van Oosten, Johanna M F
Previous research has suggested that adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit internet material (SEIM) may result in sexual uncertainty because the content of SEIM may conflict with what adolescents have learned about sex. However, research on which type of adolescent is most susceptible to the relation between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty is lacking. This study therefore investigated whether the relationship between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty depends on within-gender differences in sexual dispositions (i.e., impersonal sex orientation and hypergendered orientation). Using data from a representative two-wave panel survey among 1765 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17), I found that SEIM use predicted sexual uncertainty only among girls with a low hypergendered orientation and girls with a relatively high impersonal sex orientation.
Golde, J A; Strassberg, D S; Turner, C M; Lowe, K
This study examined the independent and interactive effects of sexual explicitness and degrading themes toward women on mens' attitudes following exposure to video presentations of male-female interactions. Subjects were 83 male college students who viewed video vignettes under one of four stimulus conditions: (a) sexually explicit/degrading, (b) sexually explicit/nondegrading, (c) nonexplicit/degrading, and (d) nonexplicit/nondegrading. Results revealed that men exposed to degrading material, regardless of explicitness, were significantly more likely to express attitudes supportive of rape, while explicitness had no significant main or interactive effect on these attitudes. Further, the interaction of explicitness with degradation was found to impact scores on a measure of sexual callousness. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
For most of us, sex is a subjective, lived experience that is as unique as our genetic make-up, our upbringing, our thoughts, values, feelings, beliefs and ideas. It is through our erotic interactions, or the absence thereof, that we form aspects of our fluid and mutable erotic paths and identities. Despite the proliferation of sexual imagery…
Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM.
Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334
There exists an important tradition of content analyses of aggression in sexually explicit material. The majority of these analyses use a definition of aggression that excludes consent. This article identifies three problems with this approach. First, it does not distinguish between aggression and some positive acts. Second, it excludes a key element of healthy sexuality. Third, it can lead to heteronormative definitions of healthy sexuality. It would be better to use a definition of aggression such as Baron and Richardson's (1994) in our content analyses, that includes a consideration of consent. A number of difficulties have been identified with attending to consent but this article offers solutions to each of these.
Tseng, Ying-Hua; Esposito, Noreen; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Chou, Fan-Hao; Cheng, Mei-Li
This study was designed to understand young Taiwanese women's perception of sexually explicit materials (SEMs). Researchers conducted six focus group discussions with 38 young women between the ages of 18 and 22 in Taiwan in 2009-2010 and used content analysis to analyze the data based on the push-pull theory. The results showed that the exposure of young women to SEMs was a sexual exploration process from no sexual activity to future sexual activity. This process was affected by the interactions of three powers: push power, pull power, and personal factors. The push power included factors, such as parents and social values, which failed to satisfy their sexual curiosity and provide them with autonomy. The pull power included SEMs and peer influence, which increased sexual arousal stimuli and curiosity to try sexual activity. The most important personal factors were young women's growth, including sexual curiosity, cognition of SEMs, and gender equity in freedom to make sexual decisions. Understanding this push-pull process regarding SEM can help health-care providers with their own discourses in addressing sex and influence young women's participation in desired, protected, and enjoyable sex when sufficiently ready.
Doornwaard, Suzan M; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M
Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling, mean-level development and cross-lagged panel modeling, to examine (a) developmental patterns in adolescents' SEIM use, permissive sexual attitudes, and experience with sexual behavior, as well as whether these developments are related; and (b) longitudinal directionality of associations between SEIM use on the 1 hand and permissive sexual attitudes and sexual behavior on the other hand. We used 4-wave longitudinal data from 1,132 7th through 10th grade Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; 52.7% boys) and estimated multigroup models to test for moderation by gender. Mean-level developmental trajectories showed that boys occasionally and increasingly used SEIM over the 18-month study period, which co-occurred with increases in their permissive attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior. Cross-lagged panel models revealed unidirectional effects from boys' SEIM use on their subsequent endorsement of permissive attitudes, but no consistent directional effects between their SEIM use and sexual behavior. Girls showed a similar pattern of increases in experience with sexual behavior, but their SEIM use was consistently low and their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes decreased over the 18-month study period. In contrast to boys, girls' SEIM use was not longitudinally related to their sexual attitudes and behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these gender-specific findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Maddox, Amanda M.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Markman, Howard J.
This study investigated associations between viewing sexually-explicit material (SEM) and relationship functioning in a random sample of 1291 unmarried individuals in romantic relationships. More men (76.8%) than women (31.6%) reported that they viewed SEM on their own, but nearly half of both men and women reported sometimes viewing SEM with their partner (44.8%). Measures of communication, relationship adjustment, commitment, sexual satisfaction, and infidelity were examined. Individuals who never viewed SEM reported higher relationship quality on all indices than those who viewed SEM alone. Those who viewed SEM only with their partners reported more dedication and higher sexual satisfaction than those who viewed SEM alone. The only difference between those who never viewed SEM and those who viewed it only with their partners was that those who never viewed it had lower rates of infidelity. Implications for future research in this area as well as for sex therapy and couple therapy are discussed. PMID:20039112
Doornwaard, Suzan M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F M
Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people's use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three distinct psychosocial domains (i.e., psychological well-being, sexual interests/behaviors, and impulsive-psychopathic personality) predicted symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Links between psychosocial factors and boys' compulsive use symptoms were analyzed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally with compulsive use symptoms measured 6 months later (T2). Data were used from 331 Dutch boys (M age = 15.16 years, range 11-17) who indicated that they used sexually explicit Internet material. The results from negative binomial regression analyses indicated that lower levels of global self-esteem and higher levels of excessive sexual interest concurrently predicted boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Longitudinally, higher levels of depressive feelings and, again, excessive sexual interest predicted relative increases in compulsive use symptoms 6 months later. Impulsive and psychopathic personality traits were not uniquely related to boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Our findings, while preliminary, suggest that both psychological well-being factors and sexual interests/behaviors are involved in the development of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Such knowledge is important for prevention and intervention efforts that target the needs of specific problematic users of sexually explicit Internet material.
Minarcik, Jenny; Wetterneck, Chad T; Short, Mary B
Background and aims Pornography use has become increasingly common. Studies have shown that individuals who use sexually explicit materials (SEMs) report negative effects (Schneider, 2000b). However, Bridges (2008b) found that couples who use SEM together have higher relationship satisfaction than those who use SEM independently. A further investigation into various types of SEM use in relationships may highlight how SEM is related to various areas of couple satisfaction. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to examine the impact of SEM use related to different relationship dynamics. Methods The current study included a college and Internet sample of 296 participants divided into groups based upon the SEM use in relationships (i.e., SEM alone, SEM use with partner, and no SEM use). Results There were significant differences between groups in relationship satisfaction [F(2, 252) = 3.69, p = .026], intimacy [F(2, 252) = 7.95, p = <.001], and commitment [F(2, 252) = 5.30, p = .006]. Post-hoc analyses revealed additional differences in relationship satisfaction [t(174) = 2.13, p = .035] and intimacy [t(174) = 2.76, p = .006] based on the frequency of SEM use. Discussion Further exploration of the SEM use function in couples will provide greater understanding of its role in romantic relationships.
Minarcik, Jenny; Wetterneck, Chad T.; Short, MARY B.
Background and aims Pornography use has become increasingly common. Studies have shown that individuals who use sexually explicit materials (SEMs) report negative effects (Schneider, 2000b). However, Bridges (2008b) found that couples who use SEM together have higher relationship satisfaction than those who use SEM independently. A further investigation into various types of SEM use in relationships may highlight how SEM is related to various areas of couple satisfaction. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to examine the impact of SEM use related to different relationship dynamics. Methods The current study included a college and Internet sample of 296 participants divided into groups based upon the SEM use in relationships (i.e., SEM alone, SEM use with partner, and no SEM use). Results There were significant differences between groups in relationship satisfaction [F(2, 252) = 3.69, p = .026], intimacy [F(2, 252) = 7.95, p = <.001], and commitment [F(2, 252) = 5.30, p = .006]. Post-hoc analyses revealed additional differences in relationship satisfaction [t(174) = 2.13, p = .035] and intimacy [t(174) = 2.76, p = .006] based on the frequency of SEM use. Discussion Further exploration of the SEM use function in couples will provide greater understanding of its role in romantic relationships. PMID:27784182
Watts, Tuesday M; Holmes, Luke; Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Rieger, Gerulf
Pupil dilation to explicit sexual stimuli (footage of naked and aroused men or women) can elicit sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. If similar patterns were replicated with non-explicit sexual stimuli (footage of dressed men and women), then pupil dilation could be indicative of automatic sexual response in fully noninvasive designs. We examined this in 325 men and women with varied sexual orientations to determine whether dilation patterns to non-explicit sexual stimuli resembled those to explicit sexual stimuli depicting the same sex or other sex. Sexual orientation differences in pupil dilation to non-explicit sexual stimuli mirrored those to explicit sexual stimuli. However, the relationship of dilation to non-explicit sexual stimuli with dilation to corresponding explicit sexual stimuli was modest, and effect magnitudes were smaller with non-explicit sexual stimuli than explicit sexual stimuli. The prediction that sexual orientation differences in pupil dilation are larger in men than in women was confirmed with explicit sexual stimuli but not with non-explicit sexual stimuli.
Interaction Effects between Exposure to Sexually Explicit Online Materials and Individual, Family, and Extrafamilial Factors on Hong Kong High School Students' Beliefs about Gender Role Equality and Body-Centered Sexuality
To, Siu-ming; Kan, Siu-mee Iu; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum
This study examined the interaction effects between Hong Kong adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit online materials (SEOM) and individual, family, peer, and cultural factors on their beliefs about gender role equality and body-centered sexuality. Based on a survey design with a sample of 503 high school students in Hong Kong, the results…
Brewster, Marnie; Wylie, Kevan R.
The present review describes the development and use of sexually explicit material in sex education within UK psychosexual therapy clinics, medical schools and also in state-maintained secondary schools with reference to interests that have shaped the provision of sex education since the early twentieth century. A short summary of published books…
Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M
Previous research on the influence of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) on adolescents' stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles has three shortcomings. First, the role of peers has been neglected; second, stereotypical beliefs have rarely been studied as causing the use of SEIM and the selection of specific peers; and third, it is unclear whether adolescents are more vulnerable to the effects of SEIM than adults. We used data from two nationally representative two-wave panel surveys among 1,445 Dutch adolescents and 833 Dutch adults, focusing on the stereotypical belief that women engage in token resistance to sex (i.e., the notion that women say "no" when they actually intend to have sex). Structural equation modeling showed that peers who supported traditional gender roles elicited, both among adolescents and adults, stronger beliefs that women use token resistance to sex. Further, the belief that women engage in token resistance predicted adolescents' and adults' selection of gender-role traditional peers, but it did not predict adolescents' and adults' use of SEIM. Finally, adults, but not adolescents, were susceptible to the impact of SEIM on beliefs that women engage in token resistance to sex.
Steele, Vaughn R.; Staley, Cameron; Sabatinelli, Dean
Risky sexual behaviors typically occur when a person is sexually motivated by potent, sexual reward cues. Yet, individual differences in sensitivity to sexual cues have not been examined with respect to sexual risk behaviors. A greater responsiveness to sexual cues might provide greater motivation for a person to act sexually; a lower responsiveness to sexual cues might lead a person to seek more intense, novel, possibly risky, sexual acts. In this study, event-related potentials were recorded in 64 men and women while they viewed a series of emotional, including explicit sexual, photographs. The motivational salience of the sexual cues was varied by including more and less explicit sexual images. Indeed, the more explicit sexual stimuli resulted in enhanced late positive potentials (LPP) relative to the less explicit sexual images. Participants with fewer sexual intercourse partners in the last year had reduced LPP amplitude to the less explicit sexual images than the more explicit sexual images, whereas participants with more partners responded similarly to the more and less explicit sexual images. This pattern of results is consistent with a greater responsivity model. Those who engage in more sexual behaviors consistent with risk are also more responsive to less explicit sexual cues. PMID:24526189
Sakaluk, John K; Milhausen, Robin R
Quantitative research has resulted in inconsistent evidence for the existence of a sexual double standard, leading Crawford and Popp ( 2003 ) to issue a call for methodological innovation. The implicit association test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998 ) is a measure that may provide a means to examine the double standard without the contamination of the demand characteristics and social desirability biases that plague self-report research (Marks & Fraley, 2005 ). The purpose of this study was to examine the factors influencing explicit and implicit double standards, and to examine the relationship between these explicit and implicit double standards, and levels of socially desirable responding. One hundred and three university students completed a sexual double standard IAT, an explicit measure of the double standard, and measures of socially desirable responding. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that levels of socially desirable responding were not related to implicit or explicit double standards. Men endorsed a stronger explicit traditional double standard than women, whereas for implicit sexual standards, men demonstrated a relatively gender-neutral evaluation and women demonstrated a strong reverse double standard. These results suggest the existence of a complex double standard, and indicate that more research of sexual attitudes should include implicit measures.
Mechelmans, Daisy J.; Irvine, Michael; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Mitchell, Simon; Mole, Tom B.; Lapa, Tatyana R.; Harrison, Neil A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Voon, Valerie
Compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) is relatively common and has been associated with significant distress and psychosocial impairments. CSB has been conceptualized as either an impulse control disorder or a non-substance ‘behavioural’ addiction. Substance use disorders are commonly associated with attentional biases to drug cues which are believed to reflect processes of incentive salience. Here we assess male CSB subjects compared to age-matched male healthy controls using a dot probe task to assess attentional bias to sexually explicit cues. We show that compared to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects have enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues but not neutral cues particularly for early stimuli latency. Our findings suggest enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues possibly related to an early orienting attentional response. This finding dovetails with our recent observation that sexually explicit videos were associated with greater activity in a neural network similar to that observed in drug-cue-reactivity studies. Greater desire or wanting rather than liking was further associated with activity in this neural network. These studies together provide support for an incentive motivation theory of addiction underlying the aberrant response towards sexual cues in CSB. PMID:25153083
Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Sanchez, Monica; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
OBJECTIVES: Sexting (sending/receiving sexually explicit texts and images via cell phone) may be associated with sexual health consequences among adolescents. However, to date, no published data from a probability-based sample has examined associations between sexting and sexual activity. METHODS: A probability sample of 1839 students was collected alongside the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles high schools. Logistic regressions were used to assess the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual risk-taking. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of adolescents with cell phone access reported sexting, and 54% reported knowing someone who had sent a sext. Adolescents whose peers sexted were more likely to sext themselves (odds ratio [OR] = 16.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.62–29.59). Adolescents who themselves sexted were more likely to report being sexually active (OR = 7.17, 95% CI: 5.01–10.25). Nonheterosexual students were more likely to report sexting (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.86–4.04), sexual activity (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07–2.15), and unprotected sex at last sexual encounter (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17–2.89). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting, rather than functioning as an alternative to “real world” sexual risk behavior, appears to be part of a cluster of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. We recommend that clinicians discuss sexting as an adolescent-friendly way of engaging patients in conversations about sexual activity, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancy. We further recommend that discussion about sexting and its associated risk behavior be included in school-based sexual health curricula. PMID:22987882
Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; Ratcliffe, Katie
We examined the relationship between self-reported sexual aggression and implicit and explicit attitudes towards rape in a sample of 86 male heterosexual university students. Large, significant group differences were found between the most sexually aggressive participants and the nonaggressive participants, with the most sexually aggressive group showing less negative implicit and explicit attitudes towards rape (Cohen's d=0.76-1.20). Implicit and explicit attitudes provided complementary information such that together they were more strongly associated with sexual aggression than on their own. The current findings suggest that implicit and explicit attitudes towards rape are associated with sexual aggression. In addition to the broader set of cognitions that appear to be assessed by most self-report measures, the narrower construct of attitudes towards rape may be a fruitful avenue of further exploration for research, assessment, and treatment of sexual aggression.
Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle
Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.
Hare, Kathleen A; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Jackson, Lois; Steenbeek, Audrey
The Internet offers an invaluable opportunity to re-imagine ideas, constructs and disciplines to create innovative sexual health promotion interventions. To gain insight into what young adults (aged 19-28) may be seeking in online sexual resources and approaches, this study explored how young people perceived their sexual health to be influenced by their consumption of the highly utilised sexual medium of Sexually Explicit Internet Movies [SEIM]. Employing an exploratory, qualitative methodology, data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 urban, heterosexual young adults, who self-identified as having consumed SEIM for a period of at least one year. All interviews were audiotaped with permission, transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed to identify emergent thematic concepts. Participants described utilising SEIM as an all-inclusive sexual forum to learn more about the positive aspects of sexual health, in a context that they viewed as being devoid of alternatives. Young adults' perceptions of the utility of SEIM suggest that it would be beneficial to create novel, sex-positive online sexual health interventions. Further exploration is clearly warranted on how Internet resources that are related to sexual health, such as SEIM, can be utilised to facilitate innovative approaches to online sexual health promotion.
Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Guglielmi, Francesca; Mangiulli, Ivan; Curci, Antonietta
The movie Fifty Shades of Grey has created a great deal of controversy which has reignited the debate on unusual and alternative sexual practices such as bondage. Erotophobic individuals have negative affect towards the type of sexual libertinism conveyed by the movie, while erotophilic persons have a positive attitude and emotional feelings towards this kind of sexual emancipation. Using the Implicit Association Test, this study aimed to explore the extent to which there is a difference in women's attitudes towards sexual morality on an explicit and implicit level. Our findings found that erotophobic and erotophilic women differed only on an explicit level of sex guilt and moral evaluation, while no difference in the implicit measure was found.
Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Guglielmi, Francesca; Mangiulli, Ivan; Curci, Antonietta
The movie Fifty Shades of Grey has created a great deal of controversy which has reignited the debate on unusual and alternative sexual practices such as bondage. Erotophobic individuals have negative affect towards the type of sexual libertinism conveyed by the movie, while erotophilic persons have a positive attitude and emotional feelings towards this kind of sexual emancipation. Using the Implicit Association Test, this study aimed to explore the extent to which there is a difference in women's attitudes towards sexual morality on an explicit and implicit level. Our findings found that erotophobic and erotophilic women differed only on an explicit level of sex guilt and moral evaluation, while no difference in the implicit measure was found. PMID:27872666
Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J. Michael; Grey, Jeremy A.; Rosser, B. R. Simon
Sexually explicit media (SEM) have been used in HIV-prevention advertisements to engage men who have sex with men (MSM), and to communicate content. These advertisements exist within larger discourses, including a dominant heternormative culture, and a growing homonormative culture. Cognizant of these hegemonic cultures, this analysis examined the acceptable level of sexual explicitness in prevention advertisements. 79 MSM participated in 13 online focus groups, which were part of a larger study of SEM. Three macro-themes—audience, location and community representation—emerged from the analysis, as did the influence of homonormativity on the acceptability of SEM in HIV-prevention messages. PMID:26075485
Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J Michael; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon
Sexually explicit media (SEM) have been used in HIV-prevention advertisements to engage men who have sex with men (MSM) and to communicate content. These advertisements exist within larger discourses, including a dominant heteronormative culture and a growing homonormative culture. Cognizant of these hegemonic cultures, this analysis examined the acceptable level of sexual explicitness in prevention advertisements. Seventy-nine MSM participated in 13 online focus groups, which were part of a larger study of SEM. Three macro themes-audience, location, and community representation-emerged from the analysis, as did the influence of homonormativity on the acceptability of SEM in HIV-prevention messages.
Cate, Fred H.
Rather than focus on "who" makes the determination about students' access to sexually explicit expression, this volume examines the legal issues affecting "whether" to permit that access and "how much" access to allow. In sum, this book is intended to facilitate meaningful discussion about the regulation of minors'…
Hald, Gert Martin; Smolenski, Derek; Simon Rosser, B. R.
Introduction Researchers have proposed that consumption of Sexually Explicit Media (SEM) may not only adversely influence sexual attitudes and behaviors of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) but (also) play a positive role in the development and sexual education of MSM, be a major source of sexual information for MSM, and provide validation, understanding, and confirmation of MSM’s sexual orientation. However, such claims are in urgent need of empirical validation as is the development of psychometrically sound and easily implemented instruments able to reliably assist such validations. Aim To investigate how MSM who consume SEM self-perceive the impact of SEM on their STI-related sexual risk behaviors (i.e. anal intercourse), sexual knowledge, enjoyment of sex, interest in sex, attitudes toward sex, and understanding of their sexual orientation. Further, to provide a thorough psychometric validation of a reduced and reworked version of the Pornography Consumption Effect Scale. Main Outcomes Measures A revised version of the Pornography Consumption Effect Scale (PCES) by Hald and Malamuth (2008). Results This study found that 97% of MSM reported positive effects of SEM consumption on their sexual knowledge, enjoyment of and interest in sex, attitudes toward sex, and understanding of their sexual orientation. Only 3 % reported any negative effects of their SEM consumption. SEM consumption was found to significantly increase consumers’ interest in having protected anal intercourse while not significantly influencing their interests in having unprotected anal intercourse. The revised version of the PCES showed excellent psychometric performance. Conclusion The study found that MSM generally report positive effects of their consumption of sexually explicit materials in areas related to their sexual knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and orientation. This finding could have important implications for the sexual health and well-being of MSM by suggesting that SEM
Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton; Ehle, Curt
An explicit material model that uses predicted pressure in the pores of a carbon-cloth phenolic (CCP) composite has been developed. This model is intended to be used within a finite-element model to predict phenomena specific to CCP components of solid-fuel-rocket nozzles subjected to high operating temperatures and to mechanical stresses that can be great enough to cause structural failures. Phenomena that can be predicted with the help of this model include failures of specimens in restrained-thermal-growth (RTG) tests, pocketing erosion, and ply lifting
Erickson, Darin J.; Galos, Dylan L; Smolenski, Derek, J.; Iantaffi, Alex; Rosser, B.R. Simon
The viewing of sexually explicit media (SEM) is widespread, especially among men, and research linking SEM viewing and sexual behavior has shown a variety of results, some positive (e.g., sexuality education) and some negative (e.g., poorer body image). These results might be due to limitations in measuring SEM consumption, particularly around typology. The goal of the current study was to examine potential patterns of SEM viewing activities. Using data from an online survey of men who have sex with men (MSM), we conducted latent class analyses of 15 SEM activities. Results suggested a three-class solution. The most prevalent class included over 60% of men and was characterized by viewing primarily safer-sex or conventional behaviors. The second class included 32% of men and had a similar albeit amplified pattern of viewing. The final class included just 7% of men and was marked by high levels of viewing of all activities, including fetish and kink. Compared to the conventional or safer-sex class, the other classes had lower internalized homonegativity, lower condom use self-efficacy, and higher SEM consumption or dose. Implications for HIV prevention, sexuality research and the SEM industry are discussed. PMID:25642301
Nelson, Kimberly M.; Simoni, Jane M.; Morrison, Diane M.; George, William H.; Leickly, Emily; Lengua, Liliana J.; Hawes, Stephen E.
This study aimed to describe sexually explicit online media (SEOM) consumption among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States and examine associations between exposure to unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in SEOM and engagement in both UAI and serodiscordant UAI. MSM in the U.S. who accessed a men-seeking-men website in the past year (N = 1,170) were recruited online for a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of sexual risk and SEOM consumption. In the three months prior to interview, more than half (57%) of the men reported viewing SEOM one or more times per day and almost half (45%) reported that at least half of the SEOM they viewed portrayed UA. Compared to participants who reported that 0–24% of the SEOM they viewed showed UAI, participants who reported that 25–49%, 50–74%, or 75–100% of the SEOM they viewed portrayed UAI had progressively increasing odds of engaging in UAI and serodiscordant UAI in the past three months. As SEOM has become more ubiquitous and accessible, research should examine causal relations between SEOM consumption and sexual risk-taking among MSM as well as ways to use SEOM for HIV prevention. PMID:24464547
Nelson, Kimberly M; Simoni, Jane M; Morrison, Diane M; George, William H; Leickly, Emily; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawes, Stephen E
This study aimed to describe sexually explicit online media (SEOM) consumption among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States and examine associations between exposure to unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in SEOM and engagement in both UAI and serodiscordant UAI. MSM in the U.S. who accessed a men-seeking-men website in the past year (N = 1,170) were recruited online for a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of sexual risk and SEOM consumption. In the 3 months prior to interview, more than half (57 %) of the men reported viewing SEOM one or more times per day and almost half (45 %) reported that at least half of the SEOM they viewed portrayed UAI. Compared to participants who reported that 0-24 % of the SEOM they viewed showed UAI, participants who reported that 25-49, 50-74, or 75-100 % of the SEOM they viewed portrayed UAI had progressively increasing odds of engaging in UAI and serodiscordant UAI in the past 3 months. As SEOM has become more ubiquitous and accessible, research should examine causal relations between SEOM consumption and sexual risk-taking among MSM as well as ways to use SEOM for HIV prevention.
Nelson, Kimberly; Golden, Matthew R.; Glick, Sara Nelson
Background Sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption may contribute to sexual risk-taking among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Methods We estimated the prevalence and frequency of SEM consumption as well as associations with contextual and sexual risk characteristics among 61 YMSM. Results All participants (n=61, 100%) reported viewing SEM; 45 (74%) in the past week. There were no significant associations between viewing SEM in the past week and measured characteristics. Conclusion SEM use among YMSM is extremely common. Future research should clarify potential relations between SEM and sexual risk-taking with larger samples of YMSM and specific measures, including SEM content and amount. PMID:26535592
Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Scheinmann, Roberta; Antebi-Gruszka, Nadav; Hirshfield, Sabina
Advances in production and distribution of sexually explicit media (SEM) online have resulted in widespread use among men. Limited research has compared contexts of use and behaviors viewed in Internet SEM by sexual identity. The current study examined differences in recent SEM use (past 6 months) by sexual identity among an ethnically diverse sample of 821 men who completed an online survey in 2015. Both gay and bisexual men reported significantly more frequent use of Internet SEM compared to heterosexual men. Although most participants reported viewing SEM at home (on a computer, tablet, or smartphone), significantly more gay men reported SEM use at a sex party or commercial sex venue than either heterosexual or bisexual men. Sexual identity predicted viewing of high-risk and protective behaviors in separate logistic regression models. Specifically, compared to heterosexual men, gay and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless anal sex (gay OR 5.20, 95 % CI 3.35-8.09; bisexual OR 3.99, 95 % CI 2.24-7.10) and anal sex with a condom (gay OR 3.93, 95 % CI 2.64-5.83; bisexual OR 4.59, 95 % CI 2.78-7.57). Compared to gay men, heterosexual and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless vaginal sex (heterosexual OR 27.08, 95 % CI 15.25-48.07; bisexual OR 5.59, 95 % CI 3.81-8.21) and vaginal sex with a condom (heterosexual OR 7.90, 95 % CI 5.19-12.03; bisexual OR 4.97, 95 % CI 3.32-7.44). There was also evidence of identity discrepant SEM viewing as 20.7 % of heterosexual-identified men reported viewing male same-sex behavior and 55.0 % of gay-identified men reported viewing heterosexual behavior. Findings suggest the importance of assessing SEM use across media types and contexts and have implications for research to address the potential influence of SEM on sexual behavior (e.g., investigate associations between viewing condomless vaginal sex and engaging in high-risk encounters with female partners).
Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Cauce, Ana Mari
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals have been found to have elevated rates of substance use disorders when compared with heterosexuals. However, little is known about the challenges a sexual minority might face in presenting for substance use treatment. In this study, treatment providers' attitudes toward LGBT individuals were assessed among a sample of 46 substance abuse treatment counselors who provide publicly funded treatment. Participants completed both explicit measures of heterosexist bias and an implicit measure designed to assess for biases that exist at an automatic, uncontrolled level. Results indicate that treatment counselors' negative biases regarding LGBT individuals were stronger for heterosexual counselors and for those with few LGBT friends. However, biases among this sample were significantly less than in comparison samples. Findings were also related to a newly developed measure of cultural competence in working with LGBT substance users. Implications for provision of appropriate services and recommendations to treatment agencies are discussed.
Nelson, Kimberly M; Pantalone, David W; Gamarel, Kristi E; Simoni, Jane M
Men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently consume sexually explicit online media (SEOM), yet little is known about its influence on their sexual behaviors. We describe a sequence of four studies to develop and psychometrically validate a measure of the perceived influence of sexually explicit online media (PI-SEOM) on the sexual behaviors of MSM. Study 1 involved qualitative interviews (N = 28) and a quantitative survey (N = 100) to develop a preliminary measure. Using an Internet sample of MSM (N = 1,170), we assessed its factor structure and reliability in Studies 2 and 3 as well as convergent validity and associations with HIV-related sexual risk in Study 4. Based on findings the measure was divided into two subscales: influences on (1) self and (2) other MSM. Factor analyses confirmed a two-factor model for each subscale, measuring perceived influences on (a) general sexual scripts and (b) condomless sex scripts. Survey results indicated that the more men perceived SEOM influencing their own condomless sex scripts, the more likely they were to report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. The developed measure holds promise for assessing the influence of SEOM on the sexual behaviors of MSM and may prove useful for HIV-prevention research.
Nelson, Kimberly M.; Leickly, Emily; Yang, Joyce P.; Pereira, Andrew; Simoni, Jane M.
Over the past two decades, men who have sex with men (MSM) have engaged in increasing consumption of MSM-specific sexually explicit online media (i.e., online pornography). Furthermore, the amount of MSM-specific sexually explicit online media portraying unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) has increased, raising concerns about HIV transmission among the actors and the encouragement of risky sex among consumers. The influence of sexually explicit online media on sexual risk-taking, at present largely understudied, could lead to new avenues for innovative HIV prevention strategies targeting at-risk MSM. In this preliminary assessment, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen MSM in the Seattle area to elucidate MSM’s perceptions about the influence of sexually explicit online media on their own and other MSM’s sexual behaviors. Participants reported that sexually explicit online media: 1) plays an educational role; 2) increases comfort with sexuality; and 3) sets expectations about sexual behaviors. While participants overwhelmingly reported not feeling personally influenced by viewing UAI in sexually explicit online media, they believed viewing UAI increased sexual risk-taking among other MSM. Specifically, participants reported that the high prevalence of UAI in sexually explicit online media sends the message, at least to other MSM, that: 1) engaging in UAI is common; 2) UAI is acceptable and “ok” to engage in; and 3) future partners will desire or expect UAI. Overall, this preliminary assessment indicates that sexually explicit online media exposure may have both positive (e.g., helping MSM become more comfortable with their sexuality) and negative (e.g., normalizing UAI) impacts on the sexual health of MSM and may be useful in the development of novel HIV-prevention interventions. PMID:24382316
Nelson, Kimberly M; Leickly, Emily; Yang, Joyce P; Pereira, Andrew; Simoni, Jane M
Over the past two decades, men who have sex with men (MSM) have engaged in increasing consumption of MSM-specific sexually explicit online media (i.e., online pornography). Furthermore, the amount of MSM-specific sexually explicit online media portraying unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) has increased, raising concerns about HIV transmission among the actors and the potential encouragement of risky sex among consumers. The influence of sexually explicit online media on sexual risk-taking, at present largely understudied, could lead to new avenues for innovative HIV-prevention strategies targeting at-risk MSM. In this preliminary assessment, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 MSM in the Seattle area to elucidate MSM's perceptions about the influence of sexually explicit online media on their own and other MSM's sexual behaviors. Participants reported that sexually explicit online media: (1) plays an educational role, (2) increases comfort with sexuality, and (3) sets expectations about sexual behaviors. While participants overwhelmingly reported not feeling personally influenced by viewing UAI in sexually explicit online media, they believed viewing UAI increased sexual risk-taking among other MSM. Specifically, participants reported that the high prevalence of UAI in sexually explicit online media sends the message, at least to other MSM, that (1) engaging in UAI is common, (2) UAI is acceptable and "ok" to engage in, and (3) future partners will desire or expect UAI. Overall, this preliminary assessment indicates that sexually explicit online media exposure may have both positive (e.g., helping MSM become more comfortable with their sexuality) and negative (e.g., normalizing UAI) impacts on the sexual health of MSM and may be useful in the development of novel HIV-prevention interventions.
In this clinical presentation a non-blaming, non-judgmental approach to overuse of sexually explicit media (SEM) is introduced. This approach normalizes the problem and sees it in the context of evolution and market forces. It is claimed that such an approach contributes to change and strengthens the therapeutic alliance. A new technique utilizing…
Reviews resource materials for handling claims of sexual harassment. Includes guidelines for administrators in handling complaints of sexual harassment and discusses the responsibilities of management. Explores the definition of sexual harassment. (RC)
Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn
Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men. Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex performers that were posted to five highly trafficked adult-oriented websites. Findings revealed that gay male SEM on the Internet features a variety of conventional and nonconventional sexual behaviors. There was a substantial prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (34 %) and was virtually the same as the prevalence of anal sex with a condom (36 %). The presence of UAI was not associated with video length, amateur production, number of video views, favorability, or website source. However, the presence of other potentially high-risk behaviors (e.g., ejaculation in the mouth, and ejaculation on/in/rubbed into the anus) was associated with longer videos, more views, and group sex videos (three or more performers). The findings of high levels of sexual risk behavior and the fact that there was virtually no difference in the prevalence of anal sex with and without a condom in gay male SEM have important implications for HIV prevention efforts, future research on the role of SEM on sexual risk taking, and public health policy.
Downing, Martin J.; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn
Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex performers that were posted to five highly trafficked adult-oriented websites. Findings revealed that gay male SEM on the Internet features a variety of conventional and nonconventional sexual behaviors. There was a substantial prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (34%) and was virtually the same as the prevalence of anal sex with a condom (36%). The presence of UAI was not associated with video length, amateur production, number of video views, favorability, or website source. However, the presence of other potentially high-risk behaviors (e.g., ejaculation in the mouth, and ejaculation on/in/rubbed into the anus) was associated with longer videos, more views, and group sex videos (three or more performers). The findings of high levels of sexual risk behavior and the fact that there was virtually no difference in the prevalence of anal sex with and without a condom in gay male SEM have important implications for HIV prevention efforts, future research on the role of SEM on sexual risk taking, and public health policy. PMID:23733156
Jellison, William A; McConnell, Allen R; Gabriel, Shira
The relations among implicit and explicit measures of sexual orientation attitudes and sexual-orientation-related behavior and beliefs among gay men (Study 1) and straight men (Studies 1 and 2) were explored. Study 1 found relations between implicit and explicit measures of sexual orientation attitudes, large differences between gay and straight men on both implicit and explicit measures, and that these measures predicted sexual-orientation-related behaviors among gay men. Also, only straight men exhibited a negative relation between their attitudes toward homosexuality and heterosexuality. Study 2 found that as straight men held more negative attitudes toward homosexuality, they more strongly endorsed the importance of heterosexual identity and of traditional masculine gender roles. These endorsements mediated the negative relation between their attitudes toward heterosexuality and homosexuality. Implications for assessing attitudes toward sexual orientation and their relations for sexual orientation identity are discussed.
Downing, Martin J; Antebi, Nadav; Schrimshaw, Eric W
Despite evidence that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM) may contribute to greater numbers of sexual partners, sexual risk taking, greater interest in group sex, and lower self-esteem among men who have sex with men (MSM), research has not addressed compulsive use of Internet-based SEM due to the lack of a validated measure for this population. This report investigates the psychometric properties of the 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS; Meerkerk, van den Eijnden, Vermulst, & Garretsen, 2009) adapted to assess the severity of compulsive Internet SEM use. A total of 265 Internet SEM-viewing MSM participated in an online survey about their SEM preferences, viewing habits, and recent sexual behaviors. A principal components analysis revealed a single-component, 13-item scale to adequately assess the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of this phenomenon, with a high internal consistency (α=.92). Greater compulsive use of Internet SEM was positively correlated with several relevant variables including boredom, sexual frustration, time spent viewing Internet SEM, and number of recent male sexual partners. The results offer preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of using an adapted version of the CIUS to understand compulsive Internet SEM use, and allow for more research into the potential negative consequences of compulsive SEM use.
Galos, Dylan L.; Smolenski, Derek J.; Grey, Jeremy A.; Iantaffi, Alex; Rosser, B.R. Simon
Sexually explicit media (SEM) is viewed by many men who have sex with men (MSM) and is widely available via the Internet. Though research has investigated the link between SEM and sexual risk behaviour, little has been published about preferences for characteristics of SEM. In an Internet-based cross-sectional study, 1390 adult MSM completed an online survey about their preferences for nine characteristics of SEM and ranked them in order of importance. Respondents preferred free, Internet-based, anonymous SEM portraying behaviours they would do. Cost and looks were the most important characteristics of SEM to participants, while condom use and sexual behaviours themselves were least important. Results suggest that while participants may have preferences for specific behaviours and condom use, these are not the most salient characteristics of SEM to consumers when choosing. PMID:26085898
White, Jaclyn M; Dunham, Emilia; Rowley, Blake; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J
Sexually explicit media may perpetuate racial and sexual norms among men who have sex with men. While men may be exposed to sexually explicit media in the online settings where they seek sex with other men, no studies to our knowledge have explored the relationship between the racial and sexual content of advertisements appearing in these spaces. In 2011, using a detailed codebook, 217 sexually explicit advertisements on a male sex-seeking website were coded for themes, actor characteristics and sexual acts depicted. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the association between skin colour, theme, sexual acts and condomless sex acts. Nearly half (45%) featured a 'thug' theme (a style emphasising Black masculinity/hip-hop culture), 21% featured a college theme and 44% featured condomless sex. Advertisements featuring only Black men, advertisements featuring Black men with men of other skin tones and advertisements depicting a thug theme were positively associated with depictions of condomless sex. Online sexually explicit advertisements featuring Black themes and actors more frequently depicted condomless sex than advertisements with White men alone. Future research should examine whether depictions of Black men engaging in condomless sex in online advertisements influence the sexual norms and cognitions of Black men who have sex with men and their partners.
White, Jaclyn M.; Dunham, Emilia; Rowley, Blake; Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.
Sexually explicit media may perpetuate racial and sexual norms among men who have sex with men. While men may be exposed to sexually explicit media in the online settings where they seek sex with other men, no studies to our knowledge have explored the relationship between the racial and sexual content of advertisements appearing in these spaces. In 2011, 217 sexually explicit advertisements on a male sex-seeking website were coded for themes, actor characteristics, and sexual acts depicted using a detailed codebook. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the association between skin colour, theme, sexual acts, and condomless sex acts. Nearly half (45%) featured a ‘thug’ theme (style emphasising Black masculinity/hip-hop culture), 21% featured a college theme, and 44% featured condomless sex. Ads featuring only Black men, ads featuring Black men with men of other skin tones, and ads depicting a thug theme were positively associated with depictions of condomless sex. Online sexually explicit ads featuring Black themes and actors more frequently depicted risky sex than ads with White men alone. Future research should examine whether risky depictions of Black men in online ads influence the sexual norms and cognitions of Black men who have sex with men and their partners. PMID:25891135
Mulac, Anthony; Jansma, Laura L.; Linz, Daniel G.
Notes that short-term exposure to nonviolent sexual media stimuli can produce cognitive changes in men which can affect their behavior toward women. Explores differences among these behavioral effects in a group of male and female undergraduate students based upon sexual degradation in film content and male viewers' gender schematicity. Discusses…
Weinstein, Netta; Ryan, William S; Dehaan, Cody R; Przybylski, Andrew K; Legate, Nicole; Ryan, Richard M
When individuals grow up with autonomy-thwarting parents, they may be prevented from exploring internally endorsed values and identities and as a result shut out aspects of the self perceived to be unacceptable. Given the stigmatization of homosexuality, individuals perceiving low autonomy support from parents may be especially motivated to conceal same-sex sexual attraction, leading to defensive processes such as reaction formation. Four studies tested a model wherein perceived parental autonomy support is associated with lower discrepancies between self-reported sexual orientation and implicit sexual orientation (assessed with a reaction time task). These indices interacted to predict anti-gay responding indicative of reaction formation. Studies 2-4 showed that an implicit/explicit discrepancy was particularly pronounced in participants who experienced their fathers as both low in autonomy support and homophobic, though results were inconsistent for mothers. Findings of Study 3 suggested contingent self-esteem as a link between parenting styles and discrepancies in sexual orientation measures.
Odeleye, Olubunmi; Ajuwon, Ademola J
Young people in secondary schools who are prone to engage in risky sexual behaviors spend considerable time watching Television (TV) which often presents sex scenes. The influence of exposure to sex scenes on TV (SSTV) has been little researched in Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to determine the perceived influence of exposure to SSTV on the sexual behavior of secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area. A total of 489 randomly selected students were surveyed. Mean age of respondents was 14.1 ± 1.9 years and 53.8% were females. About 91% had ever been exposed to sex scenes. The type of TV program from which most respondents reported exposure to sexual scenes was movies (86.9%). Majority reported exposure to all forms of SSTV from secondary storage devices. Students whose TV watching behavior was not monitored had heavier exposures to SSTV compared with those who were. About 56.3% of females and 26.5% of males affirmed that watching SSTV had affected their sexual behavior. Predictor of sex-related activities was exposure to heavy sex scenes. Peer education and school-based programs should include topics to teach young people on how to evaluate presentations of TV programs.
Træen, Bente; Noor, Syed W; Hald, Gert Martin; Rosser, B R Simon; Brady, Sonya S; Erickson, Darin; Galos, Dylan L; Grey, Jeremy A; Horvath, Keith J; Iantaffi, Alex; Kilian, Gudruna; Wilkerson, J Michael
The purpose of this study was to investigate consumption patterns of gay-oriented sexually explicit media (SEM) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Norway, with a particular emphasis on a possible relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior. Participants included 529 MSM living in Norway recruited online to complete a SEM consumption and sexual risk survey. Of the 507 participants who responded to the all items measuring exposure to SEM, 19% reported unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner (UAI) in last 90 days, and 14% reported having had sero-discordant UAI. Among those with UAI experience, 23% reported receptive anal intercourse (R-UAI) and 37% reported insertive anal intercourse (I-UAI). SEM consumption was found to be significantly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Participants with increased consumption of bareback SEM reported higher odds of UAI and I-UAI after adjusting for other factors using multivariable statistics. MSM who started using SEM at a later age reported lower odds of UAI and I-UAI than MSM who started earlier. Future research should aim at understanding how MSM develop and maintain SEM preferences and the relationship between developmental and maintenance factors and HIV sexual risk behavior.
Noor, Syed WB; Simon Rosser, B. R.; Erickson, Darin J.
Although the phenomenon of hypersexuality has been described in the literature, and scales of compulsive sexual behavior have been published, the existing measures do not assess compulsive sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption. This study tested the psychometric properties of a new scale, the Compulsive Pornography Consumption (CPC). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses results showed good psychometric performance of a five item two factor preoccupation-compulsivity solution. As hypothesized, the scale correlates positively with compulsive sexual behavior, internalized homonegativity, and negatively with sexual self-esteem. The scale will enable researchers to investigate the etiologic factors of compulsive SEM use, and enable clinicians to assess problematic consumption. PMID:25838755
Ševcíková, Anna; Šerek, Jan; Machácková, Hana; Šmahel, David
Adolescents use media that exposes them to sexual material. This study focused on adolescents in the Czech Republic, a country with relatively high rates of exposure to sexual material (ESM). A sample of adolescents aged 11 to 15 years ("N" = 495) taken from the project EU Kids Online II was examined for predictors of the following:…
Warren, Jocelyn T; Harvey, S Marie; Agnew, Christopher R
HIV prevention strategies among couples include condom use, mutual monogamy, and HIV testing. Research suggests that condom use is more likely with new or casual partners, and tends to decline as relationships become steady over time. Little is known, however, about explicit mutual monogamy agreements and HIV testing within heterosexual couples. This study used data from 434 young heterosexual couples at increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to assess (a) couple concordance on perceptions of a monogamy agreement, sustained monogamy, and HIV testing; and (b) the associations of relationship and demographic factors with monogamy agreement, sustained monogamy, and HIV testing. Results indicated only slight to fair agreement within couples on measures of monogamy agreement and sustained monogamy. Overall, 227 couples (52%) concurred that they had an explicit agreement to be monogamous; of those, 162 (71%) had sustained the agreement. Couples with greater health protective communication and commitment were more likely to have a monogamy agreement. Couples of Latino and Hispanic ethnicity and those with children were less likely to have a monogamy agreement. Only commitment was related to sustained monogamy. Having children, greater health protective communication, and perceived vulnerability to HIV and STIs were associated with HIV testing within the couple.
Rosser, B R Simon; Smolenski, Derek J; Erickson, Darin; Iantaffi, Alex; Brady, Sonya S; Grey, Jeremy A; Hald, Gert Martin; Horvath, Keith J; Kilian, Gunna; Træen, Bente; Wilkerson, J Michael
This study sought to study consumption patterns of gay-oriented sexually explicit media (SEM) by men who have sex with men (MSM); and to investigate a hypothesized relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior. Participants were 1,391 MSM living in the US, recruited online to complete a SEM consumption and sexual risk survey. Almost all (98.5 %) reported some gay SEM exposure over the last 90 days. While 41 % reported a preference to watch actors perform anal sex without condoms (termed "bareback SEM"), 17 % preferred to actors perform anal sex with condoms (termed "safer sex SEM") and 42 % reported no preference. Overall SEM consumption was not associated with HIV risk; however participants who watched more bareback SEM reported significantly greater odds of engaging in risk behavior. The results suggest that a preference for bareback SEM is associated with engaging in risk behavior. More research to understand how MSM develop and maintain preferences in viewing SEM, and to identify new ways to use SEM in HIV prevention, is recommended.
Simon Rosser, B. R.; Smolenski, Derek J.; Erickson, Darin; Iantaffi, Alex; Brady, Sonya S.; Galos, Dylan L.; Grey, Jeremy A.; Hald, Gert Martin; Horvath, Keith J.; Kilian, Gunna; Træen, Bente; Wilkerson, J. Michael
This study sought to study consumption patterns of gay-oriented sexually explicit media (SEM) by men who have sex with men (MSM); and to investigate a hypothesized relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior. Participants were 1391 MSM living in the US, recruited online to complete a SEM consumption and sexual risk survey. Almost all (98.5%) reported some gay SEM exposure over the last 90 days. While 41% reported a preference to watch actors perform anal sex without condoms (termed “bareback SEM”), 17% preferred to actors perform anal sex with condoms (termed “safer sex SEM”) and 42% reported no preference. Overall SEM consumption was not associated with HIV risk; however participants who watched more bareback SEM reported significantly greater odds of engaging in risk behavior. The results suggest that a preference for bareback SEM is associated with engaging in risk behavior. More research to understand how MSM develop and maintain preferences in viewing SEM, and to identify new ways to use SEM in HIV prevention, is recommended. PMID:23564010
Wu, Wei; Koo, Soh Hoon
Investigates the third-person effect of pornography on the Internet. Notes that congruent with the third-person effect, students from a major Singapore university judged pornographic material on the Internet to have a greater impact on others than on themselves. Reveals evidence for a perceived social distance corollary with children to be more…
Wilkerson, J. Michael; Iantaffi, Alex; Smolenski, Derek J.; Horvath, Keith J.; Simon Rosser, B. R.
To inform HIV/STI prevention messaging, we used cross-sectional data from 1,231 MSM to examine the acceptability of strategies for delivering prevention messages in sexually explicit media (SEM). The majority of participants (83%) found it acceptable to include prevention messages in SEM. A latent profile analysis identified three classifications of men with similar views on the acceptability of strategies. Compared to men endorsing some strategies (54%), men endorsing all strategies (29%) were younger (PORadj=0.56 [0.39, 0.79]) and preferred viewing SEM in which the actors used condoms for anal sex (PORadj=1.53 [1.05, 2.23]). Men endorsing no strategies (17%) were of similar age to men endorsing some, but were more likely to prefer viewing SEM in which the actors did not use condoms (PORadj=2.44 [1.43, 4.16]) and to report engaging in insertive unprotected anal sex within the last 3 months (PORadj=2.03 [1.11, 3.70]). Opportunities exist to use SEM for HIV/STI prevention. PMID:23837809
Rosser, B. R. Simon; Noor, Syed WB; Iantaffi, Alex
To assess problematic sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption, and to identify clinically meaningful cut-off points, we examined clinical correlates using the new Compulsive Pornography Consumption (CPC) scale among 1165 participating MSM. Building on scale practices in measuring compulsive sexual behavior, two cut-off points were identified. While most (76-80%) MSM do not report compulsive symptoms, about 16-20% report levels of problematic SEM consumption, including 7% with extreme scores consistent with DSM criteria for compulsive disorders. Demographic, sexual, and HIV risk differences were identified between the three groups. Researchers and clinicians are encouraged to consider using the CPC scale for comprehensive assessment of compulsive sexual behavior. PMID:26167109
Nayak, Bishnupriya; Menon, S. V. G.
A generalized enthalpy based equation of state, which includes thermal electron excitations explicitly, is formulated from simple considerations. Its application to obtain Hugoniot of materials needs simultaneous evaluation of pressure-volume curve and temperature, the latter requiring solution of a differential equation. The errors involved in two recent papers [Huayun et al., J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5917 (2002); 92, 5924 (2002)], which employed this approach, are brought out and discussed. In addition to developing the correct set of equations, the present work also provides a numerical method to implement this approach. Constant pressure specific heat of ions and electrons and ionic enthalpy parameter, needed for applications, are calculated using a three component equation of state. The method is applied to porous Cu with different initial porosities. Comparison of results with experimental data shows good agreement. It is found that temperatures along the Hugoniot of porous materials are significantly modified due to electronic effects.
Tedford, Thomas L.
The 37 references in this annotated bibliography are compiled for researchers of information on the censorship of sexual materials from ancient times to present. The materials include case studies, histories, essays, and opinion pieces about the use and regulation of "obscenity" in literature, pictorial art, radio broadcasting, the mail, film, and…
Smith, Paul; Waterman, Mitch
As part of an ongoing research project we examined information-processing biases in forensic and nonforensic participants (n = 10 sex offenders, n = 10 violent offenders, n = 10 nonviolent offenders, and n = 13 undergraduates). A computerised version of the Stroop task demonstrated that offenders convicted of both sexual and violent offences were significantly slower than undergraduates to color-name words relating to sexual offending (with sex offenders demonstrating the greatest interference bias). Furthermore, processing bias was also evident for aggression words in violent offenders and violent sexual offenders but not in non-violent sexual offenders. Specifically, paedophiles convicted of indecent assault presented different response profiles compared to heterosexual rapists. These findings suggest that tests that assess information processing bias for salient material may also prove useful as an assessment tool within forensic populations.
Snodgrass, Sara E.; And Others
Research has shown that children's differentiation of gender-appropriate behavior is not directly affected by their teacher's gender. However, the teacher's behavior in relation to the material being taught may convey the sex-appropriateness or -inappropriateness to the child. To examine the effects of student gender and sexual stereotype of the…
Gilbert, Emilee; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette
Research in the area of gynaecological cancer has increasingly examined changes to women's sexuality, with the impact of treatment on sexual wellbeing considered particularly important. The objective of this paper is to review research on gynaecological cancer and sexuality from the years 1990 to 2011. Research has documented a range of post-treatment anatomical and physical changes to women's sexual wellbeing, including changes to sexual desire, pleasure, orgasm, vaginal lubrication, genital sensitivity, arousal, and frequency of sex. Women's intrapsychic experiences of changes to sexuality include anxiety, depression, distress, and negative perceptions of sexual identity and body image. Socially constructed discourses surrounding gender and sexuality also shape women's experiences of their sexual wellbeing post-gynaecological cancer and treatment, with many women feeling a loss of womanhood and femininity with the removal of, or changes to, their reproductive organs. Finally, women's relationship context, pattern of couple communication, and partner support are associated with women's ability to cope with changes to sexuality post-gynaecological cancer. Given that sexuality is an important part of quality of life, it is important that health professionals actively communicate information to women and their partner about the effects of treatment on sexual wellbeing, in order to legitimate and normalise sexuality in this context. It is concluded that research in the area of gynaecological cancer and sexuality needs to acknowledge not only the physical/anatomical/material effects of cancer treatments, but also women's intrapsychic experiences of changes to sexuality, her relationship context, and the role of gendered discourses in shaping women's experiences of sexuality post-gynaecological cancer and treatment.
Portelli, C J
Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care.
Meza-Fajardo, Kristel C.; Lai, Carlo G.
The theory of linear viscoelasticity is the simplest constitutive model that can be adopted to accurately predict the small-strain mechanical response of materials exhibiting the ability to both store and dissipate strain energy. An important result implied by this theory is the relationship existing between material attenuation and the velocity of propagation of a mechanical disturbance. The functional dependence of these important parameters is represented by the Kramers-Kronig (KK) equations, also known as dispersion equations, which are nothing but a statement of the necessary and sufficient conditions to satisfy physical causality. This paper illustrates the derivation of exact solutions of the KK equations to provide explicit relations between frequency-dependent phase velocity and material damping ratio (or equivalently, quality factor). The assumptions that form the basis of the derivation are not beyond those established by the standard theory of viscoelasticity for a viscoelastic solid. The explicit expression for phase velocity as a function of damping ratio was derived by means of the theory of linear singular integral equations, and in particular by the solution of the associated Homogeneous Riemann Boundary Value Problem. It is shown that the same solution may be obtained also by using the implications of physical causality on the Fourier Transform. On the other hand, the explicit solution for damping ratio as a function of phase velocity was found through the components of the complex wavenumber. The exact solutions make it possible to obtain frequency-dependent material damping ratio solely from phase velocity measurements, and conversely. Hence, these relations provide an innovative and inexpensive tool to determine the small-strain dynamic properties of geomaterials. It is shown that the obtained rigorous solutions are in good agreement with well-known solutions based on simplifying assumptions that have been developed in the fields of seismology
Gilbert, Emilee; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Wong, W K Tim; Hobbs, Kim; Mason, Catherine
Men can experience significant changes to their sexuality following the onset of cancer. However, research on men's sexuality post-cancer has focused almost exclusively on those with prostate and testicular cancer, despite evidence that the diagnosis and treatment for most cancers can impact on men's sexuality. This Australian qualitative study explores the experiences of changes to sexuality for 21 men across a range of cancer types and stages, sexual orientations and relationship contexts. Semi-structured interviews were analysed with theoretical thematic analysis guided by a material discursive intra-psychic approach, recognising the materiality of sexual changes, men's intrapsychic experience of such changes within a relational context and the influence of the discursive construction of masculine sexuality. Material changes included erectile difficulty, decreased desire, and difficulty with orgasm. The use of medical aids to minimise the impact of erectile difficulties was shaped by discursive constructions of 'normal' masculine sexuality. The majority of men reported accepting the changes to their sexuality post-cancer and normalised them as part of the natural ageing process. Men's relationship status and context played a key role managing the changes to their sexuality. We conclude by discussing the implications for clinical practice.
López Jaime, P; Santos Ortíz, M C; Dávila Torres, R R; Torres, L; Díaz, L
The objective of this study was to identify the knowledge about sexuality (including STD/HIV/AIDS), the sexual practices more frequents and sexuality education sources in a group of students with visual impairments. A self administered questionnaire was utilized in 50 students with visual impairment. Descriptive statistics were utilized. Seventy six percent (76.0%) of the participants presented a high knowledge about sexuality and 22.0% presented moderated knowledge. The no penetrative sexual practice more frequent was corporal caress (82.0%) and the penetrative was penis-vagina (74.0%). The source of sexuality education most common was the conferences (83.9%). Although, in general, the knowledge about sexuality was high, there are "gaps" in them. There is the need to develop educational materials adapted to the needs of the studied population.
The increase in exposure to sexually explicit material has been cited as a significant factor influencing adolescent sexuality and health. Concern about the negative impact of this material is increasingly prominent within policy, professional groups, and the media. Little research, however, has been conducted within this area. This article…
Inspired by poststructuralist insights and the critical literature on the topic of school-based sexuality education, this paper is derived from a close examination of the Relationships and Sexuality Education (RSE) resource materials devised for teachers involved in delivering the programme in Irish schools. It seeks critically to uncover how…
Benavides, Raquel A.; Montero, Carolina Valdez; González, Víctor M.; Rodríguez, Dora Julia Onofre
Use of sexual material online (USMO) by young people has been connected with at-risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS. Media Richness and Social Cognitive theories propose that rich media offer more information with interactive and audible visual content, which could have a significant impact on people’s thinking and behavior. The objective was to determine whether USMO presented by rich media has an influence on at-risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS. Two hundred young people participated in the study, and it was found that USMO from rich media is connected to at risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS (p<.01). Young people who use rich media for masturbation (F[2,189]=10.169, p<.001), arousal (F[2,189]=4.686, p<.05), stimulation (F[2,189]=8.382, p<.001), and seeking adventures (F[2,189]=6.406, p<.01) were more likely to show at risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS. The study also found that young people may experience pleasure from USMO in rich media and feel motivated to model what they observe. PMID:24199040
Criado Sanchez, Raquel; Perez, Aquilino Sanchez; Gomez, Pascual Cantos
The concepts of "explicit" and "implicit" (knowledge) are at the core of SLA studies. We take "explicit" as conscious and declarative (knowledge); "implicit" as unconscious, automatic and procedural (knowledge) (DeKeyser, 2003; R. Ellis, 2005a, 2005b, 2009; Hulstjin, 2005; Robinson, 1996; Schmidt, 1990, 1994). The importance of those concepts and…
Written information material and availability of sexual health care for men experiencing sexual dysfunction after prostate cancer treatment: An evaluation of Dutch urology and radiotherapy departments.
Grondhuis Palacios, L A; Krouwel, E M; Duijn, M; den Oudsten, B L; den Ouden, M E M; Putter, H; Pelger, R C M; Elzevier, H W
Objective was to investigate content of written information material and availability of sexual health care for men experiencing sexual dysfunction (SD) after prostate cancer treatment. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Dutch urology and radiotherapy departments to evaluate information materials and availability of sexual health care. Out of 71 eligible departments, 34 urology and 15 radiotherapy departments participated in the survey (response rate 69.0%). Fifty-nine brochures corresponding to 31 urology and 11 radiotherapy departments were analysed. In 88.1% of collected information material, sexual health was mentioned. Regarding extensiveness, 20.4% of the brochures contained extensive information, 50.8% moderate amount of information and 28.8% contained little or no information. Urology departments provided pre-treatment nurse consultations more often than radiotherapy departments. Sexual counselling was more frequently provided by urology departments. Urology departments were more aware of adequate referral possibilities. Information material provided by Dutch urology and radiotherapy departments does not address treatment-related SD routinely. Sexual health care is not available everywhere for men experiencing SD. Applying a standard regarding content of sexual health in information material is recommended as well as improved awareness of referral possibilities and enhanced provision of pre-treatment nurse consultations for men experiencing SD after prostate cancer treatment.
Kamndaya, Mphatso; Thomas, Liz; Vearey, Jo; Sartorius, Benn; Kazembe, Lawrence
Young people in urban slums adopt HIV risk behaviors influenced by their neighborhood factors. Three critical factors in urban slums of Southern and Eastern Africa--the region most affected by the HIV epidemic in the world--are unmet needs of housing, food, and health care, which are associated with HIV sexual risks. Yet, there has been limited attention on how the combination of unmet needs of housing, food, and health care--i.e., material deprivation-relates to sexual risk behavior among young people in urban slums. Cross-sectional data were extracted from the LoveLife survey in South African four provinces--KwaZulu Natal, Mpumalanga, Eastern Cape, and Gauteng, to examine the association between material deprivation and sexual risk behavior among young people aged 18-23 years (263 males, 267 females) in urban slums. Adjusted logistic regression models showed that material deprivation was significantly associated with increased odds of high sexual risk taking for young men (adjusted OR = 1.20; 95 % CI = 1.10, 5.58) and young women (adjusted OR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.35, 3.28). Financial difficulty--a proxy for other deprivations--was the most salient influence on young women's high sexual risk taking (adjusted OR = 2.11; 95 % CI = 1.66, 2.70). Localized behavioral HIV prevention interventions should target young people in deprived households.
Stockwell, Fawna M. J.; Walker, Diana J.; Eshleman, John W.
The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) examines implicit attitudes through the measurement of response latencies. In this study, the IRAP was used to assess implicit attitudes toward "mainstream" sexual terms (e.g., Kissing) and "BDSM" terms (e.g., Bondage) among individuals reporting BDSM interests and among students who did not…
Brown, William D; Barry, Katherine L
Models of the evolution of sexual cannibalism argue that males may offset the cost of cannibalism if components of the male body are directly allocated to the eggs that they fertilize. We tested this idea in the praying mantid Tenodera sinensis Males and females were fed differently radiolabelled crickets and allowed to mate. Half of the pairs progressed to sexual cannibalism and we prevented cannibalism in the other half. We assess the relative allocation of both male-derived somatic materials and ejaculate materials into the eggs and soma of the female. Our results show that male somatic investment contributes to production of offspring. The eggs and reproductive tissues of cannibalistic females contained significantly more male-derived amino acids than those of non-cannibalistic females, and there was an increase in the number of eggs produced subsequent to sexual cannibalism. Sexual cannibalism thus increases male material investment in offspring. We also show that males provide substantial investment via the ejaculate, with males passing about 25% of their radiolabelled amino acids to females via the ejaculate even in the absence of cannibalism.
Antebi-Gruszka, Nadav; Downing, Martin J.
The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in the availability of sexually explicit media (SEM) on the Internet. Men who have sex with men (MSM) report near universal use of SEM. However, this widespread use of SEM among MSM may contribute to more condomless anal sex. To examine the association of viewing SEM on the Internet and the number of condomless anal sex encounters among MSM, in 2012, an online survey was conducted of 265 MSM from New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, or Washington D.C. who reported viewing SEM online in the past 3 months. Analyses were performed using negative binomial regression. Nearly all men reported viewing SEM featuring anal sex with (91%) or without (92%) condoms in the past 3 months. Neither viewing more hours of SEM per week or compulsively viewing SEM were associated with more condomless anal sex encounters. Rather, viewing a greater proportion of SEM containing condomless anal sex was associated with engaging in more condomless anal encounters (IRR = 1.25), while viewing a greater proportion of SEM containing anal sex where condoms were used was associated with fewer condomless anal sex encounters (IRR = 0.62). MSM reported that viewing SEM caused changes in their sexual fantasies, desires, and behaviors. These findings provide important insights for health policy and the design of interventions addressing SEM and condomless sex among MSM. The findings suggest that condom use by SEM performers may benefit not only actor health, but also have health implications for SEM viewers. PMID:27119990
Schrimshaw, Eric W; Antebi-Gruszka, Nadav; Downing, Martin J
The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in the availability of sexually explicit media (SEM) on the Internet. Men who have sex with men (MSM) report near universal use of SEM. However, this widespread use of SEM among MSM may contribute to more condomless anal sex. To examine the association of viewing SEM on the Internet and the number of condomless anal sex encounters among MSM, in 2012, an online survey was conducted of 265 MSM from New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, or Washington D.C. who reported viewing SEM online in the past 3 months. Analyses were performed using negative binomial regression. Nearly all men reported viewing SEM featuring anal sex with (91%) or without (92%) condoms in the past 3 months. Neither viewing more hours of SEM per week or compulsively viewing SEM were associated with more condomless anal sex encounters. Rather, viewing a greater proportion of SEM containing condomless anal sex was associated with engaging in more condomless anal encounters (IRR = 1.25), while viewing a greater proportion of SEM containing anal sex where condoms were used was associated with fewer condomless anal sex encounters (IRR = 0.62). MSM reported that viewing SEM caused changes in their sexual fantasies, desires, and behaviors. These findings provide important insights for health policy and the design of interventions addressing SEM and condomless sex among MSM. The findings suggest that condom use by SEM performers may benefit not only actor health, but also have health implications for SEM viewers.
Voon, Valerie; Mole, Thomas B.; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Morris, Laurel; Mitchell, Simon; Lapa, Tatyana R.; Karr, Judy; Harrison, Neil A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Irvine, Michael
Although compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) has been conceptualized as a “behavioural” addiction and common or overlapping neural circuits may govern the processing of natural and drug rewards, little is known regarding the responses to sexually explicit materials in individuals with and without CSB. Here, the processing of cues of varying sexual content was assessed in individuals with and without CSB, focusing on neural regions identified in prior studies of drug-cue reactivity. 19 CSB subjects and 19 healthy volunteers were assessed using functional MRI comparing sexually explicit videos with non-sexual exciting videos. Ratings of sexual desire and liking were obtained. Relative to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects had greater desire but similar liking scores in response to the sexually explicit videos. Exposure to sexually explicit cues in CSB compared to non-CSB subjects was associated with activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate, ventral striatum and amygdala. Functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate-ventral striatum-amygdala network was associated with subjective sexual desire (but not liking) to a greater degree in CSB relative to non-CSB subjects. The dissociation between desire or wanting and liking is consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying CSB as in drug addictions. Neural differences in the processing of sexual-cue reactivity were identified in CSB subjects in regions previously implicated in drug-cue reactivity studies. The greater engagement of corticostriatal limbic circuitry in CSB following exposure to sexual cues suggests neural mechanisms underlying CSB and potential biological targets for interventions. PMID:25013940
Zhou, Hao-Miao; Li, Meng-Han; Li, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Da-Guang
For a giant magnetostrictive rod under the action of multiple physical loads, such as an external magnetic field, temperature and axial pre-stress, this paper proposes a general one-dimensional nonlinear magneto-thermo-mechanical coupled constitutive model. This model is based on the Taylor expansion of the elastic Gibbs free energy of giant magnetostrictive material and thermodynamic relations from the perspective of macro continuum mechanics. Predictions made using this model are in good agreement with experimental data for magnetization and the magnetostrictive strain curve under the collective effect of pre-stress and temperature. Additionally, the model overcomes the drawback of the existing magneto-thermo-mechanical constitutive model that cannot accurately predict the magnetization and magnetostrictive strain curve for different temperatures and pre-stresses. Furthermore, the constitutive model does not contain an implicit function and is compact, and can thus be applied in both situations of tensile and compressive stress and to both positive and negative magnetostrictive materials, and it is thus appropriate for engineering applications. Comprehensive analysis shows that the model fully describes the nonlinear coupling properties of a magnetic field, magnetostrictive strain and elasticity of a magnetostrictive material subjected to stress, a magnetic field and heat.
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E
Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females.
Zhang, Jun; Ye, Wenjing
In this paper, the attenuation coefficient of coherent SH waves in random porous material with uniformly randomly distributed elliptical cavities of different aspect ratios is studied. Based on an analysis of the mechanism for attenuation, a simple macro model for the attenuation coefficient is proposed. The macro model says that the attenuation coefficient can be expressed as a function of the mean scattering cross section and the number density of cavities at low porosities. Then, large-scale numerical simulations using the pre-corrected Fast Fourier Transform (pFFT) algorithm accelerated Boundary Element Method (BEM) are conducted to specify this macro model. Finally, this macro model is compared with four theoretical models derived for composite/porous materials with circular inclusions at the porosity p=3.17% and 5%. Results show this macro model agree well with three of them. Compared to the existing theoretical models, the form of this macro model is simple and has a clear physical meaning. In addition, it is applicable to cases with relatively complex cavities.
Waidzunas, Tom; Epstein, Steven
We trace the history of the phallometric test--which measures erections of men exposed to visual erotic stimuli to characterize sexualities--in order to account for its functioning as a 'truthing technology'. On the basis of a content analysis of 410 key scientific journal article abstracts, we argue that since its invention in Czechoslovakia in the 1950s, phallometry has been employed within three distinct assemblages: as a test of predominance of sexual desire, as a test for therapeutic efficacy, and as a threshold test of sexual risk. Drawing on works of theorists of materialization and proponents of script theory, we argue that within each assemblage phallometric testing materializes male desire and renders it measurable via a 'technosexual script'. We consider the performative effects of phallometry in establishing scientific conceptions of normal and abnormal sexualities. At the same time, through attention to debates among practitioners and broader controversies surrounding the employment of phallometry, we examine the limits of researchers' abilities to establish the broader credibility of the test and capture the phenomenon of sexual desire. This analysis contributes to the study of truthing technologies (or 'truth machines') as a class, while also helping to build bridges between science and technology studies and sexuality studies.
Modig, Zeau D., Ed.
This annotated bibliography was compiled as a guide for educators, administrators, counselors, parents, and everyone concerned about the opponents of sexuality education in schools, their arguments, and their tactics. Entries were chosen to represent a variety of materials in terms of both format and content. This bibliography is divided into…
... C. §2256(8)) defines child pornography as any visual depiction, including any photograph, film, video, picture or ... sexually explicit conduct, where the: Production of the visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging ...
Stier, William F., Jr.
Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…
Michel, P.; Richardson, D. C.
During their evolutions, the small bodies of our Solar System are affected by several mechanisms which can modify their properties. While dynamical mechanisms are at the origin of their orbital variations, there are other mechanisms which can change their shape, spin, and even their size when their strength threshold is reached, resulting in their disruption. Such mechanisms have been identified and studied, both by analytical and numerical tools. The main mechanisms that can result in the disruption of a small body are collisional events, tidal perturbations, and spin-ups. However, the efficiency of these mechanisms depends on the strength of the material constituing the small body, which also plays a role in its possible equilibrium shape. We will present several important aspects of material strength that are believed to be adapted to Solar System small bodies and briefly review the most recent studies of the different mechanisms that can be at the origin of the disruption of these bodies. In particular, we have recently made a major improvement in the simulations of asteroid disruption by computing explicitly the formation of aggregates during the gravitational reaccumulation of small fragments, allowing us to obtain information on their spin, the number of boulders composing them or lying on their surface, and their shape.We will present the first and preliminary results of this process taking as examples some asteroid families that we reproduced successfully with our previous simulations (Michel et al. 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004a,b), and their possible implications on the properties of asteroids generated by a disruption. Such information can for instance be compared with data provided by the Japanese space mission Hayabusa of the asteroid Itokawa, a body now understood to be a fragment of a larger parent body. It is also clear that future space missions to small bodies devoted to precise in-situ analysis and sample return will allow us to improve our
Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Busko, Vesna; Landripet, Ivan
In spite of a growing presence of pornography in contemporary life, little is known about its potential effects on young people's sexual socialization and sexual satisfaction. In this article, we present a theoretical model of the effects of sexually explicit materials (SEM) mediated by sexual scripting and moderated by the type of SEM used. An on-line survey dataset that included 650 young Croatian men aged 18-25 years was used to explore empirically the model. Descriptive findings pointed to significant differences between mainstream and paraphilic SEM users in frequency of SEM use at the age of 14, current SEM use, frequency of masturbation, sexual boredom, acceptance of sex myths, and sexual compulsiveness. In testing the model, a novel instrument was used, the Sexual Scripts Overlap Scale, designed to measure the influence of SEM on sexual socialization. Structural equation analyses suggested that negative effects of early exposure to SEM on young men's sexual satisfaction, albeit small, could be stronger than positive effects. Both positive and negative effects-the latter being expressed through suppression of intimacy-were observed only among users of paraphilic SEM. No effect of early exposure to SEM was found among the mainstream SEM users. To counterbalance moral panic but also glamorization of pornography, sex education programs should incorporate contents that would increase media literacy and assist young people in critical interpretation of pornographic imagery.
Research on constructions of sexuality in Pentecostalism often struggles with the fact that the research setting is defined ex ante in terms of church communities, which imposes upon ethnographic accounts the same limitations Pentecostal morality imposes upon church members' discourse. Taking young Pentecostals operating in a space that is not explicitly religious as the methodological entrance to the field, this paper explores negotiations over sexuality, intimate relationships and love among Xhosa-speaking township youth. It introduces the notion of erotic geographies to consider how possible influences of religious discourses on sexuality are refracted by alternative cultural orientations and material contexts. Findings suggest that premarital abstinence appears as a highly exceptional ideal for youth. Even among Pentecostal youth, notions of sexuality are largely severed from religiosity and faithfulness and romanticism are dominant ideals. Future research on Pentecostalism and sexuality should be less religious-centric and rooted more firmly in ethnographies of youth sexual cultures.
Business and Professional Women's Foundation, Washington, DC.
This paper focuses on the problem of sexual harassment in the workplace. The legal definition of sexual harassment as drawn up by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is: "unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that are explicitly or implicitly a term or condition…
Huuki, Tuija; Renold, Emma
Drawing on ethnographic multi-modal data of the gendered and sexual dynamics of pre-school play (age 6) in a rapidly declining fishing and farming community in North Finland, this paper offers a glimpse into our sense-making of a short video-recorded episode in which three boys repeatedly pile up on and demand a kiss from one of their girl…
Somers, Cheryl L.; Tynan, Joshua J.
The purposes of this study were to examine group differences in sexual media consumption and to explore how well adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior can be explained by viewing of sexually suggestive dialogue (SD) and explicit sexual content (SC) in television media. Participants were 473 male and female high school adolescents who were…
Ebrahim, Irshaad Osman
Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a viable defence on the basis of automatism. The behaviours that occur during sleepwalking can be highly complex and include sexual behaviour of all types. Somnambulistic sexual behaviour (also called sexsomnia, sleep sex) is considered a variant of sleepwalking disorder as the overwhelming majority of people with Sexsomnia have a history of parasomnia and a family history of sleepwalking. Sexual behaviour during a sleep automatism can vary from explicit sexual vocalisations, to violent masturbation, to complex sexual acts including anal, oral and vaginal penetration. A recent case in England is reported where the defendant was acquitted on 3 charges of rape on the basis of automatism due to somnambulistic sexual behaviour.
Banca, Paula; Morris, Laurel S; Mitchell, Simon; Harrison, Neil A; Potenza, Marc N; Voon, Valerie
The Internet provides a large source of novel and rewarding stimuli, particularly with respect to sexually explicit materials. Novelty-seeking and cue-conditioning are fundamental processes underlying preference and approach behaviors implicated in disorders of addiction. Here we examine these processes in individuals with compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB), hypothesizing a greater preference for sexual novelty and stimuli conditioned to sexual rewards relative to healthy volunteers. Twenty-two CSB males and forty age-matched male volunteers were tested in two separate behavioral tasks focusing on preferences for novelty and conditioned stimuli. Twenty subjects from each group were also assessed in a third conditioning and extinction task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. CSB was associated with enhanced novelty preference for sexual, as compared to control images, and a generalized preference for cues conditioned to sexual and monetary versus neutral outcomes compared to healthy volunteers. CSB individuals also had greater dorsal cingulate habituation to repeated sexual versus monetary images with the degree of habituation correlating with enhanced preference for sexual novelty. Approach behaviors to sexually conditioned cues dissociable from novelty preference were associated with an early attentional bias to sexual images. This study shows that CSB individuals have a dysfunctional enhanced preference for sexual novelty possibly mediated by greater cingulate habituation along with a generalized enhancement of conditioning to rewards. We further emphasize a dissociable role for cue-conditioning and novelty preference on the early attentional bias for sexual cues. These findings have wider relevance as the Internet provides a broad range of novel and potentially rewarding stimuli.
Banca, Paula; Morris, Laurel S.; Mitchell, Simon; Harrison, Neil A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Voon, Valerie
The Internet provides a large source of novel and rewarding stimuli, particularly with respect to sexually explicit materials. Novelty-seeking and cue-conditioning are fundamental processes underlying preference and approach behaviors implicated in disorders of addiction. Here we examine these processes in individuals with compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB), hypothesizing a greater preference for sexual novelty and stimuli conditioned to sexual rewards relative to healthy volunteers. Twenty-two CSB males and forty age-matched male volunteers were tested in two separate behavioral tasks focusing on preferences for novelty and conditioned stimuli. Twenty subjects from each group were also assessed in a third conditioning and extinction task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. CSB was associated with enhanced novelty preference for sexual, as compared to control images, and a generalized preference for cues conditioned to sexual and monetary versus neutral outcomes compared to healthy volunteers. CSB individuals also had greater dorsal cingulate habituation to repeated sexual versus monetary images with the degree of habituation correlating with enhanced preference for sexual novelty. Approach behaviors to sexually conditioned cues dissociable from novelty preference were associated with an early attentional bias to sexual images. This study shows that CSB individuals have a dysfunctional enhanced preference for sexual novelty possibly mediated by greater cingulate habituation along with a generalized enhancement of conditioning to rewards. We further emphasize a dissociable role for cue-conditioning and novelty preference on the early attentional bias for sexual cues. These findings have wider relevance as the Internet provides a broad range of novel and potentially rewarding stimuli. PMID:26606725
Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry; Barton, Staci; Siconolfi, Daniel; Figueroa, Rafael Perez
Few studies have examined how social support network characteristics are related to perceived receipt of social support among male sexual minority youth. Using egocentric network data collected from a study of male sexual minority youth (n=592), multivariable logistic regression analyses examined distinct associations between individual and social network characteristics with receipt of (1) emotional and (2) material support. In multivariable models, frequent communication and having friends in one's network yielded a two-fold increase in the likelihood of receiving emotional support whereas frequent communication was associated with an almost three-fold higher likelihood of perceived material support. Finally, greater internalized homophobia and personal experiences of gay-related stigma were inversely associated with perceived receipt of emotional and material support, respectively. Understanding the evolving social context and social interactions of this new generation of male sexual minority youth is warranted in order to understand the broader, contextual factors associated with their overall health and well-being.
Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya
Metals can in theory be infinitely recycled in a closed-loop without any degradation in quality. In reality, however, open-loop recycling is more typical for metal scrap recovered from end-of-life (EoL) products because mixing of different metal species results in scrap quality that no longer matches the originals. Further losses occur when meeting the quality requirement of the target product requires dilution of the secondary material by adding high purity materials. Standard LCA usually does not address these losses. This paper presents a novel approach to quantifying quality- and dilution losses, by means of hybrid input-output analysis. We focus on the losses associated with the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life vehicle (ELV) due to the mixing of copper, a typical contaminant in steel recycling. Given the quality of scrap in terms of copper density, the model determines the ratio by which scrap needs to be diluted in an electric arc furnace (EAF), and the amount of demand for EAF steel including those quantities needed for dilution. Application to a high-resolution Japanese IO table supplemented with data on ferrous materials including different grades of scrap indicates that a nationwide avoidance of these losses could result in a significant reduction of CO(2) emissions.
Simmons, J.; Erlich, D.; Shockey, D.
A team consisting of Arizona State University, Honeywell Engines, Systems & Services, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center, and SRI International collaborated to develop computational models and verification testing for designing and evaluating turbine engine fan blade fabric containment structures. This research was conducted under the Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance Center of Excellence and was sponsored by the Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program. The research was directed toward improving the modeling of a turbine engine fabric containment structure for an engine blade-out containment demonstration test required for certification of aircraft engines. The research conducted in Phase II began a new level of capability to design and develop fan blade containment systems for turbine engines. Significant progress was made in three areas: (1) further development of the ballistic fabric model to increase confidence and robustness in the material models for the Kevlar(TradeName) and Zylon(TradeName) material models developed in Phase I, (2) the capability was improved for finite element modeling of multiple layers of fabric using multiple layers of shell elements, and (3) large-scale simulations were performed. This report concentrates on the material model development and simulations of the impact tests.
... Statistics Resources on infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date Sexually ... Health Answers to women's and men's reproductive concerns Sexual Violence Prevention Sexual violence affects all people, particularly women ...
Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S
Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored.
Ybarra, Michele L.; Finkelhor, David; Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Wolak, Janis
Objective: To examine the relationship between the use of preventive software on the home computer and unwanted exposure to sexual material online. Methods: The Youth Internet Safety Survey-2 was a national, RDD telephone survey conducted in March-June 2005. Eight hundred households (one caregiver and one child between the ages of 10 and 17 years)…
Sinković, Matija; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Božić, Jasmina
Among the suggested problems and harms associated with widespread pornography use among young people, risky sexual behaviors have been frequently mentioned. To further explore this public health concern, this article analyzed sexual sensation seeking (SSS) as a potential confounder of the association between pornography use and sexual risks using data collected in 2010 from a population-based sample of young Croatian adults aged 18 to 25 (n = 1,005). Significant, but small, correlations were found between the indicators of pornography use (age at first exposure, frequency of use in the past 12 months, and personal importance of pornography) and sexual risk taking. However, in a multivariate analysis, only age at first exposure to pornography remained a significant, albeit weak, predictor of sexual risk taking among both women and men. SSS, defined as the dispositional tendency toward the impulsive pursuit of sexual arousal and stimulation, neither confounded nor moderated this association. Overall, the findings do not support the notion that pornography use is substantially associated with sexual risk taking among young adults, but suggest that early exposure to sexually explicit material and high SSS are additive risk factors for sexual risk taking.
... and conditions Caregiving Wellness Staying active Mental health Sexual health Sexual difficulties Protecting yourself Safety and abuse Falls ... updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Sexual health Healthy Aging Sexual difficulties Learn more about men's ...
Nagai, Noriko; Ayano, Seiki; Okada, Keiko; Nakanishi, Takayuki
This article proposes an approach to explicit grammar instruction that seeks to develop metalinguistic knowledge of the L2 and raise L2 learners' awareness of their L1, which is crucial for the success of second language acquisition (Ellis 1997, 2002). If explicit instruction is more effective than implicit instruction (Norris and Ortega 2000),…
Rubalcaba, J G; Polo, V; Maia, R; Rubenstein, D R; Veiga, J P
Although sexual selection is typically considered the predominant force driving the evolution of ritualized sexual behaviours, natural selection may also play an important and often underappreciated role. The use of green aromatic plants among nesting birds has been interpreted as a component of extended phenotype that evolved either via natural selection due to potential sanitary functions or via sexual selection as a signal of male attractiveness. Here, we compared both hypotheses using comparative methods in starlings, a group where this behaviour is widespread. We found that the use of green plants was positively related to male-biased size dimorphism and that it was most likely to occur among cavity-nesting species. These results suggest that this behaviour is likely favoured by sexual selection, but also related to its sanitary use in response to higher parasite loads in cavities. We speculate that the use of green plants in starlings may be facilitated by cavity nesting and was subsequently co-opted as a sexual signal by males. Our results represent an example of how an extended phenotypic component of males becomes sexually selected by females. Thus, both natural selection and sexual selection are necessary to fully understand the evolution of ritualized behaviours involved in courtship.
Hancock, Joelie, Ed.
Exploring the explicit teaching of reading, this book is the result of a group of Australian teachers who took a closer look at their teaching so that they could be clearer to their kindergarten through middle-school students. Chapter 1 is based on a presentation at a Saturday inservice program on explicit teaching. Chapters 2-9 were written by…
Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly; Kohfeldt, Danielle
Sexual education plays an essential role in preventing unplanned pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). School-based sexual education programs, in particular, may be well positioned to address social factors that are empirically linked to negative sexual health outcomes, such as traditional social norms surrounding gender and sexuality. However, youth are seldom granted access to sexual education programs that explicitly address these issues. This study presents findings from a pretest-posttest survey of a sexual education program that did. It was designed for eighth graders (N=95) in the context of a school-community collaboration. The study assessed the links between several components of sexual empowerment, including gender ideology, sexual knowledge, and contraceptive beliefs. Findings link participation in the sexual education program to more progressive attitudes toward girls and women, less agreement with hegemonic masculinity ideology, and increases in sexual health and resource knowledge. Structural equation models suggest that traditional attitudes toward women were significantly related to hegemonic masculinity ideology among both boys and girls, which was in turn negatively related to safer contraceptive beliefs.
... condition of employment, whether expressed in explicit or implicit terms; —If employment decisions, such as... affect the career, salary or job of an employee is engaging in sexual harassment. Similarly, an...
... condition of employment, whether expressed in explicit or implicit terms; —If employment decisions, such as... affect the career, salary or job of an employee is engaging in sexual harassment. Similarly, an...
... condition of employment, whether expressed in explicit or implicit terms; —If employment decisions, such as... affect the career, salary or job of an employee is engaging in sexual harassment. Similarly, an...
The present study investigated the specificity of sexual appraisal processes by making a distinction between implicit and explicit appraisals and between the affective (liking) and motivational (wanting) valence of sexual stimuli. These appraisals are assumed to diverge between men and women, depending on the context in which the sexual stimulus is encountered. Using an Implicit Association Test, explicit ratings, and film clips to prime a sexual, romantic or neutral motivational context, we investigated whether liking and wanting of sexual stimuli differed at the implicit and explicit level, differed between men and women, and were differentially sensitive to context manipulations. Results showed that, at the implicit level, women wanted more sex after being primed with romantic mood whereas men showed the least wanting of sex in the romantic condition. At the explicit level, men reported greater liking and wanting of sex than women, independently of context. We also found that women's (self-reported) sexual behavior was best predicted by the incentive salience of sexual stimuli whereas men's sexual behavior was more closely related to the hedonic qualities of sexual stimuli. Results were discussed in relation to an emotion-motivational account of sexual functioning.
Merdian, Hannah L; Moghaddam, Nima; Boer, Douglas P; Wilson, Nick; Thakker, Jo; Curtis, Cate; Dawson, Dave
Since the advent of the Internet, convictions for the possession, display, trading, and distribution of child sexual exploitation material (CSEM) have risen steadily, but little is known about their appropriate assessment and treatment, especially concerning their risk of reoffending. It has been suggested that a conceptual distinction of fantasy- versus contact-driven CSEM users might be of merit. Sixty-eight offenders recruited from sex offender treatment providers were assessed via an anonymous computer survey including a variety of clinical and risk-related variables; the findings showed differences in the psychological profiles between CSEM users and contact child sex offenders. Numerical and spatial methods of data analysis were used to identify subgroups of CSEM users; these confirmed the twofold distinction of fantasy- versus contact-driven offending. The spatial representation of participants identified three dimensions as crucial in the classification of these subgroups: direct sexual contact with a minor, possession of fantasy-generating material, and social contact with other users with a sexual interest in minors; potentially differentiating distinct offender subgroups with different risks and needs. The current study informed the development of an empirical model of CSEM users that could aid in the assessment of risk of reoffending and cross-over to contact sex offending.
Ayala-Rincon, Mauricio; Munoz, Cesar; Busnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
Explicit substitution calculi are extensions of the Lambda-calculus where the substitution mechanism is internalized into the theory. This feature makes them suitable for implementation and theoretical study of logic-based tools such as strongly typed programming languages and proof assistant systems. In this paper we explore new developments on two of the most successful styles of explicit substitution calculi: the lambda(sigma)- and lambda(s(e))-calculi.
Ayala-Rincon, Mauricio; Munoz, Cesar
Explicit substitution calculi are extensions of the lambda-calculus where the substitution mechanism is internalized into the theory. This feature makes them suitable for implementation and theoretical study of logic-based tools such as strongly typed programming languages and proof assistant systems. In this paper we explore new developments on two of the most successful styles of explicit substitution calculi: the lambda sigma- and lambda S(e)-calculi.
Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...
... Reproductive System Gynecomastia Help! Is This My Body? Male Reproductive System When Will I Start Developing? Why Are My ... Erection When Waking Up? Is My Penis Normal? Male Reproductive System Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual ...
... Irregular. What's Going On? Pap Smears Pelvic Exams Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual ... My Monthly Cycle Go Back to Normal With PCOS Treatment? For Guys Can I Stop Myself From ...
... for a healthy life Mental health for men Sexual health for men Male infertility Prostate health Sexual problems ... updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Men's Health > Sexual health for men Men's Health This information in Spanish ( ...
... healthy and enjoyable sex life at any age. Sex and aging Can older adults remain sexually active? ... from sexually transmitted infections. Talking to kids about sex Kids and sexuality — those words strike fear into ...
DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.
Bulmer, Maria; Izuma, Keise
Despite the recent surge of interest in sexuality, asexuality has remained relatively underresearched. Distinct from abstinence or chastity, asexuality refers to a lack of sexual attraction toward others. Past research suggests asexuals have negative attitudes toward sex, though no research has examined implicit attitudes. While preliminary evidence suggests that many asexuals are interested in engaging in romantic relationships, these attitudes have yet to be examined thoroughly, implicitly, or compared with a control group. This study investigated explicit and implicit attitudes toward sex and romance in a group of asexuals (N = 18, age M = 21.11) and a group of controls (N = 27, age M = 21.81), using the Asexuality Identification Scale (AIS), the Triangular Love Scale (TLS), semantic differentials, an Implicit Association Task (IAT), and two Single Category IATs. It was found that asexuals exhibited more negative explicit and implicit attitudes toward sex, as well as more negative explicit attitudes toward romance, relative to controls. There was no significant difference between groups on implicit romantic attitudes. Moreover, aromantic asexuals demonstrated significantly more negative explicit attitudes toward romance than romantic asexuals, though there was no significant difference between groups on implicit measures. Explanations and implications of these findings are discussed.
Doornwaard, Suzan M; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M
Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents' experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents' perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents' level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys' SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents' sexual health.
Doornwaard, Suzan M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.
Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents’ sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents’ lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents’ experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (Mage T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents’ perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents’ level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys’ SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents’ sexual health. PMID:26086606
Curriculum Review, 2009
An increasingly popular form of communication among teenagers is "sexting," sending nude photos via text messaging, reported The Orange County Register (3/20/09). This "flirtation" technique has sparked quite a bit of debate: is this simply a form of rebellion or is it dangerous behavior that could have adverse penalties? Although many teens say…
... health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about infertility Sexually transmitted diseases Chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease Medicines that affect sexual desire or performance
Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
There is widespread concern about young girls displaying 'grown up' or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls. The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexualized behaviours and appearance concerns in young girls. A sample of 252 Australian mothers of 5-8year old girls reported on the behaviours and appearance concerns observed in their daughters and also completed measures of their own self-objectification, materialism and parenting style. It was found that a significant proportion of young girls were engaging with 'teen' culture, using beauty products and expressing some degree of appearance concern. Maternal self-objectification was related to daughters' engagement in teen culture, use of beauty products and appearance concern. Maternal materialism was related to girls' engagement in teen culture and appearance concern, while an authoritative parenting style was negatively related to girls' use of beauty products. The findings suggest that maternal self-objectification and materialism play a role in the body image and appearance concerns of young girls, and in so doing, identify these maternal attributes as novel potential targets for intervention.
... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...
Hibbard, R A; Hartman, G
To replicate and explore the associations of drawing genitalia on a human figure, child-rearing practices, and a history of alleged sexual abuse, we designed a cross-sectional study of 109 alleged child sexual abuse victims, ages 3 through 8 years, and a group of 109 comparison children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status but with no history of abuse. A standardized format was used to collect drawings, administer the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and gather background data on medical, developmental, and child-rearing issues. Seven alleged sexual abuse victims and one comparison child spontaneously drew genitalia (p = 0.02, one-tailed Fisher Exact Test, estimated relative risk 7.96). No differences in drawing maturity (Draw-A-Man score) were identified, although Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores were higher in comparison children (82.1 vs. 91.0, p less than 0.01). Neither drawing genitalia nor history of alleged sexual abuse were significantly associated with histories of medical problems, enuresis, encopresis, urinary tract infection, or child-rearing practices related to sleeping, nudity, bathing, sexual abuse education, or exposure to sexually explicit materials. The similar patterns of child-rearing practices in both samples should make professionals cautious in attributing allegations of abuse to specific child-rearing practices. This study confirms our previous report that the presence of genitalia spontaneously drawn on a child's drawing of a human figure is associated with alleged sexual abuse.
Asekun-Olarinmoye, Olusesan S; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Adebimpe, Wasiu O; Omisore, Akin G
Introduction The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern. Objectives To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16. Results Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%). Most (64.0%) respondents spent 1–5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332), electronic mail (89.0%, n=356), and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298). Most of the respondents (73.5%) opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths’ sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%), 37 (16.4%), 31 (13.7%), and 10 (4.4%) practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0%) always used condoms, whereas 90 (40.0%) never used condoms during sexual activity; 33 (14.6%) had had sex with commercial sex workers. Further analysis showed that those who were yet to marry (single) were less likely to be sexually experienced than those who were married (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.008–0.679), and those who said accessing
Geer, James H; Robertson, Gloria G
This study examined the role of gender in both implicit and explicit attitudes toward sexuality. Implicit attitudes are judgments or evaluations of social objects that are automatically activated, often without the individual's conscious awareness of the causation. In contrast, explicit attitudes are judgments or evaluations that are well established in awareness. As described in Oliver and Hyde's (1993) meta-analysis of self-report (explicit) data, women report greater negative attitudes toward sexuality than do men. In the current study, we used the Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) developed by Fisher, Byrne, White, and Kelley (1988) to index explicit attitudes and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) developed by Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz (1998) to index implicit attitudes. Research has demonstrated that the IAT reveals attitudes that participants may be reluctant to express. Independent variables examined were participant gender, social acceptability of sexual words, and order of associated evaluations in the IAT (switching from positive to negative evaluations or the reverse). The IAT data revealed a significant Order x Gender interaction that showed that women had more negative implicit attitudes toward sexuality than did men. There was also a significant Order x Acceptability interaction, indicating that implicit attitudes were more strongly revealed when the sexual words used in the IAT were more socially unacceptable. As expected, on the SOS, women had more negative explicit attitudes toward sexuality. There was no significant correlation between explicit and implicit attitudes. These data suggest that at both automatic (implicit) and controlled (explicit) levels of attitudes, women harbor more negative feelings toward sex than do men.
DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.
Emmerink, Peggy M J; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Ter Bogt, Tom F M
Sexual gender norms promoting sexual prowess for men, but sexual modesty for women have been shown to negatively affect sexual and mental health in both men and women. Knowledge about the relationship between gender norms and sexual cognitions and emotions might further the understanding of continued gender-norm conformity. In the present study, we investigated whether and how gendered sexual attitudes are related to (positive and negative) sex-related emotions, via sexual cognitions (autonomy, body esteem, and approach/avoidance motives for sex). A survey was submitted to 293 heterosexually identified, sexually active, Dutch (central and southern regions) 18-25 year-olds. Results from a moderated mediation model (using structural equation modeling) revealed that women, but not men, who more strongly endorsed traditional gender-related sexual attitudes experienced significantly less positive and more negative emotions, as a result of decreased sexual autonomy and sexual body esteem as well as increased avoidance motives for sex. We conclude that, as a result of negative cognitions associated with the endorsement of traditional gender norms, women in particular are at risk of experiencing negative emotional outcomes in the sexual context. We argue that sexual cognitions and emotions deserve explicit attention in sex-positive and gender-transformative sexuality education, which has been proven to be a vital resource for achieving increased gender-equity in sexual and romantic relationships.
Breen, Amanda B; Karpinski, Andrew
In this article, we examined explicit and implicit attitudes toward gay males and lesbians using the Single Category IAT (SC-IAT). In Study 1, we examined attitudes toward gay people in general. Participants reported positive explicit attitudes and neutral implicit attitudes toward gay people. In Study 2, we examined implicit and explicit attitudes toward gay men and lesbians separately. Participants rated gay men and lesbians positively on explicit attitude measures. Analysis of SC-IAT scores revealed neutral associations with gay men and positive associations with lesbians. As a secondary goal, we also tested the Balanced Identity Theory in both studies and did not find evidence of balance between implicit sexual orientation attitudes, implicit sexual identity, and implicit self-esteem using the SC-IAT.
Sears, James T., Ed.
This book of essays explores the explicit and hidden curriculum of sexuality from kindergarten through college. The 15 interrelated essays challenge conventional assumptions regarding sexuality and the curriculum by applying non-traditional perspectives to traditionally unresolved problems while proposing specific curricular strategies and…
Koufos, George D; de Bonis, Louis; Kugiumtzis, Dimitris
New hominoid teeth from the late Miocene locality Ravin de la Pluie (RPl) of the Axios Valley (Macedonia, Greece) are studied in this article. Their morphology, dimensions and proportions are similar to the hominoid Ouranopithecus macedoniensis, allowing their attribution to this taxon. The studied material provides some new morphological characters for the female P3 (small asymmetry, small mesiobuccal crown projection, paracone higher than protocone) and the lower canine (mesial groove: large in the male and small in the female, distobuccal fovea: large in the female and small in the male). The new material enriches the collection of O. macedoniensis. The estimated degree of sexual dimorphism of the RPl O. macedoniensis, calculated by the multivariate size dimorphism method, is compared with those of extant hominoids (Gorilla, Pan, Pongo) and of the late Miocene Lufengpithecus lufengensis from China, which is considered as more dimorphic than any living hominoid. The results suggest that Ouranopithecus multivariate size dimorphism for the premolar, molar and post-canine row is similar to those of Pongo and Lufengpithecus, slightly higher than that of Gorilla and clearly higher than that of Pan. Therefore, O. macedoniensis is apparently one of the most sexually dimorphic hominoids and the RPl assemblage is monospecific.
Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Byrne, Susan M; Biagioni, Nicole
Evidence suggests that the sexualization of girls has increased and become more explicit in recent years. However, most of the research conducted to date has focused on sexualization in adults. To address this research gap, this study explored how young Australian girls respond to and describe sexualized and non-sexualized depictions of their peers. Results from 42 girls aged 6-11 years revealed that sexualization was a perceptually salient attribute, with participants readily classifying sexualized girls as a subgroup. Participants also made distinct trait attributions based on the differences between sexualized and non-sexualized girls. The results suggest that young girls respond differently to sexualized and non-sexualized depictions of their peers and are beginning to develop stereotypes based on these depictions. As such, the implementation of media literacy programs in adolescence may be too late and efforts may be required to address this issue among younger children.
Schlesinger, L B; Revitch, E
Burglary, the third most common crime after larceny-theft and motor vehicle theft, is rarely the focus of forensic psychiatric study. While most burglaries are motivated simply by material gain, there is a subgroup of burglaries fueled by sexual dynamics. The authors differentiate two types of sexual burglaries: 1) fetish burglaries with overt sexual dynamics; and 2) voyeuristic burglaries, in which the sexual element is often covert and far more subtle. Many forensic practitioners have informally noted the relationship of burglaries to sexual homicide, but this relationship has not otherwise been studied in any detail. In this article, the incidence of (sexual) burglaries by 52 sexual murderers whom the authors evaluated, as well as the incidence in cases reported by others, is reported. Implications of these findings for forensic assessments and profiling of unidentified offenders are discussed.
... a sexual experience is safe, healthy, and enjoyable. Sexual health is a vital part of a person’s total well-being. Of course, sex is essential for reproduction, but it can also build intimacy in relationships ...
Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra Teten; Swartout, Kevin M; Miller, Cameron A; Hall, Gordon C Nagayama; George, William H
This study sought to develop and validate an integrated laboratory paradigm of sexual aggression and bystander intervention. Participants were a diverse community sample (54% African American) of heterosexual males (N = 156) between 21 and 35 years of age who were recruited to complete the study with a male friend and an ostensibly single, heterosexual female who reported a strong dislike of sexual content in the media. Participants viewed a sexually explicit or nonsexually explicit film clip as part of contrived media rating task and made individual choices of which film clip to show the female confederate. Immediately thereafter, participants were required to reach consensus on a group decision of which film clip to show the female confederate. Subjecting a target to an unwanted experience with a sexual connotation was operationalized as selection of the sexually explicit video, whereas successful bystander intervention was operationalized as the event of one partner individually selecting the sexually explicit video but then selecting the nonsexually explicit video for the group choice. Results demonstrated that a 1-year history of sexual aggression and endorsement of pertinent misogynistic attitudes significantly predicted selection of the sexually-explicit video. In addition, bystander efficacy significantly predicted men's successful prevention of their male peer's intent to show the female confederate a sexually explicit video. Discussion focused on how these data inform future research and bystander intervention programming for sexual aggression.
Zare, Zahra; Amirian, Malihe; Golmakani, Nahid; Mazlom, Reza; Laal Ahangar, Mojtaba
Background: Sexual problems have different effects on the life of people by influencing their interpersonal and marital relationships and satisfaction. Relationship between sexual dysfunctions and infertility can be mutual. Sexual dysfunction may cause difficulty conceiving but also attempts to conceive, may cause sexual dysfunction. Objective: This paper compares sexual dysfunction in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 110 infertile couples referring to Montasarieh Infertility Clinic and 110 fertile couples referring to five healthcare centers in Mashhad were selected by class cluster sampling method. Data collection tools included demographic questionnaire and Glombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction. Data were analyzed through descriptive and analytical statistical methods by SPSS. Results: There was no significant difference in total score of sexual problems and other dimensions of sexual problems (except infrequency) in fertile 28.9 (15.5) and infertile 29.0 (15.4) women. Fertile women had more infrequency than infertile women (p=0.002). Conclusion: There was no significant difference between fertile and infertile women in terms of sexual problems. Paying attention to sexual aspects of infertility and presence of programs for training of sexual skills seems necessary for couples. PMID:27200422
Kachur, R E
The Internet is an emerging venue for facilitating high-risk sexual behavior; in particular, use of the Internet to seek out sex partners has been shown to be associated with high-risk sexual behaviors, such as an increase in number of sexual partners and an increase in anal sex, which can increase the risk of contracting and transmitting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including HIV. In an effort to assist health departments around the country, the Internet Alert Project was developed to provide Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) project officers and field staff with information about Internet-advertised, high-risk sexual activities in areas that do not have access to sexually explicit material on the Internet. An evaluation was conducted to determine the utility of the Internet Alert Project, its effect on knowledge and awareness of recipients and on public health efforts. Results of the evaluation show the alerts are a useful and valuable tool. The alerts have helped to increase knowledge about sexually-related uses of the Internet and have also driven public health efforts in the field. The results also indicate the need for project areas to access information found on the Internet in order to keep up with the ever-changing behaviors of at-risk populations.
Przybyla, D P; Byrne, D; Allgeier, E R
The hypothesis that sexual attitudes, as measured by the Sexual Opinion Survey, are related to the explicitness with which nude figures are drawn was examined. The presence or absence of various sexual and nonsexual anatomical features, as well as length and width measurements, were assessed in the drawing of nudes by 17 male and 23 female undergraduates. Individuals with relatively positive sexual attitudes (erotophiles), as compared with individuals with relatively negative attitudes (erotophobes), were more likely to include such details as a glans, a urinary meatus, and chest hair on male figures and pubic hair and nipples on female figures. Positive sexual attitudes were also associated with drawing figures with longer and wider penises, breasts, testicles, and mons. Relationships between sexual attitudes and the drawing of nonsexual body parts were generally not significant. The results are discussed in terms of the pervasive generality of sexual attitudes in influencing quite varied sex-related behaviors.
Studies of female sexuality in Africa tend to adopt an instrumental approach, many times problematizing sexual conduct in relation to HIV infection and/or reproduction. This study aimed to explore sexuality as a relational concept. Using interviews and participant observation, the paper shows how sexuality becomes a point of self-identification for young professional women in Nairobi between 20 and 30 years-old. These women form a group who implicitly and explicitly criticize conventional gender roles through the overt pursuit of sexual pleasure as recognition of their womanhood. This aspect of the feminine sense of self is at odds with normative notions of femininity. To avoid criticism for being 'un-proper', women adopt a deferential attitude towards men. The focus on upwardly mobile professional women and their experiments with new types of heterosexual relations in dating provides insight into both sexuality and gender.
McDermott, James E.
Discusses theoretical and practical issues connected with implicit and explicit learning of languages. Explicit learning is knowledge expressed in the form of rules or definitions; implicit knowledge can be inferred to exist because of observed performance but cannot be clearly described. Hypothesizes why explicit learning can lead to implicit…
Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M
Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality.
Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.
Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647
Heller, Melvin S.
This monograph provides a rationale for contemporary guidelines for the television and broadcast network management of sexual content in proposed progam materials. Beginning with a brief outline of the professional practices and responsibilities of broadcast standards editors, it then explores the relationships between sexual development,…
Bouffard, Jeffrey A; Miller, Holly A
Sexual coercion is a significant problem on college campuses despite numerous attempts to better understand and prevent it. Some criminological research has examined the role of sexual arousal in decisions to use coercion and force, while psychologists have studied how overperception of sexual interest relates to coercive behaviors. The current study combines these two lines of research to examine whether sexual arousal increases the perception of sexual interest in a hypothetical coercion scenario. A sample of 387 college males were randomly placed into arousal and control conditions and asked to watch either erotic material or a lecture and complete questions regarding a common social dating scenario. Bivariate and multivariate results indicated significant relationships between sexual arousal and overperception of sexual intent with the decision to engage in sexually coercive behaviors, as well as a mediation effect. The implications for theory and sexual assault prevention are discussed.
Emens, Elizabeth F
Asexuality is an emerging identity category that challenges the common assumption that everyone is defined by some type of sexual attraction. Asexuals--those who report feeling no sexual attraction to others--constitute one percent of the population, according to one prominent study. In recent years, some individuals have begun to identify as asexual and to connect around their experiences interacting with a sexual society. Asexuality has also become a protected classification under the antidiscrimination law of one state and several localities, but legal scholarship has thus far neglected the subject. This Article introduces asexuality to the legal literature as a category of analysis, an object of empirical study, and a phenomenon of medical science. It then offers a close examination of the growing community of self-identified asexuals. Asexual identity has revealing intersections with the more familiar categories of gender, sexual orientation, and disability, and inspires new models for understanding sexuality. Thinking about asexuality also sheds light on our legal system. Ours is arguably a sexual law, predicated on the assumption that sex is important. This Article uses asexuality to develop a framework for identifying the ways that law privileges sexuality. Across various fields, these interactions include legal requirements of sexual activity, special carve-outs to shield sexuality from law, legal protections from others' sexuality, and legal protections for sexual identity. Applying this framework, the Article traces several ways that our sexual law burdens, and occasionally benefits, asexuals. This Article concludes by closely examining asexuality's prospects for broader inclusion into federal, state, and local antidiscrimination laws.
Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K
Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain.
The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”
Dunn, S F; Gilchrist, V J
Estimates are that one in four women will be sexually assaulted at some time during her life. For the victim, it is a life-changing, traumatic event. This paper reviews both the immediate and long-term care of the sexual assault victim. For the victim seen immediately after the assault, physicians must provide empathic, nonjudgmental care that puts the victim back in control of her life. It is essential that the physician provide continued support for the victim and her family through the recovery process. The medical presentations that should prompt the physician to inquire about undisclosed sexual assault and the social and cultural myths that promote sexual assault are reviewed.
Grant, L M; Demetriou, E
The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.
Silvério Marques, Sara; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Deardorff, Julianna; Constantine, Norman A.
Despite recognition of the importance of a developmentally appropriate approach to sexuality education, there is little direct guidance on how to do this. This study employed in-depth interviews with experienced sexuality educators and developers of sexuality education materials to identify how this concept is understood and applied in the field.…
Anderson, C.A.; Turner, C.
This paper illustrates the use of advanced constitutive models in ABAQUS/Explicit together with highly focused finite element meshes to simulate the propagation of a fracture in a ductile medium. A double edge-cracked specimen under far field dynamic tensile loading is analyzed, and shows both rectilinear motion or unstable oscillatory motion of the crack depending on the material property constraints. Results are also presented for a simulation of ASTM`s standard fracture test E399. Comparisons of ABAQUS/Explicit results with experiments or other analytical/numerical results are made.
Argues that schools are highly sexualized sites, within which struggles around sexuality are pervasive, of consuming interest and, at the same time, taboo. Suggests that struggles around gender, explicit homophobia, and implicit heterosexism within schools derive from and feed macho and misogynistic versions of masculinity. Argues that sexism in…
O'Sullivan, Lucia F.
New digital technologies are highly responsive to many of the developmental needs of adolescents, including their need for intimate connection and social identity. This chapter explores adolescents' use of web-based sexual information, texting and "sexting," online dating sites, role-playing games, and sexually explicit media, and…
Abramson, Paul R.; And Others
In an attempt to assess the effect of the general experimental situation on subjects in research on human sexuality, the present study addresses itself to systematically investigating the effect of the experimenter in experimentally induced reactions to sexually explicit stimuli. (Author/RK)
Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L.; Denchik, Angela
This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale (ISOS). Data from 576 college women were collected in three studies. Exploratory factor analysis uncovered two factors: Body Evaluation and Unwanted Explicit Sexual Advances; confirmatory factor analysis supported this factor…
Twenty-four undergraduate volunteers participated in a sexual enhancement workshop, designed to explore the emotional aspects of sex through the use of small group discussion and sexually explicit films. Results indicated that participants experienced significant change toward acceptance of masturbation and a lessening of sex-related anxiety. (SJL)
Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna; Cramer, Kenneth M; Shuper, Paul A
Sexual arousal has emerged as an important contextual feature in sexual encounters that can impact safer-sex decision-making. We conducted two experiments that investigated the effects of sexual arousal among male and female participants. Experiment 1 (N = 144) examined the impact of sexual around on sexual health decision-making. Sexually explicit and neutral video clips as well as hypothetical romantic scenarios were used to evaluate the effects of sexual arousal on sexual risk-taking intentions. Men and women who reported higher levels of sexual arousal also displayed greater intentions to participate in risky sexual behavior (e.g., unprotected sex with a new sex partner). Experiment 2 (N = 122) examined the impact of sexual arousal on general risk-taking, using the same videos clips as in Experiment 1 and a modified version of a computerized Blackjack card game. Participants were offered a chance to make either a risky play or a safe play during ambiguous conditions. Increased sexual arousal in Experiment 2 was associated with impulsivity and a greater willingness to make risky plays in the Blackjack game. These findings suggest that, in situations where there are strong sexually visceral cues, both men and women experiencing strong sexual arousal may have lower inhibitions and may experience impaired decision-making. This phenomenon may have an impact during sexual encounters and may contribute to a failure to use appropriate prophylactic protection.
National Commission on the Observance of International Women's Year, Washington, DC.
This document considers sexual preference as it specifically relates to women. Divided into two parts, the document presents a fact sheet about lesbianism and contains a workshop resource guide on sexual preference. The fact sheet, arranged in a question-answer format, focuses on the following concerns: (1) lesbianism as a woman's issue; (2) legal…
Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A
Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.
Moreno, Megan A; Brockman, Libby; Rogers, Cara B; Christakis, Dimitri A
To evaluate whether online friends of adolescents who display sexual references on a social networking site also display references. The method used was content analysis. The result of this study was that adolescents who displayed explicit sexual references were more likely to have online friends who displayed references. Thus, social networking sites present new opportunities to investigate adolescent sexual behavior.
In contemporary Vietnam, young, unmarried, educated women are struggling to negotiate the contradictory expectations of femininity. Qualitative research conducted in Hanoi with 13 unmarried, educated women, aged from 25 to 34 years, explored women's sexual agency in a context of changing discourses on sexuality and gender roles. Interviews were conducted several times with each woman to enable in-depth understanding of sexual experiences and meanings. Either implicitly or explicitly, women in the research were found to resist the power of public discourses on femininity and sexuality. Notions of femininity can be interpreted as a temporary means for women to gain control over sexual relationships. It is crucial to acknowledge the sexual agency of unmarried, educated women and its diverse forms in order to understand complex sexual behaviours and to promote their sexual rights and health.
Koukounas, E; McCabe, M
This study was designed to evaluate the relative contribution of attention and emotional responses to the sexual response to erotica. Self reported levels of sexual arousal, attention, and emotional responses were measured after 20 men and 20 women viewed a series of erotic film segments. Men and women reported greater sexual arousal to erotica when they became absorbed in the activities portrayed in the film and when they experienced the erotic encounters as appetitive, than when they were distracted and perceived the encounters as aversive. Subjective sexual arousal also correlated positively with the degree to which subjects experienced entertainment and curiousity to the erotic film segments, but negatively with boredom. The level of sexual arousal reported by subjects did not correlate significantly with trait measures of absorption (as indexed by the Tellegen Absorption Scale) and vividness of imagery (as assessed by the Betts Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery). The multidimensional nature of the sexual response was demonstrated by the fact that the magnitude of subjective sexual arousal was predicted by the separate groupings of state assessed attentional and emotional variables, trait indexed absorption and appetitive feelings, and demographic information. These findings applied to both men and women, with the exception that men experienced greater sexual arousal than women, and women reported more disgust to the stimulus materials. Future directions for studying the basis for differences in sexual arousal between men and women are outlined, with an emphasis on a psychophysiological exploration of these phenomena.
Velezmoro, Rodrigo; Negy, Charles; Livia, Jose
The current generation of college students commonly uses the Internet for myriad sexually-related purposes. Yet, it has been suggested that usage of the Internet for sexual purposes might lead to psychological problems. In this study, undergraduate students from a public university in the U.S. (n = 320) and Peru (n = 251) completed questionnaires addressing their online sexual activity (OSA), psychological adjustment, and family environment and communication. Results indicated that Peruvians used the Internet significantly more than U.S. students to view sexually-explicit material (SEM), find sexual partners, and search for sex-related information. Men, irrespective of nationality, used the Internet to view SEM significantly more than women. Social support, religiosity, and erotophilia were found to moderate the relations between nationality and OSA. In absolute terms, both national groups, on average, engaged in OSA a relatively low number of hours each week. Further, no differences were found in maladjustment between those who engage in OSA and those who do not, suggesting that concerns over OSA are probably unwarranted.
Krafka, C; Linz, D; Donnerstein, E; Penrod, S
This study examines the potential harm of sexually explicit and/or violent films to women viewers. More specifically, it investigates the idea that the visual media contribute to a cultural climate that is supportive of attitudes facilitating violence against women, diminish concern for female victims (desensitization), and have a negative impact on women's views of themselves. In this study, women viewed 1 film per day for 4 consecutive days from one of these 3 categories: 1) sexually explicit but nonviolent; 2) sexually explicit, sexually violent; and 3) mildly sexually explicit, graphically violent. They then served as jurors in a simulated rape trial. The study found that exposure to both types of violent stimuli produced desensitization and ratings of the stimuli as less degrading to women. Moreover, women exposed to the mildly sexually explicit, graphically violent images were less sensitive toward the victim in the rape trial compared with the other film viewers. However, no differences were found between the film groups and the no-exposure control group with regard to women¿s self-perception.
Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P
Data provided by 24 adult men, 20 heterosexual and four homosexual, concerning parental, religious, geographic and explicit sexual innuendos, comments and childhood experiences are presented and discussed in an attempt to consider some of the multiple factors impacting the development of sexual orientation. All of the study subjects were normally developed males and were presumed to have been exposed to normal male levels of androgens prenatally. Since the experiences and perceptions reported are conditioned by a unique social environment that has been superimposed on a normal male typical prenatal CNS differentiation, the experiences of these men suggest that affirmation of masculinity, and openness in the realm of social and sexual interaction, may enhance the formation of a heterosexual orientation. Conversely, sexually explicit feedback with critical implications occurred commonly among the homosexual men, which they interpreted as implying an insufficient masculinity. Both innate factors and social influences impact sexual orientation; in some instances males appear to have been homosexual from early childhood onward, while in other cases there appears to have been some degree of conditioning and choice in sexual orientation. Regarding the intersexed male, this suggests that social interactions, particularly those provided by parents, have a major influence on the development of sexual orientation in the child, while all persons involved in these children's lives and particularly those who nurture must be prepared for any sexual orientation that develops.
Three studies offer novel evidence addressing the consequences of explicit–implicit sexual orientation (SO) ambivalence. In Study 1, self-identified straight females completed explicit and implicit measures of SO. The results revealed that participants with greater SO ambivalence took longer responding to explicit questions about their sexual preferences, an effect moderated by the direction of ambivalence. Study 2 replicated this effect using a different paradigm. Study 3 included self-identified straight and gay female and male participants; participants completed explicit and implicit measures of SO, plus measures of self-esteem and affect regarding their SO. Among straight participants, the response time results replicated the findings of Studies 1 and 2. Among gay participants, trends suggested that SO ambivalence influenced time spent deliberating on explicit questions relevant to sexuality, but in a different way. Furthermore, the amount and direction of SO ambivalence was related to self-esteem. PMID:24972940
Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Maddox, W. Todd; Karalunas, Sarah L.
We present two studies that examined developmental differences in the implicit and explicit acquisition of category knowledge. College-attending adults consistently outperformed school-age children on two separate information-integration paradigms due to children's more frequent use of an explicit rule-based strategy. Accuracy rates were also…
Berry, Tanya R.; Strachan, Shaelyn M.
We examined the relationship between implicit and explicit "exerciser" and "sedentary" self-identity when activated by stereotypes. Undergraduate participants (N = 141) wrote essays about university students who either liked to exercise or engage in sedentary activities. This was followed by an implicit identity task and an explicit measure of…
Xie, Qiuzhi; Gao, Xiangping; King, Ronnel B.
This study investigated whether individual differences in thinking styles influence explicit and implicit learning. Eighty-seven university students in China participated in this study. Results indicated that performance in the explicit learning condition was positively associated with Type I thinking styles (i.e. legislative and liberal styles)…
Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.
The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…
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Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu
This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation.
verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when (1) submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly...American youth today generally have casual attitudes toward sexual activities , underage and reckless alcohol use, and illegal drug use.22 Additionally... Sexual Harassment, Misconduct, and Assault Prevention and Response Program Office — In 2004, in an effort to bring all component activities related to
Thomas, Lindsey A; Gorzalka, Boris B
Fifty-nine heterosexual university males were assessed for Sexual Coercion Proclivity (SCP) and randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Insult/nonsexually coercive fantasy material; no insult/sexually coercive fantasy material; or, insult/sexually coercive fantasy material. Although not differing in terms of anger or anxiety, the high SCP became more frustrated than the low group, particularly when exposed to both insult and sexually coercive (SC) fantasy material. Changes in negative affect predicted anticipated likelihood of engaging in SC among the low SCP group and anticipated enjoyment of SC in the high SCP group. Acculturation accounted for differences observed between Caucasian and Chinese men.
... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Child Sexual Abuse Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Child Sexual Abuse What is child sexual abuse? Child sexual abuse ...
... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...
Jiménez, L; Méndez, C
Previous research has shown that the expression of implicit sequence learning is eliminated in a choice reaction time task when an explicit cue allows participants to accurately predict the next stimulus (Cleeremans, 1997), but that two contingencies predicting the same outcome can be learned and expressed simultaneously when both of them remain implicit (Jiménez & Méndez, 1999). Two experiments tested the hypothesis that it is the deliberate use of explicit knowledge that produces the inhibitory effects over the expression of implicit sequence learning. However, the results of these experiments do not support this hypothesis, rather showing that implicit learning is acquired and expressed regardless of the influence of explicit knowledge. These results are interpreted as reinforcing the thesis about the automatic nature of both the acquisition and the expression of implicit sequence learning. The contradictory results reported by Cleeremans are attributed to a floor effect derived from the use of a special type of explicit cue.
Gilbert, Emilee; Emilee, Gilbert; Ussher, J M; Perz, J
It is widely recognised that women's sexuality can be particularly complex after breast cancer, with sexual changes often becoming the most problematic aspect of a woman's life. The impact of such changes can last for many years after successful treatment, and can be associated with serious physical and emotional side-effects. The objective of this paper is to review research on breast cancer and sexuality from the years 1998 to 2010. Research has documented a range of physical changes to a woman's sexuality following breast cancer, including disturbances to sexual functioning, as well as disruptions to sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, sexual desire, and sexual pleasure, resulting from chemotherapy, chemically induced menopause, tamoxifen, and breast cancer surgery. Women's intrapsychic experience of changes to sexuality includes a fear of loss of fertility, negative body image, feelings of sexual unattractiveness, loss of femininity, depression and anxiety, as well as alterations to a sense of sexual self. The discursive construction of femininity and sexuality shapes the way women construct and experience their illness and their body - leading many women to try to appear 'normal' to others post-breast surgery. Finally, the quality of a woman's partnered relationship consistently predicts sexual health post-breast cancer - reinforcing the importance of recognising the intersubjective nature of issues surrounding breast cancer and sexuality. It is concluded that analyses of sexuality in the context of breast cancer cannot conceptualise the physical body separately from women's intrapsychic negotiation, her social and relational context, and the discursive constructions of sexuality and femininity: a material-discursive-intrapsychic interaction.
Gatling, Margaret; Mills, Jane; Lindsay, David
Representations of the sexuality of older people have been largely absent in mainstream films until recent times. Cinema as an art form has historically denied or ignored the fact that humans are sexual beings their whole lives. In this paper critical discourse analysis is used to examine four comedy films released between 1993 and 2012 that tackle the subject of 'senior sexuality'. All four films are explicit in representing older people as sexual beings but, unlike films about young people's sexual activity, the details of sexual encounters are left to viewers' imaginations. Two of the films challenge the notion of a heteronormative old age.
Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C
Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed.
Qiao, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Di; Zhang, Bo
Manifold learning is a hot research topic in the held of computer science and has many applications in the real world. A main drawback of manifold learning methods is, however, that there are no explicit mappings from the input data manifold to the output embedding. This prohibits the application of manifold learning methods in many practical problems such as classification and target detection. Previously, in order to provide explicit mappings for manifold learning methods, many methods have been proposed to get an approximate explicit representation mapping with the assumption that there exists a linear projection between the high-dimensional data samples and their low-dimensional embedding. However, this linearity assumption may be too restrictive. In this paper, an explicit nonlinear mapping is proposed for manifold learning, based on the assumption that there exists a polynomial mapping between the high-dimensional data samples and their low-dimensional representations. As far as we know, this is the hrst time that an explicit nonlinear mapping for manifold learning is given. In particular, we apply this to the method of locally linear embedding and derive an explicit nonlinear manifold learning algorithm, which is named neighborhood preserving polynomial embedding. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world data show that the proposed mapping is much more effective in preserving the local neighborhood information and the nonlinear geometry of the high-dimensional data samples than previous work.
Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan
Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on an acontextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of memories, with the different sleep stages affecting different types of memory. In the present study, we used the process-dissociation procedure to compare the effects of sleep on estimates of explicit (recollection) and implicit (familiarity) memory formation on a word-list discrimination task. Subjects studied two lists of words before a 3-h retention interval of sleep or wakefulness, and recognition was tested afterward. The retention intervals were positioned either in the early night when sleep is dominated by slow-wave sleep (SWS), or in the late night, when sleep is dominated by REM sleep. Sleep enhanced explicit recognition memory, as compared with wakefulness (P < 0.05), whereas familiarity was not affected by sleep. Moreover, explicit recognition was particularly enhanced after sleep in the early-night retention interval, and especially when the words were presented with the same contextual features as during learning, i.e., in the same font (P < 0.05). The data indicate that in a task that allows separating the contribution of explicit and implicit memory, sleep particularly supports explicit memory formation. The mechanism of this effect appears to be linked to SWS.
Walsh, Kate; Gonsalves, Valerie M.; Scalora, Mario J.; King, Steve; Hardyman, Patricia L.
Despite data indicating that child maltreatment (CM) in various forms is associated with adult sexual victimization among community women, few studies have explicitly explored how types of CM might relate to prison sexual victimization. Because little is known about "how" CM might give rise to prison sexual victimization, the present…
Spink, Amanda; Koricich, Andrew; Jansen, B J; Cole, Charles
Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior. Seeking sexually related information on the Internet takes many forms and channels, including chat rooms discussions, accessing Websites or searching Web search engines for sexual materials. The study of sexual Web queries provides insight into sexually-related information-seeking behavior, of value to Web users and providers alike. We qualitatively analyzed queries from logs of 1,025,910 Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com Web user queries from 2001. We compared the differences in sexually-related Web searching between Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com users. Differences were found in session duration, query outcomes, and search term choices. Implications of the findings for sexual information seeking are discussed.
Alexander, Stewart C.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Bravender, Terrill; Davis, J. Kelly; Østbye, Truls; Tulsky, James A.; Dolor, Rowena J.; Shields, Cleveland G.
Importance Physicians may be important sources of sexuality information and preventive services, and one-on-one confidential time during health maintenance visits is recommended to allow discussions of sexual development, behavior, and risk reduction. However, little is known about the occurrence and characteristics of physician-adolescent discussions about sexuality. Objective To examine predictors of time spent discussing sexuality, level of adolescent participation, and physician and patient characteristics associated with sexuality discussions during health maintenance visits by early and middle adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants Observational study of audio-recorded conversations between 253 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 years; 53% female; 40% white; 47% African American) and 49 physicians (82% pediatricians; 84% white; 65% female; mean age, 40.9 years; mean [SD] duration in practice, 11.8 [8.7] years) coded for sexuality content at 11 clinics (3 academic and 8 community-based practices) located throughout the Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina, area. Main Outcomes and Measures Total time per visit during which sexuality issues were discussed. Results One hundred sixty-five (65%) of all visits had some sexual content within it. The average time of sexuality talk was 36 seconds (35% 0 seconds; 30% 1-35 seconds; and 35% ≥36 seconds). Ordinal logistic regression (outcome of duration: 0, 1-35, or ≥36 seconds), adjusted for clustering of patients within physicians, found that female patients (odds ratio [OR] = 2.58; 95% CI, 1.53-4.36), older patients (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.13-1.65), conversations with explicit confidentiality discussions (OR = 4.33; 95% CI, 2.58-7.28), African American adolescents (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01-2.48), and longer overall visit (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11) were associated with more sexuality talk, and Asian physicians were associated with less sexuality talk (OR = 0.13; 95% CI, 0.08-0.20). In addition, the same significant
... grow older. By Mayo Clinic Staff As you age, sex isn't the same as it was in ... work for you and your partner. At any age, emotional issues can affect your sexuality. Many older couples report greater satisfaction with their sex life because they have fewer distractions, more time ...
... lack of interest loss of orgasm worry or anxiety that interferes with sex reduced frequency of sex physical obstacles arising from a disease or health condition. The Most Common Types of Sexual Problems in Older Adults For women, age-related changes due to menopause include: lack ...
Lambert, Helen; Wood, Kate
This paper provides a comparative analysis of modes of dialogue, non-verbal communication and embodied action relating to sex and health in two contrasting countries-India and South Africa-which have the world's two most heavily HIV-affected populations (in terms of numbers of people living with HIV). Drawing on material derived from multiple studies, including ethnographic and other forms of qualitative and multi-disciplinary research, the paper identifies commonalities as well as differences in communication relating to sex and sexual health in these diverse settings. The paper considers: first, how and by whom sex is and is not talked about, in public discourse and private conversation; second, how sexual intention and desire are communicated through indirect, non-verbal means in everyday life; and third, how references to sexuality and the sexual body re-enter within a more explicit set of indigenous discourses about health (rather than 'sexual health' per se), such as semen loss in India and womb 'dirtiness' in South Africa. The concluding section reflects on the implications of a comparative analysis such as this for current policy emphases on the importance of promoting verbal communication skills as part of 'life skills' for HIV prevention.
Goldey, Katherine L; Avery, Lanice R; van Anders, Sari M
Research links explicit sexuality (e.g., physical attraction and pleasure) to high testosterone (T) and nurturance (loving contact) to low T. Engaging in sexual fantasy, which can include explicit sexual and nurturant elements, increases T in women but not in men. We examined whether individual differences in the explicit sexual and nurturant content of fantasy were linked with T or with estradiol (E2). In addition, we explored whether fantasy content differed or overlapped by gender/sex. Participants (26 women, 23 men) provided saliva samples for hormones before and after imagining a self-defined positive sexual encounter and responding to open-ended questions about the situation they imagined. We systematically content-coded responses for explicit sexual and nurturant content. In men, lower inclusion of nurturant content predicted larger T responses to fantasy. Fantasy content was not linked with T in women or with E2 in women or men. Women and men did not differ significantly in explicit sexual and nurturant content. Our findings suggest that individual experiences of fantasy as more or less nurturant affect T in men, provide support for the Steroid/Peptide Theory of Social Bonds, and highlight the value of integrating hormones and content analysis to investigate research questions relevant to sexuality and gender/sex.
Winder, Belinda; Gough, Brendan; Seymour-Smith, Sarah
Public reactions to internet child offending remain ambivalent in that, while there is vocal condemnation of contact child sex offending, there is less indignation about internet child abuse. This is potentially due to a lack of recognition of this type of offence as sexual offending per se. This ambiguity is reflected by internet sex offenders themselves in their verbalizations of their offending. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the accounts offered by seven individuals convicted of internet-based sexual offences involving the downloading and viewing of images of children. In particular, this article presents an analysis of the explanations of offenders for the commencement of internet activity and the progression to more illicit online materials. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using discursive methods, paying close attention to language use and function. The analysis documented the practices that internet child abusers employed in order to manage their identities, distance themselves from the label of sex offender, and/or reduce their personal agency and accountability. Implications of this analysis are discussed with reference to the current minimization of the downloading of sexually explicit images of children as a sexual crime per se by the public and offenders alike and the risk assessment and treatment of individuals convicted of these offences.
Marin, E. G. Ruiz, F. G. Godoy, A. Tienda-Luna, I. M.; Gámiz, F.
We discuss the necessity of the exact implicit Momentum Relaxation Time (MRT) solution of the Boltzmann transport equation in order to achieve reliable carrier mobility results in semiconductor nanowires. Firstly, the implicit solution for a 1D electron gas with a isotropic bandstructure is presented resulting in the formulation of a simple matrix system. Using this solution as a reference, the explicit approach is demonstrated to be inaccurate for the calculation of inelastic anisotropic mechanisms such as polar optical phonons, characteristic of III-V materials. Its validity for elastic and isotropic mechanisms is also evaluated. Finally, the implications of the MRT explicit approach inaccuracies on the total mobility of Si and III-V NWs are studied.
Gravitational theories with fixed background fields break local Lorentz and diffeomorphism invariance either explicitly or spontaneously. In the case of explicit breaking it is known that conflicts can arise between the dynamics and geometrical constraints, while spontaneous breaking evades this problem. It is for this reason that in the gravity sector of the Standard-Model extension (SME) it is assumed that the background fields (SME coefficients) originate from spontaneous symmetry breaking. However, in other examples, such as Chern-Simons gravity and massive gravity, diffeomorphism invariance is explicitly broken by the background fields, and the potential conflicts between the dynamics and geometry can be avoided in most cases. An analysis of how this occurs is given, and the conditions that are placed on the metric tensor and gravitational structure as a result of the presence of an explicit-breaking background are described. The gravity sector of the SME is then considered for the case of explicit breaking. However, it is found that a useful post-Newtonian limit is only obtained when the symmetry breaking is spontaneous.
Anderson, Mary Z.; Croteau, James M.; DiStefano, Teresa M.; Chung, Y. Barry
Psychometric properties of the Workplace Sexual Identity Management Measure were tested with 172 professionals. Results suggest it successfully assesses a continuum of lesbian and gay identity management strategies (passing, covering, implicitly out, explicitly out). (Contains 27 references.) (SK)
Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette
Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration.
Yang, Jing; Li, Ping
Are explicit versus implicit learning mechanisms reflected in the brain as distinct neural structures, as previous research indicates, or are they distinguished by brain networks that involve overlapping systems with differential connectivity? In this functional MRI study we examined the neural correlates of explicit and implicit learning of artificial grammar sequences. Using effective connectivity analyses we found that brain networks of different connectivity underlie the two types of learning: while both processes involve activation in a set of cortical and subcortical structures, explicit learners engage a network that uses the insula as a key mediator whereas implicit learners evoke a direct frontal-striatal network. Individual differences in working memory also differentially impact the two types of sequence learning. PMID:22952624
Veldtman, Ruan; McGeoch, Melodie A.
Density-dependent processes are fundamental in the understanding of species population dynamics. Whereas the benefits of considering the spatial dimension in population biology are widely acknowledged, the implications of doing so for the statistical detection of spatial density dependence have not been examined. The outcome of traditional tests may therefore differ from those that include ecologically relevant locational information on both the prey species and natural enemy. Here, we explicitly incorporate spatial information on individual counts when testing for density dependence between an insect herbivore and its parasitoids. The spatially explicit approach used identified significant density dependence more frequently and in different instances than traditional methods. The form of density dependence detected also differed between methods. These results demonstrate that the explicit consideration of patch location in density-dependence analyses is likely to significantly alter current understanding of the prevalence and form of spatial density dependence in natural populations. PMID:15590593
Why was sexual selection so important to Darwin? And why was it de-emphasized by almost all of Darwin's followers until the second half of the 20th century? These two questions shed light on the complexity of the scientific tradition named "Darwinism". Darwin's interest in sexual selection was almost as old as his discovery of the principle of natural selection. From the beginning, sexual selection was just another "natural means of selection", although different from standard "natural selection" in its mechanism. But it took Darwin 30 years to fully develop his theory, from the early notebooks to the 1871 book The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. Although there is a remarkable continuity in his basic ideas about sexual selection, he emphasized increasingly the idea that sexual selection could oppose the action of natural selection and be non adaptive. In time, he also gave more weight to mate choice (especially female choice), giving explicit arguments in favor of psychological notions such as "choice" and "aesthetic sense". But he also argued that there was no strict demarcation line between natural and sexual selection, a major difficulty of the theory from the beginning. Female choice was the main reason why Alfred Russel Wallace, the co-discoverer of the principle of natural selection, engaged in a major controversy with Darwin about sexual selection. Wallace was suspicious about sexual selection in general, trying to minimize it by all sorts of arguments. And he denied entirely the existence of female choice, because he thought that it was both unnecessary and an anthropomorphic notion. This had something to do with his spiritualist convictions, but also with his conception of natural selection as a sufficient principle for the evolutionary explanation of all biological phenomena (except for the origin of mind). This is why Wallace proposed to redefine Darwinism in a way that excluded Darwin's principle of sexual selection. The main result of
Umbach, Valentin J; Schwager, Sabine; Frensch, Peter A; Gaschler, Robert
Expectation enables preparation for an upcoming event and supports performance if the anticipated situation occurs, as manifested in behavioral effects (e.g., decreased RT). However, demonstrating coincidence between expectation and preparation is not sufficient for attributing a causal role to the former. The content of explicit expectation may simply reflect the present preparation state. We targeted this issue by experimentally teasing apart demands for preparation and explicit expectations. Expectations often originate from our experience: we expect that events occurring with a high frequency in the past are more likely to occur again. In addition to expectation, other task demands can feed into action preparation. In four experiments, frequency-based expectation was pitted against a selective response deadline. In a three-choice reaction time task, participants responded to stimuli that appeared with varying frequency (60, 30, 10%). Trial-by-trial stimulus expectations were either captured via verbal predictions or induced by visual cues. Predictions as well as response times quickly conformed to the variation in stimulus frequency. After two (of five) experimental blocks we forced participants by selective time pressure to respond faster to a less frequent stimulus. Therefore, participants had to prepare for one stimulus (medium frequency) while often explicitly expecting a different one (high frequency). Response times for the less frequent stimulus decreased immediately, while explicit expectations continued to indicate the (unchanged) presentation frequencies. Explicit expectations were thus not just reflecting preparation. In fact, participants responded faster when the stimulus matched the trial-wise expectations, even when task demands discouraged their use. In conclusion, we argue that explicit expectation feeds into preparatory processes instead of being a mere by-product.
Vrees, Roxanne A
Sexual assault is characterized by any sexual contact or behavior that occurs without explicit consent. Classifications vary based on the status of the perpetrator's relationship to the victim (eg, stranger, acquaintance) and characteristics of the victim herself (eg, child, elder adult, mentally disabled adult). Regardless of the classification, sexual assault is a significant individual as well as public health issue affecting women of all ages. While the majority of sexual assault cases are not initially reported to law enforcement, the best available data suggest the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault in the United States is approximately 20% among adult women. With such a significant proportion of women affected by sexual assault, women's health care providers in both ambulatory and emergency care settings play key roles in the evaluation, management, and advocacy of these victims. Establishing standard protocols based on state laws and on victim-centered practices to avoid revictimization of the patient is critical. The primary goals of care include the assessment and treatment of physical injuries, psychological assessment and support, pregnancy assessment and prevention, and therapy for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. In addition, evidentiary collection is a critical component of the sexual assault evaluation and subsequent legal proceedings. This report focuses specifically on the immediate evaluation and management of adult female victims of sexual assault. Best practices include the utility of the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner and Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner programs, as well as standardized treatment protocols.
Fortenberry, J Dennis
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan.
Ebadi, Mandana Rohollahzadeh; Saad, Mohd Rashid Mohd; Abedalaziz, Nabil
The study examines the effect of explicit form focus instruction and specifically metalinguistic information feedback on the development of both implicit and explicit knowledge of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) learners. Ninety-one subjects at the lower intermediate level were carefully selected through placement test at one of the…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…
This annotated bibliography contains over 500 sources on the historical and contemporary development and expression of male and female sexuality. There are 68 topic headings which provide easy access for subject areas. A major portion of the bibliography is devoted to contemporary male-female sexuality. These materials consist of research findings…
In this essay, I review one of the conclusions in Lindseth (2016) published in "Foreign Language Annals." That conclusion suggests that explicit learning and practice (what she called form-focused instruction) somehow help the development of implicit knowledge (or might even become implicit knowledge). I argue for a different…
Barba, Robertta H.
The purpose of this cross-age study was to investigate elementary students' (N=120) tacit and explicit understandings of dinosaurs. Detailed analysis of audiotaped interviews of children's performance during a Piagetian-type clinical interview suggests that children's conceptual understandings of dinosaurs are first developed at a tacit level from…
Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan
Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…
Reutzel, D. Ray; Child, Angela; Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of the types and occurrences of explicit instructional moves recommended for teaching five essentials of effective reading instruction in grades 1, 3, and 5 core reading program teachers' editions in five widely marketed core reading programs. Guided practice was the most frequently…
"From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…
Mooij, Wolf M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.
Uncertainty in estimates of survival of dispersing animals is a vexing difficulty in conservation biology. The current notion is that this uncertainty decreases the usefulness of spatially explicit population models in particular. We examined this problem by comparing dispersal models of three levels of complexity: (1) an event-based binomial model that considers only the occurrence of mortality or arrival, (2) a temporally explicit exponential model that employs mortality and arrival rates, and (3) a spatially explicit grid-walk model that simulates the movement of animals through an artificial landscape. Each model was fitted to the same set of field data. A first objective of the paper is to illustrate how the maximum-likelihood method can be used in all three cases to estimate the means and confidence limits for the relevant model parameters, given a particular set of data on dispersal survival. Using this framework we show that the structure of the uncertainty for all three models is strikingly similar. In fact, the results of our unified approach imply that spatially explicit dispersal models, which take advantage of information on landscape details, suffer less from uncertainly than do simpler models. Moreover, we show that the proposed strategy of model development safeguards one from error propagation in these more complex models. Finally, our approach shows that all models related to animal dispersal, ranging from simple to complex, can be related in a hierarchical fashion, so that the various approaches to modeling such dispersal can be viewed from a unified perspective.
Arnold, S. M.; Saleeb, A. F.; Tan, H. Q.; Zhang, Y.
The issue of developing effective and robust schemes to implement general hyperelastic constitutive models is addressed. To this end, special purpose functions are used to symbolically derive, evaluate, and automatically generate the associated FORTRAN code for the explicit forms of the corresponding stress function and material tangent stiffness tensors. These explicit forms are valid for the entire deformation range. The analytical form of these explicit expressions is given here for the case in which the strain-energy potential is taken as a nonseparable polynomial function of the principle stretches.
Carvalho, Joana; Gomes, Ana Quinta; Laja, Pedro; Oliveira, Cátia; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro
The present study examined men and women's sexual and affective responses to erotic film clips that were combined with different fantasy instructions. Men (n = 29) and women (n = 28) were presented with two types of erotic films (explicit vs. romantic) and two fantasy instructions (fantasizing about one's real-life partner vs. fantasizing about someone else). Genital response, subjective sexual arousal, and affective responses were assessed. Sexually explicit stimuli resulted in larger genital responses; women reported higher subjective sexual arousal than men; and fantasizing about one's partner resulted, overall, in higher subjective sexual arousal and higher levels of positive affect. Moreover, in women, the instruction to fantasize about one's partner resulted in stronger subjective sexual arousal to the explicit film than the instruction to fantasize about someone else. Results suggested that physiological, subjective, and affective responses to erotic film stimuli are impacted not only by stimulus characteristics but also by the viewer's interpretation of the depicted relationship.
Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Wilson, Kelly L.; Wiley, David C.; Rosen, Brittany
State policy and curriculum standards establish general guidelines regarding sexuality education while local school boards decide how teachers provide sexuality education. Local school districts may utilize programs and speakers from outside organizations and locally produced materials for sexuality education. Purpose: This article examines Texas…
Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine A; Garcia, Carolyn M
Sexual risk behaviors are common among college students, but differences between 2- and 4-year students have not been explicitly tested. Survey data from 9,748 unmarried sexually active Minnesota college students (in 2010 or 2011) were used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in eight high risk sexual health behaviors and outcomes between students attending 2- vs. 4-year colleges. Odds of sex without a condom, sex without reliable birth control, unplanned pregnancy, and STIs were significantly lower among 4-year students than 2-year students, after adjusting for demographic covariates. Health promotion approaches targeted to the needs of 2- or 4-year students may be needed. For example, messaging and outreach efforts encouraging condom use may be especially beneficial for sexual health programs at 2-year colleges.
... pressure), excessive alcohol use or vaginal infections can cause sexual problems. Depression, relationship problems or abuse (current or past abuse) can also cause sexual dysfunction.You may have less sexual desire ...
Much of the literature on male–female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:16612895
Schover, Leslie R
As more people achieve long-term survival after cancer, sexual dysfunction and infertility have increasingly been recognized as negative consequences that impact quality of life. Sexual dysfunction is a frequent long-term side effect of cancer treatment, but damage to different underlying physiological systems is salient in men versus women. Men frequently have erectile dysfunction (ED) related to damage to the autonomic nervous system and/or reduced circulation of blood to the penis. Hormonal impairment of sexual function is less common. Women, in contrast, are able to overcome damage to autonomic nerves if genital tissues remain structurally intact and estrogenized. Female sexual dysfunction is frequently associated with sudden premature ovarian failure or direct effects of radiation fibrosis or scar tissue causing pain with sexual activity. The lack of validated interventions for sexual rehabilitation after cancer is a major problem, as is finding cost-effective ways of providing services. Concerns about fertility are also a major source of distress to people treated for cancer during childhood or young adulthood, yet many young survivors do not recall any discussion about future childbearing potential with their oncology team. Since fertility preservation is becoming more practical for both men and women, producing patient and professional educational materials and developing professional practice guidelines should be high priorities for oncology societies.
Gidycz, Christine A; Orchowski, Lindsay M; Berkowitz, Alan D
Men and women living in randomly selected 1st-year dormitories participated in tailored single-sex sexual assault prevention or risk-reduction programs, respectively. An evaluation of the men's project is presented (N = 635). The program incorporated social norms and bystander intervention education and had an impact on self-reported sexual aggression and an effect on men's perceptions that their peers would intervene when they encountered inappropriate behavior in others. Relative to the control group, participants also reported less reinforcement for engaging in sexually aggressive behavior, reported fewer associations with sexually aggressive peers, and indicated less exposure to sexually explicit media.
This article examines the sexually explicit comments and references to pornography in young men's answers to a survey about sexuality education. Instead of viewing these remarks as simply impertinent and therefore discountable, I argue that they offer insights into the constitution of masculine identity and an erotic deficit in sexuality…
Kopacz, Marek S.; Bajka-Kopacz, Aleksandra
Almost all teenage magazines invite readers to submit questions concerning relationships, published as letters to the editor, popularly called "advice columns," often containing explicit questions about sexuality. This study aims to examine, firstly, how themes related to sexual initiation are presented in letters to the editor published…
Galletly, Carol; Lechuga, Julia; Layde, Joseph B.; Pinkerton, Steven
Objective: The authors identify the explicit and implicit objectives that shape decisions about what medical schools teach regarding human sexuality. Methods: The authors reviewed relevant articles in journals, physician licensing examinations, and publications by professional organizations to identify learning objectives for human sexuality in…
DeVore, Heather K; Sachs, Carolyn J
Sexual assault is a problem that permeates all socioeconomic classes and impacts hundreds of thousands in the United States and millions worldwide. Most victims do not report the assault; those that do often present to an emergency department. Care must encompass the patients' physical and emotional needs. Providers must be cognizant regarding handling of evidence and possible legal ramifications. This article discusses the emergency medicine approach to history taking, physical examination, evidence collection, chain of custody, psychological and medical treatment, and appropriate follow-up. Special circumstances discussed include intimate partner violence, male examinations, pediatric examinations, suspect examinations, and drug-facilitated assaults.
McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy
Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529
Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. METHODS: Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ2 = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ2 = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P < .01) to vaginal sex (OR = 2.23, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents. PMID:24394678
Gebauer, Guido F; Mackintosh, Nicholas J
The hypothesis that performance on implicit learning tasks is unrelated to psychometric intelligence was examined in a sample of 605 German pupils. Performance in artificial grammar learning, process control, and serial learning did not correlate with various measures of intelligence when participants were given standard implicit instructions. Under an explicit rule discovery instruction, however, a significant relationship between performance on the learning tasks and intelligence appeared. This finding provides support for Reber's hypothesis that implicit learning, in contrast to explicit learning, is independent of intelligence, and confirms thereby the distinction between the 2 modes of learning. However, because there were virtually no correlations among the 3 learning tasks, the assumption of a unitary ability of implicit learning was not supported.
Caiti, Andrea; Cannata, Giorgio; Casalino, Giuseppe; Reto, Simone
In this paper the development of a master-slave robotics system is presented. This development is part of a research project devoted to the intelligent automation of in-service inspection of welded seams in nuclear plants using non- destructive ultrasonic based techniques. The main feature of the system is a shared explicit control scheme of the contact force during the interaction of the end-effector with the remote environment. This unilateral master-slave operational scheme does not suffer from the drawbacks of the bilateral force reflection based implementation. Moreover it avoids the operator from damaging the remote manipulator during wrong maneuvers due to imperfect video feedback. The paper describes the control structure applied (belonging to the class of explicit force control) and the hardware-software architecture of the system. Experimental results are given on the Ansaldo Olasand manipulator.
Stoller, R J
Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior.
Colorado State Library, Denver.
Intended for those working with the developmentally disabled, the bibliography contains approximately 300 entries on resource materials in the area of human sexuality. Included, with pertinent bibliographic information and a brief description, are listings of books, pamphlets, films, filmstrips, sound filmstrips, film loops, cassettes, articles,…
Martín-Vaquero, J.; Kleefeld, B.
Extrapolated Stabilized Explicit Runge-Kutta methods (ESERK) are proposed to solve multi-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). In such methods it is necessary to evaluate the function nt times per step, but the stability region is O (nt2). Hence, the computational cost is O (nt) times lower than for a traditional explicit algorithm. In that way stiff problems can be integrated by the use of simple explicit evaluations in which case implicit methods usually had to be used. Therefore, they are especially well-suited for the method of lines (MOL) discretizations of parabolic nonlinear multi-dimensional PDEs. In this work, first s-stages first-order methods with extended stability along the negative real axis are obtained. They have slightly shorter stability regions than other traditional first-order stabilized explicit Runge-Kutta algorithms (also called Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev codes). Later, they are used to derive nt-stages second- and fourth-order schemes using Richardson extrapolation. The stability regions of these fourth-order codes include the interval [ - 0.01nt2, 0 ] (nt being the number of total functions evaluations), which are shorter than stability regions of ROCK4 methods, for example. However, the new algorithms neither suffer from propagation of errors (as other Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev codes as ROCK4 or DUMKA) nor internal instabilities. Additionally, many other types of higher-order (and also lower-order) methods can be obtained easily in a similar way. These methods also allow adaptation of the length step with no extra cost. Hence, the stability domain is adapted precisely to the spectrum of the problem at the current time of integration in an optimal way, i.e., with minimal number of additional stages. We compare the new techniques with other well-known algorithms with good results in very stiff diffusion or reaction-diffusion multi-dimensional nonlinear equations.
Salvi, G.; Mölbert, S.; de Los Rios, P.
Protein design is important to develop new drugs. As such, a knowledge of the correct model to use to design novel proteins is of the utmost importance. Here we show that a simple model where the solvent degrees of freedom are (semi)explicitly taken into account performs better than other existing models when compared to real data. Some consequences on the criteria to be used for protein design are discussed.
Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N; Almeida, Isabel; Lyons, Emma
Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality characteristic that can affect all areas of life. This article presents the first systematic investigation of multidimensional perfectionism in the domain of sexuality exploring the unique relationships that different forms of sexual perfectionism show with positive and negative aspects of sexuality. A sample of 272 university students (52 male, 220 female) completed measures of four forms of sexual perfectionism: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. In addition, they completed measures of sexual esteem, sexual self-efficacy, sexual optimism, sex life satisfaction (capturing positive aspects of sexuality) and sexual problem self-blame, sexual anxiety, sexual depression, and negative sexual perfectionism cognitions during sex (capturing negative aspects). Results showed unique patterns of relationships for the four forms of sexual perfectionism, suggesting that partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism are maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with negative aspects of sexuality whereas self-oriented and partner-oriented sexual perfectionism emerged as ambivalent forms associated with positive and negative aspects.
While substantial research has examined the effects of pornography on young people in developed societies, existing studies fall short in addressing how sexually-explicit material affects young people in developing countries. The importance of such knowledge increases as the globalising effects of technology expand young peoples' access and exposure to pornography. During the summer of 2012, a study was undertaken in Sierra Leone examining factors affecting young peoples' sexual and reproductive health. The research assessed the influence of HIV knowledge, communication about sex, civil war and contraception myths on sexual behaviours, while remaining open to unanticipated factors. During data collection, respondents identified pornography, also called blues, as an influential factor, detailing its newfound accessibility driven by improved access to information and communication technologies in the country. Respondents also addressed several presumed ways in which pornography impacts young peoples' decisions about sexual health. The following study examines perceived effects of young peoples' exposure to pornography based on existing literature. It then outlines the findings of research conducted in Sierra Leone, drawing on primary data from the respondents and relevant published literature and concludes with proposals for addressing its negative effects.
O'Sullivan, Lucia F
New digital technologies are highly responsive to many of the developmental needs of adolescents, including their need for intimate connection and social identity. This chapter explores adolescents' use of web-based sexual information, texting and "sexting," online dating sites, role-playing games, and sexually explicit media, and presents new data comparing the interpersonal and intrapersonal health outcomes among youth who engage in online sexual activities to those who do not. Despite the media-stoked concerns surrounding adolescents' participation in online sexual activities, the ubiquity of online activities and close overlap between online and offline activities indicate that this type of behavior should not be pathologized or used as a metric of problem behavior. The chapter concludes with implications for parents, educators, researchers, counselors, and health care providers, a call to challenge our deep discomfort around adolescent sexuality and to harness these technologies in ways that help promote growth and positive development.
Heritage, Jeannette G.; West, W. Beryl
Approximately 50% of American marriages have some sexual dysfunction. Because sexuality is an important part of a person's life, counselors should be sensitive to sexual concerns of their clients. Taking an adequate sex history and highlighting problem areas may increase counseling efficiency. When counselors teach courses on human sexuality, they…
The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…
Military Sexual Trauma What is military sexual trauma (MST)? Military sexual trauma, or MST, is the term used by VA to refer to experiences of sexual assault ... that a Veteran experienced during his or her military service. The definition used by the VA comes ...
Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.
This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…
Spigarelli, Michael G
Sexual orientation has been defined as the patterns of sexual thoughts, fantasies, and attractions that an individual has toward other persons of the same or opposite gender. Throughout childhood and approaching adolescence, children try to understand their own sexuality and sexual orientation in the context of the society in which they live. Typically, this attempt to understand first occurs in thoughts of a sexual nature and later through actions, usually before sexual orientation is clearly defined. How these experiences are handled, by the individual and close friends and relatives, helps to define how an individual views and accepts their sexual orientation ultimately as an adult.
Salama, S; Boitrelle, F; Gauquelin, A; Jaoul, M; Albert, M; Bailly, M; Wainer, R; Veluire, M
Following the recent medical innovations, it is now possible to disassociate sexuality and reproduction. With contraception, people can have free sexuality without the fear of an unexpected pregnancy. Frequently, Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), with in vitro fertilization, can obtain a pregnancy without intercourse. There are three major problems concerning infertility and sexuality. Firstly, infertility because of a sexual disorder; secondly, sexual disorder induced by infertility diagnosis; thirdly, sexual disorder induced by ART. Praticians should be aware of possible existence of sexual problems to allow the couple to express them. Once diagnosed, these troubles can be treated by the pratician himself or the couple has to be referred to a psychologist or a sexologist.
Clayton, Anita H; Harsh, Veronica
Women experience multiple changes in social and reproductive statuses across the life span which can affect sexual functioning. Various phases of the sexual response cycle may be impacted and can lead to sexual dysfunction. Screening for sexual problems and consideration of contributing factors such as neurobiology, reproductive life events, medical problems, medication use, and depression can help guide appropriate treatment and thereby improve the sexual functioning and quality of life of affected women. Treatment options include psychotropic medications, hormone therapy, and psychotherapy.
Siengsukon, Catherine F; Al-Sharman, Alham
Background Healthy young individuals benefit from sleep to promote offline enhancement of a variety of explicitly learned discrete motor tasks. It remains unknown if sleep will promote learning of other types of explicit tasks. The purpose of this study is to verify the role of sleep in learning an explicitly instructed discrete motor task and to determine if participants who practice an explicitly instructed continuous tracking task demonstrate sleep-dependent offline learning of this task. Methods In experiment 1, 28 healthy young adults (mean age 25.6 ± 3.8 years) practiced a serial reaction time (SRT) task at either 8 am (SRT no-sleep group) or 8 pm (SRT sleep group) and underwent retention testing 12 ± 1 hours later. In experiment 2, 20 healthy young individuals (mean age 25.6 ± 3.3 years) practiced a continuous tracking task and were similarly divided into a no-sleep (continuous tracking no-sleep group) or sleep group (continuous tracking sleep group). Individuals in both experiments were provided with explicit instruction on the presence of a sequence in their respective task prior to practice. Results Individuals in the SRT sleep group demonstrated a significant offline reduction in reaction time whereas the SRT no-sleep group did not. Results for experiment 1 provide concurrent evidence that explicitly learned discrete tasks undergo sleep-dependent offline enhancement. Individuals in the continuous tracking sleep group failed to demonstrate a significant offline reduction in tracking error. However, the continuous tracking no-sleep group did demonstrate a significant offline improvement in performance. Results for experiment 2 indicate that sleep is not critical for offline enhancement of an explicit learned continuous task. Conclusion The findings that individuals who practiced an explicitly instructed discrete task experienced sleep-dependent offline learning while those individuals who practiced an explicitly instructed continuous task did not may be
Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Li-Jie; Ren, Ji-Rong
The fact that certain nonlinear W2,s algebras can be linearized by the inclusion of a spin-1 current can provide a simple way to realize W2,s algebras from linear W1,2,s algebras. In this paper, we first construct the explicit field realizations of linear W1,2,s algebras with double scalar and double spinor, respectively. Then, after a change of basis, the realizations of W2,s algebras are presented. The results show that all these realizations are Romans-type realizations.
This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts.
Alexander, Kamila A.; Fannin, Ehriel F.; Baker, Jillian L.; Davis, Zupenda M.
“Risky sexual behavior” accounts for the majority of new HIV infections regardless of gender, age, geographic location, or ethnicity. The phrase, however, refers to a relatively nebulous concept that hampers development of effective sexual health communication strategies. The purpose of this paper is to propose development of a shared conceptual understanding of “risky sexual behavior.” We reviewed multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS literature to identify definitions of risky sexual behavior. Both the linguistic components and the social mechanisms that contribute to the concept of risky sexual behaviors were noted. Risky sexual behavior was often defined in a subjective manner in the literature, even in the scientific research. We urge a paradigm shift to focus on explicit behaviors and the social context of those behaviors in determining HIV risk. We also propose a new definition that reduces individual biases and promotes a broader discussion of the degree of sexual risk across a diversity of behavioral contexts. Sexual health professionals can strengthen practice and research initiatives by operating from a concise working definition of risky sexual behavior that is broadly transferable and expands beyond a traditional focus on identity-based groups. PMID:26184496
Mitsume, Naoto; Yoshimura, Shinobu; Murotani, Kohei; Yamada, Tomonori
This study presents an accurate and robust boundary model, the explicitly represented polygon (ERP) wall boundary model, to treat arbitrarily shaped wall boundaries in the explicit moving particle simulation (E-MPS) method, which is a mesh-free particle method for strong form partial differential equations. The ERP model expresses wall boundaries as polygons, which are explicitly represented without using the distance function. These are derived so that for viscous fluids, and with less computational cost, they satisfy the Neumann boundary condition for the pressure and the slip/no-slip condition on the wall surface. The proposed model is verified and validated by comparing computed results with the theoretical solution, results obtained by other models, and experimental results. Two simulations with complex boundary movements are conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the E-MPS method to the ERP model.
Finger, F.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Knox, A. C.; Gatto, M.; Rinaldo, A.
Epidemiological models can provide crucial understanding about the dynamics of infectious diseases. Possible applications range from real-time forecasting and allocation of health care resources to testing alternative intervention mechanisms such as vaccines, antibiotics or the improvement of sanitary conditions. We apply a spatially explicit model to the cholera epidemic that struck Haiti in October 2010 and is still ongoing. The dynamics of susceptibles as well as symptomatic and asymptomatic infectives are modelled at the scale of local human communities. Dissemination of Vibrio cholerae through hydrological transport and human mobility along the road network is explicitly taken into account, as well as the effect of rainfall as a driver of increasing disease incidence. The model is calibrated using a dataset of reported cholera cases. We further model the long term impact of several types of interventions on the disease dynamics by varying parameters appropriately. Key epidemiological mechanisms and parameters which affect the efficiency of treatments such as antibiotics are identified. Our results lead to conclusions about the influence of different intervention strategies on the overall epidemiological dynamics.
Computing hardware is trending towards distributed, massively parallel architectures in order to achieve high computational throughput. For example, Intrepid at Argonne uses 163,840 cores, and next generation machines, such as Sequoia at Lawrence Livermore, will use over one million cores. Harnessing the increasingly parallel nature of computational resources will require algorithms that scale efficiently on these architectures. The advent of GPU-based computation will serve to accelerate this behavior, as a single GPU contains hundreds of processor ``cores.'' Explicit algorithms avoid the communication associated with a linear solve, thus parallel scalability of these algorithms is typically high. This work will explore the efficiency and accuracy of three explicit solution methodologies for the Navier-Stokes equations: traditional artificial compressibility schemes, the lattice-Boltzmann method, and the recently proposed kinetically reduced local Navier-Stokes equations [Borok, Ansumali, and Karlin (2007)]. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Vandenbosch, Laura; van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen
The goal of this study was to investigate whether exposure to sexual reality television content and Internet pornography (IP) is related to sexual self-presentation on social media. Based on a two-wave panel survey among 1,765 adolescents aged 13-17 years, we found that watching sexual reality television content stimulated adolescents to produce and distribute sexual images of themselves on social media. In turn, sexual self-presentation on social media led adolescents to watch sexual reality television content more frequently. These relationships were similar among boys and girls. No reciprocal relationship between exposure to IP and boys' and girls' sexual self-presentation on social media was found. The results suggest that sexual content in mainstream mass media may predict adolescents' sexually oriented behavior on social media and vice versa. Moreover, adolescents seem to differentiate between types of sexual content (i.e., mainstream versus more explicit sexual content) when incorporating sexual media content in their sexual behavior online.
Heiman, J R; Rowland, D L
To more clearly characterize the patterns of cognitive-affective and physiological responses concomitant with male sexual dysfunction, the present study compared 14 sexually dysfunctional and 16 sexually functional men. All individuals listened to two sexually explicit tapes and engaged in a self-generated fantasy, while genital, heart rate and scaled cognitive affective responses were recorded. Two types of instructions, a performance demand set and a non-demand sensate focus set, preceded the erotic tapes in counterbalanced order. As predicted, dysfunctional men showed less genital tumescence to tapes preceded by the demand than the non-demand instructions. Contrary to expectation, functional men showed greater penile tumescence to the tapes preceded by demand instructions. Self-reported sexual arousal did not follow the penile tumescence pattern but instead indicated that the dysfunctional sample was significantly less subjectively aroused to the tapes and fantasy. There were other significant differences between the groups. Dysfunctional men showed greater general psychological distress, as measured by the SCL-90, including elevated somaticism, anxiety and depression scores. During the experimental session, dysfunctional men also evidenced greater awareness of a variety of physiological responses, as well as more negative and fewer positive cognitive-affective states. These data are discussed in terms of the interaction of affective and physiological responses, differences in contextual meanings of instructional sets given the presence of a dysfunction, and theoretical and clinical conceptualizations of male sexual functioning.
Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K
Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction).
Conventional wisdom holds that children learn languages implicitly whereas older learners learn languages explicitly, and some have claimed that after puberty only explicit language learning is possible. However, older learners often receive more explicit instruction than child L2 learners, which may affect their learning strategies. This study…
Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha
India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263
Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N
Research on multidimensional sexual perfectionism differentiates four forms: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. Self-oriented sexual perfectionism reflects perfectionistic standards people apply to themselves as sexual partners; partner-oriented sexual perfectionism reflects perfectionistic standards people apply to their sexual partner; partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism reflects people's beliefs that their sexual partner imposes perfectionistic standards on them; and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism reflects people's beliefs that society imposes such standards on them. Previous studies found partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism to be maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with a negative sexual self-concept and problematic sexual behaviors, but only examined cross-sectional relationships. The present article presents the first longitudinal study examining whether multidimensional sexual perfectionism predicts changes in sexual self-concept and sexual function over time. A total of 366 women aged 17-69 years completed measures of multidimensional sexual perfectionism, sexual esteem, sexual anxiety, sexual problem self-blame, and sexual function (cross-sectional data). Three to six months later, 164 of the women completed the same measures again (longitudinal data). Across analyses, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism emerged as the most maladaptive form of sexual perfectionism. In the cross-sectional data, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism showed positive relationships with sexual anxiety, sexual problem self-blame, and intercourse pain, and negative relationships with sexual esteem, desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasmic function. In the longitudinal data, partner-prescribed sexual perfectionism predicted increases in sexual anxiety and decreases in sexual esteem, arousal, and lubrication over time. The findings suggest that partner-prescribed sexual
Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L
Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual
Sanz, Cristina; Morgan-Short, Kara
The facilitative role of explicit information in second language acquisition has been supported by a significant body of research (Alanen, 1995; Carroll & Swain, 1993; de Graaff, 1997; DeKeyser, 1995; Ellis, 1993; Robinson, 1996, 1997), but counterevidence is also available (Rosa & ONeill, 1999; VanPatten & Oikkenon, 1996). This experimental study…
Moon, Paul J
At the core of hospice remains the defining nature of mortals tending to other mortals facing diagnosed terminality. Such situations are pregnant with meanings. As mortals are subjective beings, social engagements become inundated with meaning differences. This alludes to the inescapable occurrence of collisions and conflicts in meaning. It would behoove us to make explicit the contention that exists in hospice care, given that death is the nonnegotiable outcome to be diversely faced by all involved persons whose lived approaches related to death issues may characteristically lack unanimity. Toward elucidating the inherently contentious nature of hospice care, the dynamical influence of external forces that overlie thanatological matters in society and the complex human dynamic in hospice care situations are discussed. Practice suggestions for hospice staff are offered.
Benz, W.; Asphaug, E.
Impact phenomena shaped our solar system. As usual for most solar system processes, the scales are far different than we can address directly in the laboratory. Impact velocities are often much higher than we can achieve, sizes are often vastly larger, and most impacts take place in an environment where the only gravitational force is the mutual pull of the impactors. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique has been applied in the past to the simulations of giant impacts. In these simulations, the colliding objects were so massive (at least a sizeable fraction of the Earth's mass) that material strength was negligible compared to gravity. This assumption can no longer be made when the bodies are much smaller. To this end, we have developed a 3D SPH code that includes a strength model to which we have added a von Mises yielding relation for stresses beyond the Hugoniot Elastic Limit. At the lower stresses associated with brittle failure, we use a rate-dependent strength based on the nucleation of incipient flaws whose number density is given by a Weibull distribution. Following Grady and Kipp and Melosh et al., we introduce a state variable D ('damage'), 0 less than D less than 1, which expresses the local reduction in strength due to crack growth under tensile loading. Unfortunately for the hydrodynamics, Grady and Kipp's model predicts which fragments are the most probable ones and not the ones that are really formed. This means, for example, that if a given laboratory experiment is modeled, the fragment distribution obtained from the Grady-Kipp theory would be equivalent to a ensemble average over many realizations of the experiment. On the other hand, the hydrodynamics itself is explicit and evolves not an ensemble average but very specific fragments. Hence, there is a clear incompatibility with the deterministic nature of the hydrodynamics equations and the statistical approach of the Grady-Kipp dynamical fracture model. We remedy these shortcomings
Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.
NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.
... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... include: PTSD and anxiety. Depression and thoughts of suicide. Sexual anxiety and disorders, including having too many ...
Corbett, Susan Miller
Presents a newsletter that discusses methods parents can use to handle sexual questions or behavior in young children. An accompanying letter to parents addresses young children's sexual behavior and ways parents can respond to this behavior. (GH)
... for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be ... friends, neighbors or babysitters. About one-third of abusers are related to the child. Most abusers are ...
... are some symptoms related to sexual trauma in boys and men? Particularly when the assailant is a ... those who do not. Emotional Disorders Men and boys who have been sexually assaulted are more likely ...
Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health Considering testosterone therapy to help you feel younger and more vigorous as you age? ... 01, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/sexual-health/in-depth/testosterone-therapy/art-20045728 . ...
Sexual dysfunction takes place in the context of women's lives and affects their sexuality and self-esteem. Awareness of these influences are vital to the management of the dysfunction and the promotion of positive sexuality. The family physician's contribution to both the prevention and management of sexual concerns includes an awareness of societal influences and facilitation of a woman's sense of her own power and control over her life. PMID:21248971
Laskey, Louise, Ed.; Beavis, Catherine, Ed.
This collection of papers contains a Foreword by Jane Kenway, an Introduction by Louise Laskey and Catherine Beavis, and four sections. Section 1, Schools and the Social Construction of Sexuality, contains 3 chapters: (1) Power and Partnership? Challenging the Sexual Construction of Schooling (D. Denborough); (2) Where Do You Draw the Line?…
Luquis, Raffy R; Brelsford, Gina M; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana
The purpose of this study was to determine whether religiosity, spirituality, and sexual attitudes accounted for differences in sexual behaviors among college students. The sample included 960 college students enrolled at four northeastern colleges. Results indicated differences in sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality by gender. Moreover, sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality were associated with sexual behaviors among college students. Sexual behaviors among males were influenced by their sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality, while for females, their sexual behaviors were mostly influenced by their sexual attitudes. College health professionals can use these findings when discussing sexual practices with students.
In a recent BEST (Bureau of Evaluative Studies and Testing, Indiana University, Bloomington) survey, 10 percent of Indiana University women who responded had experienced some form of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment in education is any attention of a sexual nature from an instructor or professor which makes a student uncomfortable in class or…
Computational simulations are invaluable in elucidating the dynamics of biological macromolecules. Unfortunately, reactions present a fundamental challenge. Calculations based on quantum mechanics can predict bond formation and rupture; however they suffer from severe length- and time-limitations. At the other extreme, classical approaches provide orders of magnitude faster simulations; however they regard chemical bonds as immutable entities. A few exceptions exist, but these are not always trivial to adopt for routine use. We bridge this gap by providing a novel, pseudo-classical approach, based on explicit valency. We unpack molecules into valence electron pairs and atomic cores. Particles bear ionic charges and interact via pairwise-only potentials. The potentials are informed of quantum effects in the short-range and obey dissociation limits in the long-range. They are trained against a small set of isolated species, including geometries and thermodynamics of small hydrides and of dimers formed by them. The resulting force field captures the essentials of reactivity, polarizability and flexibility in a simple, seamless setting. We call this model LEWIS, after the chemical theory that inspired the use of valence pairs. Following the introduction in Chapter 1, we initially focus on the properties of water. Chapter 2 considers gas phase clusters. To transition to the liquid phase, Chapter 3 describes a novel pairwise long-range compensation that performs comparably to infinite lattice summations. The approach is suited to ionic solutions in general. In Chapters 4 and 5, LEWIS is shown to correctly predict the dipolar and quadrupolar response in bulk liquid, and can accommodate proton transfers in both acid and base. Efficiency permits the study of proton defects at dilutions not accessible to experiment or quantum mechanics. Chapter 6 discusses explicit valency approaches in other hydrides, forming the basis of a reactive organic force field. Examples of simple
Traeen, B; Kvalem, I L
The impact of gender differences in sexual socialization on early sexual experiences among Norwegian adolescents is discussed. The material comprises a stratified sample of 920 adolescents ages 16-20 years in a Norwegian county. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. Of the respondents, 55.5% were girls and 44.5% were boys. 52.3% of girls and 41.4% of the boys had coital experience. The most common reasons for having had the first sexual intercourse were being in love, curiosity or excitement, and sexual arousal. Findings from a discriminant analysis showed that emotional reasons were more important to girls, whereas boys seemed more practical in sexual matters. More boys than girls reported that the reason for having had their most recent intercourse was that the partner wanted it. This indicates that if girls do not want sex, boys seldom use pressure. Girls set the premises for sexual interaction but are not as sexually skilled as boys.
Niki de Saint Phalle's lifelong dialogue between art and diseases: psychological trauma of sexual abuse, transient selective IgA deficiency, occupational exposure to toxic plastic material, chronic lung disease, rheumatoid arthritis.
The French artist Niki de Saint Phalle (1930-2002) is one of the most famous female painter and sculptor of the 20th century. Her eventful live was full of emotional and physical burdens such as abuse by the father as a adolescent, early separation from family, nervous collapse, turbulent relationship with the artist Jean Tinguely, and last not least serious diseases. The psychological trauma of sexual abuse together with a "nervous breakdown" years later was the start of a life as an artist and is also a key to her art of the early years. She was affected from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and was treated over 20 years with prednisolone and antimalarials leading to a good functional outcome and limited erosions of the wrist joint. Additionally, she had lifelong pulmonary disorders finally leading to death, which she attributed to polyester, the material used for her sculptures. An analysis of medical documents collected by her and provided by treating physicians gives another surprising explanation: selective IgA deficiency with multiple recurrent respiratory infections, asthma, milk intolerance, autoimmune thyroiditis, and RA compatible with hypogammaglobulinemia. Very unique in case of Niki de Saint Phalle is that IgA deficiency was transient. Nevertheless, it may be possible that the occupational exposure with art materials (polystyrene, polyester) has contributed in part or temporarily to her health problems. Altogether, her enormous artistic productivity represents an outstanding example of creative coping with RA and other lifelong health problems.
Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. for Child Health Policy.
This kit provides materials that teach about Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy using group instructional methodology to actively engage students in the learning process. Using cooperative learning materials and videotape recordings, the program stresses…
Linge, Jens P; Williams, Mark A; Spronk, Christian A E M; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Nilges, Michael
We present a CPU efficient protocol for refinement of protein structures in a thin layer of explicit solvent and energy parameters with completely revised dihedral angle terms. Our approach is suitable for protein structures determined by theoretical (e.g., homology modeling or threading) or experimental methods (e.g., NMR). In contrast to other recently proposed refinement protocols, we put a strong emphasis on consistency with widely accepted covalent parameters and computational efficiency. We illustrate the method for NMR structure calculations of three proteins: interleukin-4, ubiquitin, and crambin. We show a comparison of their structure ensembles before and after refinement in water with and without a force field energy term for the dihedral angles; crambin was also refined in DMSO. Our results demonstrate the significant improvement of structure quality by a short refinement in a thin layer of solvent. Further, they show that a dihedral angle energy term in the force field is beneficial for structure calculation and refinement. We discuss the optimal weight for the energy constant for the backbone angle omega and include an extensive discussion of meaning and relevance of the calculated validation criteria, in particular root mean square Z scores for covalent parameters such as bond lengths.
Quintana, J; Cabriada, J; d Lopez; Varona, M; Oribe, V; Barrios, B; Arostegui, I; Bilbao, A
Objective: Consensus development techniques were used in the late 1980s to create explicit criteria for the appropriateness of cholecystectomy. New diagnostic and treatment techniques have been developed in the last decade, so an updated appropriateness of indications tool was developed for cholecystectomy in patients with non-malignant diseases. The validity and reliability of panel results using this tool were tested. Methods: Criteria were developed using a modified Delphi panel judgement process. The level of agreement between the panellists (six gastroenterologists and six surgeons) was analysed and the ratings were compared with those of a second different panel using weighted kappa statistics. Results: The results of the main panel were presented as a decision tree. Of the 210 scenarios evaluated by the main panel in the second round, 51% were found appropriate, 26% uncertain, and 23% inappropriate. Agreement was achieved in 54% of the scenarios and disagreement in 3%. Although the gastroenterologists tended to score fewer scenarios as appropriate, as a group they did not differ from the surgeons. Comparison of the ratings of the main panel with those of a second panel resulted in a weighted kappa statistic of 0.75. Conclusions: The parameters tested showed acceptable validity and reliability results for an evaluation tool. These results support the use of this algorithm as a screening tool for assessing the appropriateness of cholecystectomy. PMID:12468691
Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.
Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017
Plakun, E M
Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by "bad" clinicians against patients who are "victims," this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct.
Plakun, Eric M.
Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by “bad” clinicians against patients who are “victims,” this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct. PMID:10523431
Stein, Michelle L; Schlesinger, Louis B; Pinizzotto, Anthony J
A closed case-file review of 211 sexual homicides identified 16 cases of necrophilia. The results of this unique descriptive study of necrophilia associated with sexual homicide provide information on crime-scene locations, methods of killing, body disposition, premortem sexual assault, specifics of the necrophilic acts, methods of victim abduction, and motivational dynamics. The findings suggest that the most common explanation for necrophilia-the offender's desire to have an unresisting partner-may not always be applicable in cases where this rare paraphilia is connected to sexual murder. The possibility of using crime-scene behaviors in these cases to investigate serial sexual murders is offered.
Stayton, W R
The health professional can be helpful to the adolescent, the adolescent's family, and the community through participating in and initiating local sex education programs. Religious settings provide a great potential for sexuality education within a value framework. A helpful curriculum will include the meaning of sexuality; developing a positive concept of sexuality, and a healthy sexual identity; present the issues of adolescent sexuality, including the various health issues; and an understanding of quality relationships within the family and among peers. If health professions and the community religious institutions can joint together, they can reach the goals of most programs in human sexuality, namely, "learning to appreciate our sexuality as a positive potential for self-expression, fulfillment and intimacy; respect for the personhood and well-being of others; and responsible decision-making."
DeAngelis, Donald L.; Yurek, Simeon
The use of spatially explicit models (SEMs) in ecology has grown enormously in the past two decades. One major advancement has been that fine-scale details of landscapes, and of spatially dependent biological processes, such as dispersal and invasion, can now be simulated with great precision, due to improvements in computer technology. Many areas of modeling have shifted toward a focus on capturing these fine-scale details, to improve mechanistic understanding of ecosystems. However, spatially implicit models (SIMs) have played a dominant role in ecology, and arguments have been made that SIMs, which account for the effects of space without specifying spatial positions, have an advantage of being simpler and more broadly applicable, perhaps contributing more to understanding. We address this debate by comparing SEMs and SIMs in examples from the past few decades of modeling research. We argue that, although SIMs have been the dominant approach in the incorporation of space in theoretical ecology, SEMs have unique advantages for addressing pragmatic questions concerning species populations or communities in specific places, because local conditions, such as spatial heterogeneities, organism behaviors, and other contingencies, produce dynamics and patterns that usually cannot be incorporated into simpler SIMs. SEMs are also able to describe mechanisms at the local scale that can create amplifying positive feedbacks at that scale, creating emergent patterns at larger scales, and therefore are important to basic ecological theory. We review the use of SEMs at the level of populations, interacting populations, food webs, and ecosystems and argue that SEMs are not only essential in pragmatic issues, but must play a role in the understanding of causal relationships on landscapes.
Stein, D J; Black, D W; Pienaar, W
Paraphilias are recurrent and intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving nonhuman objects. These paraphilias cause the suffering or humiliation of the patient or patient's partner, or children, or other nonconsenting persons. However, in many patients symptoms involve more culturally acceptable patterns (eg, repetitive masturbation, Internet pornography); such hypersexual symptoms have been labeled as compulsive, addictive, or impulsive. Growing evidence supports the existence of a discrete syndrome characterized by recurrent and intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving patterns that fall outside the definition of paraphilia. There is, however, high comorbidity with paraphilia. While such symptoms have been labeled as sexual compulsion or addiction, these terms are problematic in this context. Modern nosology has neglected this entity, although the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), category of sexual disorders not otherwise specified includes hypersexual behaviors as an example. We suggest that the DSM-IV category of sexual disorders be modified to include explicitly diagnostic criteria for a disorder characterized by hypersexual symptoms involving patterns that fall outside of the current definition of paraphilia. The disorder might be classified as one of the paraphilias, or as paraphilia-related. In the absence of a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of this disorder, we suggest that it simply be termed hypersexual disorder.
Lewin, Linda C
Pediatric nurse practitioners may be called on to conduct an assessment for sexual abuse of a young child. Depending on the type of sexual contact, a decision may have to be made to obtain cultures for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Recognizing the symptoms of STIs in preadolescent children, along with having knowledge of the modes of transmission, diagnostics, and treatment, are part of the clinical decision. The impact of STI in preadolescent children has physical and emotional consequences for the child and family, along with legal consequences for an accused perpetrator. Knowledge about types of sexual contact that necessitate STI cultures, incubation periods, and symptomatology is essential. Accurate techniques and appropriate selection of culture materials are necessary. Proper positioning of the child for obtaining cultures can decrease the potential for discomfort during the examination. Gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus virus, syphilis, Trichomonas vaginalis, hepatitis B, and HIV are reviewed.
SEXISM , SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: TOWARD CONCEPTUAL CLARITY Dr. Richard Harris Department of Social Work and Center for Policy...00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sexism , Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Sexual Harassment .........................................................................................2 Sexism
Gottfried, Jeffrey A; Vaala, Sarah E; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy
Using the Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction, this study examines the effects of exposure to sexual content on television by genre, specifically looking at comedy, drama, cartoon, and reality programs, on adolescents' sex-related cognitions and behaviors. Additionally, we compared the amount and explicitness of sexual content as well as the frequency of risk and responsibility messages in these four genres. Findings show that overall exposure to sexual content on television was not related to teens' engagement in sexual intercourse the following year. When examined by genre, exposure to sexual content in comedies was positively associated while exposure to sexual content in dramas was negatively associated with attitudes regarding sex, perceived normative pressure, intentions, and engaging in sex one year later. Implications of adolescent exposure to various types of content and for using genre categories to examine exposure and effects are discussed.
Gottfried, Jeffrey A.; Vaala, Sarah E.; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy
Using the Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction, this study examines the effects of exposure to sexual content on television by genre, specifically looking at comedy, drama, cartoon, and reality programs, on adolescents’ sex-related cognitions and behaviors. Additionally, we compared the amount and explicitness of sexual content as well as the frequency of risk and responsibility messages in these four genres. Findings show that overall exposure to sexual content on television was not related to teens’ engagement in sexual intercourse the following year. When examined by genre, exposure to sexual content in comedies was positively associated while exposure to sexual content in dramas was negatively associated with attitudes regarding sex, perceived normative pressure, intentions, and engaging in sex one year later. Implications of adolescent exposure to various types of content and for using genre categories to examine exposure and effects are discussed. PMID:24187395
Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer
There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701
Seto, Michael C; Lalumière, Martin L; Harris, Grant T; Chivers, Meredith L
On average, rapists show greater relative genital responses to rape stories than do nonrapists in the laboratory. It has been suggested that this robust group difference is explained by the fact that many rapists are sexually sadistic. It is not clear, however, what the critical cues underlying rapists' genital responses are, because rape stories used in previous research include a mix of sadistic cues of violence and victim injury as well as cues of victim resistance and nonconsent. The present study was conducted to identify the critical cues producing self-identified sadists' sexual responses, and thereby to test sexual sadism as an explanation of rapists' arousal pattern. The present study was also conducted to develop a new phallometric test for sexual sadism for research and clinical applications, given evidence of poor diagnostic reliability and validity. Eighteen self-identified male sadists, 22 men with some sadistic interests who did not meet all of our sadist criteria, and 23 nonsadists (all recruited from the community) were compared in their genital and subjective responses to a new set of stories that disentangle violence/injury cues from resistance/nonconsent cues. The three groups differed in both their genital and subjective responses: using indices of relative responding, sadists responded significantly more to cues of violence/injury than nonsadists and men with some sadistic interests. The group difference for cues of nonconsent was not significant. The results suggest that sexual sadism primarily involves arousal to violence/injury in a sexual context rather than resistance/nonconsent.
Carey, J Chris
Many drugs may have effects on sexual function. Sexual function is complex and psychological and relationship issues are likely to have greater impacts on sexual function in women than drugs. Although it is important to understand the effects of drugs on sexual function, physicians should use caution in "medicalization" of sexual function in women .
Jessell, Lauren; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Guarino, Honoria; Vakharia, Sheila P.; Syckes, Cassandra; Goodbody, Elizabeth; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Friedman, Sam
Drug and alcohol use have been associated with increased risk for sexual violence, but there is little research on sexual violence within the context of drug use among young adult opioid users. The current mixed-methods study explores young adult opioid users’ sexual experiences in the context of their drug use. Forty-six New York City young adults (ages 18–32) who reported lifetime nonmedical use of prescription opioids (POs) completed in-depth, semistructured interviews, and 164 (ages 18–29) who reported heroin and/or nonmedical PO use in the past 30 days completed structured assessments that inquired about their drug use and sexual behavior and included questions specific to sexual violence. Participants reported frequent incidents of sexual violence experienced both personally and by their opioid using peers. Participants described sexual violence, including sexual assault, as occurring within a context characterized by victimization of users who were unconscious as a result of substance use, implicit and explicit exchanges of sex for drugs and/or money that increased risk for sexual violence, negative sexual perceptions ascribed to drug users, and participants’ own internalized stigma. Recommendations to reduce sexual violence among young adult opioid users include education for users and service providers on the risk of involvement in sexual violence within drug using contexts and efforts to challenge perceptions of acceptability regarding sexual violence. PMID:26240068
Jessell, Lauren; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Guarino, Honoria; Vakharia, Sheila P; Syckes, Cassandra; Goodbody, Elizabeth; Ruggles, Kelly V; Friedman, Sam
Drug and alcohol use have been associated with increased risk for sexual violence, but there is little research on sexual violence within the context of drug use among young adult opioid users. The current mixed-methods study explores young adult opioid users' sexual experiences in the context of their drug use. Forty-six New York City young adults (ages 18-32) who reported lifetime nonmedical use of prescription opioids (POs) completed in-depth, semistructured interviews, and 164 (ages 18-29) who reported heroin and/or nonmedical PO use in the past 30 days completed structured assessments that inquired about their drug use and sexual behavior and included questions specific to sexual violence. Participants reported frequent incidents of sexual violence experienced both personally and by their opioid using peers. Participants described sexual violence, including sexual assault, as occurring within a context characterized by victimization of users who were unconscious as a result of substance use, implicit and explicit exchanges of sex for drugs and/or money that increased risk for sexual violence, negative sexual perceptions ascribed to drug users, and participants' own internalized stigma. Recommendations to reduce sexual violence among young adult opioid users include education for users and service providers on the risk of involvement in sexual violence within drug using contexts and efforts to challenge perceptions of acceptability regarding sexual violence.
Rinckey, David Jason
Presented is a developmentally sequenced curriculum designed for teaching human sexuality to mentally impaired adolescents. A brief objective is presented, teaching methods are listed, and materials needed are described (in terms of author, title, source, and price) for each of the following topic areas: vocabulary of sexuality; fact vs. myths;…
Leddy, Susan; Cox, James
A variety of information and sources for information on child sexual assault are collected in this document geared for educators in small communities. Materials include a fact sheet on small community concerns about sexual abuse, a flow chart for training school personnel in intervention and prevention, suggestions for school protocol for…
Abdool, Zeelha; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H
Although many women experience sexual problems in the postpartum period, research in this subject is under-explored. Embarrassment and preoccupation with the newborn are some of the reasons why many women do not seek help. Furthermore, there is a lack of professional awareness and expertise and recognition that a prerequisite in the definition of sexual dysfunction is that it must cause distress to the individual (not her partner). Sexual dysfunction is classified as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and pain. However, in the postpartum period the most common disorder appears to be that of sexual pain as a consequence of perineal trauma. Health care workers need to be made aware of this silent affliction as sexual morbidity can have a detrimental effect on a women's quality of life impacting on her social, physical and emotional well-being.
Schärer, Lukas; Janicke, Tim; Ramm, Steven A.
Hermaphrodites combine the male and female sex functions into a single individual, either sequentially or simultaneously. This simple fact means that they exhibit both similarities and differences in the way in which they experience, and respond to, sexual conflict compared to separate-sexed organisms. Here, we focus on clarifying how sexual conflict concepts can be adapted to apply to all anisogamous sexual systems and review unique (or especially important) aspects of sexual conflict in hermaphroditic animals. These include conflicts over the timing of sex change in sequential hermaphrodites, and in simultaneous hermaphrodites, over both sex roles and the postmating manipulation of the sperm recipient by the sperm donor. Extending and applying sexual conflict thinking to hermaphrodites can identify general evolutionary principles and help explain some of the unique reproductive diversity found among animals exhibiting this widespread but to date understudied sexual system. PMID:25237131
Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.
This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287
Timmins, Liam; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Cullen, Claire
Snowden, Wichter, and Gray (2008) demonstrated that an Implicit Association Test and a Priming Task both predicted the sexual orientation of gynephilic and androphilic men in terms of their attraction biases towards pictures of nude males and females. For both measures, relative bias scores were obtained, with no information on the separate response biases to each target gender. The present study sought to extend this research by assessing both relative and individual implicit biases using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). An explicit measure screened for men with androphilic (n = 16) or gynephilic (n = 16) orientations on the dimensions of "sexual attraction," "sexual behavior," "sexual fantasies," "hetero/gay lifestyle," and "self identification." The IRAP involved responding "True" or "False" to pictures of nude males and females as either attractive or unattractive. Participants were required to respond in a manner consistent with their reported sexual orientation for half of the IRAP's test blocks and inconsistent for the other half. Response latencies were recorded and analyzed. The IRAP revealed a non-orthogonal pattern of biases across the two groups and had an excellent ability to predict sexual orientation with areas under the curves of 1.0 for the relative bias score and .94 and .95 for the bias scores for the male and female pictures, respectively. Correlations between the IRAP and explicit measures of sexual orientation were consistently high. The findings support the IRAP as a potentially valuable tool in the study of sexual preferences.
Hong, Eunsook; O'Neil, Harold F.; Peng, Yun
Effects of explicit instructions, metacognition, and intrinsic motivation on creative homework performance were examined in 303 Chinese 10th-grade students. Models that represent hypothesized relations among these constructs and trait covariates were tested using structural equation modelling. Explicit instructions geared to originality were…
Papadopoulos, P. M.; Demetriadis, S. N.; Weinberger, A.
This paper investigates the impact of the proposed "Make It Explicit!" technique on students' learning when participating in scripted collaborative activities. The method posits that when asking students to proactively articulate their own positions explicitly, then improved peer interaction is triggered in a subsequent…
Ebadi, Mandana Rohollahzadeh; Abedalaziz, Nabeel; Saad, Mohd Rashid Mohd
Lack of valid means of measuring explicit and implicit knowledge in acquisition of second language is a concern issue in investigations of explicit and implicit learning. This paper endeavors to validate the use of four tests (i.e., Untimed Judgment Grammatical Test, UJGT; Test of Metalinguistic Knowledge, TMK; Elicited Oral Imitation Test, EOIT;…
SLA researchers agree that explicit knowledge and learning play an important role in adult L2 development. In the field of cognitive linguistics, it has been proposed that implicit and explicit knowledge differ in terms of their internal category structure and the processing mechanisms that operate on their representation in the human mind. It has…
Malcolmson, Kelly A.; Sinclair, Lisa
Implicit and explicit stereotypes toward the title Ms. were examined. Participants read a short description of a target person whose title of address varied (Ms., Mrs., Miss, Mr.). They then rated the person on agentic and communal traits and completed an Implicit Association Test. Replicating earlier research (Dion, 1987), at an explicit level,…
Reber, Paul J.; Paller, Ken A.
Humans are capable of rapidly extracting regularities from environmental input, a process known as statistical learning. This type of learning typically occurs automatically, through passive exposure to environmental input. The presumed function of statistical learning is to optimize processing, allowing the brain to more accurately predict and prepare for incoming input. In this study, we ask whether the function of statistical learning may be enhanced through supplementary explicit training, in which underlying regularities are explicitly taught rather than simply abstracted through exposure. Learners were randomly assigned either to an explicit group or an implicit group. All learners were exposed to a continuous stream of repeating nonsense words. Prior to this implicit training, learners in the explicit group received supplementary explicit training on the nonsense words. Statistical learning was assessed through a speeded reaction-time (RT) task, which measured the extent to which learners used acquired statistical knowledge to optimize online processing. Both RTs and brain potentials revealed significant differences in online processing as a function of training condition. RTs showed a crossover interaction; responses in the explicit group were faster to predictable targets and marginally slower to less predictable targets relative to responses in the implicit group. P300 potentials to predictable targets were larger in the explicit group than in the implicit group, suggesting greater recruitment of controlled, effortful processes. Taken together, these results suggest that information abstracted through passive exposure during statistical learning may be processed more automatically and with less effort than information that is acquired explicitly. PMID:26472644
Straw, Fiona; Porter, Charlotte
Sexual health encompasses 'sexual development and reproductive health, as well as the ability to develop and maintain meaningful interpersonal relationships; appreciate one's own body; interact with both genders in respectful and appropriate ways; express affection, love and intimacy in ways consistent with one's own values'. The 2008 WHO Consensus Statement additionally noted that 'responsible adolescent intimate relationships' should be 'consensual, non-exploitative, honest, pleasurable and protected against unintended pregnancy and STDs if any type of intercourse occurs'. Young people (YP) must, therefore, be able to access sexual health information and services that meet their needs. For most YP, interest in sexual activity begins with puberty, and this is associated with increasingly sexualised behaviour, including exploration of themselves and others. Most YP find this a confusing time, and so it is important that health professionals are able to offer advice regarding the wide range of sexual health issues, including sexuality, choice of partner, contraception, risk and management of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a confident and approachable manner. YP have never had so much choice or information available to them, and this can be confusing for them. There is good evidence that YP who get information from their parents are likely to initiate sexual activity later than their peers who access information from their friends. However, there is also evidence that some YP would prefer to get sexual health information from health professionals. It is therefore imperative that all health professionals who see YP have an awareness of sexual health issues, and know where to signpost YP should they need more specialist sexual health advice and/or treatment. Where appropriate, one-to-one sexual health advice should be provided to YP on how to prevent and get tested for STIs, and how to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Advice should also be given on all methods
The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice.
Gray, Peter B
The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory.
Kieren, Dianne; Cumming, Ceinwen E.; Cumming, David C.
The discouraging results of early efforts to educate the public about sexually transmitted diseases indicated that the goals of STD preventive action must be longer term and must change attitudes and behaviour as well as educate. They must also avoid an ostrich mentality about the sexual involvement of young people. This article examines more recent approaches to teaching about sexuality in general and STD prevention in particular. PMID:21221351
Alvarez-Díaz, Jorge Alberto
A monographic type, bibliographic and hemerographic study on the sexuality in couples with fertility problems is presented. The study is based on the Rubio Aurioles' model of human sexuality, and the four holones (reproductivity, eroticism, affective bonds, gender) in couples with fertility problems are described. A review of clinical studies on the prevailing sexuality in this kind of couples and some theoretical reflections are also presented.
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Everett, Bethany G
The terms MSM (men who have sex with men) and WSW (women who have sex with women) have been used with increasing frequency in the public health literature to examine sexual orientation disparities in sexual health. These categories, however, do not allow researchers to examine potential differences in sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk by sexual orientation identity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigated the relationship between self-reported STIs and both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. Additionally, this study examined the mediating role of victimization and STI risk behaviors on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported STIs. STI risk was found to be elevated among heterosexual-WSW and bisexual women, whether they reported same-sex partners or not, whereas gay-identified WSW were less likely to report an STI compared to heterosexual women with opposite sex relationships only. Among males, heterosexual-identified MSM did not have a greater likelihood of reporting an STI diagnosis; rather, STI risk was concentrated among gay and bisexual identified men who reported both male and female sexual partners. STI risk behaviors mediated the STI disparities among both males and females, and victimization partially mediated STI disparities among female participants. These results suggest that relying solely on behavior-based categories, such as MSM and WSW, may mischaracterize STI disparities by sexual orientation.
Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.
Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) has been linked to a wide variety of adverse psychological and behavioral outcomes. This paper describes girls' sexual development in the inner city based on qualitative material from a long-term ethnographic (observational) study. For many inner-city girls, early and then continued experiences of being compelled to have…
Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Ziaei, Saeideh; Montazeri, Ali; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat
Background This study aimed to assess sexual functioning among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to ascertain factors re- lated to sexual functioning in 300 PCOS patients attending to the private practice centers in Kashan, Isfahan Province, Iran, from May to October 2012. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used to measure sexual functioning. Moreover, the socio-demo-graphic details and clinical information of PCOS including obesity, hirsutism, acne, mestrual cycle disturbances, infertility and endocrine profile were recorded for each patient. Results Overall the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) was 16.6%. In particular patients indicated poorer sexual functioning for the desire (48.3%) and the arousal (44.7%) subscales. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested patients with lower educational level (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.46-5.92) and irregular menstrual status (OR: 4.61; 95% CI: 1.93-11) were more likely to report sexual dysfunction. Conclusion The findings suggest that desire and arousal were the most prevalent sexual disorders reported in this patient population. In addition, findings suggested that women with limited or no formal education and a history of menstrual irregularities were the most likely to report female sexual dysfunction. Further investigations are needed to examine female sexual functioning among women with PCOS, to educate their health care providers, and to develop therapeutic interventions. PMID:25379156
Beard, Courtney; Amir, Nader
Cognitive models suggest that attention processes maintain sexual dysfunction. However, few published studies have examined attention bias, and even fewer have studied female participants with sexual dysfunction. Using the Female Sexual Function Index, the authors classified undergraduates as experiencing sexual dysfunction (n = 28) or not (n = 28). The authors assessed whether participants showed attention bias for sexual words using a modified dot-probe task. As expected, female participants with sexual dysfunction showed an attention bias to sexual words, whereas control participants did not. The authors discuss implications for models of sexual dysfunction and clinical intervention.
Sexuality education and preventative sexual abuse education are often taught as separate subjects in secondary schools. This paper extends the argument against this separation by highlighting flaws in the logic that manifests this separation. Diffracting critical sexuality education theory with the monist logic of new materialism, I rethink…
Hughes, Jennifer L.
This paper discusses the use of Web site presentations in human sexuality courses. Web site presentations are a good way to incorporate additional information about human sexuality into a course, and they provide a way to learn to critique human sexuality material on the Internet. In addition, they help students to practice presentation skills. A…
Tharoor, Hema; Kaliappan, Anandhalakshmi; Gopal, Subhashini
Background: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is not commonly reported by persons with schizophrenia unless an enquiry is made by a doctor or staff during routine clinical visits. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine reporting of drug-induced sexual side-effects and the attitude of the treating team in clarifying or detecting this issue. Results: A vast majority of professionals (73.2%) did not enquire about SDs in routine clinical setting and admitted that they lack expertise based on the Attitude Survey Questionnaire. More than one-third of the patients (35.3%) attributed sexual side-effects to medications. Many patients (91.7%) reported good to fair tolerance to sexual side-effects according to the Psychotropic Related Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire. Conclusion: The treating team plays a crucial role. Sexual side-effects are often under-reported and need to be addressed by the treating physician. PMID:25657463
Karan, Vivek; Harsha, S.; Keshava, B. S.; Pradeep, R.; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Andrade, Chittaranjan
Background: Sexual functioning and variables that influence sexual functioning have not been studied in Indian women with epilepsy. Materials and Methods: In a pilot study, female (age, 18–45 years) outpatients with epilepsy who were in a stable sexual relationship for at least 1-year were screened using the mini international neuropsychiatric interview. Those without anxiety or depressive disorders (n = 60) were studied using the female sexual function index (FSFI; higher scores indicate better functioning). Findings were compared with age- and sex- matched sample of healthy control women drawn from the same sociodemographic population. Results: Women with epilepsy had significantly poorer sexual functioning on all FSFI subscales (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain), as well as on the total scale scores, and >70% of these women were rated as dysfunctional on individual FSFI subscales and on the total scale. In multivariate analysis, use of clobazam and phenobarbitone, and longer time after the last seizure were each associated with significantly higher FSFI scores; and longer duration of epilepsy was associated with significantly lower FSFI scores. Conclusion: There is a substantial impairment of sexual functioning in women with epilepsy. This study demonstrates the need for increased awareness of the problem, better case identification, and improved seizure control. PMID:26600586
The basic principles of those behaviourist approaches are: - Treatment of the couple, no matter which partner is apparently "responsible" for the sexual problem, and mutual involvement of both partners. - Sexual information and education regarding the cycle of sexual response, anatomy, biology, and sexual techniques. - Changing negative attitudes vis-à-vis sexuality. - Elimination of sexual anxieties. - Improvement of verbal and corporal communication within the couple. - Learning to know oneself and others better--Initiation to psychological attention and observation.
Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L
The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.
Martineau, R.L.; Prime, M.B.; Anderson, C.A.; Smith, F.W.
A viscoplastic constitutive model was formulated to model the high strain-rate expansion of thin cylindrical shells subjected to internal explosive detonations. This model provides insight into the development of plastic instabilities, which occur on the surface of the shells prior to failure. The effects of shock heating and damage in the form of microvoid nucleation, growth, and coalescence were incorporated using the Johnson-Cook strength model with the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state and a modified Gurson yield surface. This model was implemented into ABAQUS/Explicit as a user material subroutine. A cylindrical copper shell was modeled using both axisymmetric and plane strain elements. The high explosive material inside of the cylinder was simulated using the high explosive burn model in ABAQUS/Explicit. Two experiments were conducted involving explosive-filled, copper cylinders and good agreement was obtained between the numerical results and experimental data.
Both, Stephanie; Spiering, Mark; Everaerd, Walter; Laan, Ellen
Sexual excitement can be seen as an action disposition. In this study sexual arousal was expected to generate sexual action and to increase interest and responsiveness to sexual stimuli. In two experiments, male and female participants were exposed to a neutral or a sexual film. We measured genital and subjective responses to the film, and sexual behavior following the laboratory visit. In Experiment 2, film exposure was followed by a task in which participants rated the sexual arousability of neutral and sexual pictures. Rating time of the sexual pictures served as an index for sexual interest. Responsiveness to the sexual pictures was measured by modulation of spinal tendinous (T) reflexes. Sexual activity, but not sexual desire, was higher for participants in the sexual film condition than for participants in the neutral condition. Sexual interest and responsiveness to still pictures were not higher for participants in the sexual film condition than for those in the neutral film condition. In addition, men who saw the neutral film showed a greater responsiveness to still pictures than men who saw the sexual film. The results support the view of sexual arousal as an emotional state generating action tendencies and actual sexual behavior.
Brawner, Bridgette M; Alexander, Kamila A; Fannin, Ehriel F; Baker, Jillian L; Davis, Zupenda M
"Risky sexual behavior" accounts for the majority of new HIV infections regardless of gender, age, geographic location, or ethnicity. The phrase, however, refers to a relatively nebulous concept that hampers development of effective sexual health communication strategies. The purpose of this paper was to propose development of a shared conceptual understanding of "risky sexual behavior." We reviewed multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS literature to identify definitions of risky sexual behavior. Both the linguistic components and the social mechanisms that contribute to the concept of risky sexual behaviors were noted. Risky sexual behavior was often defined in a subjective manner in the literature, even in the scientific research. We urge a paradigm shift to focus on explicit behaviors and the social context of those behaviors in determining HIV risk. We also propose a new definition that reduces individual biases and promotes a broader discussion of the degree of sexual risk across a diversity of behavioral contexts. Sexual health professionals can strengthen practice and research initiatives by operating from a concise working definition of risky sexual behavior that is broadly transferable and expands beyond a traditional focus on identity-based groups.
Armour, B S; Pitts, M M; Maclean, R; Cangialose, C; Kishel, M; Imai, H; Etchason, J
Managed care organizations use explicit financial incentives to influence physicians' use of resources. This has contributed to concerns regarding conflicts of interest for physicians and adverse effects on the quality of patient care. In light of recent publicized legislative and legal battles about this issue, we reviewed the literature and analyzed studies that examine the effect of these explicit financial incentives on the behavior of physicians. The method used to undertake the literature review followed the approach set forth in the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. Our literature review revealed a paucity of data on the effect of explicit financial incentives. Based on this limited evidence, explicit incentives that place individual physicians at financial risk appear to be effective in reducing physician resource use. However, the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of bonus payments on physician resource use is mixed. Similarly, our review revealed mixed effects of the influence of explicit financial incentives on the quality of patient care. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior is complicated by a lack of understanding of the incentive structure by the managed care organization and the physician. The lack of a universally acceptable definition of quality renders it important that future researchers identify the term explicitly.
Syme, Maggie L.; Cohn, Tracy J.
Objectives Stigma related to later life sexuality could produce detrimental effects for older adults, through individual concerns and limited sexual healthcare for older adults. Identifying groups at risk for aging sexual stigma will help to focus interventions to reduce it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional trends in aging sexual stigma attitudes by age group, generational status, and gender. Method An online survey was administered to a national sample of adults via a crowdsourcing tool, in order to examine aging sexual stigma across age groups, generational status, and gender (N=962; 47.0% male, 52.5% female, and .5% other; mean age = 45 yrs.). An aging sexual stigma index was formulated from the attitudinal items of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. Results This sample reported moderately permissive attitudes toward aging sexuality, indicating a low level of aging sexual stigma. Though descriptive data showed trends of stigma attitudes increasing with age and later generations, there were no significant differences between age groups or generations in terms of aging sexual stigma beliefs. Men, regardless of age and/or generation, were found to espouse significantly higher stigmatic beliefs than women or those reporting “other” gender. Conclusions Aging sexual stigma beliefs may not be prevalent among the general population as cohorts become more sexually liberal over time, though men appear more susceptible to these beliefs. However, in order to more comprehensively assess aging sexual stigma, future research may benefit from measuring explicit and implicit aging sexual stigma beliefs. PMID:25703148
Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Hetmaniuk, Ulrich L.
An a posteriori error estimator is developed for the eigenvalue analysis of three-dimensional heterogeneous elastic structures. It constitutes an extension of a well-known explicit estimator to heterogeneous structures. We prove that our estimates are independent of the variations in material properties and independent of the polynomial degree of finite elements. Finally, we study numerically the effectivity of this estimator on several model problems.
Ollen, Elizabeth W; Ameral, Victoria E; Palm Reed, Kathleen; Hines, Denise A
While the majority of research on dating violence (DV) and sexual assault (SA) in college students has focused on heterosexual students, victimization rates among sexual minority students are the same or higher than that of their heterosexual counterparts. The current study sought to explore sexual minority college students' perceptions of the prevalence of DV and SA, risk and protective factors, and barriers to seeking help, using focus groups. A total of 14 sexual minority students ranging in age from 18 to 24 participated across 2 focus groups. Findings suggest the majority of the students perceived DV and SA among sexual minority individuals to be less common compared to their heterosexual counterparts and to be less common on their campus compared to other colleges and universities. Students' reflections about risk and protective factors overlapped with those previously established among heterosexuals as well as factors unique to the sexual minority community. Students identified societal, community, and psychological-level barriers related to help-seeking. We provide recommendations for practice based on the current findings (e.g., colleges could expand current educational material about DV and SA to include more recognition of these issues for sexual minority students). (PsycINFO Database Record
Duldt, Bonnie W.
Sexual harassment in the workplace, specifically in nursing, is discussed. The impact of sexual harassment, characteristics of those commonly involved, the need for changing attitudes of men and women in the workplace, the factor of power in relationships, and ways to avoid legal suits are all examined. (CT)
A central project of feminism has been raising awareness of the role cultural formations of sexuality play in women's inequality (Ritzenhoff and Hermes). Feminists who regularly include discussions of sexuality in their teaching are familiar with the pedagogical challenges of the subject as well as its importance. This article is intended for…
Moje, Elizabeth Birr; MuQaribu, Mudhillun
Calls for more attention to literacy teaching practices and teacher education that acknowledge sexual identity and orientation as key aspects of youth identity development. Discusses experience-based pedagogy and classroom interactions around sexual identities and texts. Notes the need for research and scholarship in the field of literacy and…
Giugliano, John R.
In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some…
Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)
McCaughtry, Nate; Dillon, Suzanna; Jones, Elizabeth; Smigell, Sara
American schools, especially their physical education and sport programs, provide some of the most hostile social geographies in all of society for gay youth. With the aim of transforming schools toward more democratic and sexuality sensitive institutions, this paper reviews the literature on sexuality and education. In the review, three themes,…
Female sexual problems are common, frequently overlooked and have a significant impact on the lives of women. Research in the last decade has brought to the understanding and recognition of a number of standpoints, mainly the broad range of normative function. In 2003, the American Urological Association Foundation convened an international committee of experts in the field of women's sexuality, to reconsider the existing definitions of women's sexual dysfunction. Based on the circular response cycle developed by Basson, the group emphasized motivations that might move a woman from being sexually "neutral" to making a decision to be sexual with her partner, as a normative alternative to the need for spontaneous sexual desire as the trigger for sexual behavior. Etiology may stem from medical as well as psychological factors, thus assessment must include a complete evaluation. Treatment includes psycho-education, improvement of interpersonal communication, cognitive behavioral treatment and elucidation and treatment of medical problems, if necessary. Several pharmacological treatments are under investigation, with modest results and uncertainties about their long term safety. This review presents the female sexual response as it is understood today and the current diagnostic and therapeutic understandings and directions.
Kaplan, Helen S.
Low-libido disorders are highly prevalent, may be extremely distressful to patients and their partners, and influence the course and prognosis of therapy. This paper focuses on this important aspect of human sexuality. Some clinical features of hypoactive sexual desire are described, and some hypotheses about etiology and prognosis are presented.…
Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.
An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…
... 866-284-4107 (TDD: 800-877-8339) American Sexual Health Association Phone Number: 800-227-8922 Planned Parenthood ... 866-284-4107 (TDD: 800-877-8339) American Sexual Health Association Phone Number: 800-227-8922 Planned Parenthood ...
In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...
In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…
This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions.
Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…
Linn, Annemiek J.; Vandeberg, Lisa; Wennekers, Annemarie M.; Vervloet, Marcia; van Dijk, Liset; van den Bemt, Bart J. F.
Medication non-adherence is a major public health problem that has been termed an ‘invisible epidemic.’ Non-adherence is not only associated with negative clinical consequences but can also result in substantial healthcare costs. Up to now, effective adherence interventions are scarce and a more comprehensive model of adherence determinants is required to target the determinants for not taking the medication as prescribed. Current approaches only included explicit attitudes such as self-reported evaluations of medication as determinants, neglecting the role of associative processes that shape implicit attitudes. Implicit processes can predict daily behavior more accurately than explicit attitudes. Our aim is to assess explicit and implicit attitudes toward medication and explore the relation with beliefs, adherence and clinical (laboratory) outcomes in chronically ill patients. Fifty two Rheumatic Arthritis (RA) patients’ attitudes toward Methotrexate (MTX) were explicitly (self-reported) and implicitly (Single-Category Implicit Association Test) assessed and related to the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire, the Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology and laboratory parameters [Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein (CRP)]. Results show that explicit attitudes were positive and health-related. Implicit attitudes were, however, negative and sickness-related. Half of the patients displayed explicitly positive but implicitly negative attitudes. Explicit attitudes were positively related to ESR. A positive relationship between implicit attitudes and disease duration was observed. In this study, we have obtained evidence suggesting that the measurement of implicit attitudes and associations provides different information than explicit, self-reported attitudes toward medication. Since patients’ implicit attitudes deviated from explicit attitudes, we can conclude that the relationship between implicit attitudes and medication adherence is
Logan, Laura S
The literature on friendship and social networks finds that individuals form social ties with people who are like them--a much studied concept called homophily. However, few studies have explicitly examined sexual identity as a point of homophily. Scholars from multiple disciplines have long argued that sexuality influences the organization of our social worlds, yet most studies of friendship and social networks under-examine or overlook the influence of sexual identity. This study addresses that gap by looking at status homophily among lesbian social ties to examine the influence of sexual identity, as well as gender, race, class, and family, on their personal networks. Using survey data from 544 U.S. lesbian respondents, the findings make visible some of the factors and forces that shape social ties for lesbians. The results point to the importance of sexuality as an organizing element of social life, and suggest that studies that examine social networks or friendships more often make sexual identity, gender, and intersecting social locations a central focus.
Lin, Jung-Hsin; Baker, Nathan A; McCammon, J Andrew
Conformations of a zwitterionic bilayer were sampled from a molecular dynamics simulation and their electrostatic properties analyzed by solution of the Poisson equation. These traditionally implicit electrostatic calculations were performed in the presence of varying amounts of explicit solvent to assess the magnitude of error introduced by a uniform dielectric description of water surrounding the bilayer. It was observed that membrane dipole potential calculations in the presence of explicit water were significantly different than wholly implicit solvent calculations with the calculated dipole potential converging to a reasonable value when four or more hydration layers were included explicitly. PMID:12202363
Krishna, K P
This article offers 12 suggestions for improving the protection of sexually victimized children and discusses the extent, form, causes, and consequences of sexual victimization of female children in India. Female victimization includes child marriage, polygamy, rape, incest, and kidnapping for immoral purposes. A female child is victimized from birth to maturity. Girls are born into a secondary status and married off. If her dowry is meager, a girl is subjected to ridicule, criticism, or denigration. The number of prosecuted sex offenses against girls and the number of reported sex offenses increased during 1980-89. However, most sex offenses are unreported. About 63% of rape cases pertain to girls 16-30 years old. Only 18% of rape cases occur among women over age 30. During 1971-89, kidnapping increased by over 79%. Most kidnapping involves girls 3-16 years old and is connected with prostitution, begging, sexual gratification, unemployment, extreme poverty, broken homes, and antisocial surroundings. One study in 1991 found that 48% of adolescent school girls had been molested. Another study in 1985 found that 54.29% of rape victims were 7-16 years old, and 3.27% were under 7 years old. 53.88% were unmarried, and 45.32% were married. Most of the victims were unemployed, dependents, or students. Most rapists are known by the victims. The rapist and the victims tend to come from middle or lower socioeconomic classes. Brother-sister incest is about 5 times more common than father-daughter incest. The literature suggests that children are sexually abused for pleasure or material gain. A current city study found that 15% of prostitutes were under 15 years old; 24.5% were 16-18 years old. Girls enter prostitution through a temple devdasi life, abduction, regular employment, and initiation by parents and brothel keepers. Marriage victimizes girls who marry at an early age or with a poor dowry.
Alempijević, Djordje; Savić, Slobodan; Stojanović, Jovan; Spasić, Andjelka
In line with the fact that there is little information regarding drug facilitated sexual assault in national medical literature, the authors aimed to prepare a review of the phenomenon based on available international references. Therefore we offered a definition of the concept of sexual assault, and rape in particular. Consent and ability for valid consent for sexual intercourse were defined as well. A review contains discussion about the basic elements of a concept of drug-facilitated sexual assault. There is also available information in regard to pharmacology of common data rape drugs, i.e. flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and ketamine. We indicate the utmost importance of prompt collecting of biological samples for toxicological screening in patients who are suspected victims of drug facilitated sexual assault.
Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 1997
These two issues contain reviews of legal/legislative issues, research and treatment issues, book and video materials, and on-line resources and websites relating to family violence and sexual assault. The first issue, contains "Empowering African American Children To Become Resilient: Early Success in Overcoming Violent Families and Communities…
Colarossi, Lisa G.; Dean, Randa; Balakumar, Kavitha; Stevens, Alexandra
We present an organizational capacity building program that is a systemic approach to training professionals, creating organizational policies and practices, and enhancing the physical environment with materials about sexual and reproductive health. The evaluation of four different organizations showed increases over six months in: staff reports…
Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John
Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships.
Dir, Allyson L; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Steiner, Jennifer L; Cyders, Melissa A
Sexting, or the exchange of sexually explicit material via Internet social-networking site or mobile phone, is an increasingly prevalent behavior. The study sought to (1) identify expectancies regarding sexting behaviors, (2) examine how demographics (i.e., gender, sexual identity, relationship status) might be differentially related to sexting expectancies and behaviors, and (3) examine whether these concurrent relationships are consistent with a theoretical causal model in which sexting expectancies influence sexting behaviors. The sample consisted of 278 undergraduate students (mean age=21.0 years, SD=4.56; 53.8% female; 76.3% caucasian). Factor analyses supported the validity and reliability of the Sextpectancies Measure (α=0.85-0.93 across subscales) and indicated two expectancy domains each for both sending and receiving sexts: positive expectancies (sexual-related and affect-related) and negative expectancies. Males reported stronger positive expectancies (F=4.64, p=0.03) while females reported stronger negative expectancies (F=6.11, p=0.01) about receiving sexts. There were also differences across relationship status regarding negative expectancies (F=2.25, p=0.05 for sending; F=4.24, p=0.002 for receiving). There were also significant effects of positive (F=45.98, p<0.001 for sending, F=22.42, p<0.001 for receiving) and negative expectancies (F=36.65, p=0.02 sending, F=14.41, p<0.001 receiving) on sexting behaviors (η(2) from 0.04-0.13). College students reported both positive and negative sextpectancies, although sextpectancies and sexting varied significantly across gender, race, sexual identity, and relationship status. Concurrent relationships were consistent with the causal model of sextpectancies influencing sexting behaviors, and this study serves as the first test of this model, which could inform future prevention strategies to mitigate sexting risks.
Morgan, Elizabeth M.
Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…
Goettsch, Stephen L.
Reviews eight current human sexuality textbooks for both their general organization and substantive content. Addresses specifically the content areas of sexual response cycle; sexual disfunction; acquaintance rape; AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases; extramarital sex; abortion; homosexuality; and pornography. Identifies as a recurring fault…
Rothbaum, Fred; Grauer, Avery; Rubin, David J.
Explores sexually oriented behaviors of children ages 3 to 5 to ascertain the range of children's sexually oriented behaviors, and reviews related studies to help parents and teachers address them. Finds that children's normal sexual behaviors comprise a broad spectrum. Provides a model for viewing children's sexuality and recommendations for…
Nosek, Brian A.
Automatic and controlled modes of evaluation sometimes provide conflicting reports of the quality of social objects. This paper presents evidence for four moderators of the relationship between automatic (implicit) and controlled (explicit) evaluations. Implicit and explicit preferences were measured for a variety of object pairs using a large sample. The average correlation was r = .36, and 52 of the 57 object pairs showed a significant positive correlation. Results of multilevel modeling analyses suggested that: (a) implicit and explicit preferences are related, (b) the relationship varies as a function of the objects assessed, and (c) at least four variables moderate the relationship – self-presentation, evaluative strength, dimensionality, and distinctiveness. The variables moderated implicit-explicit correspondence across individuals and accounted for much of the observed variation across content domains. The resulting model of the relationship between automatic and controlled evaluative processes is grounded in personal experience with the targets of evaluation. PMID:16316292
Gyurak, Anett; Gross, James J.; Etkin, Amit
It is widely acknowledged that emotions can be regulated in an astonishing variety of ways. Most research to date has focused on explicit (effortful) forms of emotion regulation. However, there is growing research interest in implicit (automatic) forms of emotion regulation. To organize emerging findings, we present a dual-process framework that integrates explicit and implicit forms of emotion regulation, and argue that both forms of regulation are necessary for well-being. In the first section of this review, we provide a broad overview of the construct of emotion regulation, with an emphasis on explicit and implicit processes. In the second section, we focus on explicit emotion regulation, considering both neural mechanisms that are associated with these processes and their experiential and physiological consequences. In the third section, we turn to several forms of implicit emotion regulation, and integrate the burgeoning literature in this area. We conclude by outlining open questions and areas for future research. PMID:21432682
Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K
Implicit learning is a process of acquiring knowledge that occurs without conscious awareness of learning, whereas explicit learning involves the use of overt strategies. To date, research related to implicit learning following stroke has been largely restricted to the motor domain and has rarely addressed implications for language. The present study investigated implicit and explicit learning of an auditory word sequence in 10 individuals with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia and 18 healthy age-matched participants using an adaptation of the Serial Reaction Time task. Individuals with aphasia showed significant learning under implicit, but not explicit, conditions, whereas age-matched participants learned under both conditions. These results suggest significant implicit learning ability in agrammatic aphasia. Furthermore, results of an auditory sentence span task indicated working memory deficits in individuals with agrammatic aphasia, which are discussed in relation to explicit and implicit learning processes.
Van Leer, B.
First- and second-order explicit difference schemes are derived for a three-dimensional hyperbolic system of conservation laws, without recourse to dimensional factorization. All schemes are upwind biased and optimally stable.
First and second order explicit difference schemes are derived for a three dimensional hyperbolic system of conservation laws, without recourse to dimensional factorization. All schemes are upwind (backward) biased and optimally stable.
Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer
Controversies exist about the diagnostic validity of sexual sadism and its relation to sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders. The aim of this study was to investigate which diagnostic, developmental, and criminal characteristics differentiate sexual sadistic from non-sadistic sexual homicide perpetrators. Psychiatric court reports on 166 men who had committed a sexual homicide were evaluated regarding psychiatric, sexual and criminal history. Sixty-one offenders (36.7%) with sexual sadism (SeSd) were compared with 105 (63.3%) offenders without this diagnosis (NSeSd). Besides the sexual sadistic symptoms, there were seven factors that discriminated best between the two groups (sexual masochism, sadistic personality disorder, isolation in childhood, multiple sexual homicide, previous rape, previous tendencies for similar behavior, and long duration of the homicidal act). Sexual sadism is connected with circumscribed other characteristics and has to be considered in risk assessment and treatment of sex offenders.
Farr, Rachel H; Tasker, Fiona; Goldberg, Abbie E
This article includes a systematic review and citation analysis of the literature regarding sexual minority parent families, particularly attending to what theories have been used, and how. We consider the importance of theoretical frameworks for future research and implications for policy, practice, and law related to sexual minority parent families. Our review targets 30 highly cited studies located through Google Scholar (as an interdisciplinary search engine) and published within a specific timeframe (2005-2010). We highlight the dominant theoretical models employed across disciplines studying sexual minority parent families. Although the majority of studies reviewed referred to theoretical models or perspectives, explicit theoretical grounding was frequently lacking. Instead, the empirical work reviewed appeared to have a predominantly applied focus in addressing public debates on sexual minority parent families. We provide recommendations for how theory might be more fully integrated into the social science literature on sexual minority parents and their children.
Rand, Miya K; Heuer, Herbert
Understanding the interactions of visual and proprioceptive information in tool use is important as it is the basis for learning of the tool's kinematic transformation and thus skilled performance. This study investigated how the CNS combines seen cursor positions and felt hand positions under a visuo-motor rotation paradigm. Young and older adult participants performed aiming movements on a digitizer while looking at rotated visual feedback on a monitor. After each movement, they judged either the proprioceptively sensed hand direction or the visually sensed cursor direction. We identified asymmetric mutual biases with a strong visual dominance. Furthermore, we found a number of differences between explicit and implicit judgments of hand directions. The explicit judgments had considerably larger variability than the implicit judgments. The bias toward the cursor direction for the explicit judgments was about twice as strong as for the implicit judgments. The individual biases of explicit and implicit judgments were uncorrelated. Biases of these judgments exhibited opposite sequential effects. Moreover, age-related changes were also different between these judgments. The judgment variability was decreased and the bias toward the cursor direction was increased with increasing age only for the explicit judgments. These results indicate distinct explicit and implicit neural representations of hand direction, similar to the notion of distinct visual systems.
Buster, John E
Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation.
The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 ). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems.
Sexuality is innate within all women to a greater or lesser extent, and is affected by a number of extrinsic factors that occur in the menopausal transition. Assessing hormone status is difficult as evidence exists that sex hormones may differ between ethnic groups, and that bio-assays may be insensitive at lower testosterone levels. Data are available on the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction, but results from cross-sectional studies differ from those of longitudinal studies. The original traditional models of human sexual response have been challenged, and new models have been defined which show more complex interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Definitions of sexual dysfunction have been redefined. There are a limited number of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of drugs to improve sexual function. These include sildenafil citrate, tibolone and hormone replacement therapy. Randomized controlled trials on testosterone replacement in naturally and/or surgically menopausal patients with female sexual dysfunction have been criticized for a high placebo response rate and short duration. This chapter seeks to put sexuality into perspective and to define both function and dysfunction.
Griffiths, David Andrew
What are ‘gay genes’ and are they real? This article looks at key research into these hypothesized gay genes, made possible, in part, by the Human Genome Project. I argue that the complexity of both genetics and human sexuality demands a truly critical approach: one that takes into account feminist epistemologies of science and queer approaches to the body, while putting into conversation resources from agential realism and critical realism. This approach is able to maintain the agential complexity of genetic materiality, while also critically challenging the seemingly stable relationships between sex, gender and sexuality. PMID:28058037
Griffiths, David Andrew
What are 'gay genes' and are they real? This article looks at key research into these hypothesized gay genes, made possible, in part, by the Human Genome Project. I argue that the complexity of both genetics and human sexuality demands a truly critical approach: one that takes into account feminist epistemologies of science and queer approaches to the body, while putting into conversation resources from agential realism and critical realism. This approach is able to maintain the agential complexity of genetic materiality, while also critically challenging the seemingly stable relationships between sex, gender and sexuality.
Brissette, S; Montplaisir, J; Godbout, R; Lavoisier, P
Polysomnographic recordings were obtained in 10 subjects (5 men and 5 women) for three conditions: following masturbation with orgasm, following masturbation without orgasm, and after reading neutral material. The analysis of several sleep parameters did not reveal any effect of masturbation on sleep. These results suggest that physiological changes that occur during masturbation, with or without orgasm, have no major effect on sleep organization. Other factors associated with sexual activity and potentially responsible for sleepiness after orgasm are discussed, and further strategies to study the interrelationship of sexual activity and sleep are proposed.
Mishra, Vineet V.; Nanda, Sakshi; Gandhi, Khushali; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh; Gondhali, Raveendra
BACKGROUND: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in Indian women is often overlooked due to cultural beliefs and considered as social taboos. Sexuality is an important and integral part of life. There are many causes of sexual dysfunction, but the prevalence of FSD in endometriotic patients is still underdiagnosed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study design - Cross-sectional observational study conducted at tertiary care center, from June 2015 to March 2016. Sample size - Fifty-one patients in reproductive age group (18–47 years) who were diagnosed with endometriosis on diagnostic laparoscopy were included. Methods - FSD was assessed with a detailed 19-item female sexual function index questionnaire. All six domains of sexual dysfunction, i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were studied. Exclusion - Patients with other gynecological, medical or surgical history were excluded. RESULTS: Out of 51 patients with endometriosis, 47.06% of patients had sexual dysfunction. With the increase in staging of endometriosis, sexual dysfunction prevalence is also rising. FSD was 100% in patients with severe endometriosis as compared to 33.33% in minimal endometriosis. CONCLUSION: Every individual deserves good sexual life. The sexual dysfunction associated with endometriosis should also be taken into consideration while managing these patients. PMID:28216913
Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie
Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.
This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual decision…
Incontinence is anything that inhibits the expression of sexuality. Male problems like premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunctions are forms of incontinence. The inability to retain ejaculation or maintain erection long enough to give pleasure to the partner generates feelings of shame and guilt which weaken virility. Feminine sexual dysfunctions like loss of desire, anorgasmia and vaginismus are results of excessive continence due to negative familial and religious education, moral and social values. The sexologist's task is first to find out the origins of the sexual trouble then to propose an adequate treatment.
de Molina Román, M R; Salvador Carulla, L; Foras Eroles, F
The sex behaviour of patients suffering from schizophrenia has been largely overlooked. This study is aimed at describing the pattern of sexual responses and conducts in 113 inpatients with schizophrenia (DSM-III-R). A high rate of sexual dysfunction was found in both males (62.9%) and females (50%). These rates are higher than found in other previous studies. The possible cause factors of sexual dysfunctions in this group of patients and the methodological problems related to this type of study are reviewed.
Di Nucci, Ezio
This paper argues against Appel's recent proposal-in this journal-that there is a fundamental human right to sexual pleasure, and that therefore the sexual pleasure of severely disabled people should be publicly funded-by thereby partially legalising prostitution. An alternative is proposed that does not need to pose a new positive human right; does not need public funding; does not need the legalisation of prostitution; and that would offer a better experience to the severely disabled: charitable non-profit organisations whose members would voluntarily and freely provide sexual pleasure to the severely disabled.
Fitzgerald, Louise F.; Ormerod, Alayne J.
To explore factors influencing how sexual harassment is perceived in the university setting, faculty members and graduate students were asked to rate hypothetical situations involving professors and students. Women were more likely to view less explicitly coercive situations as harassing, but the power difference between faculty and students in…
Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Treat, Teresa A.; Viken, Richard J.; McFall, Richard M.
Objective: This study evaluated the effects of sexual victimization history, rape myth acceptance, implicit attention, and recent learning on the cognitive processes underlying undergraduate women's explicit risk judgments. Method: Participants were 194 undergraduate women between 18 and 24 years of age. The sample was ethnically diverse and…
Fortenberry, J Dennis
Sexual health is an evolving paradigm that integrates a positive approach to sexuality with existing public health policy and practice for reducing the burdens of sexually transmitted infections, including those due to HIV. The sexual health paradigm rests in commitment to sexual rights, sexual knowledge, sexual choice, and sexual pleasure, as well as key elements of sexuality addressed by sexual desire, sexual arousal, and sexual function, and sexual behaviors. The sexual health paradigm offers new approaches to supporting general health and well being while reducing the burdens of sexual diseases and their consequences.
Hinchliff, Sharron; Gott, Merryn; Wylie, Kevan
Previous qualitative research on women's sexual problems has documented the ways in which they can impact psychological well-being as well as women's close interpersonal relationships. However, little attention has been paid to the ways that women with sexual problems negotiate sexual contact in the context of a relationship where sexual activity has a central role. This article draws on qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 23 heterosexual women who experienced sexual desire loss or vulvar pain. The data were analyzed within a material-discursive framework and this identified the centrality of relational and broader social factors in women's sexual negotiation. Key findings included: avoiding potentially intimate situations; engaging in intercourse when it was painful or the women had no desire to; and mentally planning and preparing themselves for sex. Other sexual activities were almost always regarded as a prelude to intercourse, yet around half of the sample had adapted their sexual repertoire to compensate for an absence of intercourse. The implications for future research and treatment in the area of women's sexual problems are discussed.
Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe
The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.
Boulton, Rebecca A; Collins, Laura A; Shuker, David M
Despite the diverse array of mating systems and life histories which characterise the parasitic Hymenoptera, sexual selection and sexual conflict in this taxon have been somewhat overlooked. For instance, parasitoid mating systems have typically been studied in terms of how mating structure affects sex allocation. In the past decade, however, some studies have sought to address sexual selection in the parasitoid wasps more explicitly and found that, despite the lack of obvious secondary sexual traits, sexual selection has the potential to shape a range of aspects of parasitoid reproductive behaviour and ecology. Moreover, various characteristics fundamental to the parasitoid way of life may provide innovative new ways to investigate different processes of sexual selection. The overall aim of this review therefore is to re-examine parasitoid biology with sexual selection in mind, for both parasitoid biologists and also researchers interested in sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems more generally. We will consider aspects of particular relevance that have already been well studied including local mating structure, sex allocation and sperm depletion. We go on to review what we already know about sexual selection in the parasitoid wasps and highlight areas which may prove fruitful for further investigation. In particular, sperm depletion and the costs of inbreeding under chromosomal sex determination provide novel opportunities for testing the role of direct and indirect benefits for the evolution of mate choice. PMID:24981603
Booker, Nancy Achieng'; Miller, Ann Neville; Ngure, Peter
Extremely popular with Kenyan youth, the entertainment-education drama Shuga was designed with specific goals of promoting condom use, single versus multiple sexual partners, and destigmatization of HIV. Almost as soon as it aired, however, it generated controversy due to its extensive sexual themes and relatively explicit portrayal of sexual issues. To determine how safer sex, antistigma messages, and overall sexual content were integrated into Shuga, we conducted a content analysis. Results indicated that condom use and HIV destigmatization messages were frequently and clearly communicated. Negative consequences for risky sexual behavior were communicated over the course of the entire series. Messages about multiple concurrent partnerships were not evident. In addition, in terms of scenes per hour of programming, Shuga had 10.3 times the amount of sexual content overall, 8.2 times the amount of sexual talk, 17.8 times the amount of sexual behavior, and 9.4 times the amount of sexual intercourse as found in previous analysis of U.S. entertainment programming. Research is needed to determine how these factors may interact to influence adolescent viewers of entertainment education dramas.
Boulton, Rebecca A; Collins, Laura A; Shuker, David M
Despite the diverse array of mating systems and life histories which characterise the parasitic Hymenoptera, sexual selection and sexual conflict in this taxon have been somewhat overlooked. For instance, parasitoid mating systems have typically been studied in terms of how mating structure affects sex allocation. In the past decade, however, some studies have sought to address sexual selection in the parasitoid wasps more explicitly and found that, despite the lack of obvious secondary sexual traits, sexual selection has the potential to shape a range of aspects of parasitoid reproductive behaviour and ecology. Moreover, various characteristics fundamental to the parasitoid way of life may provide innovative new ways to investigate different processes of sexual selection. The overall aim of this review therefore is to re-examine parasitoid biology with sexual selection in mind, for both parasitoid biologists and also researchers interested in sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems more generally. We will consider aspects of particular relevance that have already been well studied including local mating structure, sex allocation and sperm depletion. We go on to review what we already know about sexual selection in the parasitoid wasps and highlight areas which may prove fruitful for further investigation. In particular, sperm depletion and the costs of inbreeding under chromosomal sex determination provide novel opportunities for testing the role of direct and indirect benefits for the evolution of mate choice.
Harris, Allyssa L
Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is a major public health concern with potentially long-lasting consequences, including pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV/AIDS. Researchers have demonstrated that parent-adolescent sexual communication can mitigate adolescent risky sexual behaviors; the development of interventions that support this process are vital. This column examines a recent study that evaluated a parent-adolescent sexual communication intervention.
O'Donnell, Muireann; Lowe, Rob; Brotherton, Hannah; Davies, Hannah; Panou, Anna; Bennett, Paul
The study aimed to identify implicit and explicit processes involved in reporting the sexual attractiveness of photographs of the same pubescent girls labeled as either under or within the age of sexual consent in the UK, women, and men. In two studies, 53 and 70 heterosexual men (M age 25.2 and 31.0 years) rated the sexual attractiveness of photographs in each category presented via computer [seeing target photographs of girls labeled as either under- (14-15 years) or within the age of consent (16-17 years)], using a 7-point response box. Ratings in Study 1 were in response to a question asking participants to rate how sexually attractive the person in each photograph was. In Study 2, participants rated how sexually attractive they personally found the target. Response times were also recorded. Several findings were replicated in both studies (although the strength of findings differed). Mean ratings of the sexual attractiveness of the underage girls were lower than those of overage girls and women. In addition, correlations revealed significantly longer responding times when "underage" girls (and men) were rated as more highly sexually attractive. No such relationship emerged with the same girls labeled within the age of consent or women. Overall, these data suggest that men find pubescent girls identified as being under the age of consent sexually attractive, but inhibit their willingness to report this; the greater the attraction, the greater the inhibition.
Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J.; Noar, Seth M.; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.
Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (α = .86), Condom Scripts (α = .82), Alcohol Scripts (α = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (α = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (α = .84), Marijuana Scripts (α = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (α = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men’s HIV risk. PMID:24311105
... how past experiences may be affecting your current sexuality. Glossary Depression: Feeling of sadness for periods of at least 2 weeks. Dyspareunia: Pain with intercourse. Estrogen: A female hormone produced in the ovaries. Hormones: Substances produced ...
... other mental health conditions, such as depression, extreme stress and anxiety Neglect or lie to your partner and family, harming or destroying meaningful relationships Accumulate financial debts buying pornography and sexual services Contract HIV, ...
... Budget, & Performance VA Center for Innovation (VACI) Agency Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery Act Resources Business ... Depression Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Schizophrenia Substance Use Suicide Prevention I am a... Returning Veteran Veteran in ...
... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... for a long period of time. Thoughts about suicide are also common. Studies estimate that one in ...
Simons, Jeffrey; Carey, Michael P.
Ten years of research that has provided data regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions is reviewed. A thorough review of the literature identified 52 studies that have been published in the 10 years since an earlier review by Spector and Carey (1990). Community samples indicate a current prevalence of 0 - 3% for male orgasmic disorder, 0 - 5% for erectile disorder, and 0 - 3% for male hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Pooling current and 1-year figures provides community prevalence estimates of 7 - 10% for female orgasmic disorder and 4 - 5% for premature ejaculation. Stable community estimates of the current prevalence for the other sexual dysfunctions remain unavailable. Prevalence estimates obtained from primary care and sexuality clinic samples are characteristically higher. Although a relatively large number of studies have been conducted since Spector and Carey’s (1990) review, the lack of methodological rigor of many studies limits the confidence that can be placed in these findings. PMID:11329727
Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)
... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Zika and Sexual Transmission Language: English EspaÃ±ol PortuguÃªs ... 1 page] Portuguese [PDF - 1 page] Basics of Zika Virus and Sex Transmission Zika can be passed ...
Sulak, Patricia J
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) constitute a major health burden in the United States, causing pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, chronic pelvic pain, genital lesions, genital neoplasms, adverse pregnancy outcomes, immune system dysfunction, liver disease, and even death. STDs disproportionately affect adolescents and young adults. Of the estimated 15 million STDs that occur annually each year in the United States, 4 million are among adolescents and 6 million among young adults. The current epidemic is complicated by the high asymptomatic carrier state associated with most STDs and the inadequate protection of condoms in preventing transmission. Sexually active individuals, particularly adolescents, must be educated on the ramifications of early onset of sexual activity and the health consequences of multiple sexual partners.
... of becoming involved with others. The anger and stress that victims feel may lead to eating disorders and depression. Some even think about or attempt suicide. Sexual violence is also linked to negative health ...
Bitzer, Johannes; Alder, Judith
Sexual medicine has become an integrated part of womens' health care. Physicians need therefore communication skills to talk about sexuality with their female patients and a knowledge about models of human sexuality, about classification systems, and diagnostic and therapeutic concepts and processes. The diagnostic reaches from a clear description of the sexual problem to an exploration of the conditioning factors. These can be differentiated into biological factors, intraindividual and interpersonal psychological factors and sociocultural factors. These factors can become effective as predisposing, precipitating and maintaining factors. The therapeutic process is based on several steps. The basic step consists in psychoeducation and basic counselling. Therapy usually includes the combination of pharmacologic intervention (hormones, PDE5) and specific psychotherapeutic techniques (sensate focus, cognitive techniques, couple counselling).
... Longer: Men Recovering from Incest and Other Sexual Child Abuse by Mike Lew, Foreword by Ellen Bass. (1990). ... Heroic Men: A Man's Guide to Recovering from Child Abuse by Daniel Jay Sonkin and Lenore E. A. ...
Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...
... to decision-making, cultural norms, peer pressures, relationships, social skills and opportunities. Positioning sexuality within the context of community life requires the development of personal values and adult responsibilities. An ideal curriculum will ensure that individuals with ...
... Possibly, a drop in levels of testosterone, which women produce in small amounts, after removal of the ovaries* Psychological and Emotional Causes Mental distress: stress, anxiety, depression, eating disorders, past sexual abuse, fear of unwanted pregnancy Relationship ...
It is intented to show two apparently antithetic poles: Sexuality and Death, in fact interpenetrate themselves, disguising the fear of death, or the desire to die, Eros' world. Different expressions of culture are analyzed, especially the one known as The Profane Time, the time for work, which is characterized by the submission to interdicts (prohibitions) and, on the other hand, the Time for Joy or The Sacred Time, characterized by the transgression of such prohibitions. Its relationship with the interdicts'violations in the sexual as well as in the death arena is analyzed in order to connect the human being's fear in the presence of the unrestraint, the overflow and the abandonment of the time established for work that would imply free sexuality. The latter is connected with some conclusions that could be considered useful in the field of Sexual Therapies, with a certain critical look at the mechanist settlement applied to those treatments.
Lesbian and bisexual women's sexual health is neglected in much Government policy and practice in England and Wales. This paper examines lesbian and bisexual women's negotiation of sexual health, drawing on findings from a small research project. Themes explored include invisibility and lack of information, influences on decision-making and sexual activities and experiences of services and barriers to sexual healthcare. Key issues of importance in this respect are homophobic and heterosexist social contexts. Drawing on understandings of lesbian, gay and bisexual human rights, sexual rights and sexual citizenship, it is argued that these are useful lenses through which to examine and address lesbian and bisexual women's sexual health and related inequalities.
Wallen, Kim; Rupp, Heather A
This study investigated whether women's interest in visual sexual stimuli varied with their hormonal state. Viewing times of 30 women, 15 normal cycling (NC) and 15 oral contracepting (OC), to sexually explicit photos were measured at three different times. NC women were tested during their menstrual, periovulatory, and luteal phases, and OC women were tested at equivalent temporal intervals. Subjects viewed stimuli as long as desired, thus viewing time measured subject interest. Subjective ratings of stimulus sexual attractiveness were obtained on each test. There was no overall relationship between menstrual cycle phase and viewing time. However the participant's menstrual cycle phase during first exposure to sexual stimuli predicted subsequent interest in sexual stimuli during the next two tests. NC women who first viewed stimuli during their periovulatory phase looked longer at the sexual stimuli across all sessions than did women first tested in their luteal phase. OC women first exposed to the sexual stimuli during menstruation looked longer at the stimuli across all sessions than did OC women first exposed at other test phases. Neither current test phase nor initial cycle phase influenced subjective ratings. Women had increased interest in sexual stimuli across all sessions if first exposed to sexual stimuli when endogenous estrogens were most likely highest. These data suggest that women's interest in visual sexual stimuli is modulated by hormones such that the hormonal condition at first exposure possibly determines the stimuli's emotional valence, markedly affecting subsequent interest in sexual stimuli.
Simon, Valerie A; Feiring, Candice
Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, including more sexual risk behavior and views of sexual intimacy focused on partners' needs. Sexual anxiety was associated with indicators of diminished sexuality, including few sexual partners and avoidant views of sexual intimacy. Age at abuse discovery moderated some associations, suggesting that the timing of abuse-specific reactions affects trajectories of sexual development. Findings point to the need for a developmental approach to understanding how abuse-specific sexual reactions disrupt sexual development and the need for early interventions promoting healthy sexual development.
Many older people enjoy an active sex life although they are likely to experience problems relating to poor health or lack of understanding from healthcare professionals. Health issues include male sexual dysfunction resulting from medication and conditions such as diabetes, vascular disease or prostatic surgery. Older women may experience urogenital atrophy causing dryness, itching and pain on intercourse. Psychological problems such as depression are also associated with poor sexual function.
Auer, Thomas O; Benton, Richard
The sexual behavior of Drosophila melanogaster is an outstanding paradigm to understand the molecular and neuronal basis of sophisticated animal actions. We discuss recent advances in our knowledge of the genetic hardwiring of the underlying neuronal circuitry, and how pertinent sensory cues are differentially detected and integrated in the male and female brain. We also consider how experience influences these circuits over short timescales, and the evolution of these pathways over longer timescales to endow species-specific sexual displays and responses.
Cervical infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Herpes simplex virus are some of the most common sexually transmitted infections. They are often asymptomatic, and therefore the patient is at risk of developing complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease. It is important to recognize cervicitis, investigate it appropriately, and provide early treatment. Sexual partners must also be located and offered therapy to prevent re-infection in the index patient. PMID:21248969
Dennerstein, L; Burrows, G
A search of the literature has been carried out to determined how oral contraceptives affect sexuality in women. Some studies featured a high incidence of loss of libido. This could perhaps be attributed to preparations containing progestational compounds. However, no adequate double-blind trial has confirmed this observation. Some psychological and pharmacological aspects of contraceptions are discussed. More research is needed to ascertain why women often lose their sexual interest when taking oral contraceptives.
McNulty, James K; Widman, Laura
There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs.
McNulty, James K.; Widman, Laura
There is theoretical reason to believe narcissism is associated with a number of sexual behaviors and outcomes that affect both sexual and relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, research on the association between personality and behavior demonstrates that personality traits, such as narcissism, only predict behavior in domains that activate the components of the personality system. Given that global assessments of narcissism do not capture the extent to which the components of narcissism are activated in the sexual domain, we examined the extent to which the facets of a domain-specific measure of sexual narcissism accounted for the trajectories of own and partner sexual and marital satisfaction over the first five years of 120 new marriages. Three of the four facets of sexual narcissism (sexual exploitation, sexual entitlement, and low sexual empathy) were negatively associated with both trajectories. The fourth facet (sexual skill) was positively associated with both trajectories. Notably, sexual satisfaction mediated the effect of every facet of sexual narcissism on marital satisfaction. A global assessment of narcissism was not associated with either trajectory of satisfaction. These findings highlight (1) the importance of narcissistic tendencies for sexual processes, (2) the benefits of using domain-specific measures of personality in research on sexual behavior, and (3) the importance of examining the implications of the specific facets of personality constructs. PMID:23297145
Ortigosa Corona, E; Cortéz Hernández, E; Garnica Romero, L; Martínez Hernández, A
A 50 question survey was administered to 362 junior high school students in order to determine the level of sexual education. The objectives were to determine the themes of most interest to the students, to establish the precise participation of the school in sexual education, to define quality in teachers and to find possible differences in knowledge and attitudes according to school grade and sex. As expected, age but not sex, differed according to grades. Parents participated in the sexual education in their children in 50% of the sample; the high level of education of the majority of this group of parents will permit the development of additional programs for their participation in school related programs for sexual education. Sexual attitudes among students did not differ according to school grade. The percentage of responses about sexuality and reproduction that corresponded to materials in the curriculum was low; eighth grade students showed superior knowledge about theory, ninth grade students were superior in knowledge of more practical aspects. The principal sources of sexual education in this group were parents and teachers, 81% of the students reported having received some sexual education in the school, 51.4% as part of natural sciences course material and 12% as part of the eight grade course in social and human relations. We suggest a strategy of presenting progressively more complex materials of sexual education by grade in order to influence not only sexual attitudes but preventive sexual practices as well.
Colson, M-H; Lechevallier, E; Rambeaud, J-J; Alimi, J-C; Faix, A; Gravis, G; Hannoun-Levi, J-M; Quintens, H; Rébillard, X; Droupy, S
All treatments of prostate cancer have a negative effect on both sexuality and male fertility. There is a specific profile of changes in the fields of quality of life, sexual, urinary, bowel and vitality according to the treatment modalities chosen. Maintain a satisfying sex is the main concern of a majority of men facing prostate cancer and its treatment. It is essential to assess the couple's sexuality before diagnosis of prostate cancer in order to deliver complete information and to consider early and appropriate treatment options at the request of the couple. Forms of sexuality sexual preference settings stored (orgasm) may, when the erection is not yet recovered, be an alternative to the couple to maintain intimacy and complicity. In all cases, a specific management and networking will in many cases to find a satisfactory sexuality. Consequences of the treatment on male fertility should be part of the information of patients with prostate cancer and their partners. The choice of treatment must take into account the desire of paternity of the couple. A semen analysis with sperm cryopreservation before any therapy should be routinely offered in men with prostate cancer, particularly among men under 55, with a partner under 43 years old or without children. If the desire for parenthood among couples, sperm cryopreservation before treatment and medical assisted reproduction are recommended.
Grüneis, Andreas; Hirata, So; Ohnishi, Yu-ya; Ten-no, Seiichiro
The explicitly correlated approach is one of the most important breakthroughs in ab initio electronic structure theory, providing arguably the most compact, accurate, and efficient ansatz for describing the correlated motion of electrons. Since Hylleraas first used an explicitly correlated wave function for the He atom in 1929, numerous attempts have been made to tackle the significant challenges involved in constructing practical explicitly correlated methods that are applicable to larger systems. These include identifying suitable mathematical forms of a correlated wave function and an efficient evaluation of many-electron integrals. R12 theory, which employs the resolution of the identity approximation, emerged in 1985, followed by the introduction of novel correlation factors and wave function ansätze, leading to the establishment of F12 theory in the 2000s. Rapid progress in recent years has significantly extended the application range of explicitly correlated theory, offering the potential of an accurate wave-function treatment of complex systems such as photosystems and semiconductors. This perspective surveys explicitly correlated electronic structure theory, with an emphasis on recent stochastic and deterministic approaches that hold significant promise for applications to large and complex systems including solids.
Under the premise that vocabulary learning in a Spanish as a second language in-class environment may be affected by the instructional approach adopted by the instructors or the materials followed, this study explores the influence of rather distant teaching styles, such as implicit and explicit approaches, on the learning outcome of Spanish…
Mourad, Hashem M; Bronkhorst, Curt A; Addessio, Francis L
An explicit finite element formulation, used to study the behavior and failure mechanisms of metallic materials under high strain rate loading, is presented. The formulation is based on the assumed-strain approach of Fish and Belytschko , which allows localization bands to be embedded within an element, thereby alleviating mesh sensitivity and reducing the required computational effort. The behavior of the material outside localization bands (and of the virgin material prior to the onset of strain localization) is represented using a Gurson-type coupled plasticity-damage model based on the work of Johnson and Addessio . Assuming adiabatic conditions, the response of the localization band material is represented by a set of constitutive equations for large elasticviscoplastic deformations in metals at high strain rates and high homologous temperatures (see Brown et al. ). Computational results are compared to experimental data for different metallic alloys to illustrate the advantages of the proposed modeling strategy.
Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Ismail, Shajahan; Darshan, M. S.; Tandon, Abhinav
Background: Realizing a dearth of data on this topic, especially in the Indian context, an epidemiological study was conducted in a south Indian rural population to identify the sexual activity patterns and sexual problems among the population above 60 years of age. Objectives: (1) Assessment of sexual activity patterns among individuals above 60 years. (2) Assessment of the prevalence of sexual disorders among individuals above 60 years. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 259 participants, which included both males and females above 60 years of age. Subjects who were sexually active and fulfilled the study criteria were administered Arizona Sexual Experience Scale as a screening tool, for the presence of sexual problems. Those who were found to have sexual problems were interviewed further using appropriate questionnaires. Results: Only 27.4% of the individuals above 60 years were sexually active, and it progressively dropped as age advanced and none were sexually active after 75 years of age. Among the sexually active males, erectile dysfunction (ED) was prevalent in 43.5%, premature ejaculation in 10.9%, hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSSD) in 0.77% and anorgasmia in 0.38% of the subjects. Among females, arousal disorder was prevalent in 28%, HSSD in 16%, anorgasmia in 20% and dyspareunia in 8% of the subjects. Conclusion: The study gives us an insight into the sexual problems of the elderly and brings home the point that sexual problems are very much common among both men and women in the older population. Among elderly males, ED is the most common sexual disorder whereas in elderly females, arousal disorder is the most prevalent female sexual dysfunction, implicating biology plays an important role in men, whereas psychology plays an important role in women sexual functioning. PMID:26600575
Sapire, K E
Sex education provides a means to reduce the growing incidence of sexual abuse and of sexually transmitted diseases. Knowledge, which differs from permission, may protect. Sex education needs to provide factual information about anatomy and physiology and sexual development and responses. Further, it must guide young people towards healthy attitudes that develop concern and respect for others. This should enable them to make sound decisions about sexual behavior based on both knowledge and understanding of their own sexual identity and interpersonal relationships. The recent research shows that teenagers exposed to sex education are no more likely to engage in sexual intercourse than are other adolescents, and those who become sexually active are more likely to use a contraceptive method at 1st intercourse and are slightly less likely to experience premarital pregnancies. The nonuse of contraceptives is related to ignorance, lack of awareness of the consequences of sexual activity, and inaccessibility of suitable services. Consequently, young people need help to learn about the risks of pregnancy, how to avoid unwanted pregnancy, and where to go for counseling and services before they become sexually active. The provision of contraceptives must be made to meet the needs of adolescents. Formal sex education should be given in schools only with parental knowledge and cooperation. Youth leaders can influence young people positively by teaching about health and hygiene and promoting responsible attitudes toward sex and religion. Doctors and nurses have a unique opportunity to provide counseling throughout their patients' lives. The Department of Health (Capetown, South Africa) has appointed 445 nurses who oversee the youth program. They give sex education at schools, teaching colleges, youth camps, and at clinics. They also provide individual and group counseling for never pregnant, pregnant, and parent adolescents and their parents and partners at 8 youth health
Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F
Theory and research emphasize differences in men's and women's sexual and romantic attitudes, concluding that men have stronger preferences for sexual than romantic stimuli as compared to women. However, most of the research on gender differences have relied on self-reports, which are plagued by problems of social desirability bias. The current study assessed young men's and women's implicit attitudes toward sexual and romantic stimuli to test whether, in fact, men have a stronger preference for sexual over romantic stimuli compared to women. We also assessed associations between implicit and explicit attitudes, as well as sex role ideology and personality. College students (68 men and 114 women) completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) that assessed strengths of associations of sexual and romantic stimuli to both pleasant and unpleasant conditions. Results revealed that both men and women more strongly associated romantic images to the pleasant condition than they associated the sexual images to the pleasant condition. However, as predicted, women had a stronger preference toward romantic versus sexual stimuli compared to men. Our study challenges a common assumption that men prefer sexual over romantic stimuli. The findings indicate that measures of implicit attitudes may tap preferences that are not apparent in studies relying on self-reported (explicit) attitudes.
Parlange, J.-Y.; Barry, D. A.; Haverkamp, R.
The Green and Ampt infiltration formula, as well as the Talsma and Parlange formula, are two-parameter equations that are both expressible in terms of Lambert W-functions. These representations are used to derive explicit, simple and accurate approximations for each case. The two infiltration formulas are limiting cases that can be deduced from an existing three-parameter infiltration equation, the third parameter allowing for interpolation between the limiting cases. Besides the limiting cases, there is another case for which the three-parameter infiltration equation yields an exact solution. The three-parameter equation can be solved by fixed-point iteration, a scheme which can be exploited to obtain a sequence of increasingly complex explicit infiltration equations. For routine use, a simple, explicit approximation to the three-parameter infiltration equation is derived. This approximation eliminates the need to iterate for most practical circumstances.
Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Herberger, Eric R; Boomer, Joseph; Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory; Church, Barbara A
Contemporary theory in cognitive neuroscience distinguishes, among the processes and utilities that serve categorization, explicit and implicit systems of category learning that learn, respectively, category rules by active hypothesis testing or adaptive behaviors by association and reinforcement. Little is known about the time course of categorization within these systems. Accordingly, the present experiments contrasted tasks that fostered explicit categorization (because they had a one-dimensional, rule-based solution) or implicit categorization (because they had a two-dimensional, information-integration solution). In Experiment 1, participants learned categories under unspeeded or speeded conditions. In Experiment 2, they applied previously trained category knowledge under unspeeded or speeded conditions. Speeded conditions selectively impaired implicit category learning and implicit mature categorization. These results illuminate the processing dynamics of explicit/implicit categorization.
Hill, Andreas; Briken, P; Berner, W
Internet pornography has been regarded as either stimulating sexual aggression and abuse or as serving as a safety valve. This controversy is an important issue in health, media and legal politics. According to empirical studies on pornography in general, soft-core pornography and nonviolent pornography can be regarded as harmless, whereas non-violent hard-core pornography and violent pornography may increase aggression. Individuals with a high risk for sexual aggression show more interest in violent pornography and are stimulated more strongly through such material. Two case histories illustrate the characteristics of internet pornography and "cybersex": easy access, anonymity, affordability, wide range and deviation of the material, unlimited market, blurring the borders between consumer and producer, interactive communication, space for experimenting between fantasy and in real-life behavior, virtual identities, easy contact between offender and victim or among offenders, and low risk of apprehension. The phenomenon of "sexual addiction" (or paraphilia- related disorder) is particularly relevant for the problematic use of internet pornography. Preventive measures to protect possible victims are presented as well as treatment strategies for offenders. Beside limiting access to the internet, these include therapy of comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychological problems (social isolation, bereavement, stress- and anger-management, guilt and shame, childhood traumata, cognitive distortion, victim empathy), psychopharmacotherapy and the enhancement of a more integrative and relationship-oriented sexuality.
Winters, Jason; Christoff, Kalina; Gorzalka, Boris B
The literature on dysregulated sexuality, whether theoretical, clinical or empirical, has failed to differentiate the construct from high sexual desire. In this study, we tested three hypotheses which addressed this issue. A sample of 6458 men and 7938 women, some of whom had sought treatment for sexual compulsivity, addiction or impulsivity, completed an online survey comprised of various sexuality measures. Men and women who reported having sought treatment scored significantly higher on measures of dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire. For men, women, and those who had sought treatment, dysregulated sexuality was associated with increased sexual desire. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor model, indicating that, in both male and female participants, dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire variables loaded onto a single underlying factor. The results of this study suggest that dysregulated sexuality, as currently conceptualized, labelled, and measured, may simply be a marker of high sexual desire and the distress associated with managing a high degree of sexual thoughts, feelings, and needs.
Kats, Daniel; Kreplin, David; Werner, Hans-Joachim; Manby, Frederick R
An explicitly correlated version of the distinguishable-cluster approximation is presented and extensively benchmarked. It is shown that the usual F12-type explicitly correlated approaches are applicable to distinguishable-cluster theory with single and double excitations, and the results show a significant improvement compared to coupled-cluster theory with singles and doubles for closed and open-shell systems. The resulting method can be applied in a black-box manner to systems with single- and multireference character. Most noticeably, optimized geometries are of coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples quality or even better.
Davis, L. C.
The effect of including an explicit delay time (due to driver reaction) on the optimal velocity model is studied. For a platoon of vehicles to avoid collisions, many-vehicle simulations demonstrate that delay times must be well below the critical delay time determined by a linear analysis for the response of a single vehicle. Safe platoons require rather small delay times, substantially smaller than typical reaction times of drivers. The present results do not support the conclusion of Bando et al. [M. Bando, K. Hasebe, K. Nakanishi, and A. Nakayama, Phys. Rev. E 58, 5429 (1998)] that explicit delay plays no essential role.
Davis, L C
The effect of including an explicit delay time (due to driver reaction) on the optimal velocity model is studied. For a platoon of vehicles to avoid collisions, many-vehicle simulations demonstrate that delay times must be well below the critical delay time determined by a linear analysis for the response of a single vehicle. Safe platoons require rather small delay times, substantially smaller than typical reaction times of drivers. The present results do not support the conclusion of Bando et al. [M. Bando, K. Hasebe, K. Nakanishi, and A. Nakayama, Phys. Rev. E 58, 5429 (1998)] that explicit delay plays no essential role.
Huang, Chaohong; Cai, Zhiping; Ye, Chenchun; Xu, Huiying
In this paper, an approximate explicit solution for the first-order Raman fiber laser is obtained by using Lambert W function. Good agreement between the explicit solution and numerical simulation is demonstrated. Furthermore, the optimal design of Raman fiber laser is discussed using the proposed solution. The optimal values of fiber length, reflectivity of output fiber Bragg grating and power transfer efficiency are obtained under different pump power. There exists a certain tolerance of the optimal parameters, in which the output power decreases only slightly. The optimal fiber length and reflectivity of output FBG decrease with increasing pump power.
Huang, Chaohong; Cai, Zhiping; Ye, Chenchun; Xu, Huiying
In this paper, an approximate explicit solution for the first-order Raman fiber laser is obtained by using Lambert W function. Good agreement between the explicit solution and numerical simulation is demonstrated. Furthermore, the optimal design of Raman fiber laser is discussed using the proposed solution. The optimal values of fiber length, reflectivity of output fiber Bragg grating and power transfer efficiency are obtained under different pump power. There exists a certain tolerance of the optimal parameters, in which the output power decreases only slightly. The optimal fiber length and reflectivity of output FBG decrease with increasing pump power.
Barco, Angel; Bailey, Craig H; Kandel, Eric R
Cellular and molecular studies of both implicit and explicit memory suggest that experience-dependent modulation of synaptic strength and structure is a fundamental mechanism by which these memories are encoded and stored within the brain. In this review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of two types of memory storage: (i) sensitization in Aplysia, a simple form of implicit memory, and (ii) formation of explicit spatial memories in the mouse hippocampus. These two processes share common molecular mechanisms that have been highly conserved through evolution.
Morgan, J F; Porter, S
A survey was carried out of psychiatric trainees' work-related experiences of unwanted sexual contact. A structured postal questionnaire was administered to 100 psychiatric trainees from senior house officer to specialist registrar level in a large psychiatric rotation. There was an 85% response rate; 86% (73) of the sample had experienced unwanted sexual contact, with 47% (40) experiencing deliberate touching, leaning over or cornering, and 18% (15) receiving letters, telephone calls or material of a sexual nature. Three-quarters (64) of respondents had experienced unwanted sexual contact from patients and 64% (54) from staff. Experiences and attitudes did not generally differ by gender, grade or training experience. Four out of 48 female respondents described stalking by patients. Of the 39 respondents who had reported harassment by patients, 31 felt supported by colleagues, while of the 13 who had reported harassment by colleagues, eight felt supported. Two-thirds of the respondents considered sexual harassment 'some-times' or 'frequently' a problem for the profession. Diagnoses of confusional states, mania or schizophrenia made subjects less likely to consider unwanted sexual behaviour to be 'sexual harassment' (86%, 80%, and 67%, respectively), but not for other diagnoses. Levels of threatening and intrusive sexual harassment are unacceptably high in this study group. Health trusts should adopt policies of 'zero tolerance' and all incidents should be reported. Psychological impact on victims should be acknowledged even when the behaviour of the perpetrator can be explained by diagnosis.
Brown, Jane D
The mainstream mass media (television, magazines, movies, music, and the Internet) provide increasingly frequent portrayals of sexuality. We still know relatively little about how this content is used and how it affects sexual beliefs and behaviors. The few available studies suggest that the media do have an impact because the media keep sexual behavior on public and personal agendas, media portrayals reinforce a relatively consistent set of sexual and relationship norms, and the media rarely depict sexually responsible models. More longitudinal research, especially with early adolescents is needed to learn more about how media content is attended to, interpreted, and incorporated into developing sexual lives.
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Smahel, David; Greenfield, Patricia
The authors examined the online construction of identity and sexuality in a large sample of conversations from monitored and unmonitored teen chat rooms. More than half of the 583 participants (identified by a distinct screen name) communicated identity information, most frequently gender. In this way, participants compensated for the text-based chat environment by providing information about themselves that would be visible and obvious in face-to-face communication. Sexual themes constituted 5% of all utterances (1 sexual comment per minute); bad or obscene language constituted 3% of the sample (1 obscenity every 2 minutes). Participants who self-identified as female produced more implicit sexual communication, participants who self-identified as male produced more explicit sexual communication. The protected environment of monitored chat (hosts who enforce basic behavioral rules) contained an environment with less explicit sexuality and fewer obscenities than the freer environment of unmonitored chat. These differences were attributable both to the monitoring process itself and to the differing populations attracted to each type of chat room (monitored: more participants self-identified as younger and female; unmonitored: more participants self-identified as older and male).
Because consensually accepted programs of sexual education are lacking, erotica have come to serve as the primary agent of sexual socialization. The new media technology gives prepubertal children and postpubertal adolescents ready access to erotica in all their manifestations. However, next to nothing is known about the consequences of the steadily increasing amount of such exposure. A brief overview of what is known and what remains unknown about the effects of pornography on young adults is presented. Thereafter, the focus is on the development of sexual callousness across the pubertal threshold, and on how this callousness might be influenced by extensive exposure to erotica. The erotica under consideration are not so much those explicitly depicting coital behaviors as those that are less explicit and present a fuller social context of sexual engagements. A program of research is outlined that would help provide an understanding of erotica's effects on adolescents' sexual callousness, an understanding that is sorely needed for the construction of effective educational efforts aiming at the removal of callousness and coercion from sexual relations.
Arnold, S. M.; Saleeb, A. F.; Tan, H. Q.; Zhang, Y.
The issue of developing effective and robust schemes to implement a class of the Ogden-type hyperelastic constitutive models is addressed. To this end, special purpose functions (running under MACSYMA) are developed for the symbolic derivation, evaluation, and automatic FORTRAN code generation of explicit expressions for the corresponding stress function and material tangent stiffness tensors. These explicit forms are valid over the entire deformation range, since the singularities resulting from repeated principal-stretch values have been theoretically removed. The required computational algorithms are outlined, and the resulting FORTRAN computer code is presented.
Bell, Suzanne; Reissing, Elke D
The aim of this study was to use the dual control model of sexual response (DCM) to investigate variation in sexual well-being among women 50 years of age and older. Data from 185 women 50 years of age and older (M = 59.46, SD = 6.96) were used to examine the relationships between sexual excitation (SE) and sexual inhibition (SI) and their lower-order factors to indicators of sexual well-being (i.e., sexual functioning, satisfaction, distress, frequency of sexual activity, and breadth of sexual behavior). Possible moderating factors were also explored. Independently, SE and SI were associated with the majority of the indicators of sexual well-being, and the directions of associations were consistent with the tenets of the DCM. SE and SI lower-order factors were significant predictors of sexual function, satisfaction, and frequency of sexual activity. Sexual distress was predicted more strongly by SI factors and breadth of sexual behavior by one SE lower-order factor (arousability). Partner physical and mental health and participant's own mental health were identified as moderating variables of these associations. Findings of this study are discussed considering the contribution of the DCM to understanding the role of diversity in older women's sexual well-being.
Laminated composite materials are used in aerospace, civil and mechanical structural systems due to their superior material properties compared to the constituent materials as well as in comparison to traditional materials such as metals. Laminate structures are composed of multiple orthotropic material layers bonded together to form a single performing part. As such, the layup design of the material largely influences the structural performance. Optimization techniques such as the Genetic Algorithm (GA), Differential Evolution (DE), the Method of Feasible Directions (MFD), and others can be used to determine the optimal laminate composite material layup. In this thesis, sizing, shape and topology design optimization of laminated composites is carried out. Sizing optimization, such as the layer thickness, topology optimization, such as the layer orientation and material and the number of layers present, and shape optimization of the overall composite part contribute to the design optimization process of laminates. An optimization host program written in C++ has been developed to implement the optimization methodology of both population based and numerical gradient based methods. The performance of the composite structural system is evaluated through explicit finite element analysis of shell elements carried out using LS-DYNA. Results from numerical examples demonstrate that optimization design processes can significantly improve composite part performance through implementation of optimum material layup and part shape.
Caldwell, Michael F
This study compares the recidivism patterns of a cohort of 249 juvenile sexual offenders and 1,780 non-sexual offending delinquents who were released from secured custody over a two and one half year period. The prevalence of sex offenders with new sexual offense charges during the 5 year follow-up period was 6.8%, compared to 5.7% for the non-sexual offenders, a non-significant difference. Juvenile sex offenders were nearly ten times more likely to have been charged with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense. Eighty-five percent of the new sexual offenses in the follow-up period were accounted for by the non-sex offending delinquents. None of the 54 homicides (including three sexual homicides) was committed by a juvenile sex offender. The implications of the results for recent public policy trends that impose restrictions that are triggered by a sexual offense adjudication are discussed.
... and satisfying sex life doesn't happen by magic. It takes self-reflection and candid communication. Although ... lifestyle/sexual-health/in-depth/womens-sexual-health/art-20047771 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...
Neufeld, Jacob A; Klingbeil, Fred; Bryen, Diane Nelson; Silverman, Brett; Thomas, Anila
Regardless of what our beliefs about sex and disability may be, as health care providers we can promote the health and well being of our patients with disabilities in several ways. First and perhaps foremost, physical and programmatic barriers to accessing general health care including routine gynecologic care must be dramatically reduced. The promise of Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act must be aggressively extended to our health care system to ensure equal access to routine health care for all. Second, knowledge of community resources that can support the healthy development and exercise of responsible and satisfying sexuality is critical. For example, health care providers should know about adaptive and assistive technologies as well as the use of personal care assistants to support the healthy although sometimes nontypical expression of one's sexuality. Centers for Independent Living are community resources that are often underutilized by the medical profession. These centers--run by and for people with disabilities--are likely resources and allies for providing education, role models, and peer mentoring around relationships, intimacy, sexuality, sexual expression, and parenting with a disability. Finally, sex education is a must and should include the following: Basic facts of life, reproduction, and sexual intercourse; Human growth and development Human reproduction and anatomy Self-pleasuring/masturbation and the use of sexual aids Intimacy and privacy Pregnancy and child birth Contraception and abortion Family life and parenthood Sexual response and consensual sex Sexual orientation Sexual abuse HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The question should not be whether sex education is provided to persons with disabilities, but rather how it is most effectively provided. Health sex education must include the development of effective communication skills, decision-making skills, assertiveness, and the ability to say "no." It must
... United States reported experiencing an attempted or completed rape at some time in their lives. Sexual violence, ... the CDC .* Military Sexual Trauma VA refers to sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment during military service ...
... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Troublesome bladder symptoms and changes ... early onset of these sexual and urologic problems. Diabetes and Sexual Problems Both men and women with ...
Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, James F.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Ando, Kathryn A.; Rowen, Tami S.; Shindel, Alan W.
Introduction There has been limited investigation of the sexuality and sexual dysfunction in non-heterosexual subjects by the sexual medicine community. Additional research in these populations is needed. Aims To investigate and compare sexuality and sexual function in students of varying sexual orientations. Methods An internet-based survey on sexuality was administered to medical students in North American between the months of February and July of 2008. Main Outcome Measures All subjects provided information on their ethnodemographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and sexual history. Subjects also completed a series of widely-utilized instruments for the assessment of human sexuality (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF], Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI], Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool [PEDT], Index of Sex Life [ISL]). Results There were 2,276 completed responses to the question on sexual orientation. 13.2% of male respondents and 4.7% of female respondents reported a homosexual orientation; 2.5% of male and 5.7% of female respondents reported a bisexual orientation. Many heterosexual males and females reported same-sex sexual experiences (4% and 10%, respectively). Opposite-sex experiences were very common in the male and female homosexual population (37% and 44%, respectively). The prevalence of premature ejaculation (PEDT > 8) was similar among heterosexual and homosexual men (16% and 17%, P = 0.7, respectively). Erectile dysfunction (IIEF-EF < 26) was more common in homosexual men relative to heterosexual men (24% vs. 12%, P = 0.02). High risk for female sexual dysfunction (FSFI < 26.55) was more common in heterosexual and bisexual women compared with lesbians (51%, 45%, and 29%, respectively, P = 0.005). Conclusion In this survey of highly educated young professionals, numerous similarities and some important differences in sexuality and sexual function were noted based on sexual orientation. It is unclear whether the
Ibraim, Stefannie de Sá; Justi, Rosária
Many researchers have highlighted the important role of teachers in creating and managing argumentative, as well as the need for teachers, during their training, to have opportunities to develop knowledge about arguments, enabling them to work from the perspective of argumentation. This study investigates to what extent a context of explicit teaching of argumentation contributed to developing this knowledge. The data sources include video records of explicit teaching of argumentation, collection of materials produced and used by pre-service teachers, and field notes. Analysis of the data indicates that the explicit teaching of argumentation influenced the conceptual learning of pre-service teachers concerning the elements interwoven into argumentative practice, especially evidence and justifications, and the development of pedagogical aspects in the context of argument. Although the pre-service teachers had expressed some teaching knowledge of argumentation in classroom discussion situations, the use of this approach in teaching situations still appears to be challenging for these teachers. The findings of this study highlight contributions to the area of teacher education in argumentation in terms of knowledge that is essential to plan and conduct argumentation-based teaching, and also to the structure of the initial teacher training programmes directed at teaching in argumentation.
Testing New Survey Questions of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault Juanita M. Firestone Richard J. Harris DEFENSE EQUAL...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 09/30/2011 Technical Report Summer 2011 Testing New Survey Questions of Sexual ...Harassment and Sexual Assault Dr. Juanita M. Firestone and Dr. Richard J. Harris Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute (DEOMI) 366 Tuskegee
... genetic material that encodes the inert ingredient or leads to the production of the inert ingredient is derived from a plant sexually compatible with the recipient food plant. (b) The genetic material has...
... genetic material that encodes the inert ingredient or leads to the production of the inert ingredient is derived from a plant sexually compatible with the recipient food plant. (b) The genetic material has...
... genetic material that encodes the inert ingredient or leads to the production of the inert ingredient is derived from a plant sexually compatible with the recipient food plant. (b) The genetic material has...
Bosson, Jennifer K; Parrott, Dominic J; Swan, Suzanne C; Kuchynka, Sophie L; Schramm, Andrew T
This study examined the interactive effects of injunctive norm exposure and hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on men's sexually aggressive responses during a behavioral analogue paradigm in which they interacted online with a bogus female partner. Heterosexual adult men (n = 201), recruited from an online sample, read fictional information regarding other men's approval of misogynistic, paternalistic, or egalitarian treatment of women, or non-gender-relevant control information. Through a media preference survey, men then learned that their female partner disliked sexual content in films, after which they had an opportunity to send her up to 120 sec' worth of either a sexually explicit or nonsexual film clip. Validating the online sexual aggression paradigm, men with a 1-year history of sexual assault exhibited more sexually aggressive responding during the film selection paradigm. Moreover, exposure to injunctive norm information produced a boomerang effect, such that men high in hostile sexist attitudes showed an increase in sexual aggression when confronted with paternalism and gender equality norms. Conversely, exposure to paternalism and gender equality norms suppressed the otherwise protective function of high benevolent sexism in reducing men's sexually aggressive tendencies. The implications of these results for social norms interventions are discussed.
Sümer, Zeynep Hatipoğlu
The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion.
Callister, Mark; Coyne, Sarah M; Stern, Lesa A; Stockdale, Laura; Miller, Malinda J; Wells, Brian M
Most research on sexual content in the media has focused on visual images such as those in TV, film, advertisements, and magazines. However, researchers have largely overlooked sexual content in novels. The popularity of novels and the potential for such literature to educate teens on sexual behaviors merits a closer examination into the sexual messages contained in popular adolescent literature. This study content analyzes the top 40 novels targeting adolescents. Results show that adolescent novels are replete with sex-related information, especially in novels targeted to girls. These sexual behaviors range from passionate kissing and romantic ideation to sexual intercourse. Over one third of the instances focus on references to sex, suggestive innuendos, or sexual descriptions; and an additional one third of sexual behavior involved sexual affection in the form of passionate kissing, intimate touching, and playful sexual behavior. Across the 40 books, there were 56 instances of sexual intercourse, most of which involved unmarried couples (94%); and many were in non-committal relationships. Moreover, sexual material rarely dealt with issues of abstinence, safe sex practices, and the health risks associated with sex.
Gowen, L Kris; Winges-Yanez, Nichole
Sexuality education is perceived as one way to prevent unhealthy sexual behaviors. However, current sexuality education materials are not tailored to fit the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) youth, and many have been critiqued for disenfranchising these populations. This study solicited the perspectives of LGBTQ youth on their experiences with school-based sexuality education in order to create a framework of LGBTQ-inclusive sexuality education. Five semistructured focus groups (N = 30 LGBTQ participants) were conducted to investigate the sexuality education experiences of LGBTQ youth and to solicit youth suggestions for improving the inclusiveness of sexuality education curricula. Results indicate that LGBTQ youth perceive current sexuality education as primarily "exclusive," although examples of "inclusive" sexuality education were provided. In addition, participants provided suggestions for creating a more inclusive experience, such as directly discussing LGBTQ issues, emphasizing sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention over pregnancy prevention, and addressing healthy relationships. Educators and policymakers can use these ideas to help improve the quality of sexuality education-not only to make it more inclusive for LGBTQ youth but to make sexuality education more inclusive for all young people.
Argent, A. C.; And Others
The presence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 96 children, ages 23 months to 14 years, in Cape Town, South Africa, was linked to sexual abuse in 67 percent of patients. It is recommended that symptomatic prepubertal children with STDs should be investigated for sexual abuse. (Author/SW)
Luria, Mijal; Byers, E Sandra; Voyer, Susan D; Mock, Moshe
This study examined the motivations for entering the field and sexual attitudes, experiences, and behavior of an international group of sexuality professionals. Participants were 252 individuals attending the XVII World Congress of Sexology who completed a questionnaire in English, Spanish or French. Most participants' reported professional rather than personal motivations for entering the field in addition to interest. On average, participants reported little sexual communication with their parents as children. About one-third had experienced unwanted sexual activity as a child. Participants were mostly accepting of a range of sexual activities, although they were less accepting of some behaviors than of others. Twelve of the participants who had engaged in sexual activity with a casual or anonymous partner in the previous 2 years had not used a condom consistently. Participants reported high sexual satisfaction and good sexual communication with their partner. Nevertheless, 45% of the women and 35% of the men reported regularly experiencing one or more sexual problems. Few participants reported that their profession affected their sexual functioning negatively; in contrast most reported that it had positive effects on their sexual functioning. These results suggest that there are few differences between sexuality professionals and the general public.
Miner, Michael H.; Flitter, Jill M. Klotz; Robinson, Beatrice E.
This study explores the associations of sexual revictimization (experiencing sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood) in a sample of 230 African American women who are low-income. Data indicate that women who experience sexual revictimization are more at risk for emotional stress and psychological pathology than women with no history of abuse. In…
Setty, Rohit Boggarm
In this dissertation, I examine the work involved in teacher educator modeling. In particular, the study is concerned with modeling that aims to explicitly make teaching practices visible, learnable, and that does so in particularly demonstrative ways. One form of this type of modeling is what I term "dialogic modeling." The study…
Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven
Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents…
Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Yi, Han-Gyol; Smayda, Kirsten E.; Maddox, W. Todd
Learning non-native speech categories is often considered a challenging task in adulthood. This difficulty is driven by cross-language differences in weighting critical auditory dimensions that differentiate speech categories. For example, previous studies have shown that differentiating Mandarin tonal categories requires attending to dimensions related to pitch height and direction. Relative to native speakers of Mandarin, the pitch direction dimension is under-weighted by native English speakers. In the current study, we examined the effect of explicit instructions (dimension instruction) on native English speakers' Mandarin tone category learning within the framework of a dual-learning systems (DLS) model. This model predicts that successful speech category learning is initially mediated by an explicit, reflective learning system that frequently utilizes unidimensional rules, with an eventual switch to a more implicit, reflexive learning system that utilizes multidimensional rules. Participants were explicitly instructed to focus and/or ignore the pitch height dimension, the pitch direction dimension, or were given no explicit prime. Our results show that instruction instructing participants to focus on pitch direction, and instruction diverting attention away from pitch height resulted in enhanced tone categorization. Computational modeling of participant responses suggested that instruction related to pitch direction led to faster and more frequent use of multidimensional reflexive strategies, and enhanced perceptual selectivity along the previously underweighted pitch direction dimension. PMID:26542400
Mickens, Ronald E.
A method for constructing explicit finite-difference schemes which can be used to solve Schroedinger-type partial-differential equations is presented. A forward Euler scheme that is conditionally stable is given by the procedure. The results presented are based on the analysis of the simplest Schroedinger type equation.
Dubé, France; Dorval, Catherine; Bessette, Lyne
The objective of this collaborative research is to evaluate the impact of a pedagogical intervention that combines flexible grouping and explicit instruction of reading comprehension strategies. The development of competencies is spread over a two years interval. However, despite this quite long implementation period, several Quebec students still…
Altmann, Erik M.
The task-switching literature routinely conflates different operational definitions of switch cost, its predominant behavioral measure. This article is an attempt to draw attention to differences between the two most common definitions, alternating-runs switch cost (ARS) and explicit-cuing switch cost (ECS). ARS appears to include both the costs…
As a new teacher educator of beginner teachers on the Graduate Teacher Programme in a large School of Education in a UK university, I have reflected on how I have been able to develop the effectiveness of modelling good professional practice to student-teachers. In this paper I will present ways in which I have made modelling more explicit, how…
Flunger, Barbara; Pretsch, Johanna; Schmitt, Manfred; Ludwig, Peter
According to self-determination theory, the satisfaction of the basic needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness influences achievement emotions and situational interest. The present study investigated whether domain-specific explicit need strength moderated the impact of need satisfaction/dissatisfaction on the outcomes achievement emotions…
Guidry, Mike W; Budiardja, R.; Feger, E.; Billings, J. J.; Hix, William Raphael; Messer, O.E.B.; Roche, K. J.; McMahon, E.; He, M.
We show that, even for extremely stiff systems, explicit integration may compete in both accuracy and speed with implicit methods if algebraic methods are used to stabilize the numerical integration. The stabilizing algebra differs for systems well removed from equilibrium and those near equilibrium. This paper introduces a quantitative distinction between these two regimes and addresses the former case in depth, presenting explicit asymptotic methods appropriate when the system is extremely stiff but only weakly equilibrated. A second paper  examines quasi-steady-state methods as an alternative to asymptotic methods in systems well away from equilibrium and a third paper  extends these methods to equilibrium conditions in extremely stiff systems using partial equilibrium methods. All three papers present systematic evidence for timesteps competitive with implicit methods. Because explicit methods can execute a timestep faster than an implicit method, our results imply that algebraically stabilized explicit algorithms may offer a means to integration of larger networks than have been feasible previously in various disciplines.
Parks, Amy Noelle
Background/Context: Open-ended, or implicit, questioning has been described as central to reform teaching in mathematics. However, concerns about equity have caused some researchers to question whether this kind of teaching is productive for all children. Purpose: This study explores the role that implicit and explicit questions played in…
A discretization for an explicitly correlated formulation of the electronic Schroedinger equation based on hyperbolic wavelets and exponential sum approximations of potentials is described, covering mathematical results as well as algorithmic realization, and discussing in particular the potential of methods of this type for parallel computing.
We prove an explicit formula of the Berezin star product on Kähler manifolds. The formula is expressed as a summation over certain strongly connected digraphs. The proof relies on a combinatorial interpretation of Engliš' work on the asymptotic expansion of the Laplace integral.
Jimenez, Luis; Vaquero, Joaquin M. M.; Lupianez, Juan
Four experiments investigate the differences between implicit and explicit sequence learning concerning their resilience to structural and superficial task changes. A superficial change that embedded the SRT task in the context of a selection task, while maintaining the sequence, did selectively hinder the expression of implicit learning. In…
Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Yi, Han-Gyol; Smayda, Kirsten E; Maddox, W Todd
Learning nonnative speech categories is often considered a challenging task in adulthood. This difficulty is driven by cross-language differences in weighting critical auditory dimensions that differentiate speech categories. For example, previous studies have shown that differentiating Mandarin tonal categories requires attending to dimensions related to pitch height and direction. Relative to native speakers of Mandarin, the pitch direction dimension is underweighted by native English speakers. In the current study, we examined the effect of explicit instructions (dimension instruction) on native English speakers' Mandarin tone category learning within the framework of a dual-learning systems (DLS) model. This model predicts that successful speech category learning is initially mediated by an explicit, reflective learning system that frequently utilizes unidimensional rules, with an eventual switch to a more implicit, reflexive learning system that utilizes multidimensional rules. Participants were explicitly instructed to focus and/or ignore the pitch height dimension, the pitch direction dimension, or were given no explicit prime. Our results show that instruction instructing participants to focus on pitch direction, and instruction diverting attention away from pitch height, resulted in enhanced tone categorization. Computational modeling of participant responses suggested that instruction related to pitch direction led to faster and more frequent use of multidimensional reflexive strategies and enhanced perceptual selectivity along the previously underweighted pitch direction dimension.
Stafford, Catherine A.; Bowden, Harriet Wood; Sanz, Cristina
Input exposure is essential for nonprimary language learning, but the importance of explicit instruction and corrective feedback continues to be debated. If instruction is required, how might it be optimized in terms of its nature and timing? In this study, 65 Spanish-English bilinguals were introduced to Latin through an interactive computer…
Childers, Jane B.; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Benavides, Kristin
Contrast information could be useful for verb learning, but few studies have examined children's ability to use this type of information. Contrast may be useful when children are told explicitly that different verbs apply, or when they hear two different verbs in a single context. Three studies examine children's attention to different types of…
Prakash, E. S.
This study tested the possibility that interactive lectures explicitly based on activating learners' prior knowledge and driven by a series of logical questions might enhance the effectiveness of lectures. A class of 54 students doing the respiratory system course in the second year of the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program in my…
Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.
Academic vocabulary development is critical to the success of all learners--particularly English language learners (ELLs). This article presents a framework for integrating explicit academic vocabulary instruction for ELLs into middle school classrooms. The framework embodies five research-based principles and serves as a vehicle for structuring…
Atwell, Julie A.; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.
Young adults with (n=34) and without (n=41) mental retardation completed a sequence-learning and identification task. For some, sequences were constructed following an artificial grammar. Explicit learning was determined by ability to learn and identify random sequences, implicit learning by the tendency to identify incorrectly new grammatical…
van Goethem, Anne A. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.
The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a…
Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K.
Implicit learning is a process of acquiring knowledge that occurs without conscious awareness of learning, whereas explicit learning involves the use of overt strategies. To date, research related to implicit learning following stroke has been largely restricted to the motor domain and has rarely addressed implications for language. The present…
Naselaris, Thomas; Kay, Kendrick N.
We advocate a shift in emphasis within cognitive neuroscience from multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to the design and testing of explicit models of neural representation. With such models it becomes possible to identify the specific representations encoded in patterns of brain activity and to map them across the brain. PMID:26412094
Frankel, Katherine K.
At the end of the twentieth century, genre theorists and practitioners debated the possibility of explicitly teaching genres in classrooms. Though the debate is decades old, it continues to be relevant to contemporary discussions about literacy instruction because it addresses questions about how to provide all students with access to genres of…
Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven
Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 carefully matched typically developing controls completed the Dewey Story Test. 'Explicit' (multiple-choice answering format) and 'implicit' (free interview) measures of social cognition were obtained. Autism spectrum disorder participants did not differ from controls regarding explicit social cognition performance. However, the autism spectrum disorder group performed more poorly than controls on implicit social cognition performance in terms of spontaneous perspective taking and social awareness. Findings suggest that social cognition alterations in autism spectrum disorder are primarily implicit in nature and that an apparent absence of social cognition difficulties on certain tests using rather explicit testing formats does not necessarily mean social cognition typicality in autism spectrum disorder.
Thomson, Haidee Elizabeth
Lexical bundles are essential for fluency, but their incompleteness is a stumbling block for learners. In this study, two presentation methods to increase awareness of lexical bundles through explicit noticing are explored and compared with incidental exposure. The three conditions in this study were as follows: noticing with schematic linguistic…
Hannula, Kimberly A.
Proposes that content- or skill-based labs can be revised to explicitly involve the scientific method by asking students to propose hypotheses before making observations. Students' self-assessment showed they felt that they learned a great deal from this style of labs and found the labs to be fun; however, students felt that they learned little…
McNulty Diaz, Erin
The two main components of Processing Instruction (PI) are Explicit Information (EI) and Structured Input (SI). Most researchers have concluded that the SI is more responsible for learner gains than the EI (Benati, 2004a, 2004b; VanPatten & Oikennon, 1996; Wong, 2004). However, some researchers have found that EI does significantly impact…
The currently tested "See Translation" button can be considered an expression of Facebook's explicit language policy. It offers the users fast and easy translations of others' status updates and can therefore be seen as diminishing language barriers and reducing the need for a lingua franca in polylingual networks, thus enhancing…
Heritage, John; Raymond, Chase Wesley
We consider here Goffman's proposal of proportionality between virtual offenses and remedial actions, based on the examination of 102 cases of explicit apologies. To this end, we offer a typology of the primary apology formats within the dataset, together with a broad categorization of the types of virtual offenses to which these apologies are…
Pantos, Andrew J.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the nature of listeners' attitudes toward foreign-accented speech and the manner in which those attitudes are formed. This study measured 165 participants' implicit and explicit attitudes toward US- and foreign-accented audio stimuli. Implicit attitudes were measured with an audio Implicit…
Jarrah, Marwan A.
This paper sketches out the main views of the major pragmatic approaches (i.e., Grice's theory of conversation, Relevance Theory, and Neo-Gricean pragmatic theory) on explicit-implicit distinction. It makes clear how this distinction has been differently drawn for utterance interpretation. Additionally, it highlights several corresponding problems…
Erlam, Rosemary; Loewen, Shawn
This laboratory-based study of second- and third-year American university students learning French examines the effectiveness of implicit and explicit corrective feedback on noun-adjective agreement errors. The treatment consisted of one hour of interactive tasks. Implicit feedback was operationalized as a single recast with interrogative…
Silby, Alison; Watts, Mike
A key highlight of this study is generating evidence of children "making aware the unaware", making tacit knowledge explicit. The research explores the levels of awareness in thinking used by eight 7-8 year-old children when engaged in school-based genre writing tasks. The focus is on analysing children's awareness of their thought…
Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira
Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexual men (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexual men are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexually transmitted infection testing. The sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexual men as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexually transmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexual men by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses.
Coleman, Eli; Elders, Joycelyn; Satcher, David; Shindel, Alan; Parish, Sharon; Kenagy, Gretchen; Bayer, Carey Roth; Knudson, Gail; Kingsberg, Sheryl; Clayton, Anita; Lunn, Mitchell R; Goldsmith, Elizabeth; Tsai, Perry; Light, Alexis
INTRODUCTION.: Medical education in sexual health in the United States and Canada is lacking. Medical students and practicing physicians report being underprepared to adequately address their patients' sexual health needs. Recent studies have shown little instruction on sexual health in medical schools and little consensus around the type of material medical students should learn. To address and manage sexual health issues, medical students need improved education and training. AIM.: This meeting report aims to present findings from a summit on the current state of medical school education in sexual health and provides recommended strategies to better train physicians to address sexual health. METHODS.: To catalyze improvements in sexual health education in medical schools, the summit brought together key U.S. and Canadian medical school educators, sexual health educators, and other experts. Attendees reviewed and discussed relevant data and potential recommendations in plenary sessions and then developed key recommendations in smaller breakout groups. RESULTS.: Findings presented at the summit demonstrate that the United States and Canada have high rates of poor sexual health outcomes and that sexual health education in medical schools is variable and in some settings diminished. To address these issues, government, professional, and student organizations are working on efforts to promote sexual health. Several universities already have sexual health curricula in place. Evaluation mechanisms will be essential for developing and refining sexual health education. CONCLUSIONS.: To be effective, sexual health curricula need to be integrated longitudinally throughout medical training. Identifying faculty champions and supporting student efforts are strategies to increase sexual health education. Sexual health requires a multidisciplinary approach, and cross-sector interaction between various public and private entities can help facilitate change. Areas important to
Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Darshan, M. S.; Tandon, Abhinav
Background: Sexuality is an important aspect of the personality of an individual and influences psychological, physical and social well-being of both men and women. It is a paradox, that in the country where ‘kamasutra’ (by Vatsyayana) took birth, there is a lack of research publications and sexuality related literature; hence the current study was conducted, to estimate the prevalence and association of sexual disorders with various socio-demographic variables, in the selected rural population. Materials and Methods: Subjects who were sexually active and fulfilled the study criteria were administered Arizona Sexual Experience Scale as screening tool for the presence of sexual problems. Those who were found to be having sexual problems were interviewed further using appropriate questionnaires. Results: 21.15% of the male subjects were diagnosed to have one (or more) sexual disorder. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction was found to be 15.77%, male hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) 2.56%; premature ejaculation was found to be prevalent in 8.76% of the male subjects. Around 14% of the female subjects were diagnosed to have female sexual disorders. Prevalence of female arousal dysfunction was found to be 6.65%, female HSDD 8.87%, female anorgasmia 5.67%, female dyspareunia 2.34% and female sexual aversion disorder was found to be prevalent in 0.37% of the female subjects. Conclusion: This study concluded that one in five males and one in seven females were suffering from one (or more) sexual disorder. Improving the training of undergraduate medical and nursing students in sexuality related issues, increasing trained individuals in sexual medicine by starting new courses, providing sex education to the general population using media and merging sexual health care with primary care, are likely to play a significant role in addressing the increasing sexual health morbidity. PMID:26124520
From the child conception to the early years of life, couples generally present less sexual activity. Parenthood constraints are a burden for the couple's relationships. Generally, persistent sexual difficulties six months after delivery, despite those generated by depression or altered health raise the question of an alteration in the quality of the couple's relationships and lack of satisfaction of the mother with her partner's involvement in family life. Numerous parameters can be implied, especially with persistent trouble of desire, such as fatigue, body image problems and libido lessening of the partner due to modifications of his status. Women who presented sexual difficulties before pregnancy remain the same. In all cases, appropriate information can avoid the intimacy's difficulties and contribute to maintain pleasure and intimacy even when vaginal penetration remains difficult.
Maypole, Donald E.; Skaine, Rosemarie
Reviews the literature on sexual harassment to determine the issues the problem raises, its social contexts, and the resources available to working women. Examined the implications of sexual harassment for social work practice, policy, and research. (JAC)
... Size Email Print Share Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Page Content Article Body Teens are more likely ... time they had intercourse. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure “The pressure on teenagers to have sex is ...
Kaplan, Helen S.; Sager, Clifford J.
When not understood as normal consequences of growth and aging, sexual fluctuations can be the source of personal and marital distress. Discussed are sexual behavior norms as they change from infancy to old age. (Author/CJ)
Coombs, Robert H.
Since talking about sex is difficult, even those with minor sexual problems or no problems at all sometimes go through life wondering about their sexual adequacy. A few well placed questions could in most cases relieve their concerns. (Author)
Smith, Lucy Watchirs; Liu, Bette; Degenhardt, Louisa; Richters, Juliet; Patton, George; Wand, Handan; Cross, Donna; Hocking, Jane S; Skinner, S Rachel; Cooper, Spring; Lumby, Catharine; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca
Background: Social networking and digital media increasingly have an impact on the lives of young people. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that examined the relationship between exposure to sexually explicit websites (SEWs) and 'sexting' (i.e. sending semi-nude or nude photos from a mobile phone) and the sexual attitudes and practices of young people. Methods: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses statement, Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO were searched for papers that described the statistical association between viewing SEWs or sexting by young people (defined as 10-24 years) and their sexual attitudes and behaviours. Results: Fourteen studies, all cross-sectional in design, met the inclusion criteria. Six studies (10352 participants) examined young people's exposure to SEWs and eight (10429 participants) examined sexting. There was substantial variation across studies in exposure and outcome definitions. Meta-analyses found that SEW exposure was correlated with condomless sexual intercourse (odds ratio (OR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.38, two studies); sexting was correlated with ever having had sexual intercourse (OR 5.58, 95% CI: 4.46-6.71, five studies), recent sexual activity (OR 4.79, 95% CI: 3.55-6.04, two studies), alcohol and other drug use before sexual intercourse (OR 2.65, 95% CI: 1.99-3.32, two studies) and multiple recent sexual partners (OR 2.79, 95% CI: 1.95-3.63, two studies). Most studies had limited adjustment for important potential confounders. Conclusions: Cross-sectional studies show a strong association between self-reported exposure to sexual content in new media and sexual behaviours in young people. Longitudinal studies would provide a greater opportunity to adjust for confounding, and better insight into the causal pathways underlying the observed associations.
Asay, Loretta Johnson
Analogies are ubiquitous during instruction in science classrooms, yet research about the effectiveness of using analogies has produced mixed results. An aspect seldom studied is a model of instruction when using analogies. The few existing models for instruction with analogies have not often been examined quantitatively. The Teaching With Analogies (TWA) model (Glynn, 1991) is one of the models frequently cited in the variety of research about analogies. The TWA model outlines steps for instruction, including the step of explicitly mapping the features of the source to the target. An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of explicitly mapping the features of the source and target in an analogy during computer-based instruction about electrical circuits. Explicit mapping was compared to no mapping and to a control with no analogy. Participants were ninth- and tenth-grade biology students who were each randomly assigned to one of three conditions (no analogy module, analogy module, or explicitly mapped analogy module) for computer-based instruction. Subjects took a pre-test before the instruction, which was used to assign them to a level of previous knowledge about electrical circuits for analysis of any differential effects. After the instruction modules, students took a post-test about electrical circuits. Two weeks later, they took a delayed post-test. No advantage was found for explicitly mapping the analogy. Learning patterns were the same, regardless of the type of instruction. Those who knew the least about electrical circuits, based on the pre-test, made the most gains. After the two-week delay, this group maintained the largest amount of their gain. Implications exist for science education classrooms, as analogy use should be based on research about effective practices. Further studies are suggested to foster the building of research-based models for classroom instruction with analogies.
Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Keshet, Hadar; Livne, Tamar; Berger, Uri; Zabag, Reut; Hermesh, Haggai; Marom, Sofi
Cognitive models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) emphasize the role of explicit and implicit self-evaluations (SEs) in the etiology and maintenance of this condition. Whereas individuals with SAD consistently report lower explicit SEs as compared with nonanxious individuals, findings concerning implicit SEs are mixed. To gain a more nuanced understanding of the nature of SEs in SAD, we examined explicit and implicit SEs in two significant interpersonal domains: social rank and affiliation. Consistent with cognitive theorizing, we predicted that, compared to nonclinical controls (NCCs), individuals with SAD would exhibit lower explicit and implicit SEs in both domains. Guided by evolutionary theories we also predicted that the differences in SEs between the groups would be greater in the social rank, as compared to the affiliation, domain. Individuals diagnosed with SAD (n = 38) and NCCs) n = 40) performed two variants of the Self Implicit Association Test: one concerning social rank, and the other concerning affiliation. They also rated themselves on social-rank and affiliation traits. We found that, as compared to NCCs, individuals with SAD exhibited lower social-rank and affiliation SEs. Moreover, differences between the groups in social-rank SEs were greater than in affiliation SEs. Importantly, this pattern was evident in implicit SEs, as much as in explicit SEs. Our findings dovetail with evolutionary accounts highlighting the centrality of the social-rank system in SAD, and refine central tenets of cognitive theories of SAD. A multidomain, multimethod approach to the understanding of the self may broaden our conceptualization of SAD and related disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record
De Santis, Joseph P.; Valdes, Beatriz; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Gattamorta, Karina A.
Background/Significance High rates of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) related to high risk sexual behaviors are a public health problem in the U.S. Hispanics have the second highest rates of HIV infection among racial/ethnic minorities. Previous research with Hispanic men has identified a number of factors that influence sexual risk and render Hispanic men at risk for HIV/STIs. These factors vary by sexual orientation. Despite these differences in sexual risk by sexual orientation, no study to date has compared the sexual behaviors of Hispanic men by sexual orientation. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the sexual behaviors of a sample of Hispanic men by sexual orientation. Method A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 163 Hispanic men in South Florida, 80 heterosexual and 83 MSM. Participants completed measures of sexual health, sexual behaviors, and demographics. Results No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of men in terms of age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners during the previous 3 months, condom usage during the previous 3 months, HIV testing history, and substance use during sex. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of men in terms of certain STIs. Implications Hispanic men as a population may engage in high risk sexual behaviors that place them at risk for HIV/STIs. More research is needed to develop both culturally tailored and sexual orientation appropriate interventions to assist Hispanic men reduce high risk sexual behaviors. PMID:25663832