid bee genus Euglossa, and the first draft orchid bee mitochondrial genome, thus representing a valuable resource to the research community. PMID:28701376

  9. DOFT and DOFTIP1 affect reproductive development in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwen; Liu, Lu; Song, Shiyong; Li, Yan; Shen, Lisha; Yu, Hao

    2017-12-16

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis encodes the florigen that moves from leaves to the shoot apical meristem to induce flowering, and this is partly mediated by FT-INTERACTING PROTEIN 1 (FTIP1). Although FT orthologs have been identified in some flowering plants, their endogenous roles in Orchidaceae, which is one of the largest families of flowering plants, are still largely unknown. In this study, we show that DOFT and DOFTIP1, the orchid orthologs of FT and FTIP1, respectively, play important roles in promoting flowering in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. Expression of DOFT and DOFTIP1 increases in whole plantlets during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Both transcripts are present in significant levels in reproductive organs, including inflorescence apices, stems, floral buds, and open flowers. Through successful generation of transgenic orchids, we have revealed that overexpression or down-regulation of DOFT accelerates or delays flowering, respectively, while alteration of DOFT expression also greatly affects pseudobulb formation and flower development. In common with their counterparts in Arabidopsis and rice, DOFTIP1 interacts with DOFT and affects flowering time in orchids. Our results suggest that while DOFT and DOFTIP1 play evolutionarily conserved roles in promoting flowering, DOFT may have evolved with hitherto unknown functions pertaining to the regulation of storage organs and flower development in the Orchidaceae family. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. DNA remodelling by Strict Partial Endoreplication in orchids, an original process in the plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Brown, Spencer C; Bourge, Mickaël; Maunoury, Nicolas; Wong, Maurice; Bianchi, Michele Wolfe; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Besse, Pascale; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Dron, Michel; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice

    2017-04-13

    DNA remodelling during endoreplication appears to be a strong developmental characteristic in orchids. In this study, we analysed DNA content and nuclei in 41 species of orchids to further map the genome evolution in this plant family. We demonstrate that the DNA remodelling observed in 36 out of 41 orchids studied corresponds to strict partial endoreplication. Such process is developmentally regulated in each wild species studied. Cytometry data analyses allowed us to propose a model where nuclear states 2C, 4E, 8E, etc. form a series comprising a fixed proportion, the euploid genome 2C, plus 2 to 32 additional copies of a complementary part of the genome. The fixed proportion ranged from 89% of the genome in Vanilla mexicana down to 19% in V. pompona, the lowest value for all 148 orchids reported. Insterspecific hybridisation did not suppress this phenomenon. Interestingly, this process was not observed in mass-produced epiphytes. Nucleolar volumes grow with the number of endocopies present, coherent with high transcription activity in endoreplicated nuclei. Our analyses suggest species-specific chromatin rearrangement. Towards understanding endoreplication, V. planifolia constitutes a tractable system for isolating the genomic sequences that confer an advantage via endoreplication from those that apparently suffice at diploid level. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Age-dependent mycorrhizal specificity in an invasive orchid, Oeceoclades maculata.

    PubMed

    Bayman, Paul; Mosquera-Espinosa, Ana T; Saladini-Aponte, Carla M; Hurtado-Guevara, Nilbeth C; Viera-Ruiz, Naida L

    2016-11-01

    Oeceoclades maculata is a naturalized, invasive, terrestrial orchid in Puerto Rico and elsewhere in the neotropics. We asked whether its success might be partly explained by its mycorrhizal associations, hypothesizing a relationship with many fungal partners or with one widely distributed partner. Oeceoclades maculata roots were collected throughout Puerto Rico, and the degree of mycorrhizal colonization was measured. For identification of fungi, the ITS region was sequenced from pure cultures and directly from roots. Representative fungi were used for symbiotic seed germination experiments. Colonization of O. maculata roots was very variable. The most common fungus identified by BLAST searches was Psathyrella cf. candolleana, but typical orchid mycorrhizal fungi (Ceratobasidium and Tulasnella) were also found, as were a range of saprotrophs. Seeds germinated in vitro only in the presence of Psathyrella. These results are surprising in two respects. First, O. maculata appears to be highly specific for fungi during seed germination, but unusually promiscuous as adult plants. Second, mycorrhizal associations with Psathyrella and with other saprotrophic fungi have been previously reported, but only from mycoheterotrophic (i.e., nonphotosynthetic) orchids, not from green orchids like Oeceoclades. This combination may partly explain the success of Oeceoclades. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  12. ORCHID - a computer simulation of the reliability of an NDE inspection system

    SciTech Connect

    Moles, M.D.C.

    1987-03-01

    CANDU pressurized heavy water reactors contain several hundred horizontally-mounted zirconium alloy pressure tubes. Following a pressure tube failure, a pressure tube inspection system called CIGARette was rapidly designed, manufactured and put in operation. Defects called hydride blisters were found to be the cause of the failure, and were detected using a combination of eddy current and ultrasonic scans. A number of improvements were made to CIGARette during the inspection period. The ORCHID computer program models the operation of the delivery system, eddy current and ultrasonic systems by imitating the on-reactor decision-making procedure. ORCHID predicts that during the early stage ofmore » development, less than one blistered tube in three would be detected, while less than one in two would be detected in the middle development stage. However, ORCHID predicts that during the late development stage, probability of detection will be over 90%, primarily due to the inclusion of axial ultrasonic scans (a procedural modification). Rotational and axial slip could severely reduce probability of detection. Comparison of CIGARette's inspection data with ORCHID's predictions indicate that the latter are compatible with the actual inspection results, through the numbers are small and data uncertain. It should be emphasized that the CIGARette system has been essentially replaced with the much more reliable CIGAR system.« less

  13. A preliminary population study of alcove bog orchid (Platanthera zothecina) at Navajo National Monument, Arizona

    Treesearch

    Laura E. Hudson

    2001-01-01

    This study on Platanthera zothecina (alcove bog orchid) was initiated by the National Park Service after a recent threatened and endangered species survey at Navajo National Monument. It is listed as Category 2 (species of special concern) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Category 3 (likely to become endangered) by the Navajo Nation. Because P. zothecina is a...

  14. Restoring the rare Kentucky lady's slipper orchid to the Kisatchie National Forest

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett; Kevin Allen; David Moore

    2012-01-01

    The Kentucky lady’s slipper (Cypripedium kentuckiense C.F. Reed [Orchidaceae]) is a spectacular orchid native to the southeastern US. Although its range includes much of the Southeast, it is rare due to loss of appropriate edaphic and climatic habitats. Efforts to restore this species to the Kisatchie National Forest in Louisiana were initiated by a high school student...

  15. Pollination ecology of the rare orchid, Spiranthes diluvialis: Implications for conservation

    Treesearch

    Kim Pierson; Vincent J. Tepedino; Sedonia Sipes; Kim Kuta

    2001-01-01

    We examined the pollination ecology of Spiranthes diluvialis Sheviak, Ute ladies-tresses, a federally listed, threatened orchid species known only from small, isolated populations in the western United States. The pollinator composition, male and female reproductive success, and demography of S. diluvialis populations were examined in 1995,1997, and 1999. Spiranthes...

  16. Genetic structure of Pseudococcus microcirculus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations on epiphytic orchids in south Florida.

    PubMed

    Zettler, J A; Adams, K; Frederick, B; Gutting, A; Ingebretsen, N; Ragsdale, A; Schrey, A

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, the orchid mealy bug Pseudococcus microcirculus was first detected in situ in North America's more diverse orchid region, the Big Cypress Basin (Collier Co FL). A follow-up survey showed that the mealy bug is more widespread and found on epiphytic orchids in two locations, in both the Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve (sites B and F) and the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge (sites M and C). There, we collected mealy bugs (n = 54) from 35 orchid individuals and screened allelic variation at seven microsatellite loci. We estimated genetic diversity and differentiation among all sites and compared the variation among individuals collected on the same plant. Genetic differentiation between sites M and C (F ST = 0.03, P < 0.01) and,Mand B (F ST = 0.04, P < 0.01) was detected.We also detected significantly lower mean pairwise relatedness among individuals from site B compared to all the other locations, and this population had the lowest inbreeding coefficient. Genetic diversity and mean pairwise relatedness were highly variable among plants with multiple individuals; however, plants from sites F and M tend to have collections of individuals with higher mean pairwise relatedness compared to sites B and C. Our results indicate that there is genetic diversity and differentiation among mealy bugs in these locations, and that collections of individuals on the same plant are genetically diverse. As such, the mealy bugs throughout these areas are likely to be genetically diverse and exist in multiple distinct populations.

  17. Physiological plasticity of epiphytic orchids from two contrasting tropical dry forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Rosa-Manzano, Edilia; Andrade, José Luis; Zotz, Gerhard; Reyes-García, Casandra

    2017-11-01

    An enormous variation in light, both temporally and spatially, exists in tropical forests, which represents a potential driver for plant physiological plasticity. The physiological plasticity of epiphytic orchids from two tropical dry forests in response to different light environments was experimentally investigated. Plants of five species were growing in a shade-house under three different light regimes (photosynthetic photon flux density; PPFD of 20, 50 and 70% of total daily incident radiation) under watered and drought conditions. Orchids with similar leaf morphology but from different forests responded differently to the same light environment. Linear leaves of Encyclia nematocaulon avoided drought stress through stomata control and had a notable increase of photosynthesis, lower osmotic potential, and high photosynthetic efficiency under 50% daily PPFD during both drought and watered periods. In contrast, orchids with cylindrical and oval leaves had a marked decrease of these physiological parameters under 50 and 70% of PPFD during the drought period, but then recovered after rewatering. Oval leaves of Lophiaris oerstedii were more sensitive to high light and water availability because they had a strong decrease of their physiological parameters at 70% of PPFD, even during the rewatering period. Contrary to our predictions, E. nematocaulon had low plasticity and Laelia rubescens, from the deciduous forest, was the most able to acclimate. In general, orchids from the drier forest had higher plasticity than those from the more humid forest, which might help them to tolerate the higher fluctuations of light and water availability that occur there.

  18. Conservation Genetics of an Endangered Lady’s Slipper Orchid: Cypripedium japonicum in China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xin; Li, Quan-Jian; Liu, Fen; Gong, Mao-Jiang; Wang, Cai-Xia; Tian, Min

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about the population genetic variation of the endangered orchid, Cypripedium japonicum, is conducive to the development of conservation strategies. Here, we examined the levels and partitioning of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) diversity (109 loci) in five populations of this orchid to gain insight into its genetic variation and population structure in Eastern and Central China. It harbored considerably lower levels of genetic diversity both at the population (percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) = 11.19%, Nei’s gene diversity (H) = 0.0416 and Shannon’s information index (I) = 0.0613) and species level (PPL = 38.53%, H = 0.1273 and I = 0.1928) and a significantly higher degree of differentiation among populations (the proportion of the total variance among populations (Φpt) = 0.698) than those typical of ISSR-based studies in other orchid species. Furthermore, the Nei’s genetic distances between populations were independent of the corresponding geographical distances. Two main clusters are shown in an arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram, which is in agreement with the results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) analysis and the STRUCTURE program. In addition, individuals within a population were more similar to each other than to those in other populations. Based on the genetic data and our field survey, the development of conservation management for this threatened orchid should include habitat protection, artificial gene flow and ex situ measures. PMID:24983476

  19. The Genome of Dendrobium officinale Illuminates the Biology of the Important Traditional Chinese Orchid Herb.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Hui; Tian, Yang; Lian, Jinmin; Yang, Ruijuan; Hao, Shumei; Wang, Xuanjun; Yang, Shengchao; Li, Qiye; Qi, Shuai; Kui, Ling; Okpekum, Moses; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Jiajin; Ding, Zhaoli; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang; Sheng, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo is a traditional Chinese orchid herb that has both ornamental value and a broad range of therapeutic effects. Here, we report the first de novo assembled 1.35 Gb genome sequences for D. officinale by combining the second-generation Illumina Hiseq 2000 and third-generation PacBio sequencing technologies. We found that orchids have a complete inflorescence gene set and have some specific inflorescence genes. We observed gene expansion in gene families related to fungus symbiosis and drought resistance. We analyzed biosynthesis pathways of medicinal components of D. officinale and found extensive duplication of SPS and SuSy genes, which are related to polysaccharide generation, and that the pathway of D. officinale alkaloid synthesis could be extended to generate 16-epivellosimine. The D. officinale genome assembly demonstrates a new approach to deciphering large complex genomes and, as an important orchid species and a traditional Chinese medicine, the D. officinale genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of orchid plants, as well as the study of medicinal components and potential genetic breeding of the dendrobe. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. First record of the orchid bee genus Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of orchid bee, Eufriesea aenigma Griswold and Herndon, is described from the Guadalupe Mountains of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico, USA. This is the first record for Eufriesea from the USA and extends its apparent range well beyond its previous, entirely tropical boundaries...

  1. Deception Detection: Accuracy Levels Among International Military Officers Using Content and Contextual Questioning Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    average, people are slightly better than fifty-fifty at detecting deception, as seen in a published Personality and Social Psychology Review article...at detecting deception, as seen in a published Personality and Social Psychology Review article. Modern research ideology favors using diagnostic... psychological factors such as mood, temperament, or any other conditions [that] might affect participants’ responses.” Also, participants in the current

  2. The Doctrine of Signatures, Materia Medica of Orchids, and the Contributions of Doctor - Orchidologists.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John

    2012-12-01

    The heritage of medicine is written in many forms. One repository is to be found in the history of orchids, the world's largest family of flowering plants. Orchids were so named by Theophrastus (c.372-288 BC) who recorded their medicinal use as an aphrodisiac and the promoter of virility, in the context of the Doctrine of Signatures. Such use endured for millennia, and was recorded both by Paracelsus (1493-1551) and Linnaeus (1707-1778). The history of orchidology and medicine are entwined in four domains: (a) orchids and their historical materia medica, within the paradigm of the Doctrine of Signatures; (b) the enduring and extensive contemporary medicinal and culinary use of orchids such as Vanilla and salep extracts of Orchis; (c) the scientific contributions of doctors as orchidologists; and (d) the heritage of more than a hundred doctors' names in the scientific etymology of the Orchidaceae family. Prominent orchidologists have included the Scottish doctor-soldier and botanist, Robert Brown (1773-1858); the Director of the State Herbarium at Leyden and the Rijks Museum, Carl Ludwig Blume (1796-1862); and Dr William Sterling MD (1888-1967). Among the more than 1250 genus names (and 33,000 species) of orchids are the names of more than a hundred doctors, their lives and works perpetuated in the scientific etymology of this family of exotic, beautiful, flamboyant, intriguing and often expensive flowers. Generic names record the lives and works of such as Aristotle (384-322BC) in Aristotelia Loureiro 1790; Cadet de Gassicourt (1769-1821) in Cadetia Gaudichaud 1826; Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) in Sirhookera O. Kuntze 1891; and Dr Theodore Daniel Vrydag Zynen (fl. 1820-1850) in Vrydagzynea Blume 1858. One of the principal horticultural genera of orchids, Brassavola, records the life and work of the Ferrara and Padua physician and botanist, Antonio Musa Brassavola (1500-1555). The first Slipper Orchid bred as a hybrid, Paphiopedilum harrisianum (by John

  3. The motor cost of telling lies: electrocortical signatures and personality foundations of spontaneous deception.

    PubMed

    Panasiti, Maria Serena; Pavone, Enea F; Mancini, Alessandra; Merla, Arcangelo; Grisoni, Luigi; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2014-01-01

    Although universal, lying is generally considered immoral behavior. Most neuroscience studies on lying sanction or instruct deceptive behaviors and thus might fail to acknowledge the significance of lie-related moral conflicts. By combining electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings with a novel paradigm in which participants decided freely whether to deceive another person, we have generated indices of the cognitive (reaction times and stimulus-locked event-related components) and moral (readiness potential and its correlations with deception-related personality traits) cost of spontaneous deception. Our data fail to support the consensus that deception is cognitively more demanding than truth telling, suggesting that spontaneous deception, as opposed to lying out of requirement, might not mandate additional cognitive workload. Interestingly, lying was associated with decreased motor readiness, an event-related potential (ERP) component that is linked to motor preparation of self-determined actions and modulated when we face moral dilemmas. Notably, this reduction was less extensive in manipulative participants and greater in those who cared highly about their impression management. Our study expands on previous findings on deception by associating a cortical marker of reduced preparation to act with individual differences in moral cognition.

  4. Federal Trade Commission's authority to regulate marketing to children: deceptive vs. unfair rulemaking.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing directed at children is of increasing concern to the public health and legal communities. The new administration at the Federal Trade Commission and abundant science on the topic make it a particularly opportune time for the government to reconsider regulating marketing directed at youth. This Article analyzes the Commission's authority to regulate food and beverage marketing directed at children under its jurisdiction over unfair and deceptive acts and practices to determine which avenue is most viable. The author finds that the Federal Trade Commission has the authority to regulate deceptive marketing practices directed at vulnerable populations. Although the Commission can issue individual orders, its remedial power to initiate rules would better address the pervasiveness of modern marketing practices. The Commission does not currently have the power to regulate unfair marketing to children; however, even if Congress reinstated this authority, the Commission's authority over deceptive marketing may be preferable to regulate these practices. Deceptive communications are not protected by the First Amendment and the deceptive standard matches the science associated with marketing to children. The Federal Trade Commission has the authority to initiate rulemaking in the realm of food and beverage marketing to children as deceptive communications in interstate commerce, in violation of the Federal Trade Commission Act. However, to effectuate this process, Congress would need to grant the Commission the authority to do so under the Administrative Procedures Act.

  5. Temporal view of the costs and benefits of self-deception

    PubMed Central

    Chance, Zoë; Norton, Michael I.; Gino, Francesca; Ariely, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have documented many cases in which individuals rationalize their regrettable actions. Four experiments examine situations in which people go beyond merely explaining away their misconduct to actively deceiving themselves. We find that those who exploit opportunities to cheat on tests are likely to engage in self-deception, inferring that their elevated performance is a sign of intelligence. This short-term psychological benefit of self-deception, however, can come with longer-term costs: when predicting future performance, participants expect to perform equally well—a lack of awareness that persists even when these inflated expectations prove costly. We show that although people expect to cheat, they do not foresee self-deception, and that factors that reinforce the benefits of cheating enhance self-deception. More broadly, the findings of these experiments offer evidence that debates about the relative costs and benefits of self-deception are informed by adopting a temporal view that assesses the cumulative impact of self-deception over time. PMID:21383150

  6. Niche analysis and conservation of the orchids of east Macedonia (NE Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiftsis, Spyros; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Karagiannakidou, Vassiliki; Alifragis, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    The orchid family is one of the largest in the flowering plant kingdom and includes a lot of rare, threatened or endangered species. The determination of plant species niche is considered fundamental for their conservation. Two parameters closely related with species niche are niche marginality and breadth. The first parameter is a measure of how typical or atypical a species niche is within an area, while the second is a measure of species tolerance. This study deals with niche analysis of the orchids of east Macedonia (NE Greece). Factors that are known to determine species distribution on a regional scale, such as altitude, aspect, habitat type, bedrock type and soil properties (acidity, organic matter, and phosphorus content) were used as explanatory variables. Geographical coordinates were also employed in order to explore spatial patterns in orchid distribution. Niche analysis was carried out using the Outlying Mean Index (OMI) analysis. Out of the total data of 55 taxa that were analyzed, 41 had a significant marginal niche compared with the average niche of the study area. Altitude, soil acidity and certain habitat types were found to be the most important factors in determining orchid distribution. Five different species groups were distinguished on the basis of their ecological preferences and niche breadth. Species niche marginality and breadth, the amplitude of their geographical distribution, the size of their populations and the rareness and conservation status of their habitats were taken into account in order to set conservation priorities for the orchids in the study area. The above characteristics combined with intuitive criteria (e.g. geographical distribution, endemicity) for the species with a small number of occurrences could form a sound basis for setting conservation priorities.

  7. Concomitant loss of NDH complex-related genes within chloroplast and nuclear genomes in some orchids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Choun-Sea; Chen, Jeremy J W; Chiu, Chi-Chou; Hsiao, Han C W; Yang, Chen-Jui; Jin, Xiao-Hua; Leebens-Mack, James; de Pamphilis, Claude W; Huang, Yao-Ting; Yang, Ling-Hung; Chang, Wan-Jung; Kui, Ling; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Hu, Jer-Ming; Wang, Wen; Shih, Ming-Che

    2017-06-01

    The chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex consists of about 30 subunits from both the nuclear and chloroplast genomes and is ubiquitous across most land plants. In some orchids, such as Phalaenopsis equestris, Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium catenatum, most of the 11 chloroplast genome-encoded ndh genes (cp-ndh) have been lost. Here we investigated whether functional cp-ndh genes have been completely lost in these orchids or whether they have been transferred and retained in the nuclear genome. Further, we assessed whether both cp-ndh genes and nucleus-encoded NDH-related genes can be lost, resulting in the absence of the NDH complex. Comparative analyses of the genome of Apostasia odorata, an orchid species with a complete complement of cp-ndh genes which represents the sister lineage to all other orchids, and three published orchid genome sequences for P. equestris, D. officinale and D. catenatum, which are all missing cp-ndh genes, indicated that copies of cp-ndh genes are not present in any of these four nuclear genomes. This observation suggests that the NDH complex is not necessary for some plants. Comparative genomic/transcriptomic analyses of currently available plastid genome sequences and nuclear transcriptome data showed that 47 out of 660 photoautotrophic plants and all the heterotrophic plants are missing plastid-encoded cp-ndh genes and exhibit no evidence for maintenance of a functional NDH complex. Our data indicate that the NDH complex can be lost in photoautotrophic plant species. Further, the loss of the NDH complex may increase the probability of transition from a photoautotrophic to a heterotrophic life history. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The dilemma of being a fragrant flower: the major floral volatile attracts pollinators and florivores in the euglossine-pollinated orchid Dichaea pendula.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Carlos E P; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G V; Bento, José Maurício S; Salvador, Marcos José; Sazima, Marlies

    2016-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mediate both mutualistic and antagonistic plant-animal interactions; thus, the attraction of mutualists and antagonists by floral VOCs constitutes an important trade-off in the evolutionary ecology of angiosperms. Here, we evaluate the role of VOCs in mediating communication between the plant and its mutualist and antagonist floral visitors. To assess the evolutionary consequences of VOC-mediated signalling to distinct floral visitors, we studied the reproductive ecology of Dichaea pendula, assessing the effects of florivores on fruit set, the pollination efficiency of pollinators and florivores, the floral scent composition and the attractiveness of the major VOC to pollinators and florivores. The orchid depends entirely on orchid-bees for sexual reproduction, and the major florivores, the weevils, feed on corollas causing self-pollination, triggering abortion of 26.4 % of the flowers. Floral scent was composed of approximately 99 % 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, an unusual floral VOC attractive to pollinators and florivores. The low fruit set from natural pollination (5.6 %) compared to hand cross-pollination (45.5 %) and low level of pollinator visitation [0.02 visits (flower hour) -1 ] represent the limitations to pollination. Our research found that 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol mediates both mutualistic and antagonistic interactions, which could result in contrary evolutionary pressures on novo-emission. The scarcity of pollinators, not florivory, was the major constraint to fruit set. Our results suggest that, rather than anti-florivory adaptations, adaptations to enhance pollinator attraction and cross-pollination might be the primary drivers of the evolution of VOC emission in euglossine-pollinated flowers.

  9. Comparative Chloroplast Genomes of Photosynthetic Orchids: Insights into Evolution of the Orchidaceae and Development of Molecular Markers for Phylogenetic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Zhi-Tao; Liu, Wei; Xue, Qing-Yun; Ding, Xiao-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The orchid family Orchidaceae is one of the largest angiosperm families, including many species of important economic value. While chloroplast genomes are very informative for systematics and species identification, there is very limited information available on chloroplast genomes in the Orchidaceae. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genomes of the medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale and the ornamental orchid Cypripedium macranthos, demonstrating their gene content and order and potential RNA editing sites. The chloroplast genomes of the above two species and five known photosynthetic orchids showed similarities in structure as well as gene order and content, but differences in the organization of the inverted repeat/small single-copy junction and ndh genes. The organization of the inverted repeat/small single-copy junctions in the chloroplast genomes of these orchids was classified into four types; we propose that inverted repeats flanking the small single-copy region underwent expansion or contraction among Orchidaceae. The AT-rich regions of the ycf1 gene in orchids could be linked to the recombination of inverted repeat/small single-copy junctions. Relative species in orchids displayed similar patterns of variation in ndh gene contents. Furthermore, fifteen highly divergent protein-coding genes were identified, which are useful for phylogenetic analyses in orchids. To test the efficiency of these genes serving as markers in phylogenetic analyses, coding regions of four genes (accD, ccsA, matK, and ycf1) were used as a case study to construct phylogenetic trees in the subfamily Epidendroideae. High support was obtained for placement of previously unlocated subtribes Collabiinae and Dendrobiinae in the subfamily Epidendroideae. Our findings expand understanding of the diversity of orchid chloroplast genomes and provide a reference for study of the molecular systematics of this family. PMID:24911363

  10. Orchids and Bee's Knees: Investigating the Euglossine Syndrome with Gas Chromatography/Fourier Transform Infrared GC/FT-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, Gregory L.; Williams, N. H...; Whitten, W. M.

    1985-12-01

    The GC/FT-IR analysis of a fragrance obtained from a Gongora tricolor orchid is described. The significance of this type of analysis is explained in terms of the elucidation of the complex relationship between orchids and bees known as "The Euglossine Syndrome". The fragrance sample was found to contain p-cresol, p-methylanisole and a variety of terpenoids, including myrcene, cineole, limonene, cymene, ipsdienol, and an olefinic product which appears to be the dehydration product of ipsdienol.

  11. Comparative chloroplast genomes of photosynthetic orchids: insights into evolution of the Orchidaceae and development of molecular markers for phylogenetic applications.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Hou, Bei-Wei; Niu, Zhi-Tao; Liu, Wei; Xue, Qing-Yun; Ding, Xiao-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The orchid family Orchidaceae is one of the largest angiosperm families, including many species of important economic value. While chloroplast genomes are very informative for systematics and species identification, there is very limited information available on chloroplast genomes in the Orchidaceae. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genomes of the medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale and the ornamental orchid Cypripedium macranthos, demonstrating their gene content and order and potential RNA editing sites. The chloroplast genomes of the above two species and five known photosynthetic orchids showed similarities in structure as well as gene order and content, but differences in the organization of the inverted repeat/small single-copy junction and ndh genes. The organization of the inverted repeat/small single-copy junctions in the chloroplast genomes of these orchids was classified into four types; we propose that inverted repeats flanking the small single-copy region underwent expansion or contraction among Orchidaceae. The AT-rich regions of the ycf1 gene in orchids could be linked to the recombination of inverted repeat/small single-copy junctions. Relative species in orchids displayed similar patterns of variation in ndh gene contents. Furthermore, fifteen highly divergent protein-coding genes were identified, which are useful for phylogenetic analyses in orchids. To test the efficiency of these genes serving as markers in phylogenetic analyses, coding regions of four genes (accD, ccsA, matK, and ycf1) were used as a case study to construct phylogenetic trees in the subfamily Epidendroideae. High support was obtained for placement of previously unlocated subtribes Collabiinae and Dendrobiinae in the subfamily Epidendroideae. Our findings expand understanding of the diversity of orchid chloroplast genomes and provide a reference for study of the molecular systematics of this family.

  12. The importance of associations with saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi among fully mycoheterotrophic orchids is currently under-estimated: novel evidence from sub-tropical Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-I; Yang, Chih-Kai; Gebauer, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    Most fully mycoheterotrophic (MH) orchids investigated to date are mycorrhizal with fungi that simultaneously form ectomycorrhizas with forest trees. Only a few MH orchids are currently known to be mycorrhizal with saprotrophic, mostly wood-decomposing, fungi instead of ectomycorrhizal fungi. This study provides evidence that the importance of associations between MH orchids and saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi is currently under-estimated. Using microscopic techniques and molecular approaches, mycorrhizal fungi were localized and identified for seven MH orchid species from four genera and two subfamilies, Vanilloideae and Epidendroideae, growing in four humid and warm sub-tropical forests in Taiwan. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope natural abundances of MH orchids and autotrophic reference plants were used in order to elucidate the nutritional resources utilized by the orchids. Six out of the seven MH orchid species were mycorrhizal with either wood- or litter-decaying saprotrophic fungi. Only one orchid species was associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi. Stable isotope abundance patterns showed significant distinctions between orchids mycorrhizal with the three groups of fungal hosts. Mycoheterotrophic orchids utilizing saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi as a carbon and nutrient source are clearly more frequent than hitherto assumed. On the basis of this kind of nutrition, orchids can thrive in deeply shaded, light-limiting forest understoreys even without support from ectomycorrhizal fungi. Sub-tropical East Asia appears to be a hotspot for orchids mycorrhizal with saprotrophic non-Rhizoctonia fungi. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. College students and sexual consent: unique insights.

    PubMed

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault continues to be a salient health concern, especially among college women. Because assault is often defined in terms of consent, prevention efforts hinge on promoting the definition and the obtainment of consent as a mechanism to reduce assault. Despite the focus on consent promotion, research specifically examining consent in general and among college students specifically is limited. College students (n = 185) were recruited to participate in an open-ended survey in which they were asked to report how they indicated consent and interpreted their partners' consent to engage in a range of sexual behaviors. Content analysis was utilized to qualitatively analyze responses. In the current study, data were assessed for emerging themes across all items. In examining participants' responses, four distinct themes emerged: (a) endorsement of the traditional sexual script; (b) women are responsible for performing oral sex; (c) men's consent to sex can be aggressive; and (d) men utilize deception to obtain consent to sex. Findings suggest that men are conceptualized as sexual initiators and women as sexual gatekeepers, and that men's sexual pleasure is primary whereas women's experience of pleasure is secondary. Findings articulate the need for more pointed research aimed at assessing sexual consent among college students.

  14. Tropical Epiphytic Orchids as an Object of Space Botany Investigations and a Design Element for Spacecraft Flight Decks and Orbital Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherevchenko, T. M.; Zaimenko, N. V.

    Epiphytic orchids are shown to be more stable in a long stay on board an orbital station than terrestrial species. Simulations revealed that the activity of native growth stimulators (free auxins and gibberellines) under the prolonged clinostating conditions varied in epiphytic orchids to a lesser extent than in terrestrial orchids. This factor, together with a weaker geotropic reaction, seems to be a cause of their stability in microgravitation conditions. The authors found also that orchids with the monopodial type of shoot system branching are less stable at microgravity than the sympodial species.

  15. Investigating socio-cognitive processes in deception: a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Lisofsky, Nina; Kazzer, Philipp; Heekeren, Hauke R; Prehn, Kristin

    2014-08-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have found a broad network of brain regions involved in deception, including the prefrontal cortex, insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Although deception can be conceptualized as the attempt to deliberately cause another person to accept a false belief, research to date has mainly focused on executive control processes when participants are instructed to lie under certain conditions. Recently, more ecologically valid and interactive experimental paradigms have been used in which subjects were also requested to take the perspective of another person, read his or her intentions, and make a self-determined decision to deceive that person and break a moral rule. To investigate the influence of these socio-cognitive processes on the neural network of deception, we performed a quantitative meta-analysis combining the data from 416 participants across 22 fMRI and two PET studies. Based on the description of the experimental paradigm, studies were divided in social interactive and non-interactive deception studies. Increased activation in the dorsal ACC, the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ)/angular gyrus, and the bilateral temporal pole (TP) was found to be greater in social interactive than in non-interactive deception. These results demonstrate the important role of perspective taking, theory of mind, and moral reasoning processes in deception as well as conflict processing. In addition to the role of executive control processes determined by previous meta-analyses, our findings show the importance of these socio-cognitive processes in deception and give new insight into the function and interpretation of the brain regions involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Anticipatory and Deceptive AI Utilizing Bayesian Belief Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, Joe E; Allgood, Glenn O; Olama, Mohammed M

    The U.S. military defines antiterrorism as the defensive posture taken against terrorist threats. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, interdicting an event in progress, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for training our military and homeland security officers for anticipating threats posed by terrorists. These tools need to be easy enough so that they are readily usable without substantial training, but still maintain the complexity to allow for a level of deceptive reasoning on the part of themore » opponent. To meet this need, we propose to integrate a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for threat anticipation and deceptive reasoning into training simulation environments currently utilized by several organizations within the Department of Defense (DoD). BBNs have the ability to deal with various types of uncertainties; such as identities, capabilities, target attractiveness, and the combinations of the previous. They also allow for disparate types of data to be fused in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. A BBN has been developed by ORNL uses a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of each node with in the broader context of the system development effort as a whole, and not in isolation. The network will be integrated into the Research Network Inc,(RNI) developed Game Distributed Interactive Simulation (GDIS) as a smart artificial intelligence module. GDIS is utilized by several DoD and civilian organizations as a distributed training tool for a multiplicity of reasons. It has garnered several awards for its realism, ease of use, and popularity. One area that it still has room to excel in, as most video training tools do, is in the area of artificial intelligence of opponent combatants. It is believed that

  17. 21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. 71.22 Section 71.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE... regulation for a color additive authorizing its use generally in or on a food, drug, or cosmetic shall not be...

  18. 21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. 71.22 Section 71.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE... regulation for a color additive authorizing its use generally in or on a food, drug, or cosmetic shall not be...

  19. 21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. 71.22 Section 71.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE... regulation for a color additive authorizing its use generally in or on a food, drug, or cosmetic shall not be...

  20. 21 CFR 71.22 - Deception as a basis for refusing to issue regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations; deceptive use of a color additive for which a regulation has issued. 71.22 Section 71.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVE... regulation for a color additive authorizing its use generally in or on a food, drug, or cosmetic shall not be...

  1. Sexual fantasy.

    PubMed

    Leitenberg, H; Henning, K

    1995-05-01

    This article reviews the research literature on sexual fantasy, a central aspect of human sexual behavior. Topics include (a) gender similarities and differences in the incidence, frequency, and content of sexual fantasies and how they relate to sociocultural and sociobiological theories of sexual behavior; (b) the association between frequency or content of sexual fantasies and variables such as age, sexual adjustment and satisfaction, guilt, sexual orientation, personality, and sexual experience; and (c) "deviant" sexual fantasies (i.e., what they are, whether they play a role in the commission of sexual crimes, and whether they can be modified). The article ends with a summary of major findings and suggestions for future research.

  2. Effects of Disfluency in Online Interpretation of Deception.

    PubMed

    Loy, Jia E; Rohde, Hannah; Corley, Martin

    2017-05-01

    A speaker's manner of delivery of an utterance can affect a listener's pragmatic interpretation of the message. Disfluencies (such as filled pauses) influence a listener's off-line assessment of whether the speaker is truthful or deceptive. Do listeners also form this assessment during the moment-by-moment processing of the linguistic message? Here we present two experiments that examined listeners' judgments of whether a speaker was indicating the true location of the prize in a game during fluent and disfluent utterances. Participants' eye and mouse movements were biased toward the location named by the speaker during fluent utterances, whereas the opposite bias was observed during disfluent utterances. This difference emerged rapidly after the onset of the critical noun. Participants were similarly sensitive to disfluencies at the start of the utterance (Experiment 1) and in the middle (Experiment 2). Our findings support recent research showing that listeners integrate pragmatic information alongside semantic content during the earliest moments of language processing. Unlike prior work which has focused on pragmatic effects in the interpretation of the literal message, here we highlight disfluency's role in guiding a listener to an alternative non-literal message. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Deception and Manipulation: The Arms of Leishmania, a Successful Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Cecílio, Pedro; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Santarém, Nuno; Maciel, Joana; Rodrigues, Vasco; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania spp. are intracellular parasitic protozoa responsible for a group of neglected tropical diseases, endemic in 98 countries around the world, called leishmaniasis. These parasites have a complex digenetic life cycle requiring a susceptible vertebrate host and a permissive insect vector, which allow their transmission. The clinical manifestations associated with leishmaniasis depend on complex interactions between the parasite and the host immune system. Consequently, leishmaniasis can be manifested as a self-healing cutaneous affliction or a visceral pathology, being the last one fatal in 85–90% of untreated cases. As a result of a long host–parasite co-evolutionary process, Leishmania spp. developed different immunomodulatory strategies that are essential for the establishment of infection. Only through deception and manipulation of the immune system, Leishmania spp. can complete its life cycle and survive. The understanding of the mechanisms associated with immune evasion and disease progression is essential for the development of novel therapies and vaccine approaches. Here, we revise how the parasite manipulates cell death and immune responses to survive and thrive in the shadow of the immune system. PMID:25368612

  4. Adult smokers' responses to "corrective statements" regarding tobacco industry deception.

    PubMed

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy L; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Thrasher, James F; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J; Krugman, Dean M; Berg, Carla J; Hardin, James W

    2014-07-01

    To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate "corrective statements" (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280-281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco-related health disparities. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Automatic decoding of facial movements reveals deceptive pain expressions

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Littlewort, Gwen C.; Frank, Mark G.; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Summary In highly social species such as humans, faces have evolved to convey rich information for social interaction, including expressions of emotions and pain [1–3]. Two motor pathways control facial movement [4–7]. A subcortical extrapyramidal motor system drives spontaneous facial expressions of felt emotions. A cortical pyramidal motor system controls voluntary facial expressions. The pyramidal system enables humans to simulate facial expressions of emotions not actually experienced. Their simulation is so successful that they can deceive most observers [8–11]. Machine vision may, however, be able to distinguish deceptive from genuine facial signals by identifying the subtle differences between pyramidally and extrapyramidally driven movements. Here we show that human observers could not discriminate real from faked expressions of pain better than chance, and after training, improved accuracy to a modest 55%. However a computer vision system that automatically measures facial movements and performs pattern recognition on those movements attained 85% accuracy. The machine system’s superiority is attributable to its ability to differentiate the dynamics of genuine from faked expressions. Thus by revealing the dynamics of facial action through machine vision systems, our approach has the potential to elucidate behavioral fingerprints of neural control systems involved in emotional signaling. PMID:24656830

  6. New sophistry: self-deception in the nursing academy.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Bernard M

    2016-07-01

    In this essay, I advance an argument against the expansion and acceptance of postmodern metaphysical antirealist ideologies in the development of nursing theory in North America. I suggest mystical theoretical explanations of care, the rejection of empirical epistemology, and a return to divinity in nursing represent an intellectual dead end, as these ideas do little to help resolve real-world health issues and also negate the need for the academic discrimination of bad ideas. I examine some of the philosophical foundations of nursing theory and deconstruct some of the more preternatural theories that have become established as the dominant conventional wisdom in the academy. It is argued that this can be characterized as a form of self-deception, and overall has had a negative impact on advancement of the nursing profession and public health care. Reasons behind the widespread acceptance of these irrational theoretical stances in nursing and the ongoing support for mystical therapeutic interventions are explored. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Research on the laser angle deception jamming technology of laser countermeasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shi-wei; Chen, Wen-jian; Gao, Wei; Duan, Yuan-yuan

    2015-10-01

    In recent years , laser guided weapons behave very well at destroying the military goals in the local wars, the single-shot probability, effective range and hitting precision getting better. And the semi-active laser guided weapons are the most widely used laser guided weapons. In order to improve the viability and protect important military goals, it's necessary to study the technology to against the semi-active guided weapons. This paper studies the working principle, the advantages and disadvantages of the semi-active guided weapons at first, and analyze the possibility of laser angle deception jamming system working. Then it analyzes the working principle and process of laser angle deception jamming technology. Finally it designs a half-real simulation system of laser angle deception jamming, which consists of semi-active laser guided weapons simulation system and laser angle deception jamming system. The simulation system demonstrates the working process of the laser angle deception jamming system. This paper provides fundamental base for the research on the countermeasure technology of semi-active laser guided weapons.

  8. The truth about lying: inhibition of the anterior prefrontal cortex improves deceptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Karim, Ahmed A; Schneider, Markus; Lotze, Martin; Veit, Ralf; Sauseng, Paul; Braun, Christoph; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have indicated a predominant role of the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) in deception and moral cognition, yet the functional contribution of the aPFC to deceptive behavior remains unknown. We hypothesized that modulating the excitability of the aPFC by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could reveal its functional contribution in generating deceitful responses. Forty-four healthy volunteers participated in a thief role-play in which they were supposed to steal money and then to attend an interrogation with the Guilty Knowledge Test. During the interrogation, participants received cathodal, anodal, or sham tDCS. Remarkably, inhibition of the aPFC by cathodal tDCS did not lead to an impairment of deceptive behavior but rather to a significant improvement. This effect manifested in faster reaction times in telling lies, but not in telling the truth, a decrease in sympathetic skin-conductance response and feelings of guilt while deceiving the interrogator and a significantly higher lying quotient reflecting skillful lying. Increasing the excitability of the aPFC by anodal tDCS did not affect deceptive behavior, confirming the specificity of the stimulation polarity. These findings give causal support to recent correlative data obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging studies indicating a pivotal role of the aPFC in deception.

  9. Deception and false belief in paranoia: modelling theory of mind stories.

    PubMed

    Shryane, Nick M; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Rowse, Georgina; Moore, Rosanne; Cummins, Sinead; Blackwood, Nigel; Howard, Robert; Bentall, Richard P

    2008-01-01

    This study used Item Response Theory (IRT) to model the psychometric properties of a Theory of Mind (ToM) stories task. The study also aimed to determine whether the ability to understand states of false belief in others and the ability to understand another's intention to deceive are separable skills, and to establish which is more sensitive to the presence of paranoia. A large and diverse clinical and nonclinical sample differing in levels of depression and paranoid ideation performed a ToM stories task measuring false belief and deception at first and second order. A three-factor IRT model was found to best fit the data, consisting of first- and second-order deception factors and a single false-belief factor. The first-order deception and false-belief factors had good measurement properties at low trait levels, appropriate for samples with reduced ToM ability. First-order deception and false beliefs were both sensitive to paranoid ideation with IQ predicting performance on false belief items. Separable abilities were found to underlie performance on verbal ToM tasks. However, paranoia was associated with impaired performance on both false belief and deception understanding with clear impairment at the simplest level of mental state attribution.

  10. A Mosaic of Geothermal and Marine Features Shapes Microbial Community Structure on Deception Island Volcano, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Bendia, Amanda G; Signori, Camila N; Franco, Diego C; Duarte, Rubens T D; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Pellizari, Vivian H

    2018-01-01

    Active volcanoes in Antarctica contrast with their predominantly cold surroundings, resulting in environmental conditions capable of selecting for versatile and extremely diverse microbial communities. This is especially true on Deception Island, where geothermal, marine, and polar environments combine to create an extraordinary range of environmental conditions. Our main goal in this study was to understand how microbial community structure is shaped by gradients of temperature, salinity, and geochemistry in polar marine volcanoes. Thereby, we collected surface sediment samples associated with fumaroles and glaciers at two sites on Deception, with temperatures ranging from 0 to 98°C. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to assess the composition and diversity of Bacteria and Archaea. Our results revealed that Deception harbors a combination of taxonomic groups commonly found both in cold and geothermal environments of continental Antarctica, and also groups normally identified at deep and shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, such as hyperthermophilic archaea. We observed a clear separation in microbial community structure across environmental gradients, suggesting that microbial community structure is strongly niche driven on Deception. Bacterial community structure was significantly associated with temperature, pH, salinity, and chemical composition; in contrast, archaeal community structure was strongly associated only with temperature. Our work suggests that Deception represents a peculiar "open-air" laboratory to elucidate central questions regarding molecular adaptability, microbial evolution, and biogeography of extremophiles in polar regions.

  11. A Mosaic of Geothermal and Marine Features Shapes Microbial Community Structure on Deception Island Volcano, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Bendia, Amanda G.; Signori, Camila N.; Franco, Diego C.; Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Pellizari, Vivian H.

    2018-01-01

    Active volcanoes in Antarctica contrast with their predominantly cold surroundings, resulting in environmental conditions capable of selecting for versatile and extremely diverse microbial communities. This is especially true on Deception Island, where geothermal, marine, and polar environments combine to create an extraordinary range of environmental conditions. Our main goal in this study was to understand how microbial community structure is shaped by gradients of temperature, salinity, and geochemistry in polar marine volcanoes. Thereby, we collected surface sediment samples associated with fumaroles and glaciers at two sites on Deception, with temperatures ranging from 0 to 98°C. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to assess the composition and diversity of Bacteria and Archaea. Our results revealed that Deception harbors a combination of taxonomic groups commonly found both in cold and geothermal environments of continental Antarctica, and also groups normally identified at deep and shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, such as hyperthermophilic archaea. We observed a clear separation in microbial community structure across environmental gradients, suggesting that microbial community structure is strongly niche driven on Deception. Bacterial community structure was significantly associated with temperature, pH, salinity, and chemical composition; in contrast, archaeal community structure was strongly associated only with temperature. Our work suggests that Deception represents a peculiar “open-air” laboratory to elucidate central questions regarding molecular adaptability, microbial evolution, and biogeography of extremophiles in polar regions. PMID:29867810

  12. An event-related potential study of deception to self preferences.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shen; Li, Hong; Jou, Jerwen; Zhang, Qinglin; Wang, Ting; Yu, Caiyun; Qiu, Jiang

    2009-01-09

    The spatiotemporal analysis of brain activation during the execution of deceptive decision-making was performed in 14 normal young adult subjects by using high-density event-related brain potentials (ERPs) with a delayed-response paradigm (subjects were required to hide their true attitudes for a moment). Our results showed that between 400 and 700 ms after stimulus onset, Deceptive items elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N400-700) than Truthful items, and between 1000 and 2000 ms, Deceptive items elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P1000-2000) than Truthful items. Analyses using dipole locations indicated that: (1) the generators of N400-700 were localized in the medial frontal gyrus (GFM) and middle temporal gyrus (GTM), which might be involved in conflict detection and control during deceptive decision-making; and (2) the generators of P1000-2000 were localized near the cuneus (CU) and the cingulate gyrus, which might be involved in conflict coordination in working memory due to deception.

  13. Subliminal Salience Search Illustrated: EEG Identity and Deception Detection on the Fringe of Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Howard; Filetti, Marco; Janssen, Dirk; Su, Li; Alsufyani, Abdulmajeed; Wyble, Brad

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel deception detection system based on Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP). One motivation for the new method is to present stimuli on the fringe of awareness, such that it is more difficult for deceivers to confound the deception test using countermeasures. The proposed system is able to detect identity deception (by using the first names of participants) with a 100% hit rate (at an alpha level of 0.05). To achieve this, we extended the classic Event-Related Potential (ERP) techniques (such as peak-to-peak) by applying Randomisation, a form of Monte Carlo resampling, which we used to detect deception at an individual level. In order to make the deployment of the system simple and rapid, we utilised data from three electrodes only: Fz, Cz and Pz. We then combined data from the three electrodes using Fisher's method so that each participant was assigned a single p-value, which represents the combined probability that a specific participant was being deceptive. We also present subliminal salience search as a general method to determine what participants find salient by detecting breakthrough into conscious awareness using EEG. PMID:23372697

  14. The politics and strategy of industry self-regulation: the pharmaceutical industry's principles for ethical direct-to-consumer advertising as a deceptive blocking strategy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Denis G; Oakley, James L

    2013-06-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry lobbies European regulators to permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the European Union, we found that five leading companies violated industry-developed and -promulgated standards for ethical advertising in the United States. Utilizing multiple data sources and methods, we demonstrate a consistent failure by companies that market erectile dysfunction drugs to comply with the industry's guiding principles for ethical DTCA over a four-year period despite pledges of compliance by company leaders. Noncompliance resulted in children being exposed to sexually themed promotional messages more than 100 billion times. We argue that the guidelines are a coordinated effort by the industry to prevent unwanted federal regulation, and we introduce the concept of a blocking strategy to explain company behavior and to advance theoretical understanding of firms' public affairs strategies. We recommend policy responses to prevent deceptive practices, protect children from adult content, and promote genuine health care education.

  15. Some results from studies on the effects of weightlessness on the growth of epiphytic orchids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherevchenko, T. M.; Mayko, T. K.

    1983-01-01

    Epidendrum orchids were placed in a Malakhit-2 micro-greenhouse aboard the Soyuz-36-Salyut-6 space station to test their growth under weightless conditions. Growth occurred but was less than in control plants left on Earth; cells were smaller and parenchymal development slowed in all tissues. Stems, roots, and leaves were smaller. The number of stomas on the leaves was about the same as in the controls, but, because of the smaller leaf size, there were more per unit area. A modeling experiment using a clinostat revealed a large decrease in gibberellin activity and auxin activity. It was assumed that weightlessness primarily affects gibberellin biosynthesis, inhibiting cell growth. Reestablishment of growth compound activity upon return of the plants to Earth was indicated by the fact that the orchids resumed growth thereafter.

  16. Large-Range Movements of Neotropical Orchid Bees Observed via Radio Telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Wikelski, Martin; Moxley, Jerry; Eaton-Mordas, Alexander; López-Uribe, Margarita M.; Holland, Richard; Moskowitz, David; Roubik, David W.; Kays, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) are often cited as classic examples of trapline-foragers with potentially extensive foraging ranges. If long-distance movements are habitual, rare plants in widely scattered locations may benefit from euglossine pollination services. Here we report the first successful use of micro radio telemetry to track the movement of an insect pollinator in a complex and forested environment. Our results indicate that individual male orchid bees (Exaerete frontalis) habitually use large rainforest areas (at least 42–115 ha) on a daily basis. Aerial telemetry located individuals up to 5 km away from their core areas, and bees were often stationary, for variable periods, between flights to successive localities. These data suggest a higher degree of site fidelity than what may be expected in a free living male bee, and has implications for our understanding of biological activity patterns and the evolution of forest pollinators. PMID:20520813

  17. Comparison of orchid and OCD modeling SO{sub x} release in the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.C.; Burns, D.S.; Steorts, W.L.

    1996-10-01

    Two atmospheric chemistry and transport models are used to investigate the atmospheric behavior of SO{sub x} in the Gulf of Mexico. SO{sub x} emissions from a location about 30 miles offshore in the Gulf of Mexico will be modeled with ENSCO`s Short-range Layered Atmospheric Model (SLAM) and the EPA and Material Management Service (MMS) sanctioned Offshore and Coastal Dispersion Model (OCD). The atmospheric chemistry associated with SLAM is modeled using ENSCO`s ORganic CHemistry Integrated Dispersion Model (ORCHID) and has been developed from the Carbon Bond Mechanism (CBM-IV) to characterize the behavior of SO{sub x} compounds in the environment. Model runsmore » from both ORCHID and OCD will be presented and compared. Predicted SO{sub x} concentrations will be compared with actual data gathered from the MMS`s SO{sub x} air quality study in 1993.« less

  18. Effect of simulated microgravitation on phytohormones and cell structure of tropical orchids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherevchenko, T.; Zaimenko, N.; Majko, T.; Sytnjanskaja, N.

    When studing the effect of two month clinostating on the phytohormonal system of orchids with different types of shoot system branching and different shoot morphology, it was determined that, as a result of simulated microgravitation, endogenous growth regulators changed less in the species with sympodial branching than in species with monopodial branching and without pseudobulbs. Stimulators prevail in the balance of growth regulators in species of the first type and inhibitors in species of the second type. Besides this, comparative analysis of structural organization of juvenile leaf surface tissue of tested orchids was carried out. Variability of size, number and structure of stomatal organization were found according to species belonging to each branching type after clinostating. Electronic microscope studies show some structural peculiarities of epidermal and mesophilous cells.

  19. Diversity of fungi associated with roots of Calanthe orchid species in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Soo; Eimes, John A; Oh, Sang Hoon; Suh, Hwa Jung; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Lee, Seobihn; Park, Ki Hyeong; Kwon, Hyuk Joon; Kim, Soo-Young; Lim, Young Woon

    2018-01-01

    While symbiotic fungi play a key role in the growth of endangered Calanthe orchid species, the relationship between fungal diversity and Calanthe species remains unclear. Here, we surveyed root associated fungal diversity of six Calanthe orchid species by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region using 454 pyrosequencing. Our results revealed that Paraboeremia and Coprinopsis are dominant fungal genera among Calanthe species. In terms of overall relative abundance, Paraboeremia was the most common fungal genus associated with Calanthe roots, followed by Coprinopsis. Overall fungal diversity showed a significant degree of variation depending on both location and Calanthe species. In terms of number of different fungal genera detected within Calanthe species, C. discolor had the most diverse fungal community, with 10 fungal genera detected. This study will contribute toward a better understanding of those fungi that are required for successful cultivation and conservation of Korean Calanthe species.

  20. Deception Dissociates from False Belief Reasoning in Deaf Children: Implications for the Implicit versus Explicit Theory of Mind Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Peter A.; de Villiers, Jill G.

    2012-01-01

    Deception is a controversial aspect of theory of mind, and researchers disagree about whether it entails an understanding of the false beliefs of one's opponent. The present study asks whether children with delayed language and delayed explicit false belief reasoning can succeed on explicit deception tasks. Participants were 45 orally taught deaf…

  1. 49 CFR 1103.32 - Discovery of imposition and deception and duty to report corrupt or dishonest conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery of imposition and deception and duty to report corrupt or dishonest conduct. 1103.32 Section 1103.32 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Litigants and the Public § 1103.32 Discovery of imposition and deception and duty to report corrupt or...

  2. Darwin's bee-trap: The kinetics of Catasetum, a new world orchid.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Charles C; Bales, James W; Palmer-Fortune, Joyce E; Nicholson, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    The orchid genera Catasetum employs a hair-trigger activated, pollen release mechanism, which forcibly attaches pollen sacs onto foraging insects in the New World tropics. This remarkable adaptation was studied extensively by Charles Darwin and he termed this rapid response "sensitiveness." Using high speed video cameras with a frame speed of 1000 fps, this rapid release was filmed and from the subsequent footage, velocity, speed, acceleration, force and kinetic energy were computed.

  3. Estimating the extent and structure of trade in horticultural orchids via social media.

    PubMed

    Hinsley, Amy; Lee, Tamsin E; Harrison, Joseph R; Roberts, David L

    2016-10-01

    The wildlife trade is a lucrative industry involving thousands of animal and plant species. The increasing use of the internet for both legal and illegal wildlife trade is well documented, but there is evidence that trade may be emerging on new online technologies such as social media. Using the orchid trade as a case study, we conducted the first systematic survey of wildlife trade on an international social-media website. We focused on themed forums (groups), where people with similar interests can interact by uploading images or text (posts) that are visible to other group members. We used social-network analysis to examine the ties between 150 of these orchid-themed groups to determine the structure of the network. We found 4 communities of closely linked groups based around shared language. Most trade occurred in a community that consisted of English-speaking and Southeast Asian groups. In addition to the network analysis, we randomly sampled 30 groups from the whole network to assess the prevalence of trade in cultivated and wild plants. Of 55,805 posts recorded over 12 weeks, 8.9% contained plants for sale, and 22-46% of these posts pertained to wild-collected orchids. Although total numbers of posts about trade were relatively small, the large proportion of posts advertising wild orchids for sale supports calls for better monitoring of social media for trade in wild-collected plants. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. In planta transformation method for T-DNA transfer in orchids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiarti, Endang; Purwantoro, Aziz; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Anggriasari, Anida M.; Jang, Seonghoe; Suhandono, Sony; Machida, Yasunori; Machida, Chiyoko

    2014-03-01

    Transgenic plant technology is an efficient tool to study the function of gene(s) in plant. The most popular and widely used technique is Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in which cocultivation was done by immersing the plant tissues/organ in overnight bacterial cultured for about 30 minutes to one hour under in vitro condition. In this experiment, we developed more easier technique that omitted the in vitro step during cocultivation with Agrobacterium, namely in planta transformation method. Pollinaria (compact pollen mass of orchid) of Phalaenopsis amabilis and Spathoglottis plicata orchids were used as target explants that were immersed into bacterial culture for 30 minutes, then dried up the pollinaria, the transformed pollinaria was used to pollinate orchid flowers. The T-DNA used for this experiments were Ubipro∷PaFT/A. tumefaciens GV3101 for P. amabilis and MeEF1α2 pro∷GUS/ A. tumefaciens LBA 4404 for S.plicata. Seeds that were produced from pollinated flowers were grown onto 10 mg/l hygromicin containing NP (New Phalaenopsis) medium. The existance of transgene in putative transformant protocorm (developing orchid embryo) genome was confirmed using PCR with specific primers of either PaFT or GUS genes. Histochemical GUS assay was also performed to the putative transformants. The result showed that transformation frequencies were 2.1 % in P. amabilis, and 0,53% in S. plicata. These results indicates that in planta transformation method could be used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, with advantage easier and more secure work from contaminants than that of the in vitro method.

  5. First Report of Sclerotium Rot on Cymbidium Orchids Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Chan; Lee, Jung-Sup; Soh, Jae-Woo; Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Sclerotium rot was found on Cymbidium orchids at Seosan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea, in July, 2010. Symptoms occurred on low leaves, which turned yellowish, after which the entire plant wilted. Severely infected plants were blighted and eventually died. White mycelial mats and sclerotia appeared on pseudobulbs. Based on the mycological characteristics and pathogenicity, the causal fungus was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii. This is the first report of new Sclerotium rot on Cymbidium spp. caused by S. rolfsii in Korea. PMID:23323053

  6. A garden of orchids: a generalized Harper equation at quadratic irrational frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestel, B. D.; Osbaldestin, A. H.

    2004-10-01

    We consider a generalized Harper equation at quadratic irrational flux, showing, in the strong coupling limit, the fluctuations of the exponentially decaying eigenfunctions are governed by the dynamics of a renormalization operator on a renormalization strange set. This work generalizes previous analyses which have considered only the golden mean case. Projections of the renormalization strange sets are illustrated analogous to the 'orchid' present in the golden mean case.

  7. Intraspecific geographic variation of fragrances acquired by orchid bees in native and introduced populations.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Santiago R; Eltz, Thomas; Fritzsch, Falko; Pemberton, Robert; Pringle, Elizabeth G; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2010-08-01

    Male orchid bees collect volatiles, from both floral and non-floral sources, that they expose as pheromone analogues (perfumes) during courtship display. The chemical profile of these perfumes, which includes terpenes and aromatic compounds, is both species-specific and divergent among closely related lineages. Thus, fragrance composition is thought to play an important role in prezygotic reproductive isolation in euglossine bees. However, because orchid bees acquire fragrances entirely from exogenous sources, the chemical composition of male perfumes is prone to variation due to environmental heterogeneity across habitats. We used Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize the perfumes of 114 individuals of the green orchid bee (Euglossa aff. viridissima) sampled from five native populations in Mesoamerica and two naturalized populations in the southeastern United States. We recorded a total of 292 fragrance compounds from hind-leg extracts, and found that overall perfume composition was different for each population. We detected a pronounced chemical dissimilarity between native (Mesoamerica) and naturalized (U.S.) populations that was driven both by proportional differences of common compounds as well as the presence of a few chemicals unique to each population group. Despite these differences, our data also revealed remarkable qualitative consistency in the presence of several major fragrance compounds across distant populations from dissimilar habitats. In addition, we demonstrate that naturalized bees are attracted to and collect large quantities of triclopyr 2-butoxyethyl ester, the active ingredient of several commercially available herbicides. By comparing incidence values and consistency indices across populations, we identify putative functional compounds that may play an important role in courtship signaling in this species of orchid bee.

  8. Intraspecific Geographic Variation of Fragrances Acquired by Orchid Bees in Native and Introduced Populations

    PubMed Central

    Eltz, Thomas; Fritzsch, Falko; Pemberton, Robert; Pringle, Elizabeth G.; Tsutsui, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    Male orchid bees collect volatiles, from both floral and non-floral sources, that they expose as pheromone analogues (perfumes) during courtship display. The chemical profile of these perfumes, which includes terpenes and aromatic compounds, is both species-specific and divergent among closely related lineages. Thus, fragrance composition is thought to play an important role in prezygotic reproductive isolation in euglossine bees. However, because orchid bees acquire fragrances entirely from exogenous sources, the chemical composition of male perfumes is prone to variation due to environmental heterogeneity across habitats. We used Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize the perfumes of 114 individuals of the green orchid bee (Euglossa aff. viridissima) sampled from five native populations in Mesoamerica and two naturalized populations in the southeastern United States. We recorded a total of 292 fragrance compounds from hind-leg extracts, and found that overall perfume composition was different for each population. We detected a pronounced chemical dissimilarity between native (Mesoamerica) and naturalized (U.S.) populations that was driven both by proportional differences of common compounds as well as the presence of a few chemicals unique to each population group. Despite these differences, our data also revealed remarkable qualitative consistency in the presence of several major fragrance compounds across distant populations from dissimilar habitats. In addition, we demonstrate that naturalized bees are attracted to and collect large quantities of triclopyr 2-butoxyethyl ester, the active ingredient of several commercially available herbicides. By comparing incidence values and consistency indices across populations, we identify putative functional compounds that may play an important role in courtship signaling in this species of orchid bee. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886

  9. Why are orchid flowers so diverse? Reduction of evolutionary constraints by paralogues of class B floral homeotic genes

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana; Theißen, Günter

    2009-01-01

    Background The nearly 30 000 species of orchids produce flowers of unprecedented diversity. However, whether specific genetic mechanisms contributed to this diversity is a neglected topic and remains speculative. We recently published a theory, the ‘orchid code’, maintaining that the identity of the different perianth organs is specified by the combinatorial interaction of four DEF-like MADS-box genes with other floral homeotic genes. Scope Here the developmental and evolutionary implications of our theory are explored. Specifically, it is shown that all frequent floral terata, including all peloric types, can be explained by monogenic gain- or-loss-of-function mutants, changing either expression of a DEF-like or CYC-like gene. Supposed dominance or recessiveness of mutant alleles is correlated with the frequency of terata in both cultivation and nature. Our findings suggest that changes in DEF- and CYC-like genes not only underlie terata but also the natural diversity of orchid species. We argue, however, that true changes in organ identity are rare events in the evolution of orchid flowers, even though we review some likely cases. Conclusions The four DEF paralogues shaped floral diversity in orchids in a dramatic way by modularizing the floral perianth based on a complex series of sub- and neo-functionalization events. These genes may have eliminated constraints, so that different kinds of perianth organs could then evolve individually and thus often in dramatically different ways in response to selection by pollinators or by genetic drift. We therefore argue that floral diversity in orchids may be the result of an unprecedented developmental genetic predisposition that originated early in orchid evolution. PMID:19141602

  10. Microsatellite primers for two threatened orchids in Florida: Encyclia tampensis and Cyrtopodium punctatum (Orchidaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Weremijewicz, Joanna; Almonte, Jasmin I.; Hilaire, Vanessa S.; Lopez, Frank D.; Lu, Stephen H.; Marrero, Sarah M.; Martinez, Catherine M.; Zarate, Edson A.; Lam, Ana K.; Ferguson, Samantha A. N.; Petrakis, Nicolas Z.; Peeples, Kelsey A.; Taylor, Ebony D.; Leon, Natalie M.; Valdes, Carolina; Hass, Michael; Reeve, Andrew B.; Palow, Danielle T.; Downing, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: The Million Orchid Project at Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden is an initiative to propagate native orchids for reintroduction into Miami’s urban landscapes. The aim of this study was to develop microsatellites for Encyclia tampensis and Cyrtopodium punctatum (Orchidaceae). Methods and Results: Ten microsatellites were developed for each species. For E. tampensis sampled from the natural population, allele numbers ranged from one to four, with an average observed heterozygosity (Ho) of 0.314 and average expected heterozygosity (He) of 0.281. For the individuals from cultivation, allele numbers ranged from one to six, with an average Ho of 0.35 and an average He of 0.224. For C. punctatum, allele numbers ranged from one to three, with an average Ho of 0.257 and an average He of 0.272. Conclusions: These microsatellites will be used to assess the genetic diversity of natural and cultivated populations with the intention of guiding genetic breeding under the Million Orchid Project. PMID:27144103

  11. Evolutionary history of PEPC genes in green plants: Implications for the evolution of CAM in orchids.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hua; Zhang, Liang-Sheng; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zheng, Bao-Qiang; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene is the key enzyme in CAM and C4 photosynthesis. A detailed phylogenetic analysis of the PEPC family was performed using sequences from 60 available published plant genomes, the Phalaenopsis equestris genome and RNA-Seq of 15 additional orchid species. The PEPC family consists of three distinct subfamilies, PPC-1, PPC-2, and PPC-3, all of which share a recent common ancestor in chlorophyte algae. The eudicot PPC-1 lineage separated into two clades due to whole genome duplication (WGD). Similarly, the monocot PPC-1 lineage also divided into PPC-1M1 and PPC-1M2 through an ancient duplication event. The monocot CAM- or C4-related PEPC originated from the clade PPC-1M1. WGD may not be the major driver for the performance of CAM function by PEPC, although it increased the number of copies of the PEPC gene. CAM may have evolved early in monocots, as the CAM-related PEPC of orchids originated from the monocot ancient duplication, and the earliest CAM-related PEPC may have evolved immediately after the diversification of monocots, with CAM developing prior to C4. Our results represent the most complete evolutionary history of PEPC genes in green plants to date and particularly elucidate the origin of PEPC in orchids. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microsatellite primers for two threatened orchids in Florida: Encyclia tampensis and Cyrtopodium punctatum (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Weremijewicz, Joanna; Almonte, Jasmin I; Hilaire, Vanessa S; Lopez, Frank D; Lu, Stephen H; Marrero, Sarah M; Martinez, Catherine M; Zarate, Edson A; Lam, Ana K; Ferguson, Samantha A N; Petrakis, Nicolas Z; Peeples, Kelsey A; Taylor, Ebony D; Leon, Natalie M; Valdes, Carolina; Hass, Michael; Reeve, Andrew B; Palow, Danielle T; Downing, Jason L

    2016-04-01

    The Million Orchid Project at Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden is an initiative to propagate native orchids for reintroduction into Miami's urban landscapes. The aim of this study was to develop microsatellites for Encyclia tampensis and Cyrtopodium punctatum (Orchidaceae). Ten microsatellites were developed for each species. For E. tampensis sampled from the natural population, allele numbers ranged from one to four, with an average observed heterozygosity (H o) of 0.314 and average expected heterozygosity (H e) of 0.281. For the individuals from cultivation, allele numbers ranged from one to six, with an average H o of 0.35 and an average H e of 0.224. For C. punctatum, allele numbers ranged from one to three, with an average H o of 0.257 and an average H e of 0.272. These microsatellites will be used to assess the genetic diversity of natural and cultivated populations with the intention of guiding genetic breeding under the Million Orchid Project.

  13. Mycoheterotrophic germination of Pyrola asarifolia dust seeds reveals convergences with germination in orchids.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yasushi; Fukukawa, Satoru; Kunishi, Ayako; Suga, Haruhisa; Richard, Franck; Sauve, Mathieu; Selosse, Marc-André

    2012-08-01

    Dust seeds that germinate by obtaining nutrients from symbiotic fungi have evolved independently in orchids and 11 other plant lineages. The fungi involved in this 'mycoheterotrophic' germination have been identified in some orchids and non-photosynthetic Ericaceae, and proved identical to mycorrhizal fungi of adult plants. We investigated a third lineage, the Pyroleae, chlorophyllous Ericaceae species whose partial mycoheterotrophy at adulthood has recently attracted much attention. We observed experimental Pyrola asarifolia germination at four Japanese sites and investigated the germination pattern and symbiotic fungi, which we compared to mycorrhizal fungi of adult plants. Adult P. asarifolia, like other Pyroleae, associated with diverse fungal species that were a subset of those mycorrhizal on surrounding trees. Conversely, seedlings specifically associated with a lineage of Sebacinales clade B (endophytic Basidiomycetes) revealed an intriguing evolutionary convergence with orchids, some of which also germinate with Sebacinales clade B. Congruently, seedlings clustered spatially together, but not with adults. This unexpected transition in specificity and ecology of partners could support the developmental transition from full to partial mycoheterotrophy, but probably challenges survival and distribution during development. We discuss the physiological and ecological traits that predisposed to the repeated recruitment of Sebacinales clade B for dust seed germination. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. NIR-assisted orchid virus therapy using urchin bimetallic nanomaterials in phalaenopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shin-Yu; Cheng, Liang-Chien; Chen, Chieh-Wei; Lee, Po-Han; Yu, Fengjiao; Zhou, Wuzong; Liu, Ru-Shi; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2013-12-01

    The use of nanoparticles has drawn special attention, particularly in the treatment of plant diseases. Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) and Odontoglossum ring spot virus (ORSV) are the most prevalent and serious diseases that affect the development of the orchid industry. In this study we treated nanoparticles as a strategy for enhancing the resistance of orchids against CymMV and ORSV. After chitosan-modified gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were injected into Phalaenopsis leaves, the injected leaves were exposed to 980 nm laser for light-heat conversion. To evaluate virus elimination in the treated Phalaenopsis leaves, the transcripts of coat protein genes and the production of viral proteins were assessed by reverse transcription-Polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The expression of coat protein genes for both CymMV and ORSV was significantly lower in the chitosan-modified Au NP-treated Phalaenopsis leaves than in the control. Similarly, the amount of coat proteins for both viruses in the Phalaenopsis leaves was lower than that in the control (without nanoparticle injection). We propose that the temperature increase in the chitosan-modified Au NP-treated Phalaenopsis tissues after laser exposure reduces the viral population, consequently conferring resistance against CymMV and ORSV. Our findings suggest that the application of chitosan-modified Au NPs is a promising new strategy for orchid virus therapy.

  15. The long pollen tube journey and in vitro pollen germination of Phalaenopsis orchids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jhun-Chen; Fang, Su-Chiung

    2016-06-01

    Pollen biology in P. aphrodite. Orchids have a distinct reproductive program. Pollination triggers ovule development and differentiation within flowers, and fertilization occurs days to months after pollination. It is unclear how pollen tubes travel through the developing ovaries during ovule development and when pollen tubes arrive at the mature embryo sac to achieve fertilization. Here, we report a robust staining protocol to image and record the timing of pollen germination, progressive growth of pollen tubes in ovaries, and arrival of pollen tubes at embryo sacs in Phalaenopsis aphrodite. The pollen germinated and pollen tubes entered the ovary 3 days after pollination. Pollen tubes continued to grow and filled the entire cavity of the ovary as the ovary elongated and ovules developed. Pollen tubes were found to enter the matured embryo sacs at approximately 60-65 days after pollination in an acropetal manner. Moreover, these temporal changes in developmental events such as growth of pollen tubes and fertilization were associated with expression of molecular markers. In addition, we developed an in vitro pollen germination protocol, which is valuable to enable studies on pollen tube guidance and tip growth regulation in Phalaenopsis orchids and possibly in other orchid species.

  16. Production of virus-free orchid Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. by various tissue culture techniques.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Shreeti; Regmi, Tripti; Ranjit, Mukunda; Pant, Bijaya

    2016-10-01

    Orchids are affected by many viruses resulting in poor growth, yield and quality, and an overall decline in population. Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) is one of the common orchid viruses found in Cymbidium species but it infects different orchid genera. In this study Cymbidium aloifolium was propagated in vitro using MS medium at different strength (1.0, ½, and ¼) with or without 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.5 mg/l NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid). To provide disease-free planting material, source plant for in vitro propagation needs to be screened for pathogenic viruses. In the present study, in vivo -grown source (mother) plants and tissue culture-derived plants of C. aloifolium were tested for CymMV virus using Double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). All the tissue cultured plants were found to be 100% virus-free whereas the in vivo grown source plants were highly affected by CymMV virus (83.33%). The virus-free in vitro plantlets were multiplied in large scale and then acclimatized on earthen pot containing a mixture of cocopeat, litter and clay in the ratio of 3:2:1. Eighty five percent of acclimatized plantlets survived making this method an efficient mass production system for high quality virus-free C. aloifolium for commercial floriculture and germplasm preservation.

  17. Highly diversified fungi are associated with the achlorophyllous orchid Gastrodia flavilabella.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tsunglin; Li, Ching-Min; Han, Yue-Lun; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Sung, Huang-Mo

    2015-03-14

    Mycoheterotrophic orchids are achlorophyllous plants that obtain carbon and nutrients from their mycorrhizal fungi. They often show strong preferential association with certain fungi and may obtain nutrients from surrounding photosynthetic plants through ectomycorrhizal fungi. Gastrodia is a large genus of mycoheterotrophic orchids in Asia, but Gastrodia species' association with fungi has not been well studied. We asked two questions: (1) whether certain fungi were preferentially associated with G. flavilabella, which is an orchid in Taiwan and (2) whether fungal associations of G. flavilabella were affected by the composition of fungi in the environment. Using next-generation sequencing, we studied the fungal communities in the tubers of Gastrodia flavilabella and the surrounding soil. We found (1) highly diversified fungi in the G. flavilabella tubers, (2) that Mycena species were the predominant fungi in the tubers but minor in the surrounding soil, and (3) the fungal communities in the G. flavilabella tubers were clearly distinct from those in the surrounding soil. We also found that the fungal composition in soil can change quickly with distance. G. flavilabella was associated with many more fungi than previously thought. Among the fungi in the tuber of G. flavilabella, Mycena species were predominant, different from the previous finding that adult G. elata depends on Armillaria species for nutritional supply. Moreover, the preferential fungus association of G. flavilabella was not significantly influenced by the composition of fungi in the environment.

  18. The Anther Steps onto the Stigma for Self-Fertilization in a Slipper Orchid

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xin-Ju; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Huang, Jie; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Due to the spatial separation between male and female pollen grains from the anther of most flowering plants, including orchids, pollens are transported by wind or animals and deposited onto the receptive surface of the stigma of a different plant. However, self-pollination is common in pollinating animal-scarce habitats. In such habitats, self-pollinations require the assistance of a pollinating agent (e.g., wind, gravity, or floral assembly) to transport the pollen grains from the anther onto its own stigma. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on observations on floral morphology and flowering phenology, tests of the breeding system, and a comparison of pollination mechanisms, a new self-pollination process was discovered in the hermaphroditic (i.e., possessing spatially separated male and female organs) flower of a slipper orchid, Paphiopedilum parishii. The anther changes from a solid to a liquid state and directly steps onto the stigma surface without the aid of any pollinating agent or floral assembly. Conclusions The mode of self-pollination discussed here is a new addition to the broad range of genetic and morphological mechanisms that have evolved in flowering plants to ensure their reproductive success. The present self-contained pollination mechanism is a possible adaptation to the insect-scarce habitat of the orchid. PMID:22649529

  19. Effects of Melatonin on Colchicine-Treated PLBs of Dendrobium sonia-28 Orchid.

    PubMed

    Lim, M S; Antony, J J J; Islam, S M Shahinul; Suhana, Z; Sreeramanan, S

    2017-01-01

    Dendrobium hybrid orchid is popular in orchid commercial industry due to its short life cycle and ability to produce various types of flower colours. This study was conducted to identify the morphological, biochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis in the Dendrobium sonia-28 orchid plants. In this study, 0.05 and 0.075 % of colchicine-treated Dendrobium sonia-28 (4-week-old culture) protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were treated in different concentrations of melatonin (MEL) posttreatments (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM). Morphological parameters such as number of shoots, growth index and number of PLBs were determined. In the 0.05 and 0.075 % of colchicine-treated PLBs which were posttreated with 0.05 μM MEL resulted in the highest value of the morphological parameters tested based on the number of shoots (84.5 and 96.67), growth index (16.94 and 12.15) and number of PLBs (126.5 and 162.33), respectively. SEM analysis of the 0.05 μM MEL posttreatment on both the colchicine-treated regenerated PLBs showed irregular cell lineages, and some damages occurred on the stomata. This condition might be due to the effect of plasmolyzing occurred in the cell causing irregular cell lineages.

  20. Do rewardless orchids show a positive relationship between phenotypic diversity and reproductive success?

    PubMed

    Smithson, Ann; Juillet, Nicolas; Macnair, Mark R; Gigord, Luc D B

    2007-02-01

    Among rewardless orchids, pollinator sampling behavior has been suggested to drive a positive relationship between population phenotypic variability and absolute reproductive success, and hence population fitness. We tested this hypothesis by constructing experimental arrays using the rewardless orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina, which is dimorphic for corolla color. We found no evidence that polymorphic arrays had higher mean reproductive success than monomorphic arrays for pollinia removal, pollen deposition, or fruit set. For pollinia removal, monomorphic yellow arrays had significantly greater reproductive success, and monomorphic red the least. A tendency for yellow arrays to have higher pollen deposition was also found. We argue that differential population fitness was most likely to reflect differential numbers of pollinators attracted to arrays, through preferential long-distance attraction to arrays with yellow inflorescences. Correlative studies of absolute reproductive success in 52 populations of D. sambucina supported our experimental results. To our knowledge this is the first study to suggest that attraction of a greater number of pollinators to rewardless orchids may be of greater functional importance to population fitness, and thus ecology and conservation, than are the behavioral sequences of individual pollinators.

  1. The volumetric flux through Deception Pass, Washington and its effects on the circulation in the Whidbey Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, K. R.

    2002-05-01

    The volumetric flux through Deception Pass, Washington will be determined by using tidal height differences between Bowman and Cornet Bays, which are located on the seaward and landward sides of Deception Pass respectively in Deception Pass State Park. Hydrolab sensors for measuring temperature, salinity and fluid depth will be attached to public boat docks in each of these bays. The numerical Puget Sound Regional Synthesis Model, PRISM, will be run with and without the flux through Deception Pass and compared to determine theoretically whether or not the flow through Deception Pass plays a significant role in the circulation of the Whidbey Basin, which could affect the circulation in the northern part of the Main Basin known as the Triple Junction. This could influence water movement near the new sewer outfall that King County is proposing to build in that area.

  2. Deception Detection: The Relationship of Levels of Trust and Perspective Taking in Real-Time Online and Offline Communication Environments.

    PubMed

    Friend, Catherine; Fox Hamilton, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Where humans have been found to detect lies or deception only at the rate of chance in offline face-to-face communication (F2F), computer-mediated communication (CMC) online can elicit higher rates of trust and sharing of personal information than F2F. How do levels of trust and empathetic personality traits like perspective taking (PT) relate to deception detection in real-time CMC compared to F2F? A between groups correlational design (N = 40) demonstrated that, through a paired deceptive conversation task with confederates, levels of participant trust could predict accurate detection online but not offline. Second, participant PT abilities could not predict accurate detection in either conversation medium. Finally, this study found that conversation medium also had no effect on deception detection. This study finds support for the effects of the Truth Bias and online disinhibition in deception, and further implications in law enforcement are discussed.

  3. Trust and Deception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Social Learning Perspective.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiying; Tian, Yuan; Fang, Jing; Lu, Haoyang; Wei, Kunlin; Yi, Li

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated abnormal trust and deception behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and we aimed to examine whether these abnormalities were primarily due to their specific deficits in social learning. We tested 42 high-functioning children with ASD and 38 age- and ability-matched typically developing (TD) children in trust and deception tasks and a novel condition with reduced social components. Results indicated that while TD children improved their performance with more social components, children with ASD lacked this additional performance gain, though they performed similarly as TD children in the condition with reduced social components. Our findings highlight that deficits of ASD in trust and deception are primarily associated with failure of use of social cues.

  4. Temporal trends and bioavailability assessment of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-12-15

    Thirteen sites in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia were sampled three times over a period of 7 months and assessed for contamination by a range of heavy metals, primarily As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Hg. Fraction analysis, enrichment factors and Principal Components Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) analysis were conducted in order to identify the potential bioavailability of these elements of concern and their sources. Hg and Te were identified as the elements of highest enrichment in Deception Bay while marine sediments, shipping and antifouling agents were identified as the sources of the Weak Acid Extractable Metals (WE-M), with antifouling agents showing long residence time for mercury contamination. This has significant implications for the future of monitoring and regulation of heavy metal contamination within Deception Bay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Authority, Autonomy, and Deception: Evaluating the Legitimacy of Parental Authority and Adolescent Deceit.

    PubMed

    Gingo, Matthew; Roded, Alona D; Turiel, Elliot

    2017-12-01

    This research examined adolescents' judgments about lying to avoid parental control over different types of activities. Participants (N = 66, M age  = 16.38, 73% European American) were interviewed about hypothetical situations describing adolescents who defied parental directives and lied about their defiance. Judgments about the legitimacy of parents' directives and protagonists' deception differed by types of parent relationship with adolescents (mutual or unilateral). Directives were least accepted, and deception was most accepted, in the context of unilateral relationships. Judgments also differed by domain of the action (personal, prudential, or conventional). Participants were least accepting of parental directives, and most accepting of deception about personal activities. Findings indicate that adolescents value honesty and parental authority, but sometimes give priority to concerns with autonomy and mutuality. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  6. Little White Lies: Interrogating the (Un)acceptability of Deception in the Context of Dementia.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Aaron T; Stone, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    This metasynthesis surveyed extant literature on deception in the context of dementia and, based on specific inclusion criteria, included 14 articles from 12 research studies. By doing so, the authors accomplished three goals: (a) provided a systematic examination of the literature-to-date on deception in the context of dementia, (b) elucidated the assumptions that have guided this line of inquiry and articulated the way those shape the research findings, and (c) determined directions for future research. In particular, synthesizing across studies allowed the authors to develop a dynamic model comprised of three temporally linear elements-(a) motives, (b) modes, and (c) outcomes that describe how deception emerges communicatively through interaction in the context of dementia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Perceptual training effects on anticipation of direct and deceptive 7-m throws in handball.

    PubMed

    Alsharji, Khaled E; Wade, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of perceptual training on the performance of handball goalkeepers when anticipating the direction of both direct and deceptive 7-m throws. Skilled goalkeepers were assigned equally to three matched-ability groups based on their pre-test performance: a perceptual training group (n = 14) received video-based perceptual training, a placebo training group (n = 14) received video-based regular training and a control group received no training. Participants in the perceptual training group significantly improved their performance compared to both placebo and control groups; however, anticipation of deceptive throws improved less than for direct throws. The results confirm that although anticipating deception in handball is a challenging task for goalkeepers, task-specific perceptual training can minimise its effect and improve performance.

  8. Flat lizard female mimics use sexual deception in visual but not chemical signals

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Martin J.; Webb, Jonathan K.; Keogh, J. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Understanding what constrains signalling and maintains signal honesty is a central theme in animal communication. Clear cases of dishonest signalling, and the conditions under which they are used, represent an important avenue for improved understanding of animal communication systems. Female mimicry, when certain males take on the appearance of females, is most commonly a male alternative reproductive tactic that is condition-dependent. A number of adaptive explanations for female mimicry have been proposed including avoiding the costs of aggression, gaining an advantage in combat, sneaking copulations with females on the territories of other males, gaining physiological benefits and minimizing the risk of predation. Previous studies of female mimicry have focused on a single mode of communication, although most animals communicate using multiple signals. Male Augrabies flat lizards adopt alternative reproductive tactics in which some males (she-males) mimic the visual appearance of females. We experimentally tested in a wild population whether she-males are able to mimic females using both visual and chemical signals. We tested chemical recognition in the field by removing scent and relabelling females and she-males with either male or female scent. At a distance, typical males (he-males) could not distinguish she-males from females using visual signals, but during close encounters, he-males correctly determined the gender of she-males using chemical signals. She-males are therefore able to deceive he-males using visual but not chemical signals. To effectively deceive he-males, she-males avoid close contact with he-males during which chemical cues would reveal their deceit. This strategy is probably adaptive, because he-males are aggressive and territorial; by mimicking females, she-males are able to move about freely and gain access to females on the territories of resident males. PMID:19324828

  9. When deception becomes easy: the effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect

    PubMed Central

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Wilhelm, Christine; Meijer, Ewout; Debey, Evelyne; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people frequently respond deceptively, while it increases when people rarely respond deceptively (i.e., the truth proportion effect). In the present study, we investigated two possible underlying mechanisms of the truth proportion effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 121), we controlled for the impact of switch costs by keeping the number of switches between deceptive and truthful responses constant. We found that people who often responded deceptively made fewer errors when responding deceptively than people who only occasionally responded deceptively, replicating the truth proportion effect. Thus, while the truth proportion effect in earlier studies may be partially driven by the cost of switching between truthful and deceptive responses, we still found evidence for the truth proportion effect while controlling for switch costs. In Experiment 2 (N = 68), we assessed whether the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect. According to this view, the truth proportion effect should be reduced if participants are cued to maintain the task goals, while it should be larger when participants are allowed to neglect the task goals. In line with this hypothesis, we found a smaller truth proportion effect when participants were cued with the task goals compared to when they were not cued. This study shows that the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect, implying that frequent deceptive responding strengthens the goal of responding deceptively. Our findings imply that the accuracy of lie detection tests could be increased by using a majority of truth-items (i.e., induce the truth proportion effect), and that the truth proportion effect should be maximized by (1) increasing

  10. An Electroencephalography Network and Connectivity Analysis for Deception in Instructed Lying Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Ng, Wu Chun; Ng, Khoon Siong; Yu, Ke; Wu, Tiecheng; Li, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Deception is an impactful social event that has been the focus of an abundance of researches over recent decades. In this paper, an electroencephalography (EEG) study is presented regarding the cognitive processes of an instructed liar/truth-teller during the time window of stimulus (question) delivery period (SDP) prior to their deceptive/truthful responses towards questions related to authentic (WE: with prior experience) and fictional experience (NE: no prior experience). To investigate deception in non-experienced events, the subjects were given stimuli in a mock interview scenario that induced them to fabricate lies. To analyze the data, frequency domain network and connectivity analysis was performed in the source space in order to provide a more systematic level understanding of deception during SDP. This study reveals several groups of neuronal generators underlying both the instructed lying (IL) and the instructed truth-telling (IT) conditions for both tasks during the SDP. Despite the similarities existed in these group components, significant differences were found in the intra- and inter-group connectivity between the IL and IT conditions in either task. Additionally, the response time was found to be positively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the inferior frontal gyrus (44R) in the WE-IL condition and positively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the precuneus (7L) and the angular gyrus (39R) in the WE-IT condition. However, the response time was found to be marginally negatively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the secondary auditory cortex (42L) in the NE-IL condition and negatively correlated with the clustering coefficient of the somatosensory association cortex (5L, R) in the NE-IT condition. Therefore, these results provide complementary and intuitive evidence for the differences between the IL and IT conditions in SDP for two types of deception tasks, thus elucidating the electrophysiological mechanisms

  11. First description of necrosis in leaves and pseudo-bulbs of Oncidium orchids caused by Burkholderia gladioli in São Paulo State, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A necrosis of orchid leaves and pseudobulbs was observed in a commercial orchid nursery in Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The symptoms were water-soaked, brown lesions that can develop into large areas of necrosis that extend throughout the entire plant, ultimately causing death. Bacteria were...

  12. A functional MRI study of deception among offenders with antisocial personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Jiang, W; Liu, H; Liao, J; Ma, X; Rong, P; Tang, Y; Wang, W

    2013-08-06

    Deceit is a core feature of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and the study of deception in ASPD has important implications for identifying the underlying mechanism of ASPD. A great deal of functional neuroimaging literature has described the neural correlates of deception in healthy volunteers, but there have been few imaging studies examining people with ASPD. The neural correlates of lie-telling in ASPD, and which specific brain activities are related to the capacity to lie, are unclear. In this study, 32 offenders who satisfied the Personality Diagnostic Questionaire-4 and PDI-IV (Personality Disorder Interview) criteria for ASPD were divided into three groups based on their capacity for deception, which was evaluated based on the deceitfulness criterion of the PDI-IV ASPD. All offenders underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while responding to questions in a truthful, inverse, or deceitful manner. We primarily created contrasts in the brain activities between truth-telling and lie-telling, and then computed the Pearson's correlation coefficients between activities contrasts of individual, i.e. BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) strength during deception minus that during truth-telling, and the capacity for deception. Our results indicated that the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex extending to the middle frontal gyrus, the left inferior parietal lobule, and the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus/medial superior frontal gyrus were associated with deception among people with ASPD. As the capacity for deception increased, the contrasted brain activities of the above regions decreased. This study found that truthful and untruthful communications of ASPD subjects can be differentiated in terms of brain BOLD activities, and more importantly, this study is the first to use fMRI to discover that BOLD activities during deception are correlated with the capacity to lie. The latter finding might challenge the diagnostic accuracy of lie

  13. Looking for truth and finding lies: the prospects for a nascent neuroimaging of deception.

    PubMed

    Spence, Sean A; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine J

    2008-01-01

    Lying is ubiquitous and has acquired many names. In 'natural experiments', both pathological lying and truthfulness implicate prefrontal cortices. Recently, the advent of functional neuroimaging has allowed investigators to study deception in the non-pathological state. Prefrontal cortices are again implicated, although the regions identified vary across experiments. Forensic application of such technology (to the detection of deceit) requires the solution of tractable technical problems. Whether we 'should' detect deception remains an ethical problem: one for societies to resolve. However, such a procedure would only appear to be ethical when subjects volunteer to participate, as might occur during the investigation of alleged miscarriages of justice. We demonstrate how this might be approached.

  14. Detention and deception: limits of ethical acceptability in detention research.

    PubMed

    Minas, I H

    2004-10-01

    The core of Australia's response to asylum seekers who arrive in an unauthorised manner has been to detain them in immigration detention centres until they are judged to engage Australia's protection obligations or, if they do not, until they are returned to their country of origin. For a number of asylum seekers this has resulted in very prolonged detention. This policy has aroused a storm of controversy with very polarised positions being taken by participants in the debate. In particular, the claim has frequently been made (including by this author) that the circumstances and duration of immigration detention cause substantial harm to the mental health of a significant number of detained asylum seekers. A rational debate on the effects of detention has been hampered by the fact that the Australian government has not allowed researchers access to the detention centres in spite of persistent requests for access by professional bodies. This paper is written in response to the following questions posed by the Journal: Is there a case to be made for individuals agreeing to participate in research studies and for the wider population of current and future detainees to be involved in research without informing either the detention provider or the host nation? Is is legitimate for a researcher to engage in potentially deceptive actions in order to obtain access to such detention facilities to undertake research? What ethical framework should underpin such research? Although there is very little guidance in the literature on the ethical conduct of research in settings such as immigration detention centres, a consideration of the ethical implications of carrying out research in the manner raised by these questions leads this author to conclude that such research cannot be ethically justified. Governments must be persuaded to allow, and to provide substantial support for, ethically conducted research on all aspects of detention. There is also a need for the development of

  15. Matching symbiotic associations of an endangered orchid to habitat to improve conservation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Noushka; Lawrie, Ann C; Linde, Celeste C

    2018-06-12

    An understanding of mycorrhizal variation, orchid seed germination temperature and the effect of co-occurring plant species could be critical for optimizing conservation translocations of endangered plants with specialized mycorrhizal associations. Focusing on the orchid Thelymitra epipactoides, we isolated mycorrhizal fungi from ten plants within each of three sites; Shallow Sands Woodland (SSW), Damp Heathland (DH) and Coastal Heathland Scrub (CHS). Twenty-seven fungal isolates were tested for symbiotic germination under three 24 h temperature cycles: 12 °C for 16 h-16 °C for 8 h, 16 °C for 16 h-24 °C for 8 h or 27 °C constant. Fungi were sequenced using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), nuclear large subunit 1 (nLSU1), nLSU2 and mitochondrial large rRNA gene (mtLSU). Orchids were grown to maturity and co-planted with each of ten associated plant species in a glasshouse experiment with tuber width measured at 12 months after co-planting. Two Tulasnella fungal lineages were isolated and identified by phylogenetic analyses, operational taxonomic unit 1 (OTU1) and 'T. asymmetrica'. Fungal lineages were specific to sites and did not co-occur. OTU1 (from the SSW site) germinated seed predominantly at 12-16 °C (typical of autumn-winter temperature) whereas 'T. asymmetrica' (from the DH and CHS sites) germinated seed across all three temperature ranges. There was no difference in the growth of adult orchids germinated with different OTUs. There was a significant reduction in tuber size of T. epipactoides when co-planted with six of the commonly co-occurring plant species. We found that orchid fungal lineages and their germination temperature can change with habitat, and established that translocation sites can be optimized with knowledge of co-occurring plant interactions. For conservation translocations, particularly under a changing climate, we recommend that plants should be grown with mycorrhizal fungi tailored to the recipient site.

  16. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, ... health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility ...

  17. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy and enjoyable sex life at any age. Sex and aging Can older adults remain sexually active? ... from sexually transmitted infections. Talking to kids about sex Kids and sexuality — those words strike fear into ...

  18. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  19. Teenage Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Share Teenage Sexuality Page Content Article Body Sex and sexuality During this time, many young people ... be ready to have sexual intercourse? Will having sex help my relationship? If I am attracted to ...

  20. The mycoheterotrophic symbiosis between orchids and mycorrhizal fungi possesses major components shared with mutualistic plant-mycorrhizal symbioses.

    PubMed

    Miura, Chihiro; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Miyahara, Ryohei; Yamamoto, Tatsuki; Fuji, Masako; Yagame, Takahiro; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Yamato, Masahide; Shigenobu, Shuji; Kaminaka, Hironori

    2018-04-12

    Achlorophylous and early developmental stages of chorolophylous orchids are highly dependent on carbon and other nutrients provided by mycorrhizal fungi, in a nutritional mode termed mycoheterotrophy. Previous findings have implied that some common properties at least partially underlie the mycorrhizal symbioses of mycoheterotrophic orchids and that of autotrophic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants; however, information about the molecular mechanisms of the relationship between orchids and their mycorrhizal fungi is limited. In this study, we characterized the molecular basis of an orchid-mycorrhizal (OM) symbiosis by analyzing the transcriptome of Bletilla striata at an early developmental stage associated with the mycorrhizal fungus Tulasnella sp. The essential components required for the establishment of mutual symbioses with AM fungi and/or rhizobia in most terrestrial plants were identified from B. striata gene set. A cross-species gene complementation analysis showed one of the component genes, calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase gene CCaMK in B. striata, retains functional characteristics of that in AM plants. The expression analysis revealed the activation of homologs of AM-related genes during the OM symbiosis. Our results suggest that orchids possess, at least partly, the molecular mechanisms common to AM plants.

  1. The carbon and nitrogen ecophysiologies of two endemic tropical orchids mirrors those of their temperate relatives and the local environment.

    PubMed

    Hynson, Nicole A

    2016-11-01

    Orchids are one of the most widely distributed plant families. However, current research on the ecophysiology of terrestrial orchids is biased towards temperate species. Thus, it is currently unknown whether tropical terrestrial orchids belong to similar trophic guilds as their temperate relatives. To examine the ecophysiologies of two tropical terrestrial orchids, I analysed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions and nitrogen concentrations of the Hawaiian endemics Anoectochilus sandvicensis and Liparis hawaiensis . I compared these values with those of surrounding vegetation and their temperate relatives. I found that A. sandvicensis was consistently enriched in the heavy isotope of nitrogen ( 15 N) and had higher nitrogen (N) concentrations than surrounding vegetation, and these values were even higher than those of its temperate relatives. Carbon stable isotope composition among populations of A. sandvicensis varied by island. These results point to local environment and evolutionary history determining the ecophysiology of this species. Whereas L.hawaiensis was also enriched in 15 N and had on average higher N concentrations than surrounding vegetation, these values were not significantly different from temperate relatives, indicating that evolutionary history may be a stronger predictor of this orchid species' ecophysiology than environment. I suggest that both Hawaiian species are potentially partially mycoheterotrophic.

  2. The carbon and nitrogen ecophysiologies of two endemic tropical orchids mirrors those of their temperate relatives and the local environment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Orchids are one of the most widely distributed plant families. However, current research on the ecophysiology of terrestrial orchids is biased towards temperate species. Thus, it is currently unknown whether tropical terrestrial orchids belong to similar trophic guilds as their temperate relatives. To examine the ecophysiologies of two tropical terrestrial orchids, I analysed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions and nitrogen concentrations of the Hawaiian endemics Anoectochilus sandvicensis and Liparis hawaiensis. I compared these values with those of surrounding vegetation and their temperate relatives. I found that A. sandvicensis was consistently enriched in the heavy isotope of nitrogen (15N) and had higher nitrogen (N) concentrations than surrounding vegetation, and these values were even higher than those of its temperate relatives. Carbon stable isotope composition among populations of A. sandvicensis varied by island. These results point to local environment and evolutionary history determining the ecophysiology of this species. Whereas L.hawaiensis was also enriched in 15N and had on average higher N concentrations than surrounding vegetation, these values were not significantly different from temperate relatives, indicating that evolutionary history may be a stronger predictor of this orchid species' ecophysiology than environment. I suggest that both Hawaiian species are potentially partially mycoheterotrophic. PMID:28018622

  3. Mycorrhizal compatibility and symbiotic seed germination of orchids from the Coastal Range and Andes in south central Chile.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Hector; Valadares, Rafael; Contreras, Domingo; Bashan, Yoav; Arriagada, Cesar

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about Orchidaceae plants in Chile and their mycorrhizal associations, a key issue for designing protective actions for endangered species. We investigated root fungi from seven terrestrial orchid species to identify potential mycorrhizal fungi. The main characteristics of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were observed under light microscopy, and isolates were identified through PCR-ITS sequencing. Molecular identification of fungal sequences showed a high diversity of fungi colonizing roots. Fungal ability to germinate seeds of different orchids was determined in symbiotic germination tests; 24 fungal groups were isolated, belonging to the genera Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium, and Thanatephorus. Furthermore, dark septate and other endophytic fungi were identified. The high number of Rhizoctonia-like fungi obtained from adult orchids from the Coastal mountain range suggests that, after germination, these orchids may complement their nutritional demands through mycoheterotrophy. Nonetheless, beneficial associations with other endophytic fungi may also co-exist. In this study, isolated mycorrhizal fungi had the ability to induce seed germination at different efficiencies and with low specificity. Germin ation rates were low, but protocorms continued to develop for 60 days. A Tulasnella sp. isolated from Chloraea gavilu was most effective to induce seed germination of different species. The dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi did not show any effect on seed development; however, their widespread occurrence in some orchids suggests a putative role in plant establishment.

  4. How do incentives lead to deception in advisor-client interactions? Explicit and implicit strategies of self-interested deception.

    PubMed

    Mackinger, Barbara; Jonas, Eva

    2012-01-01

    When confronted with important questions we like to rely on the advice of experts. However, uncertainty can occur regarding advisors' motivation to pursue self-interest and deceive the client. This can especially occur when the advisor has the possibility to receive an incentive by recommending a certain alternative. We investigated how the possibility to pursue self-interest led to explicit strategic behavior (bias in recommendation and transfer of information) and to implicit strategic behavior (bias in information processing: evaluation and memory). In Study 1 explicit strategic behavior could be identified: self-interested advisors recommended more often the self-serving alternative and transferred more self-interested biased information to their client compared to the advisor without specific interest. Also deception through implicit strategic behavior was identified: self-interested advisors biased the evaluation of information less in favor of the client compared to the control group. Self-interested advisors also remembered conflicting information regarding their self-interest worse compared to advisors without self-interest. In Study 2 beside self-interest we assessed accountability which interacted with self-interest and increased the bias: when accountability was high advisor's self-interest led to higher explicit strategic behavior (less transfer of conflicting information), and to higher implicit strategic behavior (devaluated and remembered less conflicting information). Both studies identified implicit strategic behavior as mediator which can explain the relation between self-interest and explicit strategic behavior. Results of both studies suggest that self-interested advisors use explicit and implicit strategic behavior to receive an incentive. Thus, advisors do not only consciously inform their clients "self-interested," but they are influenced unconsciously by biased information processing - a tendency which even increased with high

  5. How Do Incentives Lead to Deception in Advisor–Client Interactions? Explicit and Implicit Strategies of Self-Interested Deception

    PubMed Central

    Mackinger, Barbara; Jonas, Eva

    2012-01-01

    When confronted with important questions we like to rely on the advice of experts. However, uncertainty can occur regarding advisors’ motivation to pursue self-interest and deceive the client. This can especially occur when the advisor has the possibility to receive an incentive by recommending a certain alternative. We investigated how the possibility to pursue self-interest led to explicit strategic behavior (bias in recommendation and transfer of information) and to implicit strategic behavior (bias in information processing: evaluation and memory). In Study 1 explicit strategic behavior could be identified: self-interested advisors recommended more often the self-serving alternative and transferred more self-interested biased information to their client compared to the advisor without specific interest. Also deception through implicit strategic behavior was identified: self-interested advisors biased the evaluation of information less in favor of the client compared to the control group. Self-interested advisors also remembered conflicting information regarding their self-interest worse compared to advisors without self-interest. In Study 2 beside self-interest we assessed accountability which interacted with self-interest and increased the bias: when accountability was high advisor’s self-interest led to higher explicit strategic behavior (less transfer of conflicting information), and to higher implicit strategic behavior (devaluated and remembered less conflicting information). Both studies identified implicit strategic behavior as mediator which can explain the relation between self-interest and explicit strategic behavior. Results of both studies suggest that self-interested advisors use explicit and implicit strategic behavior to receive an incentive. Thus, advisors do not only consciously inform their clients “self-interested,” but they are influenced unconsciously by biased information processing – a tendency which even increased with high

  6. [Difficulties for the medical and legal forensic evaluation in cases of sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Romi, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The forensic evaluation of sexual offenders and their victims are a very complex task. This concern becomes even more relevant when children have to be assessed. The evaluation process should consider: children's motivation to deceive during forensic assessment; their perception of the assessment process and its influence on their deceptive tendencies; parental issues related to dissimulation among children and the induction of false memories. The article summarize these problems and gives physicians a practical guide for managing this issue.

  7. Deception dissociates from false belief reasoning in deaf children: implications for the implicit versus explicit theory of mind distinction.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Peter A; de Villiers, Jill G

    2012-03-01

    Deception is a controversial aspect of theory of mind, and researchers disagree about whether it entails an understanding of the false beliefs of one's opponent. The present study asks whether children with delayed language and delayed explicit false belief reasoning can succeed on explicit deception tasks. Participants were 45 orally taught deaf children with varying language delays aged 4.5-8 years and 45 hearing children aged 3.5-6 years. Participants received a battery of language, executive function, deception, and both verbal and low-verbal false belief tasks. The result reveal a dissociation of deception and false belief tasks: the deaf children are on par with their hearing peers on deception games, but show significant delays in false belief tasks even when the language demands are made minimal. Furthermore, different skills are predictors of success for the two types of task in the deaf children: language, and in particular complement syntax, is the best predictor of false belief reasoning; but executive function skills, especially inhibitory control, are the best predictors of deception. It is argued that deception at this level can be handled by behaviour rules without reference to mental states. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Sender Demeanor: Individual Differences in Sender Believability Have a Powerful Impact on Deception Detection Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Serota, Kim B.; Shulman, Hillary; Clare, David D.; Park, Hee Sun; Shaw, Allison S.; Shim, Jae Chul; Lee, Jung Hyon

    2011-01-01

    Sender demeanor is an individual difference in the believability of message senders that is conceptually independent of actual honesty. Recent research suggests that sender demeanor may be the most influential source of variation in deception detection judgments. Sender demeanor was varied in five experiments (N = 30, 113, 182, 30, and 35) to…

  9. 16 CFR 20.2 - Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner. 20.2 Section 20.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS...

  10. 16 CFR 20.2 - Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner. 20.2 Section 20.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS...

  11. 16 CFR 20.2 - Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner. 20.2 Section 20.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS...

  12. 16 CFR 20.2 - Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner. 20.2 Section 20.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS...

  13. 16 CFR 20.2 - Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deception as to identity of rebuilder, remanufacturer, reconditioner or reliner. 20.2 Section 20.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE REBUILT, RECONDITIONED AND OTHER USED AUTOMOBILE PARTS...

  14. 14 CFR 399.80 - Unfair and deceptive practices of ticket agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Enforcement § 399.80 Unfair and deceptive practices of ticket agents. It is the policy of the Board to regard any of... are available, when such discounts or reductions are not specific in the lawful tariffs of the air...

  15. Worthless donations: male deception and female counter play in a nuptial gift-giving spider

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In nuptial gift-giving species, benefits of acquiring a mate may select for male deception by donation of worthless gifts. We investigated the effect of worthless gifts on mating success in the spider Pisaura mirabilis. Males usually offer an insect prey wrapped in silk; however, worthless gifts containing inedible items are reported. We tested male mating success in the following experimental groups: protein enriched fly gift (PG), regular fly gift (FG), worthless gift (WG), or no gift (NG). Results Males that offered worthless gifts acquired similar mating success as males offering nutritional gifts, while males with no gift experienced reduced mating success. The results suggest that strong selection on the nuptial gift-giving trait facilitates male deception by donation of worthless gifts. Females terminated matings faster when males offered worthless donations; this demonstrate a cost of deception for the males as shorter matings lead to reduced sperm transfer and thus give the deceiving males a disadvantage in sperm competition. Conclusion We propose that the gift wrapping trait allows males to exploit female foraging preference by disguising the gift content thus deceiving females into mating without acquiring direct benefits. Female preference for a genuine prey gift combined with control over mating duration, however, counteracts the male deception. PMID:22082300

  16. Worthless donations: male deception and female counter play in a nuptial gift-giving spider.

    PubMed

    Albo, Maria J; Winther, Gudrun; Tuni, Cristina; Toft, Søren; Bilde, Trine

    2011-11-14

    In nuptial gift-giving species, benefits of acquiring a mate may select for male deception by donation of worthless gifts. We investigated the effect of worthless gifts on mating success in the spider Pisaura mirabilis. Males usually offer an insect prey wrapped in silk; however, worthless gifts containing inedible items are reported. We tested male mating success in the following experimental groups: protein enriched fly gift (PG), regular fly gift (FG), worthless gift (WG), or no gift (NG). Males that offered worthless gifts acquired similar mating success as males offering nutritional gifts, while males with no gift experienced reduced mating success. The results suggest that strong selection on the nuptial gift-giving trait facilitates male deception by donation of worthless gifts. Females terminated matings faster when males offered worthless donations; this demonstrate a cost of deception for the males as shorter matings lead to reduced sperm transfer and thus give the deceiving males a disadvantage in sperm competition. We propose that the gift wrapping trait allows males to exploit female foraging preference by disguising the gift content thus deceiving females into mating without acquiring direct benefits. Female preference for a genuine prey gift combined with control over mating duration, however, counteracts the male deception.

  17. When Worldviews Collide: What Linguistic Style Matching and Distal Language Reveal about Deception in Political Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Lucille M.

    2012-01-01

    Political discourse is an observable, measurable, and testable manifestation of political worldviews. However, when worldviews collide, notions of truth and of lies are put to the test. The challenge for researchers is how to establish confidence in their analysis. Despite the growing interest in deception research from a diversity of fields and…

  18. Deception Undermines the Stability of Cooperation in Games of Indirect Reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Számadó, Szabolcs; Szalai, Ferenc; Scheuring, István

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded. While there is plenty of evidence for deceptive communication in humans the possibility of deception is not yet incorporated into models of indirect reciprocity. Here we show that when deceptive strategies are allowed in the population it will cause the collapse of the coherence of reputations and thus in turn it results the collapse of cooperation. This collapse is independent of the norms and the cost and benefit values. It is due to the fact that there is no selection for honest communication in the framework of indirect reciprocity. It follows that indirect reciprocity can be only proposed plausibly as a mechanism of human cooperation if additional mechanisms are specified in the model that maintains honesty.

  19. On Lying and Being Lied to: A Linguistic Analysis of Deception in Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Jeffrey T.; Curry, Lauren E.; Goorha, Saurabh; Woodworth, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated changes in both the liar's and the conversational partner's linguistic style across truthful and deceptive dyadic communication in a synchronous text-based setting. An analysis of 242 transcripts revealed that liars produced more words, more sense-based words (e.g., seeing, touching), and used fewer self-oriented but more…

  20. Deception Detection in a Computer-Mediated Environment: Gender, Trust, and Training Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    to the understanding of deception detection from both a practical and academic point of view. The lessons learned from the limitations of this...has truly been a learning experience and a great capstone to a challenging Master’s program. I also owe great appreciation to individuals that...83 Academic Implications and Suggestions